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Sample records for cholerae o1 strains

  1. Purification and characterization of pili of a Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashiro, T.; Nakasone, N; Iwanaga, M

    1993-01-01

    Pili of the Vibrio cholerae non-O1 strain V10 were purified and characterized. The V10 pili were physicochemically and immunologically different from those of the previously reported V. cholerae non-O1 strain S7, although the pili of the two strains had homologous N-terminal amino acid sequences. V10 plus antigen was detected only in V. cholerae non-O1 strains.

  2. Pulmonary Cholera Due to Infection with a Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Jack D.; Kimbrough, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    We present 2 cases of primary pulmonary non-O1 Vibrio cholerae infection. We believe that these are the first documented cases of primary pulmonary infection due to this organism from a freshwater source.

  3. Cholera Outbreaks Caused by an Altered Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Biotype Strain Producing Classical Cholera Toxin B in Vietnam in 2007 to 2008 ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Binh Minh; Lee, Je Hee; Cuong, Ngo Tuan; Choi, Seon Young; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Anh, Dang Duc; Lee, Hye Ri; Ansaruzzaman, M; Endtz, Hubert P.; Chun, Jongsik; Lopez, Anna Lena; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Clemens, John D.; Kim, Dong Wook

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates collected during cholera outbreaks occurring from late 2007 to early 2008 in northern Vietnam were revealed to represent an altered strain containing the RS1 element followed by a CTX prophage harboring El Tor type rstR and classical ctxB on the large chromosome.

  4. Phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains identified in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵璇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the phenotypic diversity of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China during the last 50 years.Methods Traditional biotyping testings including susceptibility to polymyxin B,sensitivity to groupⅣphage,Voges-Proskauer test and haemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were conducted.Results Data from Biotype-specific phenotype analysis revealed that only 133 isolates carried the typical E1 Tor phenotypes while the other 251

  5. Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics Analysis of a Vibrio cholerae O1 Strain Isolated from a Cholera Patient in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osama, Abdulrazak; Gan, Han Ming; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Kien-Pong

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence analysis of a clinical Vibrio cholerae VC35 strain from an outbreak case in Malaysia indicates multiple genes involved in host adaptation and a novel Na+-driven multidrug efflux pump-coding gene in the genome of Vibrio cholerae with the highest similarity to VMA_001754 of Vibrio mimicus VMA223. PMID:23209200

  6. Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics Analysis of a Vibrio cholerae O1 Strain Isolated from a Cholera Patient in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Osama, Abdulrazak; Gan, Han Ming; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Kien-Pong; Thong, Kwai-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence analysis of a clinical Vibrio cholerae VC35 strain from an outbreak case in Malaysia indicates multiple genes involved in host adaptation and a novel Na+-driven multidrug efflux pump-coding gene in the genome of Vibrio cholerae with the highest similarity to VMA_001754 of Vibrio mimicus VMA223.

  7. Cholera in Vietnam: changes in genotypes and emergence of class I integrons containing aminoglycoside resistance gene cassettes in vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from 1979 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, A; Forslund, A; Tam, N V; Vinh, D X; Cam, P D

    1999-03-01

    The number of cholera cases and the mortality rates reported from different regions of Vietnam varied considerably in the period from 1979 to 1996, with between 2,500 and 6,000 cases reported annually from 1992 to 1995. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.0 to 9.6% from 1979 to 1983 to less than 1.8% after 1983. Major cholera outbreaks were reported from the High Plateau region for the first time in 1994 and 1995; this is an area with limited access to health services and safe drinking-water supplies. All cases were associated with Vibrio cholerae O1. Using ribotyping, cholera toxin (CT) genotyping, and characterization of antibiotic susceptibility patterns and antibiotic resistance genes by PCR, we show that strains isolated after 1990 were clearly different from strains isolated before 1991. In contrast to strains isolated before 1991, 94% of 104 strains isolated after 1990 showed an identical ribotype R1, were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin, and showed a different CT genotype. Furthermore, PCR analysis revealed that sulfamethoxazole-resistant strains harbored class I integrons containing a gene cassette ant(3")-1a encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of class I integrons in V. cholerae. The development of cholera and the changes in the phenotypic and genotypic properties of V. cholerae O1 shown in the present study highlight the importance of monitoring V. cholerae O1 in Vietnam as in other parts of the world. In particular, the emergence of the new ribotype R1 strain containing class I integrons should be further studied. PMID:9986842

  8. Molecular characterisation of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains carrying an SXT/R391-like element from cholera outbreaks in Kenya: 1994-2007

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    Goddeeris Bruno M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, cholera outbreaks in parts of Kenya have become common. Although a number of recent studies describe the epidemiology of cholera in Kenya, there is paucity of information concerning the diversity and occurrence of mobile genetic elements in Vibrio cholerae strains implicated in these outbreaks. A total of 65 Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Inaba isolated between 1994 and 2007 from various outbreaks in Kenya were investigated for mobile genetic elements including integrons, transposons, the integrating conjugative elements (ICEs, conjugative plasmids and for their genotypic relatedness. Results All the strains were haemolytic on 5% sheep blood and positive for the Vibrio cholerae El Tor-specific haemolysin toxin gene (hylA by PCR. They all contained strB, sulII, floR and the dfrA1 genes encoding resistance to streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim respectively. These genes, together with an ICE belonging to the SXT/R391 family were transferable to the rifampicin-resistant E. coli C600 en bloc. All the strains were negative for integron class 1, 2 and 3 and for transposase gene of transposon Tn7 but were positive for integron class 4 and the trpM gene of transposon Tn21. No plasmids were isolated from any of the 65 strains. All the strains were also positive for all V. cholera El Tor pathogenic genes except the NAG- specific heat-stable toxin (st gene. None of the strains were positive for virulence genes associated with the V. cholerae classical biotype. All the strains were positive for El Tor-specific CTXphi bacteriophage rstrR repressor gene (CTXETΦ but negative for the Classical, Calcutta, and the Environmental repressor types. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE showed that regardless of the year of isolation, all the strains bearing the SXT element were clonally related. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the V. cholerae O1 strains carrying an SXT/R391-like

  9. Phenotypic and genotypic biotyping of environmental strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated in Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Filetici, E.; Bonadonna, L; Ciccozzi, M; Anastasio, M P; Fantasia, M; Shimada, T.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolated in Italy from different sources by biochemical and serological assays, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and molecular biotyping. Serotyping and genomic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis proved to be useful in discriminating the isolates. The data obtained show a wide heterogeneity at the genomic level, and in keeping with this, the serogrouping classification provided evidence of a high varia...

  10. The study of ctx B and rstR variations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from 1961 to 2010 in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁未丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the ctx B and rstR variations of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae(V.cholerae)O1 E1 Tor strains isolated from different provinces in China from1961 to 2010.Methods All 385 toxigenic V.cholerae O1 E1 Tor strains were selected,which were isolated in China between year 1961 and 2010.ctx B gene was amplified by PCR method and sequenced for further analysis.rstR was detected with PCR by using the genotype

  11. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant and emergence of Haitian ctxB variant in the strains isolated from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Debdutta; Dey, Shuchismita; Pazhani, Gururaja Perumal; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Parande, Mahantesh V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Roy, Subarna

    2016-04-01

    Cholera still continues to be an important cause of human infection, especially in developing countries that lack access to safe drinking water and proper sanitation. In the present study, we report the emergence of new variant form of V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype with a novel mutation in ctxB in strains isolated from various outbreaks during 2010-2014 in Belgaum situated in north-west Karnataka, India. A total of 14 occurrences of cholera were documented from Belgaum Division of North Karnataka during the 4-year period from 2010 to 2014. All the V. cholerae O1 isolates were subjected to DAMA PCR to detect the three different allelic subtypes of ctxB and PCR-based detection of virulent genes, and subsequently, 14 strains (one strain from each outbreak or sporadic case) were subjected to ctxB gene sequence and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. A total of 54 V. cholerae O1 strains were obtained of which 21 strains isolated during 2010-2011 had classical ctxB and remaining 33 strains isolated during 2012-2014 belonged to Haitian variant. In the cluster analysis, the PFGE profiles were divided into clades A with and B. Clade A contained eight strains with 94 % similarity and Haitian type of ctxB. Clade B contained six strains and had Haitian type of ctxB except one with classical ctxB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the Haitian variant of V. cholerae O1 Ogawa causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of cholera in South India. PMID:26337047

  12. Enterotoxigenicity of Mature 45-Kilodalton and Processed 35-Kilodalton Forms of Hemagglutinin Protease Purified from a Cholera Toxin Gene-Negative Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Strain

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    Ghosh, A; Saha, D. R.; Hoque, K. M.; Asakuna, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Koley, H; Das, S. S.; Chakrabarti, M K; Pal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Cholera toxin gene-negative Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain PL-21 is the etiologic agent of cholera-like syndrome. Hemagglutinin protease (HAP) is one of the major secretory proteins of PL-21. The mature 45-kDa and processed 35-kDa forms of HAP were purified in the presence and absence of EDTA from culture supernatants of PL-21. Enterotoxigenicities of both forms of HAP were tested in rabbit ileal loop (RIL), Ussing chamber, and tissue culture assays. The 35-kDa HAP showed hemorrhagic...

  13. Whole genome PCR scanning reveals the syntenic genome structure of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains in the O1/O139 population.

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    Bo Pang

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is commonly found in estuarine water systems. Toxigenic O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains have caused cholera epidemics and pandemics, whereas the nontoxigenic strains within these serogroups only occasionally lead to disease. To understand the differences in the genome and clonality between the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139, we employed a whole genome PCR scanning (WGPScanning method, an rrn operon-mediated fragment rearrangement analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to analyze the genome structure of different strains. WGPScanning in conjunction with CGH revealed that the genomic contents of the toxigenic strains were conservative, except for a few indels located mainly in mobile elements. Minor nucleotide variation in orthologous genes appeared to be the major difference between the toxigenic strains. rrn operon-mediated rearrangements were infrequent in El Tor toxigenic strains tested using I-CeuI digested pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE analysis and PCR analysis based on flanking sequence of rrn operons. Using these methods, we found that the genomic structures of toxigenic El Tor and O139 strains were syntenic. The nontoxigenic strains exhibited more extensive sequence variations, but toxin coregulated pilus positive (TCP+ strains had a similar structure. TCP+ nontoxigenic strains could be subdivided into multiple lineages according to the TCP type, suggesting the existence of complex intermediates in the evolution of toxigenic strains. The data indicate that toxigenic O1 El Tor and O139 strains were derived from a single lineage of intermediates from complex clones in the environment. The nontoxigenic strains with non-El Tor type TCP may yet evolve into new epidemic clones after attaining toxigenic attributes.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Environmental Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 with Similarities to the V. cholerae O1 Classical Biotype

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Lee S.; Turnsek, Maryann; Kahler, Amy; Hill, Vincent R.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Tarr, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 2012EL-1759 is an environmental isolate from Haiti that was recovered in 2012 during a cholera outbreak. The genomic backbone is similar to that of the prototypical V. cholerae O1 classical biotype strain O395, and it carries the Vibrio pathogenicity islands (VPI-1 and VPI-2) and a cholera toxin (CTX) prephage.

  15. Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, M; Mori, K.; Kaviti, J N

    1982-01-01

    Biological and serological analyses of 272 isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 from six epidemics and from a few sporadic cases in Kenya were carried out. All of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae biotype E1 Tor, and 210 out of 272 isolates were hemolytic as examined by Feeley's method.

  16. The Resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Strains to the Typing Phage 919TP, a Member of K139 Phage Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaona; Zhang, Jingyun; Xu, Jialiang; Du, Pengcheng; Pang, Bo; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage 919TP is a temperate phage of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 El Tor and is used as a subtyping phage in the phage-biotyping scheme in cholera surveillance in China. In this study, sequencing of the 919TP genome showed that it belonged to the Vibrio phage K139 family. The mechanisms conferring resistance to 919TP infection of El Tor strains were explored to help understand the subtyping basis of phage 919TP and mutations related to 919TP resistance. Among the test strains resistant to phage 919TP, most contained the temperate 919TP phage genome, which facilitated superinfection exclusion to 919TP. Our data suggested that this immunity to Vibrio phage 919TP occurred after absorption of the phage onto the bacteria. Other strains contained LPS receptor synthesis gene mutations that disable adsorption of phage 919TP. Several strains resistant to 919TP infection possessed unknown resistance mechanisms, since they did not contain LPS receptor mutations or temperate K139 phage genome. Further research is required to elucidate the phage infection steps involved in the resistance of these strains to phage infection. PMID:27242744

  17. The Resistance of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Strains to the Typing Phage 919TP, a Member of K139 Phage Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaona; Zhang, Jingyun; Xu, Jialiang; Du, Pengcheng; Pang, Bo; Li, Jie; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage 919TP is a temperate phage of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 El Tor and is used as a subtyping phage in the phage-biotyping scheme in cholera surveillance in China. In this study, sequencing of the 919TP genome showed that it belonged to the Vibrio phage K139 family. The mechanisms conferring resistance to 919TP infection of El Tor strains were explored to help understand the subtyping basis of phage 919TP and mutations related to 919TP resistance. Among the test strains resistant to phage 919TP, most contained the temperate 919TP phage genome, which facilitated superinfection exclusion to 919TP. Our data suggested that this immunity to Vibrio phage 919TP occurred after absorption of the phage onto the bacteria. Other strains contained LPS receptor synthesis gene mutations that disable adsorption of phage 919TP. Several strains resistant to 919TP infection possessed unknown resistance mechanisms, since they did not contain LPS receptor mutations or temperate K139 phage genome. Further research is required to elucidate the phage infection steps involved in the resistance of these strains to phage infection.

  18. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan;

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth...... conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass......, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA...

  19. Neuraminidase production by Vibrio cholerae O1 and other diarrheagenic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, S; Ahmad, N.; Ali, S.

    1984-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 strains belonging to both biotypes (classical and El Tor) and both serotypes (Ogawa and Inaba) produced neuraminidase which was released rather than cell bound. Classical strains made more neuraminidase than did El Tor strains. About one-third of V. cholerae non-O1 strains and one-fourth of Aeromonas hydrophila strains were neuraminidase positive. Strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Shigella spp. did not produce detectable neuraminidase.

  20. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Begum, Anowara

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost culturability within one hour after inoculation but remained culturable on cloth and wood for up to four hours. VBNC V. cholerae on dry fomite surfaces was detected and quantified by EMA-qPCR even 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the prolonged survival of V. cholerae on various household fomites may play vital role in cholera transmission and needs to be further investigated. PMID:27430513

  1. Non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae bacteraemia in a cirrhotic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Petsaris, O.; Nousbaum, J B; Quilici, M L; Le Coadou, G; PAYAN, C; Abalain, M L

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 or O139 are the aetiological agents of cholera. The pathogenicity of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae is less well known. These worldwide bacteria are responsible for gastrointestinal infections or, more rarely, bacteraemia in patients with an underlying disease, leading to life-threatening complications. We report a case of non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae bacteraemia due to a haemolytic strain in a cirrhotic patient. Early antibiotherapy allowed a good outcome. The aim...

  2. Vibrio cholerae O1 from superficial water of the Tucunduba Stream, Brazilian Amazon

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    Sá, L.L.C.; Vale, E.R.V.; Garza, D.R.; A.C.P. Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Isolation and genetic characterization of an environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 from the Amazon is reported. This strain lacks two major virulence factors - CTX and TCP - but carries other genes related to virulence. Genetic similarity with epidemic strains is evaluated and the importance of V. cholerae surveillance in the Amazon is emphasized.

  3. Cholera in Vietnam: Changes in Genotypes and Emergence of Class I Integrons Containing Aminoglycoside Resistance Gene Cassettes in Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains Isolated from 1979 to 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, A; Forslund, A; Tam, N. V.; Vinh, D. X.; Cam, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    The number of cholera cases and the mortality rates reported from different regions of Vietnam varied considerably in the period from 1979 to 1996, with between 2,500 and 6,000 cases reported annually from 1992 to 1995. Annual mortality rates ranged from 2.0 to 9.6% from 1979 to 1983 to less than 1.8% after 1983. Major cholera outbreaks were reported from the High Plateau region for the first time in 1994 and 1995; this is an area with limited access to health services and safe drinking-water...

  4. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity Cepas de V. cholerae O1 biotipo ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico inducen vacuolización celular y citotoxicidad

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    Jorge E Vidal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. RESULTS: All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+ and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-. Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. CONCLUSION: The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.OBJETIVO: Analizar el efecto vacuolizante de cepas de V. cholerae O1 ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico, incluyendo México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron pruebas de hemolisis, vacuolización y citotoxicidad en células Vero, así como PCR, análisis por RFLP y clonación molecular. RESULTADOS: Todas las cepas indujeron el efecto vacuolizante. Las cepas del ribotipo 2, aisladas de las costas del Golfo en Estados Unidos, presentaron títulos altos de vacuolización. El gen hlyA fue amplificado en las nueve cepas mediante PCR, aunque sólo ocho fueron hemolíticas. Se clonó el gen hlyA de una cepa toxigénica (2514-88, ctxAB+ y de una cepa no toxigénica aislada en México (CM 91-3, ctxAB-. El sobrenadante de las clonas recombinantes indujo hemólisis, efecto vacuolizante y citotoxicidad. El RFLP mostró alta similitud del gen hlyA de las cepas estudiadas. CONCLUSIÓN: El efecto vacuolizante es un

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated in Nepal by southern hybridization with a cholera toxin gene probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Shrestha, J; Iida, T; Yoh, M; Honda, T

    1995-06-01

    A cholera epidemic broke out in 1992 due to Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor in the eastern and southern belt of Nepal mainly among the Bhutanese refugees. Restriction fragment profiles (RFP) of DNA fragments of V. cholerae O1 isolates hybridized with an enzyme-labelled oligonucleotide probe for cholera toxin gene (ctx) by Southern Hybridization were compared. The probe hybridized with the 13- and 8-kb fragments of PstI-digested total DNA in all isolates observed in the epidemic. This RFP in the Nepalese strain was not observed in the strains isolated during other epidemics but was observed in the strains isolated from the exported marine products from Taiwan and Thailand. PMID:7594311

  6. Molecular epidemiology of non-O1 Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus in the U.S. Gulf Coast region.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaper, J B; Nataro, J P; Roberts, N C; Siebeling, R J; Bradford, H B

    1986-01-01

    Ten toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1 and V. mimicus strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in the U.S. Gulf Coast region were examined for genetic relatedness. Restriction digest patterns of chromosomal DNA and Southern blot analysis with a cholera toxin gene probe revealed that the strains exhibited greater genetic divergence than the highly conserved V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from clinical and sewage samples in this region.

  7. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brettin, Thomas S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bruce, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Detter, John C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Cliff S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Munik, A C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meincke, Linda [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saunders, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Choi, Seon Y [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Haley, Bradd J [U. MARYLAND; Taviani, Elisa [U. MARYLAND; Jeon, Yoon - Seong [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Kim, Dong Wook [INTL. VACCINE INST. SEOUL; Lee, Jae - Hak [SEOUL NATL. UNIV.; Walters, Ronald A [PNNL; Hug, Anwar [NATL. INST. CHOLERIC ENTERIC DIS.; Colwell, Rita R [U. MARYLAND

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to

  8. OmpU as a biomarker for rapid discrimination between toxigenic and epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1/O139 and non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae in a modified MALDI-TOF MS assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paauw, A.; Trip, H.; Niemcewicz, M.; Sellek, R.; Heng, J.M.E.; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Jong, A.L. de; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Olsen, J.S.; Tsivtsivadze, E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae. Outbreaks are caused by a genetically homogenous group of strains from serogroup O1 or O139 that are able to produce the cholera toxin. Rapid detection and identification of these epidemic strains is essential for an effecti

  9. Studies on a novel serine protease of a ΔhapAΔprtV Vibrio cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in the rabbit ileal loop model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Syngkon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two well-characterized proteases secreted by Vibrio cholerae O1 strains are hemagglutinin protease (HAP and V. cholerae protease (PrtV. The hapA and prtV knock out mutant, V. cholerae O1 strain CHA6.8ΔprtV, still retains residual protease activity. We initiated this study to characterize the protease present in CHA6.8ΔprtV strain and study its role in pathogenesis in rabbit ileal loop model (RIL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We partially purified the residual protease secreted by strain CHA6.8ΔprtV from culture supernatant by anion-exchange chromatography. The major protein band in native PAGE was identified by MS peptide mapping and sequence analysis showed homology with a 59-kDa trypsin-like serine protease encoded by VC1649. The protease activity was partially inhibited by 25 mM PMSF and 10 mM EDTA and completely inhibited by EDTA and PMSF together. RIL assay with culture supernatants of strains C6709 (FA ratio 1.1+/-0.3 n = 3, CHA6.8 (FA ratio 1.08+/-0.2 n = 3, CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.02+/-0.2 n = 3 and partially purified serine protease from CHA6.8ΔprtV (FA ratio 1.2+/-0.3 n = 3 induced fluid accumulation and histopathological studies on rabbit ileum showed destruction of the villus structure with hemorrhage in all layers of the mucosa. RIL assay with culture supernatant of CHA6.8ΔprtVΔVC1649 strain (FA ratio 0.11+/-0.005 n = 3 and with protease incubated with PMSF and EDTA (FA ratio 0.3+/-0.05 n = 3 induced a significantly reduced FA ratio with almost complete normal villus structure. CONCLUSION: Our results show the presence of a novel 59-kDa serine protease in a ΔhapAΔprtV V. cholerae O1 strain and its role in hemorrhagic response in RIL model.

  10. Vibrio cholerae non-serogroup O1 cystitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Dumler, J.S.; Osterhout, G J; Spangler, J G; Dick, J D

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who developed cystitis caused by non-serogroup O1 Vibrio cholerae after swimming in the Chesapeake Bay. Treatment was empirical, with complete symptomatic resolution. Genitourinary tract infections by Vibrio spp. are uncommon but should be considered when cystitis occurs after saltwater exposure in appropriate geographic regions.

  11. Toxin(s), Other Than Cholera Toxin, Produced by Environmental Non O1 Non O139 Vibrio cholerae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kohinur Begum; Chowdhury R. Ahsan; Mohammad Ansaruzzaman; Dilip K. Dutta; Qazi S.Ahmad; Kaisar A. Talukder

    2006-01-01

    A total of 39 Vibrio cholerae non O1 non O139 strains were isolated from surface waters of different parts of Dhaka City, Bangladesh. All these strains showed lack of ctx or zot gene, as demonstrated by the PCR analysis.Eighteen representative strains were tested for enterotoxin production using a rabbit ileal loop model, of which live cells of 8 strains and culture filtrates of 6 strains produced fluid accumulation in ileal loops. However, none of them produced heat stable toxin (ST), as detected by suckling mouse assay. On the other hand, 15% of isolates produced cytotoxin as detected by the Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell assay. Fifty times concentrated culture filtrates of the representative strains did not give any precipitin band against the anti-cholera toxin, suggesting the strains produced an enterotoxin, which is antigenically different from known cholera toxin (CT). Eighty percent of the total isolates were found to be positive for heat labile haemolysin detected by tube method, whereas, 39% were found positive by the Christie-Atkins-Munch-Petersen (CAMP) method. However, 87% of the isolates were positive for haemagglutinin/protease and all of the strains were positive for mannose-sensitive-haemagglutinin assay.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Epidemic Isolates of Vibrio Cholerae O1 by Arbitrarily Primed PCR (AP-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Izadi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemic and endemic cholera is a major public health problem for many countries. Aim of this study was to evaluate AP-PCR for investigation of clonal relatedness among the strains of Vibrio cholerae recovered from an outbreak occurred in different parts of Iran in 2005. Methods: The study was conducted during the cholera outbreak occurred in some of provinces in Iran in summer 2005. Bacterial isolation and identification was carried out according to the standard bacteriological methods. Arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR used to study the genetic relatedness between the V.cholerae isolates. Results: Thirty-nine isolates of V.cholerae O1 were identified. All isolates belonged to serotype Inaba. AP-PCR could differentiate the isolates into five groups. AP-PCR cluster types 1 and 2 were the most prevalent groups, accounting for 36% and 41%, respectively, of V.cholerae isolates. Conclusion: The most of epidemic strains of V.cholerae O1 isolated in the year 2005 could be attributed to two predominant clusters including AP-PCR cluster types 1 and 2 accounting for more than 77% of isolates. In conclusion, a few epidemic clones were responsible for the apparently epidemic occurrence of cholera in provinces studied.

  13. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated before, during and after the O139 outbreak based on the intergenomic heterogeneity of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atreyi Ghatak; Anasuya Majumdar; Ranajit K Ghosh

    2005-12-01

    We have cloned, sequenced and analysed all the five classes of the intergenic (16S-23S rRNA) spacer region (ISR) associated with the eight rrn operons (rrna-rrnh) of Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 El Tor strains isolated before, during and after the O139 outbreak. ISR classes ‘a’ and ‘g’ were found to be invariant, ISR-B (ISRb and ISRe) exhibited very little variation, whereas ISR-C (ISRc, ISRd, and ISRf) and ISRh showed the maximum variation. Phylogenetic analysis conducted with all three ISR classes (ISR-B, ISR-C and ISRh) showed that the pre-O139 serogroup and post-O139 serogroup O1 El Tor strains arose out of two independent clones, which was congruent with the observation made by earlier workers suggesting that analyses of ISR-C and ISR-h, instead of all five ISR classes, could be successfully used to study phylogeny in this organism.

  14. Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor in freshwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Marius; Füchslin, Hans Peter; Hammes, Frederik; Egli, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Growth of Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa Eltor was studied with a growth assay in which autoclaved and filtered (0.22 microm) freshwater was inoculated at low cell density (5 x 10(3) cells ml(-1)) and proliferation was followed with flow cytometry. Against the common view, V. cholerae was able to grow extensively in different kinds of freshwater. The bacterium multiplied in river water, lake water and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant up to a cell density of 1.55 x 10(6) cells ml(-1). In these samples, apparent assimilable organic carbon (AOC(app)) concentrations ranged from 52 up to 800 microg l(-1) and the results demonstrate a positive trend between the AOC(app) concentration and final cell concentration, suggesting that AOC was a key parameter governing growth of V. cholerae. No growth was observed in waters (tap and bottled drinking water) containing less than approximately 60 microg AOC(app) l(-1). When pure cultures of V. cholerae were grown on identical lake water at different temperatures (20, 25 and 30 degrees C) the maximum specific growth rates (micromax) achieved were 0.22 h(-1), 0.32 h(-1) and 0.45 h(-1), respectively. In addition, growth was characterized in lake water samples amended with different concentrations of NaCl. The highest micromax of V. cholerae was recorded at moderate salinity levels (5 g NaCl l(-1), micromax=0.84 h(-1)), whereas at 30 g NaCl l(-1) (micromax=0.30 h(-1)) or 0 g NaCl l(-1) (micromax)=0.40 h(-1)) specific growth rates were significantly reduced. In the water tested here, micro(max) of V. cholerae was always around 50 % of that exhibited by a freshwater community of indigenous bacteria enriched from the water sampling site. Direct batch competition experiments between V. cholerae and the lake water bacterial community were performed at different temperatures in which V. cholerae was enumerated in the total community using fluorescent-surface antibodies. In all cases V. cholerae was able to grow and constituted around 10

  15. Genetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Argentina and Emergence of a New Variant

    OpenAIRE

    Pichel, Mariana; Rivas, Marta; Chinen, Isabel; Martín, Fernando; Ibarra, Cristina; Binsztein, Norma

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from Argentina was estimated by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twenty-nine isolates carrying the virulence genes ctxA, zot, ace, and tcpA appeared to represent a single clone by both typing methods; while 11 strains lacking these virulence genes exhibited several heterogeneous RAPD and PFGE patterns. Among the last group, a set of isolates from the province Tucumán showed a singl...

  16. A Natural Vaccine Candidate Strain Against Cholera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUYAN-QING; QIGUO-MING; 等

    1995-01-01

    El Tor Vibrio cholerae(EVC)strains may be classified into two kinds-epidemigenic(EEVC)strains and non-epidemigenic(NEEVC)strains-based on a phage-biotyping system.A large number of EEVC strains have been screened for toxigenic and putative colonization attributes.One such naturally occurring strain(designated IEM101)has been found which is devoid of genes encoding cholera toxin(CT),accessory cholera enterotoxin(ACE),zonula occludens toxin(ZOT),but possesses RS1 sequences and toixn-coregulated pilus A gene(tcpA)although tcpA is poorly expressed.It expresses type B pili but does not posses type C pili.It is an El Tor Ogawa strain and does not cause fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loop tests.Active immunization of rabbits with strain IEM101 elicited good protection against challenge with virulent strains of V.cholerae Ol.Oral administration cased no side effects in 15 human volunteers.colonized the gut for four to ten days and elicited good immune responses.

  17. DETECTION OF VIRULENCE GENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL STRAINS OF Vibrio cholerae FROM ESTUARIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gleire Rodrigues de Menezes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to detect the presence of Vibrio cholerae in tropical estuaries (Northeastern Brazil and to search for virulence factors in the environmental isolates. Water and sediment samples were inoculated onto a vibrio-selective medium (TCBS, and colonies with morphological resemblance to V. cholerae were isolated. The cultures were identified phenotypically using a dichotomous key based on biochemical characteristics. The total DNA extracted was amplified by PCR to detect ompW and by multiplex PCR to detect the virulence genes ctx, tcp, zot and rfbO1. The results of the phenotypic and genotypic identification were compared. Nine strains of V. cholerae were identified phenotypically, five of which were confirmed by detection of the species-specific gene ompW. The dichotomous key was efficient at differentiating environmental strains of V. cholerae. Strains of V. cholerae were found in all four estuaries, but none possessed virulence genes.

  18. The Aquatic Environment as a Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Hydrographic Basins of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lucena Mendes-Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the worldwide cholera epidemic in 1993, permanent environmental monitoring of hydrographic basins was established in Pernambuco, Brazil, where cholera is endemic. After a quiescent period, 4 rfbN (serogroup O1 positive water samples that were culture negative were detected by multiplex single-tube nested PCR (MSTNPCR; 2 of these were also ctxA (cholera toxin positive. From May to June 2012, 30 V. cholerae O1 isolates were obtained by culturing samples. These isolates were analyzed for the presence of virulence genes by PCR, intergenic spacer region 16S-23S PCR (ISR-PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The isolates were positive for the rfbN gene and negative for the assessed pathogenic genes and were classified into 2 groups by ISR and the same profile by PFGE. Close genetic similarity was observed between them (2012 and environmental strains from 2004 to 2005, indicating the permanence of endemic V. cholerae O1 in the region.

  19. High-frequency rugose exopolysaccharide production by Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafizur Rahman

    Full Text Available In October, 2010, epidemic cholera was reported for the first time in Haiti in over 100 years. Establishment of cholera endemicity in Haiti will be dependent in large part on the continued presence of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in aquatic reservoirs. The rugose phenotype of V. cholerae, characterized by exopolysaccharide production that confers resistance to environmental stress, is a potential contributor to environmental persistence. Using a microbiologic medium promoting high-frequency conversion of smooth to rugose (S-R phenotype, 80 (46.5% of 172 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Haiti were able to convert to a rugose phenotype. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains isolated at the beginning of the epidemic (2010 were significantly less likely to shift to a rugose phenotype than clinical strains isolated in 2012/2013, or environmental strains. Frequency of rugose conversion was influenced by incubation temperature and time. Appearance of the biofilm produced by a Haitian clinical rugose strain (altered biotype El Tor HC16R differed from that of a typical El Tor rugose strain (N16961R by confocal microscopy. On whole-genome SNP analysis, there was no phylogenetic clustering of strains showing an ability to shift to a rugose phenotype. Our data confirm the ability of Haitian clinical (and environmental strains to shift to a protective rugose phenotype, and suggest that factors such as temperature influence the frequency of transition to this phenotype.

  20. Presence of CTX gene cluster in environmental non-O1/O139 Vibrio cholerae and its potential clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiological linkage of clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae and to determine their genotypes and virulence genes content. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 V. cholerae strains obtained from clinical specimens (n = 40 and surface waters (n = 20 were subjected to genotyping using PFGE and determination of their virulence-associated gene clusters. Result: PCR analysis showed the presence of chromosomally located hly and RTX genetic elements in 100% and 90% of the environmental isolates, respectively. The phage-mediated genetic elements such as CTX, TLC and VPI were detected in 5% of the environmental isolates suggesting that the environmental isolates cannot acquire certain mobile gene clusters. A total of 4 and 18 pulsotypes were obtained among the clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolates, respectively. Non-pathogenic environmentally isolated V. cholerae constituted a distinct cluster with one single non-O1, non-O139 strain (EP6 carrying the virulence genes similar to the epidemic strains. This may suggest the possible potential of conversion of non-pathogenic to a pathogenic environmental strain. Conclusions: The emergence of a single environmental isolate in our study containing the pathogenicity genes amongst the diverse non-pathogenic environmental isolates needs to be further studied in the context of V. cholerae pathogenicity sero-coversion.

  1. Human immune response to Vibrio cholerae O1 whole cells and isolated outer membrane antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, K; Kaper, J B; Levine, M M

    1989-01-01

    The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) response of human volunteers challenged with Vibrio cholerae O1 was analyzed for reactivity to V. cholerae O1 antigens by the immunoblot technique. Components of both in vitro- and in vivo (rabbit ligated ileal loop)-grown V. cholerae O1 were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Postchallenge serum IgG reacted uniquely with 15 antigens and with greater intensity than did prechallenge seru...

  2. Distribution and content of class 1 integrons in different Vibrio cholerae O-serotype strains isolated in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Serichantalergs, Oralak;

    2000-01-01

    In this study, 176 clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains of different O serotypes isolated in Thailand from 1982 to 1995 were selected and studied for the presence of class 1 integrons, a new group of genetic elements which carry antibiotic resistance genes. Using PCR and DNA...... strains. Serotype O139 strains did not contain class 1 integrons. However, the appearance and disappearance of the O139 serotype in the coastal city Samutsakorn in 1992 and 1993 were associated with the emergence of a distinct V. cholerae O1 strain which contained the aad-V resistance gene cassette. A 150....... cholerae O serotypes of mainly clinical origin in Thailand....

  3. Sustained Local Diversity of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotypes in a Previously Cholera-Free Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Although the current cholera pandemic can trace its origin to a specific time and place, many variants of Vibrio cholerae have caused this disease over the last 50 years. The relative clinical importance and geographical distribution of these variants have changed with time, but most remain in circulation. Some countries, such as Mexico and Haiti, had escaped the current pandemic, until large epidemics struck them in 1991 and 2010, respectively. Cholera has been endemic in these countries ever since. A recent retrospective study in mBio presents the results of more than 3 decades of V. cholerae monitoring from environmental and clinical sources in Mexico (S. Y. Choi et al., mBio 7:e02160-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02160-15). It reveals that multiple V. cholerae variants, including classical strains from the previous pandemic, as well as completely novel biotypes, have been circulating in Mexico. This discovery has important implications for the epidemiology and evolution of V. cholerae. PMID:27143391

  4. Isolation frequency and susceptibility pattern of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in a tertiary health care laboratory, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, S; Fasih, N; Ghanchi, N K; Khan, E

    2016-02-01

    In the past decade the importance of non-O1 and non-O139 strains of Vibrio cholerae has been highlighted globally. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae in Pakistan. Data of stool specimens yielding growth of non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae isolated at a national referral laboratory from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively analysed and evaluated for resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and ofloxacin. A total of 95 800 stool samples submitted over 1999-2012 yielded 3668 strains of V. cholerae, of which 6% were non-O1 and non-O139 V. cholerae. A high isolation rate was found in the summer season, with a peak in the year 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility data revealed increasing resistance to co-trimoxazole and ampicillin, but strains remained highly susceptible to ofloxacin. Active surveillance of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility is essential to predict future epidemics and define measures to curtail the disease. PMID:27180742

  5. Biochemical and full genome sequence analyses of clinical Vibrio cholerae isolates in Mexico reveals the presence of novel V. cholerae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Quiñonez, José Alberto; Hernández-Monroy, Irma; Montes-Colima, Norma Angélica; Moreno-Pérez, María Asunción; Galicia-Nicolás, Adriana Guadalupe; López-Martínez, Irma; Ruiz-Matus, Cuitláhuac; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Ortíz-Alcántara, Joanna María; Garcés-Ayala, Fabiola; Ramírez-González, José Ernesto

    2016-05-01

    The first week of September 2013, the National Epidemiological Surveillance System identified two cases of cholera in Mexico City. The cultures of both samples were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Initial analyses by PFGE and by PCR-amplification of the virulence genes, suggested that both strains were similar, but different from those previously reported in Mexico. The following week, four more cases were identified in a community in the state of Hidalgo, located 121 km northeast of Mexico City. Thereafter a cholera outbreak started in the region of La Huasteca. Genomic analyses of the four strains obtained in this study confirmed the presence of Pathogenicity Islands VPI-1 and -2, VSP-1 and -2, and of the integrative element SXT. The genomic structure of the 4 isolates was similar to that of V. cholerae strain 2010 EL-1786, identified during the epidemic in Haiti in 2010. PMID:26828665

  6. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    OpenAIRE

    John Yew Huat Tang; Bariah Ibrahim Izenty; Ahmad Juanda Nur’ Izzati; Siti Rahmah Masran; Chew Chieng Yeo; Arshad Roslan; Che Abdullah Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS ag...

  7. Construction of a Vibrio cholerae prototype vaccine strain O395-N1-E1 which accumulates cell-associated cholera toxin B subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Gi-eun; Jung, Hae-Mi; Kim, Bong Su; Mekalanos, John J

    2008-10-01

    Because of its production and use in Vietnam, the most widely used oral cholera vaccine consists of heat- or formalin-killed Vibrio cholerae whole cells (WC). An earlier version of this type of vaccine called whole cell-recombinant B subunit vaccine (BS-WC) produced in Sweden also contained the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). Both WC and BS-WC vaccines produced moderate levels of protection in field trials designed to evaluate their cholera efficacy. V. cholerae cells in these vaccines induce antibacterial immunity, and CTB contributes to the vaccine's efficacy presumably by stimulating production of anti-toxin neutralizing antibody. Although more effective than the WC vaccine, the BS-WC vaccine has not been adopted for manufacture by developing world countries primarily because the CTB component is difficult to manufacture and include in the vaccine in the doses needed to induce significant immune responses. We reasoned this was a technical problem that might be solved by engineering strains of V. cholerae that express cell-associated CTB that would co-purify with the bacterial cell fraction during the manufacture of WC vaccine. Here we report that construction of a V. cholerae O1 classical strain, O395-N1-E1, that has been engineered to accumulate CTB in the periplasmic fraction by disrupting the epsE gene of type II secretion pathway. O395-N1-E1 induces anti-CTB IgG and vibriocidal antibodies in mice immunized with two doses of formalin killed whole cells. Intraperitoneal immunization of mice with O395-N1-E1 induced a significantly higher anti-CTB antibody response compared to that of the parental strain, O395-N1. Our results suggest that this prototype cholera vaccine candidate strain may assist in preparing improved and inexpensive oral BS-WC cholera vaccine without the need to purify CTB separately. PMID:18582519

  8. vttRA and vttRB Encode ToxR Family Proteins That Mediate Bile-Induced Expression of Type Three Secretion System Genes in a Non-O1/Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae Strain▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Ashfaqul; Tam, Vincent; Hamilton, Elaine; Dziejman, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Strain AM-19226 is a pathogenic non-O1/non-O139 serogroup Vibrio cholerae strain that does not encode the toxin-coregulated pilus or cholera toxin but instead causes disease using a type three secretion system (T3SS). Two genes within the T3SS pathogenicity island, herein named vttRA (locus tag A33_1664) and vttRB (locus tag A33_1675), are predicted to encode proteins that show similarity to the transcriptional regulator ToxR, which is found in all strains of V. cholerae. Strains with a delet...

  9. O Serogroup-Specific Touchdown-Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction for Detection and Identification of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, and Non-O1/Non-O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, sensitive locus-specific touchdown-multiplex polymerase chain reaction (TMPCR, which is based on two-stage amplification pertaining to multiplex PCR and conditional touchdown strategy, was used in detecting and differentiating Vibrio cholerae serogroups. A panel of molecular marker-based TMPCR method generates reproducible profiles of V. cholerae-specific (588 bp amplicons derived from ompW gene encoding the outer membrane protein and serogroup-specific amplicons, 364 bp for the O1 and 256 bp for the O139, authentically copied from rfb genes responsible for the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The TMPCR amplification efficiency yields either equally or unequally detectable duplex DNA bands of the O1 (588 and 364 bp and O139 (588 and 256 bp or a DNA fragment of non-O1/non-O139 (588 bp while providing no false positive identifications using the genomic DNA templates of the other vibrios and Enterobacteriaceae. The reciprocal analysis of two-template combinations demonstrated that, using V. cholerae O1, O139, or equally mixed O1 and O139, the TMPCR had a detection limit of as low as 100 pg of the O1, O139, or non-O1/non-O139 in reactions containing unequally or equally mixed gDNAs. In addition, the O serogroup-specific TMPCR method had 100% agreement with the serotyping method when examined for the serotyped V. cholerae reference strains and those recovered from clinical samples. The potential benefit of using this TMPCR tool would augment the serotyping method used in epidemiological surveillance and monitoring of V. cholerae serogroups, O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 present in clinical and environmental samples.

  10. Phase variable O antigen biosynthetic genes control expression of the major protective antigen and bacteriophage receptor in Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley D Seed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide O1 antigen is a major target of bacteriophages and the human immune system and is of critical importance for vaccine design. We used an O1-specific lytic bacteriophage as a tool to probe the capacity of V. cholerae to alter its O1 antigen and identified a novel mechanism by which this organism can modulate O antigen expression and exhibit intra-strain heterogeneity. We identified two phase variable genes required for O1 antigen biosynthesis, manA and wbeL. manA resides outside of the previously recognized O1 antigen biosynthetic locus, and encodes for a phosphomannose isomerase critical for the initial step in O1 antigen biosynthesis. We determined that manA and wbeL phase variants are attenuated for virulence, providing functional evidence to further support the critical role of the O1 antigen for infectivity. We provide the first report of phase variation modulating O1 antigen expression in V. cholerae, and show that the maintenance of these phase variable loci is an important means by which this facultative pathogen can generate the diverse subpopulations of cells needed for infecting the host intestinal tract and for escaping predation by an O1-specific phage.

  11. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Yew Huat Tang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger; coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk; and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk held at room temperature (27°C. The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P<0.05. However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (P<0.05. For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided.

  12. Survey on antimicrobial resistance patterns in Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 in Germany reveals carbapenemase-producing Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Nadja; Schwartz, Keike; Guerra, Beatriz; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species is expected for waters in Northern Europe as a consequence of global warming. In this context, a higher incidence of Vibrio infections is predicted for the future and forecasts suggest that people visiting and living at the Baltic Sea are at particular risk. This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns among Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates that could pose a public health risk. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 141 V. vulnificus and 184 V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated from German coastal waters (Baltic Sea and North Sea) as well as from patients and retail seafood was assessed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion. Both species were susceptible to most of the agents tested (12 subclasses) and no multidrug-resistance was observed. Among V. vulnificus isolates, non-susceptibility was exclusively found toward aminoglycosides. In case of V. cholerae, a noticeable proportion of strains was non-susceptible to aminopenicillins and aminoglycosides. In addition, resistance toward carbapenems, quinolones, and folate pathway inhibitors was sporadically observed. Biochemical testing indicated the production of carbapenemases with unusual substrate specificity in four environmental V. cholerae strains. Most antimicrobial agents recommended for treatment of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 infections were found to be effective in vitro. However, the occurrence of putative carbapenemase producing V. cholerae in German coastal waters is of concern and highlights the need for systematic monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility in potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Europe. PMID:26579088

  13. Survey on antimicrobial resistance patterns in Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 in Germany reveals carbapenemase-producing Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja eBier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species is expected for waters in Northern Europe as a consequence of global warming. In this context, a higher incidence of Vibrio infections is predicted for the future and forecasts suggest that people visiting and living at the Baltic Sea are at particular risk.This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns among Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates that could pose a public health risk. Antimicrobial susceptibility of 141 V. vulnificus and 184 V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated from German coastal waters (Baltic Sea and North Sea as well as from patients and retail seafood was assessed by broth microdilution and disk diffusion. Both species were susceptible to most of the agents tested (12 subclasses and no multidrug-resistance was observed. Among V. vulnificus isolates, non-susceptibility was exclusively found towards aminoglycosides. In case of V. cholerae, a noticeable proportion of strains was non-susceptible to aminopenicillins and aminoglycosides. In addition, resistance towards carbapenems, quinolones, and folate pathway inhibitors was sporadically observed. Biochemical testing indicated the production of carbapenemases with unusual substrate specificity in four environmental V. cholerae strains. Most antimicrobial agents recommended for treatment of V. vulnificus and V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 infections were found to be effective in vitro. However, the occurrence of putative carbapenemase producing V. cholerae in German coastal waters is of concern and highlights the need for systematic monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility in potentially pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Europe.

