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Sample records for cholesterol raising fat

  1. Dairy fat in cheese raises LDL cholesterol less than that in butter in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, P J; Chronopulos, A; Cehun, M

    2005-09-01

    To determine whether dairy fat in cheese raises low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as much as in butter, since epidemiology suggests a different impact on cardiovascular disease. A randomised crossover trial testing the daily consumption of 40 g dairy fat as butter or as matured cheddar cheese, each of 4 weeks duration, was preceded by and separated by 2-week periods when dietary fat was less saturated. Free-living volunteers. A total of 14 men and five women of mean age 56+/-8 y, with mean total cholesterol of 5.6+/-0.8 mmol/l. Plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol and glucose. Saturated fat intake was significantly lower during the run-in than during the cheese and butter periods. Mean lipid values did not differ significantly between the cheese and run-in periods, but total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher with butter: total cholesterol (mmol/l): butter 6.1+/-0.7; run-in 5.6+/-0.8 (P cheese 5.8+/-0.6 (P > 0.05); median LDL-C (mmol/l): butter 3.9 (3.5-4.1) vs run-in 3.4 (3.0-4.1) (P cheese 3.7 (3.3-3.9) (P > 0.05). Among 13 subjects whose initial LDL-C was >4 mmol/l, the difference between butter (4.4+/-0.3 mmol/l) and cheese (3.9+/-0.3 mmol/l) was significant (P = 0.014). HDL-C was highest with butter and triacylglycerol with cheese (neither was significant). A total of 40 g dairy fat eaten daily for 4 weeks as butter, but not as cheese, raised total and LDL cholesterol significantly compared with a diet containing significantly less saturated fat. Dietary advice regarding cheese consumption may require modification.

  2. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  3. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  4. Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166625.html Healthy Dietary Fats Help Beat High Cholesterol Eating them can reduce your risk of heart ... ones found in some vegetable oils can reduce cholesterol levels and heart disease risk as much as ...

  5. Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol. Lack of physical activity, with lots of ...

  6. Dietary cholesterol and fats at a young age : do they influence cholesterol metabolism in adult life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A.M.; Vonk, R.J.; Niezen-Koning, K.; Berger, R.; Fernandes, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dietary cholesterol and fats on cholesterol metabolism later in life were studied in Mongolian gerbils. Three groups were given a basic diet with soybean oil, palm kernel oil amounting to 8.75% (w/w), or the basic diet only. In three other groups, cholesterol (0.05%) was added to the

  7. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether tuberculosis (TB) treatment normalizes the lipid profile strongly affected by pulmonary TB. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in 83 patients with ...

  8. Tuberculosis treatment raises total cholesterol level and restores ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined in 83 patients with ... Our results show that tuberculosis treatment increases TC levels and normalizes HDL while reducing atherogenic ..... Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are common in ...

  9. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you need. Eating foods containing saturated fat and trans fat causes your body to produce even more, raising ... cholesterol when used in place of saturated and trans fats. Trans Fat Trans fats (or trans fatty acids) ...

  10. Does fat in milk, butter and and cholesterol differently?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T,; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, L.N.

    2004-01-01

    and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Results: Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed...... a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet X time interaction). Conclusions: A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further.......Objective: To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. Design: The experiments were designed to provide 20...

  11. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Methods Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6?7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male ...

  12. Tolerable upper intake levels for trans fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R; Shimakawa, Tomoko

    2011-05-01

    Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) set by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) are important, in part because they are used for estimating the percentage of the population at potential risk of adverse effects from excessive nutrient intake. The IOM did not set ULs for trans fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol because any intake level above 0% of energy increased LDL cholesterol concentration and these three food components are unavoidable in ordinary diets. The purpose of the analysis presented in this review was to evaluate clinical trial and prospective observational data that were not previously considered for setting a UL with the aim of determining whether the current UL model could be used for saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol. The results of this analysis confirm the limitations of the risk assessment model for setting ULs because of its inability to identify a UL for food components, such as cholesterol, that lack an intake threshold associated with increased chronic disease risk. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.

  13. The cholesterol-raising factor from boiled coffee does not pass a paper filter.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, van M.; Katan, M.B.; Vliet, van T.; Demacker, P.N.M.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that consumption of boiled coffee raises total and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, whereas drip-filtered coffee does not. We have tested the effect on serum lipids of consumed coffee that was first boiled and then filtered through commercial paper coffee

  14. Liver cholesterol concentrations in mice fed diets containing various sources of fat, carbohydrates or fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynen, A C; Klaasen, H L; Koopman, J P; Fielmich-Bouman, A M; Lemmens, A G

    1989-01-01

    Liver cholesterol concentrations were measured in mice after feeding for 30 days cholesterol-free, semipurified diets containing various sources of fat, carbohydrates or fiber. Olive oil produced significantly higher liver cholesterol concentrations than tallow, sunflowerseed oil and cocoa fat. In mice fed either fructose or sucrose liver cholesterol was significantly increased when compared with mice fed galactose or lactose. Dietary cellulose, when compared with pectin, did not influence liver cholesterol. The amount of fat in the diet, in the form of either corn oil or coconut fat, had no significant effect on liver cholesterol. It is concluded that the type of carbohydrate and fat in the diet are major determinants of liver cholesterol in mice.

  15. Flow-mediated vasodilation is not impaired when HDL-cholesterol is lowered by substituting carbohydrates for monounsaturated fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roos, NM; Bots, ML; Siebelink, E; Katan, MB

    Low-fat diets, in which carbohydrates replace some of the fat, decrease serum cholesterol. This decrease is due to decreases in LDL-cholesterol but in part to possibly harmful decreases in HDL-cholesterol. High-oil diets, in which oils rich in monounsaturated fat replace some of the saturated fat,

  16. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You should ... limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  17. POSSIBILITIES FOR THE REDUCTION OF FAT AND CHOLESTEROL LEVEL IN MEAT ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Čepin

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of consumers refuse meat with higher levels of fat, because of possible association between high levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and heart disease. The meat production tries to fit consumers preferences with lowering fat content of meat. Such meat should also contain less cholesterol. In the following contribution the possibilities for reducing fat and cholesterol content and altering fatty acid composition of meat are discussed. In meat animals the estimated heritability for fat content is relatively high (between 0.3 and 0.6. This means that selection represents a powerful tool for fat reduction. Even better possibility for reducing fat and altering fatty acid composition is adequate nutrition. The decrease of animal age and weight at slaughter can also reduce carcass fat content. Also the use of transgenic animals and different growth stimulators represents a wide range of possibilities to reduce fat content in farm animals.

  18. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat lowers plasma cholesterol concentration in participants consuming dairy fat-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeaff, C M; Williscroft, K; Mann, J; Chisholm, A

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effects on plasma cholesterol concentration of replacing cows' dairy fat with sheep's dairy fat. Randomised crossover dietary intervention. General community, Dunedin, New Zealand. Volunteer sample of 41 healthy adults with initial plasma cholesterol concentration between 4.8 and 7.8 mmol/l. Participants were asked to follow a self-selected low-fat background diet throughout the study to which, during each of the 2, 3-week dairy diets, they were asked to add sheep's or cows' dairy products. Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triacylglycerol fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol. Energy and nutrient intakes on the sheep-dairy and cow-dairy diets were very similar, with total, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat contributing 34, 18-19, 9, and 3% of total energy intake, respectively. Participants consumed approximately 50 g/day of dairy fat on each diet. Replacing cows' with sheep's dairy fat led to a 0.33 (0.11-0.56, 95% CI) mmol/l decrease (6%) in plasma total cholesterol concentration, from 5.53 (0.90, s.d.) to 5.20 (0.90) mmol/l. Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was 0.18 (0.02-0.33) mmol/l lower on the sheep-dairy diet as was the concentration of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 0.11 (0.02-0.20) mmol/l. The LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio at the end of the sheep-dairy diet, 2.91 (1.10), was not significantly different (P>0.05) from the cow-dairy diet, 2.73 (0.83). Within the context of a diet high in dairy fat (50 g/day), replacing cows' milk fat with sheep's milk fat leads to a small reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration, but no change in the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  19. Dietary fat and cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular disease in older adults: The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houston, D.K.; Ding, J.; Lee, J.S.; Garcia, M.; Kanaya, A.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Newman, A.B.; Visser, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims: Although dietary fats and cholesterol have previously been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in middle-aged populations, less is known among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between dietary fats, cholesterol, and eggs

  20. Cholesterol-lowering effects of modified animal fats in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, J B; Martini, M C; Carr, T P; Elhard, B M; Olson, B A; Bergmann, S D; Slavin, J L; Hayes, K C; Hassel, C A

    1997-12-01

    In an attempt to improve the nutritional value of animal fats (including milkfat and lard), two technological approaches (i.e., cholesterol removal by steam distillation and linoleic acid enrichment by addition of safflower oil) were tested for cholesterolemic effects in a cohort of 29 older women (age 68 +/- 7 years). Test fat sources were incorporated into crackers, cookies, cheese, ice cream, whipped topping, sour cream, baking shortening, and table spreads. Subjects were permanent residents of a convent where meals were prepared in a centralized kitchen, allowing test fats to be provided in daily food menu items. The foods containing test fats were introduced into three sequential dietary treatment periods, each lasting 4 weeks, in the following order: cholesterol-reduced animal fat (CRAF): fatty-acid modified, cholesterol-reduced animal fat (FAMCRAF); and-unaltered animal fat (AF). Subjects were offered menu items cafeteria style and encouraged to make food selections consistent with their habitual diets, which were recorded daily. Fasted blood lipid profiles determined at the end of each treatment period showed that FAMCRAF reduced mean plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B concentrations relative to AF (p < 0.05). Mean HDL cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by diet. Relative to native products, animal fats modified by cholesterol removal and linoleic acid enrichment reduced plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations in a predictable manner similar to that based on studies of men.

  1. Congruence of individual responsiveness to dietary cholesterol and to saturated fat in man.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Berns, M.A.M.; Glatz, J.F.C.; Knuiman, J.T.; Nobels, A.; Vries, de J.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that differences between humans in the response of serum cholesterol to dietary cholesterol are at least partly reproducible and stable over a prolonged period. In this study it was investigated whether enhanced sensitivity to dietary cholesterol and saturated fat go

  2. Fat and Cholesterol Content of Breast and Thigh Meat of Local Fowls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out to evaluate the influence of breed on fat and cholesterol content of breast and thigh meat of local fowls.  Tree breeds of local fowl consist of six male kampong chickens, Tegal ducks and muscovy ducks were applied.  An experimental method was used in this research.  Nested design was used.  The breeds of local fowl were as treatment, the part of carcass was as sub treatment and sample was as replication.  The result of the experiment showed that the part of carcass (breast and thigh influenced meat fat and cholesterol content.  Breast meat had higher fat and cholesterol content than thigh meat.  Meat fat content had positive correlation with meat cholesterol. (Animal Production 5(2: 79-82 (2003   Key Words: Kampung Chicken, Duck, Muscovy, Breast, Thigh, Meat Fat and Meat Cholesterol

  3. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate Replaced with Wild Rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb Turcz on Insulin Resistance in Rats Fed with a High-Fat/Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengkai Zhai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild rice (WR is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  4. Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol, but not unsaturated fat or starch, induces C-reactive protein associated early atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition in diabetic pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serlie Mireille J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is thought to accelerate cardiovascular disease depending on the type of diet. This study in diabetic subjects was performed to investigate the metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular effects of nutritional components typically present in a Western, Mediterranean or high glycaemic diet. Methods Streptozotocin-diabetic pigs (~45 kg were fed for 10 weeks supplemental (40% of dietary energy saturated fat/cholesterol (SFC, unsaturated fat (UF or starch (S in an eucaloric dietary intervention study. Results Fasting plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were 3-5 fold higher (p 2 = 0.95. Retroperitoneal fat depot weight (g was intermediate in SFC (260 ± 72, lowest in S (135 ± 51 and highest (p Conclusion Dietary saturated fat/cholesterol induces inflammation, atherosclerosis and ectopic fat deposition whereas an equally high dietary unsaturated fat load does not induce these abnormalities and shows beneficial effects on postprandial glycaemia in diabetic pigs.

  5. Cholesterol: Top Five Foods to Lower Your Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... store-bought cookies, crackers and cakes, are particularly bad for your cholesterol levels. Trans fats raise LDL cholesterol, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the "good" cholesterol. Food labels report the content of trans ...

  6. Impact of dietary fat type within the context of altered cholesterol homeostasis on cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in the F1B hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2010-10-01

    Cholesterol status and dietary fat alter several metabolic pathways reflected in lipoprotein profiles. To assess plasma lipoprotein response and mechanisms by which cholesterol and dietary fat type regulate expression of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, we developed an experimental model system using F1B hamsters fed diets (12 weeks) enriched in 10% (wt/wt) coconut, olive, or safflower oil with either high cholesterol (0.1%; cholesterol supplemented) or low cholesterol coupled with cholesterol-lowering drugs 10 days before killing (0.01% cholesterol, 0.15% lovastatin, 2% cholestyramine; cholesterol depleted). Irrespective of dietary fat, cholesterol depletion, relative to supplementation, resulted in lower plasma non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) and HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations (all Ps cholesterol status, coconut oil, relative to olive and safflower oils, resulted in higher non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (both Ps cholesterol depletion are associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, whereas the effect of dietary fat type on gene expression was modest, which limits the usefulness of the experimental animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EFFECTS OF DIETARY CORN AND OLIVE OIL VERSUS COCONUT FAT ON BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, MJ; WOLTERS, H; TEMMERMAN, AM; KUIPERS, F; BEYNEN, AC; VONK, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the effects of dietary corn and olive oil versus coconut fat on bile formation and fluidity of hepatic plasma membranes in rats. After 4 weeks of feeding the purified diets containing 9% (w/w) of the test fats, there was no difference in plasma cholesterol concentration between the

  8. Effects of Yogurt Containing Fermented Pepper Juice on the Body Fat and Cholesterol Level in High Fat and High Cholesterol Diet Fed Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Park, Woo Joon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This experiment investigated whether yogurt containing fermented pepper juice (FPJY) affects cholesterol level in high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) fed rat. Twenty five Sprague-Dawley male rats of 7 wk were divided into 5 groups, and fed following diets for 9 wk; CON (control diet), HFCD (HFCD), PY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of plain yogurt), LFY (HFCD supplemented with 2% of FPJY), and HFY (HFCD supplemented with 5% of FPJY). In the LFY group, hepatic total lipid level decreased significantly compared to the HFCD group (pcholesterol level tended to increase and hepatic total cholesterol level decreased and were comparable to the CON group (p>0.05). In HFY group, body weight and hepatic total lipid level significantly decreased over the HFCD group (pcholesterol level, kidney, and body fat weights decreased, and were compared to the CON group (p>0.05). Liver weight decreased as FPJY content was increased. Results suggested FPJY would inhibit organ hypertrophy and accumulation of body fat, hepatic lipid, and cholesterol in HFCD fed rat.

  9. Effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhaowei; Xi, Haitao; Pan, Yongming; Jiang, Xiaoling; Chen, Liang; Cai, Yueqin; Zhu, Keyan; Chen, Cheng; Xu, Xiaoping; Chen, Minli

    2015-03-07

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with increased serum cholesterol levels. However, how testosterone deficiency precisely affects cholesterol metabolism remains unclear. Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effect of testosterone deficiency on cholesterol metabolism and liver gene expression in pigs fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Sexually mature male miniature pigs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: intact male pigs fed an HFC diet (IM+HFC), castrated male pigs fed an HFC diet (CM+HFC), and castrated pigs with testosterone replacement fed an HFC diet (CM+HFC+T). Serum testosterone levels and lipid profiles were measured, and gene expression levels associated with hepatic cholesterol metabolism were determined. Furthermore, total hepatic cholesterol contents and the activities of enzymes mediating hepatic cholesterol metabolism were measured. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in CM+HFC pigs, and testosterone replacement attenuated castration-induced testosterone deficiency. Castration significantly increased the serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as hepatic lipid contents in pigs fed an HFC diet. Compared with IM+HFC and CM+HFC+T pigs, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA expression and protein levels were significantly decreased in the livers of CM+HFC pigs. In contrast, we found that compared with IM+HFC pigs, hepatic proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mRNA and serum PCSK9 protein levels were significantly increased in CM+HFC pigs. Moreover, testosterone treatment reversed the increase in PCSK9 expression in CM+HFC pigs. However, neither castration nor testosterone replacement affected the expression of the other hepatic genes that were tested. This study demonstrated that castration-induced testosterone deficiency caused severe hypercholesterolemia in pigs fed an HFC diet; furthermore, these

  10. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (pdrinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (pdrinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (pdrinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on the bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minekus, Mans; Jelier, Mark; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Kondo, Shizuki; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Kokubo, Sadayuki; Bos, Martin; Dunnewind, Bertus; Havenaar, Robert

    2005-05-01

    The addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG. In the present study a yogurt drink with 3% sunflower oil and 4% egg yolk was tested with 3% and 6% PHGG, and compared to a control without PHGG. Experiments were performed in a multi-compartmental model of the gastrointestinal tract, equipped to study the digestion and availability for absorption (bioaccessibility) of lipids. The results show that PHGG decreases the bioaccessibility of both fat and cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The bioaccessibility of fat was 79.4+/-1.7%, 70.8+/-2.5% and 60.1+/-1.1% for the control experiments and the experiments with 3% and 6% PHGG respectively. The bioaccessibility of cholesterol was 82.2+/-2.0%, 75.4+/-1.2% and 64.0+/-4.3% for the control and the experiments with 3% and 6% PHGG respectively. Additional experiments indicated that PHGG reduces bioaccessibility through the depletion flocculation mechanism. Depletion flocculation antagonizes the emulsification by bile salts and thus decreases lipolytic activity, resulting in a lower bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol. Depletion flocculation with polymers might be an interesting mechanism, not described before, to reduce fat and cholesterol absorption.

  12. MediterrAsian Diet Products That Could Raise HDL-Cholesterol: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C values are negatively correlated with cardiovascular diseases. This review analyses the effect of the supplementation with various Mediterranean diet products (artichoke, bergamot, and olive oil and Asian diet products (red yeast rice on the HDL-C value in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods. A systematic review has been done involving all the English written studies published from the 1st of January 1958 to the 31st of March 2016. Results. The results of this systematic review indicate that the dietary supplementation with red yeast rice, bergamot, artichoke, and virgin olive oil has promising effects on the increase of HDL-C serum levels. The artichoke leaf extract and virgin olive oil appear to be particularly interesting, while bergamot extract needs further research and the effect of red yeast rice seems to be limited to patients with previous myocardial infarction. Conclusions. Various MediterrAsian diet products or natural extracts may represent a potential intervention treatment to raise HDL-C in dyslipidemic subjects.

  13. Properties of low-fat, low-cholesterol egg yolk prepared by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringe, N A

    1997-01-01

    A dry egg yolk ingredient called Eggcellent has 74% less fat and 90% less cholesterol than liquid egg yolks, when reconstituted on an equal protein basis. The phospholipids and proteins are retained, enabling the ingredient to have the taste and texturizing properties of fresh egg yolk. Using the new yolk, it is possible to significantly improve the acceptability of low-fat, low-cholesterol bakery products, scrambled eggs and mayonnaise dressings without losing nutritional claims. The structures and functional properties of egg yolk components and the conditions required to optimize their benefits in foods are reviewed. The lipoproteins of low-fat, low-cholesterol yolk have valuable properties as flavorants, texturizers, foaming agents, emulsifiers, antioxidants, colorants, and nutraceuticals.

  14. Apoprotein E genotype and the response of serum cholesterol to dietary fat, cholesterol and cafestol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Pedro-Botet, J.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies on the effect of apoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on the response of serum lipids to diet showed inconsistent results. We therefore studied the effect of apoprotein E polymorphism on responses of serum cholesterol and lipoproteins to various dietary treatments. We combined data on

  15. Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on the bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.; Jelier, M.; Xiao, J.-Z.; Kondo, S.; Iwatsuki, K.; Kokubo, S.; Bos, M.; Dunnewind, B.; Havenaar, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG.

  16. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our growth and activities — everything from solving a math problem to racing up and down the soccer ... saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's chances of developing heart disease, ...

  17. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cheese, a low cholesterol food.”). (ii) For foods that have a reference amount customarily consumed of 30... attaches (e.g., “low fat cottage cheese, a low cholesterol food”). (iii) For foods that have a reference... cholesterol content of foods. 101.62 Section 101.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. EFFECTS OF HIGH DIETARY FAT ON SERUM CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY LIVER SYNDROME IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Qureshi, S.A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhry, N. A. Mian1, M. Y. Tipu and M. F. Rai

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of high dietary fat on serum cholesterol and fatty liver syndrome in broilers. For this purpose, 90 day-old chicks were divided into three equal groups A, B and C. Group A acted as control. The birds of group B were fed on diet containing vegetable fat while birds of group C were fed on diet containing animal fat. It was observed that the serum cholestrol values in chicks of groups B and C were higher than those of the control group. Furthermore, the serum cholesterol value was higher in birds of group C than group B. Grossly, the livers of birds of groups B and C were enlarged, pale in colour, soft in consistency and were having petechial haemorrhages with fat and fibrin deposits. Histopathologically, livers of groups B and C showed fatty infiltration, haemorrhages and mass of eosinophilic materials. The vacuoles coalesced to create clear space that displaced the nucleus to the periphery of the cell. It was concluded that addition of dietary fat from animal and vegetable sources in the diet of broiler chicks not only resulted in increase in serum cholesterol but also in marked macroscopic and microscopic changes in liver.

  19. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kasbi Chadli

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA supplemented high fat diet (HFD. Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group were studied for 20 weeks: 1 control diet: Control, 2 HFD group: HF and 3 HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA: HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (p<0.05 increase in body weight, plasma TG (p<0.01 and cholesterol (p<0.001 with an increase in VLDL TG and in VLDL and LDL cholesterol (p<0.001. Compared to HF, HFω3 presented significant decrease in body weight. HFω3 showed less plasma TG (p<0.001 and cholesterol (p<0.001 related to a decrease in VLDL TG and HDL cholesterol respectively and higher LCAT activity (p<0.05 compared to HF. HFω3 showed a higher fecal bile acid excretion (p<0.05 compared to Control and HF groups and higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05 compared to HF. This increase was related to higher gene expression of ABCG5, ABCA1 and SR-B1 in HFω3 compared to Control and HF groups (<0.05 and in ABCG1 and CYP7A1 compared to HF group (p<0.05. A higher plasma efflux capacity was also measured in HFω3 using (3H- cholesterol labeled Fu5AH cells. In conclusion, EPA and DHA supplementation improved macrophage to feces reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  20. The relation of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol to childhood cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Hillman, Charles H

    2015-10-01

    Identification of health behaviors and markers of physiological health associated with childhood cognitive function has important implications for public health policy targeted toward cognitive health throughout the life span. Although previous studies have shown that aerobic fitness and obesity exert contrasting effects on cognitive flexibility among prepubertal children, the extent to which diet plays a role in cognitive flexibility has received little attention. Accordingly, this study examined associations between saturated fats and cholesterol intake and cognitive flexibility, assessed using a task switching paradigm, among prepubertal children between 7 and 10 years (N = 150). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, VO2max, and BMI), children consuming diets higher in saturated fats exhibited longer reaction time during the task condition requiring greater amounts of cognitive flexibility. Further, increasing saturated fat intake and dietary cholesterol were correlated with greater switch costs, reflecting impaired ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and poorer efficiency of cognitive control processes involved in task switching. These data are among the first to indicate that children consuming diets higher in saturated fats and cholesterol exhibit compromised ability to flexibly modulate their cognitive operations, particularly when faced with greater cognitive challenge. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to comprehensively characterize the interrelationships between diet, aerobic fitness, obesity, and children's cognitive abilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High fat, high fructose, high cholesterol feeding causes severe NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10.5% fat) for 16 wks (n=6 each) or 36 wks (n=4 each). WD-fed pigs developed obesity, dyslipidemia, and systemic insulin resistance compared with CON pigs. In additio...

  2. Omega 3 Fatty Acids Promote Macrophage Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Hamster Fed High Fat Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Kasbi Chadli; Hassane Nazih; Michel Krempf; Patrick Nguyen; Khadija Ouguerram

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3)H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrop...

  3. Cholesterol and fats in Brazilian foods: implications for prevention of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto

    2009-03-01

    In order to perform food surveys and prescribe diets, food composition tables have to be consulted. However, these tables are limited to the description of fatty acids and cholesterol contents and do not provide information on the different preparation methods. Based on data derived from an extensive analysis of the chemical composition of Brazilian foods, we assessed the impact of certain types of foods on diets recommended for the prevention of coronary disease. The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of some types of foods and different preparation methods were analyzed. These results were used according to the recommendations of the American Heart Association for an 1,800 calorie diet. Cholesterol found in 100g of eggs (400mg) or fried beef liver (453mg) exceeds the amount recommended for secondary prevention, and there is no difference in cholesterol content between factory-farmed eggs and free-range eggs. The eggs had an average of 400mg of cholesterol per 100g, thus exceeding the recommended amount of up to 300mg. Each egg has 50g on average; one egg can be consumed provided that not more than 100mg of cholesterol are consumed per day. As regards saturated fat, butter (55.2g), margarine (19.4g), tilsit cheese (20.4g), Brazilian Dutch Edam cheese (19.9g), yellow (16.8g) and fresh white cheese (15.5g) exceed the 14g recommended if 100g or more are consumed. The same is true for soy oil (17.5g) and corn oil (16.1g). Better knowledge on fat and cholesterol contents in foods allows the prescription of amounts not exceeding the recommended values for prevention, and this may result in better compliance to diets.

  4. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C l...

  5. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL...

  6. Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City's trans fat restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Sonia Y; Silver, Lynn Dee; Goldstein, Gail P; Johnson, Christine M; Deitcher, Deborah R; Frieden, Thomas R; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-07-21

    Decades after key modifiable risk factors were identified, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of preventable death, and only one quarter of persons with high cholesterol levels have attained recommended levels of control. Cholesterol control efforts have focused on consumer education and medical treatment. A powerful, complementary approach is to change the makeup of food, a route the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene took when it restricted artificial trans fat--a contributor to coronary heart disease--in restaurants. The Department first undertook a voluntary campaign, but this effort did not decrease the proportion of restaurants that used artificial trans fat. In December 2006, the Board of Health required that artificial trans fat be phased out of restaurant food. To support implementation, the Department provided technical assistance to restaurants. By November 2008, the restriction was in full effect in all New York City restaurants and estimated restaurant use of artificial trans fat for frying, baking, or cooking or in spreads had decreased from 50% to less than 2%. Preliminary analyses suggest that replacement of artificial trans fat has resulted in products with more healthful fatty acid profiles. For example, in major restaurant chains, total saturated fat plus trans fat in French fries decreased by more than 50%. At 2 years, dozens of national chains had removed artificial trans fat, and 13 jurisdictions, including California, had adopted similar laws. Public health efforts that change food content to make default choices healthier enable consumers to more successfully meet dietary recommendations and reduce their cardiovascular risk.

  7. Effects of a saturated fat and high cholesterol diet on memory and hippocampal morphology in the middle-aged rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Moore, Alfred B; Nelson, Matthew E; Freeman, Linnea R; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2008-06-01

    Diets rich in cholesterol and/or saturated fats have been shown to be detrimental to cognitive performance. Therefore, we fed a cholesterol (2%) and saturated fat (hydrogenated coconut oil, Sat Fat 10%) diet to 16-month old rats for 8 weeks to explore the effects on the working memory performance of middle-aged rats. Lipid profiles revealed elevated plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, and LDL for the Sat-Fat group as compared to an iso-caloric control diet (12% soybean oil). Weight gain and food consumption were similar in both groups. Sat-Fat treated rats committed more working memory errors in the water radial arm maze, especially at higher memory loads. Cholesterol, amyloid-beta peptide of 40 (Abeta40) or 42 (Abeta42) residues, and nerve growth factor in cortical regions was unaffected, but hippocampal Map-2 staining was reduced in rats fed a Sat-Fat diet, indicating a loss of dendritic integrity. Map-2 reduction correlated with memory errors. Microglial activation, indicating inflammation and/or gliosis, was also observed in the hippocampus of Sat-Fat fed rats. These data suggest that saturated fat, hydrogenated fat and cholesterol can profoundly impair memory and hippocampal morphology.

  8. Omega 3 fatty acids promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in hamster fed high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi Chadli, Fatima; Nazih, Hassane; Krempf, Michel; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in hamster, a CETP-expressing species, fed omega 3 fatty acids (ω3PUFA) supplemented high fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters (n = 6/group) were studied for 20 weeks: 1) control diet: Control, 2) HFD group: HF and 3) HFD group supplemented with ω3PUFA (EPA and DHA): HFω3. In vivo macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed after an intraperitoneal injection of (3)H-cholesterol-labelled hamster primary macrophages. Compared to Control, HF presented significant (phamster fed HFD. This change was related to the higher cholesterol and fecal bile acids excretion and to the activation of major genes involved in RCT.

  9. Does fat in milk, butter and cheese affect blood lipids and cholesterol differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholstrup, Tine; Høy, Carl-Erik; Andersen, Lene Normann; Christensen, Robin D K; Sandström, Brittmarie

    2004-04-01

    To compare the effects of isoenergetic amounts of milk, cheese and butter (adjusted to the same content of lactose and casein) on fasting and postprandial blood lipids and lipoproteins, and on postprandial glucose and insulin response. The experiments were designed to provide 20% of total energy from dairy fat, as either whole milk, mean (+/-SD) 2164 (+/-97) g, butter 93 (+/-4) g, and hard cheese 305 (+/-45) g, which were served to 14 healthy young men for three periods of three weeks each, separated by washout periods, in a randomized, cross-over study with strictly controlled dietary intake. Fasting blood samples were taken at the end of the study periods. Measurements of the postprandial effect of the three different dairy test products (0.7 g of milk fat/kg body weight) were carried out on day 4 of each intervention period. Blood samples were taken before and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours following intake of the meals. Fasting LDL cholesterol concentration was significantly higher after butter than cheese diet (p = 0.037), with a borderline significant difference in total cholesterol (p = 0.054) after the experimental periods of three weeks. Postprandial glucose showed a higher response after cheese diet than after milk diet (p = 0.010, diet x time interaction). A different effect of fat in milk and butter could not be confirmed in this study. The moderately lower LDL cholesterol after cheese diet compared to butter diet should be investigated further.

  10. Trans fat intake lowers total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels without changing insulin sensitivity index in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiliang; Wang, Baowu; Pace, Ralphenia D; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2009-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that trans fat intake increases the risk of some chronic diseases. We hypothesize that trans fat intake would increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus by changing the lipid profile in plasma, the secretion of adipokines in adipose tissue, and the insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, the major objective of present study was to investigate the effect of dietary intake of trans fat on lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and adipokine levels in plasma. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 4.5% trans fat or a control diet containing no trans fat for 16 weeks. Fasting glucose level was monitored every 2 weeks. At the end of feeding experiment, blood, heart, kidney, liver, omental adipose tissue, and semitendinosus muscle were collected. The trans fat content in organs, lipid profile, adipokine, insulin, and glucose levels in plasma were analyzed. The trans fat content in adipose tissue, heart, kidney, liver, and muscle of rats fed trans fat were 169.9, 0.6, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.5 mg/g samples, respectively. The trans fat content in these organs contributed to 15.9%, 1.2%, 2.3%, 4.3%, and 6.1% of the total fat, respectively. The plasma glucose level, insulin level, and insulin sensitivity index were not significantly different between the trans fat and control groups. The results indicated that trans fat intake might not be related to insulin resistance. However, lipid profile and plasma adipokine levels were significantly changed after trans fat feeding. The trans fat fed group showed significantly lower total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than the control group. The decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level may indicate the detrimental effect of trans fat intake on lipid profile. Adiponectin and resistin levels were significantly higher in the trans fat group than the control group. Leptin levels were significantly lower in the trans fat group than

  11. Rare variant in scavenger receptor BI raises HDL cholesterol and increases risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Paolo; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Larach, Daniel B; Hancock-Cerutti, William F; Millar, John S; Cuchel, Marina; DerOhannessian, Stephanie; Kontush, Anatol; Surendran, Praveen; Saleheen, Danish; Trompet, Stella; Jukema, J Wouter; De Craen, Anton; Deloukas, Panos; Sattar, Naveed; Ford, Ian; Packard, Chris; Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi; Alam, Dewan S; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Abecasis, Goncalo; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Erdmann, Jeanette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Schmidt, Ruth Frikke; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Liu, Dajiang J; Perola, Markus; Blankenberg, Stefan; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Ferrieres, Jean; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Ferrario, Marco; Kee, Frank; Willer, Cristen J; Samani, Nilesh; Schunkert, Heribert; Butterworth, Adam S; Howson, Joanna M M; Peloso, Gina M; Stitziel, Nathan O; Danesh, John; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-03-11

    Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant). Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Stable liver-specific expression of human IDOL in humanized mice raises plasma cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Salam; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Wilson, James M; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    IDOL (inducible degrader of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, LDLR) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that promotes the ubiquitination and degradation of the LDLR. IDOL is a potential therapeutic target for the development of a novel class of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering therapies. In an attempt to develop a mouse model for testing IDOL inhibitors, we examined the effects of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated stable expression of human IDOL in the livers of mice 'humanized' with regard to lipoprotein metabolism. Using a liver-specific AAV serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated delivery, AAV-hIDOL produced a dose-dependent increase in LDL-C levels and a decrease in liver LDLR protein. Furthermore, we expressed hIDOL in a 'humanized' mouse model of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (LDLR(+/-)/Apobec1(-/-)/hApoB-Tg, LAhB). In this model, total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C levels were increased by ∼60% starting from 1 week and were sustainable for at least 3 weeks post-injection. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects caused by hIDOL expression are LDLR- dependent given the unchanged plasma lipids in LAhB mice lacking LDLR. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a dose-dependent physiological effect of human IDOL on LDL metabolism in mice. This provides a potential model for preclinical testing of IDOL inhibitors for reduction of LDL-C levels. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies of dietary fat, cholesterol and egg intake and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genkinger, J.M.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Anderson, K.E.; Beeson, W.L.; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Fraser, G.E.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Hankinson, S.E.; Koenig, K.L.; Larsson, S.C.; Leitzmann, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Rodriguez, C.; Rohan, T.E.; Ross, J.A.; Schatzkin, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Smit, E.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case-control studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies have observed null associations. Dietary

  14. The hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary coconut fat versus corn oil in hypo- or hyperresponsive rabbits is not exerted through influencing cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, G W; Lemmens, A G; Versluis, A; Van Zutphen, L F; Beynen, A C

    1991-05-01

    In two inbred strains of rabbits with high or low response of plasma cholesterol to dietary saturated versus polyunsaturated fatty acids, the efficiency of intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured. The feeding of a cholesterol-free purified diet containing saturated fatty acids in the form of coconut fat, when compared with a diet containing corn oil as polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not influence the efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the two rabbit strains. Irrespective of the dietary fat source, the hyperresponsive rabbits absorbed cholesterol more efficiently. It is concluded that the hypercholesterolemic effect of dietary coconut fat versus corn oil is not exerted by influencing cholesterol absorption.

  15. Effect of Enterococcus faecium M74 strain on egg yolk fat and cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim was to evaluate the functional efficiency of a probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M74 in the feed on egg yolk weight, egg yolk fat and cholesterol contents of Shaver Starcross 288 hens.  Feed in the experimental group was enriched with a probiotic additive containing of 5*109 viable Enterococcus faecium per g. Egg samples a total 30 pcs per group were collected during the first egg-laying period at week 28 and 38 of hens´ age. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Non-significantly lower of egg yolk weight was observed in the experimental group at all sampling times compared with their respective controls. Significantly lower concentrations of egg yolk cholesterol were found in the experimental group at week 28, and week 38 in compare with controls. In conclusion, the addition of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium M74 to the feed of Shaver Starcross 288 hens reduced cholesterol in egg yolk at all sampling times. Even though the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics has not yet been fully understood, it is an established fact that cholesterol and bile salt metabolism are closely linked. However, the hypocholesterolemic mechanism of probiotics based on the bile salt hydrolase activity hypothesis has not yet been sufficiently elucidated.

  16. High-fat spreadable processed cheese for people with high blood cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, N A

    1993-05-01

    Part of the raw cheese base used for manufacturing high-fat processed cheese spread was replaced by cows' (C) or buffalo (B) butter residue at levels of up to 20%. These residues were produced during the conversion of butter to butter oil by traditional moderate (T) or severe (M) heat treatments. The hypocholesterolaemic properties of butter residues incorporated into processed cheese were tested with rats (serum and liver cholesterol) and human beings (serum cholesterol). When rats were given the control cheese with no butter residue there were significant increases in both serum and liver cholesterol compared with rats given stock diet. However, when part of the raw cheese base was replaced by butter residue these rises were reduced by amounts proportional to the level of butter residue. The hypocholesterolaemic properties of the residues were in order CT > BT, CM > BM, and incorporations of 10% CT, 15% BT, 15% CM and 20% BM were found to nullify the hypercholesterolaemic effects of control cheese and restore cholesterol levels to their normal values. A small human trial gave similar results. Incorporation of butter residue slightly affected the chemical composition of the cheeses. Fat content and pH were little different; however, cheeses with butter residue tended to have higher total protein but lower soluble protein, tyrosine and tryptophan, and total volatile fatty acids. Rheological properties were not altered significantly. Incorporation of butter residue improved the organoleptic properties, particularly flavour intensity. Storage at 5 degrees C for 2 months did not alter the organoleptic properties and changes in chemical composition followed the normal pattern.

  17. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  18. Plant stanols dose-dependently decrease LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but not cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations, at intakes up to 9 g/d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Ronald P; de Jong, Arienne; Lütjohann, Dieter; Haenen, Guido Rmm; Plat, Jogchum

    2010-07-01

    It is unclear whether plant stanols lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations and cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations dose-dependently when consumption exceeds the recommended daily intakes of 2.0-3.0 g. The objective was to study the relation between plant stanols provided as plant stanol esters on changes in serum concentrations of LDL cholesterol and fat-soluble antioxidants. Healthy subjects (n = 93) with slightly elevated serum total cholesterol concentrations (5.0-8.0 mmol/L) received, after a 3-wk run-in period, control products (n = 22) or products (margarine and soy-based yogurt) providing 3 g (n = 24), 6 g (n = 22), or 9 g (n = 25) plant stanols provided as fatty acid esters for 4 wk. Serum LDL cholesterol decreased dose-dependently. Compared with control, decreases in the 3-g group were 0.32 mmol/L (7.4%; P = 0.005 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). An intake of 6 g plant stanols caused an additional decrease of 0.18 mmol/L (4.5%; P = 0.100 compared with the 3-g group). In the 9-g group, a further decrease of 0.22 mmol/L (5.4%) was observed (P = 0.048 compared with the 6-g group). Serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations were lowered by 17.4% in the 9-g group compared with the control group. No effects on cholesterol-standardized beta-carotene concentrations were observed. Even the change of -0.01 mumol/mmol cholesterol (or -9.2%; P = 0.341) in the 3-g group compared with the control group was not statistically significant because of the large variation in response. Serum HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, cholesterol-standardized alpha-tocopherol and lutein concentrations, and plasma markers reflecting liver and renal function were not affected. Daily consumption of plant stanols up to 9 g reduces serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations linearly up to 17.4%. For cholesterol-standardized fat-soluble antioxidant concentrations, such a relation could not be ascertained.

  19. Exchanging a few commercial, regularly consumed food items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, Stine M; Leder, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ottestad, Inger; Christensen, Jacob J; Telle-Hansen, Vibeke H; Skjetne, Anne J; Raael, Ellen; Sheikh, Navida A; Holck, Marianne; Torvik, Kristin; Lamglait, Amandine; Thyholt, Kari; Byfuglien, Marte G; Granlund, Linda; Andersen, Lene F; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-10-01

    The healthy Nordic diet has been previously shown to have health beneficial effects among subjects at risk of CVD. However, the extent of food changes needed to achieve these effects is less explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of exchanging a few commercially available, regularly consumed key food items (e.g. spread on bread, fat for cooking, cheese, bread and cereals) with improved fat quality on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and inflammatory markers in a double-blind randomised, controlled trial. In total, 115 moderately hypercholesterolaemic, non-statin-treated adults (25-70 years) were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group (Ex-diet group) or control diet group (C-diet group) for 8 weeks with commercially available food items with different fatty acid composition (replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA). In the Ex-diet group, serum total cholesterol (Pfood items with improved fat quality reduces total cholesterol, with no negative effect on levels of inflammatory markers. This shows that an exchange of a few commercially available food items was easy and manageable and led to clinically relevant cholesterol reduction, potentially affecting future CVD risk.

  20. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinides Panayiotis P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w, untreated control and 2% (w/w stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w NSAS and 2% (w/w stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model.

  1. [Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekschoten, M V; van Cruchten, S T J; Kosmeijer-Schuil, T G; Katan, M B

    2006-12-30

    To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. Observational. In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major supermarkets resulting in a total of 30 samples of coffee pads. The levels of cafestol and kahweol were determined by gas chromatography. As controls, the diterpene levels in filtered and unfiltered coffee were also measured. Coffee prepared using coffee pads contained on average 0.76 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 0.69-0.82) and 0.85 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 0.77-0.94). Filtered coffee contained 0.76 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 0.63-0.88) and 0.81 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 0.63-0.99). Unfiltered coffee contained 72.5 mg/l cafestol (95% CI: 48.5-96.4) and 71.5 mg/l kahweol (95% CI: 45.0-98.1). Coffee prepared using coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine contained minute levels of diterpenes comparable to those of filtered coffee. Its effect on serum-cholesterol levels is therefore likely to be negligible.

  2. Cheese intake in large amounts lowers LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with butter intake of equal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Leedo, Eva; Tholstrup, Tine

    2011-12-01

    Despite its high content of saturated fatty acids, cheese does not seem to increase plasma total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations when compared with an equivalent intake of fat from butter. This effect may be due to the high calcium content of cheese, which results in a higher excretion of fecal fat. The objective was to compare the effects of diets of equal fat content rich in either hard cheese or butter or a habitual diet on blood pressure and fasting serum blood lipids, C-reactive protein, glucose, and insulin. We also examined whether fecal fat excretion differs with the consumption of cheese or butter. The study was a randomized dietary intervention consisting of two 6-wk crossover periods and a 14-d run-in period during which the subjects consumed their habitual diet. The study included 49 men and women who replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 13% of energy from cheese or butter. After 6 wk, the cheese intervention resulted in lower serum total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and higher glucose concentrations than did the butter intervention. Cheese intake did not increase serum total or LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared with the run-in period, during which total fat and saturated fat intakes were lower. Fecal fat excretion did not differ between the cheese and butter periods. Cheese lowers LDL cholesterol when compared with butter intake of equal fat content and does not increase LDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01140165.