  14. Validation and characterization of a human volunteer challenge model for cholera by using frozen bacteria of the new Vibrio cholerae epidemic serotype, O139

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, MB; Giannella, RA; Losonsky, GA; Lang, DR; Parker, S; Hawkins, JA; Gunther, C; Schiff, GA

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, all epidemic strains of Vibrio cholerae were of the O1 serotype. Current epidemics have also been caused by a new serotype, Vibrio cholerae O139. Although the pathogenesis and clinical features of O139 cholera are similar to those of O1 cholera, immunity to serotype O1 does not confe

  15. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae O1 carrying Haitian ctxB and attributes of classical and El Tor biotypes isolated from Silvassa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moon Moon; Bhotra, Tilothama; Zala, Dolatsinh; Singh, Durg Vijai

    2016-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor, the causative agent of the seventh pandemic, has recently been replaced by strains carrying classical and Haitian ctxB in India, Haiti and other parts of the world. We conducted phenotypic and genetic tests to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolated between 2012 and 2014 from Silvassa, India, to examine the presence of virulence and regulatory genes, seventh pandemic marker, ctxB type and biofilm formation and to study genomic diversity. Of the 59 V. cholerae O1, eight isolates belong to El Tor prototype, one to classical prototype and the remaining isolates have attributes of both classical and El Tor biotypes. PCR and ctxB gene sequencing revealed the presence of classical ctxB in four strains and Haitian ctxB in 55 isolates; indicating that isolates were either an El Tor or hybrid variant. All isolates carried virulence, regulatory, adherence, Vibrio seventh pandemic pathogenicity island I and seventh pandemic group-specific marker VC2346, in addition to tcpAET and rstRET, the features of seventh pandemic strains, and produced cholera toxin and biofilm. PFGE analysis showed that the majority of isolates are clonal and belong to fingerprint pattern A; however, pattern B is unrelated and patterns C and D are distinct, suggesting considerable diversity in the genomic content among them. These data thus show that isolates from Silvassa are genetically diverse and that Haitian ctxB and hybrid phenotypes are undergoing global dissemination. PMID:27255911

  16. Phenotypic Analysis Reveals that the 2010 Haiti Cholera Epidemic Is Linked to a Hypervirulent Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Karla J F; Jones, Christopher J; Wong, Jennifer; Queen, Jessica; Agarwal, Shivani; Yildiz, Fitnat H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains have been responsible for pandemic cholera since 1961. These strains have evolved over time, spreading globally in three separate waves. Wave 3 is caused by altered El Tor (AET) variant strains, which include the strain with the signature ctxB7 allele that was introduced in 2010 into Haiti, where it caused a devastating epidemic. In this study, we used phenotypic analysis to compare an early isolate from the Haiti epidemic to wave 1 El Tor isolates commonly used for research. It is demonstrated that the Haiti isolate has increased production of cholera toxin (CT) and hemolysin, increased motility, and a reduced ability to form biofilms. This strain also outcompetes common wave 1 El Tor isolates for colonization of infant mice, indicating that it has increased virulence. Monitoring of CT production and motility in additional wave 3 isolates revealed that this phenotypic variation likely evolved over time rather than in a single genetic event. Analysis of available whole-genome sequences and phylogenetic analyses suggested that increased virulence arose from positive selection for mutations found in known and putative regulatory genes, including hns and vieA, diguanylate cyclase genes, and genes belonging to the lysR and gntR regulatory families. Overall, the studies presented here revealed that V. cholerae virulence potential can evolve and that the currently prevalent wave 3 AET strains are both phenotypically distinct from and more virulent than many El Tor isolates. PMID:27297393

  17. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 infection in an immunocompromised patient returning from Spain, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, W; Korswagen, L A; Voskuyl, A E; Budding, A E

    2009-01-01

    We describe a severe gastroenteritis with non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in an immunocompromised patient returning from a holiday in Spain in July 2009. Predisposing factors and possible cholera enterotoxin production could explain the unusually grave symptomatology. Patient recovered after doxycyclin treatment. PMID:19679033

  18. Extraintestinal Infections Caused by Non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Joshi, Sangeeta; Bhattacharya, Sanjay; Sekar, Uma; Birajdar, Balaji; Bhattacharyya, Arpita; Shinoda, Sumio; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an aerobic, sucrose fermentative Gram-negative bacterium that generally prevails in the environment. Pathogenic V. cholerae is well-known as causative agent of acute diarrhea. Apart from enteric infections, V. cholerae may also cause other diseases. However, their role in causing extraintestinal infections is not fully known as it needs proper identification and evaluation. Four cases of extraintestinal infections due to V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 have been investigated. The isolates were screened for phenotypic and genetic characteristics with reference to their major virulence genes. Serologically distinct isolates harbored rtx, msh, and hly but lacked enteric toxin encoding genes that are generally present in toxigenic V. cholerae. Timely detection of this organism can prevent fatalities in hospital settings. The underlying virulence potential of V. cholerae needs appropriate testing and intervention. PMID:26904017

  19. Genotypic and PFGE/MLVA analyses of Vibrio cholerae O1: geographical spread and temporal changes during the 2007-2010 cholera outbreaks in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Okada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor dominated the seventh cholera pandemic which occurred in the 1960s. For two decades, variants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor that produce classical cholera toxin have emerged and spread globally, replacing the prototypic El Tor biotype. This study aims to characterize V. cholerae O1 isolates from outbreaks in Thailand with special reference to genotypic variations over time. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 343 isolates of V. cholerae O1 from cholera outbreaks from 2007 to 2010 were investigated, and 99.4% were found to carry the classical cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB and El Tor rstR genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE differentiated the isolates into 10 distinct pulsotypes, clustered into two major groups, A and B, with an overall similarity of 88%. Ribotyping, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, and PCR to detect Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II related genes of randomly selected isolates from each pulsotype corresponded to the results obtained by PFGE. Epidemiological investigations revealed that MLVA type 2 was strongly associated with a cholera outbreak in northeastern Thailand in 2007, while MLVA type 7 dominated the outbreaks of the southern Gulf areas in 2009 and MLVA type 4 dominated the outbreaks of the central Gulf areas during 2009-2010. Only MLVA type 16 isolates were found in a Thai-Myanmar border area in 2010, whereas those of MLVA types 26, 39, and 41 predominated this border area in 2008. Type 39 then disappeared 1-2 years later as MLVA type 41 became prevalent. Type 41 was also found to infect an outbreak area. CONCLUSIONS: MLVA provided a high-throughput genetic typing tool for understanding the in-depth epidemiology of cholera outbreaks. Our epidemiological surveys suggest that some clones of V. cholerae O1 with similar but distinctive genetic traits circulate in outbreak sites, while others disappear over time.

  20. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, John Yew Huat; Izenty, Bariah Ibrahim; Nur' Izzati, Ahmad Juanda; Masran, Siti Rahmah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Roslan, Arshad; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; P condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. PMID:26904604

  1. Circulation of a Quorum-Sensing-Impaired Variant of Vibrio cholerae Strain C6706 Masks Important Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzmann, Sandrine; Blokesch, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a model organism for studying virulence regulation, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, and the cell-to-cell communication known as quorum sensing (QS). As in any research field, discrepancies between data from diverse laboratories are sometimes observed for V. cholerae. Such discrepancies are often caused by the use of diverse patient or environmental isolates. In this study, we investigated the inability of a few laboratories to reproduce high levels of natural transformation, a mode of horizontal gene transfer that is specifically induced on chitinous surfaces. This irreproducibility was mostly related to one specific isolate of V. cholerae: the O1 El Tor C6706 strain. C6706 was previously described as QS proficient, an important prerequisite for the induction of natural competence for transformation. To elucidate the underlying problem, we collected seven isolates of the same C6706 strain from different research laboratories in North America and Europe and compared their phenotypes. Importantly, we observed a split response with respect to QS-related gene expression, including chitin-induced natural competence and type VI secretion (T6S). While approximately half of the strains behaved as reported for several other O1 El Tor pandemic isolates that are commonly studied in the laboratory, the other half were significantly impaired in QS-related expression patterns. This impairment was caused by a mutation in a QS-related gene (luxO). We conclude that the circulation of such QS-impaired wild-type strains is responsible for masking several important phenotypes of V. cholerae, including natural competence for transformation and T6S. IMPORTANCE Phenotypic diversity between laboratory-domesticated bacterial strains is a common problem and often results in the failed reproduction of published data. However, researchers rarely compare such strains to elucidate the underlying mutation(s). In this study, we

  2. Circulation of a Quorum-Sensing-Impaired Variant of Vibrio cholerae Strain C6706 Masks Important Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzmann, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a model organism for studying virulence regulation, biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, and the cell-to-cell communication known as quorum sensing (QS). As in any research field, discrepancies between data from diverse laboratories are sometimes observed for V. cholerae. Such discrepancies are often caused by the use of diverse patient or environmental isolates. In this study, we investigated the inability of a few laboratories to reproduce high levels of natural transformation, a mode of horizontal gene transfer that is specifically induced on chitinous surfaces. This irreproducibility was mostly related to one specific isolate of V. cholerae: the O1 El Tor C6706 strain. C6706 was previously described as QS proficient, an important prerequisite for the induction of natural competence for transformation. To elucidate the underlying problem, we collected seven isolates of the same C6706 strain from different research laboratories in North America and Europe and compared their phenotypes. Importantly, we observed a split response with respect to QS-related gene expression, including chitin-induced natural competence and type VI secretion (T6S). While approximately half of the strains behaved as reported for several other O1 El Tor pandemic isolates that are commonly studied in the laboratory, the other half were significantly impaired in QS-related expression patterns. This impairment was caused by a mutation in a QS-related gene (luxO). We conclude that the circulation of such QS-impaired wild-type strains is responsible for masking several important phenotypes of V. cholerae, including natural competence for transformation and T6S. IMPORTANCE Phenotypic diversity between laboratory-domesticated bacterial strains is a common problem and often results in the failed reproduction of published data. However, researchers rarely compare such strains to elucidate the underlying mutation(s). In this

  3. Tipificación Molecular del Vibrio cholerae O1 en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet T José

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio de ribotipificación en 75 cepas de Vibrio cholerae O1 permitió identificar tres variantes ribotípicas, referidas como Per1, Per2 y Per3, aisladas durante el periodo 1991- 1999 en el Perú. La variante Per1 fue reportada tanto en la etapa epidémica y endémica del cólera, mientras que Per2 y Per3 se relacionaron sólo con la etapa endémica. Los resultados mostraron además una aparición constante y mayoritaria de la variante Per1, poniendo en evidencia la emergencia de un mismo grupo clonal en los brotes epidémicos del Perú. Las variantes ribotípicas encontradas fueron comparadas con los ribotipos de diferentes cepas referenciales de V. cholerae previamente caracterizadas. Se observó una identidad total del ribotipo Per1 con la variante ribotípica de aislamientos Asiáticos (Tailandia, encontrándose además altos índices de similitud entre los ribotipos Per1, Per2 y Per3, y evidenciándose una estrecha relación entre las cepas peruanas y los aislamientos asiáticos.

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Isolated Vibrio cholerae Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cholera is a potentially life-threatening acute diarrheal disease caused by the toxigenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae. Antibiotics should be selected using local antibiotic susceptibility testing patterns. Objectives This study was performed to identify the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates collected from laboratory-confirmed cases of cholera during three years, from 2011 to 2013. Materials and Methods All isolates at the Health Reference Laboratory were tested by the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC Test using Liofilchem against ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, cefixime, ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and erythromycin. The following organisms were used as quality control strains for MIC E-testing; Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853. Results Results of susceptibility testing showed complete sensitivity to ciprofloxacin, cefixime and amplicillin for both isolated Inaba and Ogawa serotypes except all isolated Inaba serotypes from year 2011, which were resistant to cefixime. These resistant Inaba serotypes were not isolated in the next year. Inaba serotypes showed an increased resistance rate of up to 100% to nalidixic acid, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethaxazone, while Ogawa serotypes were 100% sensitive at the end of year 2013. The susceptibility pattern of erytromycine was similar in these two types. Sensitivity to erythromycin was decreased in both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Conclusions The analyzed results indicate that tetracycline should not be considered as a first line antibiotic therapy for patients infected with Ogawa serotypes. Also, national guidelines for confirmation of cholera should be improved by responsible authorities to cover new resistance during outbreaks.

  5. Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in various settings, either in the form of reactive campaigns in areas experiencing an outbreak or pre- ... to: support the design and implementation of global strategies to contribute to capacity development for cholera prevention ...

  6. Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has it), do not offer them. previous continue Prevention Some countries have cholera vaccines that can help ... ON THIS TOPIC Staying Healthy While You Travel Dengue Fever Malaria Typhoid Fever Ebola First Aid: Diarrhea ...

  7. Towards the synthesis of V. Cholerae O1 antigens and GQ1ba ganglioside as potential therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ariosa Alvarez, Alina

    2007-01-01

    The terminal mono-, di, and trisaccharides of the O-antigen of Vibro cholerae O1 serotype Inaba and Ogawa, have been synthesized in the form of glycosides whose aglycon (dioxolane-type spacer) allows conjugation to carrier proteins by reductive amination. The conjugates obtained were useful models in immunologis studies. On the other hand, an innovative strategy towards the synthesis of the GQ1b[alpha] ganglioside was developed. A number of important structures were successfully prepared as t...

  8. Use of vaginal tampons in sewer surveys for non-O1. Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Pazzaglia, G; Lesmana, M; Tjaniadi, P; Subekti, D; Kay, B.

    1993-01-01

    Vaginal tampons were shown to be a practical alternative to conventional Moore swabs for isolating Vibrio cholerae from sewage. Associated laboratory investigations demonstrated improved isolation of V. cholerae by using 12- or 18-h enrichments in alkaline peptone water, in comparison with 6-h enrichments, when cultures were incubated at ambient temperatures.

  9. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Rolf S; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  10. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaas, Rolf S.; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  11. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane;

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic...... a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae...

  12. Color correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1 in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Alvarez-Borrego, Josue

    1999-07-01

    Application of color correlation optical systems for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae 01 in seawater samples with matched filters and phase only filters recorded in holographic plates in three channels (RGB).

  13. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A. castellanii. The interaction between A. castellanii and V. cholerae strains was studied by means of amoeba cell counts, viable counts of the bacteria in the absence or presence of amoebae, and of the intracellularly growing bacteria, visualised by electron microscopy. These results show that all V. cholerae can grow and survive outside and inside the amoebae, disclosing that V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 all can be considered as facultative intracellular bacteria.

  14. A 6-Week Oral Toxicity Study of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Yeong-Ok; Choi, Seuk-Keun; Shin, Seo-Ho; Koo, Kyo-Hwan; Choi, Ho-Young; Cha, Seung-Bum; Li, Yong-Chun; Yoo, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Joo-Young; Kil, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Min-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyun; Kim, Kap-Ho; Bae, Jin-Sook

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the toxicity and target organs of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) after repeated oral administration in Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 weeks (3 administrations, once every 2 weeks). OCV is an inactivated oral cholera vaccine that contains Vibrio cholerae and confers protection against cholera caused by V. cholera serogroups O1 (Inaba and Ogawa serotypes) and O139 (strain 4260B). The animals were orally administered either OCV placebo (negative control) or OC...

  15. A Cholera Conjugate Vaccine Containing O-specific Polysaccharide (OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba and Recombinant Fragment of Tetanus Toxin Heavy Chain (OSP:rTTHc Induces Serum, Memory and Lamina Proprial Responses against OSP and Is Protective in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the cause of cholera, a severe watery diarrhea. Protection against cholera is serogroup specific. Serogroup specificity is defined by the O-specific polysaccharide (OSP component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS.Here we describe a conjugate vaccine for cholera prepared via squaric acid chemistry from the OSP of V. cholerae O1 Inaba strain PIC018 and a recombinant heavy chain fragment of tetanus toxin (OSP:rTTHc. We assessed a range of vaccine doses based on the OSP content of the vaccine (10-50 μg, vaccine compositions varying by molar loading ratio of OSP to rTTHc (3:1, 5:1, 10:1, effect of an adjuvant, and route of immunization.Immunized mice developed prominent anti-OSP and anti-TT serum IgG responses, as well as vibriocidal antibody and memory B cell responses following intramuscular or intradermal vaccination. Mice did not develop anti-squarate responses. Intestinal lamina proprial IgA responses targeting OSP occurred following intradermal vaccination. In general, we found comparable immune responses in mice immunized with these variations, although memory B cell and vibriocidal responses were blunted in mice receiving the highest dose of vaccine (50 μg. We found no appreciable change in immune responses when the conjugate vaccine was administered in the presence or absence of immunoadjuvant alum. Administration of OSP:rTTHc resulted in 55% protective efficacy in a mouse survival cholera challenge model.We report development of an Inaba OSP:rTTHc conjugate vaccine that induces memory responses and protection against cholera in mice. Development of an effective cholera conjugate vaccine that induces high level and long-term immune responses against OSP would be beneficial, especially in young children who respond poorly to polysaccharide antigens.

  16. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns of Strains Isolated from the Cholera Epidemic in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Islam, Mohammad S.; Mahmud, Zahid H.; Ansaruzzaman, Mohammad; Faruque, Shah M.; Talukder, Kaisar A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Shafiqul; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Mazumder, Ramendra N.; Khan, Azharul I.; Ahmed, Sirajuddin; Iqbal, Anwarul; Chitsatso, Owen; Mudzori, James; Patel, Sheetal; Midzi, Stanley M.; Charimari, Lincoln; Endtz, Hubert P.; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    This paper details the phenotypic, genotypic, and antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 88 Vibrio cholerae strains from Zimbabwe. Of the 88 strains, 83 were classified as "altered El Tor" and 5 as "hybrid El Tor" strains. All of the strains were susceptible to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin,

  17. Obtención de extractos de membrana externa de Vibrio cholerae O1, mediante el uso de diferentes detergentes

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Pérez; Yamisley González; Gemma Año; Bárbara Cedré; Tania Valmaseda; Maydelis Alvarez,; Daily Serrano; Ernesto Millián; Mildrey Fariñas; Arturo Talavera; Luis García

    2006-01-01

    En la actualidad existen dos variantes principales de vacunas orales contra el cólera: una basada en células inactivadas de diferentes biotipos y serotipos y otra basada en la administración de cepas vivas genéticamente atenuadas. Una vacuna por subunidades pudiera ser una variante muy atractiva. Este trabajo describe la purificación parcial y caracterización preliminar de extractos de proteínas de membrana externa-lipopolisacárido (PME-LPS), obtenidos a partir de Vibrio cholerae O1, con el i...

  18. Analysis of Immune Responses and Serological Cross Reactivities among Vibrio cholerae O1,Shigella flexneri 2a and Haemophilus influenzae b

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fazle Rabbi; Chowdhury R.Ahsan; Nasreen Sultana; Tasmina Rahman; H.M.Al-Emran; M.Nizam Uddin; Mahbub Hossain; Kazi Selim Anwar; Mahmuda Yasmin; Jamalun Nessa

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic determinants expressed on the bacterial cell surface are of importance in the serological characterization and microbiological diagnosis.The bacterial strains carrying these identical or similar antigenic epitopes might react with antibodies produced against other strains.In this study,strong immunogenicity and antigenic cross reactivity were demonstrated among V.choleae O1,S.flexnerii 2a and H.influenzae b surface components.The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results were supported by Western blot analysis,where at least 20 antigenic bands,were obtained in each of the reactions,when the surface components were reacted with the homologous antisera.The indirect ELISA results also demonstrated high degree of antigenic relatedness between the surface components of these species,where each surface component was reacted with the heterologous antisera. Western blot analysis also revealed cross reactions between the surface components suggesting common distribution of antigensepitopes in these bacteriaI species.This study,thus,gave a clear idea of the level of antigenic sharing and variations among the pathogenic V.cholerae O1,S.flexneri 2a and H.influenzae b strains, which in future,may help in selecting a proper candidate for vaccines and immunodiagnostics development.

  19. Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae Septicemia in an Immunocompromised Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Kadkhoda; Heather Adam; Gilmour, Matthew W.; Hammond, Gregory W.

    2012-01-01

    We report a recent case of non-O1, non-O139, nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae septicemia in a post-liver-transplant immunocompromised patient associated with prior seafood consumption. Non-O1, non-O139 V. cholerae strains have been reported in several cases of extraintestinal infections and seem to be emerging infectious agents especially in patients with immunocompromising conditions.

  20. Impact of Rapid Urbanization on the Rates of Infection by Vibrio cholerae O1 and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Begum, Yasmin A.; Khan, Ashraful I.; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Baby, Nabilah Ibnat; Malek, M.A.; Kumar, Anisha Rajeev; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Pietroni, Mark; Cravioto, Alejandro; Qadri, Firdausi

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, increases in cholera epidemics are being documented with a greater incidence and severity. The aim of this prospective study was to identify the prevalence and importance of V. cholerae O1 and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) as causal agents of severe diarrhea in a high diarrhea prone urban area in Dhaka city. Methodology Systematic surveillance was carried out on all diarrheal patients admitted from Mirpur between March 2008 to February 2010 at the ICDDR, B ...

  1. Epidemic tvpe and antibiotic resistance of cholera strains isolated%霍乱疫情分离株流行菌型及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少玲; 吴捷; 刁保卫; 崔志刚; 王衍德; 朱建华; 黄昌和; 马焱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the epidemic type and antibiotic resistance of cholere strains isolated and to provide basis for clinical treatment and prevention of cholera. Methods Six samples from an outbreak of cholera epidemic were collected in Hainan province in June 2008 and analyzed by serotyping and phage-biotyping. The cholera toxin gene was detected with PCR according to the " Manual for the Prevention and Control of Cholera" (version 5). Pulsed field gel electro-phoresis( PFGE) was used for subtyping of the isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility test of the 6 strains to 17 kinds of antibacterial was determined with improved K-B method recommended by WHO. Results The 6 strains were confirmed as Vibrio cholerae El Tor biotype, with 5 strains of 01 group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc and 1 strains was Vibrio cholerae Ogawa( lc). The cholera toxin gene was identified in all 6 strains. The mapping of the strains were belonged to two pattern by PFGE and the similarity was 100 %. The 6 strains were all resistant to streptomycin,sulphamethoxazole/trim-ethoprim, sulphafurazole, and polymyxin B. High drug susceptibility of the samples was found to 9 kinds of antibiotics such as norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cephalothin(53% ,9/17). Conclusion The bacterium type of Vibrio cholerae causing the epidemic outbreak of cholera was Ol group of Vibrio cholerae El Tor serotype Inaba lc. Norfloxacin.cefotaxime and cepha-lothin could be the choice of clinical treatment for the cases and carriers of Vibrio cholerae in Hainan province. But streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim,sulphafurazole,and polymyxin B could not be used.%目的 了解霍乱疫情分离株的流行菌型及其耐药性,为霍乱疫情的快速有效控制和临床治疗提供科学依据.方法 对2008年6月海南省某地霍乱疫情采集的6株霍乱弧菌分离株进行血清学分型、噬菌体-生物分型、霍乱毒素基因检测、脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分子分型

  2. Cholera outbreak caused by drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 biotype ElTor serotype Ogawa in Nepal; a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Pappu Kumar; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Bhandari, Ramkrishna; Shrestha, Padma

    2016-01-01

    Background Cholera is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries including Nepal. Recently drug resistance in Vibrio cholerae has become a serious problem mainly in developing countries. The main objectives of our study were to investigate the occurrence of Vibrio cholerae in stool samples from patients with watery diarrhea and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of V. cholerae isolates. Methods A total of 116 stool samples from patients suffering ...

  3. O-Specific Polysaccharide-Specific Memory B Cell Responses in Young Children, Older Children, and Adults Infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Amena; Rahman, M Arifur; Afrin, Sadia; Faruk, M Omar; Uddin, Taher; Akter, Aklima; Sami, M Israk Nur; Yasmin, Tahirah; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Leung, Daniel T; LaRocque, Regina C; Charles, Richelle C; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Mandlik, Anjali; Kelly, Meagan; Kováč, Pavol; Xu, Peng; Calderwood, Stephen B; Harris, Jason B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2016-05-01

    Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 confers at least 3 to 10 years of protection against subsequent disease regardless of age, despite a relatively rapid fall in antibody levels in peripheral blood, suggesting that memory B cell responses may play an important role in protection. The V. cholerae O1-specific polysaccharide (OSP) component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for serogroup specificity, and it is unclear if young children are capable of developing memory B cell responses against OSP, a T cell-independent antigen, following cholera. To address this, we assessed OSP-specific memory B cell responses in young children (2 to 5 years, n = 11), older children (6 to 17 years, n = 21), and adults (18 to 55 years, n = 28) with cholera caused by V. cholerae O1 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We also assessed memory B cell responses against LPS and vibriocidal responses, and plasma antibody responses against OSP, LPS, and cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB; a T cell-dependent antigen) on days 2 and 7, as well as days 30, 90, and 180 after convalescence. In all age cohorts, vibriocidal responses and plasma OSP, LPS, and CtxB-specific responses peaked on day 7 and fell toward baseline over the follow-up period. In comparison, we were able to detect OSP memory B cell responses in all age cohorts of patients with detectable responses over baseline for 90 to 180 days. Our results suggest that OSP-specific memory B cell responses can occur following cholera, even in the youngest children, and may explain in part the age-independent induction of long-term immunity following naturally acquired disease. PMID:27009211

  4. Distribution and content of class 1 integrons in different Vibrio cholerae O-serotype strains isolated in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anders; Forslund, Anita; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Sandvang, Dorthe

    2000-01-01

    In this study, 176 clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae strains of different O serotypes isolated in Thailand from 1982 to 1995 were selected and studied for the presence of class 1 integrons, a new group of genetic elements which carry antibiotic resistance genes. Using PCR and DNA...... sequencing, we found that 44 isolates contained class 1 integrons harboring the aadB, aadA2, blaP1, dfrA1, and dfrA15 gene cassettes, which encode resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin; streptomycin and spectinomycin; beta-lactams; and trimethoprim, respectively. Each cassette array contained...... only a single antibiotic resistance gene. Although resistance genes in class 1 integrons were found in strains from the same epidemic, as well as in unrelated non-O1, non-O139 strains isolated from children with diarrhea, they were found to encode only some of the antibiotic resistance expressed by the...

  5. Establishment of multiplex real-time quantitative PCR method for rapid detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 from environmental sample%外环境样本中产毒型O1群霍乱弧菌双重荧光定量PCR快速检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世旺; 徐丹戈; 徐昌平; 张政; 方叶珍; 包芳珍; 李剑; 蒋雪凤; 卢亦愚

    2011-01-01

    To establish a TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and construct a method for primary application of environmental samples test, the gene sequences of cholera toxin and specific O antigen biosynthetic gene rrb of serogroup O1 downloaded from the GenBank were aligned using the biologic software, and the specific primers and probe were designed in the conserved region of the CT and rfb-O1 gene for Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1. The reaction conditions were optimized and the sensitivity, specificity and the stability of the assay were evaluated. The clinical specimens collected from the environment were detected by this assay. For specifically detecting the toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, the detection limits of the assay for rfb-O1 and CT gene were 100 cfu/mL and the regression coefficient of the quantitative curve were 0. 998 and 0. 999, respectively. Five strains of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 were collected from 352 environmental specimens for the first time by this assay. This assay is a rapid, sensitive and specific one for the widespread detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 from environmental sample.%目的 研究建立双重荧光定量PCR技术快速检测产毒型O1群霍乱弧菌,并首次应用于外环境样本的检测中.方法 从GenBank上下载O1群霍乱弧菌O抗原编码基因rfbO1和毒力基因CT序列,在rfbO1和CT保守区域设计特异性引物和探针,建立优化单一和双重荧光PCR反应体系,评价所建双重PCR反应体系的特异性、敏感性和稳定性,并应用于外环境样本的监测检验中.结果 该方法对O1群霍乱弧菌检测具有高度特异性,对rfbO1和CT基因序列检出限达到1.0×102cfu/mL,构建的体系定量标准曲线相关系数分别为0.999和0.998,具有较好的稳定性,并首次从352件外环境样本中检测出了5株产毒型O1群霍乱弧菌.结论 本研究建立的双重荧光定量PCR

  6. Hybridoma as a specific, sensitive, and ready to use sensing element: a rapid fluorescence assay for detection of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Parichehr; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zeinoddini, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, isolation and purification of monoclonal antibodies, for diagnostic analysis, have been carried out using the hybridoma expression system. The present study describes a novel example of a detection system using hybridoma cells containing antibody against O1 antigen directly for V. cholerae diagnosis, which is a major health problem in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries. This method has advantages such as simplicity, ease of process, and it does not require manipulation of hybridoma cell. For this approach, an efficient amount of fluorescence calcium indicator, fura 2-AM, was utilized, which emitted light when the intracellular calcium concentration increased as result of antigen binding to specific antibody. More reliable results are obtained via this method and it is considerably faster than other methods, which has the response time of less than 45 s for detection of V. Cholerae O1. Also, the limit of detection was computed to be 50 CFU/mL (cholerae O1. Furthermore, this method was successfully applied to V. cholerae O1 detection in spiked environmental samples, including water and stool samples without any pretreatment. All results reveal that hybridoma cells can provide a valuable, simple, and ready to use tool for rapid detection of other pathogenic bacteria, toxins, and analytes. PMID:27438715

  7. 广州海珠地区非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌流行状况调查及生物学特征研究%Epidemic condition and biological characteristics of non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae in Haizhu District of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许少洪; 李映霞; 李少彤; 吴琪; 孙凤琪; 黄芳; 曾爱芳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemic condition, distribution and biological characteristics of non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae from 2001 to 2009 in Haizhu District, to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of acute diarrhea. Methods Referring to the detecting method written in "Cholera control handbook"in the fifth edition,764 specimens from outside environment (including the water in the Pearl River, drinking water, water for breeding fish, aquatic products and delicatessen foods), 189 specimens of healthy population and 3398 intestinal samples of patients with diarrhea, summing up to 4351 specimens for non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae test. Results 4351 speciments were detected of 101 strains of non O1/non O139 vibrio cholerae, the total detection rate was 2. 32%;66 strains were identified by serotyping and grouped into 26 different serotypes, the typing rate was 65.3%. The strains VBO9,VBO38 and VBO76 were the dominant bacteria. Nine strains of the same type of non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae were found from external environments also from patients with diarrhea, suggesting that there might be a correlation between the two. Conclusion Non-O1/non-O139 vibrio cholerae have diversified serotypes, causing certain infection rate among the population in this region. These bacteria exist extensively in external environment and they are the potential hazard to the citizens.%目的 了解广州海珠地区2001-2009年非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌的流行、分布状况及生物学特征,为防控该类病原菌引起的急性腹泻病提供科学依据.方法 参照(第5版)中的检测方法,对本区珠江河水、饮用水、养殖水、各种海(水)产品、市售熟食等外环境标本764份、健康人群标本189份及肠道门诊腹泻患者标本3398份,共计4351份标本进行非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌的检定.结果 4351份标本共检出非O1/非O139群霍乱弧菌101株,总检出率为2.32%;其中有66株可分型,分属于26

  8. Detection of Salmonella Spp., Shigella (Flexneri and Sonnei) and Vibrio Cholerae O1 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in Exported Shrimp from the Mexican Northeast Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to use the PCR technique for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp and Vibrio cholerae O1 in frozen shrimp for export. The DNA segments located in the gene A [284 pairs of bases (pb)] from Salmonella spp. locus ial (217 and 320 pb) from Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei and the gene ctxA and ctxB (777 pb) from Vibrio cholerae O1 were amplified. The different primers that amplify these segments were assayed in a PCR reaction for the simultaneous detection of DNA from the microorganisms. It was not possible to amplify the gene of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri under the assay’s conditions, whilst those of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were successfully amplified. The amplification conditions for the PCR were: 94° C, 58° C and 72° C during 30 cycles, allowing a reduction from 15 days test time with the official microbiological methods to 28 hours (24 for the pre-enrichment and four for the PCR). Samples of raw-frozen-headless shrimps were taken from production plants located in the State of Sinaloa, Mexico. A random sampling procedure was used, according to the guidelines described by the International Commission of Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF, 1999). Five packages per lot per production plant were obtained. From each individual package (5 pounds 80 OZ ≈ 2.27 kg) three samples were taken for the bacteriological assays to search for Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by PCR. Results showed that none of the samples were positive by PCR to any of the studied bacteria. Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae O1 were not detected in these samples by the official methods. However, the latter were able to identify other Vibrio species and enterobacteria like Proteus and Acromobacter. These results confirmed PCR’s rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. (author)

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Endemic Cholera in Mexico from 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon Young; Rashed, Shah M.; Hasan, Nur A.; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Eppinger, Mark; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX−) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX+) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX+ variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX− V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V. cholerae. Three were CTX+ El Tor, two were CTX− El Tor, and the remaining strain was a CTX+ classical isolate. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed the six isolates belonged to five distinct phylogenetic clades. One CTX− isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX+ V. cholerae isolates. The other CTX− isolate joined with CTX− non-O1/O139 isolates from Haiti and seroconverted O1 isolates from Brazil and Amazonia. One CTX+ isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. Two CTX+ El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. The third CTX+ El Tor isolate contained West African-South American (WASA) recombination in VSP-II and showed relatedness to isolates from Peru and Brazil. Except for one isolate, all Mexican isolates lack SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and sensitivity to selected antibiotics, with one isolate resistant to streptomycin. No isolates were related to contemporary isolates from Asia, Africa, or Haiti, indicating phylogenetic diversity. PMID:26980836

  10. Genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae Amazonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, C.C.; Marin, M.A.; Dias, G.M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Edwards, R.A.; Iida, T.; Thompson, F.L.; Vicente, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 Amazonia is a pathogen that was isolated from cholera-like diarrhea cases in at least two countries, Brazil and Ghana. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, this lineage belongs to a distinct profile compared to strains from El Tor and classical biotypes. The genomic analysis rev

  11. Radiation-sensitive mutant of hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of Vibro cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation-sensitive mutant of the hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of Vibrio cholerae was isolated and characterized. The mutant, designated V. cholerae 569Bsub(s), lacks both excision- and medium-dependent dark-repair mechanisms of UV-induced DNA damage while retaining the wild-type photoreactivating capability. Analysis of the UV-irradiated cell DNA by velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradient suggests that UV-induced pyrimidine dimers may not be incised in these cells. In contrast to the wild-type cells, the mutant cell DNA was degraded after treatment with nalidixic acid. The mutant cells failed to produce any detectable amount of cholera toxin as measured by ileal-loop assay. (orig.)

  12. Survey on antimicrobial resistance patterns in Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 in Germany reveals carbapenemase-producing Vibrio cholerae in coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bier, Nadja; Schwartz, Keike; Guerra, Beatriz; Strauch, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    An increase in the occurrence of potentially pathogenic Vibrio species is expected for waters in Northern Europe as a consequence of global warming. In this context, a higher incidence of Vibrio infections is predicted for the future and forecasts suggest that people visiting and living at the Baltic Sea are at particular risk. This study aimed to investigate antimicrobial resistance patterns among Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 isolates that could pose a public health ...

  13. Comparison of inferred relatedness based on multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and whole genome sequencing of Vibrio cholerae O1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Almeida, Mathieu; Azman, Andrew S; Lindsay, Brianna R; Sack, David A; Colwell, Rita R; Huq, Anwar; Morris, J Glenn; Alam, Munirul; Stine, O Colin

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, a severe diarrheal disease. Understanding the local genetic diversity and transmission of V. cholerae will improve our ability to control cholera. Vibrio cholerae isolates clustered in genetically related groups (clonal complexes, CC) by multilocus variable tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were compared by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Isolates in CC1 had been isolated from two geographical locations. Isolates in a second genetically distinct group, CC2, were isolated only at one location. Using WGS, CC1 isolates from both locations revealed, on average, 43.8 nucleotide differences, while those strains comprising CC2 averaged 19.7 differences. Strains from both MLVA-CCs had an average difference of 106.6. Thus, isolates comprising CC1 were more closely related (P < 10(-6)) to each other than to isolates in CC2. Within a MLVA-CC, after removing all paralogs, alternative alleles were found in all possible combinations on separate chromosomes indicative of recombination within the core genome. Including recombination did not affect the distinctiveness of the MLVA-CCs when measured by WGS. We found that WGS generally reflected the same genetic relatedness of isolates as MLVA, indicating that isolates from the same MLVA-CC shared a more recent common ancestor than isolates from the same location that clustered in a distinct MLVA-CC. PMID:27190166

  14. Detection of vibrio cholerae O1 by using cerium oxide nanowires - based immunosensor with different antibody immobilization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Phuong Dinh; Hoang, Nguyen Luong; Lan, Hoang; Vuong, Pham Hung; Anh, Ta Thi Nhat; Huy, Tran Quang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we evaluated the effects of different antibody immobilization strategies on the response of a CeO2-nanowires (NWs)-based immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae O1 detection. Accordingly, the changes in the electron-transfer resistance ( R et ) from before to after cells bind to an antibody-modified electrode prepared by using three different methods of antibody immobilization were determined. The values were 16.2%, 8.3%, and 6.65% for the method that utilized protein A, antibodies activated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), and absorption, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the change in the current was highest for the immunosensors prepared using protein A (11%), followed by those prepared with EDC/NHS-activated antibodies (9%), and finally, those prepared through absorption (7.5%). The order of the antibody immobilization strategies in terms of resulting immunosensor detection limit and sensitivity was as follows order: absorption (3.2 × 103 CFU/mL; 45.1 Ω/CFU·mL-1) < EDC/NHS-activated antibody (1.0 × 103 CFU/mL; 50.6 Ω/CFU·mL-1) < protein A (1.0 × 102 CFU/mL; 65.8 Ω/CFU·mL-1). Thus, we confirmed that the protein A - mediated method showed significantly high cell binding efficiencies compared to the random immobilization method.

  15. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 bacteraemia: description of three cases in the Netherlands and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Madelon F; Muijsken, Mariette A; Mooi-Kokenberg, Esther; Kuijper, Ed J; van Westerloo, David J

    2016-04-14

    Vibrio cholerae non-O1 serogroup (VCNO) bacteraemia is a severe condition with a high case-fatality rate. We report three cases diagnosed in the Netherlands, identified during a national microbiological congress, and provide a literature review on VCNO bacteraemia. A search strategy including synonyms for 'VCNO' and 'bacteraemia' was applied to PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases. The three cases were reported in elderly male patients after fish consumption and/or surface water contact. The literature search yielded 82 case reports on 90 cases and six case series. Thirty case reports were from Asia (30/90; 33%), concerned males (67/90; 74%), and around one third (38/90; 42%) involved a history of alcohol abuse and/or liver cirrhosis The presenting symptom often was gastroenteritis (47/90; 52%) which occurred after seafood consumption in 32% of the cases (15/47).Aside from the most frequent symptom being fever, results of case series concurred with these findings. Published cases also included rare presentations e.g. endophthalmitis and neonatal meningitis. Based on the limited data available, cephalosporins seemed the most effective treatment. Although mainly reported in Asia, VCNO bacteraemia occurs worldwide. While some risk factors for VCNO were identified in this study, the source of infection remains often unclear. Clinical presentation may vary greatly and therefore a quick microbiological diagnosis is indispensable. PMID:27104237

  16. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection with bullous skin lesions in a patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    García-Tutor Emilio; del Pozo Jose L; Yuste Jose R; Portillo María E; Aguinaga Aitziber; Pérez-Gracia Jose L; Leiva José

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vibrio spp. is a pathogen rarely isolated in cancer patients, and in most cases it is associated with haematological diseases. Cutaneous manifestations of this organism are even rarer. We report a case of Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection presenting bullous skin lesions in a young type II diabetic patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma having a seawater exposure history.

  17. Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection with bullous skin lesions in a patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Tutor Emilio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vibrio spp. is a pathogen rarely isolated in cancer patients, and in most cases it is associated with haematological diseases. Cutaneous manifestations of this organism are even rarer. We report a case of Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae inguinal skin and soft tissue infection presenting bullous skin lesions in a young type II diabetic patient with a penis squamous cell carcinoma having a seawater exposure history.

  18. Occurrence, Diversity, and Pathogenicity of Halophilic Vibrio spp. and Non-O1 Vibrio cholerae from Estuarine Waters along the Italian Adriatic Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Elena; Falzano, Loredana; Fiorentini, Carla; Pianetti, Anna; Baffone, Wally; Fabbri, Alessia; Matarrese, Paola; Casiere, Annarita; Katouli, Mohammad; Kühn, Inger; Möllby, Roland; Bruscolini, Francesca; Donelli, Gianfranco

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of Vibrio spp. were investigated in two estuaries along the Italian Adriatic coast. Vibrio alginolyticus was the predominant species, followed by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, non-O1 Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio vulnificus. By using a biochemical fingerprinting method, all isolates were grouped into nine phenotypes with similarity levels of 75 to 97.5%. The production of toxins capable of causing cytoskeleton-dependent changes was detected in a large num...

  19. O1/O139群霍乱弧菌检出率与珠江河口水体理化因素的相关性研究%The correlation study on vibrio cholerae O1/O139 detection rate and the physical and chemical factors of pearl river estuary water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许斌; 刘杰; 李柏生; 罗可天; 牟成惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the correlation between Vibro Cholerae 01/0139 detection rate and the physical and chemical factors of Pearl River Estuary water and provide a reference for cholera prevention and control. Methods: 24 sampling points along the Pearl River have been set to collect the Pearl River estuary water per month since 2010. With reference to Cholera Prevention and Control Manual (1999) by the Disease Control Division of the Ministry of Health, Vibrio cholerae was isolated for culture and identification. The ion density of water samples were tested by 7500a inductance coupled plasma mass spectrometry instrument. Results: 576 water samples were collected totally. 51 Vibrio choleras 01/0139 strains were detected and the detection rate was 8. 85% . The detection rate of Vibrio cholerae 01/0139 in summer accounted for more than 30% . Vibrio cholerae detection rate had linear relationship with Al3 + , Mn 2+ , Ni2 +. In the urban district and outside the Pearl River, the significant difference existed between the contents of Mg2+ ,K + ,Ca2+ ,Mn2+ ,Ni2+ ,Se4+ ,Sb3+ and PH value in water samples. Conclusion: The detection Vibrio cholerae of 01/0139 has some correlation to physical and chemical factors ( Al3+ , Mn2+. Ni2+ )of Pearl River estuary water.%目的:探讨珠江水中O1/O139群霍乱弧菌检出率与珠江水体中理化因素之间的相关性,为霍乱的防控工作提供参考.方法:2010年每月在珠江河沿岸24个采样点采集珠江河口水体,参照卫生部疾病控制司1999年版《霍乱防治手册》进行霍乱弧菌的分离培养和菌型鉴定,用7500a电感耦合等离子体质谱仪进行水样各离子浓度的检测.结果:共采集水样576份,检出51株O1/O139群霍乱弧菌,检出率为8.85%.夏天检出O1/O139群霍乱弧菌数占30%以上.Al、Mn及Ni与O1/O139群霍乱弧菌检出率之间有一定的线性关系.市内、外珠江水中Mg2+、K+、Ca2+、Mn2+、Ni2+、Se4+、Sb3+含量和PH值存在显著或

  20. Clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa of 2009 from Kolkata, India: preponderance of SXT element and presence of Haitian ctxB variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braj M R N S Kutar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increase in the number of multidrug resistant pathogens and the accompanied rise in case fatality rates has hampered the treatment of many infectious diseases including cholera. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance in the clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae would help in understanding evolution of these pathogenic bacteria and their epidemic potential. This study was carried out to identify genetic factors responsible for multiple drug resistance in clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor isolated from the patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Kolkata, India, in 2009. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of V. cholerae were analysed for their antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Antibiogram analysis revealed that majority of the isolates showed resistance to co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, polymixin B and streptomycin. In PCR, SXT integrase was detected in 117 isolates and its sequence showed 99% identity notably to ICEVchInd5 from Sevagram, India, ICEVchBan5 from Bangladesh and VC1786ICE sequence from Haiti outbreak among others. Antibiotic resistance traits corresponding to SXT element were transferred from the parent Vibrio isolate to the recipient E. coli XL-1 Blue cells during conjugation. Double-mismatch-amplification mutation assay (DMAMA revealed the presence of Haitian type ctxB allele of genotype 7 in 55 isolates and the classical ctxB allele of genotype 1 in 59 isolates. Analysis of topoisomerase sequences revealed the presence of mutation Ser83 → Ile in gyrA and Ser85→ Leu in parC. This clearly showed the circulation of SXT-containing V. cholerae as causative agent for cholera in Kolkata. CONCLUSIONS: There was predominance of SXT element in these clinical isolates from Kolkata region which also accounted for their antibiotic resistance phenotype typical of this element. DMAMA PCR showed them to be a mixture

  1. Reporte histórico: Primer Aislamiento de Vibrio cholera serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba durante la epidemia de cólera en el Perú ‑ 1991 Historical report: first isolation of Vibrio cholera serogroup O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba during the cholerae epidemic in Perú ‑ 1991

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    Nora Bravo Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hace 20 años apareció una enfermedad diarreica nueva en el Perú y el Laboratorio de Referencia de Enteropatógenos del Instituto Nacional de Salud, cumplió una labor destacada en el aislamiento e identificación rápida y oportuna del Vibrio cholerae. La enfermedad del cólera no se había presentado anteriormente, pero en la última semana de enero de 1991 se detectó un brote epidémico de diarrea aguda con deshidratación intensa y algunos casos de fallecidos. La epidemia afectó, al comienzo, varias localidades del litoral peruano. Equipos de trabajo de la Oficina General de Epidemiología y de los laboratorios del Instituto Nacional de Salud obtuvieron muestras fecales de pacientes con diarrea aguda procedentes de las ciudades de Chancay, Chimbote, Piura y algunos hospitales de Lima. Las muestras colectadas en el medio de transporte de Cary y Blair fueron procesadas en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Enteropatógenos (LANARE del Instituto Nacional de Salud. De todas las muestras se aisló e identificó Vibrio cholerae serogrupo O1 biovar El Tor serovar Inaba que mostró ser sensible a la tetraciclina y a otros antibióticos. Esta investigación confirmó el primer brote epidémico de cólera en el Perú.20 years ago, a new diarrheal disease was introduced in Peru and the Enteropathogens Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Salud had an outstanding role in the isolation and rapid and timely identification of Vibrio cholerae. Cholera had not been seen before, but during the last week of January 1991 an outbreak of acute diarrhea was detected, presenting intense dehydration and some deaths. The epidemic affected, in the beginning, many locations of the peruvian coast. Some working teams of the General Office of Epidemiology and of the Instituto Nacional de Salud obtained fecal samples from patients with acute diarrhea coming from the cities of Chancay, Chimbote, Piura and some hospitals in Lima. The collected samples

  2. Vibrio cholerae No O1 en muestras de aguas no cloradas consumidas por pobladores de las localidades de Santa y Coishco (Ancash, 2003 - 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana García P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar la presencia de Vibrio cholerae en muestras de agua no cloradas para consumo humano en las localidades de Santa y Coishco. Materiales y métodos: Entre julio de 2003 a junio de 2004 se tomaron muestras de agua, en forma semanal, provenientes de siete pozos con bomba manuable y de seis pozos con reservorio. A cada muestra de agua se le midió in situ el cloro residual mediante un comparador de cloro Hatch, método colorimétrico, usando para ello las pastillas DPD 1. En las muestras con cloro <0,05mg/L se realizó el cultivo según los manuales de procedimientos del Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Lima. Las cepas aisladas se enviaron al INS para confirmación diagnóstica y pruebas serológicas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 308 muestras de agua para consumo humano en ambos distritos (201 de pozos con bomba manuable y 107 con reservorio. Se realizó el aislamiento en 70(22,7% muestras: Aeromonas caviae 34(11,0%, Aeromonas hidrophyla 17(5,5% y Vibrio cholerae No O1 19(6,2%, no se encontró V. cholerae del serotipo O139. El Vibrio cholerae No O1 se aisló en 11(5,5% muestras de pozos con bomba manuable y en 8(7,4% pozos con reservorio, respectivamente. Conclusión: El agua de consumo humano proveniente de pozos tubulares representa un reservorio potencial para bacterias como Aeromonas y Vibrio cholerae, resaltando la necesidad de realizar la desinfección correspondiente de ésta antes de su consumo.

  3. Antibacterial effect of Costus spiralis leaves extract on pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pérez

    2008-01-01

    pueden ser extraídos y purificados a partir de plantas para el desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos. Entre las diversas enfermedades que históricamente han afectado al hombre, el cólera ha sido potencialmente epidémico y una de las más sobresalientes. La bacteria Vibrio cholerae, el agente causal, puede ser eliminado mediante antibióticos, de modo que además del tratamiento tradicional de la enfermedad de rehidratación vía oral o intravenosa, comúnmente son aplicados antibióticos tales como la tetraciclina, ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina o azitromicina. El efecto antimicrobiano in vitro de extractos de hojas de Costus spiralis (Roscoe sobre varias cepas patógenas de Vibrio cholerae fue ensayado mediante la técnica de difusión en placas de agar. Hojas verdes de la plantas fueron colectadas, secadas en horno a 50 ºC durante 48 h, molidas y finalmente, sometidas a extracción con etanol. Luego de secado, el material residual fue resuspendido en agua destilada a 100 mg/mL (p/v y realizados los ensayos de actividad antimicrobiana. Aparentemente, las cepas patógenas que representan las pandemias del siglo xx: C7258 (O1, El Tor, Ogawa, C6706 (O1, El Tor, Inaba, O395 (O1, Clásica, Ogawa, CRC266 (O139 y 569B (O1, Clásica, Inaba fueron matadas, a juzgar por la presencia de halos de inhibición de crecimiento en los ensayos. Adicionalmente, se eterminaron las concentraciones mínimas inhibitorias de los extractos para las diferentes cepas. Los resultados anteriores fueron similares a los de la Ampicillina, lo que sugiere que Costus spiralis pude utilizarse como fuente de principios activos contra Vibrio cholerae.

  4. Cholera in Azov area

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    O. N. Domashenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is analysis of clinical course and treatment results of patients with cholera in the Azov area. Materials and methods. During the period from 29.05.2011 to 19.08.2011 33 cases of cholera (32 adults and 1 child and 25 vibrio carriers (22 adults and 3 children, which were caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholera El Tor serogroup O1 Ogawa. Results. Likely factors of disease transmission in Mariupol are sea and river water, and the fish that were caught in the waters of the city. Typical and watery diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain and lack of normal body temperature, dehydration syndrome, characterized clinical cholera for adults in most cases. The mean duration of diarrhoea was 6,6 days. At 46.9% observed atypical symptoms in 10 (31,3% – abdominal pain (1 patient cramping in 7 cases, localized in the epigastria region, at 2-over stomach. In 5 patients (15,6% had an increase in body temperature to 37,2–37,7 degrees Celsius. In 15 (46,9% patients had severe nausea accompanied by vomiting. Easy for cholera was observed in 1 (3.1%, moderate – in 14 (43,8%, heavy – in 17 (53,1% patients. Dehydration I level is set at 4 (12,5%, II – from 6 (18,7%, III – in 18 (56,3%, IV – 4 (12,5% patients. Cholera outbreak was characterized by a predominance of severe disease and severe dehydration (III and IV, which was observed in 68.8% of patients. The decisive factor in the treatment of cholera patients was initiated in a timely manner rehydration therapy, in particular the introduction of the solution «Trisol». Against the background of rehydration therapy hyperkalaemia was observed in 9,4% of cases, vascular rehydration at 9,4%, the cell rehydration in 3,1% of patients. Fatal accidents cholera outbreaks have not been observed. Conclusion. Clinical diagnosis of cholera and the provision of medical care in the prehospital phase were poor, indicating the need for systematic conducting training seminars among experts

  5. The changes in antigenic components of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Thi Quyen; Dinh, Duy Khang

    2015-01-01

    Whole cells of Vibrio cholerare serotype Inaba and serotype Ogawa (strains I389 and O395) were injected into rabbits to obtain antiserum. The antiserums were used for immune reaction with antigenic components of 25 strains of V.cholerae isolated from five provinces of Vietnam and the two standard strains I389 and O395 by Western-blot technique. Analysis of immune hybrid results showed that there were 11 antigenic components with molecular weights approximately 79kDa, 62kDa, 52kDa, 45kDa, 42kD...

  6. Structural organization of the transfer RNA operon I of Vibrio cholerae: Differences between classical and El Tor strains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atreyi Ghatak; Anasuya Majumdar; Ranajit K Ghosh

    2005-09-01

    Nine major transfer RNA (tRNA) gene clusters were analysed in various Vibrio cholerae strains. Of these, only the tRNA operon I was found to differ significantly in V. cholerae classical (sixth pandemic) and El Tor (seventh pandemic) strains. Amongst the sixteen tRNA genes contained in this operon, genes for tRNA Gln3 (CAA) and tRNA Leu6 (CUA) were absent in classical strains as compared to El Tor strains. The observation strongly supported the view that the above two pandemic strains constitute two different clones.

  7. O1群霍乱弧菌胶体金法快速检测%Application of colloidal gold method in rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴多荣; 周登仁; 李明刚; 李静粉; 韩小胜

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解胶体金法检测O1群霍乱弧菌的特异性、灵敏度和实用性.方法 取患者粪便标本,先用碱性蛋白胨水35℃增菌6 h,然后用胶体金法进行检测,同时作霍乱弧菌常规培养,培养出细菌后用血清凝集法作为鉴别诊断O1群霍乱弧菌的金标准,用统计学方法对胶体金法诊断试验的评价指标进行计算..结果 700份样本中,常规法培养出O1霍乱弧菌105株,胶体金法试验阳性108株,经χ2检验,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.24,P>0.05),表明胶体金法检测O1群霍乱弧菌与常规培养法检测结果之间的差异无统计学意义.胶体金法检测O1群霍乱弧菌诊塑试验的灵敏度为93.33%,特异性为98.32%,阳性预测值为90.74%,阴性预测值为97.18%,假阴性率为1.68%,假阳性率为6.67%.结论 胶体金法检测O1群霍乱弧菌特异性高(98.32%),灵敏度好,与常规培养法的一致性也较高,在快速检测O1群霍乱弧菌中有一定应用价值.%Objective To understand the specificity, sensitivity and practicality of colloidal gold assay in the detection of Vibrio cholerae Ol group. Methods Stool specimens of patients were incubated in alkaline peptone water (35℃) for 6 hours. Then the colloidal gold method was used to detect Vibrio cholerae. At the same time conventional culture of Vibrio cholerae was identified with serum agglutination as the gold standard. The results of two methods were compared. Results Among 700 samples,105 Vibrio cholerae were identified with conventional methol method and 108 identified with coilidal gold assay and there was no significant difference between the two methods. (χ2 = 0.24 ,P > 0.05). The sensitivity of col-loidal gold method for Vibrio cholerae O1 detetion was 93.33% ,with a specificity of 98.32 ,a positive predictive value of 90. 74% ,a negative value of 97.18% ,a false negative rate of 1.68% ,and a false positive rate of 6.67%. Conclusion The colloidal gold method has good specificity and

  8. Low prevalence of Vibrio cholerae O1 versus moderate prevalence of intestinal parasites in food-handlers working with health care personnel in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, Rafael; Somarriba, Lorenzo; Velázquez, Beltran; Núñez, Fidel A; Villafranca, Caridad M

    2016-02-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. In May 2011, a cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers working with Cuban health personnel in Haiti. Stool specimens were collected from 56 food-handlers and samples were examined using standard procedures. Of the food handlers, 26.8% had one bacterial or intestinal parasite. The most prevalent species of organism found were Blastocystis spp. (9%), followed by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa, Aeromonas spp. and Giardia intestinalis, each one with 4%. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 19.7%. Five out of 56 food handlers had diarrhea at the time the study was conducted. It was found that there was a lower prevalence of V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa in comparison to intestinal parasites. The study highlights the importance of the precautions that must be taken in cholera-affected countries by medical teams and their organizations, with emphasis on the preparation, processing, and serving of meals. The recommendation is to intensify continuing education programs, periodical laboratory examinations to detect carriers and food-handlers reporting sick, and to observe strict adherence to hygienic food-handling practices. In addition, food handlers with diarrhea should refrain from preparation or delivery of food. PMID:27077312

  9. High prevalence and diversity of pre-CTXΦ alleles in the environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 strains in the Zhujiang River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duochun; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Baisheng; Deng, Xiaoling; Tan, Hailing; Diao, Baowei; Chen, Jingdiao; Ke, Bixia; Zhong, Haojie; Zhou, Haijian; Ke, Changwen; Kan, Biao

    2014-06-01

    Toxigenic conversion of environmental Vibrio cholerae strains through lysogenic infection by the phage CTXΦ is an important step in the emergence of new pathogenic clones. The precursor form of the CTXΦ phage, pre-CTXΦ, does not carry the cholera toxin gene. During our investigation, we frequently found pre-CTXΦ prophages in non-toxigenic isolates in the serogroups of O1 and O139 strains in the Zhujiang estuary. We observed high amounts of sequence variation of rstR and gIII(CTX) in the pre-CTXΦ alleles as well as in the tcpA sequences within the strains. In addition, a new pre-CTXΦ allele, with a novel rstR sequence type and hybrid RS2, was identified. Our findings show that active, complicated gene recombination and horizontal transfer of pre-CTXΦs occurs within V. cholerae environmental strains, which creates a complex intermediate pool for the generation of toxigenic clones in the estuarine environment. PMID:24983529

  10. Obtención de extractos de membrana externa de Vibrio cholerae O1, mediante el uso de diferentes detergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Pérez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existen dos variantes principales de vacunas orales contra el cólera: una basada en células inactivadas de diferentes biotipos y serotipos y otra basada en la administración de cepas vivas genéticamente atenuadas. Una vacuna por subunidades pudiera ser una variante muy atractiva. Este trabajo describe la purificación parcial y caracterización preliminar de extractos de proteínas de membrana externa-lipopolisacárido (PME-LPS, obtenidos a partir de Vibrio cholerae O1, con el interés de seleccionar un proteoliposoma que posteriormente será estructurado en forma de cocleatos para su uso por vía oral en humanos. Las preparaciones fueron obtenidas a través del uso de diferentes detergentes. La cantidad de LPS en cada preparación fue estimada mediante la determinación de las unidades endotóxicas en el ensayo del Limulus (LAL. La composición de cada muestra fue evaluada mediante SDS-PAGE y Dot Blot. La inoculación intranasal (IN en ratones Balb/c se utilizó para la evaluación de la inmunogenicidad de las preparaciones, y la respuesta inmune fue determinada por ELISA y el título de anticuerpos vibriocidas. El tamaño molecular de la preparación con mejores resultados en inmunogenicidad se estimó mediante la cromatografía en Sephacryl S-1000. Se obtuvieron diferentes perfiles electroforéticos de acuerdo con el tipo de detergente utilizado. El LPS fue identificado en todas las preparaciones y aquella obtenida con el SDS al 15% mostró la más baja relación proteínas/LPS y los mejores resultados en los ensayos de inmunogenicidad. Adicionalmente se comprobó que su tamaño molecular es similar al observado en el proteoliposoma de VAMENGOC- BC. La preparación obtenida con el SDS al 15% constituye un proteoliposoma, con capacidad para estimular altos niveles de anticuerpos IgG anti-LPS y altos títulos de anticuerpos vibriocidas, luego de su administración por vía intranasal en ratones. Estos resultados constituyen

  11. 浙江省非O1、非O139群霍乱弧菌快速检测与毒力基因研究%Rapid detection of non O1 and non O139 Vibrio cholerae and their virulence genes in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗芸; 叶菊莲; 金大智; 张政; 王复甦; 徐宝祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立一种快速检测非O1、非O139群霍乱弧菌方法,并对浙江省部分地区海水产品中非O1、非O139 群霍乱弧菌及其携带毒力基因开展快速检测.方法 采用三糖斜面、氧化酶实验、粘丝实验、无盐胨水等简单生化进行初筛,对全部结果阳性的菌株用聚合酶链反应(PCR)方法检测霍乱弧菌外膜蛋白OmpW以及毒力基因ctxA、hlyA和toxR.结果 按照方法用三糖斜面初筛后共有504份样本阳性,其中氧化酶、粘丝和无盐胨水全部为阳性的有434份;有388份样本OmpW PCR结果为阳性,其中ctxA结果均为阴性,toxR阳性hlyA阳性的有225株.结论 建立的快速检测方法提高了非O1、非O139群霍乱弧菌的检出率,缩短了检测时间,节约了检测成本.浙江省非O1、非O139群霍乱弧菌在海水产品中广泛存在,应对其致病性提高警惕,加强监测.%Objective To establish a rapid detection assay to detect non O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae in sea foods and their virulence genes in Zhejiang province. Methods Non Ol and non O139 Vibrio cholerae strains were detected by using triple sugar tube, oxidase test, ropiness test and saltless peptone water test, then OmpW,ctxA、hlyA and toxR genes of Vibrio cholerae were detected by PCR assay. Results Totally 504 sample were positive by using triple sugar tube, in addition, 434 samples were positive in other 3 tests. Totally 388 strains were OmpW gene positive, but ctxA gene negative and 225 strains were both hlyA and toxR gene positive. Conclusion The established rapid assay could increase the detection rate of non Ol and non O139 Vibrio cholerae, shorten the detection time and reduce test cost. Non Ol and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae generally exist in sea foods in Zhejiang province. It is important to fully understand their pathogenicities and strengthen the disease surveillance.

  12. Misidentification of Vibrio cholerae O155 isolated from imported shrimp as O serogroup O139 due to cross-agglutination with commercial O139 antisera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Mazur, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2002-01-01

    was isolated from imported raw frozen shrimp. The toxigenicity of the strain was analyzed, and the results of a polymerase chain reaction showed that the V. cholerae strain did not contain the virulence genes ctx, tcp9, and zot, which are normally found in V. cholerae O1 and O139. The strain was resistant...

  13. The Zymovars of Vibrio cholerae: Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Freitas

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Zymovars analysis also known as multilocus enzyme electrophoresis is applied here to investigate the genetic variation of Vibrio cholerae strains and characterise strains or group of strains of medical and epidemiological interest. Fourteen loci were analyzed in 171 strains of non-O1 non-O139, 32 classical and 61 El Tor from America, Africa, Europe and Asia. The mean genetic diversity was 0.339. It is shown that the same O antigen (both O1 and non-O1 may be present in several geneticaly diverse (different zymovars strains. Conversely the same zymovar may contain more than one serogroup. It is confirmed that the South American epidemic strain differs from the 7th pandemic El Tor strain in locus LAP (leucyl leucyl aminopeptidase. Here it is shown that this rare allele is present in 1 V. mimicus and 4 non-O1 V. cholerae. Non toxigenic O1 strains from South India epidemic share zymovar 14A with the epidemic El Tor from the 7th pandemic, while another group have diverse zymovars. The sucrose negative epidemic strains isolated in French Guiana and Brazil have the same zymovar of the current American epidemic V. cholerae.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholera strains isolated from imported crocodiles from Thailand%泰国进口鳄鱼霍乱弧茵药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冬娥; 陈冠武; 苏建晖; 许先凯

    2012-01-01

    Twelve Vibrio cholera strains were isolated from sixty anal swabs in sampling inspection of the Crocodiles imported from Thailand. It was confirmed that the strains were non-O1, non-O139 Vibrio choleras by biochemical test and serological identification. Eighteen drugs were used in the antibiotic resistance test. The test showed that all the strains were sensitive to most drugs, moderately susceptible to acheomycin and resistance to ampicillin and piperacillin.%在某鳄鱼养殖场抽检的60份泰国进口鳄鱼肛拭子样品中,有12份检出霍乱弧菌。通过生化试验和血清学分型等鉴定,确认12株霍乱弧菌均为非0。非0。。群霍乱弧菌。采用18种抗菌药物进行药敏试验,结果显示所有菌株对大多数抗菌药物高度敏感,对四环素等药物中度敏感,对氨苄青霉素和氧呱嗪青霉素不敏感。

  15. Identification and virulence gene detection of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio chol-erae isolates causing septicemia%致血流感染非 O1群非 O139群霍乱弧菌的鉴定及毒力基因检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玖明; 张爱平; 李智山; 杨燕; 赵建忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:对襄阳市中心医院分离1株疑似霍乱弧菌进行鉴定及药物敏感性试验,并检测其主要毒力基因。方法利用MicroScan WalkAway 40鉴定仪进行生化鉴定及药物敏感性试验,玻片凝集法确定其血清型别,应用 PCR 及测序技术分析其16SrRNA 基因;PCR 检测其6个毒力基因。结果经鉴定,该株疑似霍乱菌株为非 O1群非 O139群霍乱弧菌,经16SrRNA分析与美国国家生物技术信息中心数据库中霍乱弧菌相似性达100%。药敏试验结果显示该菌对氨苄西林、氯霉素、甲氧苄啶-磺胺甲口恶唑、四环素均敏感,毒力基因检测 rtxC 和 toxR 阳性,tcpAET、ctx A 、hlyA、tcpACL 阴性。结论该株疑似霍乱弧菌为非 O1群非 O139群霍乱弧菌,其致病与 rtxC、toxR 毒力基因有关。%Objective To identify an suspected Vibrio cholerae isolated from Xiangyang Central Hospital and characterize the strain in terms of antibiotic resistance and relevant virulence genes.Methods Pathogen identification and susceptibility testing were completed with MicroScan WalkAway 40 Automated Microbiology System.Slide agglutination was used for serotyping. PCR and sequencing technology were employed for 16s RNA gene analysis.PCR technique was used to detect six major viru-lence genes.Results This suspectedVibrio cholerae isolate was confirmed as non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae .Suscep-tibility testing results indicated that the strain was sensitive to ampicillin,chloramphenicol,trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline.16s RNA gene sequence analysis showed 100% homologous with the registered sequence in National Center for Biotechnology Information database.Virulence genes rtxC and toxR were identified.The other virulence genes such as tcpAET,ctxA,hlyA,and tcpACL were negative.Conclusions This suspected Vibrio cholerae isolate is confirmed as non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae .The pathogenic factors may be related to the virulence

  16. Conjunctival and intramuscular vaccination of pigs with a live avirulent strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, T T; Pardon, P; Marly, J; Bernard, S

    1987-07-01

    An avirulent mutant strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis was cloned for resistance to streptomycin and nalidixic acid. The mutant strain 33-13 also was used because of its avirulence and immunogenicity in mice. Weaned pigs were vaccinated with live strain 33-13; 5 pigs were vaccinated by conjunctivally administered 5.5 X 10(7) organisms (low dose), 5 were conjunctivally administered 5.5 X 10(9) organisms (high dose), and 5 pigs were administered 5.5 X 10(9) organisms (high dose) IM. Transient fever and transient fecal shedding of the vaccine strain developed in pigs vaccinated IM, but not in 2 groups of pigs vaccinated conjunctivally. After intratracheal administration of virulent strain 38-9, nonvaccinated control pigs (n = 9) developed persistent high fever, anorexia, bacteremia, diarrhea, and fecal shedding of strain 38-9, whereas vaccinated pigs remained afebrile and clinically normal. Nonvaccinated and uninfected sentinel pigs (n = 8) were kept in units of 2 pigs with each group of experimental pigs, and remained healthy throughout the experiment. Thirteen vaccinated and 7 nonvaccinated control pigs were killed 42 days after vaccination, and 2 vaccinated, 2 nonvaccinated, and 8 sentinel control pigs were killed 58 days after vaccination. Ten organs were evaluated by quantitative bacteriology on necropsy of all pigs for the presence of vaccine strain 33-13, and for virulent strain 38-9. Strain 33-13 was not found. Lung and liver, lesions were found in most of the nonvaccinated control pigs, with a high frequency of recovery of large numbers of strain 38-9 from the mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and ileum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3631689

  17. Study about the sensibility in vitro of different strains of Vibrio cholera 01 exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of some microorganisms in food, or the metabolites originated during their own multiplication may bring several diseases to humans: intoxications and food borne infections. Among the agents that may cause those diseases, we find Vibrio cholerae 01. In this experiment, the studies are focused on the radiosensibility in vitro of four strains of V. cholerae 01, exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation of 60 Co. The results are compared with other data related to bacterial food borne diseases, including water. (author)

  18. Radiation decontamination of Peruvian marine ''lead snail'' (Thais chocolata) inoculated with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo studies were conducted using marine snails (Thais chocolata) artificially contaminated in a tank containing sea water inoculated with a pure culture of Vibrio cholerae, such that 105 colony forming units per gram (CFU/g) were uptaken by the mollusks in 1.5 h. A radiation D10 value of 0.12 kGy was determined for V. cholerae upon subsequent irradiation of the live snails at doses in the range 0.0-4.0 kGy. A second series of tests were conducted using naturally contaminated, non-inoculated snails, shelled and packaged simulating commercial procedures, irradiated at 0.0-3.0 kGy, and stored at 2-4 deg. C. These tests indicated that a dose of 2.0 kGy was optimal to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the snails to 21 days without inducing significant adverse sensory or chemical effects. Non-irradiated snails similarly treated and stored spoiled after only seven days. (author)

  19. Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Wael Abdelazeem Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P. multocida genotypes, to identify affiliations between bird types and bacterial genotypes, and to elucidate the role of specific bird species in disease transmission.

  20. Molecular analysis of Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from fowl cholera infection in backyard chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize Pasteurella isolated from backyard chickens using whole cell protein lysate profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques to show their genetic relationship because Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is an important cause of fatal infections in backyard chickens. Methods:Twenty one P. multocida isolates were recovered previously from clinical cases of fowl cholera belonging to individual owners and phenotypically analyzed using biochemical tests and serotyping were used for the genetic characterization. Results:Phylogenetic study based on both methods revealed that the recovered population of P. multocida isolated from backyard chickens differs markedly, constituting a well-separated cluster and appearance of 3 distinguishing lineages with greater discrimination shown by RAPD-PCR that resulted in two suclusters in cluster A and three subclusters in cluster B and were related greatly with capsular serogroups for the examined strains. The whole cell protein revealed the presence of dominant protein bands at approximately 41 and 61 kDa in all of the examined isolates that may be a virulent proteins share in the increasing of its pathogenicity. Clear distinctive bands ranged from 123 to 1 554 bp. Conclusions: Based on the previous findings, there are three spreading clusters that may indicate the association of a small number of P. multocida variants with the majority of cases suggesting that certain clones of P. multocida are able to colonize the examined backyard chickens. Also, the ease and rapidity of RAPD-PCR support the use of this technique as alternative to the more labour-intensive SDS-PAGE system for strain differentiation and epidemiological studies of avian P. multocida. Further application of RAPD technology to the examination of avian cholera outbreaks in commercially available flocks may facilitate more effective management of this disease by providing the potential to investigate correlations of P

  1. Genome Sequence of the K139-Like Phage VcP032 Originating from the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa Serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, Claudia; Strauch, Eckhard; Hammerl, Jens Andre

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the cause of large cholera outbreaks, especially in endemic regions with high poverty and inadequate sanitation. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the virulence-associated broad host range V. cholerae phage VcP032, including a brief summary of its genotypic and phenotypic features. PMID:27445393

  2. Genome Sequence of the K139-Like Phage VcP032 Originating from Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa Serotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, Claudia; Hammerl, Jens Andre

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the cause of large cholera outbreaks, especially in endemic regions with high poverty and inadequate sanitation. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the virulence-associated broad host range V. cholerae phage VcP032, including a brief summary of its genotypic and phenotypic features. PMID:27445393

  3. CHANGING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TREND OF CHOLERA IN WEST BENGAL: THE GIANT IS BACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Choler a is a devastating diarrheal disease caused by V. cholera. Two biotypes of V. cholerae O1, classical and El - Tor, are distinguished. Each biotype is further subdivided into two serotypes, termed Inaba and Ogawa. As large deltaic areas of the Ganges and Brah maputra rivers are considered to be the homeland of cholera, objective of our study was to detect the circulating strain of Vibrio causing Cholera outbreaks in different pockets of West Bengal. Water samples collected from the water sources of the affected areas and stool samples and or rectal swabs of suspected cases were tested according to standard bacteriological protocol. In July 2008, Cholera outbreak was caused by Vibrio cholera e O1 El - Tor Inaba serotype in Darjeeling district affecting 176 persons. Mean age of the affected people was 15years. Thereafter in the June, 2010, there was an outbreak of Vibrio cholerae El Tor Ogawa affecting 87 people in Maldah. Mean age of the cases was 25years. Similar type of Vibrio cholerae O1 El - Tor Ogawa strain was is olated in the outbreak of June to September 2012 in Maldah with lower mean age of cases i.e.7years. A total of 93 patients suffered from Cholera during this outbreak. Cholera outbreak in West Bengal was caused by classical Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa serotype affecting 803 people in North 24 Paragana in October, 2013. Mean age of the patients was 31year. As classical Vibrio causes more severe disease than El - Tor, its reemergence with multidrug resistant properties is no doubt an upcoming threat

  4. Establishment of a method for rapid detection of group O1 and O139 of Vibrio cholera by fluorescence PCR%O1群和O139群霍乱弧菌荧光PCR快速检测方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗可天; 梁晅; 宋妙芳; 丁珊; 林智

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish a methods for rapid detection of group O1 and O139 of Vibrio cholera by fluorescence PCR. Methods DNA probe and primers were designed based on O antigen code gene of Vibrio.cholera O1 and O139,and methods of simultaneous detection of group O1 and O139 of Vibrio cholera by luorescent PCR was established and the primer,Mg2+ ,dNTP and Taq polyroerase of the system were optimized. The specificity,sensitivity and reproducibility were assessed. Results A fluorescence PCR technique was established for simultaneous detection of group O1 and O139 of Vibrio cholera and the sensitivity of the technique was higher apparently than normal isolation and culture method. Conclusion The fluorescentce PCR technique targatod at detection of O antigen code gene of group O1 and O139 of Vibrio cholera has been established that allowed rapid screening of suspected cholera samples before conventional isolation..%目的 建立检测O1群和0139群霍乱孤菌的实时荧光聚合酶链反应(荧光PCR)方法,并进行优化和评价.方法 根据O1群和O139群霍乱弧菌O抗原编码基因设计探针和引物,建立同时检测霍乱弧菌O1群和O139群的荧光PER方法,并对体系中的引物、Mg2+、dNTP和Taq酶进行优化,然后对建立的方法进行特异性、灵敏性、重复性的评价,并进行224份河口水样本的检测.结果 建立了检测O1群和O139群霍乱孤菌的双重荧光PCR方法,对非O1群和O139群霍乱弧菌无扩增反应,敏感度比常规分离培养高.结论 以O抗原编码基因为目标检测片段建立了O1群和O139群霍乱弧菌双重荧光PCR检测方法,可用于疑似霍乱弧菌感染的样本常规分离前的快速筛查.

  5. [Cases of gastroenteritis associated to Vibrio cholerae no 01 in Oran, Salta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, M; Cacace, M L; Ayala, L T; Baschkier, A; Miliwebsky, E; Caffer, M I

    1996-01-01

    Forty-one sporadic cases of non-O group 1 Vibrio cholerae gastroenteritis were detected in Orán, Salta, between February 1992 and February 1995. The frequency of isolation was 0.9% of the diarrhea cases. Out of 41 patients, 21 (51.2%) were older than 15 years and 25 (60.9%) were male. All the patients had diarrhea, 24 (58.5%) had watery stools and 6 (14.6%) cholera-like diarrhea; 10 (24.4%) presented vomiting and 12 (29%) mild dehydration. Six malnourished children who suffered from diarrhea with moderate dehydration for more than a week, were hospitalized. V. cholerae non O1 and Shigella flexneri were isolated from one patient, during the first outbreak and V. cholerae non O1 and Salmonella IV 50:b:- were recovered simultaneously from another patient during the fourth outbreak. A 72 year old woman died during the second cholera outbreak. The symptoms were: watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever and mild dehydration. A strain of V. cholerae O5, that did not produce cholera toxin, heat-stable enterotoxin, Kanagawa-like hemolysin or verocitotoxin was detected. It was positive for El Tor hemolysin and D-mannose and L-fucose resistant cells-associated hemagglutinins. Among the 41 isolates studied, all were oxidase and indole positive, fermented glucose, saccharose and mannitol. They were all motile, produced lysine and ornithine decarboxylases but not arginine dihydrolase or hydrogen sulfide. They were sensitive to O129 vibriostatic compound. None of them belonged to O1 or O139 serogroup and they did not produce cholera troxin. Among the V. cholerae non O1 strains isolated, 9.5% were resistant to ampicillin and 4.9% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Active surveillance had shown that V. cholerae non-O1 is not an important agent of diarrhea in Orán, Salta. PMID:9102658

  6. Genetic Variation of Vibrio cholerae during Outbreaks, Bangladesh, 2010–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Shah M.; Azman, Andrew S.; Alam, Munirul; Li, Shan; Sack, David A.; Morris, J Glenn; Longini, Ira; Siddique, Abul Kasem; Iqbal, Anwarul; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.; Sack, R Bradley; Stine, O. Colin

    2014-01-01

    Cholera remains a major public health problem. To compare the relative contribution of strains from the environment with strains isolated from patients during outbreaks, we performed multilocus variable tandem repeat analyses on samples collected during the 2010 and 2011 outbreak seasons in 2 geographically distinct areas of Bangladesh. A total of 222 environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 were systematically collected from Chhatak and Mathbaria. In Chhatak, 75 of 79 isolates w...

  7. Colera y Vibrio cholerae Cholera and Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fernandez F; Guillermina Alonso

    2009-01-01

    El Colera es una diarrea infecciosa aguda producida por Vibrio cholerae. La transmision se produce predominantemente a traves de agua o alimentos contaminados. La administracion de antibioticos puede disminuir la severidad de los sintomas. A partir de 1977, se han caracterizado cepas de V.cholerae O1 con resistencia multiple a los antibioticos. Los determinantes de resistencia han sido reportados principalmente asociados a plasmidos e integrones. Historicamente, solo las cepas del serogrupo O...

  8. Prevalence and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolated from shrimp products imported into Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, A.; Bjergskov, T.; Jeppesen, V.F.;

    1996-01-01

    A total of 3,555 metric tonnes of warm water shrimp were imported into Denmark from December 1994 to July 1995. V. cholerae O1 was not detected in any of the 748 samples analyzed. Non-Ol V. cholerae was found in a single (0.1%) cooked frozen shrimp product and in five (0.7%) raw frozen products...... contained plasmids or genes encoding cholera toxin (CT) or heat-stable enterotoxin (NAG-ST), The absence of V. cholerae O1 and the low number of samples containing CT and NAG-ST negative non-Ol strains in imported shrimp suggest that I! cholerae in such products may not constitute a public health problem....

  9. Amplified fragment length polymorphism of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae from a freshwater environment in a cholera-endemic area, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Naresh C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The region around Chandigarh in India has witnessed a resurgence of cholera. However, isolation of V. cholerae O1 from the environment is infrequent. Therefore, to study whether environmental nonO1-nonO139 isolates, which are native to the aquatic ecosystem, act as precursors for pathogenic O1 strains, their virulence potential and evolutionary relatedness was checked. Methods V. cholerae was isolated from clinical cases of cholera and from water and plankton samples collected from freshwater bodies and cholera-affected areas. PCR analysis for the ctxA, ctxB, tcpA, toxT and toxR genes and AFLP with six primer combinations was performed on 52 isolates (13 clinical, 34 environmental and 5 reference strains. Results All clinical and 3 environmental isolates belonged to serogroup O1 and remaining 31 environmental V. cholerae were nonO1-nonO139. Serogroup O1 isolates were ctxA, tcpA (ElTor, ctxB (Classical, toxR and toxT positive. NonO1-nonO139 isolates possessed toxR, but lacked ctxA and ctxB; only one isolate was positive for toxT and tcpA. Using AFLP, 2.08% of the V. cholerae genome was interrogated. Dendrogram analysis showed one large heterogeneous clade (n = 41, with two compact and distinct subclades (1a and 1b, and six small mono-phyletic groups. Although V. cholerae O1 isolates formed a distinct compact subclade, they were not clonal. A clinical O1 strain clustered with the nonO1-nonO139 isolates; one strain exhibited 70% similarity to the Classical control strain, and all O1 strains possessed an ElTor variant-specific fragment identified with primer ECMT. Few nonO1-nonO139 isolates from widely separated geographical locations intermingled together. Three environmental O1 isolates exhibited similar profiles to clinical O1 isolates. Conclusion In a unique study from freshwater environs of a cholera-endemic area in India over a narrow time frame, environmental V. cholerae population was found to be highly heterogeneous

  10. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    OpenAIRE

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11,...

  11. Molecular Epidemiology and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae Associated with a Large Cholera Outbreak in Ghana in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Daniel; Herrera-León, Silvia; Gil, Horacio; Hogan, Benedikt; Ehlkes, Lutz; Adjabeng, Michael; Kreuels, Benno; Nagel, Michael; Opare, David; Fobil, Julius N; May, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Background Ghana is affected by regular cholera epidemics and an annual average of 3,066 cases since 2000. In 2014, Ghana experienced one of its largest cholera outbreaks within a decade with more than 20,000 notified infections. In order to attribute this rise in cases to a newly emerging strain or to multiple simultaneous outbreaks involving multi-clonal strains, outbreak isolates were characterized, subtyped and compared to previous epidemics in 2011 and 2012. Methodology/Principal Findings Serotypes, biotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities were determined for 92 Vibrio cholerae isolates collected in 2011, 2012 and 2014 from Southern Ghana. For a subgroup of 45 isolates pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and multilocus-variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were performed. Eighty-nine isolates (97%) were identified as ctxB (classical type) positive V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor and three (3%) isolates were cholera toxin negative non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae. Among the selected isolates only sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance was detectable in 2011, while 95% of all 2014 isolates showed resistance towards sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. MLVA achieved the highest subtype discrimination, revealing 22 genotypes with one major outbreak cluster in each of the three outbreak years. Apart from those clusters genetically distant genotypes circulate during each annual epidemic. Conclusions/Significance This analysis suggests different endemic reservoirs of V. cholerae in Ghana with distinct annual outbreak clusters accompanied by the occurrence of genetically distant genotypes. Preventive measures for cholera transmission should focus on aquatic reservoirs. Rapidly emerging multidrug resistance must be monitored closely. PMID:27232338

  12. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  13. High Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Carrying Heat-Stable-Enterotoxin-Encoding Genes among Vibrio Isolates from a Temperate-Climate River Basin of Central Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Caldini, G.; Neri, A.; Cresti, S; Boddi, V.; Rossolini, G. M.; Lanciotti, E.

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio spp. of clinical interest from the Arno River basin (Tuscany, Italy) were investigated in this study. Vibrios were isolated from 70% of water samples. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was the most prevalent species (82% of isolates), followed by Vibrio mimicus (10%) and Vibrio metschnikovii (8%). Recovery of vibrios was correlated with temperature, pH, and various indicators of municipal pollution. None of the 150 Vibrio isolates carried ctx-related genomic sequences, whereas 18 (14.6%) of the 1...

  14. The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin promotes chloride secretion from intact human intestinal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucantonio Debellis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of the Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to serogroup O1 and O139 is due to the production of virulence factors such as cholera toxin (CT and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP. The remaining serogroups, which mostly lack CT and TCP, are more frequently isolated from aquatic environmental sources than from clinical samples; nevertheless, these strains have been reported to cause human disease, such as sporadic outbreaks of watery diarrhoea and inflammatory enterocolitis. This evidence suggested the possibility that other virulence factor(s than cholera toxin might be crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea, but their nature remains unknown. VCC, the hemolysin produced by virtually all Vibrio cholerae strains, has been proposed as a possible candidate, though a clear-cut demonstration attesting VCC as crucial in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae-induced diarrhoea is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electrophysiological parameters and paracellular permeability of stripped human healthy colon tissues, obtained at subtotal colectomy, mounted in Ussing chamber were studied in the presence or absence of VCC purified from culture supernatants of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain. Short circuit current (I(SC and transepithelial resistance (R(T were measured by a computerized voltage clamp system. The exposure of sigmoid colon specimens to 1 nM VCC resulted in an increase of I(SC by 20.7%, with respect to the basal values, while R(T was reduced by 12.3%. Moreover, increase in I(SC was abolished by bilateral Cl(- reduction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that VCC, by forming anion channels on the apical membrane of enterocytes, triggers an outward transcellular flux of chloride. Such an ion movement, associated with the outward movement of Na(+ and water, might be responsible for the diarrhoea caused by the non-toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae.

  15. Critical analysis of compositions and protective efficacies of oral killed cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    2014-09-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and the latter contains V. cholerae O1 cells with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin. In a field trial in Kolkata (India), Shanchol, the preferred vaccine, protected 45% of the test subjects in all of the age groups and only 17% of the children under 5 years of age during the first year of surveillance. In a field trial in Peru, two spaced doses of Dukoral offered negative protection in children under 5 years of age and little protection (15%) in vaccinees over 6 years of age during the first year of surveillance. Little is known about Dukoral's long-term protective efficacy. Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. Immunological studies revealed Dukoral's reduced and short-lived efficacy, as measured by several immunological endpoints. Various factors, such as the necessity for multiple doses, poor protection of children under 5 years of age, the requirement of a cold supply chain, production costs, and complex logistics of vaccine delivery, greatly reduce the suitability of either of these vaccines for endemic or epidemic cholera control in resource-poor settings. PMID:25056361

  16. Proteins involved in difference of sorbitol fermentation rates of the toxigenic and nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains revealed by comparative proteome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Biao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nontoxigenic V. cholerae El Tor strains ferment sorbitol faster than the toxigenic strains, hence fast-fermenting and slow-fermenting strains are defined by sorbitol fermentation test. This test has been used for more than 40 years in cholera surveillance and strain analysis in China. Understanding of the mechanisms of sorbitol metabolism of the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains may help to explore the genome and metabolism divergence in these strains. Here we used comparative proteomic analysis to find the proteins which may be involved in such metabolic difference. Results We found the production of formate and lactic acid in the sorbitol fermentation medium of the nontoxigenic strain was earlier than of the toxigenic strain. We compared the protein expression profiles of the toxigenic strain N16961 and nontoxigenic strain JS32 cultured in sorbitol fermentation medium, by using fructose fermentation medium as the control. Seventy-three differential protein spots were found and further identified by MALDI-MS. The difference of product of fructose-specific IIA/FPR component gene and mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase, may be involved in the difference of sorbitol transportation and dehydrogenation in the sorbitol fast- and slow-fermenting strains. The difference of the relative transcription levels of pyruvate formate-lyase to pyruvate dehydrogenase between the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains may be also responsible for the time and ability difference of formate production between these strains. Conclusion Multiple factors involved in different metabolism steps may affect the sorbitol fermentation in the toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of V. cholerae El Tor.

  17. 泉州地区1962-2010年霍乱弧菌菌型变迁及耐药性研究%Study on variance and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae strains in Quanzhou during 1962-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锋平; 苏培聪; 杨德林; 张庆虎

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemic isolates and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholera in Quanzhou,and provide the references for prevention and control of cholera. Methods Retrospective analysis was adopted based on the epidemiologjcal data on cholera in Quanzhou during 1962-2010.The antibiotic susceptibility of all the strains to antibacterials was determined by improve K-B method recommended by WHO. Results There were four cholera disease outbreaks occurred in Quanzhou city during 1962-2010. The dominant serotype that caused epidemics showed vicissitudinous phenomenon. Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa and Inaba were sensitive to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin with a susceptibility of 92.31% and 99.20% , respectively .The resistance to sulphanilamide was increased year by year and the resistances to other antibiotics were high. The drug resistance of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains was higher than that of Vibrio cholerae 01. Conclusions The dominant biotype of Vibrio cholerae was El Tor in Quanzhou city.Vibrio cholerae serotype Ogawa and Inaba that caused epidemics showed vicissitudinous phenomenon. The antibiotics sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae was gradually declining.%目的 了解泉州地区历年霍乱菌型变迁及药物耐药性,为霍乱防治工作提供参考.方法 对泉州地区1962-2010年霍乱流行疫情资料进行回顾性分析;采用WHO推荐的改良K-B纸片法,对部分菌株进行抗菌药物的药敏试验.结果 1962-2010年,泉州共发生4次较大规模的霍乱流行,流行菌型由O1小川型与O1稻叶型交替进行.大多数霍乱弧菌对诺氟沙星和环丙沙星敏感,敏感率分别为92.31%和99.20%;磺胺类药物敏感性逐年降低,对其它抗菌药耐药;O139群霍乱弧菌的耐药性明显高于O1群霍乱弧菌,不同年份的菌株耐药的程度不一致.结论 泉州地区霍乱流行优势菌型为O1群霍乱弧菌,由小川型与稻叶型交替进行;霍乱弧菌对抗菌药物的敏感性逐渐下降.

  18. [Antibiotic sensitivity to epidemic strains of Vibrio cholerae and Shigella dysenteriae 1 isolated in Rwandan refugee camps in Zaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, J D; Niel, L; Talarmin, A; Dubrous, P

    1995-01-01

    Multiresistance or epidemic enteric bacteria to antibiotics greatly complicates treatment, and in some cases prophylaxis, of severe invasive gastroenteritis. During the summer of 1994, two epidemics of diarrhea, one due to Vibrio cholerae and the other to Shigella dysenteriae 1 isolated from the Goma and Bukavu camps was determined by measurement of the Agar Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. Multiresistance to tetracyclins, aminopenicillins, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, and nifuroxazide was observed. After intensive treatment mutant forms of both bacteria resistant to nalidixic acid rapidly appeared. Only fluoroquinolones remained active on these mutant strains, but the availability of this agent in Africa is restricted due to cost. The most effective way of preventing resistance is to limit the spread of enteric infections by health education and improvement of hygiene. This can be difficult during wartime. PMID:8830219

  19. O139霍乱弧菌肠毒素核苷酸序列分析%Nucleotide sequence analysis of cholera toxin in Vibrio cholerae O139

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 王玺华; 白文林; 施红; 金磊

    2000-01-01

    目的 探讨O139霍乱弧菌肠毒素(CTX)核苷酸与O1群霍乱CTX毒素核苷酸序列异同.方法 用聚合酶链反应、DNA序列分析测定2株O139群、2株O1群古典型、2株O1群E1 Tor型霍乱弧菌CTX A2-B亚单位核苷酸.结果 2株O139群霍乱弧菌均含有CTX A2-B亚单位基因,O139群与O1群CTX A2-B核苷酸同源性为97.1%~98.9%.结论 O139群与O1群霍乱弧菌CTX A2-B核苷酸基本同源.进一步证实两者CTX核苷酸序列一致.%Objective To investigate the difference of nucleotide sequence between cholera toxin (CTX)of O139 and O1 Vibrio cholerae.Methods Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis were used to study 2 strains of O139.2 strains of classical biotype and 2 strains of EI Tor hiotype.Results Both the 2 strains of cholerae O139 contained the fragment of CTX A2-B gene,and the homology befween O1 and O139 serogroups was 98.9%~97.1%.Conclusion The nucleotide sequence of CTX A2-B in Vibrio cholerae O139 was almost consistent with that in O1,which reconfirmed the consistence of the nucleotide sequence of CTX in the 2 serogroups of Vibrio cholorae.