  3. Detection of virgin coconut oil adulteration with animal fats using quantitative cholesterol by GC × GC-TOF/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baocheng; Li, Peiwu; Ma, Fei; Wang, Xiuping; Matthäus, Bertrand; Chen, Ran; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Qi

    2015-07-01

    A new method based on the cholesterol level was developed to detect the presence of animal fats in virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the sterols in VCO and animal fats was separated using conventional one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Compared with 1D GC, the GC×GC system could obtain a complete baseline separation of the sterol trimethylsilyl ethers derived from cholesterol and cholestanol, so that the cholesterol content in pure VCO and false VCO adulterated with animal fats could be accurately determined. Cholesterol, a main sterol found in animal fats, represented less than 5mg/kg of VCO. The study demonstrated that the determination of the cholesterol level in VCO could be used for reliable detection of the presence of lard, chicken fat, mutton tallow, beef tallow, or their mixture in VCO at a level as little as 0.25%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  5. Vascular changes in rat hippocampus following a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Linnea R; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2012-04-01

    The long-term effects of a diet rich in saturated fat and cholesterol on the hippocampus were evaluated in this study. It has previously been shown that this type of diet is detrimental to health, particularly affecting peripheral organs such as the heart and liver. However, effects on the brain have not been fully evaluated. This study focused on the hippocampus, a brain region instrumental for learning and memory and vulnerable to ischemic damage. Reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and increased microgliosis were observed in the hippocampus of rats fed a high-saturated-fat and cholesterol (HFHC) diet for 6 months. Interestingly, an increase in hippocampal protein levels of occludin, a tight junction protein, was found in HFHC-treated rats as well. Further investigation revealed decreased expression of the occludin protein in blood vessels and increased expression in the dentate gyrus hilar neurons and mossy fibers of the hippocampal cornus ammonis 3 in HFHC-treated rats. Our results show alterations in BBB integrity and expression of tight junction proteins after long-term exposure to HFHC diet in rats. These findings may suggest a biologic mechanism for previously observed behavioral deficits occurring in rats fed this diet.

  6. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad

    2016-01-01

    was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). DESIGN: The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period...... circumference did not differ significantly between the 3 diets. CONCLUSION: A high daily intake of regular-fat cheese for 12 wk did not alter LDL cholesterol or MetS risk factors differently than an equal intake of reduced-fat cheese or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods. This trial was registered......BACKGROUND: Regular-fat cheese contains a high amount of saturated fat. Therefore, dietary guidelines in many countries recommend the consumption of reduced-fat cheese as opposed to regular-fat cheese. However, the negative effect of regular-fat cheese is still under debate. OBJECTIVES: The aim...

  7. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Effect of high fat diet without cholesterol supplementation on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in New Zealand white rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitha, P; Vasudevan, D M; Kamath, Prakash

    2010-02-26

    Dietary fats may affect coronary artery disease risk by influencing factors other than serum cholesterol. The effect of diets containing coconut oil and sunflower oil without cholesterol supplementation on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation were studied in male New Zealand White rabbits. Animals assigned to four groups (control, cholesterol-fed, coconut oil-fed and sunflower oil-fed), given an isocaloric diet and studied for 6 months. The lipid profile, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin C and lipid peroxidation were evaluated at the beginning of the study, at the third month and at the end of the study period. Serum lipid values did not show significant variation between animals fed coconut oil and sunflower oil, but total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were significantly higher and HDL-cholesterol was reduced in cholesterol-fed animals. Lipid peroxidation was higher in cholesterol-fed and sunflower oil-fed rabbits compared to controls and coconut oil-fed rabbits. Though other parameters such as reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate did not vary between the two oil-fed rabbit groups, cholesterol-fed rabbits showed severe oxidative stress. We conclude that in the absence of cholesterol supplementation, coconut oil intake up to 30% of daily energy supply did not cause hypercholesterolemia or oxidative stress in rabbits.

  9. Twenty four year time trends in fats and cholesterol intake by adolescents. Warsaw Adolescents Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charzewska Jadwiga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine time trends (1982–2006 in total fat intake and changes in fatty acid structure intake in adolescents from Warsaw in view of increasing prevalence of obesity. Data come from four successive surveys randomly selected samples of adolescents (aged 11–15 years old, from Warsaw region. In total 9747 pupils have been examined, with response rate varying from 55% to 87% depending on year. Surveys were done always in the spring season of the year. Food intake was assessed by using 24 hours recall method of consumption by the pupils all products, including enriched, dishes and beverages as well as diet supplements, in the last 24 hours preceding the examination. The content of energy and nutrients was calculated by means of own computer softwares (DIET 2 and 4, taking into account successive revisions of the tables of food composition and nutritional values, as well as current Polish DRI. A significant decreasing trend was found in intake of total fat, of saturated fatty acids (SFA and cholesterol. The percentage of energy from total fat, also decreased both in boys (to 35,1% and girls (to 33,7%, what failed to reach the desired level below 30% of energy from fat which is recommended. Also significant decrease of SFA consumption was not satisfactory enough to approach the values <10% of energy recommended as was from 13% to 15%. Decreasing trends in fat intake was not in accordance with the trend in obesity prevalence in the adolescents as average BMI is going up. To stabilize the health-oriented changes especially in the diets of adolescents, further activity is desired from professionals working with prevention of adolescents obesity.

  10. The relation between erythrocyte trans fat and triglyceride, VLDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations depends on polyunsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabagambe, Edmond K; Ordovas, Jose M; Hopkins, Paul N; Tsai, Michael Y; Arnett, Donna K

    2012-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) lower HDL and increase triglyceride concentrations while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower triglycerides and may decrease HDL concentrations. The effect of the interaction between trans fat and PUFA on lipids is uncertain. Men and women (n = 1032) in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes were measured with gas chromatography while data on potential confounders were obtained from questionnaires. To test the interaction between total erythrocyte PUFA (ePUFA) and TFA (eTFA) on lipid concentrations we distributed eTFA into tertiles and dichotomized ePUFA at the median concentration. For the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) tertiles of eTFA, multivariate-adjusted means±s.e.m for HDL were 46.2±1.1, 46.3±1.1 and 45.5±1.0 mg/dL among those with low ePUFA, respectively, while they were 50.0±1.1, 46.9±1.1 and 44.7±1.1 mg/dL among those with high ePUFA, respectively (P for interaction = 0.01). For the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) tertiles of eTFA, multivariate-adjusted means±s.e.m for triglycerides were 178.6±11.3, 144.7±10.9 and 140.8±10.6, respectively, among those with low ePUFA, while they were 133.8±11.3, 145.7±10.9 and 149.3±11.5, respectively, among those with high ePUFA (P for interaction = 0.005). Results for VLDL were similar to those for triglycerides. No significant interactions were observed for LDL or total cholesterol. The relation between trans fat and HDL, VLDL and triglycerides may depend on PUFA. The benefit of avoiding trans fat may be greater among individuals with higher PUFA intake. Supplementation with PUFA among individuals with relatively high trans fat intake may have limited benefits on lipid profiles.

  11. Should fat in the radiofrequency ablation zone of hepatocellular adenomas raise suspicion for residual tumour?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Andreu F. [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dalhousie University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, QE II Health Sciences Centre - VG Site, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Kajal, Dilkash; Pereira, Andre; Atri, Mostafa [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-04-15

    To assess the significance of fat in the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) zone of hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), and its association with tumoral fat and hepatic steatosis. The radiological archive was searched for patients with ablated HCAs and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging between January 2008 and June 2014. Age, sex, risk factors and duration of clinical and imaging follow-up were recorded. Pre-RFA imaging was assessed for tumour size, intra-tumoral fat and steatosis. Post-RFA imaging was reviewed for size, enhancement and intra-ablational fat. Intra-ablational fat was classified as peripheral, central or mixed; the association of these distributions with steatosis and tumoral fat was assessed using Fisher's exact test. Sixteen patients with 26 ablated HCAs were included. Fat was present in 23/26 (88 %) ablation zones. Only 1/26 (4 %) showed serial enlargement and enhancement suggestive of residual disease; the enhancing area did not contain fat. All remaining ablations showed involution and/or diminishing fat content without suspicious enhancement (mean follow-up, 27 months; range, 2-84 months). The peripheral and mixed/central patterns of intra-ablational fat were associated with steatosis (P = 0.0005) and tumoral fat (P = 0.0003), respectively. Fat in the ablation zone of HCAs is a common finding which, in isolation, does not indicate residual tumour. (orig.)

  12. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  13. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant sterols in low-fat yogurt consumed as a snack or with a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowska, Iwona; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Nicolle, Catherine; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-10-01

    Plant sterols (PS) consumed as a snack may not have the same cholesterol-lowering potential as when consumed with a meal due to poor solubilization. It was hypothesized that the consumption of a single dose, low-fat yogurt rich in PS (1.6 g/d) with a meal over an afternoon snack will lead to favourable changes in plasma lipids, plasma PS concentrations, and cholesterol synthesis without negatively affecting alpha-tocopherol or carotenoids levels. Twenty-six hyperlipidemic males and females completed the randomized trial of three phases (control, single PS dose consumed with a meal, or single PS dose as an afternoon snack) while consuming controlled, low-fat diets. Plasma lipids, cholesterol synthesis rates, plasma PS and serum fat-soluble antioxidants were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. Endpoint total cholesterol (TC) levels after the PS snack phase were decreased (p = 0.04) (5.30 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) compared to the control phase (5.53 +/- 0.2 mmol/L). However, endpoints for TC (5.37 +/- 0.2 mmol/L) for PS dose with a meal were comparable to control phase. Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol tended to be different (p = 0.06) at the end of the intervention phases (3.51 +/- 0.1, 3.43 +/- 0.1, and 3.33 +/- 0.1 mmol/L; control, meal and snack, respectively). Cholesterol fractional synthesis rates were higher (p = 0.007) by 25.8% and 19.5% at the end of the snack and meal phases, respectively, compared with the control phase. Plasma campesterol and beta-sitosterol concentrations, adjusted for TC, were higher (p yogurt, provided as a snack, lowers cholesterol levels but does not alter fat-soluble vitamin or carotenoid concentrations in hyperlipidemic participants.

  14. Fat and cholesterol diet induced lipid metabolic disorders and insulin resistance in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H; Zhang, C; Yang, W; Wang, Y; Lin, Y; Yang, P; Yu, Q; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2009-09-01

    Lipid disorder has been found to result in insulin resistance (IR). IR often is associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the pathogenesis of human IR is not completely understood. The present study was designed to examine if rabbits were fed with a diet containing high fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) could develop lipid disorder and subsequently IR. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed either a normal chow diet or HFCD for 20 weeks. Plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, and insulin were measured. To evaluate glucose metabolism, we performed an intravenous glucose tolerance test. In addition, we compared adipose tissue accumulation and aortic atherosclerosis lesions in HFCD-fed rabbits with those in control rabbits. In HFCD-fed rabbits there was an increase in plasma levels of TC and TG as well as visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Severe aortic atherosclerotic lesions were found in HFCD-fed rabbits. Although there were no differences in body weight, plasma insulin and blood pressure between the two groups, HFCD-fed rabbits showed higher insulin IR index compared to control rabbits. Our results showed that HFCD induced IR, increased adipose accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits, suggesting that the HFCD-fed rabbits can serve as a model for the research on human IR and lipid metabolism abnormalities. J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  15. Is the metabolic syndrome caused by a high fructose, and relatively low fat, low cholesterol diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneff, Stephanie; Wainwright, Glyn; Mascitelli, Luca

    2011-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is manifested by a lipid triad which includes elevated serum triglycerides, small LDL particles, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, by central obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and elevated blood pressure, and it is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. We have developed a new hypothesis regarding MetS as a consequence of a high intake in carbohydrates and food with a high glycemic index, particularly fructose, and relatively low intake of cholesterol and saturated fat. We support our arguments through animal studies which have shown that exposure of the liver to increased quantities of fructose leads to rapid stimulation of lipogenesis and accumulation of triglycerides. The adipocytes store triglycerides in lipid droplets, leading to adipocyte hypertrophy. Adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. An important modulator of obesity-associated macrophage responses in white adipose tissue is the death of adipocytes. Excess exposure to fructose intake determines the liver to metabolize high doses of fructose, producing increased levels of fructose end products, like glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, that can converge with the glycolytic pathway. Fructose also leads to increased levels of advanced glycation end products. The macrophages exposed to advanced glycation end products become dysfunctional and, on entry into the artery wall, contribute to plaque formation and thrombosis.

  16. Dietary carbohydrate modifies the inverse association between saturated fat intake and cholesterol on very low-density lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary saturated fat on fasting triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and any mediation of this relationship by dietary carbohydrate intake. Men and women in the NHLBI Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 1036, mea...

  17. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  18. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway improves understanding of genetic networks for fat deposition and muscle growth in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, thirteen genes involved in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway were investigated for their associations with three fat depositions, eight fatty acid compositions and two growth-related phenotypes in a Wagyu x Limousin reference population, including 6 F1 bulls, 113 ...

  19. Long-term and short-term effects of dietary cholesterol and fats in the Mongolian gerbil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temmerman, A M; Vonk, R J; Niezen-Koning, K; Berger, R; Fernandes, J

    1988-01-01

    In long-term and short-term experiments with Mongolian gerbils the effects of various dietary fats and different amounts of cholesterol on progeniture and liver pathology were studied. In contrast to palm kernel oil, with 8.75% (w/w) of sunflower seed oil we observed fewer litters and a decreased

  20. Quercetin improves macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yingjie; Hou, Pengbo; Li, Fahui; Liu, Qinghua; Qin, Shucun; Zhou, Guanghai; Xu, Xuelian; Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong

    2017-01-14

    Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in plants, has been demonstrated to reduce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) plays a crucial role in exporting cholesterol from peripheral cells, which is one mechanism utilized in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether quercetin reduces lipid accumulation by improving RCT in vivo. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were used to investigate the effect of quercetin on RCT by an isotope tracing method, and the underlying mechanisms were clarified by molecular techniques. These novel results demonstrated that quercetin significantly improved [(3)H]-cholesterol transfer from [(3)H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages to the plasma (approximately 34% increase), liver (30% increase), and bile (50% increase) and finally to the feces (approximately 40% increase) for excretion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, quercetin markedly increased the cholesterol accepting ability of plasma and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dramatically decreased the content of malondialdehyde in plasma and oxidized phosphocholine carried by HDL. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms of quercetin in improving RCT may be partially due to the elevated cholesterol accepting ability of HDL, the increased expression levels of proteins related to RCT, such as ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) A1 and G1, and the improved antioxidant activity of HDL. Quercetin accelerates RCT in an atherosclerosis model, which is helpful in clarifying the lipid-lowering effect of quercetin.

  1. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other animal products, such as butter and cheese. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in baked goods you buy at the store. Eating too much saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol levels and increase the chance of getting heart ...

  2. High Fat, High Fructose, High Cholesterol Feeding Causes Severe NASH and Cecal Microbiota Dysbiosis in Juvenile Ossabaw Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Meers, Grace M; Linden, Melissa A; Booth, Frank W; Perfield, James W; Fritsche, Kevin L; Wankhade, Umesh D; Chintapalli, Sree V; Shankar, Kartik; Ibdah, J A; Rector, R Scott

    2017-09-12

    Pediatric obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are on the rise in industrialized countries, yet our ability to mechanistically examine this relationship is limited by the lack of a suitable higher animal model. Here, we examined the effects of high fat, high fructose corn syrup, high cholesterol Western style diet (WD)-induced obesity on NASH and cecal microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile Ossabaw swine. Juvenile female Ossabaw swine (5 weeks old) were fed WD (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol) or low-fat diet (CON/lean; 10.5% fat) for 16 wks (n=6 each) or 36 wks (n=4 each). WD-fed pigs developed obesity, dyslipidemia, and systemic insulin resistance compared with CON pigs. In addition, obese WD-fed pigs developed severe NASH, with hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, inflammatory cell infiltration, and fibrosis after 16 weeks, with further exacerbation of histological inflammation and fibrosis after 36 wks of WD-feeding. WD-feeding also resulted in robust cecal microbiota changes including increased relative abundances of families and genera in Proteobacteria (Phigh fat, high fructose, high cholesterol diet develop obesity and severe microbiota dysbiosis with a pro-inflammatory signature and a NASH phenotype directly relevant to the pediatric/adolescent and young adult population. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.

  3. The response of lipoproteins to dietary fat and cholesterol in lean and obese persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals differ in the response of their blood lipoproteins to cholesterol-lowering diets. One characteristic clearly associated with susceptibility to diet is leanness; many studies show that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

  4. Interaction between TCF7L2 polymorphism and dietary fat intake on high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekaran Bodhini

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that lifestyle factors influence the association between the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R and Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2 gene variants and cardio-metabolic traits in several populations; however, the available research is limited among the Asian Indian population. Hence, the present study examined whether the association between the MC4R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (rs17782313 and two SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene (rs12255372 and rs7903146 and cardio-metabolic traits is modified by dietary factors and physical activity. This cross sectional study included a random sample of normal glucose tolerant (NGT (n = 821 and participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D (n = 861 recruited from the urban part of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. A validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ was used for dietary assessment and self-reported physical activity measures were collected. The threshold for significance was set at P = 0.00023 based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing [(0.05/210 (3 SNPs x 14 outcomes x 5 lifestyle factors]. After Bonferroni correction, there was a significant interaction between the TCF7L2 rs12255372 SNP and fat intake (g/day (Pinteraction = 0.0001 on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, where the 'T' allele carriers in the lowest tertile of total fat intake had higher HDL-C (P = 0.008 and those in the highest tertile (P = 0.017 had lower HDL-C compared to the GG homozygotes. In a secondary analysis of SNPs with the subtypes of fat, there was also a significant interaction between the SNP rs12255372 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, g/day (Pinteraction<0.0001 on HDL-C, where the minor allele carriers had higher HDL-C in the lowest PUFA tertile (P = 0.024 and those in the highest PUFA tertile had lower HDL-C (P = 0.028 than GG homozygotes. In addition, a significant interaction was also seen between TCF7L2 SNP rs12255372 and fibre intake (g/day on HDL

  5. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  6. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p Flax drink consumption compared to control (p Flax bread compared to control (p Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004 PMID:22305169

  7. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Mette

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Method Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control, a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day (Flax drink, and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day (Flax bread. Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Results Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p Conclusion Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004

  8. Dietary supplementation of chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Seo, Kunho; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2014-02-26

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for 3 weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control diets. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The antiobesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.

  9. The cholesterol-raising factor from coffee beans, cafestol, as an agonist ligand for the farnesoid and pregnane X receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Kreeft, Arja J.; Hooiveld, Guido J. E. J.; Moen, Corina J. A.; Mueller, Michael; Frants, Rune R.; Kasanmoentalib, Soemini; Post, Sabine M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Porter, J. Gordon; Katan, Martijn B.; Hofker, Marten H.; Moore, David D.

    Cafestol, a diterpene present in unfiltered coffee brews such as Scandinavian boiled, Turkish, and cafetiere coffee, is the most potent cholesterol-elevating compound-knownin the human diet. Several genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis have previously been shown to be targets of cafestol,

  10. EFFECTS OF Citrus hystryx AS FAT PROTECTOR ON UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS, CHOLESTEROL AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LAMB MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Tiven

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of Citrus hystrix as fat protector on unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol and chemical composition of lamb meat. The research design applied was completely randomized design with 3 treatments and 5 replications. Fifteen local male lambs aged 9-12 months weighing 14-17 kg, were divided into 3 groups of different diet treatments (P0 : sheeps were only given a basal diet; P1 : sheeps are given basal diet and 3% cooking oil; P2 : sheeps are given basal diet, 3% cooking oil and protected by 3% Citrus hystrix powder. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, the differences among treatments were tested by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. The results showed meat from sheeps that consume P2 diet has a total fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids content were higher (P<0.01, with lower cholesterol content (P<0.01 than of P0, and has a protein and fat content were higher (P <0.01, but a lower water content (P<0.01 than that of PO. It can be concluded that the use of Citrus hystrix powder as fat protector can increase content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein and fat, but decrease cholesterol content.

  11. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  12. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mette; Jensen, Morten G; Aarestrup, Julie; Petersen, Kristina En; Søndergaard, Lise; Mikkelsen, Mette S; Astrup, Arne

    2012-02-03

    Dietary fibers have been proposed to play a role in cardiovascular risk as well as body weight management. Flaxseeds are a good source of dietary fibers, and a large proportion of these are water-soluble viscous fibers. Here, we examine the effect of flaxseed dietary fibers in different food matrices on blood lipids and fecal excretion of fat and energy in a double-blind randomized crossover study with 17 subjects. Three different 7-d diets were tested: a low-fiber control diet (Control), a diet with flaxseed fiber drink (3/day) (Flax drink), and a diet with flaxseed fiber bread (3/day) (Flax bread). Total fat and energy excretion was measured in feces, blood samples were collected before and after each period, and appetite sensation registered 3 times daily before main meals. Compared to control, Flax drink lowered fasting total-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol by 12 and 15%, respectively, (p < 0.01), whereas Flax bread only produced a reduction of 7 and 9%, respectively (p < 0.05). Fecal fat and energy excretion increased by 50 and 23% with Flax drink consumption compared to control (p < 0.05), but only fecal fat excretion was increased with Flax bread compared to control (p < 0.05). Both Flax drink and Flax bread resulted in decreased plasma total and LDL-cholesterol and increased fat excretion, but the food matrix and/or processing may be of importance. Viscous flaxseed dietary fibers may be a useful tool for lowering blood cholesterol and potentially play a role in energy balance. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00953004.

  13. Effect of Berberine on promoting the excretion of cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Yang; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; Huang, Min; Feng, Ru; He, Chi-Yu; Ma, Chao; Luo, Shi-Heng; Fu, Jie; Wen, Bao-Ying; Ren, Long; Shou, Jia-Wen; Guo, Fang; Chen, Yangchao; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2015-08-27

    Berberine (BBR), as a new medicine for hyperlipidemia, can reduce the blood lipids in patients. Mechanistic studies have shown that BBR activates the extracellular-signal regulated kinase pathway by stabilizing low-density-lipoprotein receptor mRNA. However, aside from inhibiting the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, the effects of BBR on other metabolic pathways of cholesterol have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the action of BBR on the excretion of cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks to induce hyperlipidemia, followed by oral treatment with 50 and 100 mg/kg/day of BBR or 10 and 30 mg/kg/day of lovastatin for 10 days, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), transaminases, and total bile acid in the serum, liver, bile and feces were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cholesterol (as well as coprostanol) levels in the liver, bile and feces were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The HFD hamsters showed significantly hyperlipidemic characteristics compared with the normal hamsters. Treatment with BBR for 10 days reduced the serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels in HFD hamsters by 44-70, 34-51 and 47-71%, respectively, and this effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Initially, a large amount of cholesterol accumulated in the hyperlipidemic hamster livers. After BBR treatment, reductions in the liver cholesterol were observed by day 3 and became significant by day 7 at both doses (P hamsters but not in normal hamsters, and these results provide a link between the cholesterol-lowering effect of BBR with cholesterol excretion into the bile. We conclude that BBR significantly promoted the excretion of cholesterol from the liver to the bile in hyperlipidemic hamsters, which led to large decreases in the serum TC, TG and LDL-C levels. Additionally, compared

  14. Effects of Feeding Periods of High Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Diet on Blood Biochemistry and Hydroxyproline Fractions in Rabbits

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    N. J. Siddiqi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are considered as important risk factors during the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the present investigation was to study the total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG, platelet levels and hydroxyproline fractions during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. For this purpose, twenty five 12-weeks, New Zealand white male rabbits, were purchased, individually caged, and divided into either control group or cholesterol-fed group. The control group (n = 10 was fed 100 g/day of normal diet, ORC-4 (Oriental Yeast Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan for a period of 15 weeks. The cholesterol-fed group (n = 15 was fed a high cholesterol and saturated fat diet of ORC-4 containing 1% cholesterol plus 1% olive oil (100 g/day for periods of 5 (group 1, 10 (group 2 and 15 (group 3 weeks. Blood sample from each animal was taken at the end of the experimental period for the biochemical analysis. The results of the present study showed that TC, LDLC, TG, HDLC and platelets were significantly (P0.05. There was no significant (P>0.05 decrease of free serum hydroxyproline in group 3 rabbits when compared to control rabbits. On the other hand, group 3 rabbits showed a significant increase in peptide–bound and protein- bound Hyp by 517% (P0.05 change when compared to control rabbits. These results suggest that feeding rabbits high cholesterol and saturated fat diet for feeding periods of 5 , 10 and 15 weeks induced significant change in TC, LDLC, HDL, TG, platelet levels and various Hyp fractions in serum without any significant change in the total Hyp content.

  15. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  16. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae, burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day, EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day, and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  17. Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, ameliorates high fat diet-induced alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Jadeja

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of freeze dried extract of Clerodendron glandulosum Coleb., Verbenaceae, leaves (FECG on alteration in lipid and cholesterol metabolism in high fat diet fed hyperlipidemic rats. Plasma and hepatic lipid profiles, lipid and cholesterol metabolizing enzymes in target tissues and fecal total lipids and bile acid contents were evaluated in FECG treated normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats. These results were compared with synthetic hypolipidemic drug Lovastatin (LVS. Results indicate that FECG was able to positively regulate induced experimental hyperlipidemia by significant alteration in plasma and tissue lipid profiles. These results can be attributed to reduced absorption, effective elimination and augmented catabolism of lipids and cholesterol possibly due to high content of saponin and phytosterols in C. glandulosum. Use of C. glandulosum extract as a potential therapeutic agent against hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia is indicated.

  18. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  19. Increased blood cholesterol after a high saturated fat diet is prevented by aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Juan Fernando; Fernández-Elías, Valentín Emilio; Hamouti, Nassim; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    A high saturated fatty acids diet (HSFAD) deteriorates metabolic and cardiovascular health while aerobic training improves them. The aim of this study was to investigate in physically inactive and overweight people if 2 weeks of HSFAD leads to hyperlipemia or insulin resistance and if concurrent aerobic exercise training counteracts those effects. Fourteen overweight (body mass index, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg·m(-2)), healthy, young individuals (aged 24.8 ± 1.8 years) were randomly assigned to a diet (D) or a diet plus exercise (D + E) group. During 14 consecutive days both groups increased dietary saturated fatty acids from 31 ± 10 to 52 ± 14 g·day(-1) (p fat intake. Concurrent to the diet, the D + E group underwent 11 cycle-ergometer sessions of 55 min at 60% peak oxygen uptake (V˙O(2peak)). Before and after intervention, insulin sensitivity and body composition were estimated, and blood lipids, resting blood pressure, and VO(2peak) were measured. Body weight and composition, plasma free fatty acids composition and concentration, and insulin sensitivity remained unchanged in both groups. However, post-intervention total cholesterol (T(C)) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increased above pre-intervention values in the D group (147 ± 8 to 161 ± 9 mg·dL(-1), p = 0.018 and 71 ± 10 to 82 ± 10 mg·dL(-1), p = 0.034, respectively). In contrast, in the D + E group, T(C) and LDL-C remained unchanged (153 ± 20 to 157 ± 24 mg·dL(-1) and 71 ± 21 to 70 ± 25 mg·dL(-1)). Additionally, the D + E group lowered systolic blood pressure (6 ± 2 mm Hg, p = 0.029) and increased VO(2peak) (6 ± 2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.020). Increases in T(C) and LDL-C concentration induced by 14 days of HSFAD can be prevented by concurrent aerobic exercise training, which, in addition, improves cardiorespiratory fitness.

  20. Preparation and value assignment of standard reference material 968e fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Duewer, David L; Mugenya, Isaac O; Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan S; Welch, Michael J; Yen, James H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Reference Material 968e Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids, and Cholesterol in Human Serum provides certified values for total retinol, γ- and α-tocopherol, total lutein, total zeaxanthin, total β-cryptoxanthin, total β-carotene, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), and cholesterol. Reference and information values are also reported for nine additional compounds including total α-cryptoxanthin, trans- and total lycopene, total α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and coenzyme Q(10). The certified values for the fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in SRM 968e were based on the agreement of results from the means of two liquid chromatographic methods used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from the median of results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise among institutions that participate in the NIST Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program. The assigned values for cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the SRM are the means of results obtained using the NIST reference method based upon gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. SRM 968e is currently one of two available health-related NIST reference materials with concentration values assigned for selected fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum matrix. This SRM is used extensively by laboratories worldwide primarily to validate methods for determining these analytes in human serum and plasma and for assigning values to in-house control materials. The value assignment of the analytes in this SRM will help support measurement accuracy and traceability for laboratories performing health-related measurements in the clinical and nutritional communities.

  1. Plasma and hepatic cholesterol-lowering in hamsters by tomato pomace, tomato seed oil and defatted tomato seed supplemented in high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the cholesterol-lowering effects of tomato pomace (TP), a byproduct of tomato processing, and its components such as tomato seed oil (TSO) and defatted tomato seed (DTS) in hamsters, a widely used animal model for cholesterol metabolism. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat di...

  2. Sensitivity of mice to lipopolysaccharide is increased by a high saturated fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Rachel L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was hypothesized that a pro-atherogenic, high saturated fat and cholesterol diet (HCD would increase the inflammatory response to E. coli endotoxin (LPS and increase its concentration in plasma after administration to mice. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were fed a HCD or a control diet (CD for 4 weeks, and then treated with saline, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg LPS/kg, ip. Liver injury (alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, collagen staining, circulating cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interferon-γ, factors that can bind LPS (serum amyloid A, apolipoprotein A1, LPS binding protein, and CD14, and plasma levels of LPS were measured. The hepatic response was assessed by measuring vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 proteins, and VCAM-1 and iNOS mRNAs. Hepatic mRNA encoding the LPS receptor, Toll like receptor 4, was also determined. Results Two mg LPS/kg killed 100% of mice fed HCD within 5 d, while no mice fed CD died. All mice treated with 0 to 1 mg LPS/kg survived 24 h. HCD increased plasma alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and the enzymes were increased more by LPS in HCD than CD mice. Induction of plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ by LPS was greater with HCD than CD. Hepatic VCAM-1 and iNOS protein and mRNA were induced by LPS more in mice fed HCD than CD. Tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 caused by LPS was prolonged in HCD compared with CD mice. Despite the hepatic effects of HCD, diet had no effect on the LPS plasma concentration-time profile. HCD alone did not affect circulating levels of plasma apolipoprotein A1 or LPS binding protein. However, plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and CD14, and hepatic toll-like receptor-4 mRNA were increased in mice fed HCD. Conclusion

  3. Effects of Persian leek (Allium ampeloprasum on hepatic lipids and the expression of proinflammatory gene in hamsters fed a high-fat/ high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Fatoorechi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Persian leek is one of the most widely used herbal foods among Iranians. In this study, effects of oral administration of Persian leek on plasma and liver lipids were examined in hamster. Materials and Methods: Male Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into three groups: control (standard diet, high fat control (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, Persian leek (high-fat/high-cholesterol diet + 1% per weight of diet from dried powdered Persian leek for 14 weeks. Results: High fat diet increased plasma and liver lipids as compared to standard diet. Adding Persian leek to the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet resulted in no significant changes in the concentration of the plasma lipids or liver cholesterol. However, liver triglycerides (TG, plasma Alanine aminotransferase and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor- α were decreased in hamsters fed high-fat diet containing Persian leek as compared to high-fat diet only. Conclusion: Persian leek might be considered as a herbal food that can reduce liver TG accumulation induced by high fat diets.

  4. Treadmill Exercise Training Modulates Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism and Circulating PCSK9 Concentration in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a novel biomarker of LDL clearance and a therapeutic target of cardiovascular disease. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise training in modulating PCSK9 abundance and hepatic sterol regulation in high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Mice ( were assigned to a low-fat (LF, high-fat (HF, or an HF with exercise (HF + EX group for 8 weeks. The HF + EX group was progressively trained 5 days/week on a motorized treadmill. The HF + EX group was protected against body weight (BW gain and diet-induced dyslipidemia compared with the HF group. The HF + EX group demonstrated an increase in hepatic PCSK9 mRNA (1.9-fold of HF control, and a reduction in plasma PCSK9 (14% compared with the HF group. Compared with HF mice, HF + EX mice demonstrated reduced hepatic cholesterol (14% and increased ( nuclear SREBP2 protein (1.8-fold of HF group and LDLr mRNA (1.4-fold of HF group. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations correlated positively with plasma non-HDL-C (, . Results suggest that treadmill exercise reduces non-HDL cholesterol and differentially modulates hepatic and blood PCSK9 abundance in HF-fed C57BL/6 mice.

  5. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lots of foods high in saturated fat and trans fat may contribute to high cholesterol and related conditions, ... Choose foods that are low in saturated fat, trans fat, sodium (salt), and added sugars. These foods include ...

  6. Efficacy and safety of lowering dietary intake of fat and cholesterol in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC). The Writing Group for the DISC Collaborative Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-05-10

    To assess the efficacy and safety of lowering dietary intake of total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in children. Six-center randomized controlled clinical trial. Prepubertal boys (n = 362) and girls (n = 301) aged 8 to 10 years with LDL-C levels greater than or equal to the 80th and less than the 98th percentiles for age and sex were randomized into an intervention group (n = 334) and a usual care group (n = 329). Behavioral intervention to promote adherence to a diet providing 28% of energy from total fat, less than 8% from saturated fat, up to 9% from polyunsaturated fat, and less than 75 mg/4200 kJ (1000 kcal) per day of cholesterol (not to exceed 150 mg/d). The primary efficacy measure was the mean LDL-C level at 3 years. Primary safety measures were mean height and serum ferritin levels at 3 years. Secondary efficacy outcomes were mean LDL-C levels at 1 year and mean total cholesterol levels at 1 and 3 years. Secondary safety outcomes included red blood cell folate values; serum zinc, retinol, and albumin levels; serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, LDL-C:HDL-C ratio, and total triglyceride levels; sexual maturation; and psychosocial health. At 3 years, dietary total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol levels decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with the usual care group (all P .05) or other safety outcomes. The dietary intervention achieved modest lowering of LDL-C levels over 3 years while maintaining adequate growth, iron stores, nutritional adequacy, and psychological well-being during the critical growth period of adolescence.

  7. Identification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in milk fat globules and mammary cells - Implications for milk cholesterol secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mani, O; Körner, M; Ontsouka, C E

    2011-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 play an important role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, but their function in mammary gland (MG) tissue remains elusive. A bovine MG model that allows repeated MG sampling in identical animals at different functional stages was used...... to test whether 1) ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and subcellular localization in mammary epithelial cells (MEC) change during the pregnancy-lactation cycle, and 2) these 2 proteins were present in milk fat globules (MFG). Expression and localization in MEC were investigated in bovine MG tissues...

  8. Acidic Polysaccharide Extracts from Gastrodia Rhizomes Suppress the Atherosclerosis Risk Index through Inhibition of the Serum Cholesterol Composition in Sprague Dawley Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic disturbances, including atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CDV. A high-fat diet has been shown to cause an elevation of the plasma cholesterol levels in humans, and the control of serum cholesterol has been demonstrated to be important in the prevention of CVD and atherosclerosis. The aims of this study were to demonstrate that crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes suppress atherosclerosis through the regulation of serum lipids in Sprague Dawley (SD rats fed a high-fat diet. We examined the concentrations of serum lipids, including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol, in SD rats fed a high-fat diet and evaluated the atherogenic index. Here, we show that both crude and acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes inhibited the total cholesterol and LDL levels. Moreover, there was a significantly suppressed atherosclerosis risk due to the acidic polysaccharide extract from Gastrodia rhizome. Taken together, our results suggested that acidic polysaccharide extracts from Gastrodia rhizomes might be beneficial for lowering the incidence of CVD and atherosclerosis by reducing the de novo synthesis of total cholesterol and the LDL levels.

  9. Linarin Enriched Extract Attenuates Liver Injury and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jie Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the potential beneficial effects of linarin enriched Flos Chrysanthemi extract (Lin-extract on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet in rats. SD rats received normal diet, HFHC diet, or HFHC diet plus different doses of Lin-extract. The liver content of triglyceride and total cholesterol markedly increased in HFHC diet-fed model rats while middle and high dose of Lin-extract lowered liver cholesterol significantly. The expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 was upregulated by HFHC diet and further elevated by high dose Lin-extract. High dose of Lin-extract also markedly lowered the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK induced by HFHC in livers. The HFHC-increased mRNA levels of hepatic inflammation cytokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, were suppressed by Lin-extract dose-dependently. Furthermore, pathology evaluation showed that high dose Lin-extract greatly improved lobular inflammation. Our results suggest that Lin-extract could attenuate liver injury and inflammation induced by HFHC diet in rats. Its modulatory effect on lipid metabolism may partially contribute to this protective effect.

  10. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway improves understanding of genetic networks for fat deposition and muscle growth in beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler F Daniels

    Full Text Available In the present study, thirteen genes involved in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT pathway were investigated for their associations with three fat depositions, eight fatty acid compositions and two growth-related phenotypes in a Wagyu x Limousin reference population, including 6 F(1 bulls, 113 F(1 dams, and 246 F(2 progeny. A total of 37 amplicons were used to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on 6 F(1 bulls. Among 36 SNPs detected in 11 of these 13 genes, 19 were selected for genotyping by the Sequenom assay design on all F(2 progeny. Single-marker analysis revealed seven SNPs in ATP binding cassette A1, apolipoproteins A1, B and E, phospholipid transfer protein and paraoxinase 1 genes significantly associated with nine phenotypes (P<0.05. Previously, we reported genetic networks associated with 19 complex phenotypes based on a total of 138 genetic polymorphisms derived from 71 known functional genes. Therefore, after Bonferroni correction, these significant (adjusted P<0.05 and suggestive (adjusted P<0.10 associations were then used to identify genetic networks related to the RCT pathway. Multiple-marker analysis suggested possible genetic networks involving the RCT pathway for kidney-pelvic-heart fat percentage, rib-eye area, and subcutaneous fat depth phenotypes with markers derived from paraoxinase 1, apolipoproteins A1 and E, respectively. The present study confirmed that genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis are useful targets for investigating obesity in humans as well as for improving meat quality phenotypes in a livestock production.

  11. Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To measure the content of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee sold at the retailer level in Singapore, Indonesia and India and to determine the relationship of coffee consumption with lipid levels in a population-based study in Singapore. Methods Survey and cross-sectional study in local coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India to measure the diterpene content in coffee, and a population-based study in Singapore to examine the relationship of coffee consumption and blood lipid levels. Interviews and coffee samples (n = 27) were collected from coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India. In addition, 3000 men and women who were Chinese, Malay, and Indian residents of Singapore participated in a cross-sectional study. Results and Discussion The traditional 'sock' method of coffee preparation used in Singapore resulted in cafestol concentrations comparable to European paper drip filtered coffee (mean 0.09 ± SD 0.064 mg/cup). This amount would result in negligible predicted increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly low amounts of cafestol were found in Indian 'filter' coffee that used a metal mesh filter (0.05 ± 0.05 mg/cup). Coffee samples from Indonesia using the 'sock' method (0.85 ± 0.41 mg/cup) or a metal mesh filter (0.98 mg/cup) contained higher amounts of cafestol comparable to espresso coffee. Unfiltered coffee from Indonesia contained an amount of cafestol (4.43 mg/cup) similar to Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and French press coffee with substantial predicted increases in serum cholesterol (0.33 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.20 mmol/l) concentrations for consumption of 5 cups per day. In the Singaporean population, higher coffee consumption was not substantially associated with serum lipid concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [LDL-cholesterol: 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.97-3.18) for coffee consumed in Singapore and India, coffee consumption in these countries does not appear

  12. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  13. Effects of dietary fat and oxidized cholesterol on gene expression in rat liver as assessed by cDNA expression array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2005-06-01

    Specific oxysterols acting as ligands for nuclear transcription factors were shown to affect expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. However, the various biological effects of oxysterols such as cytotoxicity, atherogenicity or mutagenicity suggest that other genes may be also affected by oxysterols than lipid metabolism. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized cholesterol containing significant amounts of oxysterols and its interactions with different dietary fats on gene expression profiles as assessed by DNA array technology in rats. 54 male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups and were fed six semisynthetic diets, which varied in the type of dietary fat (coconut oil vs. salmon oil) and dietary cholesterol (none cholesterol vs. 5 g unoxidized cholesterol/kg vs. 5 g oxidized cholesterol/kg). Changes in gene expression as observed in response to dietary oxidized cholesterol were strongly dependent on the type of fat. In the rats fed coconut oil, the expression of 7 genes (5 up- and 2 down-regulated) was altered by dietary oxidized cholesterol, while in the rats fed salmon oil, the expression of 50 genes (16 up- and 34 down-regulated) was altered. 29 genes (22 up- and 7 down-regulated) were identified as possible targets for an altered gene expression by dietary salmon oil as compared to dietary coconut oil. The present study showed that dietary oxidized cholesterol transcriptionally affects many genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and stress response--an effect that was amplified by the administration of fish oil as dietary fat.

  14. Different responsiveness to a high-fat/cholesterol diet in two inbred mice and underlying genetic factors: a whole genome microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Gang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate different responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet and uncover their underlying genetic factors between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA/2J (D2 inbred mice. Methods B6 and D2 mice were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet for a series of time-points. Serum and bile lipid profiles, bile acid yields, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerosis formation were measured. Furthermore, a whole genome microarray was performed to screen hepatic genes expression profile. Quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and TUNEL assay were conducted to validate microarray data. Results After fed the high-fat/cholesterol diet, serum and bile total cholesterol, serum cholesterol esters, HDL cholesterol and Non-HDL cholesterol levels were altered in B6 but not significantly changed in D2; meanwhile, biliary bile acid was decreased in B6 but increased in D2. At the same time, hepatic apoptosis, gallstones and atherosclerotic lesions occurred in B6 but not in D2. The hepatic microarray analysis revealed distinctly different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice. Their functional pathway groups included lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, immune/inflammation response and apoptosis. Quantitative real time PCR, TUNEL assay and western-blot results were consistent with microarray analysis. Conclusion Different genes expression patterns between B6 and D2 mice might provide a genetic basis for their distinctive responses to a high-fat/cholesterol diet, and give us an opportunity to identify novel pharmaceutical targets in related diseases in the future.