  20. Nucleotide sequence of the P1 region of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O1 Caseros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tami, C; Kaplan, G; Piccone, M E; Palma, E L

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that variation of antigenic site I in VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays an important role in the antigenic diversification of this virus. However, the O1 Campos strain is able to efficiently cross-protect cattle against the O1 Caseros strain, despite having a different sequence in the site I. In this paper we report and compare the P1 coding region for the capsid proteins of FMDV O1 Caseros and O1 Campos. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a total of 31 amino acid differences. Eight of them are located in surface-exposed loops that have been implicated in antigenic sites. This study should help to identify additional sites to be considered in the development of a new generation of FMDV vaccines. PMID:9311571

  1. Regulation of competence-mediated horizontal gene transfer in the natural habitat of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Lisa C; Blokesch, Melanie

    2016-04-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an autochthonous inhabitant of aquatic environments where it often interacts with zooplankton and their chitinous molts. Chitin induces natural competence for transformation in V. cholerae, a key mode of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Recent comparative genomic analyses were indicative of extensive HGT in this species. However, we can still expand our understanding of the complex regulatory network that drives competence in V. cholerae. Here, we present recent advances, including the elucidation of bipartite competence regulation mediated by QstR, the inclusion of the type VI secretion system in the competence regulon of pandemic O1 El Tor strains, and the identification of TfoS as a transcriptional regulator that links chitin to competence induction in V. cholerae. PMID:26615332

  2. Assessment by electron-microscopy of recombinant Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella vaccine strains expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-specific surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziethlow, V; Favre, D; Viret, J-F; Frey, J; Stoffel, M H

    2008-03-01

    Diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) requires adhesion of microorganisms to enterocytes. Hence, a promising approach to immunoprophylaxis is to elicit antibodies against colonisation factor antigens (CFAs). Genes encoding the most prevalent ETEC-specific surface antigens were cloned into Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella vaccine strains. Expression of surface antigens was assessed by electron-microscopy. Whereas negative staining was effective in revealing CFA/I and CS3, but not CS6, immunolabelling allowed identification of all surface antigens examined. The V. cholerae vaccine strain CVD103 did not express ETEC-specific colonisation factors, whereas CVD103-HgR expressed CS3 only. However, expression of both CFA/I and CS3 was demonstrated in Salmonella Ty21a. PMID:18093230

  3. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required. PMID:27029123

  4. Virulence Gene PCR and PFGE Genotyping analysis of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated from cholera epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010%湖南省2005年-2010年霍乱疫情分离株的毒力基因PCR及PFGE分型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏昕; 湛志飞; 覃迪; 刘运芝; 高立冬; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 张红

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To understand the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010; to study the colone relations among the strains. Methods: K - B method was employed to test drug sensitivity; ctxAB virulence gene was tested by PCR, and finally molecular typing was carried out by pulsed field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE) for representative strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics. Results; 33 Vibrio cholerae 0139 stains presented a higher drug resistance rate against doxycycline and sulphame -thoxazole of 39. 39% and 75.76% , while a sensitivity of 100% to ciprofloxacin, nor-floxacin and amikacin; The virulence gene PCR results showed all the Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains were cholera toxin genes ctxAB - positive; 24 Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from Vibrio cholerae epidemics in 2005 and 2010 showed 3 PFGE banding types,and all the strains were homology of 83% - 100% by cluster analysis. Conclusion; Vibrio cholerae 0139 strains isolated from cholera epidemic in Hunan province from 2005 to 2010 were all ctxAB positive. The strains from different years and regions were found the closely related epidemic clone group strains of cholera; Resistance monitoring and further molecular typing analysis of Cholera strains contribute to the efficient surveillance of cholera and infectious source tracking.%目的:了解2005年-2010年湖南省霍乱疫情分离到的O139群霍乱弧菌菌株的病原学特征,研究疫情分离株之间的克隆相关性.方法:采用K-B法进行药敏试验;聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测ctxAB毒力基因;脉冲场凝胶电泳对疫情分离代表株进行PFGE分型分析.结果:33株霍乱弧菌对强力霉素、复方新诺明的耐药率较高,分别为39.39%和75.76%,对环丙沙星、诺氟沙星以及丁胺卡那100%敏感;毒力基因的PCR结果显示为所有疫情分离的O139霍乱弧菌均为产毒株,即

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae associated with flood in Brahamputra River valley, Assam, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soubhagya K; Vairale, Mohan G; Arya, Neha; Yadav, Priti; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Yadava, Pramod K; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    Cholera is often caused when drinking water is contaminated through environmental sources. In recent years, the drastic cholera epidemics in Odisha (2007) and Haiti (2010) were associated with natural disasters (flood and Earthquake). Almost every year the state of Assam India witnesses flood in Brahamputra River valley during reversal of wind system (monsoon). This is often followed by outbreak of diarrheal diseases including cholera. Beside the incidence of cholera outbreaks, there is lack of experimental evidence for prevalence of the bacterium in aquatic environment and its association with cholera during/after flood in the state. A molecular surveillance during 2012-14 was carried out to study prevalence, strain differentiation, and clonality of Vibrio cholerae in inland aquatic reservoirs flooded by Brahamputra River in Assam. Water samples were collected, filtered, enriched in alkaline peptone water followed by selective culturing on thiosulfate bile salt sucrose agar. Environmental isolates were identified as V. cholerae, based on biochemical assays followed by sero-grouping and detailed molecular characterization. The incidence of the presence of the bacterium in potable water sources was higher after flood. Except one O1 isolate, all of the strains were broadly grouped under non-O1/non-O139 whereas some of them did have cholera toxin (CT). Surprisingly, we have noticed Haitian ctxB in two non-O1/non-O139 strains. MLST analyses based on pyrH, recA and rpoA genes revealed clonality in the environmental strains. The isolates showed varying degree of antimicrobial resistance including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The strains harbored the genetic elements SXT constins and integrons responsible for multidrug resistance. Genetic characterization is useful as phenotypic characters alone have proven to be unsatisfactory for strain discrimination. An assurance to safe drinking water, sanitation and monitoring of the aquatic reservoirs is of utmost importance for

  6. Vibrio cholerae bacteremia associated with gastrectomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Toeg, A; Berger, S A; Battat, A; Hoffman, M.; Yust, I

    1990-01-01

    Bacteremia due to Vibrio cholerae is rare. Each of 15 cases previously reported in the English language literature occurred in the setting of immune deficiency. We describe an instance of non-serogroup O1 V. cholerae septicemia in an otherwise healthy patient. Susceptibility to such infection may have been enhanced by a prior gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer.

  7. Characterization and Nucleotide Sequence of CARB-6, a New Carbenicillin-Hydrolyzing β-Lactamase from Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Choury, Danièle; Aubert, Gérald; Szajnert, Marie-France; Azibi, Kemal; Delpech, Marc; Paul, Gérard

    1999-01-01

    A clinical strain of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 isolated in France produced a new β-lactamase with a pI of 5.35. The purified enzyme, with a molecular mass of 33,000 Da, was characterized. Its kinetic constants show it to be a carbenicillin-hydrolyzing enzyme comparable to the five previously reported CARB β-lactamases and to SAR-1, another carbenicillin-hydrolyzing β-lactamase that has a pI of 4.9 and that is produced by a V. cholerae strain from Tanzania. This β-lactamase is designated...

  8. The Vibrio cholerae trh Gene Is Coordinately Regulated In Vitro with Type III Secretion System Genes by VttRA/VttRB but Does Not Contribute to Caco2-BBE Cell Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Kelly A.; Hamilton, Elaine; Dziejman, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Numerous virulence factors have been associated with pathogenic non-O1/non-O139 serogroup strains of Vibrio cholerae. Among them are the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which share amino acid similarities to the TDH and TRH proteins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, where they have been shown to contribute to pathogenesis. Although TDH and TRH homologs can be encoded on extrachromosomal elements in V. cholerae, type III secretion system (T3SS)-positive strai...

  9. Phylogeny of Vibrio cholerae Based on recA Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Stine, O. Colin; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Gou, Qing; Zheng, Siqen; Morris, J. Glenn; Johnson, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced a 705-bp fragment of the recA gene from 113 Vibrio cholerae strains and closely related species. One hundred eighty-seven nucleotides were phylogenetically informative, 55 were phylogenetically uninformative, and 463 were invariant. Not unexpectedly, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus strains formed out-groups; we also identified isolates which resembled V. cholerae biochemically but which did not cluster with V. cholerae. In many instances, V. cholerae serogroup desig...

  10. Shelf-life extension and decontamination of fish fillets (Trachurus picturatus murphyi and Mugil cephalus) and shrimp tails (Penaeus vannamei) inoculated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D10) of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Inaba was determined in vitro (0.13 kGy) and in inoculated fresh fillets of saurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi) (0.12 kGy) and another Pacific fish species known in Peru as ''lisa'', Mugil cephalus (0.13 kGy), both of which are frequently consumed raw in ''ceviche''. The D10 value was similarly determined in tails of the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei (0.13 kGy). In a second phase of the study, radiation doses in the range 1.0-4.0 kGy were evaluated for use in microbiological shelf-life extension of the selected seafood, and for adverse effects on various sensory attributes (appearance, odor, flavor, and texture). A dose of 1.0 kGy doubled the microbiological shelf-life of fish fillets during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C to approximately 30 days. This dose was deemed optimal also for preserving all sensory characteristics evaluated except appearance, due to a darkening of fillets. Best results in shrimp tails were obtained using 2.0 kGy, which doubled their microbiological shelf-life to 20 days at 0-1 deg. C. Dipping the fillets in a 10% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate before irradiation prevented radiation-induced drip losses. (author)

  11. Inactivation of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor inoculated into Peruvian ''choro'' mussels (Aulacomya ater) and two species of clams (Argopecten purpuratus and Gari solida) using medium-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation decimal reduction dose (D10) for Vibrio cholerae O1 biotype El Tor inoculated through the natural feeding system into three species of bivalve mollusks from the Peruvian Pacific coast: ''choro'' mussels (Aulacome ater), ''abanico'' clams (Argopecten purpuratus), and common clams (Gari solida), was determined in vivo. The D10 value obtained in vivo was 0.14 kGy in all mollusks tested. Concurrent studies conducted to determine the potential use of irradiation to extend the microbiological shelf-life of the mollusks during post-irradiation storage at 0-1 deg. C indicated that a dose of 1.0 kGy was optimal for choro mussels and abanico clams, whereas 2.0 kGy produced the best results when treating common clams. Shelf-life extension thus achieved was 31 days for choro mussels, 16 days for abanico clams, and 21 days for common clams. Non-irradiated control samples of all mollusks spoiled after 17 days of refrigerated storage. There were no significant (p<.05) adverse effects from the application of the optimal radiation treatments on the sensory characteristics (i.e. appearance, odor, flavor, and texture) of the mollusks. Total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and pH values were examined for use as indexes of seafood freshness. (author)

  12. Critical Analysis of Compositions and Protective Efficacies of Oral Killed Cholera Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    2014-01-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and...

  13. Successful small intestine colonization of adult mice by Vibrio cholerae requires ketamine anesthesia and accessory toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Olivier

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae colonizes the small intestine of adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, the physical and genetic parameters that facilitate this colonization were investigated. Successful colonization was found to depend upon anesthesia with ketamine-xylazine and neutralization of stomach acid with sodium bicarbonate, but not streptomycin treatment. A variety of common mouse strains were colonized by O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains. All combinations of mutants in the genes for hemolysin, the multifunctional, autoprocessing RTX toxin (MARTX, and hemagglutinin/protease were assessed, and it was found that hemolysin and MARTX are each sufficient for colonization after a low dose infection. Overall, this study suggests that, after intragastric inoculation, V. cholerae encounters barriers to infection including an acidic environment and an immediate immune response that is circumvented by sodium bicarbonate and the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine-xylazine. After initial adherence in the small intestine, the bacteria are subjected to additional clearance mechanisms that are evaded by the independent toxic action of hemolysin or MARTX. Once colonization is established, it is suggested that, in humans, these now persisting bacteria initiate synthesis of the major virulence factors to cause cholera disease. This adult mouse model of intestinal V. cholerae infection, now well-characterized and fully optimized, should serve as a valuable tool for studies of pathogenesis and testing vaccine efficacy.

  14. Phage specific for Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, M J; Bhuiyan, N A; Rahman, A; Ghosh, A. N.; Hultenby, K; Weintraub, A; Nahar, S; Kibriya, A K; Ansaruzzaman, M; Shimada, T

    1996-01-01

    From the stool of a Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal-infected patient, a phage that specifically lysed capsulated V. cholerae O139 strains only was isolated. The phage is useful for the confirmatory diagnosis of V. cholerae O139 infection and for the differentiation of variants that lack the capsule.

  15. Deciphering the origin of the 2012 cholera epidemic in Guinea by integrating epidemiological and molecular analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudet, Stanislas; Mengel, Martin A; Koivogui, Lamine; Moore, Sandra; Mutreja, Ankur; Kande, Yacouba; Yattara, Ousmane; Sarr Keita, Véronique; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Garnotel, Eric; Keita, Sakoba; Piarroux, Renaud

    2014-06-01

    Cholera is typically considered endemic in West Africa, especially in the Republic of Guinea. However, a three-year lull period was observed from 2009 to 2011, before a new epidemic struck the country in 2012, which was officially responsible for 7,350 suspected cases and 133 deaths. To determine whether cholera re-emerged from the aquatic environment or was rather imported due to human migration, a comprehensive epidemiological and molecular survey was conducted. A spatiotemporal analysis of the national case databases established Kaback Island, located off the southern coast of Guinea, as the initial focus of the epidemic in early February. According to the field investigations, the index case was found to be a fisherman who had recently arrived from a coastal district of neighboring Sierra Leone, where a cholera outbreak had recently occurred. MLVA-based genotype mapping of 38 clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor isolates sampled throughout the epidemic demonstrated a progressive genetic diversification of the strains from a single genotype isolated on Kaback Island in February, which correlated with spatial epidemic spread. Whole-genome sequencing characterized this strain as an "atypical" El Tor variant. Furthermore, genome-wide SNP-based phylogeny analysis grouped the Guinean strain into a new clade of the third wave of the seventh pandemic, distinct from previously analyzed African strains and directly related to a Bangladeshi isolate. Overall, these results highly suggest that the Guinean 2012 epidemic was caused by a V. cholerae clone that was likely imported from Sierra Leone by an infected individual. These results indicate the importance of promoting the cross-border identification and surveillance of mobile and vulnerable populations, including fishermen, to prevent, detect and control future epidemics in the region. Comprehensive epidemiological investigations should be expanded to better understand cholera dynamics and improve disease control

  16. Inhibition of virulence potential of Vibrio cholerae by natural compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Shinji; Asakura, Masahiro; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    The rise in multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae strains is a big problem in treatment of patients suffering from severe cholera. Only a few studies have evaluated the potential of natural compounds against V. cholerae. Extracts from plants like ‘neem’, ‘guazuma’, ‘daio’, apple, hop, green tea and elephant garlic have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth or the secreted cholera toxin (CT). However, inhibiting bacterial growth like common antimicrobial agents may also impose selective pressu...

  17. Drinking cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin;

    2015-01-01

    . Methods: Hundred participants took part in a taste-testing experiment of water with varying levelsof salinity. Salinity measurements were taken of both drinking and non-drinking water sources.Informal group discussions were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of water sources andwater uses...... beconducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant’s drinking water sourceswere all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explainedthat they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Conclusion: Theoretically, V...

  18. Seroepidemiologic survey of epidemic cholera in Haiti to assess spectrum of illness and risk factors for severe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R; Talkington, Deborah F; Pruckler, James M; Fouché, M D Bernadette; Lafosse, Elsie; Nygren, Benjamin; Gómez, Gerardo A; Dahourou, Georges A; Archer, W Roodly; Payne, Amanda B; Hooper, W Craig; Tappero, Jordan W; Derado, Gordana; Magloire, Roc; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Freeman, Nicole; Boncy, Jacques; Mintz, Eric D

    2013-10-01

    To assess the spectrum of illness from toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and risk factors for severe cholera in Haiti, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in a rural commune with more than 21,000 residents. During March 22-April 6, 2011, we interviewed 2,622 residents ≥ 2 years of age and tested serum specimens from 2,527 (96%) participants for vibriocidal and antibodies against cholera toxin; 18% of participants reported a cholera diagnosis, 39% had vibriocidal titers ≥ 320, and 64% had vibriocidal titers ≥ 80, suggesting widespread infection. Among seropositive participants (vibriocidal titers ≥ 320), 74.5% reported no diarrhea and 9.0% had severe cholera (reported receiving intravenous fluids and overnight hospitalization). This high burden of severe cholera is likely explained by the lack of pre-existing immunity in this population, although the virulence of the atypical El Tor strain causing the epidemic and other factors might also play a role. PMID:24106192

  19. Vibrio Cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae adalah salah satu bakteri yang masuk dalam family Vibrionaceae selain dari Aeromonas dan Plesiomonas, dan merupakan bagian dari genus Vibrio. Bakteri ini pertama kali ditemukan oleh Robert Koch pada tahun 1884 dan sangat penting dalam dunia kedokteran karena menyebabkan penyakit kolera, oleh Sri Amelia

  20. Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin(HA)/protease: An extracellular metalloprotease with multiple pathogenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Jorge A; Silva, Anisia J

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae of serogroup O1 and O139, the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, expresses the extracellular Zn-dependent metalloprotease hemagglutinin (HA)/protease also reported as vibriolysin. This enzyme is also produced by non-O1/O139 (non-cholera) strains that cause mild, sporadic illness (i.e. gastroenteritis, wound or ear infections). Orthologs of HA/protease are present in other members of the Vibrionaceae family pathogenic to humans and fish. HA/protease belongs to the M4 neutral peptidase family and displays significant amino acid sequence homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB) and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin. It exhibits a broad range of potentially pathogenic activities in cell culture and animal models. These activities range from the covalent modification of other toxins, the degradation of the protective mucus barrier and disruption of intestinal tight junctions. Here we review (i) the structure and regulation of HA/protease expression, (ii) its interaction with other toxins and the intestinal mucosa and (iii) discuss the possible role(s) of HA/protease in the pathogenesis of cholera. PMID:26952544

  1. epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 28 cases of Cholera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The data of 35 246 patients with intestinal diseases were retrospectively analyzed, 28 cases of cholera patients were screened in 17 years, of which 23 cases had suspicious unclean food history, 10 cases were migrant workers, 8 cases had history of coastal city tour in one week. All of the 28 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae culture, 19 cases were identiifed as O1 serotype Ogawa and 6 were identiifed as O1 serotype Inaba, 3 were identified as O139. Twenty-three patients were mild, five cases were moderate, patients with severe diseases were not found. It was found in this study that O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae was still dominant, 82%of cholera patients were mild cases. Tourists who had a incompletely heated seafood intake history and migrant people are susceptible to cholera.

  2. 2005年-2010年武汉市霍乱弧菌监测分析%Analysis of surveillance on Vibrio Cholerae between 2005 and 2010 in Wuhan city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊燕; 江元山; 陈智; 王芳; 龙一兵; 周军波

    2012-01-01

    目的:对2005年-2010年霍乱弧菌监测中分离的25株疑似菌株进行系统鉴定.方法:分离培养、血清学试验、系统生化鉴定( VITEK32)、PCR检测其分型及毒素基因、药敏试验.结果:25株菌鉴定为霍乱弧菌的有21株,与霍乱弧菌发生交叉凝集4株;病例监测主要为0139霍乱弧菌、外环境监测主要为01群霍乱弧菌;病例监测菌株携带霍乱弧菌毒素基因(ctxAB)、其他菌株均不携带霍乱弧菌毒素基因(ctxAB).药敏实验结果对诺氟沙星和环丙沙星敏感,对其他抗生素有不同程度的耐药.结论:武汉市霍乱弧菌在病例监测中主要为0139群霍乱弧菌产毒株、外环境监测中主要为O1群霍乱弧菌非产毒株,不同型别菌株存在不同程度耐药性.%Objective: 25 suspected strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated between 2005 and 2010 in the Vibrio cholerae surveillance program were identified and analyzed by different kinds of assays. Methods; The isolates were analyzed by conventional diagnostic methods and PCR assays for their molecular typing and virulence-related genes, and drug sensitivity test. Results: In 25 suspected strains of Vibrio cholerae, there were 21 vibrio cholerae isolates and four strains cross -agglutinating with Vibrio cholerae,respectively. Vibrio Cholerae Serogroup 0139 came mostly from patients,and Vibrio cholerae Serogroup 01 was mostly isolated from natural circumstances. Six strains of Vibrio cholerae Serogroup 0139 were positive for ctxAB gene,and others were negative. The drug sensitivity tests indicated that all suspected strains of Vibrio cholerae were sensitive to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and exhibited varying degrees of resistance to other antibiotics. Conclusion: The suspected strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from patients were mostly Vibrio Cholerae Serogroup 0139, and Vibrio cholerae Serogroup 01 came mostly from natural circumstances. All suspected isolates showed varying degrees of resistance to

  3. [Cholera++ epidemic in Kenya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paugam, H

    1999-03-01

    A cholera epidemic in 1997 followed on the heels of the 1992 epidemic that claimed thousands of victims in Kenya. This time, it emerged in the Migori district near the Tanzanian border, when a woman who had married in Tanzania brought her five-month-old baby to visit her parents. The infant, who contracted serious diarrhea and vomiting, died before the mother could reach a dispensary. During the funeral, a perfect opportunity for the disease to spread, those attending observed the traditional ritual of touching the corpse, and then ate and drank with the next of kin. Many developed symptoms of cholera, and several died in the next few days, even before first aid could be administered. At the Public Health Laboratory in Nairobi, analyses confirmed the presence of the Ogawa strain of Vibrio cholerae. Given the global reputation of Médecins Sans Frontières [Doctors Without Borders] in the field of cholera, the head of public health for Homa Bay District issued a call for help in August 1997, asking the team to provide preventive solutions and assess the gravity of the situation. Despite intense logistical, technical and health initiatives, the epidemic spread like wildfire. Five months after the initial outbreak, in February 1998, two Canadian nurses working for MSF in Homa Bay hurriedly surveyed the situation in Nyanza Province, which has a population of three million. The author accompanied one of these nurses, Joceline Roy, a Quebecer in her forties, on a tour that lasted more than 15 hours. Roy worked conscientiously, with great precision and energy. This narrative conveys much more than the fatigue and hazards of travel in the developing world; it tells the story of an important, but little publicized, aspect of nursing. PMID:10362941

  4. FK phage for differentiating the classical and El T or groups of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Takeya, K; Otohuji, T; Tokiwa, H

    1981-01-01

    A new vibrio-infecting phage (FK phage) isolated from sewage lysed all strains of Vibrio cholerae biovar cholerae, whereas all strains of V. cholerae biovar El Tor were resistant to it. FK phage was entirely different from Mukerjee group IV phage in morphology and antigenicity. In addition to group IV phage, the use of FK phage will be useful in the examination and typing of V. cholerae.

  5. A study on the pathogenic characteristics and traceability of Vibrio cholera strains circulated in Hubei province in 2012%2012年湖北省霍乱的病原学研究及溯源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婷; 杨红梅; 程均福; 吕静; 刘公平; 李国明

    2013-01-01

      目的分析2012年湖北省霍乱流行的病原学特征,应用脉冲场凝胶电泳分析各疫情菌株之间的遗传相关性,查找霍乱传染来源,为制定防治措施提供依据。方法对35株霍乱弧菌菌株进行常规生化鉴定和毒素基因检验,以及药敏试验,采用脉冲场凝胶电泳( PFGE)技术获得电泳酶切指纹图谱并对图谱进行聚类分析。结果35株霍乱弧菌经检验均为霍乱 O139群,产毒株占71.42%,霍乱弧菌耐药结果显示四环素、复方新诺明、利福平耐药率分别为57.14%、88.57%、80.00%。 PFGE电泳图谱条带总相似率为80%~100%,具有一定的同源性。三起疫情中相同地区的大部分菌株都聚为一类,同源性为100%,提示为相同菌株感染所致;仅来源于荆州地区甲鱼中分离的菌株单独为一类与其他菌株不同。结论2012年湖北省霍乱弧菌的优势菌株为O139群,大部分产毒。药敏结果显示,菌株对四环素、复方新诺明、利福平大部分耐药;对亚胺培南、头孢曲松高度敏感;疫情中相同地区的大部分菌株聚为一类属于同一来源,不同地区的菌株有一定的变异,几起疫情暴发均与聚餐有关,所以注意食物卫生,从甲鱼中分离的菌株不产毒,提示甲鱼可能并不是疫情的主要毒株来源,应密切关注海、水产品的监测情况。%Objective To investigate the pathogenic characteristics of Vibrio cholera strains isola-ted from Hubei province in 2012 , and to identify the source of infection by analyzing their genetic correla-tions.Methods The biochemical identification , toxin gene detection and drug susceptibility test were car-ried out to analyze a total of 35 Vibrio cholera strains isolated from three epidemic areas .Comparison of ge-nomic DNA fingerprints and cluster analysis among isolates of Vibrio cholera was conducted by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ( PFGE

  6. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  7. Genomic epidemiology of the haitian cholera outbreak: a single introduction followed by rapid, extensive, and continued spread characterized the onset of the epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eppinger, Mark; Pearson, Talima; Koenig, Sara S. K.;

    2014-01-01

    genomic heterogeneity within the Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype and to refine boundaries and evolutionary relationships. The established phylogenomic framework showed how outbreak isolates fit into the global phylogeographic patterns compared to a comprehensive globally and temporally diverse strain......In this genomic epidemiology study, we have applied high-resolution whole-genome-based sequence typing methodologies on a comprehensive set of genome sequences that have become available in the aftermath of the Haitian cholera epidemic. These sequence resources enabled us to reassess the degree of...... collection and provides strong molecular evidence that points to a nonindigenous source of the 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak and refines epidemiological standards used in outbreak investigations for outbreak inclusion/exclusion following the concept of genomic epidemiology. The generated phylogenomic data...

  8. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Five Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  9. CARB-9, a Carbenicillinase Encoded in the VCR Region of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Belongs to a Family of Cassette-Encoded β-Lactamases†

    OpenAIRE

    Petroni, Alejandro; Melano, Roberto G.; Saka, Héctor A.; Garutti, Alicia; Mange, Laura; Pasterán, Fernando; Rapoport, Melina; Miranda, Mariana; Faccone, Diego; Rossi, Alicia; Hoffman, Paul S.; Galas, Marcelo F.

    2004-01-01

    The gene blaCARB-9 was located in the Vibrio cholerae super-integron, but in a different location relative to blaCARB-7. CARB-9 (pI 5.2) conferred β-lactam MICs four to eight times lower than those conferred by CARB-7, differing at Ambler's positions V97I, L124F, and T228K. Comparison of the genetic environments of all reported blaCARB genes indicated that the CARB enzymes constitute a family of cassette-encoded β-lactamases.

  10. Comparative trial of five antimicrobial compounds in the treatment of cholera in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, W A; Begum, M; Salam, M A; Bardhan, P K; Islam, M R; Mahalanabis, D

    1995-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid and pivmecillinam in the treatment of tetracycline-resistant strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 in adults, a randomized, open, clinical trial was conducted. A tetracycline group was used for comparison. Seventy-five adult men infected with V. cholerae O1 were randomly assigned to receive either 400 mg pivmecillinam or 500 mg of one of each of the other drugs. Ciprofloxacin was given every 12 h and the others every 6 h for 3 d. The mean total stool volume per kg was 155 mL for the ciprofloxacin group, 212 mL for the erythromycin and pivmecillinam groups, 246 mL for nalidixic acid, and 293 mL for tetracycline. The difference between ciprofloxacin and tetracycline was significant (P = 0.045). After 72 h, diarrhoea had stopped in 14 patients (93%) in the ciprofloxacin group and 12 (80%) in the erythromycin group, compared to 5 (42%) of those receiving tetracycline (P = 0.006 and 0.049, respectively). Bacteriological clearance was 100% at 24 h in patients treated with ciprofloxacin compared to 20% and 8.3% (P < 0.001 for both comparisons) in the erythromycin and tetracycline groups. Ciprofloxacin in conjunction with appropriate fluid therapy was the most effective treatment for cholera in adults; erythromycin was the next best. PMID:7747291

  11. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions. (author)

  12. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchismita Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian s0 tate of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38% were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94% were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies.

  13. Twin outbreak of cholera in rural North Karnataka, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Shuchismita; Parande, Mahantesh V.; Parande, Aisha M.; Lakkannavar, S.L.; Rathore, Poonam K.; Mantur, B.G.; Kholkute, Sanjiva D.; Roy, Subarna

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Successive outbreaks of acute watery diarrhoea occurred in Talikoti and Harnal, located in Bijapur District of the southern Indian State of Karnataka, in July and August 2012, respectively. These outbreaks were investigated to identify the aetiology and epidemiology. Methods: Information was collected from the local population and health centres. Stool and water samples were collected from the admitted patients and their drinking water sources. Standard microbiological and PCR techniques were employed for isolation and characterization of the pathogen. Results: While 101 people (0.38%) were affected in Talikoti, 200 (20.94%) were affected in Harnal which is a small remote village. All age groups were affected but no death occurred. While the outbreak was smaller, longer and apparently spread by person to person contact in Talikoti, it occurred as a single source flash outbreak at Harnal. A single clone of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the two stool samples obtained from Talikoti and subsequently from three of five stool samples obtained from Harnal indicating village to village spread of the aetiological agent. Striking similarity in antibiotic resistance profiles of these isolates with a particular strain isolated from the city of Belgaum, 250 km away, in 2010, prompted tracking the lineage of the V. cholerae isolates by DNA fingerprinting. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting assay helped confirm the origin of the incriminating strain to Belgaum. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study reported the first twin outbreak of cholera in two remote areas of Bijapur district, Karnataka, south India. It also indicated the need for immediate preparedness to deal with such emergencies. PMID:25366211

  14. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 2012 to 2013 cholera outbreaks in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, R; Sadeghy, J; Shokri Moghadam, M; Bakhshi, B

    2016-08-01

    Cholera remains to be an international threat, with high rates of illness and death. In 2012 and 2013, two cholera outbreak happened in Iran, affecting lots of people. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source identification and controlling the spread of the cholera disease are two critical approaches in cholera outbreaks. In this study, thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates were selected and has been evaluated for antimicrobial resistant as well as molecular typing by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates were sero-grouped as El Tor (one isolate was classical) and 100% were related to Inaba serotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin. On the other hand, 60% of the isolates were MDR (resistant to 3 or more classes). There were three resistance patterns. The most prevalent pattern was resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ST-SXT-E-T) which was seen in 50% of isolates. Using MLVA method 14 MLVA types were identified. MLVA type 2 (5-7-7-16-15) accounted for 43% of isolates. Isolates with the same genotype often did not have the same antibiogram. Overall, the data indicate that the Iranian V. cholerae were MDR and clonaly related. Furthermore, the results of this study shows that MLVA can be used as useful method for V. cholerae genotyping in epidemiological investigations. PMID:27247094

  15. Characterisation of cholera toxin by liquid chromatography - Electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, B.L.M. van; Hulst, A.G.; Wils, E.R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Cholera toxin, one of the toxins that may be generated by various strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, can be considered as a substance possibly used in biological warfare. The possibilities of characterising the toxin by liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ES-MS) were inve

  16. 嘉兴市霍乱弧菌分离株检测分析%Analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates in Jiaxing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培彦; 高雯洁; 葛志坚; 王恒辉; 燕勇

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较分析嘉兴市霍乱弧菌菌株的血清型、毒力基因和分子分型特征.方法 采用血清学和分子生物学方法对近年来分离到13株霍乱弧菌菌株进行血清型分布、毒力基因(ctxA、ace、zot、tcpA、cri和rtxA)携带和ERIC PCR分型研究.结果 13株霍乱弧菌菌株,2株为O139群霍乱弧菌,11株为O1群霍乱弧菌,其中小川型9株,稻叶型2株.2株O139群霍乱弧菌菌株携带3种毒力基因;11株O1群霍乱弧菌菌株,除1株携带4种毒力基因外,其余10株携带全部6种毒力基因.ERIC-PCR分型分析显示,不同的霍乱弧菌菌株之间ERIC-PCR型别表现出一定的遗传多样性.结论 嘉兴市霍乱弧菌菌株大多携带多种毒力基因,而且来源多样,防控工作任重而道远.%Objective To analyze the serotype,virulence genes and molecular typing of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Jiaxing.Methods The serotype,virulence genes (ctxA,ace,zot,tcpA,cri and rtxA) and ERIC-PCR typing of 13 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in recent years were studied by serological and molecular biological methods.Results Out of 13 Vibrio cholerae strains,2 were identified as serogroup O139 and 11 were serogroup O1 which included 9 Ogawa and 2 Inaba strains.2 O139 strains carried 3 virulence genes.10 O1 strains harbored all 6 virulence genes and only one carried 4.ERIC-PCR typing analysis showed that the genetic diversity existed among different Vibrio cholerae strains.Conclusions Majority of Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Jiaxing carried multiple virulence genes with various origins.Therefore,more work needs to be done for the prevention.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of the cholera enterotoxin operon of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    We report a set of oligonucleotide primers and amplification conditions for the polymerase chain reaction to detect the ctx operon of Vibrio cholerae. The results of this assay on strains of V. cholerae and related organisms were identical with those obtained by the DNA colony hybridization test with the polynucleotide probe. The detection limit of this system was 1 pg of chromosomal DNA or broth culture containing three viable cells. The polymerase chain reaction method could directly detect...

  18. Proteolysis of virulence regulator ToxR is associated with entry of Vibrio cholerae into a dormant state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Almagro-Moreno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae O1 is a natural inhabitant of aquatic environments and causes the diarrheal disease, cholera. Two of its primary virulence regulators, TcpP and ToxR, are localized in the inner membrane. TcpP is encoded on the Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI, a horizontally acquired mobile genetic element, and functions primarily in virulence gene regulation. TcpP has been shown to undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP in response to environmental conditions that are unfavorable for virulence gene expression. ToxR is encoded in the ancestral genome and is present in non-pathogenic strains of V. cholerae, indicating it has roles outside of the human host. In this study, we show that ToxR undergoes RIP in V. cholerae in response to nutrient limitation at alkaline pH, a condition that occurs during the stationary phase of growth. This process involves the site-2 protease RseP (YaeL, and is dependent upon the RpoE-mediated periplasmic stress response, as deletion mutants for the genes encoding these two proteins cannot proteolyze ToxR under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. We determined that the loss of ToxR, genetically or by proteolysis, is associated with entry of V. cholerae into a dormant state in which the bacterium is normally found in the aquatic environment called viable but nonculturable (VBNC. Strains that can proteolyze ToxR, or do not encode it, lose culturability, experience a change in morphology associated with cells in VBNC, yet remain viable under nutrient limitation at alkaline pH. On the other hand, mutant strains that cannot proteolyze ToxR remain culturable and maintain the morphology of cells in an active state of growth. Overall, our findings provide a link between the proteolysis of a virulence regulator and the entry of a pathogen into an environmentally persistent state.

  19. Molecular characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Shandong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉起

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance profiles of Vibrio cholerae O139 in Shandong province.Methods A total of 13 strains of V.cholerae O139(9 clinical strains and 4 environmental strains)isolated from cholera epidemics in Shandong province since 1997 were recovered and confirmed with serum agglutination and biochemical reaction.Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis(PFGE)was carried out for molecular subtyping.Virulence genes and

  20. Optimization and head-to-head comparison of MISSR-PCR, ERIC-PCR, RAPD and 16S rRNA evolutionary clock for the genotyping of Vibrio cholerae isolated in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q H Mo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To establish a new genotyping method for Vibrio cholerae and compare it with other methods. Materials and Methods: In the current study, a modified inter simple sequence repeat-polymerase chain reaction (MISSR-PCR system was developed via several rounds of optimisation. Comparison study was then conducted between MISSR-PCR and three other methods, including enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequences-based PCR (ERIC-PCR, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and 16S rRNA evolutionary clock, for the detection and genetic tracing of Vibrio cholerae isolated from seafood in China. Result: The results indicated that the MISSR-PCR system could generate the highest polymorphic fingerprinting map in a single round PCR and showed the best discriminatory ability for Vibrio cholerae genotyping by clearly separating toxigenic/nontoxigenic strains, local/foreign strains, and O1/O139/non-O1/non-O139 serogroup strains, comparing to ERIC-PCR, RAPD and 16S rRNA evolutionary clock. Moreover, the MISSR-PCR is superior to previously described traditional simple sequence repeat based PCR method on genotyping by more clearly separating different clusters. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first head-to-head comparison of four detection and genotyping methods for Vibrio cholerae The MISSR-PCR system established here could serve as a simple, quick, reliable and cost-effective tool for the genotyping and epidemiological study.

  1. Analysis of Vibrio cholerae toxR function by construction of toxR gene deficient strains of Vibrio cholerae%霍乱弧菌毒力表达调控基因toxR缺失株的构建及其功能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 高守一; 刘延清; 祁国明; 何九芽

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze toxR gene function of Vibrio cholerae byconstruction of toxR gene deficient strains of Vibrio cholerae IEM101-4 and 569B-43. Methods A 2.5kb tetracycline gene fragment was homo-recombined into a toxR gene site in genome of Vibrio cholerae IEM101 and 569B using suicide plasmid pGp704 and integrative recombination method, and constructed 2 toxR gene deficient strains of Vibrio cholerae IEM101-4 and 569B-43. We analyzed the CT production and outer membrane protein of toxR gene deficient strains of Vibrio cholerae and donor strains. Results GM1-ELISA assay of CT toxin of Vibrio cholerae showed that the level of CT production of the toxR gene deficient strain, 569B-43 was much lower than that of donor strain 569B, the P/N value of toxR gene deficient strain 569B-43 was 1.82, the P/N value of 569B was 4.52. No difference was found between IEM101 and the toxR gene deficient strains IEM101-4 in CT production. SDS-PAGE analysis of outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae showed that the toxR gene deficient strains, IEM101-4 and 569B-43 all showed 40kD and 43kD outer membrane protein bands, while which were not present in the donor strains IEM101 and 569B. Conclusion ToxR gene is an up-regulator for the expression of ctx gene, and a down-regulator for the expression of 40kD and 43kD outer membrane protein coding genes.%目的 通过构建霍乱弧菌toxR基因缺失株来研究toxR基因对霍乱弧菌减毒菌株IEM101和高产毒株569B毒力表达的调控作用。方法 采用自杀性质粒和接合转移技术,将2个中间含有四环素基因的toxR基因分别与霍乱弧菌减毒株IEM101和高产毒株569B染色体toxR基因重组,从而获得toxR基因缺失株IEM101-4和569B-43,并对2个toxR基因缺失株和其原出发菌株的霍乱肠毒素的产率和主要外膜蛋白图谱进行比较。结果 采用GM1-ELISA检测受测菌CT基因表达,toxR基因缺失株569B-43的P/N值为1.82,而其原出发菌株569B的P/N为4.52

  2. Pathogenicity of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup O1 strains compared to plasmids, outer membrane protein profiles and siderophore production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K.; Gram, Lone; Austin, D.A.;

    1997-01-01

    The virulence of 18 strains of Vibrio anguillarum serogroup 01 was compared to plasmid content, expression of siderophores and outer membrane proteins. All strains, irrespective of plasmid content, produced siderophores and inducible outer membrane proteins under iron-limited conditions. Only str...

  3. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosewell Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

  4. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisia J Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

  5. 利用脉冲场凝胶电泳及核糖体分型技术对14株上海崇明地区O139群霍乱弧菌分型分析%Study on 14 Vibrio cholerae O139 strains by PFGE and ribotyping in Chongming, Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠丽红; 陈洪友; 陈敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 对14株上海市崇明地区2005年O139群霍乱弧菌菌株进行脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFCE)及核糖体分型分析.方法 用PFGE、核糖体分型对霍乱弧菌进行分析.结果 14株O139群霍乱弧菌产毒株经核糖体分型分析为同一型;而PFGE双酶切分型结果为其中10株为同一型,其余4株为高度同源性.结论 上海市崇明地区2005年流行的O139群霍乱弧菌核酸指纹分型基本一致.%Objective To understand the genotypes of 14 strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 isolated in Chongming in 2005. Methods Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping were conducted to analyze the Vibrio cholerae strains. Results Ribotyping indicated that the genotypes of all the O139 strains were same; but PFGE indicated that 10 of 14 strains of Vibrio cholerae O139 belonged to same type, the other 4 strains were highly homologous. Conclusion The genotypes of Vibrro cholerae O139 circulating in Chongming in Shanghai in 2005 were similarly.

  6. Designing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine against Vibrio cholerae via combined immunoinformatics and protein interaction based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafat, Navid; Karimi, Zeinab; Eslami, Mahboobeh; Mohkam, Milad; Zandian, Sanam; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-06-01

    Cholera continues to be a major global health concern. Among different Vibrio cholerae strains, only O1 and O139 cause acute diarrheal diseases that are related to epidemic and pandemic outbreaks. The currently available cholera vaccines are mainly lived and attenuated vaccines consisting of V. cholerae virulence factors such as toxin-coregulated pili (TCP), outer membrane proteins (Omps), and nontoxic cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). Nowadays, there is a great interest in designing an efficient epitope vaccine against cholera. Epitope vaccines consisting of immunodominant epitopes and adjuvant molecules enhance the possibility of inciting potent protective immunity. In this study, V. cholerae protective antigens (OmpW, OmpU, TcpA and TcpF) and the CTB, which is broadly used as an immunostimulatory adjuvant, were analyzed using different bioinformatics and immunoinformatics tools. The common regions between promiscuous epitopes, binding to various HLA-II supertype alleles, and B-cell epitopes were defined based upon the aforementioned protective antigens. The ultimately selected epitopes and CTB adjuvant were fused together using proper GPGPG linkers to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. A three-dimensional model of the thus constructed vaccine was generated using I-TASSER. The model was structurally validated using the ProSA-web error-detection software and the Ramachandran plot. The validation results indicated that the initial 3D model needed refinement. Subsequently, a high-quality model obtained after various refinement cycles was used for defining conformational B-cell epitopes. Several linear and conformational B-cell epitopes were determined within the epitope vaccine, suggesting likely antibody triggering features of our designed vaccine. Next, molecular docking was performed between the 3D vaccine model and the tertiary structure of the toll like receptor 2 (TLR2). To gain further insight into the interaction between vaccine and TLR2, molecular dynamics

  7. Nucleotide sequence homology between the heat-labile enterotoxin gene of Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae deoxyribonucleic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Moseley, S L; Falkow, S

    1980-01-01

    Isolated deoxyribonucleic acid fragments encoding the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli were used to probe for homologous sequences in restricted whole-cell deoxyribonucleic acid from Vibrio cholerae. Significant sequence homology between the heat-labile enterotoxin gene and V. cholerae deoxyribonucleic acid was demonstrated, and apparent differences were observed in the organization of the cholera toxin gene among different strains of V. cholerae.

  8. Vibrio cholerae VttRA and VttRB Regulatory Influences Extend beyond the Type 3 Secretion System Genomic Island

    OpenAIRE

    Chaand, Mudit; Dziejman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A subset of non-O1/non-O139 serogroup strains of Vibrio cholerae cause disease using type 3 secretion system (T3SS)-mediated mechanisms. An ∼50-kb genomic island carries genes encoding the T3SS structural apparatus, effector proteins, and two transmembrane transcriptional regulators, VttRA and VttRB, which are ToxR homologues. Previous experiments demonstrated that VttRA and VttRB are necessary for colonization in vivo and promote bile-dependent T3SS gene expression in vitro. To better unders...

  9. 江苏省霍乱病例病原学特征及与外环境污染间的关系%PATHOGENIC CHARACTERISTIC OF CHOLERAE CASES AND ITS CORRELATION WITH ENVIRONMENTAL VIBIRO CHOLERAE POLLUTION IN JIANGSU PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄菱; 张雪峰; 钱慧敏; 朱凤才; 汤奋扬

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解江苏省外环境中霍乱弧菌的污染现状,探讨其与病例发生、疾病流行问的关系.[方法]检测水体、水产品和熟食中霍乱弧菌的携带情况,比较外环境来源株与病例株在血清型、耐药性及毒索基因等方面的差异,应用PFGE分型技术分析不同来源菌株的遗传相关性.[结果]株外环境来源株均为不带毒力、对抗生素敏感的O1群非流行株,病人来源株为具有ctxA、zot、ace、tcpA毒力基因的O139群.11株O139群被分成7种PFGE带型,与O1群相似性系数为76.14%.[结论] 外环境来源株在表型及基因水平上与病例株差异较大,不是病例发生的原因.目前霍乱在江苏省处于低频的高度散发状态,近期大规模暴发和流行的可能性较小.%[Objective]To explore the environmental vibrio cholerae pollution situation and its correlation with the occurrence and epidemic of cholera in Jiangsu province.[Methods]Examined vibrio cholerae from water, aquatic products and cooked food.Compared serum type, drug-resistance and virulence genes between strains from environment and patients.Analyzed the genetical correlation among strains from different resources by PFGE.[Results]3 isolates from environment were non-epidemic strains without virulence genes and not sensitive to antibiotics.The strains from patients were 0139 with toxic genes ctxA, zot, ace, tcpA.11 strains of 0139 were classified into 7 PFGE types, and the similarity coefficient was 76.14% with 01 strains.[Conclusion]The strains from environment are different from those from patients on the level of phenotype and gene.The cases are not caused by the strains from environment.At present, the epidemic intensity of cholera in jiangsu province is low and highly sporadic, and the chance of outbreak and prevalent is small.

  10. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C.; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004–2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004–2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  11. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  12. Removal of Cholera Toxin from Aqueous Solution by Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi A. O. Meriluoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholera remains a serious health problem, especially in developing countries where basic hygiene standards are not met. The symptoms of cholera are caused by cholera toxin, an enterotoxin, which is produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. We have recently shown that human probiotic bacteria are capable of removing cyanobacterial toxins from aqueous solutions. In the present study we investigate the ability of the human probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103 and Bifidobacterium longum 46 (DSM 14583, to remove cholera toxin from solution in vitro. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and Bifidobacterium longum 46 were able to remove 68% and 59% of cholera toxin from aqueous solutions during 18 h of incubation at 37 °C, respectively. The effect was dependent on bacterial concentration and L. rhamnosus GG was more effective at lower bacterial concentrations. No significant effect on cholera toxin concentration was observed when nonviable bacteria or bacterial supernatant was used.

  13. The complete genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae: a tale of two chromosomes and of two lifestyles

    OpenAIRE

    Schoolnik, Gary K.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2000-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 has figured prominently in the history of infectious diseases as a cause of periodic global epidemics, an affliction of refugees in areas of social strife and as the disease first subjected to modern epidemiological analysis during the classic investigations of John Snow in mid-19th century London [1]. Thus, publication of the entire genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 (biotype El Tor) in Nature [2] by a consortium of investigators from The Institute for Genomic Research, the...

  14. Survival and proliferation of the lysogenic bacteriophage CTXΦ in Vibrio cholerae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fenxia; Fan; Biao; Kan

    2015-01-01

    The lysogenic phage CTXΦ of Vibrio cholerae can transfer the cholera toxin gene both horizontally(inter-strain) and vertically(cell proliferation). Due to its diversity in form and species, the complexity of regulatory mechanisms, and the important role of the infection mechanism in the production of new virulent strains of V.cholerae, the study of the lysogenic phage CTXΦ has attracted much attention. Based on the progress of current research, the genomic features and their arrangement, the host-dependent regulatory mechanisms of CTXΦ phage survival, proliferation and propagation were reviewed to further understand the phage’s role in the evolutionary and epidemiological mechanisms of V. cholerae.

  15. A study on the geophylogeny of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kiiru

    Full Text Available Cholera remains a significant public health challenge in many sub-Saharan countries including Kenya. We have performed a combination of phylogenetic and phenotypic analysis based on whole genome DNA sequences derived from 40 environmental and 57 clinical V. cholerae from different regions of Kenya isolated between 2005 and 2010. Some environmental and all clinical isolates mapped back onto wave three of the monophyletic seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor phylogeny but other environmental isolates were phylogenetically very distinct. Thus, the genomes of the Kenyan V. cholerae O1 El Tor isolates are clonally related to other El Tor V. cholerae isolated elsewhere in the world and similarly harbour antibiotic resistance-associated STX elements. Further, the Kenyan O1 El Tor isolates fall into two distinct clades that may have entered Kenya independently.

  16. Immunization with cholera toxin B subunit induces high-level protection in the suckling mouse model of cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Price

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is the primary virulence factor responsible for severe cholera. Vibrio cholerae strains unable to produce CT show severe attenuation of virulence in animals and humans. The pentameric B subunit of CT (CTB contains the immunodominant epitopes recognized by antibodies that neutralize CT. Although CTB is a potent immunogen and a promising protective vaccine antigen in animal models, immunization of humans with detoxified CT failed to protect against cholera. We recently demonstrated however that pups reared from mice immunized intraperitoneally (IP with 3 doses of recombinant CTB were well protected against a highly lethal challenge dose of V. cholerae N16961. The present study investigated how the route and number of immunizations with CTB could influence protective efficacy in the suckling mouse model of cholera. To this end female mice were immunized with CTB intranasally (IN, IP, and subcutaneously (SC. Serum and fecal extracts were analyzed for anti-CTB antibodies by quantitative ELISA, and pups born to immunized mothers were challenged orogastrically with a lethal dose of V. cholerae. Pups from all immunized groups were highly protected from death by 48 hours (64-100% survival. Cox regression showed that percent body weight loss at 24 hours predicted death by 48 hours, but we were unable to validate a specific amount of weight loss as a surrogate marker for protection. Although CTB was highly protective in all regimens, three parenteral immunizations showed trends toward higher survival and less weight loss at 24 hours post infection. These results demonstrate that immunization with CTB by any of several routes and dosing regimens can provide protection against live V. cholerae challenge in the suckling mouse model of cholera. Our data extend the results of previous studies and provide additional support for the inclusion of CTB in the development of a subunit vaccine against V. cholerae.

  17. A Survey of Etiologic , Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Cholera in Province Hamadan Epidemy in 1998

    OpenAIRE

    F. Keramt; M. Ranjbar; H. Mahjub

    2003-01-01

    Cholera is a disease with acute diarrhea caused by vibrio cholera which it’s serogroups O1 is more responsible for several epidemy in numerous countries . There are two biotypes classic and eltor that has three serotypes ogawa , inaba and hikojima . This survey with beginning cholera epidemy in Hamadan was performed with aim to investigation etiology , clinical manifestation and laboratory findings in referred patients to health services in Hamadan province. The method...

  18. Immunochemical Properties of the Major Outer Membrane Protein of Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, Shahjahan

    1983-01-01

    Antisera to the major outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae (molecular weight, 48,000) raised in rabbits (i) agglutinated several strains of V. cholerae and (ii) immunoprecipitated outer membrane proteins prepared from both the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae. Antibodies of all isotypes to the major outer membrane protein were detected in immune human sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that the major outer membrane protein was the common outer membrane ...

  19. Vibrio cholerae expresses iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Sciortino, C V; Finkelstein, R A

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, of the outer membrane proteins of four strains of Vibrio cholerae grown in vivo in infant rabbits and in vitro in low-iron and iron-supplemented defined media. In vivo-grown V. cholerae expressed novel outer membrane-associated proteins which, in part, were similar to those observed on V. cholerae grown in vitro under conditions of iron deprivation.

  20. Avaliação de desinfetantes químicos de uso doméstico contra Vibrio cholerae EL TOR (amostra não toxigênica Evaluation of the effect of chemical domestic disinfectants on Vibrio cholerae EL TOR (non toxigenic strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Timenetsky

    1992-10-01

    Brazil for microbiological qualification of chemical disinfectants for commercial purposes. Domestic disinfectants are tested in this way against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains, was chosen for this evaluation Vibrio cholerae in view of its current importance in Brazil, in terms of Public Health associated with the study of the disinfectant's antimicrobial activities. Nineteen disinfectant products for domestic use for available to the public were evaluated microbiologically by means of simplified Use-Dilution test with 10 carriers. The active compounds of the products included formaldeyde, phenols, cresols, quaternary ammonium compouds, chlorine and ethanol. Seven were mixtures of these. According to the recommendations for their use, sixteen products should be used undiluted. Under these conditions, 9 disinfectants were vibriocides and 7 did not demonstrate this antibacterial activity. Four products in dilutions not clearly specificated were also ineffective. The vibriocide products which must used without dilution were tested again, diluted at 1:2. These solutions did not inactivate V. cholerae showing that, microbiologically, their active compounds are used in limited concentrations. Commercial alcohol (95.5°GL at 1:3, chlorine 2.8% Água sanitária at 1:200 and Lysoform at 1:20 came up to the standards required by the test.

  1. 苏州市部分水产品分离的霍乱弧菌耐药状况及毒力基因分析%Analysis of antibiotc resistance and virulence genes of vibrio cholerae isolated from part of aquatic products in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦寒; 王丽; 李建

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析苏州市部分养殖水产品霍乱弧菌分布情况,并对其进行耐药性分析和毒力基因检测.方法:对甲鱼、牛蛙及其养殖用水等样品,进行霍乱弧菌的分离、鉴定及耐药性分析和4种毒力基因的PCR检测.结果:分离到的18株霍乱弧菌标本中O139群8株,O1群4株,其余6株为非O1非O139群霍乱弧菌.经耐药性分析,对试验的12种抗生素均无100%敏感株;对多粘菌素B和红霉素的中介率高达83.3%.检测的4个毒力基因中,阳性率最高的是Zot基因.结论:分离到的18株霍乱弧菌血清型有一定的种属相关特性,中介耐药性突出,毒力基因阳性率较高.%Objective: To analyze the distribution of vibrio cholerae in some breeding aquatic products in Suzhou, to understand the antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. Methods; Vibrio cholerae was isolated from samples of soft - shelled turtles, bullfrogs and breeding water for identification. The detected vibrio cholerae strains were analyzed for antibiotic resistance. PCR method was adopted to detect 4 kinds of virulence genes. Results; Eighteen strains of vibrio cholerae were isolated, including serogroup 0139(8 strains) , serogroup 01 (4 strains) , non - 01 and non - 0139(6 strains). The antibiotic resistance result indicated that none of the 18 vibrio cholerae strains were 100% sensitive to 12 kinds of tested antibiotics; while the antibiotic intermediate resistance rate to polymyxin B and erythromycin was up to 83. 3%. Of four virulence genes, zonula occludens toxin gene was the most prevalent. Conclusion; There was certain species -dependent characteristics in 18 strains of vibrio cholerae by serological typing, prominent antibiotic intermediary resistance and high positive rate of virulence gene were also the features of the 18 vibrio cholerae strains.

  2. Stabile kloningsvektorer til Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Malene; Jakobsen, Henrik; Larsen, Marie B.; Rasmussen, Maria H; Schrøder, Nanna B.

    2005-01-01

    Vi har forsøgt at konstruere stabile, plasmidbaserede ekspressions-/kloningsvektorer til Vibrio cholerae. Ideelt burde sådanne vektorer baseres på naturlige plasmider fra Vibrio cholerae, men idet Vibrio cholerae sjældent indeholder plasmider, tog vi i stedet udgangspunkt i velkarakteriserede kloningsvektorer fra Escherichia coli. I projektet undersøges fire kloningsvektorer med hver deres karakteristika. Det lykkedes at indføre dem i Vibrio cholerae. Med udgangspunkt i den ene vektor vises, ...

  3. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are diffe...

  4. Cholera in metropolitan Manila: foodborne transmission via street vendors.

    OpenAIRE

    Lim-Quizon, M. C.; Benabaye, R. M.; White, F M; Dayrit, M. M.; White, M E

    1994-01-01

    Reported are the results of an unmatched case-control study to determine the risk factors associated with acquisition of cholera in Manila. Cases were patients admitted to the San Lazaro Hospital between July and September 1989 and whose stools yielded Vibrio cholerae O1 on culture. Controls were patients admitted to the same hospital and who had no history of diarrhoea or of having taken antibiotics during the 3 days prior to admission. Of the 158 cases and 158 controls who had bought food f...

  5. A localized outbreak of cholera due to vibrio cholerae, ogawa resistant to tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinical and laboratory parameters of a localized Cholera outbreak and determine the sensitivity pattern of the subtype involved. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore. Duration of Study: Two weeks. Patients and Methods: The study is about a localized outbreak of cholera in a group of soldiers, who consumed water from a single contaminated source of water. We are presenting here an account of the clinical and laboratory parameters of 39 hospitalized cases of cholera, who presented with profuse watery diarrhoea and vomiting. There vital signs, hydration status and systemic examination findings were recorded. Stool samples were sent for routine and microscopic examination and bacteriological culture. Blood samples were taken for complete blood count, serum sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine examination. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis of the results. Results: The average age of thirty nine men studied in this outbreak was 24.9 ± 6.9 years. There was no statistically significant difference between confirmed and suspected cholera cases on descriptive analysis of the clinical and laboratory parameters. Majority of patients showed pre-renal azotemia which improved within 48 to 72 hours of hospitalization. Stool cultures isolated Vibrio cholerae, subtype Ogawa, which was resistant to tetracyclines, cotrimoxazole and nalidixic acid but sensitive to fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins. The outbreak was controlled when the contaminated water source was sealed and rectified. Conclusion: Multiple drug resistance strains of Vibrio cholera are causing large outbreaks which should be controlled by prevention of the disease and avoiding inappropriate use of antibiotics. (author)

  6. Improved laboratory capacity is required to respond better to future cholera outbreaks in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Horwood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera was first detected in Papua New Guinea in July 2009, caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor serotype Ogawa. By late 2011, 15 500 cases had been reported throughout lowland Papua New Guinea with a case fatality rate of 3.2%. The epidemic has since slowed, with only sporadic cases reported in Western Province and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB. Accurate and timely diagnosis is a critical element of the public health response to cholera, yet in low-income countries where the burden of cholera is the greatest, diagnostic services are often limited. Here we report on the diagnostic challenges and the logistical factors that impacted on diagnosis during the first reported outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea.

  7. 3株与O139群霍乱弧菌血清交叉凝集的麦氏弧菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of 3 strains of vibrio metschnikovii isolates which cross-agglutinated with Vibrio Cholerae O139

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映霞; 许少洪; 黄芳; 吴琪; 曾雅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect and identify 3 suspected vibrio cholerae O139 isolates which isolated from 2011 to 2012.Methods The samples were isolated and cultured,serological tested and biochemical identified according to inspection standard.Results The 3 strains were identified as vibrio metschnikovii,and the 3 strains were cross-reacted with vibrio cholerae O139 diagnostic serum.Conclusions The 3 strains were not the vibrio cholerae O139,but vibrio metschnikovii.In order to prevent the possibility of false-positive results,the accuracy of identification should be assured.Especially when dealing with the cholera outbreak,the correct identification of pathogenic bacteria can provide scientific basis for control and prevent epidemics.%目的 2011-2012年对3株疑似O139群霍乱弧菌进行检测与分离鉴定.方法 依据检验标准对样本进行分离培养、血清学试验、生化反应等鉴定.结果 该3株菌为麦氏弧菌,与O139群霍乱弧菌诊断血清有交叉凝集.结论 该3菌株不是O139群霍乱弧菌,而是麦氏弧菌.为避免实验结果出现假阳性,必须进行系统生化鉴定,以确保菌株鉴定的准确性.特别是在处理霍乱疫情时,病原菌的正确鉴定可为控制疫情提供科学依据.

  8. Constitutive type VI secretion system expression gives Vibrio cholerae intra- and interspecific competitive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Unterweger

    Full Text Available The type VI secretion system (T6SS mediates protein translocation across the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae - the causative agent of cholera. All V. cholerae strains examined to date harbor gene clusters encoding a T6SS. Structural similarity and sequence homology between components of the T6SS and the T4 bacteriophage cell-puncturing device suggest that the T6SS functions as a contractile molecular syringe to inject effector molecules into prokaryotic and eukaryotic target cells. Regulation of the T6SS is critical. A subset of V. cholerae strains, including the clinical O37 serogroup strain V52, express T6SS constitutively. In contrast, pandemic strains impose tight control that can be genetically disrupted: mutations in the quorum sensing gene luxO and the newly described regulator gene tsrA lead to constitutive T6SS expression in the El Tor strain C6706. In this report, we examined environmental V. cholerae isolates from the Rio Grande with regard to T6SS regulation. Rough V. cholerae lacking O-antigen carried a nonsense mutation in the gene encoding the global T6SS regulator VasH and did not display virulent behavior towards Escherichia coli and other environmental bacteria. In contrast, smooth V. cholerae strains engaged constitutively in type VI-mediated secretion and displayed virulence towards prokaryotes (E. coli and other environmental bacteria and a eukaryote (the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Furthermore, smooth V. cholerae strains were able to outcompete each other in a T6SS-dependent manner. The work presented here suggests that constitutive T6SS expression provides V. cholerae with an advantage in intraspecific and interspecific competition.

  9. O1群霍乱弧菌与人类疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树坤; 李万林

    2001-01-01

    O1群霍乱弧菌(vibrio choleraer non-O1,简称非01菌)能引起人类散发腹泻已获得世界认同,但仅O1群霍乱弧菌(vibrio choleraer non-O1,简称01菌)能引起霍乱流行的看法一直沿袭到1992年,这年在印度和孟加拉国出现了由非O1菌的O139血清群霍乱弧菌(vibrio choleraer O139)引起的一次流行。

  10. Antibiotic Resistance and Integron of Vibrio cholerae Detection from School Street Foods in Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    NADIA DEASHINTA; DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI; YOGIARA

    2007-01-01

    Street foods represent foods and beverages prepared by vendors in streets or other public places, i.e. schools. Food safety issues perceive street foods as a potential major public risk. Street foods contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae may lead to serious poisoning to school-age children. In this study, 17 isolates of V. cholerae were obtained from nine (45%) of total 20 street foods samples collected in Jakarta. Five (29%) were confirmed to be V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa using bio...

  11. CHOLERA IN BIDAR DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA STATE, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate cholera from 2008 August to 2009 August, and create public health importance, in acute diarrhea diseases. Epidemic of cholera have been reported from various parts of our country. (1(2 A total fecal specimen 562 were collected, isolation and identification of pathogen was done according to standard methodology. (3 Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates were studied, and picked up randomly positive 25 isolates and were sent to national institute of cholera and enteric diseases (NICED Kolkata for confirmation and Phage typing. RESULTS: Of the 562 of patients 57 (10.142% isolates were found to be positive for vibrio. Cholera o1 and non 01/non-0139, out of 25 isolates 19 (76%. The vibrio Cholera 01 ogawa serotype, biotype Eltor and phage type T 27, T 24, T 21, T 13, along with 6 isolates (24% of Non- 0139 was also noticeable as per the report of the (NICED Kolkata. Majority of the clinical isolate were found to be resistant to more than one drug. (1(2

  12. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature, and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-culturable State of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state in order to survive in unfavorable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW). Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 10(6)-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22 or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 10(8) to 10(6)-10(5) CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB), but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different roles during the progress of VBNC

  13. Growth Phase, Oxygen, Temperature and Starvation Affect the Development of Viable but Non-Culturable State of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractVibrio cholerae can enter into a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in order to survive in unfavourable environments. In this study, we studied the roles of five physicochemical and microbiological factors or states, namely, different strains, growth phases, oxygen, temperature, and starvation, on the development of VBNC of V. cholerae in artificial sea water (ASW. Different strains of the organism, the growth phase, and oxygen levels affected the progress of VBNC development. It was found that the VBNC state was induced faster in V. cholerae serogroup O1 classical biotype strain O395 than in O1 El Tor biotype strains C6706 and N16961. When cells in different growth phases were used for VBNC induction, stationary-phase cells lost their culturability more quickly than exponential-phase cells, while induction of a totally non-culturable state took longer to achieve for stationary-phase cells in all three strains, suggesting that heterogeneity of cells should be considered. Aeration strongly accelerated the loss of culturability. During the development of the VBNC state, the culturable cell count under aeration conditions was almost 106-fold lower than under oxygen-limited conditions for all three strains. The other two factors, temperature and nutrients-rich environment, may prevent the induction of VBNC cells. At 22°C or 37°C in ASW, most of the cells rapidly died and the culturable cell count reduced from about 108 CFU/mL to 106–105 CFU/mL. The total cell counts showed that cells that lost viability were decomposed, and the viable cell counts were the same as culturable cell counts, indicating that the cells did not reach the VBNC state. VBNC state development was blocked when ASW was supplied with Luria-Bertani broth (LB, but it was not affected in ASW with M9, suggesting that specific nutrients in LB may prevent the development of VBNC state. These results revealed that the five factors evaluated in this study had different

  14. Genetic mapping of the regulator gene determining enterotoxin synthesis in Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the genetic mapping of mutation tox-7 (the mutation affecting the synthesis of the cholera toxin) were obtained by conjugation crosses between the atoxigenic donor strain Vibrio cholerae Eltor and the toxigenic recipient strain V. cholera classica. The molecular and genetic analysis of the Tox- recombinants indicated that, when the synthesis of the cholera toxin is disrupted in these strains, the tox-7 mutation (which impairs the regulator gene tox) is gained. Close linkage between the tox-7 and pur-63 mutations was established (during the selection procedure there was 81.1% combined transfer with respect to marker pur-63 situated in the donor strain chromosome more proximal than mutation tox-7). The markers were localized in the following order in the region under investigation: asp-cys-nal-pur-61-trp-his-pur-63-tox-7-ile

  15. Invariant recognition of polychromatic images of Vibrio cholerae 01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Mourino-Perez, Rosa R.; Cristobal, Gabriel; Pech-Pacheco, Jose L.

    2002-04-01

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infectious disease. It has claimed many lives throughout history, and it continues to be a global health threat. Cholera is considered one of the most important emergence diseases due its relation with global climate changes. Automated methods such as optical systems represent a new trend to make more accurate measurements of the presence and quantity of this microorganism in its natural environment. Automatic systems eliminate observer bias and reduce the analysis time. We evaluate the utility of coherent optical systems with invariant correlation for the recognition of Vibrio cholerae O1. Images of scenes are recorded with a CCD camera and decomposed in three RGB channels. A numeric simulation is developed to identify the bacteria in the different samples through an invariant correlation technique. There is no variation when we repeat the correlation and the variation between images correlation is minimum. The position-, scale-, and rotation-invariant recognition is made with a scale transform through the Mellin transform. The algorithm to recognize Vibrio cholerae O1 is the presence of correlation peaks in the green channel output and their absence in red and blue channels. The discrimination criterion is the presence of correlation peaks in red, green, and blue channels.

  16. Experimental study on administration of microeneapsulated vibrio cholera vaccine.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of biodegradable microspheres as a vaccine delivery system for V. cholera antigen. Methods: The outer membrane protein (OMP, 41KDa) was obtained from the strain Enaba 569B, and the OMP was encapsulated in the biodegrad-

  17. From cholera to corals: Viruses as drivers of virulence in a major coral bacterial pathogen

    KAUST Repository

    Weynberg, Karen D.

    2015-12-08

    Disease is an increasing threat to reef-building corals. One of the few identified pathogens of coral disease is the bacterium Vibrio coralliilyticus. In Vibrio cholerae, infection by a bacterial virus (bacteriophage) results in the conversion of non-pathogenic strains to pathogenic strains and this can lead to cholera pandemics. Pathogenicity islands encoded in the V. cholerae genome play an important role in pathogenesis. Here we analyse five whole genome sequences of V. coralliilyticus to examine whether virulence is similarly driven by horizontally acquired elements. We demonstrate that bacteriophage genomes encoding toxin genes with homology to those found in pathogenic V. cholerae are integrated in V. coralliilyticus genomes. Virulence factors located on chromosomal pathogenicity islands also exist in some strains of V. coralliilyticus. The presence of these genetic signatures indicates virulence in V. coralliilyticus is driven by prophages and other horizontally acquired elements. Screening for pathogens of coral disease should target conserved regions in these elements.

  18. VIBRIO CHOLERAE 01 CAN ASSUME A "RUGOSE" SURVIVAL FORM THAT RESISTS KILLING BY CHLORINE, YET RETAINS VIRULENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. cholerae 01 are able to shift between smooth and "wrinkled" or "rugose" colonial morphologies. ultures of smooth V. cholerae strains were inactivated in less than 40 and 20 seconds by concentrations of 0.5 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L free chlorine, respectively. n contrast, cultures of ...

  19. 霍乱弧菌及肠出血性大肠杆菌多重PCR检测方法的建立%Development of multiplex PCR for detection of Vibrio cholerae and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦晶; 吴大成; 孟福强; 袁洁; 孙洋; 冯书章

    2012-01-01

    A multiplex PCR method was developed for the rapid detection of genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2(stx1 and stx2) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli(EHEC) and Cholera toxin gene(ctx) of Vibrio cholerae.Three pairs of primers were synthesized.The size of amplified products is different,so it is easy to distinguish the bands on agarose gel.The method includes enrichment before the PCR reaction.The specificity of the multiplex PCR method was determined by using 25 strains of pure-cultured bacteria,including Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 and 4 EHEC strains.All 6 EHEC strains and Vibrio cholerae strains produced positive bands,whereas the others did not.The sensitivity was evaluated by detection of artificially contaminated samples,with a range of 100-1 000 CFU/mL in contaminated water samples and 1 CFU/mL after enrichment.These results indicated that the Multi-PCR method exhibited high specificity and sensitivity in the detection of EHEC and Vibrio cholerae.It could be used to detec environment samples contaminated by EHEC and Vibrio cholerae.%针对霍乱弧菌肠毒素和肠出血性大肠杆菌志贺毒素基因(ctx、stx1和stx2)设计引物,扩增大小不同的特异性片段,优化反应条件,建立多重PCR方法,对人工污染的水样品进行模拟检测。结果显示,多重PCR扩增系统针对目的菌具有高度的特异性。敏感性试验证实,当多重PCR反应体系中模板含量在10CFU时仍能检出。模拟水样品多重PCR检测的敏感性试验证明,人工污染的河水直接集菌检测敏感性为100~1 000CFU/mL,增菌培养后多重PCR检测敏感性可达1CFU/mL。本试验于同一PCR体系检测霍乱弧菌和肠出血性大肠杆菌的毒素基因,可用于这2种致腹泻性病原菌的快速检测。

  20. Antibiotic Resistance and Integron of Vibrio cholerae Detection from School Street Foods in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA DEASHINTA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Street foods represent foods and beverages prepared by vendors in streets or other public places, i.e. schools. Food safety issues perceive street foods as a potential major public risk. Street foods contaminated with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae may lead to serious poisoning to school-age children. In this study, 17 isolates of V. cholerae were obtained from nine (45% of total 20 street foods samples collected in Jakarta. Five (29% were confirmed to be V. cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa using biochemical tests and serological identification. Of the 17 V. cholerae isolates 47% proved to be resistant to ampicillin, 35% to trimethoprim, 17.6% to tetracycline, and 17.6% to streptomycin. A class 1 integrons bearing streptomycin/spectinomycin resistant gene cassette of aadA1c were discovered on isolate Vc25n. This may leads to horizontal transfer of the antibiotic resistant genes to other bacteria.

  1. A cholera epidemic among the Nicobarese tribe of Nancowry, Andaman, and Nicobar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugunan, Attayoor P; Ghosh, Asit R; Roy, Subarna; Gupte, Mohan D; Sehgal, Subhash C

    2004-12-01

    Cholera has not been reported from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India. In October 2002, an outbreak of diarrhea occurred among the Nicobarese tribe of the Nancowry group of islands. The outbreak affected 16 of the 45 inhabited villages of three islands with an attack rate of 12.8% and a case fatality ratio of 1.3%. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor was isolated from 18 of the 67 patients tested. A study conducted in one of the villages indicated that the outbreak was started there by a person who traveled to a nearby village where an outbreak was occurring. No specific water source could be identified as the source of infection because persons consuming water from all wells were affected. Water samples from 55 sources were tested and 38 of them were contaminated with Escherichia coli. The possible sources of V. cholerae are effluents from ships or poachers from neighboring countries where cholera is endemic. PMID:15642977

  2. 2009-2014年梧州市霍乱弧菌监测结果%Surveillance for Vibrio cholerae in Wuzhou city in 2009-2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼桂江; 盘珍梅; 彭美薇; 覃敏兰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To know the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in the environment and aquatic products in Wuzhou city , and monitor the shift of its serotype and virulence distribution, and provide reference for making prevention policy. Methods A 6-year surveillance program was conducted to detect V . cholerae from aquatic products and cooked food at markets , from rivers and ponds (from May to October each year) as well as from diarrhea cases at hospitals (all year round). Results No V. cholerae was detected from 600 food samples and 7 693 patients. The positive rate was 2.9%(69/2 375)in the environmental samples and aquatic products. The majority serogroup of V. cholerae was O1 (91.3%, 63/69) and the remaining was O139 (8.7%, 6/69). The O1 strains belonged to two serotypes: Inaba (49.3%, 34/69)and Ogawa(42.0%, 29/69). All the V. cholerae isolates were non-toxigenic. Conclusion The environment and aquatic products in Wuzhou city were contaminated with V. cholerae with serogroup and serotype diversity. Continue surveillance is necessary to prevent the spread of toxigenic V. cholerae.%目的:为了解梧州市外环境霍乱弧菌的存在和水产品的污染状况,掌握其菌型、分布、毒力等动态变化情况,为霍乱防控工作提供科学依据。方法采集梧州市两城区各大集贸市场销售摊档水产品、熟食制品、市区河水和池塘水(每年5~10月监测)以及医院腹泻就诊病人(每年1~12月监测)样品,并对其进行霍乱弧菌监测。结果熟食制品(600份)、腹泻病人大便标本(7693份)均未检出霍乱弧菌。河水、池塘水和海水产品阳性率为2.9%(69/2375)。其中O1群占91.3%(63/69),O139群占8.7%(6/69);O1群血清学分型:稻叶型49.3%(34/69),小川型42.0%(29/69)。各血清型CT毒力基因均为阴性。结论梧州市外环境水体、海水产品受霍乱弧菌污染严重,且菌株型多元化,应予继

  3. Virulence factors in environmental and clinical Vibrio cholerae from endemic areas in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racheal W. Kimani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1971, Kenya has had repeated cholera outbreaks. However, the cause of seasonal epidemics of cholera is not fully understood and neither are the factors that drive epidemics, both in Kenya and globally.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the environmental reservoirs of V. cholerae during an interepidemic period in Kenya and to characterise their virulence factors.Methods: One hundred (50 clinical, 50 environmental samples were tested for V. cholerae isolates using both simplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction.Results: Both sediments and algae from fishing and landing bays yielded isolates of V. cholerae. Clinical strains were characterised along with the environmental strains for comparison. All clinical strains harboured ctxA, tcpA (El Tor, ompU, zot, ace, toxR, hylA (El Tor and tcpI genes. Prevalence for virulence genes in environmental strains was hylA (El Tor (10%, toxR (24%, zot (22%, ctxA (12%,tcpI (8%, hylA (26% and tcpA (12%.Conclusion: The study sites, including landing bays and beaches, contained environmental V. cholerae, suggesting that these may be reservoirs for frequent epidemics. Improved hygiene and fish-handling techniques will be important in reducing the persistence of reservoirs.

  4. Field evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test for the diagnosis of cholera in a high-risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Taesung

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early detection of cholera outbreaks is crucial for the implementation of the most appropriate control strategies. Methods The performance of an immunochromatographic dipstick test (Institute Pasteur, Paris, France specific for Vibrio cholerae O1 was evaluated in a prospective study in Beira, Mozambique, during the 2004 cholera season (January-May. Fecal specimens were collected from 391 patients with acute watery nonbloody diarrhea and tested by dipstick and conventional culture. Results The overall sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to culture were 95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 91%–99% and 89% (95% CI: 86%–93%, respectively. After stratification by type of sample (rectal swab/bulk stool and severity of diarrhea, the sensitivity ranged between 85% and 98% and specificity between 77% and 97%. Conclusion This one-step dipstick test performed well in the diagnosis of V. cholerae O1 in a setting with seasonal outbreaks where rapid tests are most urgently needed.

  5. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly;

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its...... importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V. cholerae...

  6. Genetic Studies of Vibrio cholerae in South West Cameroon—A Phylogenetic Analysis of Isolates from the 2010-2011 Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Moise C.; Masalla, Thomas; Esemu, Seraphine; Fumoloh, Foche Francis; Kracalik, Ian; Cella, Eleonora; Alam, Meer Taifur; Akoachere, Jane-Francis; Liang, Song; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J. Glenn; Ali, Afsar; Ndip, Lucy M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: During the cholera outbreak from 2010 to 2011 in Cameroon, 33,192 cases with 1,440 deaths (case fatality ratio 4.34%) were reported to the World Health Organization. Of these, the South West Region reported 3,120 clinical cases. This region is in the Equatorial Monsoon climatic subzone of Cameroon, close to the coast, raising questions as to whether cases were linked with development of environmental reservoirs. Methods: In an investigation conducted by the Laboratory for Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Buea, toxigenic V. cholerae O1 were isolated from diarrheal stool samples from 18 patients, with ages ranging from <3 to 70 years. Coordinates for clinical centers at which cases were identified were obtained using a handheld GPS, and were mapped using ArcGIS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby ‘Bauer agar disc diffusion method. The full genomes of these strains were sequenced with the Illumina MiSeq platform. De novo assembly of cholera genomes and multiple sequence alignment were carried out using the bioinformatics pipeline developed in the Emerging Pathogens Institute laboratory at the University of Florida. Results/Discussion: Genetic comparisons showed that isolates were closely related, with pairwise p-distances ranging from 2.25 to 14.52 10-5 nt substitutions per site, and no statistically significant correlation between the pairwise genetic distances and the geographic distances among sampling locations. Indeed, the phylogeny of the Cameroonian strains displays the typical star-like topology and intermixing of strains from different locations that are characteristic of an exponential outbreak localized around a relatively restricted area with occasional spillover to other parts of the country, likely mediated by direct human contact and human movement. Findings highlight the utility of whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis in understanding transmission patterns at the local level. PMID

  7. Vibrio cholerae expresses cell surface antigens during intestinal infection which are not expressed during in vitro culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Jonson, G.; Svennerholm, A M; Holmgren, J

    1989-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 bacteria harvested directly from ligated or nonligated intestines of rabbits with experimental cholera expressed at least 7 to 8 novel, in vivo-specific cell envelope (env) proteins that were not found on vibrios after in vitro culture in various ordinary liquid media. At the same time, several of the env proteins ordinarily expressed in vitro had disappeared or become much reduced. The infection-induced novel env protein were immunogenic. In immunoblot analyses, antisera r...

  8. NAD metabolism in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, J. W.; Brestel, C

    1982-01-01

    Extracts of Vibrio cholerae were assayed for various enzymatic activities associated with pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism. The activities measured include NAD glycohydrolase, nicotinamide deamidase, nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase, and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. The results obtained demonstrate the existence in V. cholerae of the five-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle and the potential for a four-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle. The data presented also suggest th...

  9. Sensitivity of Vibrio cholerae cells to lethal and mutagenic effect of UV-irradiation mediated by plasmids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV-irradiation on Vibrio cholerae cells and its changes mediated by the plasmid R245 have been studied. Vibrio cholerae strains 569B and RV31 have been shown to be considerably more sensitive to lethal effect of UV-irradiation as compared with Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium cells. Highly toxigenic strain 569B and practically atoxigenic strain RV31 have the same UV-sensitivity. Lethla effect of UV-irradiation on Vibrio cholerae cells is incresed when the irradiated cells are plated on enriched media. UV-induction of mutations was not registered in plasmidless strains of Vibrio cholerae. Plasmid R245 increase UV-resistance of vibrio cells and makes them UV-mutable

  10. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  11. Adhesion of Vibrio cholerae to Granular Starches

    OpenAIRE

    Gancz, Hanan; Niderman-Meyer, Orly; Broza, Meir; Kashi, Yechezkel; Shimoni, Eyal

    2005-01-01

    Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease caused by specific serogroups of Vibrio cholerae that are pathogenic to humans. Cholera can become epidemic and deadly without adequate medical care. Appropriate rehydration therapy can reduce the mortality rate from as much as 50% of the affected individuals to

  12. EROTYPE IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE BACTERIAWHICH ISOLATED FROM ICE AMONGTUBE AND CUBE ICE TYPE IN FOOD AND BEVERAGES SELLER AT DENPASAR CITY, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IGP Dhinarananta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a type of watery diarrhea with specific sign stool containing mucus which resembles rice water. Cholera caused by gram negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae (V.Cholerae. The transmissions of bacteria were through a contaminated food or water.Bali is an international tourism destination with tropical weather where ice is widelyused in food and beverage which bring a risk of cholera through a contaminated ice.Iceshave a risk of bacterial contamination whether from the making and the usage process.Type of ice that widely used were cube and tube ice which each of them have a differentin making and usage process. The purpose of this study is to obtain the contamination ofV.cholera in cube and tube ice. The method of this study is descriptive observationalstudy with quota sampling technique. Sample were obtained from a restaurants andstreet vendor which use a block and tube ice with total 10 sample and 5 for each type ofice.Sample then cultured in Alkaline Peptone Water(APW and Thiosulfate Citrate Bilesalt Sucrose(TCBS agar. Bacteriacolony then identified using a gram staining andLatex Serotyping. The result are 3 over 5 (60% sample of cube ice contaminated byV.cholera O1 Inaba serotype and 3 over 5 (60% sample of tube ice contaminated byV.cholera O1 Inaba serotype.

  13. The burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera in North Jakarta, Indonesia: findings from 24 months surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hyejon

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In preparation of vaccines trials to estimate protection against shigellosis and cholera we conducted a two-year community-based surveillance study in an impoverished area of North Jakarta which provided updated information on the disease burden in the area. Methods We conducted a two-year community-based surveillance study from August 2001 to July 2003 in an impoverished area of North Jakarta to assess the burden of diarrhoea, shigellosis, and cholera. At participating health care providers, a case report form was completed and stool sample collected from cases presenting with diarrhoea. Results Infants had the highest incidences of diarrhoea (759/1 000/year and cholera (4/1 000/year. Diarrhea incidence was significantly higher in boys under 5 years (387/1 000/year than girls under 5 years (309/1 000/year; p Shigella flexneri was the most common Shigella species isolated and 73% to 95% of these isolates were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol and tetracycline but remain susceptible to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and ceftriaxone. We found an overall incidence of cholera of 0.5/1 000/year. Cholera was most common in children, with the highest incidence at 4/1 000/year in those less than 1 year of age. Of the 154 V. cholerae O1 isolates, 89 (58% were of the El Tor Ogawa serotype and 65 (42% were El Tor Inaba. Thirty-four percent of patients with cholera were intravenously rehydrated and 22% required hospitalization. V. parahaemolyticus infections were detected sporadically but increased from July 2002 onwards. Conclusion Diarrhoea causes a heavy public health burden in Jakarta particularly in young children. The impact of shigellosis is exacerbated by the threat of antimicrobial resistance, whereas that of cholera is aggravated by its severe manifestations.

  14. Role of Indole Production on Virulence of Vibrio cholerae Using Galleria mellonella Larvae Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Tansila, Natta; Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Kongreung, Jetnaphang; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-09-01

    Cell to cell communication facilitated by chemical signals plays crucial roles in regulating various cellular functions in bacteria. Indole, one such signaling molecule has been demonstrated to control various bacterial phenotypes such as biofilm formation and virulence in diverse bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. The present study explores some key factors involved in indole production and the subsequent pathogenesis of V. cholerae. Indole production was higher at 37 °C than at 30 °C, although the growth at 37 °C was slightly higher. A positive correlation was observed between indole production and biofilm formation in V. cholerae. Maximum indole production was detected at pH 7. There was no significant difference in indole production between clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolates, although indole production in one environmental isolate was significantly different. Both growth and indole production showed relevant changes with differences in salinity. An indole negative mutant strain was constructed using transposon mutagenesis and the direct effect of indole on the virulence of V. cholerae was evaluated using Galleria mellonella larvae model. Comparison to the wild type strain, the mutant significantly reduced the mortality of G. mellonella larvae which regained its virulence after complementation with exogenous indole. A gene involved in indole production and the virulence of V. cholerae was identified. PMID:27407302

  15. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the bivalent killed, whole-cell, oral cholera vaccine in adults and children in a cholera endemic area in Kolkata, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Mahalanabis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: An effective vaccine against cholera has been used for public health purposes in Vietnam since the 1990s. This vaccine was reformulated to meet WHO requirements. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the reformulated bivalent (Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139 killed whole cell oral vaccine in a cholera endemic area in Kolkata, India. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: The trial was conducted in the clinical trial ward of the Infectious Diseases Hospital in Kolkata, India. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 101 healthy adults (males and non-pregnant females aged 18-40 years and 100 healthy children (males and non-pregnant females aged 1-17 years. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive either the bivalent killed whole cell oral cholera vaccine or placebo (killed oral Escherichia coli K12. OUTCOME MEASURES: For safety: proportion of subjects with adverse events during the duration of study participation. For immunogenicity: Proportion of subjects who had a > or = 4-fold rise in serum vibriocidal antibody titers 14 days after the second dose of vaccine or placebo. RESULTS: Adverse reactions were observed with similar frequency among vaccine and placebo recipients in both age groups. Among adults 4% of vaccine and 8% of placebo recipients and among children 4% of vaccine and 2% of placebo recipients had at least one adverse event within 28 days of the first dose of the vaccine. Following immunization, 53% of adult and 80% of children vaccinees showed a > or = 4 fold rise in serum V. cholerae O1 vibriocidal antibody titers. A less pronounced response to V. cholerae O139 vibriocidal antibody titers post-immunization was noted among vaccinees. CONCLUSIONS: We found the vaccine to be safe and immunogenic in a cholera-endemic area in India. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119197.

  16. Genome engineering in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Skovgaard, Ole; Ducos-Galand, Magaly;

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria with multipartite genomes are prevalent, our knowledge of the mechanisms maintaining their genome is very limited, and much remains to be learned about the structural and functional interrelationships of multiple chromosomes. Owing to its bi-chromosomal genome architecture and its...... importance in public health, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has become a preferred model to study bacteria with multipartite genomes. However, most in vivo studies in V. cholerae have been hampered by its genome architecture, as it is difficult to give phenotypes to a specific chromosome....... This difficulty was surmounted using a unique and powerful strategy based on massive rearrangement of prokaryotic genomes. We developed a site-specific recombination-based engineering tool, which allows targeted, oriented, and reciprocal DNA exchanges. Using this genetic tool, we obtained a panel of V...

  17. Evaluation in Cameroon of a Novel, Simplified Methodology to Assist Molecular Microbiological Analysis of V. cholerae in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, Amanda K.; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etiene; Lopez, Anna Lena; Bugayong, Mark Philip; Retiban, Pearl Joy; Garrine, Marcelino; Mandomando, Inacio; Li, Shan; Stine, O. Colin; Sack, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vibrio cholerae is endemic in South Asia and Africa where outbreaks of cholera occur widely and are particularly associated with poverty and poor sanitation. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of toxigenic V. cholerae isolates, particularly in Africa, remains scarce. The constraints in improving this understanding is not only the lack of regular cholera disease surveillance, but also the lack of laboratory capabilities in endemic countries to preserve, store and ship isolates in a timely manner. We evaluated the use of simplified sample preservation methods for molecular characterization using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for differentiation of Vibrio cholerae genotypes. Methods and Findings Forty-seven V. cholerae isolates and 18 enriched clinical specimens (e.g. stool specimens after enrichment in broth) from cholera outbreaks in Cameroon were preserved on Whatman filter paper for DNA extraction. The samples were collected from two geographically distinct outbreaks in the Far North of Cameroon (FNC) in June 2014 and October 2014. In addition, a convenience sample of 14 isolates from the Philippines and 8 from Mozambique were analyzed. All 87 DNAs were successfully analyzed including 16 paired samples, one a cultured isolate and the other the enriched specimen from which the isolate was collected. Genotypic results were identical between 15 enriched specimens and their culture isolates and the other pair differed at single locus. Two closely related, but distinct clonal complexes were identified among the Cameroonian specimens from 2014. Conclusions Collecting V. cholerae using simplified laboratory methods in remote and low-resource settings allows for subsequent advanced molecular characterization of V. cholerae O1. These simplified DNA preservation methods identify V. cholerae and make possible timely information regarding the genetic diversity of V. cholerae; our results set the stage for continued molecular

  18. Genome Sequencing Reveals Unique Mutations in Characteristic Metabolic Pathways and the Transfer of Virulence Genes between V. mimicus and V. cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Fanfei; Du, Pengcheng; Wang, Shujing; Chen, Chen; Kan, Biao

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio mimicus, the species most similar to V. cholerae, is a microbe present in the natural environmental and sometimes causes diarrhea and internal infections in humans. It shows similar phenotypes to V. cholerae but differs in some biochemical characteristics. The molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in biochemical metabolism between V. mimicus and V. cholerae are currently unclear. Several V. mimicus isolates have been found that carry cholera toxin genes (ctxAB) and cause cholera-like diarrhea in humans. Here, the genome of the V. mimicus isolate SX-4, which carries an intact CTX element, was sequenced and annotated. Analysis of its genome, together with those of other Vibrio species, revealed extensive differences within the Vibrionaceae. Common mutations in gene clusters involved in three biochemical metabolism pathways that are used for discrimination between V. mimicus and V. cholerae were found in V. mimicus strains. We also constructed detailed genomic structures and evolution maps for the general types of genomic drift associated with pathogenic characters in polysaccharides, CTX elements and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP) gene clusters. Overall, the whole-genome sequencing of the V. mimicus strain carrying the cholera toxin gene provides detailed information for understanding genomic differences among Vibrio spp. V. mimicus has a large number of diverse gene and nucleotide differences from its nearest neighbor, V. cholerae. The observed mutations in the characteristic metabolism pathways may indicate different adaptations to different niches for these species and may be caused by ancient events in evolution before the divergence of V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Horizontal transfers of virulence-related genes from an uncommon clone of V. cholerae, rather than the seventh pandemic strains, have generated the pathogenic V. mimicus strain carrying cholera toxin genes. PMID:21731695

  19. Genome sequencing reveals unique mutations in characteristic metabolic pathways and the transfer of virulence genes between V. mimicus and V. cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duochun Wang

    Full Text Available Vibrio mimicus, the species most similar to V. cholerae, is a microbe present in the natural environmental and sometimes causes diarrhea and internal infections in humans. It shows similar phenotypes to V. cholerae but differs in some biochemical characteristics. The molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in biochemical metabolism between V. mimicus and V. cholerae are currently unclear. Several V. mimicus isolates have been found that carry cholera toxin genes (ctxAB and cause cholera-like diarrhea in humans. Here, the genome of the V. mimicus isolate SX-4, which carries an intact CTX element, was sequenced and annotated. Analysis of its genome, together with those of other Vibrio species, revealed extensive differences within the Vibrionaceae. Common mutations in gene clusters involved in three biochemical metabolism pathways that are used for discrimination between V. mimicus and V. cholerae were found in V. mimicus strains. We also constructed detailed genomic structures and evolution maps for the general types of genomic drift associated with pathogenic characters in polysaccharides, CTX elements and toxin co-regulated pilus (TCP gene clusters. Overall, the whole-genome sequencing of the V. mimicus strain carrying the cholera toxin gene provides detailed information for understanding genomic differences among Vibrio spp. V. mimicus has a large number of diverse gene and nucleotide differences from its nearest neighbor, V. cholerae. The observed mutations in the characteristic metabolism pathways may indicate different adaptations to different niches for these species and may be caused by ancient events in evolution before the divergence of V. cholerae and V. mimicus. Horizontal transfers of virulence-related genes from an uncommon clone of V. cholerae, rather than the seventh pandemic strains, have generated the pathogenic V. mimicus strain carrying cholera toxin genes.

  20. Architecture of the superintegron in Vibrio cholerae: identification of core and unique genes [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/w6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel A Marin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is indigenous to aquatic environments. The V. cholerae genome consists of two chromosomes; the smallest of these harbors a large gene capture and excision system called the superintegron (SI, of ~120 kbp. The flexible nature of the SI that results from gene cassette capture, deletion and rearrangement is thought to make it a hotspot of V. cholerae diversity, but beyond the basic structure it is not clear if there is a core genome in the SI and if so how it is structured. The aim of this study was to explore the core genome structure and the differences in gene content among strains of V. cholerae. Methods: From the complete genomes of seven V. cholerae and one Vibrio mimicus representative strains, we recovered the SI sequences based on the locations of the structural gene IntI4 and the V. cholerae repeats. Analysis of the pangenome, including cluster analysis of functional genes, pangenome profile analysis, genetic variation analysis of functional genes, strain evolution analysis and function enrichment analysis of gene clusters, was performed using a pangenome analysis pipeline in addition to the R scripts, splitsTree4 and genoPlotR. Results and conclusions: Here, we reveal the genetic architecture of the V. cholerae SI. It contains eight core genes when V. mimicus is included and 21 core genes when only V. cholerae strains are considered; many of them are present in several copies. The V. cholerae SI has an open pangenome, which means that V. cholerae may be able to import new gene cassettes to SI. The set of dispensable SI genes is influenced by the niche and type species. The core genes are distributed along the SI, apparently without a position effect.

  1. Lack of Outer Membrane Protein A Enhances the Release of Outer Membrane Vesicles and Survival of Vibrio cholerae and Suppresses Viability of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Priya Valeru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, survives in aquatic environments. The bacterium has developed a survival strategy to grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. It has been shown that V. cholerae expresses outer membrane proteins as virulence factors playing a role in the adherence to interacted host cells. This study examined the role of outer membrane protein A (OmpA and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs in survival of V. cholerae alone and during its interaction with A. castellanii. The results showed that an OmpA mutant of V. cholerae survived longer than wild-type V. cholerae when cultivated alone. Cocultivation with A. castellanii enhanced the survival of both bacterial strains and OmpA protein exhibited no effect on attachment, engulfment, and survival inside the amoebae. However, cocultivation of the OmpA mutant of V. cholerae decreased the viability of A. castellanii and this bacterial strain released more OMVs than wild-type V. cholerae. Surprisingly, treatment of amoeba cells with OMVs isolated from the OmpA mutant significantly decreased viable counts of the amoeba cells. In conclusion, the results might highlight a regulating rule for OmpA in survival of V. cholerae and OMVs as a potent virulence factor for this bacterium towards eukaryotes in the environment.

  2. Enhanced Detection of Vibrio Cholerae in Oyster Homogenate Based on Centrifugal Removal of Inhibitory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Donita; DePaola, Angelo; Young, Ronald B.