  15. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, R.; Agregan, R.; GonCalves, A.; Lorenzo, J.M.

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of pâté. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated pâté presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P<0.05) affected the fatty acid content. The amount of MUFA increased, while the content of SFA and PUFA decreased as the back fat was replaced by olive oil. The replacement of fat resulted in an improvement in all nutritional indexes. Atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes decreased while the h/H ratio increased with fat replacement. At the same time, the content of α-tocopherol increased and the amount of cholesterol decreased with the addition of olive oil. Therefore, olive oil provides pâté with high levels of C18:1n9c and MUFA, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol and reduces cholesterol levels. As a general conclusion, the replacement of back fat by olive oil allows us to obtain a healthier product. (Author)

  16. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the foods you eat. Meat, fish, eggs, butter, cheese, and whole or low-fat milk all have cholesterol in them. You Need a Little, Not a ... are some foods that have a lot of cholesterol? Meat, eggs, butter, cheese, and milk (and stuff that's made with some ...

  17. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n=27 consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d with the control group (n=29 receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  18. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  19. Electronegative LDL is linked to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Sheng; Yang, Tzu-Ching; Chang, Po-Yuan; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Ho, Shu-Li; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lu, Shao-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), like that of atherosclerosis, involves lipid accumulation, inflammation and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) may be a risk factor for NASH, but oxLDL levels were not directly measured in these studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether there was an association between electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], a mildly oxLDL found in the blood, and the development of NASH using two animal models. Golden Syrian hamsters and C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol (HFC) diet for 6 or 12weeks, then liver lipid and histopathology, plasma lipoprotein profile and LDL(-) levels were examined. The HFC-diet-fed hamsters and mice had similar levels of hepatic lipid but different histopathological changes, with microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular hypertrophy, inflammation and bridging fibrosis in the hamsters, but only in mild steatohepatitis with low inflammatory cell infiltration in the mice. It also resulted in a significant increase in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and LDL(-) in hamsters, but only a slight increase in mice. Moreover, enlarged Kupffer cells, LDL(-) and accumulation of unesterified cholesterol were detected in the portal area of HFC-diet-fed hamsters, but not HFC-diet-fed mice. An in vitro study showed that LDL(-) from HFC-diet-fed hamsters induced TNF-α secretion in rat Kupffer cell through a LOX-1-dependent pathway. Our results strongly suggest that LDL(-) is one of the underlying causes of hepatic inflammation and plays a critical role in the development of NASH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional training reduces body fat and improves functional fitness and cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucas M; Fortaleza, Ana C; Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Gobbo, Luis A; Gobbi, Sebastião; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-04-01

    This randomized clinical trial with concealed allocations, and blinding of the assessors and the data analyst, was aimed at determining the effects of 16 weeks of functional training on the body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women. The study began with 64 subjects (N.=32 functional training and N.=32 control group) and ended with 50 subjects (N.=28 functional training and N.=22 control group). The exercise was conducted in circuit training format with 8 stations related to the development of muscular strength (using elastic bands for resistance) plus 3 stations focused on balance, coordination, and agility. The training session also incorporated an 18 to 30 minute walk. The control group did not participate in the exercise programs during the period of study. The participants were evaluated before and after the training period as regards their body composition (fat and lean mass), functional fitness, abdominal strength and blood chemistry variables. Significant reductions were observed in all body composition variables related to fat (FM= -3.4 and Android FM= -7.7%) (Pfunctional fitness components had significant improvements in coordination (-33.3%), strength (66.5%), agility (-19.5%) and aerobic capacity (-7%), and significant improvement in abdominal strength (188.2%). We observed significant improvements in total cholesterol (-4.4%) and HDL (-9.9%). The observed data lead us to conclude that functional training utilizing with elastic bands and unstable bases causes significantly improved in body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles.

  1. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  2. High intake of regular-fat cheese compared with reduced-fat cheese does not affect LDL cholesterol or risk markers of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziani, Farinaz; Tholstrup, Tine; Kristensen, Marlene D; Svanegaard, Matilde L; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-10-01

    Regular-fat cheese contains a high amount of saturated fat. Therefore, dietary guidelines in many countries recommend the consumption of reduced-fat cheese as opposed to regular-fat cheese. However, the negative effect of regular-fat cheese is still under debate. The aim was to compare the effects of regular-fat cheese with an equal amount of reduced-fat cheese and an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods on LDL cholesterol and risk factors for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study was a 12-wk randomized parallel intervention preceded by a 2-wk run-in period. A total of 164 subjects with ≥2 MetS risk factors were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 intervention groups: regular-fat cheese (REG), reduced-fat cheese (RED), or a no-cheese, carbohydrate control (CHO) group. Subjects in the REG and RED groups replaced part of their daily habitual diet with 80 g cheese/10 MJ, whereas subjects in the CHO group did the same with bread and jam corresponding to 90 g and 25 g/10 MJ, respectively. A total of 139 subjects completed the intervention. The primary outcome, LDL cholesterol, was not significantly different between the REG and RED diets or between the REG and CHO diets. There was no significant difference in HDL cholesterol between the REG and RED diets, but HDL cholesterol tended to be higher with the REG diet than with the CHO diet (0.06 ± 0.03 mmol/L; P = 0.07). Insulin, glucose, and triacylglycerol concentrations as well as blood pressure and waist circumference did not differ significantly between the 3 diets. A high daily intake of regular-fat cheese for 12 wk did not alter LDL cholesterol or MetS risk factors differently than an equal intake of reduced-fat cheese or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02616471. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  4. Silicon Alleviates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Reducing Apoptosis in Aged Wistar Rats Fed a High-Saturated Fat, High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, M Elvira; Sántos-López, Jorge A; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Macho-González, Adrián; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2017-06-01

    Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of silicon on NASH development and the potential antiapoptotic properties of silicon in aged rats.Methods: One-year-old male Wistar rats weighing ∼500 g were fed 3 experimental diets containing restructured pork (RP) for 8 wk: 1) a high-saturated fat diet, as an NAFLD control, with 16.9% total fat, 0.14 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO2/kg (control); 2) the HSHCD as a model of NASH, with 16.6% total fat, 16.3 g cholesterol/kg diet, and 46.8 mg SiO2/kg [high-cholesterol diet (Chol-C)]; and 3) the HSHCD with silicon-supplemented RP with amounts of fat and cholesterol identical to those in the Chol-C diet, but with 750 mg SiO2/kg (Chol-Si). Detailed histopathological assessments were performed, and the NAFLD activity score (NAS) was calculated. Liver apoptosis and damage markers were evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining.Results: Chol-C rats had a higher mean NAS (7.4) than did control rats (1.9; P silicon substantially affects NASH development in aged male Wistar rats fed an HSHCD by partially blocking apoptosis. These results suggest that silicon-enriched RP could be used as an effective nutritional strategy in preventing NASH. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    2008-01-01

    (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance......, independently mediated by weight loss, improvements in HOMA(IR), and the fat content of the prescribed diet. However, after inclusion of plasma triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and FFA concentrations in the models, HOMA(IR) and WHR no longer significantly predicted fasting RLP-C, although WHR remained...... of lean and obese participants. All participants (n = 740) underwent a test meal challenge containing 95 energy % (en%) fat (energy content 50% of predicted daily resting metabolic rate). Fasting and postprandial concentrations of circulating metabolites were measured over a 3-h period. Obese participants...

  6. Palm Oil Consumption Increases LDL Cholesterol Compared with Vegetable Oils Low in Saturated Fat in a Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Neelakantan, Nithya; Wu, Yi; Lote-Oke, Rashmi; Pan, An; van Dam, Rob M

    2015-07-01

    Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils, but studies have reported inconsistent effects of palm oil on blood lipids. We systematically reviewed the effect of palm oil consumption on blood lipids compared with other cooking oils using data from clinical trials. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library for trials of at least 2 wk duration that compared the effects of palm oil consumption with any of the predefined comparison oils: vegetable oils low in saturated fat, trans fat-containing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats. Data were pooled by using random-effects meta-analysis. Palm oil significantly increased LDL cholesterol by 0.24 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.13, 0.35 mmol/L; I(2) = 83.2%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat. This effect was observed in randomized trials (0.31 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.42 mmol/L) but not in nonrandomized trials (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.20 mmol/L; P-difference = 0.02). Among randomized trials, only modest heterogeneity in study results remained after considering the test oil dose and the comparison oil type (I(2) = 27.5%). Palm oil increased HDL cholesterol by 0.02 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.04 mmol/L; I(2) = 49.8%) compared with vegetable oils low in saturated fat and by 0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.06, 0.11 mmol/L; I(2) = 47.8%) compared with trans fat-containing oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat-containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat. This systematic review was registered with the PROSPERO registry at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42012002601#.VU3wvSGeDRZ as CRD42012002601. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat diary with low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese. Alternative Names Trans fatty acids; Partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs); Cholesterol - trans fats; Hyperlipidemia - trans fats; Atherosclerosis - trans fat; ...

  8. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat diary with low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheese. Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods with low or no saturated fat. Alternative Names Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the ...

  9. Effect of the molecular weight of water-soluble chitosan on its fat-/cholesterol-binding capacities and inhibitory activities to pancreatic lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Jin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity has become a worldwide burden to public health in recent decades. Given that obesity is caused by an imbalance between caloric intake and expenditure, and that dietary fat is the most important energy source of all macronutrients (by providing the most calories, a valuable strategy for obesity treatment and prevention is to block fat absorption via the gastrointestinal pathway. In this study, the fat- and cholesterol-binding capacities and the inhibition of pancreatic lipase by water-soluble chitosan (WSC with different weight-average molecular weight (Mw were tested and compared in vitro, in order to determine the anti-obesity effects of WSC and the influence of its Mw. Methods In this study, WSC with different Mw (∼1,000, ∼3,000, ∼5,000, ∼7,000 and ∼9,000 Da were prepared by oxidative degradation assisted with microwave irradiation. A biopharmaceutical model of the digestive tract was used to determine the fat- and cholesterol-binding capacity of WSC samples. The pancreatic lipase assays were based on p-nitrophenyl derivatives. Results The results showed that all of the WSC samples exhibit great fat- and cholesterol-binding capacities. Within the testing range, 1 g of WSC sample could absorb 2–8 g of peanut oil or 50–65 mg of cholesterol, which are both significantly higher than the ability of cellulose to do the same. Meanwhile, all the WSC samples were proven to be able to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity to some extent. Discussion Based on the results, we suggest that there is a significant correlation between the binding capacity of WSC and its Mw, as WSC2 (∼3,000 Da shows the highest fat- and cholesterol-binding capacities (7.08 g g−1 and 63.48 mg g−1, respectively, and the binding ability of WSC declines as its Mw increases or decreases from 3,000 Da. We also suggest WSC as an excellent resource in the development of functional foods against obesity for its adsorption, electrostatic binding and

  10. Verwaarloosbare hoeveelheden cholesterolverhogende diterpenen in koffie gezet met de koffiepadzetmethode bij vergelijking met ongefilterde kookkoffie=Negligible amounts of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee made with coffee pads in comparison with unfiltered coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekschoten, M.V.; Cruchten, van S.T.J.; Kosmeijer-Schuil, J.G.; Katan, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the amounts of the serum-cholesterol raising diterpenes cafestol and kahweol in coffee made with coffee pads and the Senseo coffee machine as opposed to filtered and unfiltered coffee. DESIGN: Observational. METHOD: In five cities in the Netherlands coffee was purchased in three major

  11. Identification of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in milk fat globules and mammary cells--implications for milk cholesterol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, O; Körner, M; Ontsouka, C E; Sorensen, M T; Sejrsen, K; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C

    2011-03-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 play an important role in cellular cholesterol homeostasis, but their function in mammary gland (MG) tissue remains elusive. A bovine MG model that allows repeated MG sampling in identical animals at different functional stages was used to test whether 1) ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and subcellular localization in mammary epithelial cells (MEC) change during the pregnancy-lactation cycle, and 2) these 2 proteins were present in milk fat globules (MFG). Expression and localization in MEC were investigated in bovine MG tissues at the end of lactation, during the dry period (DP), and early lactation using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence approaches. The presence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in MFG isolated from fresh milk was determined by immunofluorescence. The ABCA1 protein expression in MEC, expressed as arbitrary units, was higher during the end of lactation (12.2±0.24) and the DP (12.5±0.22) as compared with during early lactation (10.2±0.65). In contrast, no significant change in ABCG1 expression existed between the stages. Throughout the cycle, ABCA1 and ABCG1 were detected in the apical (41.9±24.8 and 49.0±4.96% of cows, respectively), basal (56.2±28.1 and 54.6±7.78% of cows, respectively), or entire cytoplasm (56.8±13.4 and 61.6±14.4% of cows, respectively) of MEC, or showed combined localization. Unlike ABCG1, ABCA1 was absent at the apical aspect of MEC during early lactation. Immunolabeling experiments revealed the presence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in MFG membranes. Findings suggest a differential, functional stage-dependent role of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in cholesterol homeostasis of the MG epithelium. The presence of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in MFG membranes suggests that these proteins are involved in cholesterol exchange between MEC and alveolar milk. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. LDL: The "Bad" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waxy, fat-like substance that's found in all the cells in your body. Your liver makes cholesterol, ... stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is called the "bad" cholesterol because a high LDL level leads ...

  13. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs from Hy-line and Warren hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Munoz, M. J.; Bastida, S.; Jimenez, O.; Lorenzo, C. de; Vergara, G.; Sanchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain. (Author) 37 refs.

  14. Food Labeling: Health Claims; Dietary Saturated Fat and Cholesterol and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Interim final rule; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-19

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is amending the regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) to permit raw fruits and vegetables that fail to comply with the low fat definition and/or the minimum nutrient content requirement to be eligible to bear the claim. We are taking this action in response to a petition submitted by the American Heart Association (the petitioner). The amendment expands the use of this health claim to certain fruits and vegetables that are currently ineligible for the health claim.

  15. HDL: The "Good" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your HDL level, you need to eat good fats instead of bad fats. This means limiting saturated fats, which include full-fat milk and cheese, high-fat meats like sausage and bacon, and foods ... foods like baked goods. Instead, eat unsaturated fats, which are found in ...

  16. Dihydrocapsaicin Attenuates Plaque Formation through a PPARγ/LXRα Pathway in apoE(-/- Mice Fed a High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease and represents the major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is evidence that dihydrocapsaicin (DHC can exert multiple pharmacological and physiological effects. Here, we explored the effect of DHC in atherosclerotic plaque progression in apoE(-/- mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet.apoE(-/- mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet with or without DHC for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that cellular cholesterol content was significantly decreased while apoA1-mediated cholesterol efflux was significantly increased following treatment with DHC in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. We also observed that plasma levels of TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were markedly decreased while plasma levels of apoA1 and HDL-C were significantly increased, and consistent with this, atherosclerotic lesion development was significantly inhibited by DHC treatment of apoE(-/- mice fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Moreover, treatment with both LXRα siRNA and PPARγ siRNA made the up-regulation of DHC on ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5, SR-B1, NPC1, CD36, LDLR, HMGCR, apoA1 and apoE expression notably abolished while made the down-regulation of DHC on SRA1 expression markedly compensated. And treatment with PPARγ siRNA made the DHC-induced up-regulation of LXRα expression notably abolished while treatment with LXRα siRNA had no effect on DHC-induced PPARγ expression.These observations provide direct evidence that DHC can significantly decrease atherosclerotic plaque formation involving in a PPARγ/LXRα pathway and thus DHC may represent a promising candidate for a therapeutic agent for the treatment or prevention of atherosclerosis.

  17. Leucine supplementation improves adiponectin and total cholesterol concentrations despite the lack of changes in adiposity or glucose homeostasis in rats previously exposed to a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Jose

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that leucine supplementation (LS has a therapeutic potential to prevent obesity and to promote glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, regular physical exercise is a widely accepted strategy for body weight maintenance and also for the prevention of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chronic LS alone or combined with endurance training (ET as potential approaches for reversing the insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. Methods Forty-seven rats were randomly divided into two groups. Animals were fed a control diet-low fat (n = 10 or HFD (n = 37. After 15 weeks on HFD, all rats received the control diet-low fat and were randomly divided according to treatment: reference (REF, LS, ET, and LS+ET (n = 7-8 rats per group. After 6 weeks of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and body composition, fat cell volume, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were analyzed. Results At the end of the sixth week of treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight between the REF, LS, ET and LS+ET groups. However, ET increased lean body mass in rats (P = 0.019. In addition, ET was more effective than LS in reducing adiposity (P = 0.019, serum insulin (P = 0.022 and TNF-α (P = 0.044. Conversely, LS increased serum adiponectin (P = 0.021 levels and reduced serum total cholesterol concentration (P = 0.042. Conclusions The results showed that LS had no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity or adiposity in previously obese rats. On the other hand, LS was effective in increasing adiponectin levels and in reducing total cholesterol concentration.

  18. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P cholesterol accumulation.

  19. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B (ThB) catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of straight chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs. Up to now, the ability of ThB to interfere with lipid metabolism was studied in mice fed a laboratory chow enriched or not with the synthetic agonist Wy14,643, a pharmacological activator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARα. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether ThB could play a role in obesity and lipid metabolism when mice are chronically fed a synthetic High Fat Diet (HFD) or a Low Fat Diet (LFD) as a control diet. To investigate this possibility, wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for Thb (Thb(-/-)) were subjected to either a synthetic LFD or a HFD for 25 weeks, and their responses were compared. First, when fed a normal regulatory laboratory chow, Thb(-/-) mice displayed growth retardation as well as a severe reduction in the plasma level of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), suggesting alterations in the GH/IGF-1 pathway. When fed the synthetic diets, the corrected energy intake to body mass was significantly higher in Thb(-/-) mice, yet those mice were protected from HFD-induced adiposity. Importantly, Thb(-/-) mice also suffered from hypoglycemia, exhibited reduction in liver glycogen stores and circulating insulin levels under the LFD and the HFD. Thb deficiency was also associated with higher levels of plasma HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) cholesterol and increased liver content of cholesterol under both the LFD and the HFD. As shown by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, a surrogate marker for cholesterol biosynthesis, whole body cholesterol de novo synthesis was increased in Thb(-/-) mice. By comparing liver RNA from WT mice and Thb(-/-) mice using oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR, a coordinated decrease in the expression of critical cholesterol synthesizing genes and an increased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp17a1, Akr1d1) were

  20. A selective ACAT-1 inhibitor, K-604, suppresses fatty streak lesions in fat-fed hamsters without affecting plasma cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenoya, Mami; Yoshinaka, Yasunobu; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawamine, Katsumi; Shibuya, Kimiyuki; Sato, Fumiyasu; Sawanobori, Kimio; Watanabe, Takuya; Miyazaki, Akira

    2007-04-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1), a major ACAT isozyme in macrophages, plays an essential role in foam cell formation in atherosclerotic lesions. However, whether pharmacological inhibition of macrophage ACAT-1 causes exacerbation or suppression of atherosclerosis is controversial. We developed and characterized a novel ACAT inhibitor, K-604. The IC(50) values of K-604 for human ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 were 0.45 and 102.85 micromol/L, respectively, indicating that K-604 is 229-fold more selective for ACAT-1. Kinetic analysis indicated that the inhibition was competitive with respect to oleoyl-coenzyme A with a K(i) value of 0.378 micromol/L. Exposure of human monocyte-derived macrophages to K-604 inhibited cholesterol esterification with IC(50) of 68.0 nmol/L. Furthermore, cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages to HDL(3) or apolipoprotein A-I was enhanced by K-604. Interestingly, administration of K-604 to F1B hamsters on a high-fat diet at a dose of >or=1mg/kg suppressed fatty streak lesions without affecting plasma cholesterol levels. K-604, a potent and selective inhibitor of ACAT-1, suppressed the development of atherosclerosis in an animal model without affecting plasma cholesterol levels, providing direct evidence that pharmacological inhibition of ACAT-1 in the arterial walls leads to suppression of atherosclerosis.

  1. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M.; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L.; Arbuckle, Matthew D.; Tidwell, Jaime M.; Richards, Todd L.; Craft, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23% fat/7% saturated fat/GI fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43% fat/24% saturated fat/GI > 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69·3 (sem 1·6) years, BMI 26·9 (sem 0·8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68·6 (sem 1·8) years, BMI 28·1 (sem 0·9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2·2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3·1) to 1·7 (IQR 1·8) %, P=0·002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1·2 (IQR 4·1) to 1·6 (IQR 3·9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (Peffect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (Pfat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial. PMID:22849970

  2. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids high fat diet intervention on the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obesity-insulin resistance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan

    2016-04-22

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P increase the level of serum apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1) (P fat diets promoted the synthesis of HDL-c in the obesity-insulin resistance rats.

  3. Baseline fat-related dietary behaviors of white, Hispanic, and black participants in a cholesterol screening and education project in New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Burkholder, Gary J; Risica, Patricia M; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-06-01

    To examine baseline fat-related dietary behaviors of white, Hispanic, and black participants in Minimal Contact Education for Cholesterol Change, a National Institutes for Health-funded cholesterol screening and education project conducted in New England. A sample of 9,803 participants who joined the study at baseline (n=7,817 white; n=1,425 Hispanic; and n=561 black). Participants completed baseline questionnaires that included demographic and psychosocial items as well as the Food Habits Questionnaire, a dietary assessment tool measuring fat-related dietary behaviors. They also had their blood cholesterol level and height and weight measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare racial/ethnic groups on continuous demographic variables, and the chi(2) test of association was used to compare groups on demographic categorical variables. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare mean differences between racial/ethnic groups on six behavioral subscales (Fat Factors) differentiating domains of behavior related to fat intake and to compare 27 individual fat-related dietary behaviors. After adjusting for sex, age, marital status, education, employment status, and percent time lived in the United States, white participants had the lowest Food Habits Questionnaire summary score (2.44) (indicating a lower fat diet), followed by Hispanic (2.61) and black (2.68) participants. The three ethnic groups also differed on the prevalence of Fat Factors and specific fat-related dietary behaviors. White participants were more likely to use lower-fat alternatives, to avoid frying, to replace meat, and to modify meat to make it lower in fat. However, they were least likely to eat fruits and vegetables for snacks and desserts. Hispanic participants were more likely to engage in fat-avoidance behaviors and to eat fruits and vegetables for snacks and desserts. Black participants were less likely to eat meatless meals and modify meats to make them lower in

  4. Merits of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep raised in different production systems in Tunisia: digestive, productive and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Hichem; Lassoued, Narjess; Rekik, Mourad

    2011-10-01

    Barbarine sheep is the dominant breed in Tunisia. This fat-tailed breed present in all production systems is characterised by metabolic and digestive adaptation to the contrasting environment conditions prevailing in the country (heat stress, water deprivation, salinity etc.). The fat tail (1.5 to 7 kg) is an energy reservoir that is used in periods of feed scarcity. Moreover, the rumen of this breed harbours a microflora enabling it to valorize low-quality roughages and native range vegetation. Barbarine sheep could make benefit from a wide range of local feed resources like fodder shrubs (e.g. cactus and oldman saltbushes), tannin-containing shrubs (e.g. Acacia cyanophylla) and agro-industrial by-products (e.g. olive cake, bran etc. conserved in the form of feed blocks or pellets). It has a very shallow anoestrous, the intensity of which is dependant upon nutrition conditions rather than day length as temperate breeds. Productive and reproductive performances of late pregnant-early suckling, pre-mating ewes and also rams of this breed are not affected when some alternative feed resources replace common feedstuffs which are expensive and cannot afford regularly to smallholders. In brief, the merits of the Barbarine sheep in the production systems and other main adaptive mechanisms of this breed are discussed in this paper. The prospective of Barbarine sheep husbandry in the system dynamics, climate change and the evolution of the socioeconomic context are also envisaged.

  5. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  6. Cooked rice prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet by the regulation of the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won Hee; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2013-07-01

    Rice has many health-beneficial components for ameliorating obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the effect of cooked rice as a useful carbohydrate source has not been investigated yet; so we hypothesized that cooked rice may have hypolipidemic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cooked rice on hyperlipidemia and on the expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism. Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 2 groups and fed a high-fat (15%, wt/wt)/cholesterol (0.5%, wt/wt) diet supplemented with either corn starch (HFD, 54.5% wt/wt) or cooked rice (HFD-CR, 54.5% wt/wt) as the main carbohydrate source for 8 weeks. In the HFD-CR group, the triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver were decreased, and the total lipid, total cholesterol, and bile acid levels in the feces were increased, compared with the HFD group. In the cooked-rice group, the messenger RNA and protein levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase were significantly downregulated; and the messenger RNA and protein levels of the low-density lipoprotein receptor and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase were upregulated. Furthermore, the expressions of lipogenic genes such as sterol response element binding protein-1, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 were downregulated, whereas the β-oxidation related genes (carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, acyl CoA oxidase, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) were upregulated, in the cooked-rice group. Our results suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of cooked rice is partially mediated by the regulation of hepatic genes involved in lipid metabolism, which results in the suppression of cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis and the enhancement of cholesterol excretion and fatty acid β-oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  8. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health. How Monounsaturated Fats Affect Your Health Monounsaturated fats are good for your health in several ways: They can help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance ...

  9. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pdensity lipoprotein cholesterol AUC was lower (P<.05), in AO-HPIR than those in AO-LPIR and controls. Postprandial AUCs for total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were similar in abdominally obese subjects with different degrees of postprandial insulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  11. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI 70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (Pdiet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (Pdiet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (Pdiet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial.

  12. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  13. Comparison of cardiovascular protective effects of tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii, Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, on high-cholesterol/high-fat diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanjun, Patricia; Mohamed, Suhaila; Muhammad, Kharidah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the comparative in vivo cardiovascular protective effects of red, green, and brown tropical seaweeds, namely, Kappaphycus alvarezii (or Eucheuma cottonii), Caulerpa lentillifera, and Sargassum polycystum, in rats fed on high-cholesterol/high-fat (HCF) diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 260-300 g) on the HCF diet had significantly increased body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma triglycerides (TG), lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase levels after 16 weeks. Supplementing 5% seaweeds to HCF diet significantly reduced plasma TC (-11.4% to -18.5%), LDL-C (-22% to -49.3%), and TG (-33.7% to -36.1%) levels and significantly increased HDL-C levels (16.3-55%). Among the seaweeds, S. polycystum showed the best anti-obesity and blood GSH-Px properties, K. alvarezii showed the best antihyperlipemic and in vivo antioxidation effects, and C. lentillifera was most effective at reducing plasma TC. All seaweeds significantly reduced body weight gain, erythrocyte GSH-Px, and plasma lipid peroxidation of HCF diet rats towards the values of normal rats.

  14. Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-α mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female

  15. Effect of dry tomato peel supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic markers in mice fed high-saturated-fat/high-cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidani, Sofiane; Benakmoum, Amar; Ammouche, Ali; Benali, Yasmine; Bouhadef, Anissa; Abbeddou, Souheila

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of crude tomato peel in vivo, but no studies have determined the dose-effect of dry tomato peel (DTP) on glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by a high-saturated-fat (HSF) diet in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of DTP on the levels of oxidative stress in mice fed an HSF and cholesterol-rich diet for 12 weeks. The main outcomes are glucose and insulin tolerance, plasma lipids, and hepatic steatosis and inflammation. BALB/c male mice (n=40) (8 weeks old, weighing 22.2±1.0 g) were divided into four treatment groups (10 mice/group): (a) high-fat control diet (HF Ctrl), which contains sunflower oil as a sole source of fat; (b) HSF/high-cholesterol (HC) diet; (c) HSF/HC diet supplemented with 9% DTP and (d) HSF/HC diet supplemented with 17% DTP. The HSF/HC diet significantly increased body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin and lipid peroxidation and caused the development of liver steatosis and inflammation. Supplementation with DTP increased plasma lycopene concentration and reduced the development of indicators of metabolic syndrome, with no consistent effect of the DTP dose. Hepatic steatosis and inflammation were not reversed with DTP supplementation. Among mice fed the HSF/HC diet, DTP supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect on insulin resistance, which confirms the antiatherogenic effect of DTP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gel coating of leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi, lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters on high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An edible, gelatinous water-insoluble coating surrounds the young leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi. This mucilage is a polysaccharide of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. In order to determine if this edible gel has cholesterol lowering properties, we fed male hams...

  17. 21 CFR 101.75 - Health claims: dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Statistics, the National Institutes of Health, or “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for...), Government Printing Office. (6) The claim may indicate that it is consistent with “Nutrition and Your Health... individuals with elevated blood total- or LDL-cholesterol should consult their physicians for medical advice...

  18. Interleukin-6 blockade raises LDL via reduced catabolism rather than via increased synthesis: a cytokine-specific mechanism for cholesterol changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jamie; Porter, Duncan; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J; Caslake, Muriel; McInnes, Iain; McCarey, David

    2017-11-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes. In the KALIBRA study, lipoprotein kinetic studies were performed on 11 patients with severe active RA at baseline and following three intravenous infusions of the IL-6R blocker tocilizumab. The primary outcome measure was the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of LDL. Serum total cholesterol (4.8 vs 5.7 mmol/L, p=0.003), LDL-c (2.9 vs 3.4 mmol/L, p=0.014) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.23 vs 1.52 mmol/L, p=0.006) increased following tocilizumab therapy. The LDL FCR fell from a state of hypercatabolism to a value approximating that of the normal population (0.53 vs 0.27 pools/day, p=0.006). Changes in FCR correlated tightly with changes in serum LDL-c and C-reactive protein but not Clinical Disease Activity Index. Patients with RA have low serum LDL-c due to hypercatabolism of LDL particles. IL-6 blockade normalises this catabolism in a manner associating with the acute phase response (and thus hepatic IL-6 signalling) but not with RA disease activity as measured clinically. We demonstrate that IL-6 is one of the key drivers of inflammation-driven dyslipidaemia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Combined training (strength plus aerobic) potentiates a reduction in body fat but only functional training reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in postmenopausal women with a similar training load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Fortaleza, Ana Claudia S; Neves, Lucas M; Diniz, Tiego A; de Castro, Marcela R; Buonani, Camila; Mota, Jorge; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined (CT; strength plus aerobic) and functional training (FT) on the body composition and metabolic profile with a similar training load in postmenopausal women. The participants were divided into three groups: CT (n=20), FT (n=17), and control group (CG, n=15). The trunk FM, fat mass (FM), percentage of FM (FM%), and fat-free mass were estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The metabolic profile, glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) were assessed. There were main effects of time in trunk fat, FM, and FM% ( P training loads are equivalent CT potentiated a reduction in FM and FM%, however, only FT reduced LDL-c in postmenopausal women.

  20. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  1. Risk Assessment of Exposure to Trans Fat in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Krenosky, Sara; L’Abbé, Mary; Lee, Nora; Underhill, Lynne; Vigneault, Michel; Godefroy, Samuel; Ratnayake, Nimal

    2012-01-01

    Trans fats are undesirable because they raise LDL-cholesterol and lower HDL-cholesterol levels in the blood, which can lead to an increased risk of coronary heart disease. In the mid-1990’s, researchers estimated that Canadians had one of the highest average trans fat intakes in the world, estimated to be approximately 3.7% of energy. The World Health Organization recommends that average intakes of trans fats should be less than 1% of total energy. As such Canada has pursued a multi-faceted ...

  2. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  3. Wheat alkylresorcinols suppress high-fat, high-sucrose diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance by increasing insulin sensitivity and cholesterol excretion in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Itoh, Nanako; Nakao, Reiko; Yasumoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Fukudome, Shin-ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain a matter of debate. We aimed to determine the effects of wheat bran-derived alkylresorcinols on diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice. We fed C57BL/6J mice a normal refined diet or a high-fat, high-sucrose diet [29.1% fat, 20.7% protein, 34.0% carbohydrates containing 20.0% sucrose (w/w)] alone (FS) or containing 0.4% (wt:wt) alkylresorcinols (FS-AR) for 10 wk. The alkylresorcinols suppressed FS-induced increases in body weight by 31.0% as well as FS-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation (means ± SEMs: 29.6 ± 3.18 and 19.8 ± 2.42 mg/g tissue in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively), without affecting energy intake. We measured circadian changes in blood metabolic hormones and found that FS-induced hyperinsulinemia (5.1 and 2.1 μg/L at night in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively) and hyperleptinemia (21.6 and 10.8 μg/L at night in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively) were suppressed by alkylresorcinols. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests showed that alkylresorcinols significantly reduced fasting blood glucose concentrations (190 ± 3.62 and 160 ± 8.98 mg/dL in the FS and FS-AR groups, respectively) and suppressed glucose intolerance as well as insulin resistance induced by the FS diet. Furthermore, alkylresorcinols significantly increased insulin-stimulated hepatic serine/threonine protein kinase B phosphorylation compared to the FS diet (+81.3% and +57.4% for Ser473 and Thr308, respectively). On the other hand, pyruvate and starch tolerance tests suggested that alkylresorcinols did not affect gluconeogenesis and carbohydrate digestion, respectively. Alkylresorcinols significantly increased fecal cholesterol excretion by 39.6% and reduced blood cholesterol concentrations by 30.4%, while upregulating the expression of hepatic cholesterol

  4. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food-style meal. Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; breakfast [766 kcal, 50 g fat (59% energy)] in a crossover trial. After an overnight fast (10-12 h), participants consumed the breakfast with cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P < 0.05) and specifically at 4 h but had no overall effects on insulin resistance (except at 4 h, P < 0.05), systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: -1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P < 0.05), with the difference significant only at 2 h. Acute cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food-style meal challenge. Although HDL cholesterol and insulin remained higher throughout the 6-h postprandial period, an overall

  5. Intra-abdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Darcy B; Utzschneider, Kristina M; Hull, Rebecca L; Kodama, Keiichi; Retzlaff, Barbara M; Brunzell, John D; Shofer, Jane B; Fish, Brian E; Knopp, Robert H; Kahn, Steven E

    2004-08-01

    The underlying pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome is the subject of debate, with both insulin resistance and obesity considered as important factors. We evaluated the differential effects of insulin resistance and central body fat distribution in determining the metabolic syndrome as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III. In addition, we determined which NCEP criteria were associated with insulin resistance and central adiposity. The subjects, 218 healthy men (n = 89) and women (n = 129) with a broad range of age (26-75 years) and BMI (18.4-46.8 kg/m2), underwent quantification of the insulin sensitivity index (Si) and intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) areas. The metabolic syndrome was present in 34 (15.6%) of subjects who had a lower Si [median: 3.13 vs. 6.09 x 10(-5) min(-1)/(pmol/l)] and higher IAF (166.3 vs. 79.1 cm2) and SCF (285.1 vs. 179.8 cm2) areas compared with subjects without the syndrome (P < 0.001). Multivariate models including Si, IAF, and SCF demonstrated that each parameter was associated with the syndrome. However, IAF was independently associated with all five of the metabolic syndrome criteria. In multivariable models containing the criteria as covariates, waist circumference and triglyceride levels were independently associated with Si and IAF and SCF areas (P < 0.001). Although insulin resistance and central body fat are both associated with the metabolic syndrome, IAF is independently associated with all of the criteria, suggesting that it may have a pathophysiological role. Of the NCEP criteria, waist circumference and triglycerides may best identify insulin resistance and visceral adiposity in individuals with a fasting plasma glucose <6.4 mmol/l.

  6. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (P level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group (P levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and NF-κB downregulation. These effects were significantly higher than those of RCD.

  7. Intimal cell masses in the abdominal aortas of swine fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for up to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D N; Schmee, J; Lee, K T; Thomas, W A

    1985-05-01

    The normal subendothelial intima of large arteries in man, swine and most other species is a variegated structure from birth onwards. In some regions it contains only a few scattered cells; in others there may be a continuous single layer of cells; and in still others the cells pile up to form what we have called intimal cell masses (ICM). The cells in the normal ICM are mostly smooth muscle cells although there is also a small resident population of monocyte-like cells. We have been studying the ICM in swine with emphasis on the abdominal aorta. We have found that atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine induced by high-fat high-cholesterol diets begin by a hyperplastic reaction of the smooth muscle cells in the ICM and progress to form large lesions characterized by extensive regions of lipid-rich calcific necrotic debris similar to advanced lesions in man. Because of the putative key role of the ICM in atherogenesis we think that it is important to learn as much as possible about their natural history under conditions as normal as possible. In this report we present data on ICM in the abdominal aortas of 34 male and female Hormel miniature swine maintained on a low-fat low-cholesterol diet for up to 12 years of age. The ICM grow slowly with aging and in the distal portion of the aorta account for an average of 9% in the male and 15% in the female of the total cells in the aortic wall (intima + media).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Chronic leucine supplementation improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD. Design: C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed. In addition, expression levels of proteins associated with hepatic lipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and white adipose tissue (WAT browning were determined. Results: Mice in the HFCD group developed obesity and deteriorated lipid metabolism. Compared with HFCD, leucine supplementation lowered weight gain and TC levels in circulation and the liver without changing energy intake. The decrease in body fat was supported by histological examination in the WAT and liver. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased by supplemented leucine. At the protein level, leucine potently decreased the hepatic lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and corresponding upstream proteins. In epididymal WAT, the reduced expression levels of two major lipases by HFCD, namely phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, were reversed when leucine was supplemented. Uncoupling protein 1, β3 adrenergic receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator-1α, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were involved in the thermogenic program and WAT browning. Leucine additionally upregulated their protein expression in both WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that chronic leucine supplementation reduced the body weight and improved the

  9. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol or other fats, such as triglycerides. Total testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate tests can help rule out ... Intramural Research , which includes investigators in our Lipoprotein Metabolism Laboratory , is actively engaged in the study of ...

  10. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalanen, Laura; Prättälä, Ritva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2012-10-26

    Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992-2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key foods influencing serum cholesterol levels

  11. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672), and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437), were used. The analyses included two phases. 1) To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2) Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007), whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28) adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15) and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15) had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically neighbouring areas, the key

  12. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paalanen Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672, and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437, were used. The analyses included two phases. 1 To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2 Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007, whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28 adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15 and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15 had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically

  13. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. MATERIALS/METHODS Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group (P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. CONCLUSIONS GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti

  14. Cholesterol and fatty acid composition of longissimus thoracis from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Brahman-influenced cattle raised under savannah conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida-Mendoza, Maria; Arenas de Moreno, Lilia; Huerta-Leidenz, Nelson; Uzcátegui-Bracho, Sojan; Valero-Leal, Kutchynskaya; Romero, Sonia; Rodas-González, Argenis

    2015-08-01

    Male (n=66) water buffalo (Buffalo) and Brahman-influenced cattle (Brahman) were born, raised, weaned, fattened on grazing savannah and harvested at two different ages (19 and 24months) to compare lipid composition of the longissimus thoracis muscle. Half of the animals were castrated at seven months of age (MOA) to examine the castration effects. At 24 MOA Brahman steers showed the highest content of total lipids (Pcholesterol content for either the main or interaction effects in the age groups. Some individual fatty acids varied with the species (Pvalues in favor of Buffalo meat (Pcholesterol level, AI indicates that Buffalo meat might be beneficial from a human health standpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incremental Replacement of Saturated Fats by n-3 Fatty Acids in High-Fat, High-Cholesterol Diets Reduces Elevated Plasma Lipid Levels and Arterial Lipoprotein Lipase, Macrophages and Atherosclerosis in LDLR−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L.; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Methods and results Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Conclusion Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. PMID:24747115

  17. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  18. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed

  19. High fat diet modifies the association of lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism with high density lipoprotein cholesterol in an Asian Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappa, K A; Shatwan, I; Bodhini, D; Bramwell, L R; Ramya, K; Sudha, V; Anjana, R M; Lovegrove, J A; Mohan, V; Radha, V; Vimaleswaran, K S

    2017-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) have been shown to influence metabolism related to lipid phenotypes. Dietary factors have been shown to modify the association between LPL SNPs and lipids; however, to date, there are no studies in South Asians. Hence, we tested for the association of four common LPL SNPs with plasma lipids and examined the interactions between the SNPs and dietary factors on lipids in 1,845 Asian Indians. The analysis was performed in 788 Type 2 diabetes cases and 1,057 controls randomly chosen from the cross-sectional Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study. Serum triacylglycerol (TAG), serum total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured using a Hitachi-912 autoanalyzer (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). Dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The SNPs (rs1121923, rs328, rs4922115 and rs285) were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme digestion and 20% of samples were sequenced to validate the genotypes obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL) was used for statistical analysis. After correction for multiple testing and adjusting for potential confounders, SNPs rs328 and rs285 showed association with HDL-C (P = 0.0004) and serum TAG (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. The interaction between SNP rs1121923 and fat intake (energy %) on HDL-C (P = 0.003) was also significant, where, among those who consumed a high fat diet (28.4 ± 2.5%), the T allele carriers (TT + XT) had significantly higher HDL-C concentrations (P = 0.0002) and 30% reduced risk of low HDL-C levels compared to the CC homozygotes. None of the interactions on other lipid traits were statistically significant. Our findings suggest that individuals carrying T allele of the SNP rs1121923 have increased HDL-C levels when consuming a high fat diet compared

  20. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid at room temperature. A diet high in saturated fat increases cholesterol buildup in your arteries (blood vessels). Cholesterol is ...