    1998-01-01

    The disease cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, has been associated with consumption of contaminated seafood, including raw oysters. Detection of V. cholerae in foods typically involves blending the oysters, diluting the homogenate in alkaline peptone water (APW), overnight enrichment, and isolation on selective agar. Unfortunately, the oyster homogenate must be diluted to large volumes because lower dilutions inhibit the growth of V. cholerae. The goals of this study were to develop an alternative to large dilutions and to evaluate the basis for the inhibition observed in lower dilutions of oyster homogenates. Centrifugation of oyster homogenates at 10,000 x g for 15 min, followed by enrichment of the resulting pellet in APW, was found to eliminate the inhibition of V. cholerae growth. Inhibition appears not to be due to competing microflora but to a component(s) released when V. cholerae grows in the presence of oyster homogenate. The inhibitory component(s) kills the V. cholerae after the cell concentration reaches > 10(exp 8) cells/mL, rather than initially preventing their growth. The pH also declines from 8.0 to 5.5 during this period; however, the pH decline by itself appears not to cause V. cholerae death. Seven strains of V. cholerae (01 and non-01) and two strains of V. vulnificus were susceptible to the inhibitory agent(s). However, other Vibrio and non-Vibrio species tested were not inhibited by the oyster homogenates. Based on digestion of oyster homogenates with pronase, trypsin and lipase, the inhibitory reaction involves a protein(s). In a preliminary trial with oyster homogenate seeded with 1 cfu/g of V. cholerae, the modified centrifugation technique detected a slightly higher percentage of samples at a 1:10 dilution than the standard FDA Bacteriological Analytical Method (BAM) detected in uncentrifuged oyster homogenate at a 1:100 dilution. V. cholerae in seeded samples could also be detected more frequently by the modified centrifugation method

  3. Cloning of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane protein W in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Alizadeh; Reza Ranjbar; Mehdi Kamali; Nima Farhadi; Amin Davari; Nourkhoda Sadeghifard

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective The outer membrane protein W (ompW) of Vibrio cholerae is involved in stimulating the immune response via induction of protective immunity. It also plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis by increasing the adaptability of pathogenic strains. In this study we aimed to clone V. cholerae ompW gene in the strain X-33 of Pichia pastoris. Materials and Methods A gene encoding ompW was cloned into the Ppicza vector downstream of alcohol oxidase promoter. Then recom...

  4. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  5. Maladi Kolera PSA (:60) (Cholera)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about ways you can prevent the spread of cholera. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  6. Use of a Cholera Rapid Diagnostic Test during a Mass Vaccination Campaign in Response to an Epidemic in Guinea, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pino, Isabel; Luquero, Francisco J.; Sakoba, Kéïta; Sylla, Souleymane; Haile, Melatwork; Grais, Rebecca F.; Ciglenecki, Iza; Quilici, Marie-Laure; Page, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2012 cholera outbreak in the Republic of Guinea, the Ministry of Health, supported by Médecins Sans Frontières - Operational Center Geneva, used the oral cholera vaccine Shanchol as a part of the emergency response. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) Crystal VC, widely used during outbreaks, detects lipopolysaccharide antigens of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, both included in Shanchol. In the context of reactive use of a whole-cell cholera vaccine in a region where cholera cases have been reported, it is essential to know what proportion of vaccinated individuals would be reactive to the RDT and for how long after vaccination. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 108 vaccinated individuals, selected systematically among all persons older than one year, were included at vaccination sites and 106 were included in the analysis. Stools samples of this cohort of vaccinated participants were collected and tested with the RDT every day until the test was negative for two consecutive visits or for a maximum of 7 days. A total of 94.3% of cholera vaccine recipients had a positive test after vaccination; all except one of these positive results were reactive only with the O139 antigen. The mean time to become negative in those with an initial positive result after vaccination was 3.8 days, standard deviation 1.1 days. Conclusions/Significance The RDT Crystal VC becomes positive in persons recently vaccinated against cholera, although almost exclusively to the O139 antigen. This reactivity largely disappeared within five days after vaccination. These results suggest that the test can be used normally as soon as 24 hours after vaccination in a context of O1 epidemics, which represent the vast majority of cases, and after a period of five days in areas where V. cholerae O139 is present. The reason why only O139 test line became positive remains to be investigated. PMID:23967359

  7. RpoS controls the Vibrio cholerae mucosal escape response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Toftgaard Nielsen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae causes a severe diarrhoeal disease by secreting a toxin during colonization of the epithelium in the small intestine. Whereas the initial steps of the infectious process have been intensively studied, the last phases have received little attention. Confocal microscopy of V. cholerae O1-infected rabbit ileal loops captured a distinctive stage in the infectious process: 12 h post-inoculation, bacteria detach from the epithelial surface and move into the fluid-filled lumen. Designated the "mucosal escape response," this phenomenon requires RpoS, the stationary phase alternative sigma factor. Quantitative in vivo localization assays corroborated the rpoS phenotype and showed that it also requires HapR. Expression profiling of bacteria isolated from ileal loop fluid and mucus demonstrated a significant RpoS-dependent upregulation of many chemotaxis and motility genes coincident with the emigration of bacteria from the epithelial surface. In stationary phase cultures, RpoS was also required for upregulation of chemotaxis and motility genes, for production of flagella, and for movement of bacteria across low nutrient swarm plates. The hapR mutant produced near-normal numbers of flagellated cells, but was significantly less motile than the wild-type parent. During in vitro growth under virulence-inducing conditions, the rpoS mutant produced 10- to 100-fold more cholera toxin than the wild-type parent. Although the rpoS mutant caused only a small over-expression of the genes encoding cholera toxin in the ileal loop, it resulted in a 30% increase in fluid accumulation compared to the wild-type. Together, these results show that the mucosal escape response is orchestrated by an RpoS-dependent genetic program that activates chemotaxis and motility functions. This may furthermore coincide with reduced virulence gene expression, thus preparing the organism for the next stage in its life cycle.

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity of onion (allium cepa) against clinical isolates of vibrio cholera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries of the world. Bacterial resistance, lack of surveillance data and proper microbiological facilities are major problems regarding diagnosis of cholera. The spread of microbial drug resistance is a global public health challenge that results in increased illness and death rate. Newer antimicrobials or agents are urgently required to overcome this problem. This work was therefore done to investigate the antimicrobial potential of onion against thirty-three clinical isolates of Vibrio cholera. Methods: The extract was prepared by reflux extraction method. Antibacterial screening of clinical isolates of V. cholerae was done by agar well diffusion method. Agar dilution method was used to assess the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results: All tested strains of V. cholerae were sensitive to onion (Allium cepa) extracts of two types (purple and yellow). Purple type of extract had MIC range of 19.2-21.6 mg/ml. The extract of yellow type onion had an MIC range of 66-68.4 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicated that onion (Allium cepa) has an inhibitory effect on V. cholerae. Keeping in view the anti-bacterial activity of this compound can be exploited as a therapeutic agent in an animal model. This finding is a positive point for further investigation of this herb of traditional medicine. (author)

  9. Mlp24 (McpX) of Vibrio cholerae Implicated in Pathogenicity Functions as a Chemoreceptor for Multiple Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Nishiyama, So-ichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Itoh, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Kazuho; Tajima, Hirotaka; Hyakutake, Akihiro; Homma, Michio; Butler-Wu, Susan M.; Camilli, Andrew; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2012-01-01

    The chemotaxis of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, has been implicated in pathogenicity. The bacterium has more than 40 genes for methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP)-like proteins (MLPs). In this study, we found that glycine and at least 18 l-amino acids, including serine, arginine, asparagine, and proline, serve as attractants to the classical biotype strain O395N1. Based on the sequence comparison with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, we speculated that at least 17 MLPs of V. ...

  10. Toxin-coregulated pilus-loaded microparticles as a vaccine against Vibrio cholerae O139

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艳; 贾文祥; 刘莉

    2004-01-01

    @@ The cholera epidemics is an important public health problem in many developing countries. Highly effective and preventive vaccines against cholera are under investigation as alternatives to the one available presently. Much of the vaccine research focuses on colonization factors. Colonization of a human by the Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae Ol strain is mediated by toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), 1 which was shown to play a role in the infant mouse cholera model and subsequently in human volunteers. 2 TCP-loaded vaccines could potentially provide cross-protection among experimental strains. Data have indicated that poly (D,L-lactide)-polyethylene glycol copolymer (PELA)microparticles loaded antigens were strongly immunogenic, 3 and that these microparticles served as an effective delivery system for a single dose of vaccine. 4Microparticle formulation could represent the next generation of vaccines, as they are highly effective at delivery of vaccines, thus requiring fewer doses. 5 We prepared PELA microparticles loaded with TCP for testing as a vaccine; their targeting distributions were identified and related immune responses were analyzed.

  11. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium to potentiate immunoglobulin A responses to cholera toxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Simon, M V; Lee, J H; Ustunol, Z; Pestka, J J

    1999-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria have been reported to have benefits for the prevention and treatment of some forms of diarrhea and related conditions. To determine whether these effects might involve direct stimulation of the gastrointestinal immune response, we administered yogurt to try to enhance mucosal and systemic antibodies against an orally presented immunogen, cholera toxin. Yogurts were manufactured with starter cultures containing different species and strains of lactic acid bacteria. Mice were fed these yogurts for 3 wk, during which they were also orally immunized twice with 10 micrograms of cholera toxin. Blood was collected on d 0 and 21, and fecal pellets were collected weekly. Mice that were immunized orally with cholera toxin responded by producing specific intestinal and serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A anti-cholera toxin. Antibody responses of the IgA isotype were significantly increased in mice fed yogurts made with starters containing the conventional yogurt bacteria Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Yogurt that was manufactured with starters containing only conventional yogurt bacteria produced less IgA anti-cholera toxin than did the control group fed nonfat dry milk. Although strong responses were also observed for IgG anti-cholera toxin in serum, the responses did not differ among groups. Thus, administration of yogurt supplemented with L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. enhanced mucosal and systemic IgA responses to the cholera toxin immunogen. PMID:10212452

  12. Comparative genomics of 274 Vibrio cholerae genomes reveals mobile functions structuring three niche dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, Bas E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Vicente, Ana C P; Marin, Michel A; Lee, Clarence; Silva, Genivaldo G Z; Schmieder, Robert; Andrade, Bruno G N; Chimetto, Luciane; Cuevas, Daniel; Garza, Daniel R; Okeke, Iruka N; Aboderin, Aaron Oladipo; Spangler, Jessica; Ross, Tristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Fabiano L; Harkins, Timothy T; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio cholerae is a globally dispersed pathogen that has evolved with humans for centuries, but also includes non-pathogenic environmental strains. Here, we identify the genomic variability underlying this remarkable persistence across the three major niche dimensions space, time, and h

  13. Vibrio cholerae-induced inflammation in the neonatal mouse cholera model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Anne L; Patimalla, Bharathi; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the acute diarrheal disease of cholera. Innate immune responses to V. cholerae are not a major cause of cholera pathology, which is characterized by severe, watery diarrhea induced by the action of cholera toxin. Innate responses may, however, contribute to resolution of infection and must be required to initiate adaptive responses after natural infection and oral vaccination. Here we investigated whether a well-established infant mouse model of cholera can be used to observe an innate immune response. We also used a vaccination model in which immunized dams protect their pups from infection through breast milk antibodies to investigate innate immune responses after V. cholerae infection for pups suckled by an immune dam. At the peak of infection, we observed neutrophil recruitment accompanied by induction of KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), NOS-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17a. Pups suckled by an immunized dam did not mount this response. Accessory toxins RtxA and HlyA played no discernible role in neutrophil recruitment in a wild-type background. The innate response to V. cholerae deleted for cholera toxin-encoding phage (CTX) and part of rtxA was significantly reduced, suggesting a role for CTX-carried genes or for RtxA in the absence of cholera toxin (CTX). Two extracellular V. cholerae DNases were not required for neutrophil recruitment, but DNase-deficient V. cholerae caused more clouds of DNA in the intestinal lumen, which appeared to be neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), suggesting that V. cholerae DNases combat NETs. Thus, the infant mouse model has hitherto unrecognized utility for interrogating innate responses to V. cholerae infection. PMID:24686062

  14. 霍乱弧菌及其它致病弧菌分子遗传特征和DNA多态性研究%The inherent characteristics and DNA polymorphism of Vibrio cholerae and other vibrios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 李跃旗; 石建时; 李立新; 白文林; 虞爱华; 姜素椿

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inherent characteristics of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) and other vibrios and their relationship. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequence analysis, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and average linkage cluster analysis were used to study 3 isolates of V. cholerae strains O139, three isolates O1 biotype El Tor, four isolates O1 biotype classical and 3 other vibrios.Conclusion V. cholerae and other vibrios are polymorphic in inherent characteristics. The inherent characteristics of V. cholerae O139 are the same as El Tor biotype. O139 may have evolved from the El Tor biotype. The inherent characteristics of vibrio paraheamolyticus are the same as vibrio vulnificus.%目的探讨霍乱弧菌和其它致病弧菌分子遗传特征及相互关系.方法用聚合酶链反应(Polymerase chain reaction; PCR)、DNA 序列分析、随机扩增多态性 DNA (Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA; RAPD)和平均链锁聚类分析,对3株O139群霍乱弧菌、3株O1群 El Tor型、4株古典型和3株副溶血等致病弧菌进行检测.结果 O139群霍乱弧菌和O1群含有相同的霍乱肠毒素(CTX)A2-B亚单位基因, 核苷酸序列同源性为97.1%-98.9%.RAPD 将不同弧菌分成4类;即①O139群和El Tor型、②古典型、③副溶血和创伤弧菌及④河弧菌.O139群与O1群El Tor型DNA指纹图谱几乎完全一致,平均链锁距离为0,与古典型相似,平均链锁距离为2.07. 与副溶血等致病弧菌差别较大,平均链锁距离为6.76-8.54.结论 O139群霍乱弧菌与O1群El Tor型遗传特征相同,前者很可能由El Tor型进化而来.副溶血与创伤弧菌也具有相同遗传特征.霍乱弧菌和其它致病弧菌遗传特征表现出多态性.

  15. Repair of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage in cholera bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair-proficient and -deficient strains of Vibrio cholerae were used to examine host cell reactivation, Weigle reactivation and photoreactivation of u.v.-irradiated cholera bacteriophages. U.v. light-induced DNA damage in phages of different morphological and serological groups could be efficiently photoreactivated. Host cell reactivation of irradiated phages of different groups was different on the same indicator host. Phage phi149 was the most sensitive, and phi138 the most resistant to u.v. irradiation. While phi138 showed appreciable host cell reactivation, this was minimal for phi149. Attempts to demonstrate Weigle reactivation of u.v.-irradiated cholera phages were not successful, although u.v.-induced filamentation of host cells was observed. (author)

  16. Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles

    OpenAIRE

    StefanPukatzki; DanieleProvenzano

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and ...

  17. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  18. Specific Detection of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae Based on in situ PCR in Combination With Flow Cytometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ZHU; JUN-PENG CAI; QING CHEN; SHOU-YI YU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop an in situ PCR in combination with flow cytometry (ISPCR-FCM) for monitoring cholera toxin positive Vibrio cholerae. Methods In running this method, 4% paraformaldehyde was used to fix the Vibrio cholerae cells and 1 mg/mL lysozyme for 20 min to permeabilize the cells. Before the PCR thermal cycling, 2.5% glycerol was added into the PCR reaction mixture in order to protect the integrality of the cells. Results A length of 1037bp DNA sequence was amplified, which is specific for the cholera toxin gene (ctxAB gene). Cells subjected to ISPCR showed the presences of ctxAB gene both in epifiuorescence microscopy and in flow cytometric analysis. The specificity and sensitivity of the method were investigated. The sensitivity was relatively low (105 cells/mL), while the specificity was high. Conclusion We have successfully developed a new technique for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains. Further study is needed to enhance its sensitivities. ISPCR-FCM shows a great promise in monitoring specific bacteria and their physiological states in environmental samples.

  19. High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sealfon Rachel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x; four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Results Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961, 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Conclusions Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

  20. Would Cholera become a Neglected Tropical Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Bhola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a serious public health problem, particularly in Africa, Asia, South and Central America. Similar to the neglected tropical diseases (NTD, it is common in places with unsafe water, poor sanitation and limited access to the basic health care. In the concurrent times when the world is shrinking into a Global village, the definition of NTD itself has lost significance owing to rapid transmission of such diseases. Even, the cholera non-endemic developed countries in Europe, Russia and Oceania have become vulnerable to imported cholera. The seventh pandemic of cholera is in its 51st year without any sign of abatement despite improvements in sanitation, safe drinking water supply, promotion of oral rehydration therapy and availability of alternative preventive interventions like oral cholera vaccines. Cholera is markedly under reported due to a myriad of reasons including economic ones. The under reporting is also resulted from weakening surveillance system across countries which in turn contributes to changing perceptions and attitudes on burden of the disease and deteriorating public health services. In addition to this, lack of evidence-based sector wide programmatic approach and inequitable resource allocation for prevention and control of cholera may also risk the disease to become a NTD in future.

  1. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M

    1996-01-01

    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  2. Production of Vibrio cholerae accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    OpenAIRE

    Trucksis, M; Conn, T L; Fasano, A; Kaper, J B

    1997-01-01

    Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) is a recently identified toxin of Vibrio cholerae. Preliminary studies using crude toxin extracts in animal models indicate that Ace increases transcellular ion transport, which is proposed to contribute to diarrhea in cholera. The lack of purified toxin has hindered elucidation of the mechanism of action of Ace. In this study, ace was cloned and was expressed in and secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Secreted toxin constituted 50% of the...

  3. Investigation of water sources as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae in Bepanda, Douala and determination of physico-chemical factors maintaining its endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akoachere J.-F.K. Tatah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholera remains a significant cause of mortality in developing countries. Outbreaks of the disease are associated with poverty, lack of potable water and poor sanitation. The survival and persistence of Vibrio cholerae in water has been shown to depend on physico-chemical factors. We studied water sources in Bepanda, an overcrowded neighbourhood in Douala, Cameroon, with limited access to portable water and very poor sanitary conditions as reservoirs of V. cholerae. We analysed 318 samples from various sources (well, tap, stream from February to July 2009 using standard microbiological techniques and characterised isolates serologically using the polyvalent O1/O139 antisera. Susceptibility to antibiotics previously used for cholera treatment in Douala was studied using the disk diffusion method. Physico-chemical factors (temperature, pH and salinity that could maintain the endemicity of the organism were analysed using standard methods. Eighty-seven (27.4% samples were contaminated, with high isolation rates being obtained from streams (52.4% and wells (29.8%. The number of isolates was significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the rainy season (35.5%. We detected 23 (24% O1 serogroup isolates in streams and wells, whilst 64 (66.6% were non-O1/non-O139. Temperature and salinity correlated positively with the occurrence of the organisms. All isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolones but high resistance rates to trimethoprim or sulfamethozaxole and tetracycline were observed.Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Bepanda with O1 and non-O1/non-O139 serogroups co-existing in the streams and wells hence the possibility of future outbreaks of cholera if sanitation and drinking water quality are not improved. Temperature and salinity are amongst the factors maintaining the endemicity of the organism.

  4. Comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA for Detection of the Vibrio cholerae Toxin in Culture Supernatants of Bacteria Isolated from Human and Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Lucas, Antonio; Pérez-Villagómez, María-Fernanda; Martínez-López, José-Patricio; García-Rodea, Ricardo; Martínez-Castelán, María-Guadalupe; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; de-la-Rosa-Arana, Jorge-Luis; Villanueva-Zamudio, Altagracia

    2016-09-01

    A comparison of DOT-ELISA and Standard-ELISA was made for detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin in culture supernatants of bacteria isolated from human and environmental samples. A total of 293 supernatants were tested in a double blind assay. A correlation of 100 % was obtained between both techniques. The cholera toxin was found in 20 Inaba and 3 Ogawa strains. Positive samples were from seafood (17 samples), potable water (1 sample) and sewage (5 samples). The DOT-ELISA was useful as the standard-ELISA to confirm the presence of cholera toxin in the environmental samples. PMID:27407304

  5. Typing and Antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pune: A 3 Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palewar, Meghna S; Choure, Archana C; Mudshingkar, Swati; Dohe, Vaishali; Kagal, Anju; Bhardwaj, Renu; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was done over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) in a tertiary care hospital, Pune, to note the changes in the prevalence and distribution of biotypes, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and phage types of Vibrio cholerae isolates from clinical samples so as to be vigilant and curtail major outbreak in future. Vibrio cholerae isolates were obtained from 4.4% of the 1126 fecal specimens processed from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Majority of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa (98%); Phage 27 was the predominant type (77.5%). Majority of the cases were encountered during the months June-August (68%). Antibiogram over a period of 3 years showed that isolates were consistently resistant to Ampicillin (90%) and Furazolidone (88%). Low level of resistance was seen with Norfloxacin (8%), Gentamicin (8%) and Tetracycline (6%). All isolates were susceptible to Chloramphenicol. PMID:25722619

  6. Typing and antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Pune: A 3 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna S Palewar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis was done over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012 in a tertiary care hospital, Pune, to note the changes in the prevalence and distribution of biotypes, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and phage types of Vibrio cholerae isolates from clinical samples so as to be vigilant and curtail major outbreak in future. Vibrio cholerae isolates were obtained from 4.4% of the 1126 fecal specimens processed from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Majority of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa (98%; Phage 27 was the predominant type (77.5%. Majority of the cases were encountered during the months June-August (68%. Antibiogram over a period of 3 years showed that isolates were consistently resistant to Ampicillin (90% and Furazolidone (88%. Low level of resistance was seen with Norfloxacin (8%, Gentamicin (8% and Tetracycline (6%. All isolates were susceptible to Chloramphenicol.

  7. The antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles against Vibrio cholerae: Variation in response depends on biotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Shamila; Chakraborti, Soumyananda; Bera, Supriyo; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2016-08-01

    The potency of zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs), with a core size of ~7-10nm, to inhibit cholera disease was investigated by demonstrating the effect on two biotypes (classical and El Tor) of O1 serogroup of Vibrio cholerae-El Tor was more susceptible both in planktonic and in biofilm forms. Interaction with ZnO NP results in deformed cellular architecture. Increased fluidity and depolarization of membrane, and protein leakage further confirmed the damages inflicted on Vibrio by NP. NP was shown to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce DNA damage. These results suggest that the antibacterial mechanism of ZnO action is most likely due to generation of ROS and disruption of bacterial membrane. The antimicrobial efficacy of NP has been validated in animal model. The synergistic action of NP and antibiotic suggests an alternative for the treatment of cholera. PMID:26970029

  8. DNA damage and reactive nitrogen species are barriers to Vibrio cholerae colonization of the infant mouse intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W Davies

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ingested Vibrio cholerae pass through the stomach and colonize the small intestines of its host. Here, we show that V. cholerae requires at least two types of DNA repair systems to efficiently compete for colonization of the infant mouse intestine. These results show that V. cholerae experiences increased DNA damage in the murine gastrointestinal tract. Agreeing with this, we show that passage through the murine gut increases the mutation frequency of V. cholerae compared to liquid culture passage. Our genetic analysis identifies known and novel defense enzymes required for detoxifying reactive nitrogen species (but not reactive oxygen species that are also required for V. cholerae to efficiently colonize the infant mouse intestine, pointing to reactive nitrogen species as the potential cause of DNA damage. We demonstrate that potential reactive nitrogen species deleterious for V. cholerae are not generated by host inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS activity and instead may be derived from acidified nitrite in the stomach. Agreeing with this hypothesis, we show that strains deficient in DNA repair or reactive nitrogen species defense that are defective in intestinal colonization have decreased growth or increased mutation frequency in acidified nitrite containing media. Moreover, we demonstrate that neutralizing stomach acid rescues the colonization defect of the DNA repair and reactive nitrogen species defense defective mutants suggesting a common defense pathway for these mutants.

  9. Signaling beyond Punching Holes: Modulation of Cellular Responses by Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha Khilwani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pore-forming toxins (PFTs are a distinct class of membrane-damaging cytolytic proteins that contribute significantly towards the virulence processes employed by various pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC is a prominent member of the beta-barrel PFT (beta-PFT family. It is secreted by most of the pathogenic strains of the intestinal pathogen V. cholerae. Owing to its potent membrane-damaging cell-killing activity, VCC is believed to play critical roles in V. cholerae pathogenesis, particularly in those strains that lack the cholera toxin. Large numbers of studies have explored the mechanistic basis of the cell-killing activity of VCC. Consistent with the beta-PFT mode of action, VCC has been shown to act on the target cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores, thereby leading to permeabilization of the target cell membranes. Apart from the pore-formation-induced direct cell-killing action, VCC exhibits the potential to initiate a plethora of signal transduction pathways that may lead to apoptosis, or may act to enhance the cell survival/activation responses, depending on the type of target cells. In this review, we will present a concise view of our current understanding regarding the multiple aspects of these cellular responses, and their underlying signaling mechanisms, evoked by VCC.

  10. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  11. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERA INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association or modification of antecedent growth conditions. uring the course of investigating a major waterborne V. Cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA investigat...

  12. FOWL CHOLERA IN A BREEDER FLOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Parveen, A. A. Nasir, K.Tasneem and A. Shah

    2003-01-01

    During January, 2003 Pasteurella multocida the causative agent of fowl cholera was isolated from a breeder flock in Lahore District. The age of the flock was 245 days. Increased mortality, swollen wattles and lameness were the clinical findings present in almost all the affected birds, while gross lesions were typical of fowl cholera. To prove the virulence of the organism, mice and six-week old cockerals were infected and P. multocida was reisolated.

  13. Enhancement of enterotoxin production by carbon dioxide in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimamura, T; Watanabe, S; Sasaki, S.

    1985-01-01

    We found that Vibrio cholerae 569B produced much more cholera enterotoxin in the presence of added carbon dioxide than in its absence. An atmosphere of 10% carbon dioxide was optimal for maximal enterotoxin production.

  14. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERNÁNDEZ-DELGADO, Milagro; ROJAS, Héctor; DUQUE, Zoilabet; SUÁREZ, Paula; CONTRERAS, Monica; GARCÍA-AMADO, M. Alexandra; ALCIATURI, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing. PMID:27253749

  15. BIOFILM FORMATION OF Vibrio cholerae ON STAINLESS STEEL USED IN FOOD PROCESSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado, Milagro; Rojas, Héctor; Duque, Zoilabet; Suárez, Paula; Contreras, Monica; García-Amado, M Alexandra; Alciaturi, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents a significant threat to human health in developing countries. This pathogen forms biofilms which favors its attachment to surfaces and its survival and transmission by water or food. This work evaluated the in vitro biofilm formation of V. cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources on stainless steel of the type used in food processing by using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Results showed no cell adhesion at 4 h and scarce surface colonization at 24 h. Biofilms from the environmental strain were observed at 48 h with high cellular aggregations embedded in Vibrio exopolysaccharide (VPS), while less confluence and VPS production with microcolonies of elongated cells were observed in biofilms produced by the clinical strain. At 96 h the biofilms of the environmental strain were released from the surface leaving coccoid cells and residual structures, whereas biofilms of the clinical strain formed highly organized structures such as channels, mushroom-like and pillars. This is the first study that has shown the in vitro ability of V. cholerae to colonize and form biofilms on stainless steel used in food processing. PMID:27253749

  16. Does Water Hyacinth on East African Lakes Promote Cholera Outbreaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Tabu, Collins W.; Gichuki, John

    2010-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7...

  17. Comparing sociocultural features of cholera in three endemic African settings

    OpenAIRE

    Schaetti, Christian; Sundaram, Neisha; Merten, Sonja; Ali, Said M; Nyambedha, Erick O; Lapika, Bruno; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cholera mainly affects developing countries where safe water supply and sanitation infrastructure are often rudimentary. Sub-Saharan Africa is a cholera hotspot. Effective cholera control requires not only a professional assessment, but also consideration of community-based priorities. The present work compares local sociocultural features of endemic cholera in urban and rural sites from three field studies in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), western Kenya and Za...

  18. A Survey of Etiologic , Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Cholera in Province Hamadan Epidemy in 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keramt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is a disease with acute diarrhea caused by vibrio cholera which it’s serogroups O1 is more responsible for several epidemy in numerous countries . There are two biotypes classic and eltor that has three serotypes ogawa , inaba and hikojima . This survey with beginning cholera epidemy in Hamadan was performed with aim to investigation etiology , clinical manifestation and laboratory findings in referred patients to health services in Hamadan province. The method of survey was descriptive cross-sectional research and were done in summer and autumn 1998. We described all of patients with acute diarrhea that were done culture from rectal swabs in TCBS (thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar medium. From 718 positive cultures one hundred culture were chosen randomly and antibiogram test was performed for 10 current antibiotics. From 27380 patients were done rectal swabs in TCBS medium that 718 cases (2.6% were positive culture which all of identified vibrio cholera seogroup O1 (with Eltor biotype and ogawa serotype. The patients were 50.6% male and 49.4% female. The most frequency in 20-29 years and 10-19 years age groups were 22.7% 17.7% respectively. The most frequency of cholera was seen in months August and September 65% and 28.5% respectively. The patients were admitted in hospital 18% cases and 82% cases were treated out patient. In the admitted patients(129 cases had afebrile 95.3% , rice watery diarrhea 94.6% , vomiting 68.2% , abdominal pain 45.7%. Laboratory findings were leukocytosis 77.5% , hypokalemia 61.9%. WBC 21.7% and RBC10.1% was reported in stool examination. In antibiogram the most resistancy was reported to co-trimoxazole and furazolidone 99% and 98% respectively and most sensitivity to ciprofloxacine , nalidixic acid , tubromycin , doxycyline was reported 99% , 98% , 93% , 85% respectively. 5 cases (0.7% were died due to acute renal failure. Leukocytosis , WBC and RBC in stool examination of some patients showed

  19. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930... cholerae serological reagents. (a) Identification. Vibrio cholerae serological reagents are devices that are used in the agglutination (an antigen-antibody clumping reaction) test to identify Vibrio...

  20. Highly Potent, Chemically Stable Quorum Sensing Agonists for Vibrio Cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Lark J; Karagounis, Theodora K.; Hurley, Amanda; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Vibrio cholerae pathogen, initiation of bacterial quorum sensing pathways serves to suppress virulence. We describe herein a potent and chemically stable small molecule agonist of V. cholerae quorum sensing, which was identified through rational drug design based on the native quorum sensing signal. This novel agonist may serve as a useful lead compound for the control of virulence in V. cholerae.

  1. Repair of ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repair of ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in a highly pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, has been examined. All three strains of V. cholerae belonging to two serotypes, Inaba and Ogawa, are very sensitive to ultraviolet irradiation, having inactivation cross-sections ranging from 0.18 to 0.24 m2/J. Although these cells are proficient in repairing the DNA damage by a photoreactivation mechanism, they do not possess efficient dark repair systems. The mild toxinogenic strain 154 of classical Vibrios presumably lacks any excision repair mechanism and studies of irradiated cell DNA indicate that the ultraviolet-induced pyrimidine dimers may not be excised. Ultraviolet-irradiated cells after saturation of dark repair can be further photoreactivated. (Auth.)

  2. Sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae O139 by loop-mediated isothermal amplification%应用环介导等温扩增法快速检测O139群霍乱弧菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱水荣; 陈寅; 王志刚; 张政; 朱敏; 卢亦愚

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid diag-nosing Vibrio cholerae O139 in inspection department and small-scale laboratory. Methods Four primers (2 inner primer and 2 outer primer) for the LAMP test were designed by targeting the wbfR gene of Vibrio chol-erae O139, and the reaction condition and reaction system of LAMP were optimized. Thirty Vibrio cholerae O139, 13 Vibrio cholerae reference strains, 10 O1 biotype Vibrio cholera* and 32 other enterobacterias were analyzed and the LAMP results were determined by visual inspection or electrophoretie analysis . Results All of the Vibrio cholerae O139's amplification products were observed as green by visual inspection and had a ladder-like pattern on the gel, but O1 biotype Vibrio cholera* and other enterobacteria's products were dis-played as orange by visual examination and had no ladder-like pattern on the gel. In addition, the reaction time of the LAMP method was only 1.5 h and the detection limit of this assay was 63 CFU/reaction. Con-clnsion LAMP assay targeting the wbfR gene of Vibrio cholera* O139 is rapid, specific, and sensitive for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O139. This method not only reduced the dependence of complicated equip-ment but also had a potential for wider use in inspection department, small-scale laboratory, emergency mo-tor vehicles and field survey.%目的 建立一种适合基层检验部门及小型实验室使用的快速检测O139群霍乱弧菌的方法.方法 应用环介导等温扩增技术(loop-mediated isothermal amplification,LAMP),针对O139霍乱弧菌wbfR基因设计4条引物(2条内引物、2条外引物);优化LAMP反应条件和反应体系,对反应体系中的引物、dNTP、Mg2+/Mn2+离子及Calcium等浓度进行优化;并对13株种系背景明确的霍乱弧菌不同实验对照株、30株O139群霍乱弧菌地方分离株、10株O1群霍乱弧菌地方分离株、32株其他肠道菌进行检测,验证该方法的特异

  3. Cholera in Pregnancy: Outcomes from a Specialized Cholera Treatment Unit for Pregnant Women in Léogâne, Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Ciglenecki, Iza; Bichet, Mathieu; Tena, Javier; Mondesir, Erneau; Bastard, Mathieu; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Antierens, Annick; Staderini, Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between cholera in pregnancy and negative fetal outcome has been described since the 19th century. However, there is limited published literature on the subject. We describe pregnancy outcomes from a specialized multidisciplinary hospital unit at the onset of a large cholera outbreak in Haiti in 2010 and 2011. Methods Pregnant women with cholera were hospitalized in a specialized unit within the MSF hospital compound in Léogâne and treated using standard cholera tre...

  4. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae from the brain of a feedlot heifer with meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jamie M; Hyatt, Doreene R; Bolte, Denise; Pandher, Karamjeet

    2006-11-01

    A 700-pound, 9-month-old Angus heifer from a feedlot presented with acute neurologic signs, characterized by circling, posterior weakness, and nonresponsiveness, followed by death. Histologically, the frontal lobe and the thalamus contained multiple foci of liquefaction that contained numerous degenerative neutrophils and foamy macrophages. Some of these foci were centered on blood vessels that contained fibrin thrombi and exhibited varying degrees of fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall. There was adjacent axonal degeneration and neuronal necrosis characterized by pronounced cytoplasmic eosinophilia, peripheralization of the nuclei, and loss of Nissl substance. Aerobic culture of the brain yielded moderate growth of Vibrio species, which was determined to be Vibrio cholerae by polymerase chain reaction analysis of a 438-base pair fragment of the 16 S ribosomal RNA gene. V. cholerae are motile, gram-negative, curved rod-shaped bacteria. Some strains of V. cholerae are important food- and water-borne bacterial pathogens that produce an often fatal diarrhea in humans. This is the first known case report of V. cholerae meningoencephalitis and cerebral abscessation in a bovine. PMID:17121090

  5. Bile Salts Modulate the Mucin-Activated Type VI Secretion System of Pandemic Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Bachmann

    Full Text Available The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, regulates its diverse virulence factors to thrive in the human small intestine and environmental reservoirs. Among this pathogen's arsenal of virulence factors is the tightly regulated type VI secretion system (T6SS. This system acts as an inverted bacteriophage to inject toxins into competing bacteria and eukaryotic phagocytes. V. cholerae strains responsible for the current 7th pandemic activate their T6SS within the host. We established that T6SS-mediated competition occurs upon T6SS activation in the infant mouse, and that this system is functional under anaerobic conditions. When investigating the intestinal host factors mucins (a glycoprotein component of mucus and bile for potential regulatory roles in controlling the T6SS, we discovered that once mucins activate the T6SS, bile acids can further modulate T6SS activity. Microbiota modify bile acids to inhibit T6SS-mediated killing of commensal bacteria. This interplay is a novel interaction between commensal bacteria, host factors, and the V. cholerae T6SS, showing an active host role in infection.

  6. A mutation in the dam gene of Vibrio cholerae: 2-aminopurine sensitivity with intact GATC methylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vibrio cholerae mutants sensitive to 2-aminopurine (2AP) but with DNA adenine methylase activity similar to parental cells have been isolated. The mutant strains were sensitive to ultraviolet light (UV), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and 9-aminoacridine. The spontaneous mutation frequency of the mutants were not significantly affected. Attempts to isolate dam V. cholerae cells by screening 2AP sensitive cells have not been successful. All the mutant phenotypes could be suppressed by introducing the plasmid pRB103 carrying the dam gene of Escherichia coli into the mutant cells

  7. Cloning of Vibrio cholerae outer membrane protein W in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Alizadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The outer membrane protein W (ompW of Vibrio cholerae is involved in stimulating the immune response via induction of protective immunity. It also plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis by increasing the adaptability of pathogenic strains. In this study we aimed to clone V. cholerae ompW gene in the strain X-33 of Pichia pastoris.A gene encoding ompW was cloned into the Ppicza vector downstream of alcohol oxidase promoter. Then recombinant vector was transformed into the genome of the strain X-33 of P. pastoris. After growth of zeocin-resistant transformants, clones were selected and subsequently confirmed for cloning by PCR enzymatic digestion and sequencing.PCR, enzymatic digestion and sequencing showed that the ompW gene was correctly cloned into P. pastoris genome.Results of our study showed that the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris can be considered as an appropriate host instead of mammalian and prokaryotic systems for cloning of ompW. As far as data show, this is the first time that ompW of V. cholera is cloned into the methylotrophic P. pastoris.

  8. Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Tabu, Collins W; Gichuki, John

    2010-08-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa. PMID:20682884

  9. Vibrio cholerae as a predator: lessons from evolutionary principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StefanPukatzki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are the second-most common cause of death among children under the age of five worldwide. Cholera alone, caused by the marine bacterium Vibrio cholerae, is responsible for several million cases and over 120,000 deaths annually. When contaminated water is ingested, V. cholerae passes through the gastric acid barrier, penetrates the mucin layer of the small intestine, and adheres to the underlying epithelial lining. V. cholerae multiplies rapidly, secretes cholera toxin, and exits the human host in vast numbers during diarrheal purges. How V. cholerae rapidly reaches such high numbers during each purge is not clearly understood. We propose that V. cholerae employs its bactericidal type VI secretion system to engage in intraspecies and intraguild predation for nutrient acquisition to support rapid growth and multiplication.

  10. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A.; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187

  11. The case for reactive mass oral cholera vaccinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Reyburn

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs. In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera outbreaks. To evaluate the potential benefit of this pivotal change in WHO policy, we used existing data from cholera outbreaks to simulate the number of cholera cases preventable by reactive mass vaccination. METHODS: Datasets of cholera outbreaks from three sites with varying cholera endemicity--Zimbabwe, Kolkata (India, and Zanzibar (Tanzania--were analysed to estimate the number of cholera cases preventable under differing response times, vaccine coverage, and vaccine doses. FINDINGS: The large cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe started in mid August 2008 and by July 2009, 98,591 cholera cases had been reported with 4,288 deaths attributed to cholera. If a rapid response had taken place and half of the population had been vaccinated once the first 400 cases had occurred, as many as 34,900 (40% cholera cases and 1,695 deaths (40% could have been prevented. In the sites with endemic cholera, Kolkata and Zanzibar, a significant number of cases could have been prevented but the impact would have been less dramatic. A brisk response is required for outbreaks with the majority of cases occurring during the early weeks. Even a delayed response can save a substantial number of cases and deaths in long, drawn-out outbreaks. If circumstances prevent a rapid response there are good reasons to roll out cholera mass vaccination campaigns well into the outbreak. Once a substantial proportion of a population is vaccinated, outbreaks in subsequent years may be reduced if not

  12. Relationship between Distinct African Cholera Epidemics Revealed via MLVA Haplotyping of 337 Vibrio cholerae Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Moore

    Full Text Available Since cholera appeared in Africa during the 1970s, cases have been reported on the continent every year. In Sub-Saharan Africa, cholera outbreaks primarily cluster at certain hotspots including the African Great Lakes Region and West Africa.In this study, we applied MLVA (Multi-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis typing of 337 Vibrio cholerae isolates from recent cholera epidemics in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, Zambia, Guinea and Togo. We aimed to assess the relationship between outbreaks. Applying this method, we identified 89 unique MLVA haplotypes across our isolate collection. MLVA typing revealed the short-term divergence and microevolution of these Vibrio cholerae populations to provide insight into the dynamics of cholera outbreaks in each country. Our analyses also revealed strong geographical clustering. Isolates from the African Great Lakes Region (DRC and Zambia formed a closely related group, while West African isolates (Togo and Guinea constituted a separate cluster. At a country-level scale our analyses revealed several distinct MLVA groups, most notably DRC 2011/2012, DRC 2009, Zambia 2012 and Guinea 2012. We also found that certain MLVA types collected in the DRC persisted in the country for several years, occasionally giving rise to expansive epidemics. Finally, we found that the six environmental isolates in our panel were unrelated to the epidemic isolates.To effectively combat the disease, it is critical to understand the mechanisms of cholera emergence and diffusion in a region-specific manner. Overall, these findings demonstrate the relationship between distinct epidemics in West Africa and the African Great Lakes Region. This study also highlights the importance of monitoring and analyzing Vibrio cholerae isolates.

  13. Maladi Kolera 2 PSA (:30) (Cholera 2)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about cholera prevention and food preparation tips you can use to prevent the spread of disease. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  14. Maladi Kolera 1 PSA (:30) (Cholera 1)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about cholera symptoms and ways you can prevent the spread of disease. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  15. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  16. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  17. Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuet Aumatell C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Masuet Aumatell1, JM Ramon Torrell1, Jane N Zuckerman21International Health Centre, Preventive Medicine Department, Bellvitge Hospital, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 2World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference, Research and Training in Travel Medicine, University College London Medical School, London, UKBackground: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation.Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children.Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms “oral cholera vaccines,” “children,” and “efficacy,” limited to “clinical trials” and “human studies”.Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization.Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit.Keywords: efficacy, oral cholera vaccine, children

  18. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace of Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaya Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  19. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  20. Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae G4222, a South African Clinical Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    le Roux, Wouter J.; Chan, Wai Yin; De Maayer, Pieter; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, a Gram-negative pathogen autochthonous to the aquatic environment, is the causative agent of cholera. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae G4222, a clinical isolate from South Africa.

  1. Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Responses Induced by Outer Membrane Vesicle-Associated Biologically Active Proteases from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ayan; Tapader, Rima; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Ghosh, Amit; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta; Saha, Dhira Rani; Chakrabarti, Manoj K; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Pal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    Proteases in Vibrio cholerae have been shown to play a role in its pathogenesis. V. cholerae secretes Zn-dependent hemagglutinin protease (HAP) and calcium-dependent trypsin-like serine protease (VesC) by using the type II secretion system (TIISS). Our present studies demonstrated that these proteases are also secreted in association with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and transported to human intestinal epithelial cells in an active form. OMV-associated HAP induces dose-dependent apoptosis in Int407 cells and an enterotoxic response in the mouse ileal loop (MIL) assay, whereas OMV-associated VesC showed a hemorrhagic fluid response in the MIL assay, necrosis in Int407 cells, and an increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) response in T84 cells, which were significantly reduced in OMVs from VesC mutant strain. Our results also showed that serine protease VesC plays a role in intestinal colonization of V. cholerae strains in adult mice. In conclusion, our study shows that V. cholerae OMVs secrete biologically active proteases which may play a role in cytotoxic and inflammatory responses. PMID:26930702

  2. Ecología de Vibrio cholerae en relación al Fitoplancton y variables fisicoquímicas en ríos de Tucumán (Argentina Ecology of Vibrio cholerae in relation to phytoplankton and physico-chemical variables in rivers of Tucumán (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mirande

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae muestra gran diversidad serológica en base a su antígeno somático O, conociéndose al menos 200 serogrupos. De éstos, solamente O1 y O139 son causantes de epidemias o pandemias. En Latinoamérica el serogrupo O1 reapareció en 1991, tras cien años de no presentar brotes en el continente. Esta bacteria sobrevive y se multiplica asociada al plancton, independientemente de la aparición de infecciones humanas. Desde la década del noventa, en Tucumán, se detectaron casos esporádicos de diarrea por Vibrio cholerae no-O1. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la posible relación entre la presencia de especímenes de fitoplancton, variables fisicoquímicas y aislamientos de Vibrio cholerae en ríos de Tucumán. Se realizaron 18 campañas en los ríos Lules y Salí entre 2003-2005. Se estudiaron las variables fisicoquímicas del agua (pH, temperatura, conductividad y oxígeno disuelto, el fitoplancton (riqueza y frecuencia relativa y las cepas aisladas de V. cholerae. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias en la calidad del agua, observándose períodos de anoxia en el río Salí. Las diatomeas sobresalieron en la mayoría de los meses y generalmente estuvieron en porcentajes superiores al 85 %. Sólo se aisló Vibrio cholerae no-O1, no-O139, detectándose más frecuentemente en los meses cálidos, con pH alcalino, aún con baja concentración de oxígeno.Vibrio cholerae shows a great serologic diversity in relation to his O somatic antigen and we know at least 200 serogroups. About these, only O1 and O139 are responsible of epidemics and pandemics. The serogroup O1 reemerged in Latin America in 1991 after being absent from the continent for nearly a century. This bacterium survives and grows up associated to plankton, independently of appearance of human infections. From 90 th decade, there were sporadic cases of diarrhea because of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Tucumán. The aims of this paper were to study the possible

  3. Introduction on molecular biological techniques for Vibrio cholerae%霍乱弧菌分子生物学检测技术介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊长辉

    2012-01-01

    随着医学分子生物学的迅速发展,大量的分子生物学技术被用于霍乱弧菌的研究,为霍乱弧菌快速检测及分型提供了重要依据,也进一步从分子水平阐明了霍乱弧菌的变异和不同菌株之间的遗传关系,以及霍乱疫情的溯源、菌株类型和流行性质.%Molecular biological techniques provide an important basis for the rapid detection of Vibrio cholerae with the rapid development of Medical Molecular Biology, increasing number of molecular biology techniques were used to detect Vibrio cholerae variation and genetic relationships between different strains, the origin, strain type and nature of the epidemic cholera.

  4. SURVEY ON V. CHOLERAE, V. VULNIFICUS AND V. PARAHAEMOLYTICUS IN BIVALVE MOLLUSCS OF THE ADRIATIC SEA AND PROPOSAL OF AN ANALYTICAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Valeri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve molluscs from Adriatic sea were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae e V. vulnificus presence. The isolates on TCBS Agar and m-CPC Agar were selected on the basis of a new biochemical screening, that showed a good performance, because among 2344 strains from primary culture only 237 (10% were presumptively assigned to the species of interest. The PCR analyses was performed for the target genes toxR hlyA, ctxA, tcpI (V. cholerae, toxR, tl, tdh, trh (V. parahaemolyticus, vvhA and viuB (V. vulnificus. Among the 9 strains confirmed to belong to V. parahaemolyticus specie, 6 were sucrose positive. On 215 samples of molluscs only 5 resulted positive for V. parahaemolyticus being toxR+, tl+, although non pathogenic (tdh-, trh-, and none for V. cholerae e V. vulnificus.