  1. The effect of dietary fat on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of Hy-line and Warren hen eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergara, G.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the effect of dietary fat and strain on the fatty acid and cholesterol contents of eggs over a 20 month-period. Hy-line and Warren hens received three consecutive 7% lipid diets in which the basal constituents of the diet supplied 3% of the fats while the remaining 4% was composed of fats, oils or oleins added to progressively increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA levels, while decreasing dietary levels of both saturated fatty acids (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In general, the percentages of most fatty acids in egg lipids were affected by changes in dietary lipids but not by the strain. Data suggest the existence of a dietary threshold for elaidic acid to appear in eggs. Mufa decreased and total PUFA increased throughout the study. The cholesterol egg content was higher at the animal fat plus soybean oil than at the animal fat or the olein plus soybean oil blend. Overall, results showed that changes in dietary lipids influenced fatty acid composition and hence atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes much more than the strain.El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar los efectos de la grasa de la dieta de dos estirpes de ponedoras (Hy-line y Warren sobre el contenido de ácidos grasos y colesterol del huevo durante un periodo del ciclo de puesta de 20 meses. Ambas estirpes recibieron 3 dietas consecutivas que contenían 7% de lípidos de los cuales 3% provenía de los componentes basales de la dieta y 4% fue adicionado en forma de grasa, aceites u oleínas con objeto de aumentar progresivamente el contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y disminuir el contenido de los ácidos grasos saturados y monoinsaturados. El cambio de grasa en la dieta afectó al perfil de la mayoría de los ácidos grasos del huevo, sugiriéndose la existencia de un mínimo de ácido elaídico en la grasa añadida para su aparición en el huevo. El contenido de AGP se incrementó mientras que el de AGM disminuyó en el

  2. Obesity and type 2 diabetes, not a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol, negatively impacts bone outcomes in the hyperphagic Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Linden, Melissa A; Dirkes, Rebecca; Rector, R Scott; Hinton, Pamela S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) increase fracture risk; however, the association between obesity/T2D may be confounded by consumption of a diet high in fat, sucrose, and cholesterol (HFSC). The study objective was to determine the main and interactive effects of obesity/T2D and a HFSC diet on bone outcomes using hyperphagic Otuska Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and normophagic Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) controls. At 8weeks of age, male OLETF and LETO rats were randomized to either a control (CON, 10 en% from fat as soybean oil) or HFSC (45 en% from fat as soybean oil/lard, 17 en% sucrose, and 1wt%) diet, resulting in four treatment groups. At 32weeks, total body bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, followed by euthanasia and collection of blood and tibiae. Bone turnover markers and sclerostin were measured using ELISA. Trabecular microarchitecture of the proximal tibia and geometry of the tibia mid-diaphysis were measured using microcomputed tomography; whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties were evaluated using torsional loading of the tibia. Two-factor ANOVA was used to determine main and interactive effects of diet (CON vs. HFSC) and obesity/T2D (OLETF vs. LETO) on bone outcomes. Hyperphagic OLEFT rats had greater final body mass, body fat, and fasting glucose than normophagic LETO, with no effect of diet. Total body BMC and serum markers of bone formation were decreased, and bone resorption and sclerostin were increased in obese/T2D OLETF rats. Trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture were adversely affected by obesity/T2D, but not diet. Whole-bone and tissue-level biomechanical properties of the tibia were not affected by obesity/T2D; the HFSC diet improved biomechanical properties only in LETO rats. Obesity/T2D, regardless of diet, negatively impacted the balance between bone formation and resorption and trabecular bone volume and

  3. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P postprandial period, an overall decrease in large artery elasticity was found after cocoa consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886989. PMID:26338890

  4. Hypolipidemic and Antioxidative Effects of Aqueous Enzymatic Extract from Rice Bran in Rats Fed a High-Fat and -Cholesterol Diet

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    Yu-Xin Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. Methods: The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC. Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl were determined. Result: AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD. The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC (p < 0.05. Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. Conclusions: The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  5. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  6. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 Whether you’ve just ... Quiz This content was last reviewed April 2017. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  7. Chymase inhibitor prevents the development and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet

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    Yuta Miyaoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the chymase inhibitor TY-51469 on the development and progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH was evaluated in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC diet. To evaluate the preventive effect of TY-51469 on the development of NASH, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat 5 (SHRSP5/Dmcr rats were fed either a normal or HFC diet for 8 weeks, and concurrently administered either placebo or TY-51469 (1 mg/kg per day. To evaluate the effect of TY-51469 on the survival rate, TY-51469 was administered either concurrently with HFC diet (pretreated group or 8 weeks after HFC diet at which point NASH had developed (posttreated group. Eight weeks after HFC diet, significant increases of steatosis, fibrosis and chymase-positive cells were observed in liver from the placebo-treated rats. Significant increases of myeloperoxidase, transforming growth factor-β, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and collagen I mRNA levels were also observed. However, all parameters were significantly attenuated in the TY-51469-treated group. A survival rate of the placebo-treated group fed the HFC diet was 0% at 14 weeks. In comparison, the rates of TY-51469-pretreated and TY-51469-posttreated groups were 100% and 50% at 14 weeks, respectively. Chymase inhibitor may be applicable to preventing the development and progression of NASH.

  8. Effect of fat replacement by olive oil on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and tocopherol content of pâté

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    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of olive oil when used as back fat replacers on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acids, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content of p.t.. The replacement of back fat by olive oil at 50 and 100% did not affect the moisture, fat or protein contents, while it increased yellowness. According to texture parameters, reformulated p.t. presented lower values for hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness. The use of olive oil significantly (P Este estudio se realizó para investigar el efecto del aceite de oliva como substituto de grasa dorsal sobre las propiedades físico-químicas, ácidos grasos y contenido en colesterol y α-tocoferol de pâté. La substitución de la grasa dorsal por aceite de oliva al 50% y al 100% no afectó al contenido de humedad, grasa y proteína, mientras que incrementó la intensidad de color amarillo. Con respecto a los parámetros de textura, el pâté reformulado presentó una menor dureza, cohesividad, gomosidad y masticabilidad. El uso de aceite de oliva también afectó significativamente al perfil de los ácidos grasos. El contenido de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados incrementó, mientras que el contenido de ácidos grasos saturados y poliinsaturados disminuyó a medida que la grasa dorsal fue reemplazada por aceite de oliva. El reemplazo de la grasa de cerdo mejoró todos los índices nutricionales, disminuyendo los índices aterogénico y trombogénico mientras que aumento el ratio h/H. A su vez, el contenido en α-tocoferol incrementó y la cantidad de colesterol disminuyó con la adición de aceite de oliva. Por tanto, el uso de aceite de oliva nos proporciona un pâté con altos niveles de C18:1n9c y ácidos grasos monoinsaturados, antioxidantes naturales como α-tocoferol y una menor cantidad de colesterol. Como conclusión general, el reemplazo de grasa por aceite de oliva nos permite obtener un producto más saludable.

  9. Influence of thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Chen, C; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary treatments in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement. The main factors were lipid source (n = 4; corn oil [CN], canola oil [CA], poultry fat [PF], and tallow [TL]) and lipid peroxidation level (n = 3; original lipids [OL], slow oxidation [SO] through heating at 95°C for 72 h, or rapid oxidation [RO] through heating at 185°C for 7 h). Pigs were provided ad libitum access to diets in group pens for 28 d followed by controlled feed intake in metabolism crates for 10 d. On d 39, all pigs were euthanized for liver samples to determine liver weight, lipid profile, and gene expression patterns. Lipid oxidation analysis indicated that compared with the OL, SO and RO of lipids had a markedly increased concentrations of primary and secondary peroxidation products, and the increased lipid peroxidation products in CN and CA were greater than those in PF and TL. After a 28-d ad libitum feeding period, pigs fed RO lipids tended to have reduced ADFI (P = 0.09) and ADG (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed OL, and pigs fed CA had reduced G:F (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed all other lipids. Pigs fed RO lipids tended to have increased relative liver weight (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed OL. Liver triglyceride concentration (LTG) in pigs fed OL was greater (P < 0.05) than in pigs fed SO lipids and tended to be greater (P < 0.07) than in pigs fed SO. The reduced LTG were consistent with increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of PPARα factor target genes (acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA synthase) in pigs fed SO and RO lipids compared with pigs fed OL. Pigs fed CN or CA tended to have increased LTG (P = 0.09) compared with pigs fed

  10. Effect of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae on serum cholesterol, triacylglycerides and glucose in Wistar rats fed a diet supplemented with fat and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciele Przygodda

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae, is a species native to the subtropical and temperate regions of South America, used in beverages prepared by infusion such as teas, chimarrão and tererê. To investigate the physiological effects of I. paraguariensis on the metabolism of fats and sugars in Wistar rats, following the ingestion of erva-mate tea, four experimental groups were constructed: Lipid Control Group (receiving water and high-fat diet; Lipid Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-fat diet; the Sugar Control Group (water and high-sugar diet; and Sugar Tea Group (extract of I. paraguariensis and high-sugar diet. The animals received their particular diet for 60 days, and were weighed weekly. After this period, the plasma concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and triacylglycerides were determined, together with the weight of visceral fat. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. The results show that the ingestion of erva-mate affected body weight, visceral fat and plasma glucose, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels.

  11. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( IMF with abdominal fat and backfat depth of 0.65 and 0.83, respectively; IMF with abdominal fat and backfat depth, respectively; > 0.05), indicating that it is feasible to reduce subcutaneous and abdominal fat without compromising IMF and meat quality.

  12. Protect Your Heart: Choose Healthy Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by eating less trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol. Sources of saturated fat • bacon and bacon grease • high-fat dairy products, • butter such as cheese, cream, • chitterlings ice cream, whole milk, 2% milk, ...

  13. Cholesterol Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesteroltest.html Cholesterol Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  14. Niacin to Boost Your HDL "Good" Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niacin can boost 'good' cholesterol Niacin is a B vitamin that may raise your HDL ("good") cholesterol. But side effects might outweigh benefits for most ... been used to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol — the "good" cholesterol that helps remove low-density ...

  15. Effect of modified dairy fat on postprandial and fasting plasma lipids and lipoproteins in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandström, B.; Hermansen, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid profile of milk fat can be modified by cow feeding strategies. Our aim was postprandially and after 4 wk to compare the effect of a modified milk fat(M diet) [with 16% of the cholesterolemic saturated fatty acid (C12-16) replaced by mainly oleic and stearic acids] with the effect of D...... diet, including aconventional Danish milk fat on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. A side effect of the cow feeding regime was a 5% (w/w) increase in trans fatty acid in M diet.Eighteen subjects were fed for two periods of 4 wk strictly controlled isoenergetic test diets with 40% of energy from total fat...... diet than M diet (interaction effect, diet x timesP cholesterol compared to D diet. Thus any cholesterol-lowering effect of oleic and stearic acids may havebeen obscured by the high content of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids in milk fat...

  16. What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your blood. How can I control my cholesterol? • Cut down on foods high in saturated and trans fats. These include fatty meats, organ meats such as liver, shellfish, cheese, whole-milk dairy products, and solid fats such ...

  17. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower-fat ingredients. “Low-fat and fat-free yogurt and milk still contain the important proteins and minerals found in the full-fat versions, but you’re getting less saturated fat and cholesterol,” McDowell says. “In some recipes, you can use ...

  18. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey-Leei Ling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, P<0.05 and negatively to glucose and insulin (r = -0.821 and -0.892 respectively, P<0.05. Eight weeks after the operation, the lipectomized animals revealed significant higher body and liver weights, weight gain, liver to body weight ratio, hepatic triacylglycerol and serum insulin level. CONCLUSIONS: In response to lipectomy a short term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These

  19. Feedback modulation of cholesterol metabolism by the lipid-responsive non-coding RNA LeXis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Tamer; Jones, Marius C; Gilliland, Thomas; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiaohui; Eskin, Ascia; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Casero, David; Vallim, Thomas Q de Aguiar; Hong, Cynthia; Katz, Melanie; Lee, Richard; Whitelegge, Julian; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-06-02

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cellular and systemic cholesterol homeostasis. Under conditions of excess cholesterol, LXR activation induces the expression of several genes involved in cholesterol efflux, facilitates cholesterol esterification by promoting fatty acid synthesis, and inhibits cholesterol uptake by the low-density lipoprotein receptor. The fact that sterol content is maintained in a narrow range in most cell types and in the organism as a whole suggests that extensive crosstalk between regulatory pathways must exist. However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate LXRs with other lipid metabolic pathways are incompletely understood. Here we show that ligand activation of LXRs in mouse liver not only promotes cholesterol efflux, but also simultaneously inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis. We further identify the long non-coding RNA LeXis as a mediator of this effect. Hepatic LeXis expression is robustly induced in response to a Western diet (high in fat and cholesterol) or to pharmacological LXR activation. Raising or lowering LeXis levels in the liver affects the expression of genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and alters the cholesterol levels in the liver and plasma. LeXis interacts with and affects the DNA interactions of RALY, a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein that acts as a transcriptional cofactor for cholesterol biosynthetic genes in the mouse liver. These findings outline a regulatory role for a non-coding RNA in lipid metabolism and advance our understanding of the mechanisms that coordinate sterol homeostasis.

  20. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia accelerating renal injury: a novel model of type 1 diabetic hamsters induced by short-term high-fat / high-cholesterol diet and low-dose streptozotocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Fu, Xin; Huang, Mingshu; Li, Rui

    2015-04-11

    Hyperlipidemia is thought to be a major risk factor for the progression of renal diseases in diabetes. Recent studies have shown that lipid profiles are commonly abnormal early on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with diabetic nephropathy. However, the early effects of triglyceride and cholesterol abnormalities on renal injury in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are not fully understood and require reliable animal models for exploration of the underlying mechanisms. Hamster models are important tools for studying lipid metabolism because of their similarity to humans in terms of lipid utilization and high susceptibility to dietary cholesterol and fat. Twenty-four male Golden Syrian hamsters (100-110 g) were rendered diabetes by intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin (STZ) on consecutive 3 days at dose of 30 mg/kg, Ten days after STZ injections, hamsters with a plasma Glu concentration more than 12 mmol/L were selected as insulin deficient ones and divided into four groups (D-C, D-HF, D-HC, and D-HFHC), and fed with commercially available standard rodent chow, high-fat diet, high-cholesterol diet, high-fat and cholesterol diet respectively, for a period of four weeks. After an induction phase, a stable model of renal injury was established with the aspects of early T1DM kidney disease, These aspects were severe hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, proteinuria with mesangial matrix accumulation, upgraded creatinine clearance, significant cholesterol and triglyceride deposition, and increasing glomerular surface area, thickness of basement membrane and mesangial expansion. The mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, transforming growth factors-β, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the D-HFHC group were significantly up-regulated compared with control groups. This study presents a novel, non-transgenic, non-surgical method for induction of renal injury in hamsters, which is an important

  1. Cholesterol-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in a low-income, urban patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, D J; Simons-Morton, D G; Ho, K; Dunn, J K; Rubovits, D S

    1993-01-01

    To determine knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and self-reported cholesterol measurement in a low-income, urban patient population, we conducted an interview survey of users and potential users of primary care services in a public health care system for low-income Harris County, Texas, residents. The response rate was 93%, with a final sample of 547 randomly selected subjects 18 years of age and older, who were Hispanic (54%), black (28%), non-Hispanic white (14%), and Asian, Native American, or other (4%). Results indicated that 76% had heard of serum or blood cholesterol, and 30% reported past cholesterol measurement. Knowledge that dietary saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol ranged from 11% in Hispanic men to 51% in non-Hispanic white men and women. A lower percentage of Hispanics correctly answered all knowledge questions, and Hispanics reported higher-fat food choices than blacks and non-Hispanic whites. More than 90% of the respondents expressed interest in more information on diet, 60% reported that they read nutrition labels, and 15% said they have been trying to reduce blood cholesterol levels. A lower percentage of Hispanics reported previous cholesterol measurement than blacks or non-Hispanic whites, a difference that persisted after adjusting for multiple factors associated with cholesterol measurement. Older age (older than 50) and more physician visits in the past year also were associated with past cholesterol measurement. Comparisons with national surveys show that cholesterol knowledge and actual measurement in this low-income sample lag behind those of the national population. Yet, despite gaps in knowledge and cholesterol measurement, respondents showed positive attitudes about and interest in cholesterol-lowering interventions.

  2. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy fats are a vital part of a child’s diet, and they should not be excessively limited or banned. For young kids, especially, fat and cholesterol play important roles in brain development. And for those under 2 years old, fat ...

  3. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  4. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy modifies cholesterol synthesis but not cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuono, S; Ricci, M A; Siepi, D; Boni, M; Gentili, A; Scavizzi, M; Daviddi, G; Labate, P; Roscini, A R; Lupattelli, G

    Each bariatric surgery procedure impacts differently on cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Although a restrictive procedure, sleeve gastrectomy resolves diabetes mellitus and, like mixed-type procedures, induces early changes in gastrointestinal hormones. To our knowledge the present study is the first to assess the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on cholesterol synthesis and absorption. 42 consecutive subjects with obesity and sleeve gastrectomy candidates were included in the study together with a control group of 20 subjects without obesity. Before sleeve gastrectomy and 10 months afterwards, all subjects underwent a clinical examination, blood tests, ultrasound visceral fat area estimation and determination of plasma lathosterol, campesterol and sitosterol concentrations. After sleeve gastrectomy, significant decreases were observed in BMI, waist circumference, visceral and subcutaneous fat, blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin and glucose levels, lathosterol and HOMA-IR. HDL-C and apolipoprotein AI levels increased significantly. No significant differences emerged in LDL-C, apolipoprotein B levels or cholesterol absorption markers. Lathosterol levels correlated significantly with BMI, visceral fat area and HOMA-IR. Differences in cholesterol intake after surgery were not significantly associated with differences in lathosterol, campesterol and sitosterol concentrations. Sleeve gastrectomy reduced the markers of cholesterol synthesis but did not modify cholesterol absorption. Changes in cholesterol synthesis and absorption were independent of variations in cholesterol intake, suggesting a specific sleeve gastrectomy-related effect. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  6. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  7. Dietary fiber prevents obesity-related liver lipotoxicity by modulating sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shufen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jiaying; Wan, Zhongxiao; Zhang, Weiguo; Gao, Xiaoran; Qin, Liqiang

    2015-10-29

    Adequate intake of dietary fibers has proven metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, molecular mechanisms remain still limited. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on obesity-related liver lipotoxicity in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet and underlying mechanism. Forty-eight adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly given a reference chow diet, or a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet supplemented with or without oat fiber or wheat bran fiber for 24 weeks. Our results showed mice fed oat or wheat bran fiber exhibited lower weight gain, lipid profiles and insulin resistance, compared with HFC diet. The two cereal dietary fibers potently decreased protein expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and key factors involved in lipogenesis, including fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in target tissues. At molecular level, the two cereal dietary fibers augmented protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma, liver X receptor alpha, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in target tissues. Our findings indicated that cereal dietary fiber supplementation abrogated obesity-related liver lipotoxicity and dyslipidemia in C57BL/6J mice fed a HFC diet. In addition, the efficacy of oat fiber is greater than wheat bran fiber in normalizing these metabolic disorders and pathological profiles.

  8. Trans fats: What physicians should know

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, V

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogenation of fat products is used in the food industry to extend their shelf life. Trans fats are the result of partial hydrogenation of unsaturated fat. Trans fats increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Canadians have one of the highest dietary intake of trans fat in the world. Health Canada has made recommendations to decrease the trans fat intake of Canadians. Physicians should ...

  9. Cholesterol and lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperlipidemia - cholesterol and lifestyle; CAD - cholesterol and lifestyle; Coronary artery disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Heart disease - cholesterol and lifestyle; Prevention - cholesterol and lifestyle; ...

  10. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B golden syrian hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat typ...

  11. Fecal Fat: The Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... 150 grams of fat a day in your diet for 2-3 days prior to and during ...

  12. Receita tradicional russa adaptada para dietas com restrição de sódio, gordura saturada e colesterol Traditional russian recipe adapted for diets with restrictions on sodium, saturated fat and cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Urrestarazu Devincenzi

    1998-06-01

    cholesterol and saturated fat. Individuals with a diets restricted on sodium, cholesterol and saturated fat should not consume meat strogonoff, a traditional russian preparation usually eaten by the population, as it includes butter, salt and cream. In order to provide this preparation with adequate nutrients, this study evaluated adaptations such as the substitution of cream by skimmed milk and starch, butter by vegetable oil and salt by spices. In the modified recipe there is a reduction in calories, lipids, cholesterol, sodium and saturated fat, and an increase in the levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This preparation was analyzed by sensory evaluation, using hedonic scale method, and it was accepted by 78% of the tasters and identified as strogonoff by more than 90% of them. These results showed that it is possible to make changes in recipes with success, attending to some specific diets.

  13. Method for artificially raising mule deer fawns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Eighteen captive Rocky Mountain mule deer fawns (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), nine hand-raised and nine dam-raised, were used to evaluate an artificial rearing procedure. Hand-raised fawns were fed whole cow's milk supplemented with a daily addition of pediatric vitamins. Feeding intervals and quantities fed increased with increasing age of fawns. Blood values, body weight and mortality were used to determine nutritional and physiological status of fawns. Dam-raised fawns had significantly higher (P < 0.05) hemoglobin, hematocrit, total protein and cholesterol levels than hand-raised fawns. Mean body weight and growth rate were also significantly higher (P < 0.001) in dam-raised fawns. High mortality, 67%, occurred in dam-raised fawns as compared to 33% in hand-raised fawns. Resultant tameness in hand-raised fawns facilitated treatment of disease and handling of animals in experimental situations.

  14. Exogenous supplementation of carbohydrases lowers serum insulin and cholesterol and improves the nutritive value of full-fat rapeseed in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Ptak, A; Kaczmarek, S

    2011-01-01

    Two 42-d floor pen studies of identical design were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of enzyme supplementation of broiler diets containing full-fat double zero rapeseed. In both trials, 300 1-d-old Ross 308 males were allocated randomly to two dietary treatments with 15 replicates (10 birds per...... replicate). The birds received two isonutritive diets, pelleted at 78 degrees C. Diets were either not supplemented or supplemented with a commercial enzyme blend providing xylanase and beta-glucanase. In general, in both trials the supplementation of carbohydrase improved bird performance, however, only...... glucose was observed. No significant effect of the enzymes on the ileal digestibility of nutrients or on apparent ileal metabolizable energy was found; however, total :tract fat digestibility and AMEn value tended to be higher following enzyme supplementation. (78.2 vs 73.8% and 12.6 vs 12.4 MJ/kg)....

  15. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is ...

  16. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol - high; Lipid disorders; Hyperlipoproteinemia; Hyperlipidemia; Dyslipidemia; Hypercholesterolemia ... There are many types of cholesterol. The ones talked about most are: ... lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol -- often called "good" cholesterol ...

  17. Characterization and quantification of the cholesterol oxidation product fraction of the intramuscular fat from pork loin (fresh and marinated with different irradiation and packaging during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Márquez, I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of E-beam (1 and 2 kGy on the cholesterol oxidation product (COP composition of fresh and marinated pork loin stored at 4 and 8 °C under different atmospheres (air, vacuum and carbon dioxide enriched has been carried out for the first time. The combined statistical treatment of the distinct variables showed that minor differences were found in some cholesterol oxidation products of fresh loin due to storage temperature, packaging method and storage time. No effect of irradiation (up to 2 KGy on the COP amount was found, concluding that E-beam can be a useful tool to extend the shelf-life of fresh and marinated loin without changes in the COP fraction.Se ha realizado un estudio sobre el efecto de la radiación de electrones (E-beam (1 y 2 kGy sobre los compuestos de oxidación del colesterol (COPs del lomo de cerdo almacenado a 4 y 8 °C bajo diferentes atmósferas (aire, vacío y dióxido de carbono. Este tipo de estudio ha sido llevado a cabo por primera vez en este tipo de muestras. El tratamiento estadístico combinado de distintas variables muestra que se producen cambios menores en algunos COPs en el lomo fresco debido a la temperatura de almacenamiento al método de empaquetado y al tiempo de almacenamiento. No hubo efecto de la dosis de radiación (hasta 2 KGy en los COPs, por lo que la radiación E-beam puede ser una herramienta útil para prolongar la vida útil del lomo fresco y adobado sin producir cambios en la composición de los COPs.

  18. Examining confounding by diet in the association between perfluoroalkyl acids and serum cholesterol in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, Margret; Ramel, Alfons; Rytter, Dorte; Haug, Line Småstuen; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2015-11-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have consistently been associated with higher cholesterol levels in cross sectional studies. Concerns have, however, been raised about potential confounding by diet and clinical relevance. To examine the association between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA and total cholesterol in serum during pregnancy taking into considerations confounding by diet. 854 Danish women who gave birth in 1988-89 and provided a blood sample and reported their diet in week 30 of gestation. Mean serum PFOS, PFOA and total cholesterol concentrations were 22.3 ng/mL, 4.1 ng/mL and 7.3 mmol/L, respectively. Maternal diet was a significant predictor of serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations. In particular intake of meat and meat products was positively associated while intake of vegetables was inversely associated (P for trend values. After adjustment for dietary factors both PFOA and PFOS were positively and similarly associated with serum cholesterol (P for trend ≤0.01). For example, the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.39 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.09, 0.68) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of PFOA concentrations. In comparison the mean increase in serum cholesterol was 0.61 mmol/L (95%CI: 0.17, 1.05) when comparing women in the highest to lowest quintile of saturated fat intake. In this study associations between PFOS and PFOA with serum cholesterol appeared unrelated to dietary intake and were similar in magnitude as the associations between saturated fat intake and serum cholesterol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of hesperetin and its metabolites for cholesterol-lowering and antioxidative efficacy in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2010-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the hypolipidemic and antioxidant efficacy of hesperetin and its metabolites in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. The hamsters were fed a high-fat (10% coconut oil and 0.2% cholesterol, wt/wt) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with hesperetin (0.02%) or hesperetin metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (DHPP) (0.012%) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid) (0.013%), for 12 weeks. Dietary DHPP and ferulic acid were found to have significantly decreased the levels of the plasma total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, hepatic lipids, and cholesterol-regulating enzymes compared to the control group. In particular, ferulic acid was more potent with respect to raising HDL-C/total cholesterol ratio and paraoxonase levels while decreasing atherogenic index values. Hesperetin and its metabolites seemed to enhance antioxidant capacity by lowering the hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxide (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates) levels. Among the hesperetin metabolites tested, the relative potency of ferulic acid for reducing the risks of atherosclerosis in hamsters was found to be greater.

  20. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:Feb 19,2018 Cholesterol isn’t just something that sits in your body like fat around your waist. It’s carried through your bloodstream ...

  1. Beneficial effects of TQRF and TQ nano- and conventional emulsions on memory deficit, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble Aβ levels in high fat-cholesterol diet-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus Abu; Yida, Zhang; Stanslas, Johnson; Sani, Dahiru; Basri, Hamidon; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2017-09-25

    The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE). The TQRF and TQ conventional emulsions (CE), named as TQRFCE and TQCE, respectively were studied for comparison. Statin (simvastatin) and non-statin (probucol) cholesterol-lowering agents, and a mild-to-severe Alzheimer's disease drug (donepezil) were served as control drugs. The Sprague Dawley rats were fed with HFCD for 6 months, and treated with the intervention groups via oral gavage daily for the last 3 months. As a result, HFCD-fed rats exhibited hypercholesterolaemia, accompanied by memory deficit, increment of lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels, decrement of total antioxidant status and down-regulation of antioxidants genes expression levels. TQRFNE demonstrated comparable effects to the other intervention groups and control drugs in serum biomarkers as well as in the learning and memory test. Somehow, TQRFNE was more prominent than those intervention groups and control drugs in brain biomarkers concomitant to gene and protein expression levels. Supplementation of TQRFNE into an HFCD thus could ameliorate memory deficit, lipid peroxidation and soluble Aβ levels as well as improving the total antioxidant status and antioxidants genes expression levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High Fat High Cholesterol Diet (Western Diet Aggravates Atherosclerosis, Hyperglycemia and Renal Failure in Nephrectomized LDL Receptor Knockout Mice: Role of Intestine Derived Lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha S Ghosh

    Full Text Available A high fat meal, frequently known as western diet (WD, exacerbates atherosclerosis and diabetes. Both these diseases are frequently associated with renal failure. Recent studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS leaks into the circulation from the intestine in the setting of renal failure and after WD. However, it is not clear how renal function and associated disorders are affected by LPS. This study demonstrates that circulatory LPS exacerbates renal insufficiency, atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance. Renal insufficiency was induced by 2/3 nephrectomy in LDL receptor knockout mice. Nx animals were given normal diet (Nx or WD (Nx+WD. The controls were sham operated animals on normal diet (control and WD (WD. To verify if LPS plays a role in exaggerating renal insufficiency, polymyxin (PM, a known LPS antagonist, and curcumin (CU, a compound known to ameliorate chronic kidney disease (CKD, was given to Nx animals on western diet (Nx+WD+PM and Nx+WD+CU, respectively. Compared to control, all other groups displayed increased circulatory LPS. The Nx+WD cohort had the highest levels of LPS. Nx group had significant renal insufficiency and glucose intolerance but not atherosclerosis. WD had intense atherosclerosis and glucose intolerance but it did not show signs of renal insufficiency. Compared to other groups, Nx+WD had significantly higher cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration in the kidney, renal insufficiency, glucose intolerance and atherosclerosis. PM treatment blunted the expression of cytokines, deterioration of renal function and associated disorders, albeit not to the levels of Nx, and was significantly inferior to CU. PM is a non-absorbable antibiotic with LPS binding properties, hence its beneficial effect can only be due to its effect within the GI tract. We conclude that LPS may not cause renal insufficiency but can exaggerate kidney failure and associated disorders following renal insufficiency.

  3. Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements: Lower Your Numbers without Prescription Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat protein sources May reduce LDL None Whey protein May reduce total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides May cause nausea, constipation, diarrhea or gas Another popular cholesterol-lowering supplement is red yeast rice. There is some evidence that red yeast rice ...

  4. Effect of Two Isocaloric Diets, Low Fat- High Calcium and Low Fat- High Fiber on Weight Reduction, Lipid Profile, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Eftekhari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary Heart Disease is commonly associated with obesity, raised serum lipid levels and changes in blood pressure. The present study was designed to assess the effect of low fat- high calcium, and low fat- high fiber diets on weight reduction, lipid profile and blood pressure.Methods: The study sample consisted of 136 referred patients adult, obese men aged 53-64 years. Samples randomly were subdivided in two groups. Group 1 was advised 1600 calories, 20% fat, 1600 mg calcium rich diet and group 2 followed similar diet as for group 1 except a total daily intake of 55g fiber and 900 mg calcium per day for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDLcholesterol and TG. Anthropometric assessments included measurement of weight, height, and waist circumferences followed by calculating Body mass index. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by using sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with parametric and non-parametric methods as appropriate.Results: Data analysis revealed a significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and TG in two groups, without any significant changes in HDL-cholesterol. Weight and blood pressure decreased in two groups, but the rate of reduction in blood pressure, weight and waist circumference were more significant in group 1 compared to group 2.Conclusion: An increase in dietary calcium intake, together with a Low calorie, low-fat diet can increase lipolysis in fat tissues, make greater weigh loss, ameliorate blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce the risk of coronary vascular diseases.

  5. Air Force Members’ Guide for Reducing Cholesterol Ratio,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    fried foods, and luncheon meat. There are also two types of vegetable oils that contain saturated fat-- coconut oil and palm oil . These oils are often the...often used to avoid showing saturated fats like coconut or palm oil . 4 .. .. .. . .. * * - . Monounsaturated fats are not as effective as...polyunsaturated fats, but they can help to lower your blood cholesterol level. This fat is found in olive and peanut oils , and most nuts. While both

  6. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Jul 5,2017 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  7. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Cholesterol Also known as Hypercholesterolemia High blood cholesterol is ... Lipid panel tests to check for healthy blood cholesterol levels Doctors use lipid panels to check whether ...

  8. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol Print A A A ... español El colesterol y su hijo What Is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy substance made by the ...

  9. The Canadian experience: why Canada decided against an upper limit for cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce E

    2004-12-01

    Canada, like the United States, held a "consensus conference on cholesterol" in 1988. Although the final report of the consensus panel recommended that total dietary fat not exceed 30 percent and saturated fat not exceed 10 percent of total energy intake, it did not specify an upper limit for dietary cholesterol. Similarly, the 1990, Health Canada publication "Nutrition Recommendations: The Report of the Scientific Review Committee" specified upper limits for total and saturated fat in the diet but did not specify an upper limit for cholesterol. Canada's Guidelines for Healthy Eating, a companion publication from Health Canada, suggested that Canadians "choose low-fat dairy products, lean meats, and foods prepared with little or no fat" while enjoying "a variety of foods." Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. Hence, Canadian health authorities focused on reducing saturated fat and trans fats in the Canadian diet to help lower blood cholesterol levels rather than focusing on limiting dietary cholesterol. In an effort to allay consumer concern with the premise that blood cholesterol level is linked to dietary cholesterol, organizations such as the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) reminded health professionals, including registered dietitians, family physicians and nutrition educators, of the extensive data showing that there is little relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, it was pointed out that for most healthy individuals, endogenous synthesis of cholesterol by the liver adjusts to the level of dietary cholesterol intake. Educating health professionals about the relatively weak association between dietary cholesterol and the relatively strong association between serum cholesterol and saturated fat and

  10. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  11. Effects of psyllium on plasma total and lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol in hamsters fed n-3 PUFA or n-6 PUFA with high cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Young-Chau; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Lin, Mei-Huei

    2004-01-01

    psyllium. Liver total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in n-3 PUFA-fed hamsters compared with the n-6 PUFA-fed groups. Therefore, these data may contribute to understanding the interactive effect of psyllium and cholesterol or the type of fat on plasma and liver cholesterol in hamsters. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The relationship between dietary factors and serum cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-07-21

    Jul 21, 1990 ... Multiple linear regression analysis on TC levels of men identified six variables that explained 26,9% of the variation of. TC. These were body mass index, age, the inverse of the polyunsaturated fat intake, saturated fat intake, poly- unsaturated/saturated fat ratio and cholesterol intake. For women only three ...

  13. Dietary cholesterol exacerbates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in obese LDL receptor-deficient mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Subramanian, Savitha; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Kim, Jinkyu; Zeng, Lixia; Ioannou, George N; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V; O'Brien, Kevin D; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Chait, Alan

    2011-01-01

    ...-/-) mice fed a diabetogenic diet are worsened by dietary cholesterol. To test whether dietary cholesterol can alter the hepatic phenotype in the metabolic syndrome, we fed LDLR-/- mice a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diabetogenic diet (DD...

  14. Effects of dietary fish oil and flax seed on cholesterol and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ŁULE

    Corresponding ... composition of fats consumed, are more important than the amount of dietary cholesterol consumed. (Leskanich ... different omega-3 fatty acids sources in diets on the cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg yolk and. The South ...

  15. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuMweis, Suhad S; Jones, Peter J H

    2008-12-01

    Plant sterols are plant components that have a chemical structure similar to cholesterol except for the addition of an extra methyl or ethyl group; however, plant sterol absorption in humans is considerably less than that of cholesterol. In fact, plant sterols reduce cholesterol absorption and thus reduce circulating levels of cholesterol. Earlier studies that have tested the efficacy of plant sterols as cholesterol-lowering agents incorporated plant sterols into fat spreads. Later on, plant sterols were added to other food matrices, including juices, nonfat beverages, milk and yogurt, cheese, meat, croissants and muffins, and cereal and chocolate bars. The beneficial physiologic effects of plant sterols could be further enhanced by combining them with other beneficial substances, such as olive and fish oils, fibers, and soy proteins, or with exercise. The addition of plant sterols to the diet is suggested by health experts as a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.

  16. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Nov 16,2017 If you have high ... for a heart or stroke event? Find out . Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  17. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Find ... about high cholesterol in the United States. High Cholesterol in the United States In 2011–2012, 78 ...

  18. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  19. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  20. Rosuvastatin activates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent efflux ex vivo and promotes reverse cholesterol transport in macrophage cells in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Tanigawa, Hiroyuki; Kuwano, Takashi; Zhang, Bo; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2014-10-01

    It is controversial whether statins improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function, which plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on reverse cholesterol transport in macrophage cells in vivo and their underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL mice were divided into 3 groups (rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and control groups) and orally administered rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, or placebo for 6 weeks under feeding with a 0.5% cholesterol+10% coconut oil diet. After administration, although there were no changes in plasma HDL cholesterol levels among the groups, plasma from the rosuvastatin group showed an increased ability to promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux ex vivo. In addition, capillary electrophoresis revealed a shift in HDL toward the pre-β HDL fraction only in the rosuvastatin group. Mice in all 3 groups were intraperitoneally injected with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled and cholesterol-loaded macrophages and then were monitored for the appearance of (3)H-tracer in plasma and feces. The amount of (3)H-tracer excreted into feces during 48 hours in the rosuvastatin group was greater than that in the control group. Finally, (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-HDL was intravenously injected into all groups, blood samples were taken, and the count of (3)H-cholesterol was analyzed. Plasma (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-HDL changed similarly, and no differences in fractional catabolic rates were observed. Rosuvastatin enhanced the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent HDL efflux function of reverse cholesterol transport, and this finding highlights the potential of rosuvastatin for the regression of atherosclerosis. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Cholesterol vehicle in experimental atherosclerosis 24: avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritchevsky, David; Tepper, Shirley A; Wright, Scott; Czarnecki, Susanne K; Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2003-02-01

    To determine atherogenicity of avocado oil relative to saturated (coconut oil), monounsaturated (olive oil) and polyunsaturated (corn oil) fats. New Zealand White rabbits were fed a semipurified diet containing 0.2% cholesterol and 14% fat for 90 days. They were then necropsied and severity of atherosclerosis was determined visually. Coconut oil was the most atherogenic fat. Corn oil was only slightly less atherogenic than either olive or avocado oils. Percentage of serum HDL cholesterol was highest in the rabbits fed the two monounsaturated fats. Avocado oil is of the same order of atherogenicity as corn oil and olive oil.

  2. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia-results; Lipid disorder test results; Heart disease - cholesterol results

  3. Thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE) decreases Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels by modulating APP processing, up-regulating IDE and LRP1, and down-regulating BACE1 and RAGE in response to high fat/cholesterol diet-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bakar, Muhammad Firdaus Abu; Yida, Zhang; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-11-01

    Though the causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are yet to be understood, much evidence has suggested that excessive amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation due to abnormal amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) processing and Aβ metabolism are crucial processes towards AD pathogenesis. Hence, approaches aiming at APP processing and Aβ metabolism are currently being actively pursued for the management of AD. Studies suggest that high cholesterol and a high fat diet have harmful effects on cognitive function and may instigate the commencement of AD pathogenesis. Despite the neuropharmacological attributes of black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) extracts and its main active compound, thymoquinone (TQ), limited records are available in relation to AD research. Nanoemulsion (NE) is exploited as drug delivery systems due to their capacity of solubilising non-polar active compounds and is widely examined for brain targeting. Herewith, the effects of thymoquinone-rich fraction nanoemulsion (TQRFNE), thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE) and their counterparts' conventional emulsion in response to high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced rats were investigated. Particularly, the Aβ generation; APP processing, β-secretase 1 (BACE1), γ-secretases of presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2), Aβ degradation; insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), Aβ transportation; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were measured in brain tissues. TQRFNE reduced the brain Aβ fragment length 1-40 and 1-42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42) levels, which would attenuate the AD pathogenesis. This reduction could be due to the modulation of β- and γ-secretase enzyme activity, and the Aβ degradation and transportation in/out of the brain. The findings show the mechanistic actions of TQRFNE in response to high fat and high cholesterol diet associated to Aβ generation, degradation and transportation in the rat's brain tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  5. Effects on cholesterol balance and LDL cholesterol in the rat of a soft-ripened cheese containing vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During, A; Combe, N; Mazette, S; Entressangles, B

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of a modified soft-ripened cheese containing vegetable oils on cholesterol status, using the rat as the experimental model and the traditional soft-ripened cheese as the control. Adult male Wistar rats (approximately 370 g) were divided into two dietary groups (20 rats/group) and fed either the standard diet (STD, containing traditional cheeses made from whole milk) or the experimental diet (EXP, containing modified cheeses made from the combination of skim milk with the following fat mixture: milk fat/oleic acid-enriched sunflower oil/soybean oil mixture). Lipids of the diets came solely from cheeses (14 g/100 g diet); the EXP diet contained (3-fold) less saturated fat, (2-fold) less cholesterol, and (15-fold) more phytosterols than the STD diet. Although serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations were not affected by the type of diet, the EXP diet resulted in a significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol (31%, p cholesterol (11%, p cholesterol ratio was observed in the EXP group (p cholesterol and total neutral sterols (for which phytosterols were excluded) were significantly higher by 183% and 174%, respectively for the EXP group, compared to the STD group (p cholesterol than they ingested dietary cholesterol (cholesterol balance > 1), indicating that those animals eliminated some endogenous cholesterol in their feces, while the opposite was true for rats fed the STD diet (cholesterol balance cheese resulted in a decreased blood LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and an increased fecal excretion of endogenous cholesterol and neutral sterols and, thus, markedly improved its nutritional qualities. Therefore, the consumption of the described modified cheese may meet the demand of subjects who wish to lower their risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Raising the bar (5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Yu, J.

    Raising the bar (5). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in this issue 12(1) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper examines the impact of the level of education on the decision to

  7. Immuno-histochemical localization of cholesterol binding proteins in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In treatments, dietary cholesterol was found to be internalized bound to complexed with CBPs before absorption. Further, same protein was also localized in other tissues like fat body, testis, and ovary of male and female insects of S. gregaria. However, present study done on immuno-cytochemical localization of cholesterol ...

  8. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... polyunsaturated fat; Heart disease - polyunsaturated fat; Peripheral artery disease - polyunsaturated fat; PAD - polyunsaturated fat; Stroke - polyunsaturated fat; CAD - polyunsaturated fat; Heart healthy diet - polyunsaturated fat

  9. Tissue storage and control of cholesterol metabolism in man on high cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintão, E C; Brumer, S; Stechhahn, K

    1977-03-01

    The possibility of accumulation of tissue cholesterol in human beings submitted to high cholesterol feeding was investigated in liver biopsies and through fecal sterol balance studies. Feeding to 10 individuals 3.1 to 3.4 g/day of cholesterol for 3 weeks raised the mean serum level from 293 to 349 mg/100 ml, namely 19%, whereas the liver cholesterol content was 417 mg/100 g of wet weight. In 10 control cases eating 0.1--0.4 g/day of cholesterol serum cholesterol remained stable throughout the experimental period and the liver cholesterol content was 256 mg/100 g. Difference of liver colesterol level between the two groups was 62%. In 7 patients submitted to two periods of balance investigation on a cholesterol-free synthetic formula diet respectively prior to (PI) and after (PIII) eating the high cholesterol solid food from 4 to 15 weeks (PII), fecal steroid excretion in PIII exceeded PI in 3 patients. Such data are a direct evidence for the existence of an efficient system to release acutely stored cholesterol. In one patient bile acid excretion accounted for the difference between PIII and PI.

  10. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-01-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations...

  11. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  12. High- cholesterol diet does not alter gut microbiota composition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimova, Lidiya G.; Zlatkov, Nikola; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Western diet containing both saturated fat and cholesterol impairs cardio- metabolic health partly by modulating diversity and function of the microbiota. While diet containing only high fat has comparable effects, it is unclear how diets only enriched in cholesterol impact the

  13. Dietary Fats and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Danijela Ristic-Medic

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet can have important effects on prevention and/or improvement clustering metabolic abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. Fatty acids as food ingredients regulate cholesterol homeostasis and concentrations of blood lipoproteins, and affect the levels of other cardiometabolic risk factors, such as blood pressure, haemostasis, and body weight, through various mechanisms. There is convincing evidence that exchanging dietary saturated fat with...

  14. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  15. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol levels with a blood test called a lipid profile. For the test, a nurse will take a ... blood tests that can check cholesterol, but a lipid profile gives the most information. Find out more about ...

  16. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  17. Low Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes (TLC) and medicines. TLC includes a healthy diet, weight management, and regular physical activity. What is a low cholesterol diet? Therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) includes a low cholesterol ...

  18. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the setting of Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for fats. A lower bound of the reference intake range for total fat of 20 energy % (E%) and an upper bound of 35 E% are proposed. Fat intake in infants can......; not to formulate a DRV for the intake of total cis-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); not to set specific values for the n-3/n-6 ratio; to set an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4 E% for linoleic acid (LA); not to set any DRV for arachidonic acid; not to set an UL for total or any of the n-6 PUFA; to set an AI for alpha...

  20. Raising the bar (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we summarise and comment on the papers published in issue 11.2 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper analyses which regions in Europe were resilient to the great Recession and which ones were not. The second and the

  1. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  2. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Nov 16,2017 Keeping your ... stroke. This content was last reviewed April 2017. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Atherosclerosis What Your Cholesterol ...

  3. Effect of processed oils and fats on cholesterol metabolism. III. ; Comparison of the effects of palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. Kako yushi no cholesterol taisha ni oyobosu eikyo. (3). ; Palm yu to koka daizuyu oyobi cacao abura tono eikyo no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, C.; Chimi, K.; Kanematsu, H.; Niiya, I. (Japan Institute of Oils and Fats, Other Foods Inspection, Foundation, Tokyo (Japan)); Shimura, M. (Japan Margaruibe, Shortening and Lard Industries Association, Tokyo (Japan)); Mizutani, H. (Ueda Oils and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Kobe (Japan)); Hirai, C. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Industrial Technology)

    1991-09-20

    Effects on cholesterol contained in serum lipids, levers and feces of rats and the metabolism were compared between palm oil, hardened soybean oil and cacao butter. In addition, the relations to the physical and chemical properties of these oils were also studied. In the case of cacao butter, saturated triglyceride of high fusing point was not contained at all and the main component is 2-oleo-1,3-disaturated glycerides. This component was the main cause for cacao butter to show the unique behavior. Concerning the cholesterol concentrations in lever, the hardened soybean oil group tended to be lower than other 3 groups and this tendency agreed approximately with that in serum. Cholesterol in the feces was also analyzed. Cholesteol content in the case of cacao butter was higher than those for the hardened soybean oil group and palm oil group, and much higher than that of the soybean oil group. But the lathosterol content did not show any significant difference compared with that of palm oil group, and the coprostanol content showed the lower value, which had the significant difference. 14 refs., 1 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Cholesterol, a cell size-dependent signal that regulates glucose metabolism and gene expression in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, S; Krief, S; Farnier, C; Lefrère, I; Le Liepvre, X; Bazin, R; Ferré, P; Dugail, I

    2001-05-18

    Enlarged fat cells exhibit modified metabolic capacities, which could be involved in the metabolic complications of obesity at the whole body level. We show here that sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and its target genes are induced in the adipose tissue of several models of rodent obesity, suggesting cholesterol imbalance in enlarged adipocytes. Within a particular fat pad, larger adipocytes have reduced membrane cholesterol concentrations compared with smaller fat cells, demonstrating that altered cholesterol distribution is characteristic of adipocyte hypertrophy per se. We show that treatment with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, which mimics the membrane cholesterol reduction of hypertrophied adipocytes, induces insulin resistance. We also produced cholesterol depletion by mevastatin treatment, which activates SREBP-2 and its target genes. The analysis of 40 adipocyte genes showed that the response to cholesterol depletion implicated genes involved in cholesterol traffic (caveolin 2, scavenger receptor BI, and ATP binding cassette 1 genes) but also adipocyte-derived secretion products (tumor necrosis factor alpha, angiotensinogen, and interleukin-6) and proteins involved in energy metabolism (fatty acid synthase, GLUT 4, and UCP3). These data demonstrate that altering cholesterol balance profoundly modifies adipocyte metabolism in a way resembling that seen in hypertrophied fat cells from obese rodents or humans. This is the first evidence that intracellular cholesterol might serve as a link between fat cell size and adipocyte metabolic activity.

  5. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines continue to recommend restricting intake of saturated fats. This recommendation follows largely from the observation that saturated fats can raise levels of total serum cholesterol (TC), thereby putatively increasing the risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). However, TC is only modestly associated with CHD, and more important than the total level of cholesterol in the blood may be the number and size of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles that contain it. As for saturated fats, these fats are a diverse class of compounds; different fats may have different effects on LDL and on broader CHD risk based on the specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) they contain. Importantly, though, people eat foods, not isolated fatty acids. Some food sources of SFAs may pose no risk for CHD or possibly even be protective. Advice to reduce saturated fat in the diet without regard to nuances about LDL, SFAs, or dietary sources could actually increase people's risk of CHD. When saturated fats are replaced with refined carbohydrates, and specifically with added sugars (like sucrose or high fructose corn syrup), the end result is not favorable for heart health. Such replacement leads to changes in LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides that may increase the risk of CHD. Additionally, diets high in sugar may induce many other abnormalities associated with elevated CHD risk, including elevated levels of glucose, insulin, and uric acid, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin and leptin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and altered platelet function. A diet high in added sugars has been found to cause a 3-fold increased risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, but sugars, like saturated fats, are a diverse class of compounds. The monosaccharide, fructose, and fructose-containing sweeteners (e.g., sucrose) produce greater degrees of metabolic abnormalities than does glucose (either isolated as a monomer, or in chains as starch

  6. CYP7A1 A-278C polymorphism affects the response of plasma lipids after dietary cholesterol and cafestol interventions in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.K.; Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The response of plasma lipids to dietary cholesterol and fat varies among individuals. Variations in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism can be important in these interindividual differences. The rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids is cholesterol 7-hydroxylase

  7. Effects of postprandial lipemia on plasma cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G R; Fielding, C J

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol net transport, esterification, and cholesteryl ester transfer have been determined in plasma during fasting, and postprandially, after a high fat-cholesterol meal. Significant rises in plasma triglyceride, phospholipid, and free cholesterol were associated with increases in cholesterol net transport, esterification, and transfer (all P less than 0.005), which were well correlated in individual subjects (r greater than 0.60). Essentially, the whole of free cholesterol required for such increased esterification was derived from cell membranes, when cultured fibroblasts were present, despite the increased level of free cholesterol in postprandial plasma; most of the additional cholesteryl ester generated was transferred to the low and very low density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL) of plasma. Postprandial LDL (the major carrier of free and ester cholesterol and phospholipids among the acceptor lipoproteins) contained significantly decreased ratios of free cholesterol to phospholipid (P less than 0.001), which may modulate the increased transfer of cholesteryl ester to VLDL and LDL. These data suggest that the presence of postprandial acceptor lipoproteins in plasma may play an important role in stimulating the "reverse" transport of cholesterol from peripheral cells for hepatic degradation, which is effective even after the ingestion of dietary cholesterol. PMID:3856571

  8. Zetia: Inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) to Reduce Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption and Treat Hyperlipidemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Harry R; Veltri, Enrico P

    2007-01-01

    Zetia (ezetimibe) is a selective cholesterol absorption inhibitor, which potently inhibits the absorption of biliary and dietary cholesterol from the small intestine without affecting the absorption of fat-soluble...

  9. Mitochondrial cholesterol import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia; Martin, Laura A; Karten, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    All animal subcellular membranes require cholesterol, which influences membrane fluidity and permeability, fission and fusion processes, and membrane protein function. The distribution of cholesterol among subcellular membranes is highly heterogeneous and the cholesterol content of each membrane must be carefully regulated. Compared to other subcellular membranes, mitochondrial membranes are cholesterol-poor, particularly the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). As a result, steroidogenesis can be controlled through the delivery of cholesterol to the IMM, where it is converted to pregnenolone. The low basal levels of cholesterol also make mitochondria sensitive to changes in cholesterol content, which can have a relatively large impact on the biophysical and functional characteristics of mitochondrial membranes. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in diverse pathological conditions including cancer, steatohepatitis, Alzheimer disease and Niemann-Pick Type C1-deficiency, and are associated with increased oxidative stress, impaired oxidative phosphorylation, and changes in the susceptibility to apoptosis, among other alterations in mitochondrial function. Mitochondria are not included in the vesicular trafficking network; therefore, cholesterol transport to mitochondria is mostly achieved through the activity of lipid transfer proteins at membrane contact sites or by cytosolic, diffusible lipid transfer proteins. Here we will give an overview of the main mechanisms involved in mitochondrial cholesterol import, focusing on the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein StAR/STARD1 and other members of the StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain protein family, and we will discuss how changes in mitochondrial cholesterol levels can arise and affect mitochondrial function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipids of Mitochondria edited by Guenther Daum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-fat but not sucrose intake is essential for induction of dyslipidemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, David Højland; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Rolin, Bidda

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and dyslipidemia are closely related. Diet plays an important role in the progression of these diseases, but the role of specific dietary components is not completely understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of dietary sucrose and fat/cholesterol...... on the development of dyslipidemia and NAFLD. Methods Seventy female guinea pigs were block-randomized (based on weight) into five groups and fed a normal chow diet (control: 4 % fat), a very high-sucrose diet (vHS: 4 % fat, 25 % sucrose), a high-fat diet (HF: 20 % fat, 0.35 % cholesterol), a high......-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHS: 20 % fat, 15 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) or a high-fat/very high-sucrose diet (HFvHS: 20 % fat, 25 % sucrose, 0.35 % cholesterol) for 16 and 25 weeks. Results All three high-fat diets induced dyslipidemia with increased concentrations of plasma cholesterol (p 

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek W. Morzycki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect cholesterol electrochemical oxidation in the presence of various mediators leads to electrophilic addition to the double bond, oxidation at the allylic position, oxidation of the hydroxy group, or functionalization of the side chain. Recent studies have proven that direct electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol is also possible and affords different products depending on the reaction conditions.

  12. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  13. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cholesterol. In the gall bladder cholesterol crystalizes from the bile producing large crystalline aggregates. The causes of gall- stones are too complex for us to go into, but it can be stated that such factors as high levels of estrogens, multiple pregnancies, obesity, genetic factors and certain drugs influence the degree to.

  14. Phosphatidylcholine: cholesterol phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewalt, J L; Bloom, M

    1992-10-01

    Two mono-cis-unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid molecules, having very different gel-liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures as a consequence of the relative positions of the double bond, exhibit PC:cholesterol phase diagrams that are very similar to each other and to that obtained previously for a fully saturated PC:cholesterol mixture (Vist, M. R., and J. H. Davis. 1990. Biochemistry 29:451-464). This leads to the conjecture that PC:cholesterol membrane phase diagrams have a universal form which is relatively independent of the precise chemical structure of the PC molecule. One feature of this phase diagram is the observation over a wide temperature range of a fluid but highly conformationally ordered phase at bilayer concentrations of more than approximately 25 mol% cholesterol. This ;liquid ordered' phase is postulated to be the relevant physical state for many biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, that contain substantial amounts of cholesterol or equivalent sterols.

  15. Comprehensive Review of the Impact of Dairy Foods and Dairy Fat on Cardiometabolic Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Because regular-fat dairy products are a major source of cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids (SFAs), current US and Canadian dietary guidelines for cardiovascular health recommend the consumption of low-fat dairy products. Yet, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported rather mixed effects of reduced- and regular-fat dairy consumption on blood lipid concentrations and on many other cardiometabolic disease risk factors, such as blood pressure and inflammation markers. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy in current dietary guidelines is being challenged, creating confusion within health professional circles and the public. This narrative review provides perspective on the research pertaining to the impact of dairy consumption and dairy fat on traditional and emerging cardiometabolic disease risk factors. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function. This suggests that the purported detrimental effects of SFAs on cardiometabolic health may in fact be nullified when they are consumed as part of complex food matrices such as those in cheese and other dairy foods. Thus, the focus on low-fat dairy products in current guidelines apparently is not entirely supported by the existing literature and may need to be revisited on the basis of this evidence. Future studies addressing key research gaps in this area will be extremely informative to better appreciate the impact of dairy food matrices, as well as dairy fat specifically, on cardiometabolic health. PMID:28140322

  16. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  17. Raising children bilingually

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette W. Langdon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to describe the process of becoming bilingual by sharing my own experience being raised in a four-language environment and how it influenced the upbringing of my daughter in two, and subsequently three languages. The other purpose is to dispel the myth that children with language, developmental and/or intellectual impairments or those diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum cannot or should not be exposed to two languages because it is confusing, or because they simply cannot handle two languages due to their disability. As a bilingual speech and language pathologist (SLP who has practiced in the United States for four decades, I have unfortunately witnessed that many teachers as well as other well-meaning professionals including psychologists, therapists and even physicians discourage these children’s parents from using their first language because it might be confusing or too difficult for the child to handle. A review of recent research on children with special needs who have a variety of language, learning and communication challenges contradicts this view. The information presented should be helpful not only to parents but also to various professionals including therapists and physicians who come into contact with children with special needs who are growing up in a bilingual environment.

  18. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL

  19. Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fat embolism ranges from 0.5 to 30% in injuries with long and pelvic bone fractures; it also occurs in other diseases and conditions. Moreover, mortality accounts for 3 to 67%. There is still no clear idea on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of fat embolism. This review gives current views on this problem. Key words: fat embolism, poly-trauma.

  20. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and

  1. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Heart attack Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart disease and diet High blood cholesterol levels Peripheral artery bypass - leg Patient Instructions Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge Angina - discharge Angina - ...

  2. Cholesterol Domains Enhance Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betker, Jamie L.; Kullberg, Max; Gomez, Joe; Anchordoquy, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of cholesterol domains in lipoplexes has been associated with enhanced serum stability and transfection rates both in cell culture and in vivo. This study utilizes the ability of saturated phosphatidylcholines to promote the formation of cholesterol domains at much lower cholesterol contents than have been utilized in previous work. The results show that lipoplexes with identical cholesterol and cationic lipid contents exhibit significantly improved transfection efficiencies when a domain is present, consistent with previous work. In addition, studies assessing transfection rates in the absence of serum demonstrate that the ability of domains to enhance transfection is not dependent on interactions with serum proteins. Consistent with this hypothesis, characterization of the adsorbed proteins composing the corona of these lipoplex formulations did not reveal a correlation between transfection and the adsorption of a specific protein. Finally, we show that the interaction with serum proteins can promote domain formation in some formulations, and thereby result in enhanced transfection only after serum exposure. PMID:23557286

  3. Reference intervals for serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reference intervals of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were determined on 309 blood donors from an urban and peri-urban population of Botswana. Using non-parametric methods to establish 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution, the intervals were: total cholesterol 2.16 ...

  4. Association of HDL cholesterol efflux capacity with incident coronary heart disease events: a prospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleheen, Danish; Scott, Robert; Javad, Sundas; Zhao, Wei; Rodrigues, Amrith; Picataggi, Antonino; Lukmanova, Daniya; Mucksavage, Megan L.; Luben, Robert; Billheimer, Jeffery; Kastelein, John J. P.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Rader, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Although HDL cholesterol concentrations are strongly and inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, interventions that raise HDL cholesterol do not reduce risk of coronary heart disease. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity-a prototypical measure of HDL function-has been associated with

  5. Can adverse effects of dietary fat intake be overestimated as a consequence of dietary fat underreporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Lissner, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    for this error for associations between dietary fat intake and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. SETTING: Sub-study to the Danish MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) project, carried out in 1987-1988. SUBJECTS: A random sub-sample of the adult Danish male...... population (n = 152). RESULTS: Correcting dietary fat for underreporting error weakened, rather than strengthened, the association between dietary fat intake and LDL-cholesterol by reducing the slope of the regression from beta = 3.4, P = 0.02 to beta = 2.7, P = 0.04. CONCLUSION: This example illustrates...... that systematic underreporting of dietary fat by high-risk groups such as the obese may produce an overestimated association. These results imply that previous epidemiological studies showing a positive association between percentage of energy from fat and other health outcomes, e.g. cancer and heart disease, may...

  6. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  7. Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to examine growth indicators, serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as dietary fat intakes usually associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy primary school children.

  8. The relationship between dietary factors and serum cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of this Western diet on serum total cholesterol (TC) levels was seen to be marked whe'n participants with a high risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) were compared with those with a TC level putting them at low risk; the former consumed significantly more saturated fat and had a higher mean Keys ...

  9. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MORTAZA

    sajas.v42i4.8. Dietary Rhus coriaria L. powder reduces the blood cholesterol, VLDL-c and glucose, but increases abdominal fat in broilers. M. Golzadeh, P. Farhoomand. #. & M. Daneshyar. Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, ...

  10. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  11. Cholesterol through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ika; Luu, Winnie; Stevenson, Julian; Cartland, Sian; Jessup, Wendy; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    How cholesterol is sensed to maintain homeostasis has been explained by direct binding to a specific protein, Scap, or through altering the physical properties of the membrane. The enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-cholesterol) is a valuable tool in distinguishing between these two models because it shares nonspecific membrane effects with native cholesterol (nat-cholesterol), but not specific binding interactions. This is the first study to compare ent- and nat-cholesterol directly on major molecular parameters of cholesterol homeostasis. We found that ent-cholesterol suppressed activation of the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism, SREBP-2, almost as effectively as nat-cholesterol. Importantly, ent-cholesterol induced a conformational change in the cholesterol-sensing protein Scap in isolated membranes in vitro, even when steps were taken to eliminate potential confounding effects from endogenous cholesterol. Ent-cholesterol also accelerated proteasomal degradation of the key cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, squalene monooxygenase. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that cholesterol maintains its own homeostasis not only via direct protein interactions, but also by altering membrane properties. PMID:22869373

  12. Fat heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Katajainen, Jyrki

    This report is an electronic appendix to our paper \\Fat heaps without regular counters". In that paper we described a new variant of fat heaps that is conceptually simpler and easier to implement than the original version. We also compared the practical performance of this data structure...

  13. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese A. O’Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23–1.09 per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04–0.90 per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97–0.995 and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002–1.03; these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  14. Regular Fat and Reduced Fat Dairy Products Show Similar Associations with Markers of Adolescent Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Bremner, Alexandra P; Mori, Trevor A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Wilson, Charlotte; Hafekost, Katherine; Ambrosini, Gina L; Huang, Rae Chi; Oddy, Wendy H

    2016-01-02

    Reduced fat dairy products are generally recommended for adults and children over the age of two years. However, emerging evidence suggests that dairy fat may not have detrimental health effects. We aimed to investigate prospective associations between consumption of regular versus reduced fat dairy products and cardiometabolic risk factors from early to late adolescence. In the West Australian Raine Study, dairy intake was assessed using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires in 860 adolescents at 14 and 17-year follow-ups; 582 of these also had blood biochemistry at both points. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined associations with cardiometabolic risk factors. Models incorporated reduced fat and regular fat dairy together (in serves/day) and were adjusted for a range of factors including overall dietary pattern. In boys, there was a mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.66 mmHg (95% CI 0.23-1.09) per serve of reduced fat dairy and an independent, additional reduction of 0.47 mmHg (95% CI 0.04-0.90) per serve of regular fat dairy. Each additional serve of reduced fat dairy was associated with a 2% reduction in HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.97-0.995) and a 2% increase in total: HDL-cholesterol ratio (95% CI 1.002-1.03); these associations were not observed with regular fat products. In girls, there were no significant independent associations observed in fully adjusted models. Although regular fat dairy was associated with a slightly better cholesterol profile in boys, overall, intakes of both regular fat and reduced fat dairy products were associated with similar cardiometabolic associations in adolescents.

  15. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, however, are inversely associated with CVD. This is commonly ascribed to a concept called "reverse cholesterol transport" a mechanism by which the HDL particle takes up cholesterol from the...

  16. Cholesterol crystallization within hepatocyte lipid droplets and its role in murine NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, George N; Subramanian, Savitha; Chait, Alan; Haigh, W Geoffrey; Yeh, Matthew M; Farrell, Geoffrey C; Lee, Sum P; Savard, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    We recently reported that cholesterol crystals form in hepatocyte lipid droplets (LDs) in human and experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Herein, we assigned WT C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat (15%) diet for 6 months, supplemented with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, or 1% dietary cholesterol. Increasing dietary cholesterol led to cholesterol loading of the liver, but not of adipose tissue, resulting in fibrosing steatohepatitis at a dietary cholesterol concentration of ≥0.5%, whereas mice on lower-cholesterol diets developed only simple steatosis. Hepatic cholesterol crystals and crown-like structures also developed at a dietary cholesterol concentration ≥0.5%. Crown-like structures consisted of activated Kupffer cells (KCs) staining positive for NLRP3 and activated caspase 1, which surrounded and processed cholesterol crystal-containing remnant LDs of dead hepatocytes. The KCs processed LDs at the center of crown-like structures in the extracellular space by lysosomal enzymes, ultimately transforming into lipid-laden foam cells. When HepG2 cells were exposed to LDL cholesterol, they developed cholesterol crystals in LD membranes, which caused activation of THP1 cells (macrophages) grown in coculture; upregulation of TNF-alpha , NLRP3, and interleukin 1beta ( IL1β ) mRNA; and secretion of IL-1beta. In conclusion, cholesterol crystals form on the LD membrane of hepatocytes and cause activation and cholesterol loading of KCs that surround and process these LDs by lysosomal enzymes.

  17. Visceral adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with dyslipidemia independent of body composition and fat distribution in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y; Tchernof, André

    2011-05-01

    We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given depot, women with larger adipocytes than predicted by the regression were considered as having adipocyte hypertrophy, whereas women with smaller adipocytes than predicted were considered as having adipocyte hyperplasia. Women characterized by omental adipocyte hypertrophy had higher plasma and VLDL triglyceride levels as well as a higher total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio compared with women characterized by omental adipocyte hyperplasia (P women characterized by subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy or hyperplasia showed a similar lipid profile. In logistic regression analyses, a 10% enlargement of omental adipocytes increased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.06, P independent of body composition and fat distribution measures. A 10% increase in visceral adipocyte number also raised the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted OR 1.55, P independent of body composition and fat distribution in women.

  18. Identification of liver CYP51 as a gene responsive to circulating cholesterol in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for CVD, which is a leading cause of death in industrialised societies. The biosynthetic pathways for cholesterol metabolism are well understood; however, the regulation of circulating cholesterol by diet is still not fully elucidated. The present study aimed to gain more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between circulating cholesterol levels and molecular effects in target tissues using the hamster model. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed with chow or diets containing 36 % energy from fat with or without 1 % cholesteyramine (CA) as a modulator of circulating cholesterol levels for 35 d. It was revealed that the expression of lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) instead of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase mRNA expression was responsive to circulating cholesterol in hamsters fed hypercholesterolaemic diets. The high-fat diet increased circulating cholesterol and down-regulated CYP51, but not HMG-CoA reductase. The CA diet decreased cholesterol and increased CYP51 expression, but HMG-CoA reductase expression was not affected. The high-fat diet and CA diet altered the expression level of cholesterol, bile acids and lipid metabolism-associated genes (LDL receptor, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor (LXR) α, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5/8 (ABCG5/8)) in the liver, which were significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol levels. Correlation analysis also showed that circulating cholesterol levels were regulated by LXR/retinoid X receptor and PPAR pathways in the liver. Using the hamster model, the present study provided additional molecular insights into the influence of circulating cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol metabolism pathways during hypercholesterolaemia.

  19. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, R.; Verma, Vinod; Kumar, Ashok; Chakraborty, Chaitali; Singh, Birbal; Marotta, Francesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface, incorporation of

  20. Cholesterol-Lowering Probiotics as Potential Biotherapeutics for Metabolic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of deaths in adults in the western world. Elevated levels of certain blood lipids have been reported to be the principal cause of cardiovascular disease and other disabilities in developed countries. Several animal and clinical trials have shown a positive association between cholesterol levels and the risks of coronary heart disease. Current dietary strategies for the prevention of cardiovascular disease advocate adherence to low-fat/low-saturated-fat diets. Although there is no doubt that, in experimental conditions, low-fat diets offer an effective means of reducing blood cholesterol concentrations on a population basis, these appear to be less effective, largely due to poor compliance, attributed to low palatability and acceptability of these diets to the consumers. Due to the low consumer compliance, attempts have been made to identify other dietary components that can reduce blood cholesterol levels. Supplementation of diet with fermented dairy products or lactic acid bacteria containing dairy products has shown the potential to reduce serum cholesterol levels. Various approaches have been used to alleviate this issue, including the use of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.. Probiotics, the living microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts, have received much attention on their proclaimed health benefits which include improvement in lactose intolerance, increase in natural resistance to infectious disease in gastrointestinal tract, suppression of cancer, antidiabetic, reduction in serum cholesterol level, and improved digestion. In addition, there are numerous reports on cholesterol removal ability of probiotics and their hypocholesterolemic effects. Several possible mechanisms for cholesterol removal by probiotics are assimilation of cholesterol by growing cells, binding of cholesterol to cellular surface

  1. Cholesterol induces fetal rat enterocyte death in culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazzola J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholesterol on fetal rat enterocytes and IEC-6 cells (line originated from normal rat small intestine was examined. Both cells were cultured in the presence of 20 to 80 µM cholesterol for up to 72 h. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric analysis and fluorescence microscopy. The expression of HMG-CoA reductase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma was measured by RT-PCR. The addition of 20 µM cholesterol reduced enterocyte proliferation as early as 6 h of culture. Reduction of enterocyte proliferation by 28 and 41% was observed after 24 h of culture in the presence and absence of 10% fetal calf serum, respectively, with the effect lasting up to 72 h. Treatment of IEC-6 cells with cholesterol for 24 h raised the proportion of cells with fragmented DNA by 9.7% at 40 µM and by 20.8% at 80 µM. When the culture period was extended to 48 h, the effect of cholesterol was still more pronounced, with the percent of cells with fragmented DNA reaching 53.5% for 40 µM and 84.3% for 80 µM. Chromatin condensation of IEC-6 cells was observed after treatment with cholesterol even at 20 µM. Cholesterol did not affect HMG-CoA reductase expression. A dose-dependent increase in PPARgamma expression in fetal rat enterocytes was observed. The expression of PPAR-gamma was raised by 7- and 40-fold, in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum, respectively, with cholesterol at 80 mM. The apoptotic effect of cholesterol on enterocytes was possibly due to an increase in PPARgamma expression.

  2. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Bernard; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Al-Masaud, Ali; Konuspayeva, Gaukhar

    2015-01-01

    In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD) was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD). Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were simil...

  3. Biogenesis of plasma membrane cholesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Y.

    1986-05-01

    A striking feature of the molecular organization of eukaryotic cells is the singular enrichment of their plasma membranes in sterols. The authors studies are directed at elucidating the mechanisms underlying this inhomogeneous disposition. Cholesterol oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of plasma membrane cholesterol in intact cells, leaving intracellular cholesterol pools untouched. With this technique, the plasma membrane was shown to contain 95% of the unesterified cholesterol of cultured human fibroblasts. Cholesterol synthesized from (/sup 3/H) acetate moved to the plasma membrane with a half-time of 1 h at 37/sup 0/C. They used equilibrium gradient centrifugation of homogenates of biosynthetically labeled, cholesterol oxidase treated cells to examine the distribution of newly synthesized sterols among intracellular pools. Surprisingly, lanosterol, a major precursor of cholesterol, and intracellular cholesterol both peaked at much lower buoyant density than did 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. This suggests that cholesterol biosynthesis is not taken to completion in the endoplasmic reticulum. The cholesterol in the buoyant fraction eventually moved to the plasma membrane. Digitonin treatment increased the density of the newly synthesized cholesterol fractions, indicating that nascent cholesterol in transit is associated with cholesterol-rich membranes. The authors are testing the hypothesis that the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis is spatially organized in various intracellular membranes such that the sequence of biosynthetic steps both concentrates the sterol and conveys it to the plasma membrane.

  4. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat dairy products; includes fish and poultry; and limits red meat, sugary foods and drinks, and sodium. • ... body by cells or organs that control the function of cells or organs. An example is estrogen, ...

  5. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat to be added. Make pancakes or waffles. Puree fruits and veggies for baking You can replace ... For many recipes, use the specified amount of puree instead of oil. Check the mix's package or ...

  6. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of HDL cholesterol response to statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Warren, Helen R; Trompet, Stella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), statin therapy also raises high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Inter-individual variation in HDL-C response to statins may be partially explained by genetic variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed...... a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify variants with an effect on statin-induced high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) changes. The 123 most promising signals with p

  7. Colesterol e gorduras em alimentos brasileiros: implicações para a prevenção da aterosclerose Colesterol y grasas en alimentos brasileños: implicaciones en la prevención de la aterosclerosis Cholesterol and fats in Brazilian foods: implications for prevention of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Scherr

    2009-03-01

    types of foods on diets recommended for the prevention of coronary disease. METHODS: The fatty acid and cholesterol composition of some types of foods and different preparation methods were analyzed. These results were used according to the recommendations of the American Heart Association for an 1,800 calorie diet. RESULTS: Cholesterol found in 100g of eggs (400mg or fried beef liver (453mg exceeds the amount recommended for secondary prevention, and there is no difference in cholesterol content between factory-farmed eggs and free-range eggs. The eggs had an average of 400mg of cholesterol per 100g, thus exceeding the recommended amount of up to 300mg. Each egg has 50g on average; one egg can be consumed provided that not more than 100mg of cholesterol are consumed per day. As regards saturated fat, butter (55.2g, margarine (19.4g, tilsit cheese (20.4g, Brazilian Dutch Edam cheese (19.9g, yellow (16.8g and fresh white cheese (15.5g exceed the 14g recommended if 100g or more are consumed. The same is true for soy oil (17.5g and corn oil (16.1g. CONCLUSION: Better knowledge on fat and cholesterol contents in foods allows the prescription of amounts not exceeding the recommended values for prevention, and this may result in better compliance to diets.

  8. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. OBJECTIVE: We explored...

  9. Niacin Therapy Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Total Cholesterol Efflux Capacity But Not ABCA1-Specific Cholesterol Efflux in Statin-Treated Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsein, Graziella E; Hutchins, Patrick M; Isquith, Daniel; Vaisar, Tomas; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Heinecke, Jay W

    2016-02-01

    We investigated relationships between statin and niacin/statin combination therapy and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL-P) and cholesterol efflux capacity, 2 HDL metrics that might better assess cardiovascular disease risk than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In the Carotid Plaque Composition Study, 126 subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were randomized to atorvastatin or combination therapy (atorvastatin/niacin). At baseline and after 1 year of treatment, the concentration of HDL and its 3 subclasses (small, medium, and large) were quantified by calibrated ion mobility analysis (HDL-PIMA). We also measured total cholesterol efflux from macrophages and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Atorvastatin decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39% and raised HDL-C by 11% (P=0.0001) but did not increase HDL-PIMA or macrophage cholesterol efflux. Combination therapy raised HDL-C by 39% (Pniacin therapy. Statin therapy increased HDL-C levels but failed to increase HDL-PIMA. It also reduced ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Adding niacin to statin therapy increased HDL-C and macrophage efflux, but had much less effect on HDL-PIMA. It also failed to improve ABCA1-specific efflux, a key cholesterol exporter in macrophages. Our observations raise the possibility that niacin might not target the relevant atheroprotective population of HDL. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Cholesterol and Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 2. Cholesterol and Health. Pravina Piste Vidyadhar Patil. General Article Volume 11 Issue 2 February 2006 pp 74-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/02/0074-0077. Keywords.

  11. Proximate and Cholesterol Composition of Selected Fast Foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fast foods consumption has been on the increase in Nigeria raising concerns about the nutritional and health implications. This study was carried out to determine the proximate composition and cholesterol contents of four commonly consumed fast foods (doughnut, chicken pie, roasted chicken, and Jollof rice) sold in ...

  12. Effect of Cholesterol Removal Processing Using β-Cyclodextrin on Main Components of Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Maskooki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% of β-CD were mixed with different fat contents (1%, 2.5% and 3% of raw (unhomogenized and homogenized milk at two mixing temperatures of 8 and 20°C. The cholesterol residue, fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF, density, and ash content of milk were measured for each treatment. The results statistically analysed and showed that the cholesterol content of milk remarkably decreased as the β-CD was increased particularly in homogenized milk at 20°C. However, the reduction rate of cholesterol was decreased when extra β-CD was added due to its intermolecular reactions. The maximum cholesterol reduction was achieved at the level of 1% β-CD. The fat content, SNF, protein, lactose, and density content were decreased with increasing β-CD whereas it did not affect ash content.

  13. Saturated fat consumption may not be the main cause of increased blood lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, C B; Garg, R; Wood, L G; Garg, M L

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) has often been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and consequently with risk for chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease. However, epidemiological and interventional studies on this topic are contradictory. While some studies have established a positive link, other studies have failed to show a significant association between saturated fat consumption and blood lipid levels, and others have even found an inverse association. Moreover, studies using animal models have demonstrated that dietary saturated fats raise blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels only when the diet is deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). The n-3PUFA are known for their potential in the management of hyperlipidaemia for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for their anti-arrhythmic, anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory potential. We believe that with an adequate consumption of n-3PUFA dietary saturated fat may not result in elevated blood lipid levels. Therefore, we critically evaluated the literature regarding saturated fat and blood lipid level, with an emphasis on the role of n-3PUFA on this relationship. Evidence from animal studies and few clinical trials lead to the hypothesis that there are beneficial or neutral effects of saturated fatty acids when combined with recommended levels of n-3PUFA in the diet. However, an intervention focusing on the background fat when the volunteers' diet is supplemented with n-3PUFA is yet to be done. Proving the authenticity of this hypothesis would mean a substantial change in public health messages regarding saturated fats and their health effects; and also a change in the strategies related to prevention of chronic cardiac and artery diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Android and gynoid fat percentages and serum lipid levels in United States adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2015-03-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fat distribution is a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of android and gynoid fat percentages with lipid profiles to determine whether android and/or gynoid fat percentages are associated with serum lipid levels. A population-based cross-sectional study. Five thousand six hundred and ninety-six adults (20 years and older) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006. The regional body composition in the android and gynoid regions was defined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The estimation of lipid risk profiles included total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) -cholesterol and triglycerides (TG). Regardless of gender, android and gynoid body fat percentages were positively and significantly correlated with BMI and waist circumference. After adjustment for age, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, dyslipidaemia and BMI, increases in android fat percentage were significantly associated with total cholesterol, TG and HDL cholesterol in males, and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in females. The gynoid fat percentages showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol in males, whereas gynoid fat accumulation in females showed a favourable association with TG and HDL cholesterol. The observed associations differed according to ethnic groups. Our results suggest that regional fat distribution in the android and gynoid regions have different effects on lipid profiles, and that fat in the android region, rather than the gynoid region, may be an important factor in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    in the metabolic syndrome. Changes in fat mass can be induced by altered energy intake or even diet composition. These macroscopic changes must manifest themselves as dynamic adipose cell-size distribution alterations at the microscopic level. The dynamic relationship between these 2 independent measurements...... of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...... the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive...

  16. Comparative milk and serum cholesterol content in dairy cow and camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Faye

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare cholesterol contents in cow and camel milk in similar farming conditions, milk and blood of seven cows and seven camels maintained at normal diet at the middle of lactation were sampled at morning and evening, then after two weeks of keeping them at low protein diet. The cholesterol content in camel milk (5.64 ± 3.18 mg/100 g, SD was not significantly lower than in cow milk (8.51 ± 9.07 mg/100 g, SD. Fat contents in cow milk were higher. Cholesterol/fat ratios were similar in the two species (camel: 225 ± 125 mg/100 g fat; cow: 211 ± 142 mg/100 g fat. The serum cholesterol concentration was significantly higher in cow (227.8 ± 60.5 mg/100 ml than in camel (106.4 ± 28.9 mg/100 ml. There was a significant difference between morning and evening milking in milk fat compositions and concentrations in cholesterol. Fat levels increased in cow after two-week low energy-protein diet.

  17. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary lupin (Lupinus albus var multolupa) in chicken diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2007-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different concentrations of lupin seeds (0, 200, and 400 g/kg), with and without cholesterol added (10 g/kg), in chicken diets on performance, relative liver weight, liver fat, intestinal pH and viscosity, and different blood serum parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total biliary salts, amylase, total protein and albumin, and globulin fractions). Increasing the lupin content in the diet reduced weight gain and feed consumption and increased feed-to-gain ratio. A decrease in liver fat, cecal pH, serum glucose, cholesterol, total biliary salts, and total protein and an increase in jejunum viscosity were observed with increasing concentration of lupins. Serum albumin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and albumin:globulin ratio were reduced by the addition of lupin in the diet. Cholesterol supplementation of diets had no effect on the performance, cecal pH, and serum triglycerides. Relative liver weight, liver fat, jejunum viscosity, serum cholesterol, total biliary salts, and total protein were increased, and serum glucose was reduced by addition of cholesterol. Cholesterol increased serum albumin, alpha-1 globulin, alpha-2 globulin, and beta-globulin and reduced albumin:globulin ratio and amylase. These results indicate that inclusion of lupin seed in chicken diets causes a growth depression and a reduction of serum cholesterol and glucose and modifies other physiological parameters.

  18. High dietary cholesterol intake during lactation promotes development of fatty liver in offspring of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Kazushi; Hatakeyama, Yu; Sakamoto, Yu

    2016-05-01

    We have previously demonstrated in mice that a maternal high fat diet during lactation enhances the susceptibility of offspring to obesity and fatty liver. A causative molecule, however, is yet to be identified. Therefore, we examined the role of cholesterol, the dietary intake of which increases with consumption of a high fat diet. Excessive cholesterol intake is involved in the development of fatty liver, which in turn becomes a risk factor for metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. However, our knowledge of the influences on offspring of excessive maternal cholesterol intake alone during pregnancy and lactation is limited. We examined how excessive maternal cholesterol intake during lactation influences susceptibility of the offspring to metabolic syndrome in mice. High cholesterol intake promoted triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver of offspring (p lactation enhances the susceptibility of the offspring to development of fatty liver. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  20. The elimination of trans fats from spreads: how science helped to turn an industry around

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, O.; Katan, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Mensink and Katan showed in 1990 that trans fats reduce high- and increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Unilever aided this study because the company considered knowledge on trans fats incomplete in spite of their long history of safe use. The decision in 1994 to remove trans fats from

  1. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; van der Heijden, Roel; Molema, Grietje; Schipper, Martin; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high-cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high-cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high-fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-fat

  2. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  3. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p cholesterol or type of fat). The dietary cholesterol dependent-elevation of serum cholesterol in the SD rats was less than 1.5-fold (poil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (pcholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (pcholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  4. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  5. Exploring the Factors That Affect Blood Cholesterol and Heart Disease Risk: Is Dietary Cholesterol as Bad for You as History Leads Us to Believe? 1 2

    OpenAIRE

    Kanter, Mitchell M.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vickers, Kasey C.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given at the 2011 Experimental Biology meetings about the latest research and a paleoanthropological perspective pertaining to the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. For much of the past 50 years, a great deal of the scientific literature regarding dietary fat and cholesterol intake has indicated a strong positive correlation with heart disease. In recent years, however, there have been a number of epidemiologic...

  6. Long-term safety and efficacy of a cholesterol-lowering diet in children with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol : Seven-year results of the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obarzanek, E; Kimm, SYS; Barton, BA; Van Horn, L; Kwiterovich, PO; Simons-Morton, DG; Hunsberger, SA; Lasser, NL; Robson, AM; Franklin, FA; Lauer, RM; Stevens, VJ; Friedman, LA; Dorgan, JF; Greenlick, MR

    Objective. Diets reduced in fat and cholesterol are recommended for children over 2 years of age, yet long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. This study tests the long-term efficacy and safety of a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention in children. Methods. Six hundred sixty-three children 8

  7. Obeticholic acid raises LDL-cholesterol and reduces HDL-cholesterol in the Diet-Induced NASH (DIN) hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Quinsat, Marjolaine; Burcelin, Rémy; Sulpice, Thierry

    2017-11-16

    The use of rat and mouse models limits the translation to humans for developing novel drugs targeting nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Obeticholic acid (OCA) illustrates this limitation since its dyslipidemic effect in humans cannot be observed in these rodents. Conversely, Golden Syrian hamsters have a lipoprotein metabolism mimicking human dyslipidemia since it does express the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We therefore developed a Diet-induced NASH (DIN) hamster model and evaluated the impact of OCA. Compared with chow fed controls, hamsters fed for 20 weeks with a free-choice (FC) diet, developed obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and NASH (microvesicular steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte ballooning and perisinusoidal to bridging fibrosis). After 20 weeks of diet, FC fed hamsters were treated without or with obeticholic acid (15mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Although a non-significant trend towards higher dietary caloric intake was observed, OCA significantly lowered body weight after 5 weeks of treatment. OCA significantly increased CETP activity and LDL-C levels by 20% and 27%, and reduced HDL-C levels by 20%. OCA blunted hepatic gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 and reduced fecal bile acids mass excretion by 64% (PHamsters treated with OCA showed a trend towards higher scavenger receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) and lower LDL-receptor hepatic protein expression. OCA reduced NAS score for inflammation (Phamster replicates benefits and side effects of OCA as observed in humans, and should be useful for evaluating novel drugs targeting NASH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A linoleic acid enriched diet increases serum cholesterol esterification by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in meal-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, D; Wiseman, S A; Scheek, L M; de Fouw, N J; van Tol, A

    1998-01-01

    Dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids which are substrates of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT; EC 2.3.1.43), an important enzyme in lipoprotein metabolism. We tested whether the dietary fatty acid profile has an effect on LCAT activity in an animal model. Rats were conditioned to eat two meals per day, which were enriched in either palmitic, oleic or linoleic acids, for 10 weeks. Serum was isolated from blood samples taken prior to the meal. The LCAT activity was determined in two ways: (1) by measuring serum cholesterol esterification rates, which are an estimate of LCAT action on endogenous lipoproteins, and (2) by measuring serum LCAT activity levels with excess exogenous substrates, an estimate of LCAT mass. Animals receiving the linoleic acid diet had lower serum concentrations of unesterified cholesterol and triglycerides, if compared with animals fed oleic acid or palmitic acid diets (p diet (p palmitic; p oleic and linoleic; p diet may cause increased metabolism of serum cholesterol by LCAT in rats. This effect is not due to elevated serum concentrations of LCAT or of its apolipoprotein activators, but most likely to changes in the chemical composition of endogenous lipoprotein substrates. It remains to be established whether the serum cholesterol esterification rates measured in vitro are related to in vivo rates of reverse cholesterol transport.