  5. Epidemic cholera in Ecuador: multidrug-resistance and transmission by water and seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J T; Mintz, E D; Cañizares, R; Semiglia, A; Gomez, I; Sempértegui, R; Dávila, A; Greene, K D; Puhr, N D; Cameron, D N

    1994-02-01

    To determine risk factors for cholera in an epidemic-disease area in South America, a case-control investigation was performed in Guayaquil, Ecuador, in July 1991. Residents > 5 years old who were hospitalized for treatment of acute, watery diarrhoea and two matched controls for each were interviewed regarding sources of water and food, and eating, drinking, and hygienic habits. Interviewers inspected homes of case-patients and controls to document water treatment, food-handling, and hygienic practices. Faecal specimens and shellfish were cultured for Vibrio cholerae O 1. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to a variety of antimicrobial agents. Drinking unboiled water (odds ratio [OR] = 4.0, confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-7.5), drinking a beverage from a street vendor (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.3-5.9), eating raw seafood (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.4-11.5), and eating cooked crab (OR = 5.1, CI = 1.4-19.2) were associated with illness. Always boiling drinking water at home (OR = 0.5, CI = 0.2-0.9) was protective against illness. The presence of soap in either the kitchen (OR = 0.3, CI = 0.2-0.8) or bathroom (OR = 0.4, CI = 0.2-0.9) at home was also protective. V. cholerae O 1 was recovered from a pooled sample of a bivalve mollusc and from 68% of stool samples from case-patients. Thirty-six percent of the isolates from stool specimens were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. Specific prevention measures may prevent transmission through these vehicles in the future. The appearance of antimicrobial resistance suggests the need for changes in current methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:8119348

  6. Detection and identification of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139 using oligonucleotide microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zheng

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid and accurate detection and identification of the new subtype of the pathogens is crucial for diagnosis, treatment and control of the contagious disease outbreak. Here, in this study, an approach to detect and identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139 was established using oligonucleotide microarray. We coupled multiplex PCR with oligonucleotide microarray to construct an assay suitable for simultaneous identification of two subtypes of the pathogens. Results The stx1, stx2 gene and uidA gene having the specific mutant spot were chosen as the targets for Escherichia coli O157:H7, and meanwhile the ctxA, tcpA, and LPSgt gene for Vibrio cholerae O139. The oligonucleotide microarray was composed of eight probes including negative control and positive control from 16S rDNA gene. The six primers were designed to amplify target fragments in two triplex PCR, and then hybridized with oligonucleotide microarray. An internal control would be to run a PCR reaction in parallel. Multiplex PCR did not produce any non-specific amplicons when 149 related species or genera of standard bacteria were tested (100% specificity. In addition, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Escherichia coli O157:non-H7, Vibrio cholerae O139 and Vibrio cholerae O1 had been discriminated respectively. Using recombinant plasmid and target pathogens, we were able to detect positive hybridization signals with 102 copies/μL and 103 cfu/mL per reaction. Conclusion The DNA microarray assay reported here could detect and identify Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Vibrio cholerae O139, and furthermore the subtype was distinguished. This assay was a specific and sensitive tool for simultaneous detection and identification of the new subtype of two pathogens causing diarrhea in human.

  7. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  8. Spatially explicit modelling of cholera epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, F.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Knox, A. C.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models can provide crucial understanding about the dynamics of infectious diseases. Possible applications range from real-time forecasting and allocation of health care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. We apply a spatially explicit model to the cholera epidemic that struck Haiti in October 2010 and is still ongoing. The dynamics of susceptibles as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic infectives are modelled at the scale of local human communities. Dissemination of Vibrio cholerae through hydrological transport and human mobility along the road network is explicitly taken into account, as well as the effect of rainfall as a driver of increasing disease incidence. The model is calibrated using a dataset of reported cholera cases. We further model the long term impact of several types of interventions on the disease dynamics by varying parameters appropriately. Key epidemiological mechanisms and parameters which affect the efficiency of treatments such as antibiotics are identified. Our results lead to conclusions about the influence of different intervention strategies on the overall epidemiological dynamics.

  9. Mapping to Support Fine Scale Epidemiological Cholera Investigations: A Case Study of Spatial Video in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew; Blackburn, Jason K; Smiley, Sarah L; Yen, Minmin; Camilli, Andrew; Alam, Meer Taifur; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The cartographic challenge in many developing world environments suffering a high disease burden is a lack of granular environmental covariates suitable for modeling disease outcomes. As a result, epidemiological questions, such as how disease diffuses at intra urban scales are extremely difficult to answer. This paper presents a novel geospatial methodology, spatial video, which can be used to collect and map environmental covariates, while also supporting field epidemiology. An example of epidemic cholera in a coastal town of Haiti is used to illustrate the potential of this new method. Water risks from a 2012 spatial video collection are used to guide a 2014 survey, which concurrently included the collection of water samples, two of which resulted in positive lab results "of interest" (bacteriophage specific for clinical cholera strains) to the current cholera situation. By overlaying sample sites on 2012 water risk maps, a further fifteen proposed water sample locations are suggested. These resulted in a third spatial video survey and an additional "of interest" positive water sample. A potential spatial connection between the "of interest" water samples is suggested. The paper concludes with how spatial video can be an integral part of future fine-scale epidemiological investigations for different pathogens. PMID:26848672

  10. Pasteurella multocida from outbreaks of avian cholera in wild and captive birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Jørgensen, J.C.; Christensen, T.K.; Bregnballe, T.; Andersen, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    An outbreak of avian cholera was observed among wild birds in a few localities in Denmark in 2001. The highest mortalities were among breeding ciders (Somateria mollissima) and gulls (Larus spp.). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted using ApaI and SmaI as restriction enzymes and...... restriction enzyme analysis (REA) using HpaII. The Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida strain isolated from birds in this outbreak was indistinguishable from a strain that caused outbreaks in 1996 and 2003. Most isolates from domestic poultry had other PFGE patterns but some were indistinguishable from the...... outbreak strain. Among 68 isolates from wild birds, only one PFGE and one REA pattern were demonstrated, whereas among 23 isolates from domestic poultry, 14 different SmaI, 12 different ApaI, and 10 different HpaII patterns were found. The results suggest that a P. multocida strain has survived during...

  11. Vibrio cholerae O139 in Thailand in 1994.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodhidatta, L.; Echeverria, P; Hoge, C W; Pitarangsi, C; Serichantalergs, O; Henprasert-Tae, N.; Harikul, S.; Kitpoka, P.

    1995-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 first appeared in India and Bangladesh in 1992. Surveillance for O139 was started at three hospitals in Thailand in 1993. By 1994 all three hospitals surveyed in Thailand had experienced an increase in Vibrio cholerae O139 infections.

  12. Synthesis of protein in intestinal cells exposed to cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism by which cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), formed by intestinal epithelial cells in response to cholera toxin, ultimately results in alterations in water and electrolyte transport is poorly understood. Several studies have indicated that inhibitors of transcription or translation block much of the transport of ions and water in the intestine and edema formation in tissue elicited by cholera toxin. Data presented in this study confirmed the inhibitory effects of cycloheximide on cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation in the rabbit intestinal loop model. Neither cycloheximide nor actinomycin D altered the amount of cyclic AMP that accumulated in intestinal cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed to cholera toxin. An increase in [3H] leucine incorporation was readily demonstrable in intestinal epithelial cells from rabbits challenged with Vibrio cholerae. Similarly, intestinal epithelial cells incubated with cholera toxin for 4 hr synthesized substantially more protein than controls as determined by relative incorporation of [35S] methionine. Most of the new protein synthesized in response to cholera toxin was membrane associated and of high molecular weight. The possible significance of the toxin-induced protein relative to cholera pathogenesis was discussed

  13. Breast milk reduces the risk of illness in children of mothers with cholera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Katja; Mølbak, Kåre; Sandström, Anita;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breastfeeding against cholera has been demonstrated in areas endemic of cholera. To assess the protection offered by breast milk from mothers living in an area that had been free from cholera for 7 years, we investigated mothers with cholera and their children d...

  14. USE OF MODIFIED CAMP TEST FOR PRELIMINARY NONSEROLOGIC IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  15. Virulence of Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds for domestic poultry and game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K D; Christensen, J P; Permin, A; Bisgaard, M

    2001-02-01

    Chickens, turkeys, partridges and pheasants were experimentally infected with Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida to investigate whether outbreaks of fowl cholera in avifauna might represent a risk for organic, backyard and industrial poultry production. Birds were infected intra-tracheally with a strain of P. multocida subsp. multocida (40605-1) isolated from outbreaks of fowl cholera in wild birds in Denmark. P. multocida subsp. multocida strain P-1059 was included as a reference strain. The outbreak strain was highly virulent for turkeys, partridges and pheasants, while chickens were more resistant. The present findings underline the importance of wild birds as a reservoir for P. multocida. Intratracheal challenge proved useful for studying the virulence of P. multocida. PMID:19184870

  16. Role of 6-Gingerol in Reduction of Cholera Toxin Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Pallashri; Das, Bornita; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is one of the major bacterial pathogens responsible for the devastating diarrheal disease called cholera. Chemotherapy is often used against V. cholerae infections; however, the emergence of V. cholerae with multidrug resistance (MDR) toward the chemotherapeutic agents is a serious clinical problem. This scenario has provided us with the impetus to look into herbal remediation, especially toward blocking the action of cholera toxin (CT). Our studies were undertaken to determin...

  17. The Cholera Pandemic, Still with Us after Half a Century: Time to Rethink

    OpenAIRE

    Reyburn, Rita; Deen, Jacqueline L; Grais, Rebecca F.; Sujit K Bhattacharya; Sur, Dipika; Lopez, Anna L; Jiddawi, Mohamed S; Clemens, John D.; von Seidlein, Lorenz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The outbreak of cholera in Zimbabwe intensified interest in the control and prevention of cholera. While there is agreement that safe water, sanitation, and personal hygiene are ideal for the long term control of cholera, there is controversy about the role of newer approaches such as oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). In October 2009 the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts advised the World Health Organization to consider reactive vaccination campaigns in response to large cholera ou...

  18. Spatially selective colonization of the arthropod intestine through activation of Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, Alexandra E.; Watnick, Paula I.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is an estuarine bacterium and the human pathogen responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera. In the environment, arthropods are proposed to be carriers and reservoirs of V. cholerae. However, the molecular basis of the association between V. cholerae and viable arthropods has not been elucidated previously. Here, we show that the V. cholerae Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS)-dependent biofilm is highly activated upon entry into the arthropod intestine and is specifically required...

  19. A Metalloprotease Secreted by the Type II Secretion System Links Vibrio cholerae with Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Bo R.; Ryszard A Zielke; Wierzbicki, Igor H.; Mitchell, Kristie C.; Withey, Jeffrey H.; Sikora, Aleksandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to various aquatic niches and is the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. The persistence of V. cholerae in natural habitats is a crucial factor in the epidemiology of cholera. In contrast to the well-studied V. cholerae-chitin connection, scarce information is available about the factors employed by the bacteria for the interaction with collagens. Collagens might serve as biologically relevant substrates, because they are the m...

  20. A luminescent hybridoma-based biosensor for rapid detection of V. cholerae upon induction of calcium signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Parichehr; Sajedi, Reza H; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Bakhshi, Bita

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a hybridoma based biosensor was developed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 which converts the antibody-antigen binding to bioluminescence light. After investigation on hybridoma performance, the biosensor was constructed by transfecting specific hybridoma cells with aequorin reporter gene and the bioluminescence activities of stable biosensor were measured. The sensitivity of biosensor was as few as 50 CFU/ml and it showed no responses to other entric bacteria. Moreover, the response time of biosensor was estimated in 7th second which means this method is considerably faster than many available detection assays. In addition, this biosensor was successfully applied to V. cholerae detection in environmental samples with no significant loss in sensitivity, demonstrating our proposed biosensor provides a sensitive and reliable method for detection of V. cholerae in natural samples. The application of whole hybridoma cell directly as a sensing element in biosensor construction which mentioned for the first time in present study suggests that hybridoma cells could provide a valuable tool for future studies in both basic and diagnostic sciences and could be considered as a fast and specific sensing element for detection of other pathogens in different applications. PMID:26706943

  1. Cholera in Indonesia: epidemiologic studies of transmission in Aceh Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, R I; Alim, A R; Eusof, A; Snyder, J D; Jusuf, B; Anwar, S; Bakri, Z; Helmi, C; Winardi, B

    1984-09-01

    To determine the modes of transmission of cholera in the regency of Pidie, Indonesia, and to consider strategies for its control, we set up a laboratory to identify Vibrio cholerae 01 from patients with severe diarrhea in all government clinics in the regency and questioned culture-positive cases and neighborhood controls about possible exposures to V. cholerae 01. Between 12 July and 15 August 1982, 63 of 138 suspected cholera cases were confirmed by the laboratory; 53 of these patients were seen and followed up. We were unable to identify a single, indisputable mode of transmission for cholera which was amenable to immediate control. Nonetheless, a number of factors, including exposure to water from the Tiro-Sigli River and consumption of ice, were associated with disease. Other findings bring into question the value of current practices of chlorinating dugwells and disinfecting homes with Lysol during a cholera outbreak. The case-control approach to investigating the mode of transmission of cholera has distinct limitations when applied in endemic setting where there may not be a single predominant vehicle of transmission, or where the vehicle such as river water is used by all and is only periodically contaminated. PMID:6486303

  2. Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Constantin de Magny

    Full Text Available Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region.

  3. Cholera Outbreak in Senegal in 2005: Was Climate a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Thiaw, Wassila; Kumar, Vadlamani; Manga, Noël M.; Diop, Bernard M.; Gueye, Lamine; Kamara, Mamina; Roche, Benjamin; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region. PMID:22952995

  4. Predictive modeling of cholera using GRACE and TRMM satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cholera outbreaks can be classified in three forms- epidemic (sudden or seasonal outbreaks), endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years) and mixed-mode endemic (combination of certain epidemic and endemic conditions) with significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Endemic cholera is related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data obtained from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), understanding dynamics of river discharge is now feasible. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during the spring and autumn season, two separate models, between TWS and disease time series (2002 to 2010) were developed. TWS, hence water availability, showed an asymmetrical, strong association with spring (τ=-0.53; p<0.001) and autumn (τ=0.45; p<0.001) cholera prevalence up to five to six months in advance. One unit (cm of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% [confidence interval (CI) 20-31%; p<0.05] in the spring season, while an increase in regional water by one unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% [CI:22-33%; p<0.05]. Epidemic cholera is related with warm temperatures and heavy rainfall. Using TRMM data for several locations in Asia and Africa, probability of cholera increases 18% [CI:15-23%; p<0.05] after heavy precipitation resulted in a societal conditions where access to safe water and sanitation was disrupted. Results from mechanistic modeling framework using systems approach that include satellite based hydroclimatic information with tradition disease transmission models will also be presented.

  5. [The knowledge of the population about cholera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, A M; de Rojas, V; Delgado, J; Alonso, A; Finlay, C M

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine the impact of the educational campaign about cholera on the knowledge and believes of the population, a survey was made in 1993 among 1324 persons from 14 provinces and from Isla de la Juventud special municipality. 85% were 20-59 years old and 89% had an secondary basic or higher educational level. 69% had the minimum knowledge to face the disease, 90% would see a doctor if they had and suspicion, 72% knew that diarrhea is the main symptom of cholera, 54% new how it is transmitted 89% thought that they may be infected by drinking water, 54% understood the importance of giving liquids to the sick subject, and 78% realized the significance of washing their hands before eating anf cooking. It is concluded that even though our population has a general knowledge about the disease, due to the fact that our country is located in an endemic zone, health education must be reinforced, specifically those aspects connected with the communication and with the increase of liquids administration to the patients. PMID:9805048

  6. Cell-associated hemagglutinin-deficient mutant of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, T M; Reiser, J; Germanier, R.; Cryz, S J

    1987-01-01

    Cell-associated hemagglutinin-negative mutants were derived from cholera enterotoxin-negative Vibrio cholerae JBK70 by Tn5 mutagenesis. One of the mutants identified, SB001, was characterized in greater detail. Its ability to colonize ilea of adult rabbits was determined by feeding approximately 10(8) V. cholerae to each animal. At 17 h after feeding, the numbers of viable vibrios in the ilea were determined. There was a significant, 4 log, decrease in the ability of the hemagglutinin-negativ...

  7. Study on the monitoring methods of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic products%水产品中霍乱弧菌的监测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝梅; 胡世雄; 邓志红; 湛志飞; 华伟湘; 熊伯华; 谢燕湘; 邓海斌; 卜昕琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the monitoring methods of Vibrio cholerae in aquatic products, find the aquatic products contaminated by Vibrio cholerae timely, and take effective measures to prevent and control cholera outbreak. Methods:The real - time fluorescence PCR, the colloidal gold method, the isolation and culture method were used for Vibrio cholerae detection in 180 aquatic product samples respectively. Results; With the three methods, 44 nucleic acid positive specimens were detected, in which 18 specimens were cholera enterotoxin positive, and 8 Vibrio cholerae strains were isolated. Conclusion; During cholera surveillance of aquatic products, nucleic acid positive samples were screened first by real - time PCR, and then cholera enterotoxin detection was done to find the polluted aquatic products timely. Colloidal gold method was employed to isolate, culture and type the nucleic acid positive samples for further confirmation and analysis of cholera spread.%目的:研究水产品中霍乱弧菌的监测方法,及时发现被霍乱弧菌污染的水产品,采取有效防控措施,防范霍乱疫情的发生.方法:用实时荧光PCR法、胶体金法、分离培养法三种方法分别对180份水产品进行霍乱弧菌检测,阳性样品再进行霍乱肠毒素检测.结果:三种方法检出了44份核酸阳性标本,18份霍乱肠毒素阳性标本,分离出8株霍乱弧菌.结论:在进行水产品霍乱监测时,可以先用实时荧光PCR进行初筛,筛出核酸阳性标本,进行霍乱肠毒素检测,及时发现被霍乱产毒株污染的水产品,再对筛出的核酸阳性标本结合胶体金法进行分离培养和分型鉴定,进一步完成霍乱疫情的确证和分析.

  8. Concurrent outbreaks of cholera and peripheral neuropathy associated with high mortality among persons internally displaced by a volcanic eruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rosewell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In October 2004, Manam Island volcano in Papua New Guinea erupted, causing over 10 000 villagers to flee to internally displaced person (IDP camps, including 550 from Dugulaba village. Following violence over land access in March 2010, the IDPs fled the camps, and four months later concurrent outbreaks of acute watery diarrhea and unusual neurological complaints were reported in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors for peripheral neuropathy. Rectal swabs were collected from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Hair and serum metals and metalloids were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. RESULTS: There were 17 deaths among the 550 village inhabitants during the outbreak period at a crude mortality rate 21-fold that of a humanitarian crisis. Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Ogawa was confirmed among the population. Access to community-level rehydration was crucial to mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was diagnosed among cases with neurological symptoms. A balanced diet was significantly protective against neuropathy. A dose-response relationship was seen between peripheral neuropathy and a decreasing number of micronutrient- rich foods in the diet. Deficiencies in copper, iron, selenium and zinc were identified among the cases of peripheral neuropathy. CONCLUSIONS: Cholera likely caused the mostly preventable excess mortality. Peripheral neuropathy was not caused by cholera, but cholera may worsen existing nutritional deficiencies. The peripheral neuropathy was likely caused by complex micronutrient deficiencies linked to non-diversified diets that potentially increased the vulnerability of this population, however a new zinc-associated neuropathy could not be ruled out. Reoccurrence can be prevented by addressing the root cause of displacement and ensuring access to arable land and timely resettlement.

  9. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan J. Baldauf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT, which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA and the B subunit (CTB. CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction.

  10. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  11. Exoproteome and secretome derived broad spectrum novel drug and vaccine candidates in Vibrio cholerae targeted by Piper betel derived compounds.

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    Debmalya Barh

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the causal organism of the cholera epidemic, which is mostly prevalent in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, incidences of cholera in developed countries are also alarming. Because of the emergence of new drug-resistant strains, even though several generic drugs and vaccines have been developed over time, Vibrio infections remain a global health problem that appeals for the development of novel drugs and vaccines against the pathogen. Here, applying comparative proteomic and reverse vaccinology approaches to the exoproteome and secretome of the pathogen, we have identified three candidate targets (ompU, uppP and yajC for most of the pathogenic Vibrio strains. Two targets (uppP and yajC are novel to Vibrio, and two targets (uppP and ompU can be used to develop both drugs and vaccines (dual targets against broad spectrum Vibrio serotypes. Using our novel computational approach, we have identified three peptide vaccine candidates that have high potential to induce both B- and T-cell-mediated immune responses from our identified two dual targets. These two targets were modeled and subjected to virtual screening against natural compounds derived from Piper betel. Seven compounds were identified first time from Piper betel to be highly effective to render the function of these targets to identify them as emerging potential drugs against Vibrio. Our preliminary validation suggests that these identified peptide vaccines and betel compounds are highly effective against Vibrio cholerae. Currently we are exhaustively validating these targets, candidate peptide vaccines, and betel derived lead compounds against a number of Vibrio species.

  12. Cholera in Ecuador: Current relevance of past lessons learnt

    OpenAIRE

    S S Malavade; A Narvaez; A. Mitra; Ochoa, T; Naik, E.; Sharma, M.; S Galwankar; M D Breglia; Izurieta, R

    2011-01-01

    This report analyses the trends in the cholera epidemic that hit Ecuador in 1991. The study is based on personal experiences and analysis of epidemiological databases from the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador. The number of cases and initial attack rates in an immunologically naive population are described by province. An analysis of the Andean and coastal cholera patterns of transmission are described along with its associated risk factors. The logistical, environmental, and socio-cultur...

  13. Community health facility preparedness for a cholera surge in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobula, Linda Meta; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Weinhauer, Kristin; Alcidas, Gladys; Thomas, Hans-Muller; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    With increasing population displacement and worsening water insecurity after the 2010 earthquake, Haiti experienced a large cholera outbreak. Our goal was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of seven community health facilities' ability to respond to a surge in cholera cases. Since 2010, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with a number of public and private donors has been working with seven health facilities in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cholera infection. In November 2012, CRS through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s support, asked the Johns Hopkins Center for Refugee and Disaster Response to conduct a cholera surge simulation tabletop exercise at these health facilities to improve each facility's response in the event of a cholera surge. Using simulation development guidelines from the Pan American Health Organization and others, a simulation scenario script was produced that included situations of differing severity, supply chain, as well as a surge of patients. A total of 119 hospital staff from seven sites participated in the simulation exercise including community health workers, clinicians, managers, pharmacists, cleaners, and security guards. Clinics that had challenges during the simulated clinical care of patients were those that did not appropriately treat all cholera patients according to protocol, particularly those that were vulnerable, those that would need additional staff to properly treat patients during a surge of cholera, and those that required a better inventory of supplies. Simulation-based activities have the potential to identify healthcare delivery system vulnerabilities that are amenable to intervention prior to a cholera surge. PMID:24481887

  14. Warming Oceans, Phytoplankton, and River Discharge: Implications for Cholera Outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S.; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Colwell, Rita; Islam, Shafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance is inversely related to sea surface temperature (SST). However, a positive relationship is observed between SST and phytoplankton abundance in coastal waters of Bay of Bengal. This has led to an assertion that in a warming climate, rise in SST may increase phytoplankton blooms and, therefore, cholera outbreaks. Here, we explain why a positive SST-phytoplankton relationship exists in the Bay of Bengal and the implications of such a relationship on cholera dynamics. We f...

  15. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

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    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  16. Risk of Cholera Among Western and Japanese Travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlinger; Steffen; Watanabe; Handszuh

    1995-09-01

    Background: There has been concern about an increased risk of cholera in travelers to Latin America since the spread of the pandemic to this part of the world. Additionally, before this study the continuous high incidence of imported cholera to Japan had so far not been analyzed. Methods: A retrospective analysis of cases notified in 1991 to national surveillance centers in industrialized countries and to the World Health Organization was carried out. Denominator data were obtained by the World Tourism Organization. Results: The reported rate of imported cholera in European and North American travelers visiting endemic areas remains in the range of 0,2 per 100,000, as was observed 10 years ago. This rate is, however, is manyfold higher in Japanese travelers, with a highest value of 13,0 per 100,000 reported in those returning from Indonesia, usually Bali. No secondary outbreaks were observed in those countries to which cholera was imported. Conclusions: It is assumed that the higher rates in Japanese travelers are mainly due to more intensive surveillance. On Bali and elsewhere, further studies are needed to determine both the role of V. cholerae as a cause of traveler's diarrhea in tourists and to re-evaluate the need for cholera vaccination at specific high-risk destinations. PMID:9815376

  17. Medico - historical study of "Visŭcikă" (Cholera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P V V

    2005-01-01

    The Sanskrit word Visŭcikă refers to a condition in which vitiated văta dŏşa causes pain like pricking with a needle over the body. It occurs in a person suffering with ajĭrna (indigestion) and its detailed description is available in Ayurvedic literature. This disease has its existence in India since ancient times; it has also been referred in Mahăhărata and Tripitikas. Its etiology, signs, symptoms, complications, prognosis and treatment etc. as described in Ayurveda may be correlated with the disease Cholera, which is commonly known as "Haiza" in Hindi. In Greek language, the word Cholera means a flow of bile or the bilious disease. Cholera is an acute infectious diarrheal disease, caused by comma bacillus or vibrio cholerae sero groups 01 or 0139. Aretaetus, Benjamin Rush, Chadwick, John Snow, Robert Koch, etc. were some of the pioneers in Cholera research. Medico- historical importance of Cholera, its transmission, description and references from Ayurvedic texts etc., are being presented in this article. PMID:17333658

  18. [Cholera epidemic in Brescia in 1836].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaglia, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cholera first made its appearance in Italy in 1836. According to reports of the time the consequences were catastrophic: both the number of the people falling ill and the incidence of mortality were high. On the basis of extensive documentation from various archives, the disease appears to have been known in its clinical aspect but its aetiology remained obscure. Hence physicians were powerless to combat such a scourge. The sense of unease and confusion that accompanied the evolution of these sad events drove the population to the use of religious practices of various kinds. It is still possible to find signs of such devotion in churches, votive chapels and ex voto offerings. PMID:24008858

  19. Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Benjamin L.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Eric D Mintz

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of...

  20. Hybrid microarray based on double biomolecular markers of DNA and carbohydrate for simultaneous genotypic and phenotypic detection of cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwa Hui; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2016-05-15

    Life-threatening diarrheal cholera is usually caused by water or food contaminated with cholera toxin-producing Vibrio cholerae. For the prevention and surveillance of cholera, it is crucial to rapidly and precisely detect and identify the etiological causes, such as V. cholerae and/or its toxin. In the present work, we propose the use of a hybrid double biomolecular marker (DBM) microarray containing 16S rRNA-based DNA capture probe to genotypically identify V. cholerae and GM1 pentasaccharide capture probe to phenotypically detect cholera toxin. We employed a simple sample preparation method to directly obtain genomic DNA and secreted cholera toxin as target materials from bacterial cells. By utilizing the constructed DBM microarray and prepared samples, V. cholerae and cholera toxin were detected successfully, selectively, and simultaneously; the DBM microarray was able to analyze the pathogenicity of the identified V. cholerae regardless of whether the bacteria produces toxin. Therefore, our proposed DBM microarray is a new effective platform for identifying bacteria and analyzing bacterial pathogenicity simultaneously. PMID:26735874

  1. Analysis on monitoring data of vibrio cholerae in Yulin during 2003 to 2010%2003-2010年玉林市霍乱弧菌监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李劲锋; 李文; 权怡; 梁炯明; 王鸣柳; 刘义威; 罗铭; 胡昱

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the monitoring data of vibrio cholerae from 2003 to 2010 in Yulin, and provide scientific basis for prevention and control the disease. Method According to strategy of surveillance of cholera in China and the fifth edition of manuals of vibrio cholera, detection, isolation, and identification the samples of external environment water, fishery products , food and diarrhea patients and focus groups. Positive strains were carried out drug resistance analysis, and detected Ctx and Zot virulence genes by PCR nucleic acid. Results 23 391 samples were collected during 2003 to 2010 and vibrio cholera were found in 27 samples, positive rate was 0. 12%. Among them, the positive rate of water was 0. 23% , positive samples account for 25.93%. Fishery products were 0. 40% . account for 74. 07%㏑ and the positive rate of frogs were highest than others ( 4. 18% ) . Moreover, vibrio cholera did not detected from food, diarrhea patients and focus groups. Serotypes showed that there were 16 inaba samples ( account for 59. 26% ) , 3 ogawa samples ( 11. 11 % ) . 4 hikojima samples (14. 81% ) and 4 O139 ( 14. 81% ) . Virulence gene detection showed that 75% O139 carried Ctx and Zot genes, and accounted for ( 3/4) , O1 group did not carry Ctx, but 30. 43% (7/23) carried Zot. 27 strains were all sensitive to norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, cefalotin, ceftazidime, and drug resistance to streptomycin, tetracycline,sulfa. Conclusions V. cholera existed in external environmental in Yulin city, we should enhance monitoring, study toxic gene charactenstics, leam drug resistance changes, to enhance scientific prediction and pertinence of prevention and control work.%目的 分析玉林市2003-2010霍乱监测的情况,为今后预防控制策略提供科学依据.方法 按及(第5版)的规定,对外环境水体、海(水)产品、食品及腹泻病人和重点人群进行采样监测、分离、鉴定,阳性株进行耐药性分析,PCR核

  2. Surveillance on Vibrio Cholera isolated from water and aquatic products in Guangxi,2006 - 2009%2006年-2009年广西水体及海水产品霍乱弧菌监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权怡; 方锦嵩; 周凌云; 林玫; 王鸣柳; 秦卫文

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To early detect the source and control the outbreaks via surveillance on Vibrio Cholera in aquatic products. Methods: Aquatic products were collected and cultured for Vibrio Cholera. The isolates from diverse sources were identified by serology, phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility tests and molecular biology. Results: A total of 75 strains of Vibrio Cholera were isolated between 2006 and 2009, of which, 17 were identified Vibrio Cholera serotype Ogawa, 48 Vibrio Cholera serotype Inaba and 5 Vibrio Cholera serogroup O139. Five strains of Vibrio Cholera serogtype Hikojima was detected for the first time. Cholera enterotoxin (ctxA)was detected in 3 strains of Vibrio Cholera O139 out of 75 strains isolated, while the remaining were non -toxigenic strains. The results of antimicrobiai susceptibility tests showed that the strains were susceptible to norfloxacin, aminkacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime and cefalothin, and were resistant to gentamycin, SMZ - Co, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, ampicillin, doxycycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin and sulfanilamide. Conclusion: Vibrio Cholera was detected in the environment in Guangxi. The vibrio isolated were mainly non - toxigenic strains. Resistance was found in different serotypes of Vibrio Cholera.No outbreak of cholera was observed in this area.%目的:通过水体及海水产品的霍乱弧菌监测,及时发现疫情传播来源,以有效控制霍乱疫情的发生.方法:采集各类海水产品分离培养霍乱弧菌,采用血清学、嗜菌体生物分型、药物敏感试验和分子生物学方法对不同来源的菌株进行鉴定.结果:2006年-2009年共分离出75株霍乱弧菌,其中小川型霍乱弧菌17株,稻叶型霍乱弧菌48株,O139群霍乱弧菌5株,首次分离出彦岛型霍乱弧菌5株.75株霍乱弧菌中仅3株O139群霍乱弧菌携带霍乱肠毒素(ctxA),其余菌株均为非流行株或非产毒株.药敏结果显示,除对氟哌酸、阿米卡星、环丙沙星、头孢

  3. Uptake of Vibrio cholerae Biotype eltor from Contaminated Water by Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes)

    OpenAIRE

    Spira, William M.; Huq, Anwarul; Ahmed, Qazi Shafi; Saeed, Yusuf A.

    1981-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor appears to concentrate on the surface of the water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), thereby enhancing its survival and its potential for transmission through waterways of cholera-endemic regions such as Bangladesh.

  4. Vibriocidal antibody responses to a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in a phase III trial in Kolkata, India.

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    Suman Kanungo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the development of a vaccine, identification of the correlates of protection is of paramount importance for establishing an objective criterion for the protective performance of the vaccine. However, the ascertainment of correlates of immunity conferred by any vaccine is a difficult task. METHODS: While conducting a phase three double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a bivalent killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in Kolkata, we evaluated the immunogenicity of the vaccine in a subset of participants. Randomly chosen participants (recipients of vaccine or placebo were invited to provide blood samples at baseline, 14 days after the second dose and one year after the first dose. At these time points, serum geometric mean titers (GMT of vibriocidal antibodies and seroconversion rates for vaccine and placebo arms were calculated and compared across the age strata (1 to 5 years, 5 to 15 years and more than 15 years as well as for all age groups. RESULTS: Out of 137 subjects included in analysis, 69 were vaccinees and 68 received placebo. There were 5•7 and 5•8 geometric mean fold (GMF rises in titers to Vibrio cholerae Inaba and Ogawa, respectively at 14 days after the second dose, with 57% and 61% of vaccinees showing a four-fold or greater titer rise, respectively. After one year, the titers to Inaba and Ogawa remained 1•7 and 2•8 fold higher, respectively, compared to baseline. Serum vibriocidal antibody response to V. cholerae O139 was much lower than that to Inaba or Ogawa. No significant differences in the GMF-rises were observed among the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The reformulated oral cholera vaccine induced a statistically significant anti-O1 Inaba and O1 Ogawa vibriocidal antibody response 14 days after vaccination, which although declined after one year remained significantly higher than baseline. Despite this decline, the vaccine remained protective five years after vaccination.

  5. Characterization of VCC-1, a Novel Ambler Class A Carbapenemase from Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Imported Retail Shrimp Sold in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Chand S; Boyd, David; Janecko, Nicol; Martz, Sarah-Lynn; Desruisseau, Andrea; Carpenter, Michael; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    One of the core goals of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to monitor major meat commodities for antimicrobial resistance. Targeted studies with methodologies based on core surveillance protocols are used to examine other foods, e.g., seafood, for antimicrobial resistance to detect resistances of concern to public health. Here we report the discovery of a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase that was identified in a nontoxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae (N14-02106) isolated from shrimp that was sold for human consumption in Canada. V. cholerae N14-02106 was resistant to penicillins, carbapenems, and monobactam antibiotics; however, PCR did not detect common β-lactamases. Bioinformatic analysis of the whole-genome sequence of V. cholerae N14-02106 revealed on the large chromosome a novel carbapenemase (referred to here as VCC-1, for Vibrio cholerae carbapenemase 1) with sequence similarity to class A enzymes. Two copies of blaVCC-1 separated and flanked by ISVch9 (i.e., 3 copies of ISVch9) were found in an acquired 8.5-kb region inserted into a VrgG family protein gene. Cloned blaVCC-1 conferred a β-lactam resistance profile similar to that in V. cholerae N14-02106 when it was transformed into a susceptible laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. Purified VCC-1 was found to hydrolyze penicillins, 1st-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems, whereas 2nd- and 3rd-generation cephalosporins were poor substrates. Using nitrocefin as a reporter substrate, VCC-1 was moderately inhibited by clavulanic acid and tazobactam but not EDTA. In this report, we present the discovery of a novel class A carbapenemase from the food supply. PMID:26824956

  6. Fowl cholera immunity in broiler breeder chickens determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, J W; Johnson, J W

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies in broiler breeders vaccinated (wing web) with the CU fowl cholera vaccine. Birds were bled weekly from 9 to 26 weeks, every other week from 26 to 40 weeks, and every 4 weeks from 40 to 56 weeks of age. Overall mean ELISA antibody titers (9 to 56 weeks) reported as log10 values and survivability of the vaccinates after virulent challenge were as follows: unvaccinated--5.75, 48%; birds vaccinated once at 8 weeks--5.91, 78%; birds vaccinated twice at 8 and 14 weeks--6.11, 100%; birds vaccinated thrice at 8, 14, and 20 weeks--6.23, 100%; birds vaccinated twice at 8 and 20 weeks--6.12, 100%; and birds vaccinated twice at 8 and 20 weeks (plus fowl pox at 8 weeks)--6.08, 95%. Survivability in the vaccinates after virulent challenge with strain X-73 Pasteurella multocida was 100% in birds with ELISA antibody titers (log10) greater than 6.02. Under the conditions of this experiment, birds vaccinated two or three times between 8 and 20 weeks proved to be sufficiently immune at 56 weeks of age to withstand a virulent fowl cholera challenge. Birds not vaccinated or vaccinated only once at 8 weeks were not sufficiently immunized to withstand virulent challenge. PMID:4074239

  7. Detection and characterization of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs)-positive Vibrio cholerae isolates from aquacultured shrimp and the environment in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu; Tang, Yuyi; Sun, Fengjiao; Chen, Lanming

    2015-12-30

    Increasing industrialization and use of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture production, have led to heavy metals and multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens becoming serious problems. These resistances are conferred in two ways: intrinsic and transfer via conjugation, or transformation by the major transmission mediators. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are one of the major mediators; however, few studies on ICEs of environmental origin have been reported in Asia. Herein, we determined the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, heavy metal resistance and genotypes of 126 strains of Vibrio cholerae isolated from aquatic products and the environment in Shanghai, China. 92.3% of isolates were ICEs-positive from aquaculture water and 89.3% of isolates from shrimp showed MDR. Tracing the V. cholerae genotypes, showed no significant relevance of genotype among the antimicrobial resistance strains bearing the ICEs or not. Thus, in aquaculture, ICEs are not the major transmission mediators of resistance to antibiotics or heavy metals. PMID:26522159

  8. Genomic location of the major ribosomal protein gene locus determines Vibrio cholerae global growth and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Mondotte, Juan A; Bland, Michael Jason; Val, Marie-Eve; Saleh, María-Carla; Mazel, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The effects on cell physiology of gene order within the bacterial chromosome are poorly understood. In silico approaches have shown that genes involved in transcription and translation processes, in particular ribosomal protein (RP) genes, localize near the replication origin (oriC) in fast-growing bacteria suggesting that such a positional bias is an evolutionarily conserved growth-optimization strategy. Such genomic localization could either provide a higher dosage of these genes during fast growth or facilitate the assembly of ribosomes and transcription foci by keeping physically close the many components of these macromolecular machines. To explore this, we used novel recombineering tools to create a set of Vibrio cholerae strains in which S10-spec-α (S10), a locus bearing half of the ribosomal protein genes, was systematically relocated to alternative genomic positions. We show that the relative distance of S10 to the origin of replication tightly correlated with a reduction of S10 dosage, mRNA abundance and growth rate within these otherwise isogenic strains. Furthermore, this was accompanied by a significant reduction in the host-invasion capacity in Drosophila melanogaster. Both phenotypes were rescued in strains bearing two S10 copies highly distal to oriC, demonstrating that replication-dependent gene dosage reduction is the main mechanism behind these alterations. Hence, S10 positioning connects genome structure to cell physiology in Vibrio cholerae. Our results show experimentally for the first time that genomic positioning of genes involved in the flux of genetic information conditions global growth control and hence bacterial physiology and potentially its evolution. PMID:25875621

  9. Genomic location of the major ribosomal protein gene locus determines Vibrio cholerae global growth and infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soler-Bistué

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on cell physiology of gene order within the bacterial chromosome are poorly understood. In silico approaches have shown that genes involved in transcription and translation processes, in particular ribosomal protein (RP genes, localize near the replication origin (oriC in fast-growing bacteria suggesting that such a positional bias is an evolutionarily conserved growth-optimization strategy. Such genomic localization could either provide a higher dosage of these genes during fast growth or facilitate the assembly of ribosomes and transcription foci by keeping physically close the many components of these macromolecular machines. To explore this, we used novel recombineering tools to create a set of Vibrio cholerae strains in which S10-spec-α (S10, a locus bearing half of the ribosomal protein genes, was systematically relocated to alternative genomic positions. We show that the relative distance of S10 to the origin of replication tightly correlated with a reduction of S10 dosage, mRNA abundance and growth rate within these otherwise isogenic strains. Furthermore, this was accompanied by a significant reduction in the host-invasion capacity in Drosophila melanogaster. Both phenotypes were rescued in strains bearing two S10 copies highly distal to oriC, demonstrating that replication-dependent gene dosage reduction is the main mechanism behind these alterations. Hence, S10 positioning connects genome structure to cell physiology in Vibrio cholerae. Our results show experimentally for the first time that genomic positioning of genes involved in the flux of genetic information conditions global growth control and hence bacterial physiology and potentially its evolution.

  10. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzios, Stavroula K; Abel, Sören; Martell, Julianne; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T; Davis, Brigid M; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-04-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human choleric stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, and genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance of intelectin, an intestinal lectin, and its binding to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting that it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialog in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  11. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eLutz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium could be detected in areas where it had not been isolated from before, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium rather than specifically within regions where cholera is endemic. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of the bacterium in the sometimes hostile environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists.

  12. Characterization of Undermethylated Sites in Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalia, Ankur B.; Lazinski, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The activities of DNA methyltransferases are important for a variety of cellular functions in bacteria. In this study, we developed a modified high-throughput technique called methyl homopolymer tail mediated sequencing (methyl HTM-seq) to identify the undermethylated sites in the Vibrio cholerae genome for the two DNA methyltransferases, Dam, an adenine methyltransferase, and VchM, a cytosine methyltransferase, during growth in rich medium in vitro. Many of the undermethylated sites occurred in intergenic regions, and for most of these sites, we identified the transcription factors responsible for undermethylation. This confirmed the presence of previously hypothesized DNA-protein interactions for these transcription factors and provided insight into the biological state of these cells during growth in vitro. DNA adenine methylation has previously been shown to mediate heritable epigenetic switches in gene regulation. However, none of the undermethylated Dam sites tested showed evidence of regulation by this mechanism. This study is the first to identify undermethylated adenines and cytosines genomewide in a bacterium using second-generation sequencing technology. PMID:23504020

  13. Cholera outbreak in Tumpat, Kelantan-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, A R; Othman, W M; Ishak, A

    1990-09-01

    Two episodes of El Tor cholera outbreak occurred in Tumpat, Kelantan between the 13th of January and the 16th of May 1990. Every case and carrier reported were investigated to determine the source and mode of transmission and to identify specific preventive measures to break the chain of transmission. There were 109 cases and 85 carriers involved in this study. The first episode of one case only was of Inaba serotype while the second episode was caused by the imported Ogawa serotype. Two foci of spread were identified from cluster occurrence but the majority of infection had no discernible link between them. The outbreak became both explosive and protracted indicating poor basic sanitation and personal hygiene. Person-to-person transmission via food and water was the main mode of spread. The Kelantan river water and river clams were confirmed sources of reservoir during the outbreak. Recommendations for prevention are intensified surveillance throughout the year,urgent upgrading of potable water supply and concerted effort in public health education especially against the use of river water and the consumption of raw food. PMID:2152079

  14. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Cholera Toxin Production In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Vibrio cholerae ToxT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withey, Jeffrey H; Nag, Drubhajyoti; Plecha, Sarah C; Sinha, Ritam; Koley, Hemanta

    2015-12-01

    The severe diarrheal disease cholera is endemic in over 50 countries. Current therapies for cholera patients involve oral and/or intravenous rehydration, often combined with the use of antibiotics to shorten the duration and intensity of the disease. However, as antibiotic resistance increases, treatment options will become limited. Linoleic acid has been shown to be a potent negative effector of V. cholerae virulence that acts on the major virulence transcription regulator protein, ToxT, to inhibit virulence gene expression. ToxT activates transcription of the two major virulence factors required for disease, cholera toxin (CT) and toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). A conjugated form of linoleic acid (CLA) is currently sold over the counter as a dietary supplement and is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This study examined whether CLA could be used as a new therapy to reduce CT production, which, in turn, would decrease disease duration and intensity in cholera patients. CLA could be used in place of traditional antibiotics and would be very unlikely to generate resistance, as it affects only virulence factor production and not bacterial growth or survival. PMID:26392502

  15. Cholera in Ecuador: Current relevance of past lessons learnt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Malavade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report analyses the trends in the cholera epidemic that hit Ecuador in 1991. The study is based on personal experiences and analysis of epidemiological databases from the Ministry of Public Health of Ecuador. The number of cases and initial attack rates in an immunologically naive population are described by province. An analysis of the Andean and coastal cholera patterns of transmission are described along with its associated risk factors. The logistical, environmental, and socio-cultural risk factors prevalent during the epidemic and the control measures implemented are also reviewed. Also, the role of the epidemic in the development of the public health and healthcare resources in Ecuador is discussed here. Current data indicate favorable conditions for another outbreak of cholera in Ecuador. In view of the existing risk factors, new strategies are proposed to prevent such an epidemic in the future.

  16. Mortality Rates during Cholera Epidemic, Haiti, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquero, Francisco J; Rondy, Marc; Boncy, Jacques; Munger, André; Mekaoui, Helmi; Rymshaw, Ellen; Page, Anne-Laure; Toure, Brahima; Degail, Marie Amelie; Nicolas, Sarala; Grandesso, Francesco; Ginsbourger, Maud; Polonsky, Jonathan; Alberti, Kathryn P; Terzian, Mego; Olson, David; Porten, Klaudia; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2016-03-01

    The 2010 cholera epidemic in Haiti was one of the largest cholera epidemics ever recorded. To estimate the magnitude of the death toll during the first wave of the epidemic, we retrospectively conducted surveys at 4 sites in the northern part of Haiti. Overall, 70,903 participants were included; at all sites, the crude mortality rates (19.1-35.4 deaths/1,000 person-years) were higher than the expected baseline mortality rate for Haiti (9 deaths/1,000 person-years). This finding represents an excess of 3,406 deaths (2.9-fold increase) for the 4.4% of the Haiti population covered by these surveys, suggesting a substantially higher cholera mortality rate than previously reported. PMID:26886511

  17. What is cholera? A preliminary study on caretakers knowledge in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Tulsiani, Suhella; Amin Hoque, Bilqis;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cholera has afflicted the Indian sub-continent for centuries, predominantly in West Bengal and modern-day Bangladesh. This preliminary study aims to understand the current level of knowledge of cholera in female Bangladeshi caretakers, which is important in the outcome of the...... disease and its spread. A pilot study was conducted among 85 women in Bangladesh using qualitative questionnaires to explore the ability of female caretakers in identifying cholera and its transmission. Findings: The survey revealed that though all the female caretakers were aware of the term “cholera....... Keywords: Bangladesh, Cholera, Diarrhea, Qualitative research, Social stigma...