  9. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat Yahia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. Methods A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students’ demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student’s t-test. Results Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01. Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively. Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting, nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P <0.0001 and cholesterol intake (-1.38, P <0.0001. Conclusion Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  10. The intestinal absorption of dietary cholesterol by hypercholesterolemic (type II) and normocholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, W E; Lin, D S

    1974-04-01

    The incomplete absorption of dietary cholesterol may represent an adaptive intestinal barrier that prevents hypercholesterolemia. To explore this mechanism, we compared cholesterol absorption in 15 normocholesterolemic and 6 hypercholesterolemic (type II) subjects fed background cholesterol-free formula diets with 40% of calories as fat. Each test meal consisted of a breakfast into which was incorporated scrambled egg yolk containing 300-500 mg of cholesterol and [4-(14)C]cholesterol (3-22 muCi), either naturally incorporated into the yolk cholesterol by previous isotope injection into the laying hen or added in peanut oil to the yolk of the test breakfast. In some instances [1alpha-(3)H]cholesterol was the radioactive marker. The radioactivity of the fecal neutral sterol fraction was determined in daily stool samples for the next 7 days to provide an estimate of unabsorbed dietary cholesterol. The amount of absorbed and reexcreted labeled cholesterol proved negligible. Most unabsorbed dietary cholesterol appeared in the stool on the second or third day after the meal, and 95% or more was recovered in the stool by 6 days. Plasma specific activity curves were usually maximal at 48 h. Normal subjects absorbed 44.5+/-9.3 (SD) of the administered cholesterol (range 25.9-60.3). Hypercholesterolemics absorbed the same percentage of cholesterol as normals: 47.6+/-12.6% (range 29.3-67.3). Absorption was similar whether the radiolabeled cholesterol was added to egg yolk or naturally incorporated in it (42.1+/-9.3 vs. 48.9+/-9.8%). Six normal subjects were fed a cholesterol-free formula for 4 wk, and then different amounts of cholesterol (110-610 mg/day) were added for another 4 wk. At the end of each period, single test meals containing either 110, 310, or 610 mg of cholesterol and [1alpha-(3)H]cholesterol were administered. Cholesterol absorption was 42.3+/-6.0% and 45.4+/-8.3% for the two dietary periods, respectively. The absolute cholesterol absorption was linearly

  11. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Approaches to removing trans fats from the food supply in industrialized and developing countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L'Abbe, M.R; Stender, S; Skeaff, M; Ghafoorunissa; Tavella, M

    2009-01-01

    .... These have included nutrition recommendations with regard to TFAs and general nutrition recommendations regarding the selection of healthy fats, programmes to raise awareness about the adverse...

  13. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  14. Characterization of placental cholesterol transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A; Vaisman, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal...... circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between...... embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer...

  15. Efeitos das fontes e níveis de lipídios nas dietas de ratos machos da linhagem wistar (rattus norvegicus sobre frações lipídicas do sangue Effect of source and level of fat in the diet of wistar rats (rattus norvegicus on lipoidal fractions in the serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Sandra Nunes Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas quatro fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, óleo de canola, azeite de oliva e gordura suína em dois níveis na dieta (7 e 14%, verificando a influência do consumo dessas fontes lipídicas sobre algumas frações lipídicas do sangue de ratos. Assim, oito grupos de ratos machos da linhagem Wistar (Rattus norvegicus foram alimentados ad libitum por 56 dias com oito dietas distintas contendo as fontes e níveis citados de lipídios. As dosagens de colesterol total e triacilgliceróis no soro foram realizadas pelo método colorimétrico/enzimático utilizando "kit" comercial específico. O colesterol em HDL foi determinado por precipitação dos quilomícrons, VLDL e LDL, utilizando também "kit" específico. O aumento de lipídios na dieta para 14% elevou os valores de colesterol total, HDL-colesterol e LDL+VLDL-colesterol séricos, quando a fonte foi a gordura suína. Com 14% de lipídios na dieta, os menores valores de triacilgliceróis séricos foram observados nas fontes lipídicas óleo de soja e canola, com valores de 76,09 e 84,42 mg/dL, respectivamente.Four fat sources (soybean oil, canola oil, olive oil, swine fat were evaluated with regard to their influence, at two levels in the diet (7 and 14%, on some fat fractions in rats' blood. Thus, eight groups of Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus males were ad libitum fed eight different diets, containing the fat and level reported, for 56 days. The dosages of total serum cholesterol and thriacylglicerols were performed by the colorimetric/enzymatic method utilizing a commercial specific kit. The HDL cholesterol was determined by precipitation of kilomicra (VLDL and LDL by utilizing also a specific kit. The increase of fat in the diet to 14% raised the total cholesterol contents, serum HDL cholesterol and LDL + VLDL cholesterol when the source was swine fat. With 14% of fat in the diet, the lowest values of serum triacylglycerols were found for the fat sources soybean and canola oils

  16. Coconut fat and serum lipoproteins: effects of partial replacement with unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, S; Samarajeewa, U; Thattil, R O

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of reducing saturated fat in the diet, or partly replacing it with unsaturated fat, on the serum lipoprotein profile of human subjects. The study had two intervention periods, 8 weeks (phase 1) and 52 weeks (phase 2). In phase 1, total fat was reduced from 31 to 25% energy (polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA):saturated fatty acids (SFA) ratio increased from 0.2 to 0.4) by reducing the quantity of coconut fat (CF) in the diet from 17.8 to 9.3% energy intake. In phase 2, subjects were randomised to groups A and B. In group A total fat was reduced from 25 to 20% energy (PUFA:SFA ratio increased from 0.4 to 0.7) by reducing the quantity of CF in the diet from 9.3 to 4.7% total energy intake. In group B, the saturated fat content in the diet was similar to group A. In addition a test fat (a mixture of soyabean oil and sesame oil, PUFA:monosaturated fatty acids ratio 2) contributed 3.3% total energy intake and total fat contributed 24% energy intake (PUFA:SFA ratio increased from 0.7 to 1.1). At the end of phase 1, there was a 7.7% reduction in cholesterol (95% CI -3.6, -12.2) and 10.8% reduction in LDL (95% CI -4.9, -16.5) and no significant change in HDL and triacylglycerol. At the end of phase 2, the reduction in cholesterol in both groups was only about 4% (95% CI -12, 3.2) partly due the concomitant rise in HDL. The reduction in LDL at 52 weeks was significantly higher in group B (group A mean reduction 11%, 95% CI -20.1, -2.0 and group B mean reduction 16.2% 95% CI -23.5, -8.9). In phase 2, triacylglycerol levels showed a mean reduction of 6.5% in group 2A and a mean increase of 8.2% in group 2B. The reduction of saturated fat in the diet is associated with a lipoprotein profile that would be expected to reduce cardiovascular risk. The reduction of dietary saturated fat with partial replacement of unsaturated fat brings about changes in total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol that are associated with a lower

  17. Recent advances in cholesterol chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzycki, Jacek W

    2014-05-01

    This review article presents advances in cholesterol chemistry since 2000. Various transformations (chemical, enzymatic, electrochemical, etc.) of cholesterol are presented. A special emphasis is given to cholesterol oxidation reactions, but also substitution of the 3β-hydroxyl group, addition to the C5-C6 double bond, C-H functionalization, and C-C bond forming reactions are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  19. Effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nasturtium officinale leaves on lipid profile in high-fat diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramikia, Seifollah; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2008-01-04

    Nasturtium officinale R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is used as a home remedy in Iran as a cardioprotective agent without any scientific background. In this investigation an attempt was made to study the effect of Nasturtium officinale hydroalcoholic extract (NOE) on serum lipid profile which is closely associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Accordingly, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were among the parameters investigated. We also evaluated the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a measure of hepatic cell damages. Intragastric administration of NOE (500 mg/kg body weight per day) to groups of hypercholesterolaemic rats for 10 days lowered their serum TC, TG and LDL-C by 34.2, 30.1, and 52.9%, respectively, while raised the serum HDL-C level by 27.0% after 10 days of treatments. Treatment with NOE reduced serum ALT and AST levels compared to high-fat diet groups. Based on these data, it is concluded that the NOE has definite cardioprotective potential and these results constitute a valid scientific basis for consuming Nasturtium officinale for medicinal application.

  20. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Can dietary factors explain differences in serum cholesterol profiles among different ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in Singapore?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Li, T.; Tan, W.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Suok Chai Chew,; Deurenberg, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Singapore. there exists differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease among the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This study aimed to investigate if differences in dietary intakes of fat, types of fat, cholesterol, fruits, vegetables and grain foods could explain the

  2. The Effect of Deployment on Cholesterol Levels of Active Duty Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Symbolization: transforming experiences into internal models that serve as guides for future action. 2. Forethought: anticipating consequences of...the presence of chylomicrons. The accumulation of triglycerides is generally proportional to the amount of dietary fat. Dyslipidemia is a more...the purposes of this study, dyslipidemia is defined as total cholesterol > 200mg/ dL; triglycerides > 150mg/dL; LDL cholesterol > 130 mg/dL with no

  3. Inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption decreases atherosclerosis but not adipose tissue inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Umemoto, Tomio; Subramanian, Savitha; Ding, Yilei; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Han, Chang Yeop; Teresa, Antonio Sta.; Kim, Jinkyu; O?Brien, Kevin D.; Chait, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk in obesity. We previously showed that addition of cholesterol to a diet rich in saturated fat and refined carbohydrate significantly worsens dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, systemic inflammation, and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr−/−) mice. To test whether inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption would improve metabolic a...

  4. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  5. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of moderate butter intake...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P cholesterol compared with the run-in period (P

  6. Effect of supplemental fat in low energy diets on some blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Keywords: Supplemental fat, low energy diet, blood parameters, broiler chicks ..... concentration increasing and serum GLU decreasing at a faster rate when .... Monounsaturated fatty acids, plasma cholesterol and coronary heart disease.

  7. Photoaffinity labeling with cholesterol analogues precisely maps a cholesterol-binding site in voltage-dependent anion channel-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelier, Melissa M; Cheng, Wayland W L; Bergdoll, Lucie; Chen, Zi-Wei; Janetka, James W; Abramson, Jeff; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Covey, Douglas F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Evers, Alex S

    2017-06-02

    Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) is a highly regulated β-barrel membrane protein that mediates transport of ions and metabolites between the mitochondria and cytosol of the cell. VDAC1 co-purifies with cholesterol and is functionally regulated by cholesterol, among other endogenous lipids. Molecular modeling studies based on NMR observations have suggested five cholesterol-binding sites in VDAC1, but direct experimental evidence for these sites is lacking. Here, to determine the sites of cholesterol binding, we photolabeled purified mouse VDAC1 (mVDAC1) with photoactivatable cholesterol analogues and analyzed the photolabeled sites with both top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and bottom-up MS paired with a clickable, stable isotope-labeled tag, FLI -tag. Using cholesterol analogues with a diazirine in either the 7 position of the steroid ring (LKM38) or the aliphatic tail (KK174), we mapped a binding pocket in mVDAC1 localized to Thr 83 and Glu 73 , respectively. When Glu 73 was mutated to a glutamine, KK174 no longer photolabeled this residue, but instead labeled the nearby Tyr 62 within this same binding pocket. The combination of analytical strategies employed in this work permits detailed molecular mapping of a cholesterol-binding site in a protein, including an orientation of the sterol within the site. Our work raises the interesting possibility that cholesterol-mediated regulation of VDAC1 may be facilitated through a specific binding site at the functionally important Glu 73 residue. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – at least for some types of oils...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...

  9. Effects of flavones of sea buckthorn fruits on growth performance, carcass quality, fat deposition and lipometabolism for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J S; Chang, W H; Liu, G H; Zhang, S; Zheng, A J; Li, Y; Xie, Q; Liu, Z Y; Cai, H Y

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of flavones of sea buckthorn fruits (FSBF) on growth performance, carcass quality, fat deposition, and lipometabolism for broilers. 240 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments (0, 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% FSBF) with 6 replicates of 10 birds. Broilers were reared for 42 d. Results showed FSBF quadratically improved average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and final body weight (BW) (P = 0.002, P = 0.019 and P = 0.018, respectively). The abdominal fat percentage in 0.05%, 0.10%, and 0.15% FSBF supplementation groups was decreased by 21.08%, 19.12%, and 19.61% with respect to the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). The intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the breast muscle of the broilers was increased by 7.21%, 23.42% and 6.30% in 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% FSBF groups, and that in the thigh meat was raised by 4.43%, 24.63% and 12.32%, compared with the control group, respectively (P < 0.05). FSBF had a quadratic effect on the abdominal fat percentage and IMF in the breast muscle (P < 0.05). Dietary FSBF also modified fatty acids of muscular tissues, resulting in a higher ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P < 0.05). Supplementing FSBF in the diet greatly decreased the levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05). Moreover, the quadratic responses were also observed in the levels of insulin and adiponectin in serum (P = 0.020 and P = 0.037, respectively). Abdominal fat percentage was correlated negatively with insulin and positively with adiponectin (P < 0.05). IMF content in the breast and thigh muscles were correlated positively with insulin, and negatively with adiponectin (P < 0.05). A positive correlation existed between breast muscle, IMF, and leptin (P < 0.05). In conclusion, adding FSBF into the diets affected growth performance and fat deposition of broilers by

  10. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  11. Atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macri, Elisa; Lifshitz, Fima; Ramos, Cecilia; Orzuza, Ricardo; Costa, Osvaldo; Zago, Valeria; Boyer, Patricia; Friedman, Silvia

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (AT) on the alveolar bone loss in rats with ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (EP). Female Wistar adult rats were assigned either a control (Co) or an AT diet fed for 9 weeks. The AT diet was high in saturated fat, cholesterol and energy. At week 2, animals were subjected to a unilateral ligature (L) around the left first molar (Co+L and AT+L). The contra lateral first right molar (not ligated) of both groups (Co and AT) were used as untreated controls. At week 9, blood was drawn, rats were euthanized, hemi-mandibles removed and stained digital photographs (buccal and lingual surfaces) and radiographs were obtained for quantification of alveolar bone loss (ABL). The ABL was determined by distance and area methods (mm(2)) and X-rays were used for periodontal bone support (PBS), (%). Rats in the AT group exhibited a 17% increase in energy intake, gained significant body weight and showed the highest serum total-cholesterol (T-C) and non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (pperiodontal bone was the greatest in AT+L rats. AT feedings significantly increased the buccal area and distance of bone loss when compared with the unligated-teeth (pdiet high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid

  13. Gene Therapy Targeting LDL Cholesterol but not HDL Cholesterol Induces Regression of Advanced Atherosclerosis in a Mouse Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongying; Chao, Hsu; Ko, Kerry W S; Cormier, Shelley; Dieker, Carrie; Nour, Elie A; Wang, Shining; Chan, Lawrence; Oka, Kazuhiro

    2011-09-28

    A reduction in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol or an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol can reduce the risk of development of atherosclerosis through overlapping or independent mechanisms. However, the clinical outcome of combined therapy remains in debate. In this study, we first characterized effects of various constructs of helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDAd) expressing apolipoprotein E3 or LDL receptor (LDLR) in vivo on plasma cholesterol levels. Using this information, we designed experiments and compared the effects of long-term (28 weeks) LDL cholesterol lowering or raising HDL cholesterol, or a combination of both on advanced atherosclerosis in Ldlr(-/-) mice, a mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Our major findings are: (i) various factors influence in vivo functional activity, which appear to be context dependent; (ii) apolipoprotein AI (APOAI) gene transfer, which raises HDL cholesterol, retards progression of atherosclerosis but does not induce regression; (iii) LDLR or LDLR and APOAI combination gene therapy induces lesion regression; however, LDLR gene transfer accounts for the majority of the effects of combined gene therapy; (iv) LDLR gene therapy reduces interleukin-7, which is a master regulator of T-cell homeostasis, but APOAI gene therapy does not. These results indicate that LDL cholesterol lowering is effective and sufficient in protection against atherosclerosis and induction of regression of pre-existing atherosclerosis.

  14. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with fat consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, Najat; Brown, Carrie A; Rapley, Melyssa; Chung, Mei

    2016-10-04

    Intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to explore whether increased nutrition knowledge is associated with a reduction in the consumption of unhealthy fats in a sample of university students. A sample of 231 students, with a mean age of 20 years, was recruited from university campus during spring 2012. Students completed a validated questionnaire related to students' demographic, nutrition knowledge, and daily fat consumption. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, chi-square, and student's t-test. Results indicate that female students have greater nutrition knowledge than male students (the mean nutrition score for women was 5 points higher than that of men (P = 0.01)). Nutrition knowledge was negatively correlated with fat and cholesterol intake. Students who consumed more than 35 % calories from fat or >300 mg of cholesterol daily had lower mean nutrition scores than those students with lower fat or cholesterol intake (8 points lower and 7.9 points lower, respectively). Using linear regression for nutrition scores on estimated saturated fat intake and cholesterol intake (controlling for gender, height, weight, age, and dieting), nutrition scores were negatively associated with saturated fat intake (-0.15, P Students with greater nutritional knowledge consumed less unhealthy fats and cholesterol. This finding magnifies the role of nutrition education as a potential tool in health campaigns to promote healthy eating patterns among college students. Results of this pilot study can inform the design of future nutrition education intervention studies to assess the efficacy of nutrition knowledge on pattern of fat consumption among college students.

  15. The Effects of a Fat Tax on Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Hayley H. Chouinard; Davis, David E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Perloff, Jeffrey M

    2005-01-01

    We apply an incomplete demand system to supermarket scanner data to estimate the effects of a fat tax on dairy products for different demographic groups. We find own-price elasticities of demand are relatively inelastic and vary little across groups. A fat tax may be an effective means to raise revenue, but will not result in a significant reduction in fat consumption. The welfare effects associated with a fat tax are large and vary greatly across demographic groups. These fat taxes are regre...

  16. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary pomegranate extract and inulin in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Zhang, Song; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-10-16

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that both polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) and the polysaccharide inulin, ameliorate metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet, but little is known about the specific mechanisms. This study evaluated the effect of PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets supplemented with PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination for 4 weeks. At the end of intervention, serum and hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride levels, hepatic gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism as well as fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion were determined. Dietary supplementation of the HF/HS diet with PomX and inulin decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol. Supplementation with PomX and inulin together resulted in lower hepatic and serum total cholesterol compared to individual treatments. Compared to HF/HS control, PomX increased gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1, key regulators of bile acid synthesis pathways. Inulin decreased gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol de novo synthesis Srebf2 and Hmgcr and significantly increased fecal elimination of total bile acids and neutral sterols. Only PomX in combination with inulin reduced liver and lipid weight significantly compared to the HF/HS control group. PomX showed a trend to decrease liver triglyceride (TG) levels, while inulin or PomX-inulin combination had no effect on either serum or liver TG levels. Dietary PomX and inulin supplementation decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol by different mechanisms and the combination leading to a significant enhancement of the cholesterol-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How (not) to raise money

    OpenAIRE

    Goeree, Jacob K; Emiel Maasland; Sander Onderstal; John L. Turner

    2005-01-01

    We show that standard winner-pay auctions are inept fund-raising mechanisms because of the positive externality bidders forgo if they top another's high bid. Revenues are suppressed as a result and remain finite even when bidders value a dollar donated the same as a dollar kept. This problem does not occur in lotteries and all-pay auctions, where bidders pay irrespective of whether they win. We introduce a general class of all-pay auctions, rank their revenues, and illustrate how they dominat...

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMeaney

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although best known as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, cholesterol is a vital component of all mammalian cells. In addition to key structural roles, cholesterol is a vital biochemical precursor for numerous biologically important compounds including oxysterols and bile acids, as well as acting as an activator of critical morphogenic systems (e.g. the Hedgehog system. A variety of sophisticated regulatory mechanisms interact to coordinate the overall level of cholesterol in cells, tissues and the entire organism. Accumulating evidence indicates that in additional to the more ‘traditional’ regulatory schemes, cholesterol homeostasis is also under the control of epigenetic mechanisms such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation. The available evidence supporting a role for these mechanisms in the control of cholesterol synthesis, elimination, transport and storage are the focus of this review.

  19. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Ki-Teak; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-20

    Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks. LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.

  20. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  1. The Danish fat tax—Effects on consumption patterns and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Malene; Pisinger, Charlotta Holm; Toft, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    2010 to July 2013. IHD risk was assessed by modelling first the effect of changes in intake of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated fat and dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol and subsequently modelling the resulting changes in risk of IHD using two different methods. Results: The total...

  2. Epiberberine reduces serum cholesterol in diet-induced dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters via network pathways involving cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zong-Yao; Hu, Yin-Ran; Ma, Hang; Feng, Min; Li, Xue-Gang; Ye, Xiao-Li

    2016-03-05

    This study aimed to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effect of epiberberine in dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters induced by high fat and high cholesterol (HFHC) diet and its regulation mechanism on some key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into six groups: normal control group (NC), HFHC group, simvastatin (Sim) and three doses of epiberberine group. The body weight, organs weight and serum lipid levels, as well as total cholesterol (TC) and total bile acids (TBA) levels in liver and feces were determined. Furthermore, the antidyslipidemia effect of epiberberine on key genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, conversion and elimination such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor), 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apical sodium dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) were investigated. The results showed that epiberberine at high dosage significantly reduced serum TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and TBA levels by 20.2%, 22.3% and 43.8%, respectively, and increased TBA and TC levels in feces. Epiberberine inhibited HMGCR mRNA and protein expressions and slightly reduced the protein level of ASBT, as well as dramatically up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of CYP7A1 and LDL receptor. These findings suggested that the antidyslipidemia effects of epiberberine can be achieved via inhibiting the synthesis of cholesterol, promoting the uptake and conversion of TC in liver and increasing the excretion of TC and TBA in feces. Thus, epiberberine should be considered as one of the promising natural drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Influencing the Digestibility of Solid Fats: Mammalian and Plant Lipases--Glyceride Structure and Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    food applications. It is recognized that stearic acid has no effect upon human plasma cholesterol levels, unlike hydrogenated coconut oil (H00) ,11...stearic acid on human cholesterol levels. The addition of 100 uL of hexane to the incubation medium (7.5 mL) greatly enhanced DIG of SOS (96%) and SSO...STaABLE FOODS TRIACYLGLYCEROLS M0NOOLYCERJDES DIGESTION(BIOLOGY) FATTY ACIDS FATS CHOLESTEROL 15, NUMBER OF PAGES 2U 18. PRICE CODE 17

  4. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Nov 16,2017 High cholesterol usually ... diabetes and high blood pressure. How often should cholesterol be checked? The American Heart Association recommends that ...

  5. Diet and heart disease. The role of fat, alcohol, and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziano, J M; Manson, J E

    1996-02-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that the Western diet plays a major role in atherogenesis. Clinicians are only now beginning to tease out the precise components of the diet that are harmful or beneficial. With respect to fat intake, it remains unclear whether it is the amount or type of fat that promotes atherosclerotic disease. There appears to be a consistent positive association of cholesterol, saturated fat, and possibly trans-fatty acid intake and atherosclerotic disease. Although there is general agreement that reducing intake of these dietary components would be beneficial, controversy remains on what should replace these harmful fats. Some researchers advocate massive reductions in total fat consumption with replacement with carbohydrates for everyone, whereas others recommend a Mediterranean-style diet, which replaces saturated animal fats with vegetable fats. Very low-fat diets have been shown to lower the chance of a heart attack among those with severe coronary artery disease, but for the majority of Americans who do not have obvious artery disease, there is no convincing evidence that a very low-fat diet is optimal. There may be other adverse health effects of this Asian diet, such as increased rates of hemorrhagic stroke. Further research is required to refine thinking on the optimal composition of fats in diet. The effects of alcohol consumption on chronic diseases are complex. The strength and consistency of the observational and experimental evidence strongly suggests a causal link between light to moderate alcoholic beverage consumption and reduced risks of CHD. These reductions in risk of CHD appear to be mediated largely by raising HDL cholesterol levels, although additional mechanisms remain possible and do not appear to be beverage specific. Maximal benefit in terms of CHD appears to be at the level of one drink per day. From a public policy standpoint, whether the benefits for CHD persist at heavy drinking levels or are attenuated is moot

  6. Raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for better prevention of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birjmohun, Rakesh S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2007-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence supports the benefits of lipid lowering on cardiovascular outcome. As a consequence, statin therapy has emerged as the foundation for management of dyslipidemia in high-risk patients. Despite these achievements, two-thirds of cardiovascular events cannot be prevented

  7. Intestinal absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol. Dietary and pharmacological inhibition to reduce cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, E

    2000-08-01

    Triglycerides and cholesterol are important biological lipids, and their excessive intake in the diet is relevant to the development of two prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Because most lipids are essentially water-insoluble molecules, their transport within and absorption from the aqueous medium of intestinal contents is rather complex. This takes place in a series of orderly and interrelated steps, including emulsification, hydrolysis by specific esterases, micellar transport, mucosal absorption, re-synthesis of parent molecules in enterocytes, and assembly with apolipoproteins and other molecules to form chylomicrons, the secretory product of intestinal cells. Many of these processes, however, are not well characterized at the molecular level. While in health the intestinal absorption of triglycerides is very efficient, the same does not apply to cholesterol absorption. Besides being generally inefficient, cholesterol absorption is highly variable, with a between-subject variability that depends in part on genetic factors and an intra-individual variability, which may be modulated by physiological and dietary conditions. All of the sequential steps in intestinal lipid absorption can be interfered with by dietary components or drugs and thus are potential therapeutic targets for inducing a controlled malabsorption of triglyceride, useful in the treatment of obesity, or for rendering cholesterol absorption even more inefficient in an attempt to lower blood cholesterol levels. Nevertheless, intestinally derived cholesterol available to the liver exerts complex feedback regulation on whole-body cholesterol homeostasis that limits the efficacy of cholesterol absorption inhibitors to lower blood cholesterol. This review focuses first on present knowledge of the physiology of intestinal fat absorption, necessary to understand the ways to manipulate it in order to obtain the desired effects on dietary triglyceride and cholesterol

  8. Human CETP aggravates atherosclerosis by increasing VLDL-cholesterol rather than by decreasing HDL-cholesterol in APOE*3-Leiden mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries-van der Weij, Jitske; Zadelaar, Susanne; Toet, Karin; Havekes, Louis M; Kooistra, Teake; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2009-09-01

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) adversely affects the plasma lipoprotein profile by increasing VLDL-cholesterol and decreasing HDL-cholesterol. The relative contribution of either of these changes to atherosclerosis development is not known. We investigated to what extent the increase in VLDL-cholesterol can explain the atherogenic action of human CETP expression in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L) mice, a model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. E3L mice and E3L.CETP mice were fed a low cholesterol (LC) diet, resulting in a 4-fold increased VLDL-cholesterol level as well as a 9-fold increased atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic root in E3L.CETP mice compared to E3L-LC mice. E3L mice fed a high cholesterol (HC) diet to match the increased VLDL-cholesterol levels in E3L.CETP mice, displayed a similar atherosclerotic lesion area as observed in E3L.CETP mice. Hence, the CETP-induced raise in atherosclerosis can largely be explained by increased VLDL-cholesterol. Despite similar atherosclerosis development, E3L.CETP mice had lower HDL-cholesterol as compared to E3L-HC mice (-49%) indicating that the HDL-cholesterol lowering effect of CETP is unlikely to contribute to atherosclerosis development in this experimental setting. Remarkably, atherosclerotic lesions in CETP-expressing mice were enriched in collagen, suggesting a role of CETP or the diet in modifying lesion collagen content. In this experimental setting, the proatherogenic effect of CETP is largely explained by increased VLDL-cholesterol.

  9. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  10. [Nicotinic acid increases cellular transport of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Catalina; Droppelmann, Katherine; Quiñones, Verónica; Amigo, Ludwig; Mendoza, Camila; Serrano, Valentina; Véjar, Margarita; Maiz, Alberto; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.

  11. Effect of bypass fat supplementation on productive performance and blood biochemical profile in lactating Murrah (Bubalus bubalis) buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Amit; Sahoo, Biswanath; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Susant; Singh, Suresh Pratap; Pattanaik, Ashok Kumar

    2012-10-01

    The study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation of bypass fat on productive performance and blood biochemical profile of lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Fifteen multiparous buffaloes (2-4 lactation) of early to mid lactation were divided in three homogenous groups T(1) (control), T(2), and T(3) of five each. The animals in T(1) were fed with a basal diet consisting of a concentrate mixture, green sorghum, and wheat straw as per requirements, while the animals in group T(2) and T(3) were fed with same ration supplemented with 0.7 % (100 g/day) and 1.4 % (200 g/day) bypass fat (on dry matter intake (DMI) basis), respectively. The feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were not influenced by supplemental bypass fat. However, fat-corrected milk (6.5 %) yield was higher (P fat which is 1.4 % (200 g/day) of the diet were economically more efficient. The serum cholesterol level was higher (P fat-supplemented group (T(2) and T(3)) of animals. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (good cholesterol) level was more (P bad cholesterol) level with higher dose of bypass fat in T(3) than T(2). It was concluded that bypass fat supplementation with 1.4 % of the diet (200 g/day) increased the fat-corrected milk production and feed efficiency along with serum HDL cholesterol level in lactating Murrah buffaloes.

  12. Cholesterol worships a new idol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ira G

    2009-12-01

    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Efficacy of yogurt drink with added plant stanol esters (Benecol?, Colanta) in reducing total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial NCT01461798

    OpenAIRE

    V?squez-Trespalacios, Elsa M; Romero-Palacio, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death from chronic diseases in the world. Main risk factors include hypercholesterolemia, which is caused in most cases by a high saturated fat diet. Plant stanol esters partly block cholesterol absorption in the digestive tract and thereby reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol serum levels. Based on epidemiological data, a 10 percent reduction of LDL cholesterol leads to a 20 percent decrease...

  14. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  15. Goat milk feeding causes an increase in biliary secretion of cholesterol and a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aliaga, I; Alférez, M J M; Nestares, M T; Ros, P B; Barrionuevo, M; Campos, M S

    2005-03-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effect of goat milk with respect to cow milk observed in a previous study led us to examine the influence of goat and cow milk in the diet on certain aspects of biliary physiology in normal rats. The fat content in all diets was 10% but the lipid quality was varied: the standard diet was based on virgin olive oil, and the other 2 diets included fat obtained from lyophilized cow milk and goat milk. We characterized the bile secretion, including biliary phospholipid, cholesterol, and bile acid outputs, the interrelation between bile acids and bile lipids, and the lithogenic index. The consumption of goat milk in the diet, compared with that of cow milk, caused an increase in the biliary secretion of cholesterol together with a decrease in plasma cholesterol concentration, whereas values for bile phospholipids, biliary acid concentrations, and the lithogenic index remained normal. Moreover, consumption of this type of milk decreased plasma triglyceride concentration and therefore had a positive effect, similar to that of olive oil (standard diet), on the lipid metabolism; hence, it may be recommended for consumption by the general population.

  16. Food, fat, family and friends : studies on the impact of the social environment on dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feunekes, G.I.J.

    1996-01-01


    The impact of the social environment on food and fat intake was investigated in several samples including family members, close friends, and meal time companions in the Netherlands. Firstly, a food frequency questionnaire to assess the intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol was

  17. 7 CFR 65.235 - Raised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.235 Raised. Raised means, in the case of beef, pork...

  18. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  19. Utilization of Cow Milk Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid to Decrease Body Weight, Cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein and to Increase Blood High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FM Suhartati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to investigate the ability of cow milk enriched with conjugated linoleic acid to decrease body weight, total cholesterol, blood Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL, and to increase blood High Density Lipoprotein (HDL has been conducted using in vivo experimental method. Research material consisted of 40 8-week-old white female rats (Rattus norvegicus of Wistar strain (as an animal model. The method used was an experimental method with a Completely Randomized Design. The treatments tested were P1 = high-fat ration containing 27.66% fat (HF, P2 = HF + 5 ml of milk/head/day, P3 = HF + 10 ml of milk/head/day, P4 = low-fat ration containing 5% fat (LF. Each treatment was repeated five times to make 20 experiment units, each consisted of two rats. Body weight gain, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were observed. The data obtained were then analyzed using analysis of variance followed by orthogonal contrast test. Orthogonal polynomials tests was applied to evaluate the response variables. The results showed that 10 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease body weight of hypercholesterolemic rats and 5 ml/head/day of cow milk was needed to decrease total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and to increase blood HDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic rats. Keywords: cow milk, conjugated linoleic acid, body weight gain, cholesterol.   Animal Production 14(2:70-76

  20. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol content of broilers. The EM was added to drinking water at a rate of 1 part EM to 1000 parts of water. The two treatments ...

  1. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S

    2016-05-01

    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of transection and extrinsic denervation and a model of autotransplantation of the porcine jejunoileum on cholesterol biodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakarinen, Mikko P; Pirinen, Paula; Lauronen, Jouni; Raivio, Peter; Kuusanmäki, Pekka; Halttunen, Jorma

    2003-11-01

    Small bowel transplantation impairs enteric function, necessitating transection, extrinsic denervation, and ischemia-reperfusion of the small intestine. The authors investigated how each of these nonimmunologic insides of the transplantation procedure modulates biodynamics of cholesterol and absorption of lipids. Twenty-three pigs with similar food, cholesterol, and fat intake underwent sham laparotomy (group 1), transection (group 2), extrinsic jejunoileal denervation (group 3), or a model of autotransplantation, including extrinsic jejunoileal denervation with in situ ischemia-reperfusion (group 4). Serum lipids, absorption, and excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, and fat were determined after 8 weeks. Plasma cholesterol precursors and plant sterols, respective markers of cholesterol synthesis, and absorption, were measured after 2 and 8 weeks. When compared with sham laparotomy and transection groups, denervation and autotransplantation significantly decreased weight gain and increased plasma cholesterol precursors and fecal excretion of bile acids. In relation to sham operated animals, transection alone modestly increased plasma plant sterols at 2 weeks and biliary secretion and mass absorption of cholesterol. The latter changes were not observed after denervation or autotransplantation, ie, fractional and total absorption of cholesterol were significantly decreased in autotransplanted pigs when compared with transected controls. As compared with all the other groups, autotransplantation significantly increased bacterial metabolites of neutral sterols in feces and net fecal elimination of cholesterol, mainly as bile acids. Extrinsic autonomic denervation of the jejunoileum, with or without synchronous ischemia-reperfusion, results in increased cholesterol synthesis, bile acid malabsorption, and decreased weight gain. Cholesterol malabsorption may develop gradually after intestinal autotransplantation, and even a short period of ischemia further impairs

  3. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish... for wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to parts 17 or 23 of this subchapter, live farm-raised fish...

  4. Effects of oat beta-glucan intake on blood cholesterol: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Elevated total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels are considered major risk factors for coronary heart disease. Oat is a cereal that is a good source of proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins, as well as soluble fiber, including beta-glucans. Due to the physicochemical characteristics of the beta-glucan, it has been proposed that oats may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and help control postprandial plasma glucose and insulin response. A large body of clinical studies suggests that the consumption of at least 3 g per day of oat betaglucan, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, which has been approved by several regulatory agencies, as the Food and Drug Administration in the USA and the European Food Safety Authority in Europe.

  5. Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, S; Rosqvist, F; Edholm, D; Ahlström, H; Kullberg, J; Sundbom, M; Risérus, U; Rudling, M

    2017-05-01

    Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver. Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m-2 ) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low-calorie diet (800-1100 kcal day-1 ). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty-four nonobese women (BMI cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low-calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%. The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Comparative effects of piperine and simvastatin in fat accumulation and antioxidative status in high fat-induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunsophon, Sakara; Chootip, Krongkarn

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the comparative effects of piperine (PIP) - the active ingredient of black and long peppers - and simvastatin (SIM) on hepatic steatosis in hyperlipidemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a cholesterol mixture daily by intragastric gavage for 8 weeks. Piperine was given by oral gavage 8 h after cholesterol feeding. The animals were divided into 4 groups: control, high fat (HF), high fat plus 40 mg PIP/kg, and high fat plus 2 mg SIM/kg. At the end of the treatment, liver cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobaribituric reacting substances, superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transferase (ALT) were measured. The result demonstrated that PIP and SIM significantly reduced the accumulation of cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipid peroxidation in the liver, while elevation of SOD was observed. The activities of AST and ALT significantly decreased in PIP when compared with the HF group. Our in vitro study of pancreatic lipase also showed the inhibitory effect of PIP higher than 30% at 5 mmol/L. These results demonstrate that PIP has beneficial effects in the treatment and (or) prevention of fat accumulation in the liver and that this mechanism is due to the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and the improvement of oxidative status.

  7. The mevalonate pathway in neurons: It's not just about cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Miguel; Nunes, Maria João; Rodrigues, Elsa

    2017-11-01

    Cholesterol homeostasis greatly impacts neuronal function due to the essential role of this sterol in the brain. The mevalonate (MVA) pathway leads to the synthesis of cholesterol, but also supplies cells with many other intermediary molecules crucial for neuronal function. Compelling evidence point to a model in which neurons shutdown cholesterol synthesis, and rely on a shuttle derived from astrocytes to meet their cholesterol needs. Nevertheless, several reports suggest that neurons maintain the MVA pathway active, even with sustained cholesterol supply by astrocytes. Hence, in this review we focus not on cholesterol production, but rather on the role of the MVA pathway in the synthesis of particular intermediaries, namely isoprenoids, and on their role on neuronal function. Isoprenoids act as anchors for membrane association, after being covalently bound to proteins, such as most of the small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins, which are critical to neuronal cell function. Based on literature, on our own results, and on the analysis of public transcriptomics databases, we raise the idea that in neurons there is a shift of the MVA pathway towards the non-sterol branch, responsible for isoprenoid synthesis, in detriment to post-squalene branch, and that this is ultimately essential for synaptic activity. Nevertheless new tools that facilitate imaging and the biochemical characterization and quantification of the prenylome in neurons and astrocytes are needed to understand the regulation of isoprenoid production and protein prenylation in the brain, and to analyze its differences on diverse physiological or pathological conditions, such as aging and neurodegenerative states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative integromics on FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Yuriko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT5A, WNT5B, WNT11, FZD3, FZD6, VANGL1, VANGL2, DVL1, DVL2, DVL3, PRICKLE1, PRICKLE2, ANKRD6, NKD1, NKD2, DAAM1, DAAM2, CELSR1, CELSR2, CELSR3, ROR1 and ROR2 are planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecules implicated in the regulation of cellular polarity, convergent extension, and invasion. FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are Cadherin superfamily members homologous to Drosophila Fat, functioning as a positive regulator of PCP in the Drosophila wing. Complete coding sequence (CDS) for human FAT1 (NM_005245.3) and FAT2 (NM_001447.1) are available, while artificial CDS for human FAT3 (XM_926199 and XM_936538) and partial CDS for FAT4 (NM_024582.2). Here, complete CDS of human FAT3 and FAT4 were determined by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (Humint). FAT3 gene, consisting of 26 exons, encoded a 4557-aa protein with extracellular 33 Cadherin repeats, one Laminin G (LamG) domain and two EGF domains. FAT4 gene encoded a 4924-aa protein with extracellular 34 Cadherin repeats, two LamG domains and three EGF domains. Cytoplasmic VCSVxPxLP and SDYxS motifs were identified as novel motifs conserved among FAT1, FAT2 and FAT3 orthologs. Domain architecture comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAT1, FAT2 and FAR3 were divergent from FAT4. FAT1-MTNR1A locus at 4q35.2 and FAT3-MTNR1B locus at 11q14.3-q21 were paralogous regions within the human genome. FAT1 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and brain tumors. FAT2 mRNA was expressed in infant brain, cerebellum, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, ovarian cancer, esophageal cancer, skin squamous cell carcinoma, head and neck cancer. FAT3 mRNA was expressed in ES cells, primitive neuroectoderm, fetal brain, infant brain, adult neural tissues and prostate. FAT4 mRNA was expressed in fetal brain, infant brain, brain tumor and colorectal cancer. FAT family members were revealed to be targets of systems

  9. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  10. Energetic efficiency of protein and body fat retention in crossbred Bos indicus and Bos Taurus × Bos indicus raised under tropical conditions Eficiência energética de retenção de proteína e gordura corporal em zebuínos e mestiços Europeu × Zebu mantidos em clima tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sampaio Henrique

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of fat and protein retention by Bos indicus and its cross-breds was estimated from data obtained in the literature to verify possible differences between these animals and Bos taurus. After estimating the efficiencies, a correction factor was used to discount the metabolizable energy fraction that was spent in the maintenance and support metabolism processes. The efficiencies were then estimated again, assuming that all the remaining energy would correspond to the metabolizable energy available for body mass retention. The correction value used was considered satisfactory to discount energetic losses for maintenance and support. The efficiency values of partial body fat and protein retention in Bos indicus and its cross-bred were very similar to values reported by other authors who researched Bos taurus exclusively.A eficiência com que animais zebuínos e seus cruzamentos transformam a energia metabolizável consumida em gordura e proteína corporal foi estimada a partir de informações obtidas na literatura no intuito de verificar se existem diferenças entre esses animais e os de raças europeias. Após a estimativa das eficiências, usou-se uma correção para descontar a porção da energia metabolizável gasta na manutenção da massa corporal e no metabolismo de suporte. Posteriormente à aplicação da correção, as eficiências foram estimadas novamente, partindo-se do pressuposto de que o montante de energia restante corresponderia à energia metabolizável utilizada para acúmulo de massa corporal. O valor de correção utilizado foi considerado suficiente para descontar as perdas energéticas para mantença e suporte. Os valores de eficiência de retenção parcial de gordura e proteína corporal em animais zebuínos e mestiços Europeu × Zebu são muito próximos dos encontrados por outros autores em pesquisas com animais exclusivamente europeus.

  11. Structure and dynamics of cholesterol-containing polyunsaturated lipid membranes studied by neutron diffraction and NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Mihaela; Soubias, Olivier; Worcester, David; White, Stephen H; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    A direct and quantitative analysis of the internal structure and dynamics of a polyunsaturated lipid bilayer composed of 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0-22:6n3-PC) containing 29 mol% cholesterol was carried out by neutron diffraction, (2)H-NMR and (13)C-MAS NMR. Scattering length distribution functions of cholesterol segments as well as of the sn-1 and sn-2 hydrocarbon chains of 18:0-22:6n3-PC were obtained by conducting experiments with specifically deuterated cholesterol and lipids. Cholesterol orients parallel to the phospholipids, with the A-ring near the lipid glycerol and the terminal methyl groups 3 Å away from the bilayer center. Previously, we reported that the density of polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) chains was higher near the lipid-water interface. Addition of cholesterol partially redistributes DHA density from near the lipid-water interface to the center of the hydrocarbon region. Cholesterol raises chain-order parameters of both stearic acid and DHA chains. The fractional order increase for stearic acid methylene carbons C(8)-C(18) is larger, reflecting the redistribution of DHA chain density toward the bilayer center. The correlation times of DHA chain isomerization are short and mostly unperturbed by the presence of cholesterol. The uneven distribution of saturated and polyunsaturated chain densities and the cholesterol-induced balancing of chain distributions may have important implications for the function and integrity of membrane receptors, such as rhodopsin.

  12. Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of beef at retail of Piemontese, Limousin and Friesian breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugiapaglia, A; Lussiana, C; Destefanis, G

    2014-01-01

    Samples of longissimus thoracis muscle of young bulls belonging to Piemontese (n=10), Limousin (n=11) and Friesian (n=10) breeds were analysed in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acids and cholesterol content of beef purchased at retail. The breeds and their differences in intramuscular fat content strongly influenced the fatty acids profile. The Piemontese animals displayed the lowest intramuscular fat and SFA content, while Friesian animals showed the highest intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA content. In general, Limousin animals had intermediate characteristics. A higher PUFA proportion on total fatty acids was observed in Piemontese breed, but the PUFA absolute content (mg/100 g meat) did not differ among breeds. All the three breeds displayed a high content of n-6 fatty acids family and, consequently, a very unbalanced n-6/n-3 ratio. No differences were found for cholesterol content. © 2013.

  13. Cholesterol photosensitised oxidation of horse meat slices stored under different packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, Emanuele; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Ferioli, Federico; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Lercker, Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the type of packaging film (transparent vs. light-protecting red film) was evaluated on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in refrigerated horse meat slices stored in retail conditions under light exposure for 8h. In meat wrapped with a transparent film, COPs increased from 233 (control) to 317 microg/g of fat, whereas the red film delayed cholesterol oxidation and offered protection against COPs formation, since COPs decreased from 173 (control) to 139 microg/g of fat after 8h of light exposure. In addition, light opened the epoxy ring and led to the formation of triol, which was actually absent at T(0.) A proper packaging film may represent a useful strategy to retard oxidative degradation in a light-sensitive, high pigment- and fat-containing food, such as horse meat. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Thompson, Rachel; Sills, Deirdre; Roberts, Felicia G; Moore, Helen; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol), but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. Objectives To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. Search methods For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group, 2) intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions), 3) not multi factorial, 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5) intervention at least six months, 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. Main results This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%). Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides), of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women). There were no clear effects of dietary fat changes on total mortality (RR 0

  15. Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hooper

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reduction and modification of dietary fats have differing effects on cardiovascular risk factors (such as serum cholesterol, but their effects on important health outcomes are less clear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of reduction and/or modification of dietary fats on mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and individual outcomes including myocardial infarction, stroke and cancer diagnoses in randomised clinical trials of at least 6 months duration. METHODS: Search methods: For this review update, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Medline and Embase, were searched through to June 2010. References of Included studies and reviews were also checked. Selection criteria: Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1 randomized with appropriate control group, 2 intention to reduce or modify fat or cholesterol intake (excluding exclusively omega-3 fat interventions, 3 not multi factorial, 4 adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease, 5 intervention at least six months, 6 mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Data collection and analysis: Participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm were extracted independently in duplicate and random effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, sub-grouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots were performed. MAIN RESULTS: This updated review suggested that reducing saturated fat by reducing and/or modifying dietary fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 14% (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.96, 24 comparisons, 65,508 participants of whom 7% had a cardiovascular event, I2 50%. Subgrouping suggested that this reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies of fat modification (not reduction - which related directly to the degree of effect on serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, of at least two years duration and in studies of men (not of women. There were no clear effects of dietary fat

  16. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion and reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization the number one cause of death throughout the world is cardiovascular disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease. One possible way is to target the HDL-driven reverse cholesterol

  17. Remnant cholesterol and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in the field of remnant cholesterol as a contributor to the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD). RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic, mechanistic, and genetic studies all support a role for elevated remnant cholesterol (=cholesterol in triglyceride......-rich lipoproteins) as a contributor to the development of atherosclerosis and IHD. Observational studies show association between elevated remnant cholesterol and IHD, and mechanistic studies show remnant cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall like LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) accumulation. Furthermore, large...... genetic studies show evidence of remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for IHD independent of HDL-cholesterol levels. Genetic studies also show that elevated remnant cholesterol is associated with low-grade inflammation, whereas elevated LDL-C is not. There are several pharmacologic ways of lowering...

  18. Effect of a high intake of cheese on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome: results of a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Rita; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Haug, Anna; Skeie, Siv

    2015-01-01

    Background Cheese is generally rich in saturated fat, which is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, recent reports suggest that cheese may be antiatherogenic. Objective The goal of this study was to assess whether intake of two types of Norwegian cheese, with widely varying fat and calcium content, might influence factors of the metabolic syndrome and serum cholesterol levels differently. Design A total of 153 participants were randomized to one of three groups: Gamalost®, a traditional fat- and salt-free Norwegian cheese (50 g/day), Gouda-type cheese with 27% fat (80 g/day), and a control group with a limited cheese intake. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and questionnaires about lifestyle and diet were obtained at inclusion and end. Results At baseline, there were no differences between the groups in relevant baseline characteristics, mean age 43, 52.3% female. After 8 weeks’ intervention, there were no changes in any of the metabolic syndrome factors between the intervention groups compared with the control group. There were no increases in total- or LDL cholesterol in the cheese groups compared with the control. Stratified analysis showed that those in the Gouda group with metabolic syndrome at baseline had significant reductions in total cholesterol at the end of the trial compared with control (−0.70 mmol/L, p=0.013), and a significantly higher reduction in mean triglycerides. In the Gamalost group, those who had high total cholesterol at baseline had a significant reduction in total cholesterol compared with control (−0.40 mmol/L, p=0.035). Conclusions In conclusion, cholesterol levels did not increase after high intake of 27% fat Gouda-type cheese over 8 weeks’ intervention, and stratified analysis showed that participants with metabolic syndrome had reduced cholesterol at the end of the trial. PMID:26294049

  19. Effect of a high intake of cheese on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome: results of a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Nilsen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cheese is generally rich in saturated fat, which is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, recent reports suggest that cheese may be antiatherogenic. Objective: The goal of this study was to assess whether intake of two types of Norwegian cheese, with widely varying fat and calcium content, might influence factors of the metabolic syndrome and serum cholesterol levels differently. Design: A total of 153 participants were randomized to one of three groups: Gamalost®, a traditional fat- and salt-free Norwegian cheese (50 g/day, Gouda-type cheese with 27% fat (80 g/day, and a control group with a limited cheese intake. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and questionnaires about lifestyle and diet were obtained at inclusion and end. Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the groups in relevant baseline characteristics, mean age 43, 52.3% female. After 8 weeks’ intervention, there were no changes in any of the metabolic syndrome factors between the intervention groups compared with the control group. There were no increases in total- or LDL cholesterol in the cheese groups compared with the control. Stratified analysis showed that those in the Gouda group with metabolic syndrome at baseline had significant reductions in total cholesterol at the end of the trial compared with control (−0.70 mmol/L, p=0.013, and a significantly higher reduction in mean triglycerides. In the Gamalost group, those who had high total cholesterol at baseline had a significant reduction in total cholesterol compared with control (−0.40 mmol/L, p=0.035. Conclusions: In conclusion, cholesterol levels did not increase after high intake of 27% fat Gouda-type cheese over 8 weeks’ intervention, and stratified analysis showed that participants with metabolic syndrome had reduced cholesterol at the end of the trial.

  20. Effect of a high intake of cheese on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Rita; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Haug, Anna; Skeie, Siv

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is generally rich in saturated fat, which is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, recent reports suggest that cheese may be antiatherogenic. The goal of this study was to assess whether intake of two types of Norwegian cheese, with widely varying fat and calcium content, might influence factors of the metabolic syndrome and serum cholesterol levels differently. A total of 153 participants were randomized to one of three groups: Gamalost(®), a traditional fat- and salt-free Norwegian cheese (50 g/day), Gouda-type cheese with 27% fat (80 g/day), and a control group with a limited cheese intake. Blood samples, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and questionnaires about lifestyle and diet were obtained at inclusion and end. At baseline, there were no differences between the groups in relevant baseline characteristics, mean age 43, 52.3% female. After 8 weeks' intervention, there were no changes in any of the metabolic syndrome factors between the intervention groups compared with the control group. There were no increases in total- or LDL cholesterol in the cheese groups compared with the control. Stratified analysis showed that those in the Gouda group with metabolic syndrome at baseline had significant reductions in total cholesterol at the end of the trial compared with control (-0.70 mmol/L, p=0.013), and a significantly higher reduction in mean triglycerides. In the Gamalost group, those who had high total cholesterol at baseline had a significant reduction in total cholesterol compared with control (-0.40 mmol/L, p=0.035). In conclusion, cholesterol levels did not increase after high intake of 27% fat Gouda-type cheese over 8 weeks' intervention, and stratified analysis showed that participants with metabolic syndrome had reduced cholesterol at the end of the trial.

  1. Comparative effects of plant oils and trans-fat on blood lipid profiles and ischemic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Suk An, Eun; Choi, Jieun; Woom Seo, Da; Yon, Jung-Min; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2017-01-19

    Since plant oils are believed to be better than animal fats for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, the effects of various plant oils and trans-fat on blood lipid profiles and ischemic stroke were investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing the oils or trans-fat, and then body weights, blood lipids, and effects on brain infarction and physical dysfunction induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were analyzed. All the oils and trans-fat, except perilla oil, significantly increased body fats and body weight gain. Sesame oil and trans-fat specifically increased blood cholesterols and triglycerides, respectively, while perilla oil decreased both cholesterols and triglycerides. Perilla oil not only attenuated cerebral infarction, but also restored locomotor activity and rota-rod performances of MCAO rats. It is suggested that perilla oil among oils and fats could be the first choice to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome and ischemic stroke.

  2. Fish oil promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Pellizzon, Michael A; Aihara, Masakazu; Stylianou, Ioannis M; Billheimer, Jeffery T; Rothblat, George; Rader, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Fish oil (FO), and specifically omega 3 fatty acids, has favorable effects on cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of FO on the process of macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in an in vivo mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were fed a FO diet, whereas control mice were fed diets containing alternative sources of fats, soybean oil (SO), and coconut oil (CO) for 4 weeks. Macrophage RCT was assessed by injecting [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophages intraperitoneally into mice. After 48 hours, tissues were harvested and feces were collected. An increase in the excretion of macrophage-derived [(3)H]-tracer recovered in fecal neutral sterols for FO-fed mice was observed (273% versus SO and 182% versus CO). FO also decreased [(3)H]-tracer in hepatic cholesteryl ester compared to SO and CO by 76% and 56%, respectively. To specifically determine the effect of FO on the fate of HDL-derived cholesterol, mice fed FO or SO diets were injected with HDL labeled with [(3)H]cholesteryl oleate, and the disappearance of [(3)H]-tracer from blood and its excretion in feces was measured. There was no significant difference in the fractional catabolic rate of [(3)H]cholesteryl oleate-HDL between the 2 groups. However, there was a 242% increase in the excretion of HDL-derived [(3)H]-tracer recovered in fecal neutral sterols in FO-fed mice, concordant with significantly increased expression of hepatic Abcg5 and Abcg8 mRNA. As measured by this tracer-based assay, FO promoted reverse cholesterol transport, primarily by enhancement of the hepatic excretion of macrophage-derived and HDL-derived cholesterol.

  3. Beneficial Effects of an Alternating High- Fat Dietary Regimen on Systemic Insulin Resistance, Hepatic and Renal Inflammation and Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Heijden, R. van der; Molema, G.; Schipper, M.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An Alternating high- cholesterol dietary regimen has proven to be beneficial when compared to daily high- cholesterol feeding. In the current study we explored whether the same strategy is applicable to a high- fat dietary regimen. Objective: To investigate whether an alternating high-

  4. Cholesterol: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly – Therapeutic Targets for the Treatment of Dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshourbagy, Nabil A.; Meyers, Harold V.; Abdel-Meguid, Sherin S.

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels within healthy limits is critical for decreasing the risk of heart disease. Dyslipidemia refers to the abnormal levels of lipids in the blood, including low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), also known as good cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), also known as bad cholesterol, and/or high TG levels that contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this article we reviewed some of the current therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia, with a primary focus on endothelial lipase and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase for raising HDL-C, and the proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and the messenger RNA of apolipoprotein B for lowering LDL-C. In addition, we reviewed the role of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) in raising HDL-C, where we discuss three apoAI-based drugs under development. These are its mutated dimer (apoAI-Milano), a complex with phospholipids, and a mimetic peptide. Atherosclerosis, mainly because of dyslipidemia, is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease. Regarding the title of this article, the ‘good’ refers to HDL-C, the ‘bad’ refers to LDL-C, and the ‘ugly’ refers to atherosclerosis. PMID:24334831

  5. How the ideology of low fat conquered america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Berge, Ann F

    2008-04-01

    This article examines how faith in science led physicians and patients to embrace the low-fat diet for heart disease prevention and weight loss. Scientific studies dating from the late 1940s showed a correlation between high-fat diets and high-cholesterol levels, suggesting that a low-fat diet might prevent heart disease in high-risk patients. By the 1960s, the low-fat diet began to be touted not just for high-risk heart patients, but as good for the whole nation. After 1980, the low-fat approach became an overarching ideology, promoted by physicians, the federal government, the food industry, and the popular health media. Many Americans subscribed to the ideology of low fat, even though there was no clear evidence that it prevented heart disease or promoted weight loss. Ironically, in the same decades that the low-fat approach assumed ideological status, Americans in the aggregate were getting fatter, leading to what many called an obesity epidemic. Nevertheless, the low-fat ideology had such a hold on Americans that skeptics were dismissed. Only recently has evidence of a paradigm shift begun to surface, first with the challenge of the low-carbohydrate diet and then, with a more moderate approach, reflecting recent scientific knowledge about fats.

  6. Hepatic fat accumulation and regulation of FAT/CD36: an effect of hepatic irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martius, Gesa; Alwahsh, Salamah Mohammad; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation is known to induce inflammation and affect fat metabolic pathways. The current study investigates hepatic fat accumulation and fatty acid transportation in a rat model of single dose liver irradiation (25-Gy). Rat livers were selectively irradiated in-vivo (25-Gy), sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Hepatic lipids were studied by colorimetric assays in liver and serum. Intracellular lipids, protein and mRNA were studied by Nile red staining, immunohistology, Western Blot analysis and RT-PCR in liver, respectively. Changes in FAT/CD36 expression were studied in-vitro in a human monocyte cell line U937 after irradiation in presence or absence of infliximab (IFX). Nile Red staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (12-48 h) increase in fat droplets. Accordingly, hepatic triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were elevated. An early increase (3-6 h) in the serum level of HDL-C, TG and cholesterol was measured after single dose irradiation followed by a decrease thereafter. Furthermore, expression of the fat transporter protein FAT/CD36 was increased, immunohistochemistry revealed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression in hepatocytes. Moreover, apolipoprotein-B100, -C3 and enzymes (acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein-lipase, carnitine-palmitoyltransferase, malonyl-CoA-decarboxylase) involved in fat metabolism were induced at 12-24 h. Early activation of the NFkβ pathway (IκBα) by TNF-α was seen, followed by a significant elevation of serum markers for liver damage (AST and GLDH). TNF-α blockage by anti-TNF-α in cell culture (U937) prevented the increase of FAT/CD36 caused by irradiation. Selective liver irradiation is a model for rapid induction of steatosis hepatis and fat accumulation could be triggered by irradiation-induced inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNF-α). PMID:25197426

  7. Tinospora Crispa As A Future Cure For ObesityCholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Kwatra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays people suffering from obesitycholesterol are often heard. This disease is due to the excess of mainly carbohydrate and lipid in an individuals diet and the lack of expenditure of energy such as exercise. Therefore the patawali plant or its scientific name Tinospora crispa is believed to be a traditional cure for the problem. A sample of patawali plant Tinospora crispa juice lime juice ginger juice and grapefruit juice was prepared for the experiment. Next fresh chicken fats are chosen and prepared as they contain a high value of cholesterol. The chicken fat was rinsed with water dried using a filter paper and then immersed in the juice samples for a duration of 1 hour. The initial and final mass of chicken fat was recorded. At the end of the experiment it is found that ginger and Tinospora crispa shows significant in reducing the mass of chicken fat. Thus it can be concluded that Tinospora crispa and ginger has the potential to be the future cure for obesity.

  8. Exploring the factors that affect blood cholesterol and heart disease risk: is dietary cholesterol as bad for you as history leads us to believe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mitchell M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Vickers, Kasey C; Katz, David L

    2012-09-01

    This paper summarizes presentations given at the 2011 Experimental Biology meetings about the latest research and a paleoanthropological perspective pertaining to the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease risk. For much of the past 50 years, a great deal of the scientific literature regarding dietary fat and cholesterol intake has indicated a strong positive correlation with heart disease. In recent years, however, there have been a number of epidemiological studies that did not support a relationship between cholesterol intake and cardiovascular disease. Further, a number of recent clinical trials that looked at the effects of long-term egg consumption (as a vehicle for dietary cholesterol) reported no negative impact on various indices of cardiovascular health and disease. Coupled with data indicating that the impact of lowering dietary cholesterol intake on serum LDL levels is small compared with other dietary and lifestyle factors, there is a need to consider how otherwise healthy foods can be incorporated in the diet to meet current dietary cholesterol recommendations. Because eggs are a healthful food, it is particularly important that sensible strategies be recommended for inclusions of eggs in a healthy diet.

  9. Membrane Cholesterol Modulates Superwarfarin Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marangoni, M. Natalia; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Braun, David; Polak, Paul E.; Weinberg, Guy; Rubinstein, Israel; Gidalevitz, David; Feinstein, Douglas L.

    2016-04-26

    Superwarfarins are modified analogs of warfarin with additional lipophilic aromatic rings, up to 100-fold greater potency, and longer biological half-lives. We hypothesized that increased hydrophobicity allowed interactions with amphiphilic membranes and modulation of biological responses. We find that superwarfarins brodifacoum and difenacoum increase lactate production and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, neither causes changes in glioma cells that have higher cholesterol content. After choleterol depletion, lactate production was increased and cell viability was reduced. Drug-membrane interactions were examined by surface X-ray scattering using Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and/or cholesterol. Specular X-ray reflectivity data revealed that superwarfarins, but not warfarin, intercalate between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, whereas grazing incidence X-ray diffraction demonstrated changes in lateral crystalline order of the film. Neither agent showed significant interactions with monolayers containing >20% cholesterol. These findings demonstrate an affinity of superwarfarins to biomembranes and suggest that cellular responses to these agents are regulated by cholesterol content.

  10. A Comparison of Cholesterol Uptake and Storage in Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breonna J. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many subtypes of breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is arguably the deadliest. Research over the past decade has demonstrated that IBC is a distinct entity from other forms of breast cancer. Important risk factors that have been associated with the development of aggressive breast cancers, such as IBC, include obesity and diet, which are evident in the United States, where the overconsumption of high-fat foods continues to contribute to obesity in the nation. Here we investigate differences in cholesterol uptake and storage between IBC, non-IBC, and mammary epithelial cell lines. Our results demonstrate that compared with human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs, both IBC and non-IBC cells have increased cholesterol content. IBC cells retain intracellular cholesterol esters, free cholesterol, and triglycerides in lipid-deficient environments. In contrast, we observe in cell-type-of-origin-matched non-IBC a significant decrease in lipid content under the same lipid-deficient conditions. These data suggest that cholesterol storage may be affected by the cholesterol content of the environment where the tumor cell was isolated. Here, we suggest that breast cancer cells may migrate when they are unable to obtain cholesterol from their extracellular environments.

  11. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    /postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non-fasting......Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non-fasting....../postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  12. Clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and remnant cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Freiberg, Jacob J

    2011-01-01

    Non-fasting triglycerides are measured at any time within up to 8 h (14 h) after any normal meal, while postprandial triglycerides are measured at a fixed time point within up to 8 h (14 h) of a standardised fat tolerance test. The simplest possible way of evaluating remnant cholesterol is non......-fasting/postprandial total cholesterol minus low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Elevated levels of non-fasting/postprandial triglycerides directly correlate with elevated remnant cholesterol. In the general population, 38% of men have non......-fasting/postprandial triglycerides > 2mmol/L (>176 mg/dL) while 45% of men have non-fasting/postprandial triglyceride levels of 1-2 mmol/L (89-176 mg/dL); corresponding fractions in women are 20% and 47%. Also, 31% of men have remnant cholesterol levels > 1mmol/L (>39 mg/dL) while 46% of men have remnant cholesterol levels of 0...

  13. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Sheikh, Ashfaq; Chauhan, Abha; Tsiouris, John; Malik, Mazhar; Vaughan, Michael

    2002-10-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P hibernation was more in free cholesterol (57%) than in esterified cholesterol (27%). Analysis of subclasses of serum phospholipids showed that choline containing phospholipids, i.e., sphingomyelin (SPG) (14%) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) (76%), are the major phospholipids in the serum of bear. The minor phospholipids included 8% of phosphatidylserine (PS) + phosphatidylinositol (PI), while phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was only 2% of the total phospholipids. A comparison of phospholipid subclasses showed that PC, PS + PI and SPG were significantly increased, while PE was significantly decreased (P hibernating state as compared with the active state in black bears. These results suggest that the catabolism of phospholipids and cholesterol is decreased during hibernation in black bears, leading to their increased levels in the hibernating state as compared with the active state. In summary, our results indicate that serum cholesterol and phospholipid fractions (except PE) are increased during hibernation in bears. It is proposed that the increase of these lipids may be due to the altered metabolism of lipoproteins that are responsible for the clearance of the lipids.

  14. Oxidative stability of lipids and cholesterol in salame Milano, coppa and Parma ham: dietary supplementation with vitamin E and oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, E; Novelli, E; Ghiretti, G P; Chizzolini, R

    2000-06-01

    An investigation has been carried out on the effect of dietary supplementation with vitamin E and oleic acid on oxidative stability of Italian representative pork products. Fatty acid composition of deposited fat was modified in the oil supplemented groups with negative effects on fat firmness. Oil supplementation significantly increased vitamin E content of muscles, as well. Oxidative stability of fat, evaluated by TBARS and cholesterol oxides, has not shown significant differences between dietary treatments but, although the differences were not significant, the tendency was sufficiently clear, especially in salame Milano, towards a lower oxidation level in vitamin E enriched meat. Cholesterol oxidation was found to vary in general around 0.1% of total cholesterol and the only cholesterol oxides observed were 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol. Aldehydes content and distribution appeared to be linked, firstly, to the specific processing technology of the product and, secondly, to the changed fatty acid composition.

  15. Maternal serum cholesterol levels are elevated from the 1st trimester of pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Ä; Egan, N; Broadhurst, D I; Khashan, A S; Joyce, C; Stapleton, M; O'Mullane, J; O'Donoghue, K

    2012-11-01

    Cholesterol is monitored in the non-pregnant adult population, where normal values are established. Although reported to be elevated in pregnancy, cholesterol is neither routinely measured nor treated. We aimed to investigate cholesterol levels throughout pregnancy and to establish reference values for cholesterol in healthy pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional analysis of serum cholesterol in healthy women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care were recruited and cholesterol levels assayed at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks' gestation and on day 1-3 postpartum. A total of 222 women were recruited. The majority (95%) were white Irish, with a median age of 31 years (range 16-46). Median BMI was 25.9 kg/m2 (range 18-40) and 16% were smokers. Cholesterol levels were elevated in all trimesters of pregnancy, with median values from 1st trimester raised outside the non-pregnant adult range. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels ranged from 0.9 to 3.7 mmol/l and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels ranged from 1.3 to 6.1 mmol/l. Fasting, smoking and obesity did not have any significant effects on results. Total and LDL-cholesterol levels were raised throughout pregnancy. Levels were above non-pregnant adult ranges as early as the 1st trimester. The implications of this on fetus and mother are undetermined and deserve further investigation.

  16. The effect of β-sitosterol on the metabolism of cholesterol and lipids in rats on a diet containing coconut oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, T.; Shorland, F. B.; Dunckley, G. G.

    1965-01-01

    1. Intraperitoneal injection of β-sitosterol (5mg./rat/day for 25 days) into 1-year-old male Wistar rats fed on a low-fat diet supplemented with 10% of coconut oil resulted in a lowering of cholesterol and lipid concentrations in the tissues. 2. β-Sitosterol increased the rate of biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids in the tissues, but to an even greater extent enhanced their oxidative degradation. 3. The present results are similar to those previously obtained on a low-fat diet, indicating that the presence of fat had no marked effect on the action of β-sitosterol. PMID:5891218

  17. Dietary fat and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to eating too much fat or eating the wrong types of ...

  18. High prevalence of raised lipoprotein(a) in patients with refractory angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tina Z; Rhodes, Samantha; Pottle, Alison; Banya, Winston; Smith, Robert; Kabir, Tito; Ilsley, Charles; Pennell, Dudley J; Barbir, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Angina that is refractory to conventional medical therapy and revascularisation, remains challenging to manage and poses significant burden to patients. Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has emerged as an important independent cardiovascular risk factor and predictor of adverse outcomes in atherosclerotic disease. The prevalence of raised Lp(a) amongst patients with refractory angina has not yet been defined. To establish the prevalence of raised [Lp(a)] >500 mg/L in patients with refractory angina. We conducted an epidemiological screening pilot study in 75 patients with refractory angina from a UK tertiary cardiac centre. We determined the proportion of the cohort with raised Lp(a) >500 mg/L using an isoform-insensitive method. In addition, a full fasting lipid profile (including: LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol to HDL ratio and triglycerides) was obtained. Patients were also asked about the presence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Our study demonstrated that 60% of the 75 patients with refractory angina had raised Lp(a) levels of >500 mg/L. The median and inter-quartile range of Lp(a) values were 771 mg/L (162 mg/L,1260 mg/L) respectively. This high prevalence of raised Lp(a) detected in our cohort with refractory angina may suggest a causal role. Further research is necessary to confirm this association and prospective studies are needed to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of Lp(a) reduction in patients with refractory angina.

  19. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Silvia I; Stolk, Ronald P; Liem, Eryn T; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Fatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this association. Of 565 adolescents (283 boys and 282 girls) from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Life Survey (TRAILS) data on anthropometric parameters (age 11 and 16), metabolic parameters, and fitness (age 16) were available. Body mass index and skinfolds were used as measures for fatness. Increasing fatness was calculated by subtracting Z-scores for fatness at age 11 from Z-score fatness at age 16. Cardiometabolic risk was calculated as the average of the standardized means of mean arterial pressure, fasting serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fitness was estimated as maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) during a shuttle run test. Boys showed a higher clustered cardiometabolic risk when compared to girls (p fitness was related to a reduced effect of increasing fatness on clustered cardiometabolic risk. Childhood fatness, increasing fatness, and fitness were independently associated with HOMA-IR. Moreover, in boys this association was dependent of fatness. Childhood fatness and increasing fatness are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and HOMA-IR during adolescence, but a good fitness attenuates this association especially in fat boys. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Cholesterol-enriched diet causes age-related macular degeneration-like pathology in rabbit retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Brij B

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD and age-related macular degeneration (AMD share several pathological hallmarks including β-amyloid (Aβ accumulation, oxidative stress, and apoptotic cell death. The causes of AD and AMD are likely multi-factorial with several factors such as diet, environment, and genetic susceptibility participating in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Epidemiological studies correlated high plasma cholesterol levels with high incidence of AD, and feeding rabbits with a diet rich in cholesterol has been shown to induce AD-like pathology in rabbit brain. High intake of cholesterol and saturated fat were also long been suspected to increase the risk for AMD. However, the extent to which cholesterol-enriched diet may also cause AMD-like features in rabbit retinas is not well known. Methods Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed normal chow or a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet for 12 weeks. At necropsy, animals were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline and the eyes were promptly removed. One eye of each animal was used for immunohistochemistry and retina dissected from the other eye was used for Western blot, ELISA assays, spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry analyses. Results Increased levels of Aβ, decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased levels of the pro-apoptotic Bax and gadd153 proteins, emergence of TUNEL-positive cells, and increased generation of reactive oxygen species were found in retinas from cholesterol-fed compared to normal chow-fed rabbits. Additionally, astrogliosis, drusen-like debris and cholesterol accumulations in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits were observed. As several lines of evidence suggest that oxidized cholesterol metabolites (oxysterols may be the link by which cholesterol contributes to the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined levels of oxysterols and found a dramatic increase in levels of oxysterols in retinas from cholesterol-fed rabbits

  1. [Is vesicular cholesterolosis a particular anatomo-clinical form of cholesterol lithiasis? Apropos of a case of cholesterol polyp manifested by an acute complication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palot, J P; Pluot, M; Delattre, J F; Remy, G

    1986-01-01

    A case of cholesterolic polyp, revealed by the formation of an infundibulo-cystic enclave, is reported, the polyp having the appearance of a cholesterolic calculus, but a pediculated one, and one acting as a calculus. The extreme rarity of this complication is emphasized. Despite the frequency of associated lithiasis, the cholesterolosis are included in a different framework from lithiasis, that of the cholecystoses that on histology show typical pure parietal lesions without inflammation. Findings in this atypical case suggest possible common pathogenic factors for the two affections, and raise a proposal for inclusion of cholesterolosis within the nosologic framework of lithiasis.

  2. Multilevel systems biology modeling characterized the atheroprotective efficiencies of modified dairy fats in a hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Charles; Berton, Amélie; Ginies, Christian; Bott, Romain; Scheercousse, Pierre; Saddi, Alessandra; Gripois, Daniel; Landrier, Jean-François; Dalemans, Daniel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the atheroprotective efficiency of modified dairy fats in hyperlipidemic hamsters. A systems biology approach was implemented to reveal and quantify the dietary fat-related components of the disease. Three modified dairy fats (40% energy) were prepared from regular butter by mixing with a plant oil mixture, by removing cholesterol alone, or by removing cholesterol in combination with reducing saturated fatty acids. A plant oil mixture and a regular butter were used as control diets. The atherosclerosis severity (aortic cholesteryl-ester level) was higher in the regular butter-fed hamsters than in the other four groups (P fat. Under conditions that promote atherosclerosis, the impact of dairy fats on atherogenesis could be greatly ameliorated by technological modifications. Our modeling approach allowed for identifying and quantifying the contribution of complex factors to atherogenic development in each dietary setup. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Molecular basis of cholesterol homeostasis: lessons from Tangier disease and ABCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, John F

    2002-04-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) play a role in transporting cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for elimination from the body. Two hallmarks of cardiovascular disease are the presence of sterol-laden macrophages in the artery wall and reduced plasma HDL levels. A cell-membrane protein called ABCA1 mediates the secretion of excess cholesterol from cells into the HDL metabolic pathway. Mutations in ABCA1 cause Tangier disease, a severe HDL deficiency syndrome characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in tissue macrophages and prevalent atherosclerosis. Because of its ability to deplete macrophages of cholesterol and to raise plasma HDL levels, ABCA1 has become a promising therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease.

  4. Children's Difficulty with Raising: A Performance Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jinsun; Deen, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    This article explores English-speaking children's acquisition of raising structures with an experiencer (e.g.," John seems to Mary to be happy"). We review and address previously unnoticed issues in the methodologies of existing studies testing the acquisition of raising, thus providing a more reliable picture of children's abilities…

  5. Common Variants in Cholesterol Synthesis- and Transport-Related Genes Associate with Circulating Cholesterol Responses to Intakes of Conventional Dairy Products in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad Mh; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Eck, Peter K; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît; Jones, Peter Jh

    2016-05-01

    Dairy intake has been associated with varying impacts on circulating cholesterol concentrations across nutritional epidemiology and intervention studies, with findings attributed mainly to differences in the nature of dairy products consumed or study designs. The contribution of the genomic architecture to such observations has yet to be revealed. We assessed the impact of multiple common genetic variations in cholesterol-related genes on responses of serum cholesterol to the recommended amount of dairy product intake in Canada. In a multicenter, randomized crossover design, 101 normolipidemic adults (n = 29 men and 72 women), with a mean ± SD age of 41.7 ± 16.7 y and a body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)) of 25.9 ± 4.3 consumed 3 servings/d of dairy [375 mL 1% milk-fat (MF) milk, 175 g 1.5% MF yogurt, and 30 g of 34% MF cheese] or energy-matched control products (juice, cashews, and cookies) provided within a prudent background diet for 4 wk each, separated by a 4- to 8-wk washout period. Serum lipid variables were determined by standard enzymatic methods by using an autoanalyzer. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms were assessed by TaqMan genotyping assay. The responsiveness of serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol to the dairy compared with the control diet was associated with individuals' genotypes. The cholesterol transport gene ATP-binding cassette subfamily G, member 5 (ABCG5) rs6720173-GG homozygotes had higher concentrations of TC (+0.18 mmol/L; P = 0.0118) and LDL cholesterol (+0.17 mmol/L; P = 0.0056) relative to C-allele carriers (-0.07 and -0.06 mmol/L, respectively). The bile acid synthesis gene cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) rs3808607-G-allele carriers had higher TC (+0.20 to +0.28 mmol/L; P = 0.0026) and LDL cholesterol (+0.19 mmol/L for GT genotype; P = 0.0260) relative to TT homozygotes (-0.11 and -0.03 mmol/L, respectively). In addition, the cholesterol synthesis gene 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) rs760241-A

  6. Herdabilidade e tendência genética para as produções de leite e de gordura em rebanhos da raça Holandesa no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Heritability and genetic trend for milk and fat yields in Holstein herds raised in the state of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arione Augusti Boligon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar a herdabilidade e a tendência genética para as características produção de leite (PL, produção de gordura (PG e porcentagem de gordura (%G, foram estudados registros de produção à primeira lactação de 5.007 vacas da raça Holandesa, filhas de 930 touros, pertencentes a 33 rebanhos criados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre 1984 e 1998. Para estimar as herdabilidades e predizer os valores genéticos dos indivíduos (VGs para PL, PG e %G, foi utilizado um modelo animal considerando-se como aleatórios os efeitos genético aditivo direto e residual e, como fixos, o número de ordenhas diárias, o rebanho e o ano/época do parto, além da covariável idade da vaca ao parto e dos efeitos linear e quadrático. Para o cálculo da tendência genética, utilizou-se a regressão dos VGs médios anuais em relação ao ano de nascimento dos animais. As médias observadas e os respectivos desvios-padrão foram de 6.862,80 ± 1.881,21 kg/ano (PL, 228,63 ± 78,01 kg/ano (PG e 3,32 ± 0,18 %/ano (%G. As herdabilidades estimadas e os respectivos erros-padrão foram de 0,30 ± 0,008 (PL; 0,28 ± 0,004 (PG e 0,22 ± 0,015 (%G. As correlações genéticas estimadas foram 0,85 ± 0,19 (PL e PG e -0,15 ± 0,17 (PL e %G. As tendências genéticas estimadas foram de 9,51 kg/ano (PL, 0,11 kg/ano (PG e -0,07%/ano (%G. Apesar de positivos, os ganhos genéticos estimados para PL e PG foram baixos, podendo ser aumentados pela implementação de programas de melhoramento genético eficientes que estimulem o produtor a promover aumentos nestas duas características, além das características de qualidade do leite.Data comprising 5,007 records of first lactation of Holstein cows, daughters of 930 sires, from 33 herds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1984 to 1998, were used to estimate heritability coefficients and genetic trends for milk (MY and fat (FY yields and for fat percentage (%F. An animal model considered the genetic

  7. High Cholesterol: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Cholesterol--Medicines To Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... side effects for each drug, check Drugs@FDA . Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitors Brand Name Generic Name Zetia Ezetimibe ...

  8. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  9. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  10. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, David G

    2017-07-01

    Here, I offer personal perspectives on cholesterol homeostasis that reflect my belief that certain aspects of the debate have been overstated.-Nathan, D. G. Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. © FASEB.

  11. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  12. Sesamol treatment reduces plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in mouse models of acute and chronic hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nitesh; Mudgal, Jayesh; Parihar, Vipan K; Nayak, Pawan G; Kutty, N Gopalan; Rao, C Mallikarjuna

    2013-06-01

    The active constituents of Sesamum indicum, sesamin and sesamolin, have already been explored for hypolipidemic action. In this study we have explored the anti-dyslipidemic activity of another active component and metabolite of sesamolin (sesamol), by using acute models of hyperlipidemia viz., a fat tolerance test, a tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia model and a chronic model of hyperlipidemia viz., a high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia model in Swiss albino mice. Sesamol (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P cholesterol and triacylglycerol compared with the tyloxapol group at 12 and 24 h, which indicates its probable effect on cholesterol synthesis. Chronic hyperlipidemia in mice was produced by feeding a high-diet, a mixture of cholesterol (2 % w/w), cholic acid (1 % w/w) and coconut oil 30 % (v/w) with standard powdered standard animal chow (up to 100 g). Niacin (100 mg/kg) and sesamol (100 mg/kg) significantly (P cholesterol and triacylglycerol were significantly (P cholesterol as well.

  13. Inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption decreases atherosclerosis but not adipose tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Tomio; Subramanian, Savitha; Ding, Yilei; Goodspeed, Leela; Wang, Shari; Han, Chang Yeop; Teresa, Antonio Sta; Kim, Jinkyu; O'Brien, Kevin D; Chait, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular disease risk in obesity. We previously showed that addition of cholesterol to a diet rich in saturated fat and refined carbohydrate significantly worsens dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, systemic inflammation, and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice. To test whether inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption would improve metabolic abnormalities and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity, we administered ezetimibe, a dietary and endogenous cholesterol absorption inhibitor, to Ldlr(-/-) mice fed chow or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diets without or with 0.15% cholesterol (HFHS+C). Ezetimibe blunted weight gain and markedly reduced plasma lipids in the HFHS+C group. Ezetimibe had no effect on glucose homeostasis or visceral adipose tissue macrophage gene expression in the HFHS+C fed mice, although circulating inflammatory markers serum amyloid A (SSA) and serum amyloid P (SSP) levels decreased. Nevertheless, ezetimibe treatment led to a striking (>85%) reduction in atherosclerotic lesion area with reduced lesion lipid and macrophage content in the HFHS+C group. Thus, in the presence of dietary cholesterol, ezetimibe did not improve adipose tissue inflammation in obese Ldlr(-/-) mice, but it led to a major reduction in atherosclerotic lesions associated with improved plasma lipids and lipoproteins.

  14. Transporters for the Intestinal Absorption of Cholesterol, Vitamin E, and Vitamin K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Takada, Tappei; Kurauchi, Ryoya; Tanaka, Yusuke; Komine, Toko; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2017-04-03

    Humans cannot synthesize fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin E and vitamin K. For this reason, they must be obtained from the diet via intestinal absorption. As the deficiency or excess of these vitamins has been reported to cause several types of diseases and disorders in humans, the intestinal absorption of these nutrients must be properly regulated to ensure good health. However, the mechanism of their intestinal absorption remains poorly understood. Recent studies on cholesterol using genome-edited mice, genome-wide association approaches, gene mutation analyses, and the development of cholesterol absorption inhibitors have revealed that several membrane proteins play crucial roles in the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Surprisingly, detailed analyses of these cholesterol transporters have revealed that they can also transport vitamin E and vitamin K, providing clues to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the intestinal absorption of these fat-soluble vitamins. In this review, we focus on the membrane proteins (Niemann-Pick C1 like 1, scavenger receptor class B type I, cluster of differentiation 36, and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) that are (potentially) involved in the intestinal absorption of cholesterol, vitamin E, and vitamin K and discuss their physiological and pharmacological importance. We also discuss the related uncertainties that need to be explored in future studies.

  15. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent speci...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs. Finally, a case study illustrates specification and verification methods in RAISE.......This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  16. Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase: Brain cholesterol metabolism and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Miguel; Nunes, Maria João; Rodrigues, Elsa

    2016-12-01

    Dysfunctions in brain cholesterol homeostasis have been extensively related to brain disorders. The major elimination pathway of brain cholesterol is its hydroxylation into 24 (S)-hydroxycholesterol by the cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). Interestingly, there seems to be an association between CYP46A1 and high-order brain functions, in a sense that increased expression of this hydroxylase improves cognition, while a reduction leads to a poor cognitive performance. Moreover, increasing amount of epidemiological, biochemical and molecular evidence, suggests that CYP46A1 has a role in the pathogenesis or progression of neurodegenerative disorders, in which up-regulation of this enzyme is clearly beneficial. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood, which highlights the importance of studies that further explore the role of CYP46A1 in the central nervous system. In this review we summarize the major findings regarding CYP46A1, and highlight the several recently described pathways modulated by this enzyme from a physiological and pathological perspective, which might account for novel therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  18. Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja K; Raziani, Farinaz; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Astrup, Arne; Tholstrup, Tine; Raben, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Heart associations recommend limited intake of saturated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food. We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full-diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high-cheese (96-120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high-meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the saturated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB). The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P cholesterol concentration (P cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacylglycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P CHEESE and MEAT diets. Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01739153

  19. Effect of a high intake of cheese on cholesterol and metabolic syndrome: results of a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Rita; Høstmark, Arne Torbjørn; Haug, Anna; Skeie, Siv

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cheese is generally rich in saturated fat, which is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, recent reports suggest that cheese may be antiatherogenic. Objective: The goal of this study was to assess whether intake of two types of Norwegian cheese, with widely varying fat and calcium content, might influence factors of the metabolic syndrome and serum cholesterol levels differently. Design: A total of 153 participants were randomized to one of thre...

  20. Nanoscale Membrane Domain Formation Driven by Cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javanainen, Matti; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    . The complex nanodomain substructure forms when cholesterol positions itself in the domain boundary region. Here cholesterol can also readily flip-flop across the membrane. Most importantly, replacing cholesterol with a sterol characterized by a less asymmetric ring region impairs the emergence of nanodomains...

  1. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  2. Isolation of Cholesterol from an Egg Yolk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Douglass F.; Li, Rui; Anson, Cory M.

    2011-01-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of the cholesterol, by hydrolysis and extraction followed by column chromatography, is described. The cholesterol can be further purified by complexation with oxalic acid. It can also be oxidized and conjugated to cholestenone. The source of the cholesterol is one egg yolk, which contains about 200 mg of…

  3. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  4. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D. A high blood cholesterol level increases your risk of coronary artery disease. Lower cholesterol is usually better, but in rare cases having ... in individuals with heart disease or at high risk of heart disease or stroke. If ... about your cholesterol level, consult your doctor. If you're taking ...

  5. Prevention and Treatment of High Cholesterol (Hyperlipidemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t is the first step in lowering your risk of heart disease. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol A heart-healthy eating plan can help you ... lowers HDL cholesterol. When a person with high cholesterol also smokes, their risk of coronary heart disease increases more than it otherwise would. ...

  6. Dietary fat content modulates the hypolipidemic effect of dietary inulin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Yamamoto, Aiko; Shimada, Ken-Ichiro; Kikuchi, Hiroto; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-08-01

    Dietary fat content (low versus high fat) may modulate the serum lipid-lowering effect of high-performance (HP)-inulin. This study investigated the effect of dietary HP-inulin on metabolism in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet. Rats were fed a diet of 5% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (average degree of polymerization = 24) (low-fat diet) or of 20% fat with 5% cellulose or 5% HP-inulin (high-fat diet) for 28 days. Total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterols, and triglyceride concentrations in the serum were measured along with total lipid content of liver and feces. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol, and fecal neutral and acidic sterol concentrations in total lipid were assessed. In addition, cecum SCFA levels and bacterial profiles were determined. The hypolipidemic effect of HP-inulin differed depending on dietary fat content (5% versus 20%). Specifically, 5% inulin instead of cellulose in a semi-purified diet significantly reduced serum lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat diet, which was strongly associated with increased total lipid and neutral sterol excretion. Dietary fat content modulates the hypolipidemic effect of dietary inulin. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. High fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid elongation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike H Oosterveer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-fat diets promote hepatic lipid accumulation. Paradoxically, these diets also induce lipogenic gene expression in rodent liver. Whether high expression of these genes actually results in an increased flux through the de novo lipogenic pathway in vivo has not been demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To interrogate this apparent paradox, we have quantified de novo lipogenesis in C57Bl/6J mice fed either chow, a high-fat or a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-enriched high-fat diet. A novel approach based on mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA following 1-(13C acetate infusion was applied to simultaneously determine de novo lipogenesis, fatty acid elongation as well as cholesterol synthesis. Furthermore, we measured very low density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG production rates. High-fat feeding promoted hepatic lipid accumulation and induced the expression of lipogenic and cholesterogenic genes compared to chow-fed mice: induction of gene expression was found to translate into increased oleate synthesis. Interestingly, this higher lipogenic flux (+74 microg/g/h for oleic acid in mice fed the high-fat diet was mainly due to an increased hepatic elongation of unlabeled palmitate (+66 microg/g/h rather than to elongation of de novo synthesized palmitate. In addition, fractional cholesterol synthesis was increased, i.e. 5.8+/-0.4% vs. 8.1+/-0.6% for control and high fat-fed animals, respectively. Hepatic VLDL-TG production was not affected by high-fat feeding. Partial replacement of saturated fat by fish oil completely reversed the lipogenic effects of high-fat feeding: hepatic lipogenic and cholesterogenic gene expression levels as well as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis rates were normalized. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High-fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid synthesis in mice, by chain elongation and subsequent desaturation rather than de novo synthesis, while VLDL-TG output remains unaffected

  8. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  9. Soy protein isolate inhibits high fat diet-induced senescence pathways in osteoblasts to maintain bone acquisition in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic consumption by experimental animals of a typical Western diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol during postnatal life has been demonstrated to impair skeletal development. However, the underlying mechanism by which high fat, energy dense diets affect bone-forming cell phenotypes is poor...

  10. Inhibition of cholesterol transport in an intestine cell model by pine-derived phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinsoo; Knudsen, Tine A; Nielsen, Anne-Louise; Duelund, Lars; Christensen, Morten; Hervella, Pablo; Needham, David; Mouritsen, Ole G

    2016-10-01

    We have quantified the inhibition of intestinal cholesterol transport by pine-derived phytosterols using an HT29-MTX intestine cell model that forms a mucus layer similar to that in the intestine. An artificial intestinal fluid consisting of digested fat, bile salt, cholesterol, and phytosterols was formulated in order to mimic the conditions in the intestine. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of the positive control, i.e., 0.1mM of cholesterol solubilized in the artificial intestine fluid, was found to be 0.33 (±0.17)×10(-6)cm/s. When 0.1mM β-sitosterol was solubilized alongside, Papp was effectively zero, corresponding to a total inhibition of cholesterol transport. A similar strong inhibition was found when commercial pine-derived phytosterols, PinVita™ FSP DuPont, were co-solubilized with cholesterol in the dietary model micelles, leading to Papp=0.06 (±0.06)×10(-6)cm/s, i.e., 5.5 times lower than the cholesterol positive control. Additionally, the effect of potential oral administration formulations generated by the pine-derived phytosterols was also characterized. The formulations were produced as a liquid formulation of the cholesterol-containing artificial intestine fluid. Six liquid formulations were tested of which four displayed a Papp in the range of 0-0.09×10(-6)cm/s. The remaining two formulations did not show any inhibition effect on cholesterol transport and even enhanced cholesterol transport. It was furthermore observed that the phytosterols were found in the collected intestine cells but not transported to the basolateral region in the intestinal cell model system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Global, regional, and national consumption levels of dietary fats and oils in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Fahimi, Saman; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G; Engell, Rebecca E; Powles, John; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-04-15

    To quantify global consumption of key dietary fats and oils by country, age, and sex in 1990 and 2010. Data were identified, obtained, and assessed among adults in 16 age- and sex-specific groups from dietary surveys worldwide on saturated, omega 6, seafood omega 3, plant omega 3, and trans fats, and dietary cholesterol. We included 266 surveys in adults (83% nationally representative) comprising 1,630,069 unique individuals, representing 113 of 187 countries and 82% of the global population. A multilevel hierarchical Bayesian model accounted for differences in national and regional levels of missing data, measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. Global adult population, by age, sex, country, and time. In 2010, global saturated fat consumption was 9.4%E (95%UI=9.2 to 9.5); country-specific intakes varied dramatically from 2.3 to 27.5%E; in 75 of 187 countries representing 61.8% of the world's adult population, the mean intake was fat; 97 to 440 mg/day (228 mg/day) for dietary cholesterol; 5 to 3,886 mg/day (163 mg/day) for seafood omega 3; and fat ≥ 5%E; corresponding proportions meeting optimal intakes were 0.6% for trans fat (≤ 0.5%E); 87.6% for dietary cholesterol (fat (≥ 250 mg/day); and 43.9% for plant omega 3 fat (≥ 1,100 mg/day). Trans fat intakes were generally higher at younger ages; and dietary cholesterol and seafood omega 3 fats generally higher at older ages. Intakes were similar by sex. Between 1990 and 2010, global saturated fat, dietary cholesterol, and trans fat intakes remained stable, while omega 6, seafood omega 3, and plant omega 3 fat intakes each increased. These novel global data on dietary fats and oils identify dramatic diversity across nations and inform policies and priorities for improving global health.

  12. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  13. The usefulness of mesenterium thickness as an index of visceral fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Tomoko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Osawa, Masaaki; Onoguchi, Akira; Kaneko, Syukuko; Nakazawa, Yoshitaka; Kawano, Mikihiko; Itoh, Kouichi

    2003-09-01

    Visceral fat syndrome, which includes visceral fat accumulation, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, refers to a highly atherogenic state with a cluster of risk factors secondary to visceral fat accumulation. Although X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used commonly in diagnosis of visceral fat accumulation, it is expensive and exposes the patient to radiation. Some indices obtained using ultrasonography, which is fast and easy to use, have been reported. The ratio of the maximum thickness of preperitoneal fat (P) to the minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat (S), the abdominal wall fat index (P/S), is widely used in ultrasonographic diagnosis, however, this ratio tends to vary largely according to examiners. To establish a more reliable ultrasonographic index of visceral fat accumulation, we measured the thickness of the mesenterium, and tried to examine the relation between its thickness and maximum thickness of preperitoneal fat, minimum thickness of subcutaneous fat, and abdominal wall fat index, as well as body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and levels of serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and blood sugar. The subjects were 131 individuals, 98 males and 33 females, averaging 47.0±7.9 years, with a mean body mass index of 24.1±2.6. The mesenterium was measured with a 3.5 or 3.75 MHz convex probe by longitudinal scanning on the left side of the umbilicus of the patient in the supine position. The thickness of the mesenterium correlated positively with maximum thickness of the preperitoneal fat, abdominal wall fat index, body mass index, and levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and blood sugar, and negatively with levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. When the subjects were divided into a high-M group and a normal-M group, body mass index, triglyceride level, and blood sugar levels in the high-M group were significantly higher and level of high

  14. Analysis of Cholesterol Trafficking with Fluorescent Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wustner, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in determining the biophysical properties of biological membranes, and its concentration is tightly controlled by homeostatic processes. The intracellular transport of cholesterol among organelles is a key part of the homeostatic mechanism, but sterol transport...... that can bind to cholesterol to reveal its distribution in cells. We also discuss the use of intrinsically fluorescent sterols that closely mimic cholesterol, as well as some minimally modified fluorophore-labeled sterols. Methods for imaging these sterols by conventional fluorescence microscopy...... and by multiphoton microscopy are described. Some label-free methods for imaging cholesterol itself are also discussed briefly....

  15. Biliary cholesterol secretion : More than a simple ABC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion is a process important for 2 major disease complexes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and cholesterol gallstone disease With respect to cardiovascular disease, biliary cholesterol secretion is regarded as the final step for the elimination of cholesterol

  16. Effects of ebelactone B, a lipase inhibitor, on intestinal fat absorption in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Y; Ohtaki, H; Ohtsuka, E; Kocha, T; Fukuda, T; Takeuchi, T; Aoyagi, T

    1996-01-01

    Ebelactones A and B, natural products from Streptomyces aburaviensis are potent inhibitors of pancreatic lipase. Lipase is the key enzyme required for the absorption of dietary triglycerides (TG). Ebelactone B inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the intestinal absorption of fat after fat-feeding in the rat. The most effective inhibition was observed when the inhibitor was administered at 60 min prior to fat-feeding. When ebelactone B (10 mg/kg) was administered, the serum levels of TG (58%) and cholesterol (36%) were decreased. Since ebelactone B effectively inhibitors absorption of dietary fat, if may provide a promising means for prophylaxis or therapeutics of hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  17. Feedback modulation of cholesterol metabolism by LeXis, a lipid-responsive non-coding RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Tamer; Jones, Marius; Gilliland, Thomas; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiaohui; Eskin, Ascia; Sandhu, Jaspreet; Casero, David; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas; Hong, Cynthia; Katz, Melanie; Lee, Richard; Whitelegge, Julian; Tontonoz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcriptional regulators of cellular and systemic cholesterol homeostasis. In the setting of cholesterol excess, LXR activation induces the expression of a battery of genes involved in cholesterol efflux 1, facilities cholesterol esterification by promoting fatty acid synthesis 2, and inhibits cholesterol uptake by the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)3. The fact that sterol content is maintained in a narrow range in most cell types and in the organism as a whole suggests that extensive crosstalk between regulatory pathways must exist. However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate LXRs with other lipid metabolic pathways, are incompletely understood. Here we show that ligand activation of LXRs in liver not only promotes cholesterol efflux, but also simultaneously inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis. We further identify the long non-coding RNA LeXis as one mediator of this effect. Hepatic LeXis expression is robustly induced in response to western diet feeding or pharmacologic LXR activation. Raising or lowering the levels of LeXis in liver affects the expression of cholesterol biosynthetic genes, and the levels of cholesterol in the liver and plasma. LeXis interacts with and affects the DNA interactions of Raly, a heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein that is required for the maximal expression of cholesterologenic genes in mouse liver. These studies outline a regulatory role for a non-coding RNA in lipid metabolism and advance our understanding of the mechanisms orchestrating sterol homeostasis. PMID:27251289

  18. Cholesterol - an essential component of infant milk formulae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidan, I N; Kaznacheev, K S; Gulyaev, A E

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that breast milk is the ideal food for newborns. Indeed breast milk can provide basic guidelines to improve the composition of ingredients in adapted infant formulae. One of the main parts of breast milk is milk fat. Although the exact functionality of the entire spectrum of fat is not yet fully understood, it is known that various lipids present in breast milk, can modulate functions of the gastrointestinal tract, the lipoprotein metabolism, the structure and function of cell membranes, as well as many signal pathways in the infant's organism. In this paper we tried to present evidence that dietary cholesterol (CHOL) is a very important component of the infant's nutrition. Meanwhile, almost all infant formulae, both cow and goat milk based, use nearly only vegetable oils as their fat component providing phytosterols, rather than CHOL as in breast milk. It is known that breast milk is a rich source of CHOL and phytosterols cannot perform the functions of CHOL. One can imagine that when the infant is transferred to artificial feeding with such formulae, and denied the opportunity to receive dietary CHOL in any useful amounts, this may affect outcomes like optimal child development, and may have a major long-term 'programming' effect on the metabolism of CHOL. We propose to discuss the thesis of the great importance of the presence of CHOL in infant formulae. The applied value of this thesis is the need to optimize the fat component of breast milk substitutes by introducing CHOL, for example, in the composition of milk fat. Although it is clear that compelling evidence of the potential benefits of adding various sources of CHOL infant formula is insufficient, at this stage, there is cause for a critical discussion and review of the composition of functional components of breast milk substitutes.

  19. Influence of intestinal resection, type of dietary fat and time on the digestive and metabolic utilization of fat in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coves, F; Lisbona, F; Campos, M S; García, J A; López-Aliaga, I; Barrionuevo, M

    1991-01-01

    The influence of diets containing different types of fat (olive oil or a mixture of 1/3 medium chain triglycerides, 1/3 sunflower seed oil and 1/3 olive oil), and the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid, an exogenous bile acid, on the digestive and metabolic utilization of fat and on the relative percentages of fatty acids in serum in adult rats with 50% distal small intestinal resection and in sham-operated controls three months after surgery has been studied. In resected rats given olive oil as the dietary source of fat, the digestive utilization of fat decreased with respect to controls. Substitution of 1/3 medium chain triglycerides and 1/3 sunflower seed oil for 2/3 of the dietary fat source improved the digestive utilization of fat as judged from the apparent digestibility coefficient, and this improvement was maintained when ursodeoxycholic acid was added to the diet. With both sources of dietary fat tested, intestinal resection led to a decrease in serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. However, no significant differences were observed between resected animals fed either type of diet and controls with respect to the relative percentages of fatty acids in serum, saturated and insaturated fatty acid indices or omega 3/omega 6 ratio. The fatty acid profile in serum revealed no deficit in essential fatty acids caused by intestinal resection, type of diet or time, but did reflect clearly the source of dietary fat.

  20. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  1. Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family HealthInfants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and ...

  2. Raising the Bar for Microbiologists | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... SEE ALSO... Audio: Raising the bar for Microbiologists Professor Ana Sanchez and Professor Lourdes Enriquez explain why zoonotic diseases, transfered from animals to humans, require multidisciplinary, integrated solutions.

  3. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... responsible adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. ... your teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising ...

  4. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...... specifications as well as applicative sequential ones. It also describes the logical definition of RSL, its axiomatic semantics, as well as the proof system for carrying out proofs....

  5. Postnatal high-fat diet enhances ectopic fat deposition in pigs with intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honglin; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Bing; Yu, Jie; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Huang, Zhiqing; Chen, Daiwen

    2017-03-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal nutrition are risk factors for adult metabolic syndrome. However, the influences of long-term high-fat diet (HFD) intake on ectopic fat deposition in non-adipose tissues in IUGR pigs remain unclear. The present study was to determine whether HFD consumption would enhance ectopic fat deposition in IUGR pigs. At day 28, IUGR and control pigs were fed ad libitum to either a regular diet or a HFD. Lipid store, enzymatic activities and mRNA expression of lipid metabolism-related factors in liver and semitendinosus muscle (SM) were quantified at postnatal day 178. Feeding a HFD to IUGR pigs but not to control pigs significantly increased daily weight gain, carcass fat mass, plasma leptin level and lipid content and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mRNA abundances of LPL and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in liver and SM, but decreased daily feed intake and mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) in liver and SM (P IUGR pigs had a lower body weight but higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC) and insulin (P IUGR increased the vulnerability of HFD-fed pigs to ectopic fat deposition via enhanced fatty acid flux toward ectopic sites and reduced lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation.

  6. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  7. Antagonism of miR-33 in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Katey J; Sheedy, Frederick J; Esau, Christine C; Hussain, Farah N; Temel, Ryan E; Parathath, Saj; van Gils, Janine M; Rayner, Alistair J; Chang, Aaron N; Suarez, Yajaira; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J

    2011-07-01

    Plasma HDL levels have a protective role in atherosclerosis, yet clinical therapies to raise HDL levels have remained elusive. Recent advances in the understanding of lipid metabolism have revealed that miR-33, an intronic microRNA located within the SREBF2 gene, suppresses expression of the cholesterol transporter ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lowers HDL levels. Conversely, mechanisms that inhibit miR-33 increase ABCA1 and circulating HDL levels, suggesting that antagonism of miR-33 may be atheroprotective. As the regression of atherosclerosis is clinically desirable, we assessed the impact of miR-33 inhibition in mice deficient for the LDL receptor (Ldlr-/- mice), with established atherosclerotic plaques. Mice treated with anti-miR33 for 4 weeks showed an increase in circulating HDL levels and enhanced reverse cholesterol transport to the plasma, liver, and feces. Consistent with this, anti-miR33-treated mice showed reductions in plaque size and lipid content, increased markers of plaque stability, and decreased inflammatory gene expression. Notably, in addition to raising ABCA1 levels in the liver, anti-miR33 oligonucleotides directly targeted the plaque macrophages, in which they enhanced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol removal. These studies establish that raising HDL levels by anti-miR33 oligonucleotide treatment promotes reverse cholesterol transport and atherosclerosis regression and suggest that it may be a promising strategy to treat atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  8. Visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome after very high-fat and low-fat isocaloric diets: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, Vivian L; Laupsa-Borge, Johnny; Eng, Øyvin; Rostrup, Espen; Larsen, Terje H; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Nygård, Ottar K; Sagen, Jørn V; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A; Dankel, Simon N; Mellgren, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Different aspects of dietary pattern, including macronutrient and food profiles, may affect visceral fat mass and metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that consuming energy primarily from carbohydrate or fat in diets with similar food profiles would differentially affect the ability to reverse visceral adiposity and metabolic syndrome. Forty-six men (aged 30-50 y) with body mass index (in kg/m(2)) >29 and waist circumference >98 cm were randomly assigned to a very high-fat, low-carbohydrate (VHFLC; 73% of energy fat and 10% of energy carbohydrate) or low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC; 30% of energy fat and 53% of energy carbohydrate) diet for 12 wk. The diets were equal in energy (8750 kJ/d), protein (17% of energy), and food profile, emphasizing low-processed, lower-glycemic foods. Fat mass was quantified with computed tomography imaging. Recorded intake of carbohydrate and total and saturated fat in the LFHC and VHFLC groups were 51% and 11% of energy, 29% and 71% of energy, and 12% and 34% of energy, respectively, with no difference in protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mean energy intake decreased by 22% and 14% in the LFHC and VHFLC groups. The diets similarly reduced waist circumference (11-13 cm), abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (1650-1850 cm(3)), visceral fat mass (1350-1650 cm(3)), and total body weight (11-12 kg). Both groups improved dyslipidemia, with reduced circulating triglycerides, but showed differential responses in total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (decreased in LFHC group only), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (increased in VHFLC group only). The groups showed similar reductions in insulin, insulin C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Notably, improvements in circulating metabolic markers in the VHFLC group mainly were observed first after 8 wk, in contrast to more acute and gradual effects in the LFHC group. Consuming energy primarily as carbohydrate or fat for 3 mo did

  9. Regulation of genes related to cholesterol metabolism in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tengfei; Corraze, Geneviève; Plagnes-Juan, Elisabeth; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine

    2018-01-01

    When compared with fish meal and fish oil, plant ingredients differ not only in their protein content and amino acid and fatty acid profiles but are also devoid of cholesterol, the major component of cell membrane and precursor of several bioactive compounds. Based on these nutritional characteristics, plant-based diets can affect fish physiology and cholesterol metabolism. To investigate the mechanisms underlying cholesterol homeostasis, rainbow trout were fed from 1 g body wt for 6 mo with a totally plant-based diet (V), a marine diet (M), and a marine-restricted diet (MR), with feed intake adjusted to that of the V group. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, esterification, excretion, bile acid synthesis, and cholesterol efflux was measured in liver. Results showed that genes involved in cholesterol synthesis were upregulated in trout fed the V diet, whereas expression of genes related to bile acid synthesis ( cyp7a1) and cholesterol elimination ( abcg8) were reduced. Feeding trout the V diet also enhanced the expression of srebp-2 while reducing that of lxrα and miR-223. Overall, these data suggested that rainbow trout coped with the altered nutritional characteristics and absence of dietary cholesterol supply by increasing cholesterol synthesis and limiting cholesterol efflux through molecular mechanisms involving at least srebp-2, lxrα, and miR-223. However, plasma and body cholesterol levels in trout fed the V diet were lower than in fish fed the M diet, raising the question of the role of cholesterol in the negative effect of plant-based diet on growth.

  10. High fat diet promotes achievement of peak bone mass in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Parmanand; Piprode, Vikrant; Chaube, Balkrishna; Pote, Satish T; Mittal, Monika; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2014-12-05

    The relationship between obesity and bone is complex. Epidemiological studies demonstrate positive as well as negative correlation between obesity and bone health. In the present study, we investigated the impact of high fat diet-induced obesity on peak bone mass. After 9 months of feeding young rats with high fat diet, we observed obesity phenotype in rats with increased body weight, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol. There were significant increases in serum total alkaline phosphatase, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. By micro-computed tomography (μ-CT), we observed a trend of better trabecular bones with respect to their microarchitecture and geometry. This indicated that high fat diet helps in achieving peak bone mass and microstructure at younger age. We subsequently shifted rats from high fat diet to normal diet for 6 months and evaluated bone/obesity parameters. It was observed that after shifting rats from high fat diet to normal diet, fat mass, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly decreased. Interestingly, the gain in bone mineral density, bone mineral content and trabecular bone parameters by HFD was retained even after body weight and obesity were normalized. These results suggest that fat rich diet during growth could accelerate achievement of peak bone mass that is sustainable even after withdrawal of high fat diet.

  11. Letter to the editor: healthy alternatives to trans fats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Julie

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of trans fats is associated with an increase of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. To comply with regulatory policies and public health authorities recommendations, trans fats should be replaced in food products. The study by Sundram et al. (Nutrition & Metabolism 2007, 4:3 reporting the effect on CVD risk factors of interesterified fat (IE and partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO compared to palm olein (POL has been critically analyzed. The study design and in particular the composition of the tested fats was not suitable to properly answer the question raised regarding the effect of alternative ingredients to trans fats on plasma lipids. The observed effects are divergent with predicted data derived from the literature model consolidated using the individual results of 60 randomized clinical trials. The results of the study published by Sundram and co-workers have to be considered with awareness.

  12. Preparation, storage and microbiological quality of ready-to-serve low cholesterol masala paneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Rani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To prepare ready-to-serve masala paneer products with very little cholesterol and to assess their nutritional composition and microbiological safety under refrigerated conditions. Materials and Methods: Brine dipped and dry salted masala paneer products were prepared using fresh skim milk (fat 0.5 % and solid not fat (SNF 8.7%, vegetable oil (soybean oil, coriander leaves (1%, mint leaves (1% and green chilies (0.3%, roasted and grounded cumin seeds (0.3% and black pepper (0.3%. These products were then analyzed for total energy, fat, protein, cholesterol, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg. The samples were examined for standard plate counts (SPC, yeast and mold counts, coliform counts, Staphylococcus aureus counts and E. coli count at 2 days interval up to 8 days and also for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results: These products with very low cholesterol content (<2mg/100g can be labeled as cholesterol free paneer products. Nutritional evaluation revealed that 15% of the Daily Reference Value of energy, 38% of protein and 20% of calcium could be met from single serving of 100g of ready-to-serve products. SPC, coliform count and yeast and mold counts in the products were very low while E. coli. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. The products were microbiologically safe and remained so for at least 6 days on refrigeration storage. Conclusion: It is concluded that the ready-to-servelow cholesterol products were hygienic and microbiologically safe.

  13. Weight set-point theory predicts HDL-cholesterol levels in previously obese long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P T

    1990-05-01

    I have proposed that long-distance runners have the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol metabolism of men who are below their sedentary weight set-point. This hypothesis was tested by correlating HDL-cholesterol levels with other variables in 33 long-distance runners who ran at least 24 km/week. The most significant determinant of the runners' plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations was the difference between the runners' current weight and their self-reported greatest weight (r = -0.50, P less than 0.0001). HDL-cholesterol levels were highest in previously-obese runners who had lost the most weight, i.e. highest in those who were the furthest below their presumed weight set-point. Plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations were unrelated to training level, running performance, current weight and upper-body obesity. Although these results do not prove homeostatic regulation of weight at a set point, they do suggest that deviations from sedentary weight affect metabolism. Moreover, with respect to male runners elevating their HDL-cholesterol concentrations, these results suggest, 'tis better to have been fat and lost than to have never been fat at all.

  14. Atherosclerosis, cholesterol, nutrition, and statins – a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebbers, Jan-Olaf

    2007-08-01

    roles of cholesterol and homocysteine, and the effects of statins versus nutritional (micronutrients interventions in prevention and treatment of the disease are discussed. The prevailing opinion that serum cholesterol as a mediator of the disease is increased by eating saturated fats and decreased by eating polyunsaturated fats is being challenged. Evidently, the beneficial effects of statins in atherosclerosis are not mainly due to its cholesterol lowering effect, rather than to its “pleiotropic effects”. Other pathogenetic factors in atherosclerosis are involved, like inflammatory and immunologic processes, that can be modulated by statins as well as by other drugs or by the Mediterranean-style nutrition and by micronutrients (folate, B-vitamins.

  15. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  16. Carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers raised on forage in a semi-tropical region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Carlos; Peña, F; García, A; Perea, J; Martos, J; Domenech, V; Acero, R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare the carcass characteristics, cholesterol concentration, fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat, and meat quality of Criollo Argentino and Braford steers reared in an extensive system, without supplementation, and slaughtered at approximately 400kg live weight. The Braford steers had greater (P<0.05) carcass weight, yield, conformation score, marbling degree, fat thickness and fatness score than Criollo Argentino steers. The tissue composition of the 10th rib was: 68.1% vs. 63.6% muscle, 23.9% vs. 20.4% bone and 8.2% vs. 16.3% fat for the Criollo Argentino and Braford breeds, respectively. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers was lighter, redder, yellower and more tender than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The meat of Longissimus muscle from Braford steers had a higher fat content, similar protein and ash contents and a lower (P⩽0.001) cholesterol concentration than that from Criollo Argentino steers. The subcutaneous depot was the most saturated, while the intramuscular fat had the most polyunsaturated fatty acids. Intramuscular fat showed the highest ∑h fatty acids, and PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios and for MUFA/SFA, 16:0/18:0 and h/H ratios were not significantly different between adipose tissue depots. The influence of breed on the fatty acid profile varies among adipose tissues. In general, both intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat from Criollo steers contained more unsaturated fatty acids and less saturated fatty acids, than did fat from Braford steers.

  17. A sensitive assay for ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux using BODIPY-cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sandhya; Kellner-Weibel, Ginny; de la Llera-Moya, Margarita; Phillips, Michael C.; Asztalos, Bela F.; Bittman, Robert; Rothblat, George H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown a negative association between cellular cholesterol efflux and coronary artery disease (CAD). Standard protocol for quantitating cholesterol efflux involves labeling cells with [3H]cholesterol and measuring release of the labeled sterol. Using [3H]cholesterol is not ideal for the development of a high-throughput assay to screen large numbers of serum as would be required in studying the link between efflux and CAD. We compared efflux using a fluorescent sterol (boron dipyrromethene difluoride linked to sterol carbon-24, BODIPY-cholesterol) with that of [3H]cholesterol in J774 macrophages. Fractional efflux of BODIPY-cholesterol was significantly higher than that of [3H]cholesterol when apo A-I, HDL3, or 2% apoB-depleted human serum were used as acceptors. BODIPY-cholesterol efflux correlated significantly with [3H]cholesterol efflux (p cholesterol efflux correlated significantly with preβ-1 (r2 = 0.6) but not with total HDL-cholesterol. Reproducibility of the BODIPY-cholesterol efflux assay was excellent between weeks (r2 = 0.98, inter-assay CV = 3.31%). These studies demonstrate that BODIPY-cholesterol provides an efficient measurement of efflux compared with [3H]cholesterol and is a sensitive probe for ABCA1-mediated efflux. The increased sensitivity of BODIPY-cholesterol assay coupled with the simplicity of measuring fluorescence results in a sensitive, high-throughput assay that can screen large numbers of sera, and thus establish the relationship between cholesterol efflux and atherosclerosis. PMID:21957199

  18. NPC2 regulates biliary cholesterol secretion via stimulation of ABCG5/G8-mediated cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Takada, Tappei; Yoshikado, Takashi; Shoda, Jun-Ichi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Biliary cholesterol secretion helps maintain cholesterol homeostasis; it is regulated by the cholesterol exporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassettes G5 and G8 (ABCG5/G8) and the cholesterol importer Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). We studied another putative regulator of cholesterol secretion into bile, Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2)--a cholesterol-binding protein secreted by the biliary system--and determined its effects on transporter-mediated biliary secretion of cholesterol. Mice with hepatic knockdown of Npc2 or that overexpressed NPC2 were created using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer; biliary lipids were characterized. The effects of secreted NPC2 on cholesterol transporter activity were examined in vitro using cells that overexpressed ABCG5/G8 or NPC1L1. Studies of mice with altered hepatic expression of NPC2 revealed that this expression positively regulates the biliary secretion of cholesterol, supported by the correlation between levels of NPC2 protein and cholesterol in human bile. In vitro analysis showed that secreted NPC2 stimulated ABCG5/G8-mediated cholesterol efflux but not NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol uptake. Consistent with these observations, no significant changes in biliary cholesterol secretion were observed on hepatic overexpression of NPC2 in ABCG5/G8-null mice, indicating that NPC2 requires ABCG5/G8 to stimulate cholesterol secretion. Analyses of NPC2 mutants showed that the stimulatory effect of biliary NPC2 was independent of the function of lysosomal NPC2 as a regulator of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. NPC2 is a positive regulator of biliary cholesterol secretion via stimulation of ABCG5/G8-mediated cholesterol transport. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary fat intake and plasma lipid levels in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E K; Lee-Finglas, W E; Southon, S; Gee, J M; Johnson, I T; Finglas, P M; Wright, A J

    1992-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fat intake and fasting plasma lipid levels was assessed in 35 female and 19 male adolescents recruited from two local education authority schools in Norwich, UK. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7-day weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Fat and energy intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with values obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Fasting plasma lipid levels (total, HDL and LDL cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured and compared with total dietary lipids and fatty acid intakes. The average proportion of energy consumed as fat was higher than is currently considered desirable but lower than previous studies have reported for adults. Mean serum total cholesterol values were 4.2 (SEM 0.1) mmol for females and 4.5 (SEM 0.2) mmol for males; this difference was not statistically significant. In male subjects the dietary fatty acid profiles were significantly correlated with several parameters of plasma lipid status which are thought to be risk factors for coronary heart disease, and in particular with the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol.

  20. Fat simple--a nursing tool for client education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jo

    2006-07-01

    Recent debate about "good fats" and "bad fats" has created uncertainty for nurses and clients as they struggle to make sense of the often contradictory statements in the media. This article summarises the current level of knowledge regarding dietary effects on serum cholesterol and presents the information in an eye catching table that can be used as an educational resource in heart disease prevention education. Information from a literature review was used to design a table that identifies how changes in diet and activity can alter components of a person's lipid profile. Nurses can use the resulting table as a simple tool to give clients targeted education based on their individual cholesterol results. This tool illustrates that not all dietary recommendations to the public are beneficial to serum cholesterol levels and it also explains why popular diets such as the Atkins, Mediterranean, and glycaemic index/load can produce more cardio-protective profiles than the traditional low fat diet. It should provide a way forward in an increasingly contentious area of practice.

  1. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-08-01

    Butter is known to have a cholesterol-raising effect and, therefore, has often been included as a negative control in dietary studies, whereas the effect of moderate butter intake has not been elucidated to our knowledge. We compared the effects of moderate butter intake, moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m²) of 40.4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P butter period than in the olive oil and run-in periods (P butter resulted in increases in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared with the effects of olive oil intake and a habitual diet (run-in period). Furthermore, moderate butter intake was also followed by an increase in HDL cholesterol compared with the habitual diet. We conclude that hypercholesterolemic people should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum, whereas moderate butter intake may be considered part of the diet in the normocholesterolemic population. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  3. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  4. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  5. Trans-polar-fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Counil, Emilie; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2008-01-01

    As part of the rapid socio-cultural transition observed in Arctic populations, the Inuit diet is changing. We present original data derived from the baseline Inuit Health in Transition cohort study regarding biological levels of n-3 fatty acids and trans-fatty acids (TFA), lipids with opposite he...... of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced trans-fats in 2003....

  6. Dietary fats and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    The present review addresses the evidence for a possible link between dietary fat and cancer. International comparisons suggest that a high-fat diet may increase cancer risk, and this hypothesis is supported by animal experiments. However, epidemiological studies within populations show little or

  7. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, E C; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Albrecht, C

    2014-09-01

    The transition from the nonlactating to the lactating state represents a critical period for dairy cow lipid metabolism because body reserves have to be mobilized to meet the increasing energy requirements for the initiation of milk production. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview on cholesterol homeostasis in transition dairy cows by assessing in parallel plasma, milk, and hepatic tissue for key factors of cholesterol metabolism, transport, and regulation. Blood samples and liver biopsies were taken from 50 multiparous Holstein dairy cows in wk 3 antepartum (a.p.), wk 1 postpartum (p.p.), wk 4 p.p., and wk 14 p.p. Milk sampling was performed in wk 1, 4, and 14 p.p. Blood and milk lipid concentrations [triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, and lipoproteins], enzyme activities (phospholipid transfer protein and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase) were analyzed using enzymatic assays. Hepatic gene expression patterns of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGC) synthase 1 (HMGCS1) and HMGC reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding factor (SREBF)-1 and -2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1, liver X receptor (LXR) α and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) α and γ were measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Plasma TG, cholesterol, and lipoprotein concentrations decreased from wk 3 a.p. to a minimum in wk 1 p.p., and then gradually increased until wk 14 p.p. Compared with wk 4 p.p., phospholipid transfer protein activity was increased in wk 1 p.p., whereas lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was lowest at this period. Total cholesterol concentration and mass, and cholesterol concentration in the milk fat fraction decreased from wk 1 p.p. to wk 4 p.p. Both total and milk fat cholesterol concentration were decreased in wk 4 p.p. compared with wk 1 and 14 p.p. The mRNA abundance of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis (SREBF-2, HMGCS1, and

  8. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  9. Fat and bone interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermeo, Sandra; Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Duque, Gustavo

    2014-06-01

    Fat and bone have a complicated relationship. Although obesity has been associated with low fracture risk, there is increasing evidence that some of the factors that are released by peripheral fat into the circulation may also have a deleterious effect on bone mass, thus, predisposing to fractures. More importantly, the local interaction between fat and bone within the bone marrow seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. This "local interaction" occurs inside the bone marrow and is associated with the autocrine and paracrine release of fatty acids and adipokines, which affect the cells in their vicinity including the osteoblasts, reducing their function and survival. In this review, we explore the particularities of the fat and bone cell interactions within the bone marrow, their significance in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and the potential therapeutic applications that regulating marrow fat may have in the near future as a novel pharmacologic treatment for osteoporosis.

  10. High Density Lipoproteins and Arteriosclerosis: Role of Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...

  11. Factors associated with serum cholesterol level in a pediatric practice. Cholesterol screening in a pediatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donker, G A; Goff, D C; Ragan, J D; Killinger, R P; Harrist, R B; Labarthe, D R

    1993-01-01

    The associations between age, sex, height, Quetelet index, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol level were examined among 1406 routinely screened children, aged 4 to 19 years, in a pediatric practice. After adjustment for sex and age, height and Quetelet index were associated with serum cholesterol levels. Quetelet index was shown by multiple linear regression to be positively related to cholesterol levels (b = 0.780, P Quetelet index was marginal. Clustering of elevated serum cholesterol level, Quetelet index, and systolic blood pressure was observed. Familial aggregation of cholesterol levels was demonstrated using analysis of variance for 742 children from 342 families included in the regression analysis (F341,400 = 1.56, P Quetelet index, and familial aggregation accounted for 10.6% of the variance in serum cholesterol levels. Siblings of children with high cholesterol levels are a high-yield group in cholesterol screening.

  12. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  13. High-fat diet action on adiposity, inflammation, and insulin sensitivity depends on the control low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Awada, Manar; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Capel, Frédéric; Malpuech-Brugère, Corinne; Debard, Cyrille; Pesenti, Sandra; Morio, Béatrice; Vidal, Hubert; Rieusset, Jennifer; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2013-11-01

    Animal studies using a high-fat diet (HFD) have studied the effects of lipid overconsumption by comparing a defined HFD either with a natural-ingredient chow diet or with a defined low-fat diet (LFD), despite the dramatic differences between these control diets. We hypothesized that these differences in the control diet could modify the conclusions regarding the effects that an increase of fat in the diet has on several metabolic parameters. For 11 weeks, C57bl6/J mice were fed a low-fat chow diet (8% energy from fat), a typical semisynthetic LFD (12%), or a semisynthetic HFD (sy-HF) (40%). Conclusions about the effect of sy-HF on body weight gain, subcutaneous adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue inflammation were modified according to the control LFD. Conversely, conclusions about epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue; fat intake effects on liver and muscular lipids, cholesterol, free fatty acids, and markers of low-grade inflammation; and of adipose tissue macrophage infiltration were the same regardless of the use of low-fat chow diet or semisynthetic LFD. For some physiological outcomes, conflicting conclusions were even reached about the effects of increased fat intake according to the chosen low-fat control. Some deleterious effects of sy-HF may not be explained by lipid overconsumption but rather by the overall quality of ingredients in a semisynthetic diet. According to the control LFD chosen, conclusions on the lipid-related effects of HFDs must be formulated with great care because some end points are profoundly affected by the ingredient composition of the diet rather than by fat content. © 2013.

  14. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat content has been associated with development of non-communicable diseases due to its influence on metabolic risk factors (Levitan et al., 2004). Globally, the leading metabolic risk factors are high blood pressure (13%), tobacco use (9%), raised blood glucose levels (6%), physical inactivity (6%) and overweight ...

  15. Differential fat harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Torres Farr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Volume replacement with fillers is regularly performed with the use of diverse volumetric materials to correct different structures around the face, depending on the volume enhancement required and the thickness of the soft tissue envelope. Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is performed to place the correct fat parcel size for each target area, expanding the potential applications of fat. Methods: Sixty patients consecutively recruited on a first come basis undergone a facial fat grafting procedure, in private practice setting between March 2012 and October 2013. Fat grafting quantity and quality was predicted for each case. Differential harvesting was performed, with 2 fat parcels size. Processing was performed through washing. Fat infiltration was carried out through small cannulas or needles depending on the treated area. Outcomes were analysed both by the physicians and the patients at 7 days, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months through a perceived satisfaction questionnaire. Parameters considered were downtime or discomfort, skin benefits, volume restoration, reabsorption rate estimated and overall improvement. Results: Full facial differential fat grafting procedure lasted an average of 1.5-2.5 h. Average downtime was 3-4 days. Follow-up was performed to a minimum of 6 months. Both patient and physician overall satisfaction rates were mostly excellent. Adverse events like lumps or irregularities were not encountered. Conclusion: Differential fat harvesting and posterior grafting is a valid alternative, to expand the repertoire of fat use, allow a more homogeneous effect, reduce the potential complications, speed up the process, improve graft survival, and to enhance overall aesthetic outcome.

  16. Oxidised LDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels in patients of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Joya; Mishra, T. K.; Rao, Y. N.; Aggarwal, S K

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method,...

  17. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  18. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  19. Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1998-01-01

    Examines current social issues and the challenge of raising children under such conditions. Discusses elements of a socially toxic environment such as violence, poverty, disruption of family relationships, trauma, and alienation, and their effects on child development. Encourages a commitment to improve the quality of the social environment to…

  20. Pragmatics, Awareness Raising, and the Cooperative Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, pedagogical pragmatics has sought to improve the effectiveness with which learners express and interpret meaning, through awareness-raising activities that draw on authentic materials and break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences. By and large, these efforts have been informed by an inductive…