  18. Associação de Vibrio cholerae com o zooplâncton de águas estuárias da Baía de São Marcos/São Luis - MA, Brasil Association between Vibrio cholerae and zooplankton of estuaries of São Marcos Bay/São Luis - MA, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eloisa da Graça do Rosario Gonçalves; Maria José Saraiva Lopes; Eurípedes Gomes de Oliveira; Ernesto Hofer

    2004-01-01

    Foi investigado, no período de outubro de 1997 a outubro de 1998, a possível associação de Vibrio cholerae com o zooplâncton dos estuários dos rios Anil e Bacanga, em São Luis - MA, Brasil, a presença da forma viável, mas não cultivável de Vibrio cholerae O1 e a correlação entre pH, salinidade e temperatura da água com a sobrevivência da bactéria. Amostras de zooplâncton foram coletadas em dois pontos fixos em cada estuário. O método clássico de isolamento e imunofluorescência direta foram em...

  19. Cholera Surveillance in Siming District of Xiamen, 2005 -2010%2005-2010年厦门市思明区霍乱监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈沁; 阮菁如; 刘建明; 苏志寿

    2011-01-01

    目的 为了解思明区食品及外环境水体中霍乱弧菌的污染状况,为制订霍乱防控策略提供依据.方法根据2005-2010年《福建省霍乱监测方案》要求,对思明区食品及外环境水体开展霍乱弧菌监测.结果共采集各类标本4861份,检出霍乱弧菌78份,总阳性率1.60%.食品检测3517份,检出霍乱弧菌73份,阳性率2.08%,各类食品以蛙类阳性率(12.30%)最高,其次为甲壳类(2.69%)、鱼类(2.18%).水体检测1344份,检出霍乱弧茵5份,阳性率0.43%.检出的霍乱弧菌中,45例为01群稻叶型,33例为01群小川型,经霍乱毒素基因检测均为非产毒株.结论思明区水产品中的霍乱弧菌污染程度较高,应加强对蛙类食品的监测和管理.%Objective To investigate the contamination situation of Vibrio Cholera in foods and external environmental water bodies in Siming district, and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control of cholera. Methods Foods and external environmental water bodies were monitored for Vibrio Cholera in Siming district according to the requirements of Cholera Surveillance Program In Fujian Province (2005 -2010). Results A total of 4 861 specimens of different types were collected, and 78 samples with Vibrio Cholera were detected. The total positive rate was 1. 60%. In which 3 517 foods were collected, and Vibrio Cholera were detected in 73 samples, with positive rate 2.08%. The highest positive rate was from frog species (12. 30% ) in food, fol-lowed by crustaceans (2. 69% ) , and fishes (2. 18% ); 1 344 water bodies were collected, and 5 samples with Vibrio Cholera were detected, with positive rate 0.43%. Among the detections, Vibrio Cholera in 45 samples were Inaba type and in 33 samples were Ogawa type, and all the bacterial strains were non - toxigenic strains according to the cholera toxin gene detection. Conclusion The contamination levels of Vibrio Cholera in the aquatic products are higher than expected, the

  20. Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurin, J C; Alvero, M

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

  1. Field evaluation of environmental sanitation measures against cholera*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurin, J. C.; Alvero, M.

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained in a controlled field study over 5 years in 4 communities showed that the provision of sanitary facilities for human waste disposal can reduce the incidence of cholera by as much as 68%, while the provision of a safe water supply can decrease it by 73%. Where both toilets and water supplies are provided, the incidence can be reduced by as much as 76%. There was evidence that cholera infection gaining access to communities with these facilities tends to spread less and produce fewer secondary cases than in a community where such facilities are not provided. PMID:4549038

  2. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. PMID:26319881

  3. [The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

    1994-01-01

    Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

  4. Social and cultural determinants of oral cholera vaccine uptake in Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaetti, Christian; Ali, Said M; Hutubessy, Raymond; Khatib, Ahmed M; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2012-09-01

    Effectiveness of mass cholera vaccination campaigns requires not only technical and financial capacity but also consideration of social and cultural factors affecting vaccine acceptance. This study examined the influence of local community views of cholera on oral cholera vaccine (OCV) uptake in a mass vaccination campaign in 2009 in peri-urban and rural areas of Zanzibar. It used data from interviews conducted before the campaign and followed previous research assessing determinants of anticipated OCV acceptance. OCV uptake was lower than the reported anticipated acceptance. Less than half of the 356 adult respondents (49.7%) drank the required two doses of OCV. Variables referring to socio-cultural features of diarrheal illness that respondents identified with a cholera case vignette explained uptake better than analysis only of socio-demographic characteristics. Somatic features of illness not specific for cholera were negative determinants. Recognition of unconsciousness as a serious sign of dehydration and concern that cholera outbreaks would overwhelm the local healthcare system in the rural area were positive determinants of acceptance. Female gender, rural residence and older age were also positive determinants of OCV uptake. For further vaccine action with OCVs, cholera as a cause of severe dehydration should be distinguished from other causes of diarrhea. Planning should acknowledge rural concern about the relationship of limited capacity of the healthcare system to cope with cholera outbreaks and the priority of a cholera vaccine. Findings recommend particular efforts to increase cholera immunization coverage among young adults, in peri-urban areas and for men. PMID:22894965

  5. Cranberry extract standardized for proanthocyanidins promotes the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Vibrio cholerae through the p38 MAPK pathway and HSF-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dinh

    Full Text Available Botanicals are rich in bioactive compounds, and some offer numerous beneficial effects to animal and human health when consumed. It is well known that phytochemicals in cranberries have anti-oxidative and antimicrobial activities. Recently, an increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that cranberry phytochemicals may have potential benefits that promote healthy aging. Here, we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to show that water-soluble cranberry extract standardized to 4.0% proanthocyanidins (WCESP, a major component of cranberries, can enhance host innate immunity to resist against Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae; wild type C6706 (O1 El Tor biotype infection. Supplementation of WCESP did not significantly alter the intestinal colonization of V. cholerae, but upregulated the expression of C. elegans innate immune genes, such as clec-46, clec-71, fmo-2, pqn-5 and C23G10.1. Additionally, WCESP treatment did not affect the growth of V. cholerae and expression of the major bacterial virulence genes, and only slightly reduced bacterial colonization within C. elegans intestine. These findings indicate that the major components of WCESP, including proanthocyanidins (PACs, may play an important role in enhancing the host innate immunity. Moreover, we engaged C. elegans mutants and identified that the p38 MAPK signaling, insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS, and HSF-1 play pivotal roles in the WCESP-mediated host immune response. Considering the level of conservation between the innate immune pathways of C. elegans and humans, the results of this study suggest that WCESP may also play an immunity-promoting role in higher order organisms.

  6. Specific detection of Pasteurella multocida in chickens with fowl cholera and in pig lung tissues using fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Christensen, H.; Boye, Mette;

    2001-01-01

    further detected in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded lung tissues from experimental fowl cholera in chickens and infections in pigs. In chicken lung tissues P. multocida cells were detected singly, in pairs, as microcolonies, and as massive colonies within air capillaries (septa and lumen), parabronchial...... a suitable and fast method for specific detection of P. multocida in histological formalin-fixed tissues. The test was replicable and reproducible and is recommended as a supplementary test for diagnosis and as a tool in pathogenesis studies of fowl cholera and respiratory tract infections in pigs......A Pasteurella multocida species-specific oligonucleotide probe, pmhyb449, targeting 16S rRNA was designed and evaluated by whole-cell hybridization against 22 selected reference strains in animal tissues. it differentiated P. multocida from other bacterial species of the families Pasteurellaceae...

  7. Genome sequencing of a virulent avian Pasteurella multocida strain GX-Pm reveals the candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chengjie; Sizhu, Suolang; Luo, Qingping; Xu, Xuewen; Fu, Lei; Zhang, Anding

    2016-04-01

    Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) was first shown to be the causative agent of fowl cholera by Louis Pasteur in 1881. First genomic study was performed on an avirulent avian strain Pm70, and until 2013, two genomes of virulent avian strains X73 and P1059 were sequenced. Comparative genome study supplied important information for further study on the pathogenesis of fowl cholera. In the previous study, a capsular serotype A strain GX-Pm was isolated from the liver of a chicken, which died during an outbreak of fowl cholera in 2011. The strain showed multiple drug resistance and was highly virulent to chickens. Therefore, the present study performed the genome sequencing and a comparative genomic analysis to reveal the candidate genes involved in virulence of P. multocida. Sequenced draft genome sequence of GX-Pm was 2,292,886 bp, contained 2941 protein-coding genes, 5 genomic islands, 4 IS elements and 2 prophage regions. Notability, all the predicted drug-resistance genes were included in predicted genomic islands. A comparative genome study on virulent avian strains P1059, X73 and GX-Pm with the avirulent avian strain Pm 70 indicated that 475 unique genes were only identified in either of virulent strains but absent in the avirulent strain. Among these genes, 20 genes were contained within genomes of all three virulent strains, including a few of putative virulence genes. Further characterization of the pathogenic functions of these genes would benefit the understanding of pathogenesis of fowl cholera. PMID:27033902

  8. Relative contributions of Vibrio polysaccharide and quorum sensing to the resistance of Vibrio cholerae to predation by heterotrophic protists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyang Sun

    Full Text Available Protozoan grazing is a major mortality factor faced by bacteria in the environment. Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, is a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems, and its survival depends on its ability to respond to stresses, such as predation by heterotrophic protists. Previous results show that grazing pressure induces biofilm formation and enhances a smooth to rugose morphotypic shift, due to increased expression of Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS. In addition to negatively controlling vps genes, the global quorum sensing (QS regulator, HapR, plays a role in grazing resistance as the ΔhapR strain is efficiently consumed while the wild type (WT is not. Here, the relative and combined contributions of VPS and QS to grazing resistance were investigated by exposing VPS and HapR mutants and double mutants in VPS and HapR encoding genes at different phases of biofilm development to amoeboid and flagellate grazers. Data show that the WT biofilms were grazing resistant, the VPS mutants were less resistant than the WT strain, but more resistant than the QS mutant strain, and that QS contributes to grazing resistance mainly in mature biofilms. In addition, grazing effects on biofilms of mixed WT and QS mutant strains were investigated. The competitive fitness of each strain in mixed biofilms was determined by CFU and microscopy. Data show that protozoa selectively grazed the QS mutant in mixed biofilms, resulting in changes in the composition of the mixed community. A small proportion of QS mutant cells which comprised 4% of the mixed biofilm biovolume were embedded in grazing resistant WT microcolonies and shielded from predation, indicating the existence of associational protection in mixed biofilms.

  9. In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol and water extracts of adiantum capillus veneris and tagetes patula against multidrug resistant bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study was to screen the antimicrobial activities of extracts of leaves and stems of Adiantum capillus veneris and Tagetes patula against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial strains. Extracts from the leaves and stems of these plants were extracted with methanol and water and tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against ten MDR bacterial strains i.e., Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Providencia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. Leaves methanol extract (LME) of Adiantum showed maximum Zone of Inhibition (ZI) against Providencia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi, whereas its stem methanol extract (SME) was very active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi. Similarly LME of Tagetes showed highest ZI against Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae while SME showed highest ZI to Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Providencia, Shigella and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Leaves water extract (LWE) of Adiantum was very active against all ten bacterial strains while its stem water extract (SWE) showed maximum ZI against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, Shigella, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia. LWE of Tagetes was only active against Vibrio cholerae whereas SWE was very active against Salmonella typhi and active against P. vulgaris, Citrobacter freundii and Vibrio cholerae. It was concluded from this study that extracts of both Adiantum and Tagetes have prominent activities against most of the MDR bacterial strains and needs further studies for utmost benefits. (author)

  10. Engineered bacterial communication prevents Vibrio cholerae virulence in an infant mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Faping; March, John C.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of using commensal bacteria as signal mediators for inhibiting the disease cholera, we stably transformed Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (Nissle) to express the autoinducer molecule cholera autoinducer 1 (CAI-1) (shown previously to prevent virulence when present with another signaling molecule, autoinducer 2, at high concentrations) and determined the effect on Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression and colonization in an infant mouse model. We found that pret...

  11. Diagnosing Cholera in The Young: A Review of W.H.O. Criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Gupta, Urmila Jhamb, Beena Uppal, Anita Chakraverti, S.K. Mittal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to study the occurrence of cholera in young children with a view to define theclinical criteria of diagnosis and endemicity of cholera in Delhi and to compare its clinical profile withrotavirus diarrhea. Hundred children below 3 years of age admitted with acute watery diarrhea wererecruited. The severity of diarrhea and degree of dehydration were noted. Stool specimens collected fromall cases were subjected to bacterial culture for identification of Vibrio cholerae and rotavirus detectionby ELISA and PAGE techniques. Both Vibrio cholerae and rotavirus were detected in 5, Vibrio choleraealone in 13 and rotavirus alone in 18 cases. Sixty-one percent cases of cholera occurred in children belowtwo years. Rice watery stools were seen only in 28% (5/18 cases of cholera. Three (3/13 cases withcholera alone and 6/18 with rotavirus alone had mild diarrhea. Moderate diarrhea occurred in 3/5 caseswith both pathogens, 6/13 with cholera alone and 7/18 with rotavirus alone. Severe diarrhea occurred in3/5 cases with both pathogens, 4/13 with cholera alone, and 5/18 cases with rotavirus alone. Milddehydration occurred in 3/5 and severe dehydration in 2/5 children with both pathogens. Only 3/13 childrenwith cholera alone and one child with rotavirus alone were severely dehydrated. It is concluded thatconsidering the diagnosis of cholera solely on clinical grounds and overlap between the clinical spectrumof cholera and rotavirus diarrhea would result in missing many cholera cases in a non-endemic area likeDelhi.

  12. Local perceptions of cholera and anticipated vaccine acceptance in Katanga province, Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2013-01-01

    Background In regions where access to clean water and the provision of a sanitary infrastructure has not been sustainable, cholera continues to pose an important public health burden. Although oral cholera vaccines (OCV) are effective means to complement classical cholera control efforts, still relatively little is known about their acceptability in targeted communities. Clarification of vaccine acceptability prior to the introduction of a new vaccine provides important information for future...

  13. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    OpenAIRE

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemol...

  14. Coagglutination of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio vulnificus with anti-flagellar monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Simonson, J G; Siebeling, R J

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with serological activity for purified flagellar (H) core protein prepared from Vibrio cholerae were identified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Four of these MAbs reacted with the flagella of V. cholerae and V. mimicus exclusively, while eight MAbs reacted with at least 1 of 30 heterologous Vibrio species tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or coagglutination. It appears that V. cholerae and V. mimicus express similar, if not identical, H determinant...

  15. The Polar Flagellar Motor of Vibrio cholerae Is Driven by an Na+ Motive Force

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Seiji; Yamamoto, Koichiro; Kawagishi, Ikuro; Homma, Michio

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a highly motile bacterium which possesses a single polar flagellum as a locomotion organelle. Motility is thought to be an important factor for the virulence of V. cholerae. The genome sequencing project of this organism is in progress, and the genes that are highly homologous to the essential genes of the Na+-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus were found in the genome database of V. cholerae. The energy source of its flagellar motor was investigated. We e...

  16. The Population Structure of Vibrio cholerae from the Chandigarh Region of Northern India

    KAUST Repository

    Abd El Ghany, Moataz

    2014-07-24

    Background:Cholera infection continues to be a threat to global public health. The current cholera pandemic associated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor has now been ongoing for over half a century.Methodology/Principal Findings:Thirty-eight V. cholerae El Tor isolates associated with a cholera outbreak in 2009 from the Chandigarh region of India were characterised by a combination of microbiology, molecular typing and whole-genome sequencing. The genomic analysis indicated that two clones of V. cholera circulated in the region and caused disease during this time. These clones fell into two distinct sub-clades that map independently onto wave 3 of the phylogenetic tree of seventh pandemic V. cholerae El Tor. Sequence analyses of the cholera toxin gene, the Vibrio seventh Pandemic Island II (VSPII) and SXT element correlated with this phylogenetic position of the two clades on the El Tor tree. The clade 2 isolates, characterized by a drug-resistant profile and the expression of a distinct cholera toxin, are closely related to the recent V. cholerae isolated elsewhere, including Haiti, but fell on a distinct branch of the tree, showing they were independent outbreaks. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) distinguishes two sequence types among the 38 isolates, that did not correspond to the clades defined by whole-genome sequencing. Multi-Locus Variable-length tandem-nucleotide repeat Analysis (MLVA) identified 16 distinct clusters.Conclusions/Significance:The use of whole-genome sequencing enabled the identification of two clones of V. cholerae that circulated during the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak. These clones harboured a similar structure of ICEVchHai1 but differed mainly in the structure of CTX phage and VSPII. The limited capacity of MLST and MLVA to discriminate between the clones that circulated in the 2009 Chandigarh outbreak highlights the value of whole-genome sequencing as a route to the identification of further genetic markers to subtype V. cholerae isolates.

  17. "I'm not dog, no!": cries of resistance against cholera control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; Monte, C M

    1996-09-01

    Popular reactions toward government efforts to control the recent cholera epidemic in Northeast Brazil are evaluated. Intensive ethnographic interviews and participant-observation in two urban slums (favelas), reveal a high level of resistance on the part of impoverished residents towards official cholera control interventions and mass media campaigns. "Non-compliance" with recommended regimens is described more as a revolt against accusatory attitudes and actions of the elite than as an outright rejection of care by the poor. "Hidden transcripts" about "The Dog's Disease," as cholera is popularly called, voices a history of social and economic inequity and domination in Northeast Brazil. Here, cholera is encumbered by the trappings of metaphor. Two lurid cultural stereotypes, pessoa imunda (filthy, dirty person) and vira lata (stray mutt dog) are used, it is believed, to equate the poor with cholera. The morally disgracing and disempowering imagery of cholera is used to blame and punish the poor and to collectively taint and separate their communities from wealthy neighborhoods. The authors argue that metaphoric trappings have tragic consequences: they deform the experience of having cholera and inhibit the sick and dying from seeking treatment early enough. Controlling cholera requires eliminating "blaming the victim" rhetoric while attacking the social roots of cholera: poverty, low earning power, female illiteracy, sexism, lack of basic sanitation and clean water supplies, medical hegemony, etc. For health interventions to be effective, it is necessary to take into account people's "hidden transcripts" when designing action programs. PMID:8888470

  18. Management of multipartite genomes: the Vibrio cholerae model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Bland, Michael J; Mazel, Didier

    2014-12-01

    A minority of bacterial species has been found to carry a genome divided among several chromosomes. Among these, all Vibrio species harbor a genome split into two chromosomes of uneven size, with distinctive replication origins whose replication firing involves common and specific factors. Most of our current knowledge on replication and segregation in multi-chromosome bacteria has come from the study of Vibrio cholerae, which is now the model organism for this field. It has been firmly established that replication of the two V. cholerae chromosomes is temporally regulated and coupled to the cell cycle, but the mediators of these processes are as yet mostly unknown. The two chromosomes are also organized along different patterns within the cell and occupy different subcellular domains. The selective advantages provided by this partitioning into two replicons are still unclear and are a key motivation for these studies. PMID:25460805

  19. Cholera-Like Enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyne Kohli; John Holton; John D. Clements; Cyrille Di Martino; Fatou Thiam; Christelle Basset

    2010-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) and the heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LT), as well as their non toxic mutants, are potent mucosal adjuvants of immunization eliciting mucosal and systemic responses against unrelated co-administered antigens in experimental models and in humans (non toxic mutants). These enterotoxins are composed of two subunits, the A subunit, responsible for an ADP-ribosyl transferase activity and the B subunit, responsible for cell binding. Paradoxically, whereas the whole toxins h...

  20. From Cholera to Burns: A Role for Oral Rehydration Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, S. M.; Green, W.B.; Asuku, M.E.; M. Feldman; Makam, R.; Noppenberger, D; Price, L A; Prosciak, M.; van Loon, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to the practice guidelines of the American Burn Association on burn shock resuscitation, intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is the standard of care for the replacement of fluid and electrolyte losses in burn injury of ≥20% of the total body surface area. However, in mass burn casualties, IV fluid resuscitation may be delayed or unavailable. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of dehydration in epidemics of cholera, could be an alt...

  1. Ion-swimming speed variation of Vibrio cholerae cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anindito Sen; Ranjan K Nandi; Amar N Ghosh

    2005-09-01

    In the present work we report the variation in swimming speed of Vibrio cholerae with respect to the change in concentration of sodium ions in the medium. We have also studied the variation in swimming speed with respect to temperature. We find that the swimming speed initially shows a linear increase with the increase of the sodium ions in the medium and then plateaus. The range within which the swimming speed attains saturation is approximately the same at different temperatures.

  2. Biocompatible capped iron oxide nanoparticles for Vibrio cholerae detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anshu; Baral, Dinesh; Rawat, Kamla; Solanki, Pratima R.; Bohidar, H. B.

    2015-05-01

    We report the studies relating to fabrication of an efficient immunosensor for Vibrio cholerae detection. Magnetite (iron oxide (Fe3O4)) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method and capped by citric acid (CA). These NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate and used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) for Vibrio cholerae detection using an electrochemical technique. The structural and morphological studies of Fe3O4 and CA-Fe3O4/ITO were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The average crystalline size of Fe3O4, CA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles obtained were about 29 ± 1 nm and 37 ± 1 nm, respectively. The hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles was found to be 77.35 nm (Fe3O4) and 189.51 nm (CA-Fe3O4) by DLS measurement. The results of electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/CA-Fe2O3/ITO immunosensor exhibits a good detection range of 12.5-500 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.32 ng mL-1, sensitivity 0.03 Ω/ng ml-1 cm-2, and reproducibility more than 11 times.

  3. Identification in traditional herbal medications and confirmation by synthesis of factors that inhibit cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oi, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Miyake, Masami; Ueno, Masamiti; Takai, Izumi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kubo, Masayoshi; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2002-01-01

    Kampo formulations are traditional herbal medications used in China and Japan for many centuries to treat diarrheal diseases such as cholera. Our studies were undertaken to identify and verify by chemical synthesis the active components that inhibited cholera toxin (CT), the virulence factor secreted by Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. The Kampo formulation, Daio-kanzo-to, inhibited CT activities (i.e., ADP-ribosylation, Chinese hamster ovary cell elongation); in Daio-kanzo-to...

  4. Immunization of Mice With Vibrio cholerae Outer-Membrane Vesicles Protects Against Hyperinfectious Challenge and Blocks Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, Anne L.; Tarique, Abdullah A.; Patimalla, Bharathi; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Qadri, Firdausi; Camilli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background. Vibrio cholerae excreted by cholera patients is “hyperinfectious” (HI), which can be modeled by passage through infant mice. Immunization of adult female mice with V. cholerae outer-membrane vesicles (OMVs) passively protects suckling mice from challenge. Although V. cholerae is unable to colonize protected pups, the bacteria survive passage and have the potential to be transmitted to susceptible individuals. Here, we investigated the impact of OMV immunization and the HI state on...

  5. Strategies to Prevent Cholera Introduction during International Personnel Deployments: A Computational Modeling Analysis Based on the 2010 Haiti Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Lewnard, Joseph A.; Antillón, Marina; Gonsalves, Gregg; Alice M Miller; Ko, Albert I; Virginia E Pitzer

    2016-01-01

    Background Introduction of Vibrio cholerae to Haiti during the deployment of United Nations (UN) peacekeepers in 2010 resulted in one of the largest cholera epidemics of the modern era. Following the outbreak, a UN-commissioned independent panel recommended three pre-deployment intervention strategies to minimize the risk of cholera introduction in future peacekeeping operations: screening for V. cholerae carriage, administering prophylactic antimicrobial chemotherapies, or immunizing with or...

  6. Haiti’s progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured

    OpenAIRE

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Paul E Farmer; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawi...

  7. Cholera in Papua New Guinea and the importance of safe water sources and sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Greenhill

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of cholera in Papua New Guinea (PNG has resulted in a large number of illnesses with a relatively high case fatality ratio (3.2%. Access to adequate sanitation and safe water is very low in PNG and has undoubtedly contributed to the spread of cholera within the country.

  8. Model of Cholera Forecasting Using Artificial Neural Network in Chabahar City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezeshki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Cholera as an endemic disease remains a health issue in Iran despite decrease in incidence. Since forecasting epidemic diseases provides appropriate preventive actions in disease spread, different forecasting methods including artificial neural networks have been developed to study parameters involved in incidence and spread of epidemic diseases such as cholera. Objectives In this study, cholera in rural area of Chabahar, Iran was investigated to achieve a proper forecasting model. Materials and Methods Data of cholera was gathered from 465 villages, of which 104 reported cholera during ten years period of study. Logistic regression modeling and correlate bivariate were used to determine risk factors and achieve possible predictive model one-hidden-layer perception neural network with backpropagation training algorithm and the sigmoid activation function was trained and tested between the two groups of infected and non-infected villages after preprocessing. For determining validity of prediction, the ROC diagram was used. The study variables included climate conditions and geographical parameters. Results After determining significant variables of cholera incidence, the described artificial neural network model was capable of forecasting cholera event among villages of test group with accuracy up to 80%. The highest accuracy was achieved when model was trained with variables that were significant in statistical analysis describing that the two methods confirm the result of each other. Conclusions Application of artificial neural networking assists forecasting cholera for adopting protective measures. For a more accurate prediction, comprehensive information is required including data on hygienic, social and demographic parameters.

  9. Household-Level Spatiotemporal Patterns of Incidence of Cholera, Haiti, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Diamond, Ulrica; Kracalik, Ian T.; Widmer, Jocelyn; Brown, Will; Morrissey, B. David; Alexander, Kathleen A.; Curtis, Andrew J; Ali, Afsar; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-01-01

    A cholera outbreak began in Haiti during October, 2010. Spatiotemporal patterns of household-level cholera in Ouest Department showed that the initial clusters tended to follow major roadways; subsequent clusters occurred further inland. Our data highlight transmission pathway complexities and the need for case and household-level analysis to understand disease spread and optimize interventions.

  10. Environmental factor analysis of cholera in China using remote sensing and geographical information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Cao, C X; Wang, D C; Kan, B; Xu, Y F; Ni, X L; Zhu, Z C

    2016-04-01

    Cholera is one of a number of infectious diseases that appears to be influenced by climate, geography and other natural environments. This study analysed the environmental factors of the spatial distribution of cholera in China. It shows that temperature, precipitation, elevation, and distance to the coastline have significant impact on the distribution of cholera. It also reveals the oceanic environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, which is a coastal province of China, using both remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The analysis has validated the correlation between indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local number of cholera cases based on 8-year monthly data from 2001 to 2008. The results show the number of cholera cases has been strongly affected by the variables of SST, SSH and OCC. Utilizing this information, a cholera prediction model has been established based on the oceanic and climatic environmental factors. The model indicates that RS and GIS have great potential for designing an early warning system for cholera. PMID:26464184

  11. Mapping of a gene that regulates hemolysin production in Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    von Mechow, S; Vaidya, A B; Bramucci, M G

    1985-01-01

    A gene that regulates the hemolysin structural gene (hly) was found to be tightly linked to the tox-1000 locus of Vibrio cholerae RJ1 and separated from hly by a large section of the V. cholerae genetic map. This hemolysin regulatory gene was designated hlyR.

  12. Vibrio cholerae tolC Is Required for Bile Resistance and Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    Bina, James E.; Mekalanos, John J.

    2001-01-01

    TolC and its homologues are outer membrane proteins that are essential for the transport of many molecules across the cell envelope. In this study we characterized the gene encoding Vibrio cholerae TolC. V. cholerae tolC mutants failed to secrete the RTX cytotoxin, were hypersensitive to antimicrobial agents, and were deficient in intestinal colonization.

  13. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet Jutla

    Full Text Available Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008.Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began.Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives.

  14. Travel Health Alert Notices and Haiti Cholera Outbreak, Florida, USA, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Selent, Monica U.; McWhorter, Amanda; De Rochars, Valery M. Beau; Myers, Rebecca; Hunter, David W.; Brown, Clive M.; Cohen, Nicole J.; Molinari, Noelle A.; Warwar, Kirsten; Robbins, Danisha; Heiman, Katherine E.; Newton, Anna E.; Schmitz, Ann; Oraze, Michael J.; Marano, Nina

    2011-01-01

    To enhance the timeliness of medical evaluation for cholera-like illness during the 2011 cholera outbreak in Hispaniola, printed Travel Health Alert Notices (T-HANs) were distributed to travelers from Haiti to the United States. Evaluation of the T-HANs’ influence on travelers’ health care–seeking behavior suggested T-HANs might positively influence health care–seeking behavior.

  15. The Role of Socioeconomic Status in Longitudinal Trends of Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh, 1993–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Elisabeth Dowling; Rodd, Joshua; Yunus, Mohammad; Emch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    There has been little evidence of a decline in the global burden of cholera in recent years as the number of cholera cases reported to WHO continues to rise. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of socioeconomic development. Overall socioeconomic development is the ultimate solution for control of cholera as evidenced in developed countries. However, most research has focused on cross-county comparisons so that the role of individual- or small area-level socioeconomic status (SES) in cholera dynamics has not been carefully studied. Reported cases of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh have fluctuated greatly over time and epidemic outbreaks of cholera continue, most recently with the introduction of a new serotype into the region. The wealth of longitudinal data on the population of Matlab provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of socioeconomic status and other demographic characteristics on the long-term temporal dynamics of cholera in the region. In this population-based study we examine which factors impact the initial number of cholera cases in a bari at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic and the factors impacting the number of cases over time. Cholera data were derived from the ICDDR,B health records and linked to socioeconomic and geographic data collected as part of the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Longitudinal zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) multilevel regression models are used to examine the impact of environmental and socio-demographic factors on cholera counts across baris. Results indicate that baris with a high socioeconomic status had lower initial rates of cholera at the beginning of the 0139 epidemic (γ01 = −0.147, p = 0.041) and a higher probability of reporting no cholera cases (α01 = 0.156, p = 0.061). Populations in baris characterized by low SES are more likely to experience higher cholera morbidity at the beginning of an epidemic than populations in high SES

  16. High-Resolution Crystal Structures Elucidate the Molecular Basis of Cholera Blood Group Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggelund, Julie Elisabeth; Burschowsky, Daniel; Bjørnestad, Victoria Ariel; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Krengel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Cholera is the prime example of blood-group-dependent diseases, with individuals of blood group O experiencing the most severe symptoms. The cholera toxin is the main suspect to cause this relationship. We report the high-resolution crystal structures (1.1–1.6 Å) of the native cholera toxin B-pentamer for both classical and El Tor biotypes, in complexes with relevant blood group determinants and a fragment of its primary receptor, the GM1 ganglioside. The blood group A determinant binds in the opposite orientation compared to previously published structures of the cholera toxin, whereas the blood group H determinant, characteristic of blood group O, binds in both orientations. H-determinants bind with higher affinity than A-determinants, as shown by surface plasmon resonance. Together, these findings suggest why blood group O is a risk factor for severe cholera. PMID:27082955

  17. Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation-driven persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; McDougald, D.; Moreno, A.M.;

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae in aquatic environments is the principal cause for seasonal occurrence of cholera epidemics. This causality has been explained by postulating that V. cholerae forms biofilms in association with animate and inanimate surfaces....... Alternatively, it has been proposed that bacterial pathogens are an integral part of the natural microbial food web and thus their survival is constrained by protozoan predation. Here, we report that both explanations are interrelated. our data show that biofilms are the protective agent enabling V. cholerae to...... survive protozoan grazing while their planktonic counterparts are eliminated. Grazing on planktonic V. cholerae was found to select for the biofilm-enhancing rugose phase variant, which is adapted to the surf ace-associated niche by the production of exopolymers. Interestingly, grazing resistance in V...

  18. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; Huq, A.; Wood, B.; Fuchs, G.; Faruque, A. S.; Colwell, R.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.

  19. Identification of a TcpC-TcpQ Outer Membrane Complex Involved in the Biogenesis of the Toxin-Coregulated Pilus of Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Bose, Niranjan; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2005-01-01

    The toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) of Vibrio cholerae and the soluble TcpF protein that is secreted via the TCP biogenesis apparatus are essential for intestinal colonization. The TCP biogenesis apparatus is composed of at least nine proteins but is largely uncharacterized. TcpC is an outer membrane lipoprotein required for TCP biogenesis that is a member of the secretin protein superfamily. In the present study, analysis of TcpC in a series of strains deficient in each of the TCP biogenesis p...

  20. Requirements for Vibrio cholerae HapR Binding and Transcriptional Repression at the hapR Promoter Are Distinct from Those at the aphA Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wei; Kovacikova, Gabriela; Skorupski, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Virulence gene expression in certain strains of Vibrio cholerae is regulated in response to cell density by a quorum-sensing cascade that influences the levels of the LuxR homolog HapR through small regulatory RNAs that control the stability of its message. At high cell density, HapR represses the expression of the gene encoding the virulence gene activator AphA by binding to a site between −85 and −58 in the aphA promoter. We show here that a second binding site for HapR lies within the hapR...

  1. Identification of Critical Amino Acids Conferring Lethality in VopK, a Type III Effector Protein of Vibrio cholerae: Lessons from Yeast Model System

    OpenAIRE

    Bankapalli, Leela Krishna; Mishra, Rahul Chandra; Singh, Balvinder; Raychaudhuri, Saumya

    2015-01-01

    VopK, a type III effector protein, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to diverse serogroups. Ectopic expression of this protein exhibits strong toxicity in yeast model system. In order to map critical residues in VopK, we scanned the primary sequence guided by available data on various toxins and effector proteins. Our in silico analysis of VopK indicated the presence of predicted MCF1-SHE (SHxxxE) serine peptidase domain at the C-terminus region of t...

  2. Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbuthia, P.G.; Njagi, L.W.; Nyaga, P.N.;

    2011-01-01

    Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322(T), and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS...

  3. FoxO1 in embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdous, Anwarul; Hill, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of the maternal-fetal circulation during embryonic development is a fundamental process required for effective exchange of nutrients, waste products and signaling factors critical to all subsequent stages of fetal growth and development. Recent work has uncovered a previously unrecognized role of the transcription factor FoxO1 in the orchestration of molecular events underlying establishment of maternal-fetal circulatory interaction. These new data contribute to a larger body of...

  4. EROTYPE IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE BACTERIAWHICH ISOLATED FROM ICE AMONGTUBE AND CUBE ICE TYPE IN FOOD AND BEVERAGES SELLER AT DENPASAR CITY, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    IGP Dhinarananta; IGM Wijaya P; P Ananta WS; P Yuniadi A; M Agus Hendrayana

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a type of watery diarrhea with specific sign stool containing mucus which resembles rice water. Cholera caused by gram negative bacteria Vibrio cholerae (V.Cholerae). The transmissions of bacteria were through a contaminated food or water.Bali is an international tourism destination with tropical weather where ice is widelyused in food and beverage which bring a risk of cholera through a contaminated ice.Iceshave a risk of bacterial contamination whether from the making and the usa...

  5. Establishment and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae%霍乱弧菌LAMP快速检测方法的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯雪梅; 陈胤瑜; 高璐璐; 杜正平; 冯雪梅; 廖如燕; 陈志永; 曹以诚; 陈清

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立环介导等温扩增技术(LAMP)快速检测霍乱弧菌.方法 针对霍乱弧菌外膜蛋白的ompW基因设计特异引物,优化反应条件,建立霍乱弧菌的LAMP检测方法.通过对47株细菌及模拟污染现场,检测该方法的灵敏度、特异度和实用性.结果 活菌计数方法表明建立的LAMP方法检测霍乱弧菌的灵敏度为1.6×10~2 cfu/ml.在人工污染霍乱弧菌的粪便及海水标本中检测的敏感度为1.6×10~3 cfu/ml,在牛奶标本中敏感度为1.6×10~4 cfu/ml.检测21株霍乱弧菌均为阳性,26株非霍乱菌则全部阴性,特异度为100%.结论 建立的LAMP方法检测霍乱弧菌灵敏度、特异度高,可用于霍乱现场监测和流行病学调查.%Objective To establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae. Method Based on the ompW nucleic sequence of Vibrio cholerae, a pair of primers was designed for LAMP. The reaction conditions were optimized, and the specificity, sensitivity, and practicability of LAMP were tested using 47 baterial strains and simulated contaminated sites. Results The results of viable bacterium count showed that LAMP was capable of detecting Vibrio cholerae at a level as low as 1.6×10~2 cfu/ml. The minimal detectable concentration was 1.6×10~3 cfu/ml for simulated contaminated samples such as feces and seawater, and 1.6×10~4 cfu/ml for contaminated milk. All the 21 strains of Vibrio cholerae yielded positive results in LAMP, and the 26 strains of other bacteria all showed negative results, with a detection specificity of 100%. Conclusion The established LAMP method has high specificity and sensitivity for detecting Vibrio cholerae and is applicable in field monitoring and epidemiological study of Vibrio cholerae.

  6. Fucosylation and protein glycosylation create functional receptors for cholera toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wands, Amberlyn M; Fujita, Akiko; McCombs, Janet E; Cervin, Jakob; Dedic, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Andrea C; Nischan, Nicole; Bond, Michelle R; Mettlen, Marcel; Trudgian, David C; Lemoff, Andrew; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Gustavsson, Bengt; Steentoft, Catharina; Clausen, Henrik; Mirzaei, Hamid; Teneberg, Susann; Yrlid, Ulf; Kohler, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) enters and intoxicates host cells after binding cell surface receptors using its B subunit (CTB). The ganglioside (glycolipid) GM1 is thought to be the sole CT receptor; however, the mechanism by which CTB binding to GM1 mediates internalization of CT remains enigmatic. Here we...... report that CTB binds cell surface glycoproteins. Relative contributions of gangliosides and glycoproteins to CTB binding depend on cell type, and CTB binds primarily to glycoproteins in colonic epithelial cell lines. Using a metabolically incorporated photocrosslinking sugar, we identified one CTB...

  7. The three-dimensional crystal structure of cholera toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Westbrook, M.L.; Nance, S.; Spangler, B.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Scott, D.L. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry; Westbrook, E.M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The clinical manifestations of cholera are largely attributable to the actions of a secreted hexameric AB{sub 5} enterotoxin (choleragen). We have solved the three-dimensional structure of choleragen at 2.5 {Angstrom} resolution and compared the refined coordinates with those of choleragenoid (isolated B pentamer) and the heat-labile enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (LT). The crystalline coordinates provide a detailed view of the stereochemistry implicated in binding to GM1 gangliosides and in carrying out ADP-ribosylation. The A2 chain of choleragen, in contrast to that of LT, is a nearly continuous {alpha}-helix with an interpretable carboxyl tail.

  8. Functional Characterization of Cholera Toxin Inhibitors Using Human Intestinal Organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Pukin, Aliaksei V; Fu, Ou; Quarles van Ufford, Linda H C; Janssens, Hettie M; Beekman, Jeffrey M; Pieters, Roland J

    2016-07-28

    Preclinical drug testing in primary human cell models that recapitulate disease can significantly reduce animal experimentation and time-to-the-clinic. We used intestinal organoids to quantitatively study the potency of multivalent cholera toxin inhibitors. The method enabled the determination of IC50 values over a wide range of potencies (15 pM to 9 mM). The results indicate for the first time that an organoid-based swelling assay is a useful preclinical method to evaluate inhibitor potencies of drugs that target pathogen-derived toxins. PMID:27347611

  9. Recombinant toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA as a candidate subunit cholera vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Kiaie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxin co-regulated pilus A (TcpA has been described as a critical pathogenicity factor of Vibrio cholerae. TcpA is a candidate for making subunit vaccine against cholera. The aim of this study was to produce a candidate vaccine by expressing recombinant TcpA in E. coli.In this study, the toxin co-regulated pilus A gene from EL-Tor, V. cholerae subspecies, was amplified by PCR and sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T1. E. coli BL21 (DE3 was transformed with pGEX4T1- TcpA and gene expression was induced by IPTG and purified by GST resin. The integrity of the product was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a standard rabbit anti-V. cholerae antibody. Sera reactivity of infected individuals was further analyzed against the recombinant TcpA protein.The concentration of purified recombinant protein was calculated to be 8 mg/L of initial culture. The integrity of product was confirmed by Western blot analysis using a standard rabbit anti V. cholerae antibody. Sera reactivity of infected individual was further analyzed against the recombinant TcpA protein. The obtained data indicated that recombinant TcpA protein from V. cholerae was recognized by patient serum and animal sera.These results show that the recombinant TcpA is antigenic and could be used in a carrier host as an oral vaccine against cholera.

  10. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need. PMID:27425792

  11. Evaluation of a rapid polymerase chain reaction based identification technique for Vibrio cholerae isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, W J; Masoabi, D; de Wet, C M E; Venter, S N

    2004-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of waterborne pathogens, such as Vibrio cholerae, in drinking-water sources is important to enable effective resource management and public health protection. Phenotypic systems currently being used for the identification of Vibrio cholerae isolates are time-consuming and the need exists for the development of suitable molecular techniques that can offer both fast and reliable identification. During this study, isolates identified as Vibrio cholerae by means of two different biochemical test systems (API 20E and VITEK 32) were analysed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to compare the reliability of the various identification systems. The selected PCR technique amplified a sequence within the outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae, a gene specific for V. cholerae. It was found that out of 243 isolates biochemically identified as V. cholerae with either the API or VITEK system, 21 isolates did not give a positive result with the PCR detection method. Sequencing the 16S rDNA of more than half of these isolates and comparison of the sequences with Internet databases indicated that most of the isolates belonged to the genus Aeromonas. The results indicated that the rapid PCR procedure was more accurate than the API or VITEK systems currently being used for the phenotypic identification of Vibrio cholerae isolates. PMID:15318514

  12. Effectiveness of Oral Cholera Vaccine in Haiti: 37-Month Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévère, Karine; Rouzier, Vanessa; Anglade, Stravinsky Benedict; Bertil, Claudin; Joseph, Patrice; Deroncelay, Alexandra; Mabou, Marie Marcelle; Wright, Peter F; Guillaume, Florence Duperval; Pape, Jean William

    2016-05-01

    The first oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign, since its prequalification by the World Health Organization, in response to an ongoing cholera epidemic (reactive vaccination) was successfully conducted in a poor urban slum of approximately 70,000 inhabitants in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, in 2012. Vaccine coverage was 75% of the target population. This report documents the impact of OCV in reducing the number of culture-confirmed cases of cholera admitted to the Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes (GHESKIO) cholera treatment center from that community in the 37 months postvaccination (April 2012-April 30, 2015). Of 1,788 patients with culture-confirmed cholera, 1,770 (99%) were either from outside the vaccine area (1,400 cases) or from the vaccinated community who had not received OCV (370 cases). Of the 388 people from the catchment area who developed culture-confirmed cholera, 370 occurred among the 17,643 people who had not been vaccinated (2.1%) and the remaining 18 occurred among the 52,357 people (0.034%) who had been vaccinated (P < 0.001), for an efficacy that approximates 97.5%. Despite not being designed as a randomized control trial, the very high efficacy is a strong evidence for the effectiveness of OCV as part of an integrated package for the control of cholera in outbreak settings. PMID:26928838

  13. Evaluation of new primers for detecting toxigenic vibrio cholerae by multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil F. Mehrabadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of cholera that has emerged as an endemic disease in different regions of the world in recent years. Traditional microbial culture and microscopy methods are considered to be the best standard for diagnosing V. cholerae infection. These methods, however, delay any available confirmatory answer by days. Molecular methods have the potential to provide sensitive, accurate, and rapid analysis of V. cholerae infection. We have developed a multiplex PCR assay to detect virulence and toxigenic-associated (VTA genes (ctxA, tcpA, and ompW. To evaluate PCR specificity, additional bacteria from the enterobacteriaceae family (Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysantry, and entrotoxigenic E. coli and Aeromonas hidrophyla were examined in this study. Specificity tests were evaluated using the genome dilution method. Importantly, the results show that our PCR specificity method represents the best tool for the rapid detection of VTA genes because of its simplicity, cost effectiveness, and accuracy. This multiplex PCR method can be used for examining the existence of VTA genes in patient samples, and therefore will distinguish V. cholerae from other vibrios and bacteria. This method is able to detect 10-100 colony forming units (CFUs of V.Cholerae and 8.5-85 picograms (pg of genomic DNA. The multiplex PCR method is also more specific and sensitive than other methods, validating it as an appropriate and sensitive tool for detecting the presence of toxigenic and pathogenic V. cholerae.

  14. Quorum sensing-regulated chitin metabolism provides grazing resistance to Vibrio cholerae biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuyang; Tay, Qi Xiang Martin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; McDougald, Diane

    2015-08-01

    Association of Vibrio cholerae with chitinous surfaces of zooplankton is important for its persistence in marine environments, as it provides accessibility to nutrients and resistance to stresses. Predation by heterotrophic protists has a major impact on the survival of V. cholerae. V. cholerae forms biofilms as its main defensive strategy, and quorum sensing (QS) additionally regulates the production of antiprotozoal factors. The role of chitin and QS regulation in V. cholerae grazing resistance was investigated by exposing V. cholerae wild-type (WT) and QS mutant biofilms grown on chitin flakes to the bacteriotrophic, surface-feeding flagellate Rhynchomonas nasuta. V. cholerae formed more biofilm biomass on chitin flakes compared with nonchitinous surfaces. The growth of R. nasuta was inhibited by WT biofilms grown on chitin flakes, whereas the inhibition was attenuated in QS mutant biofilms. The chitin-dependent toxicity was also observed when the V. cholerae biofilms were developed under continuous flow or grown on a natural chitin source, the exoskeleton of Artemia. In addition, the antiprotozoal activity and ammonium concentration of V. cholerae biofilm supernatants were quantified. The ammonium levels (3.5 mM) detected in the supernatants of V. cholerae WT biofilms grown on chitin flakes were estimated to reduce the number of R. nasuta by >80% in add-back experiments, and the supernatant of QS mutant biofilms was less toxic owing to a decrease in ammonium production. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of genes involved in chitin metabolism and chemotaxis were significantly downregulated in QS mutant biofilms when grown on chitin compared with the WT biofilms. PMID:25615438

  15. A metalloprotease secreted by the type II secretion system links Vibrio cholerae with collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo R; Zielke, Ryszard A; Wierzbicki, Igor H; Mitchell, Kristie C; Withey, Jeffrey H; Sikora, Aleksandra E

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to various aquatic niches and is the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. The persistence of V. cholerae in natural habitats is a crucial factor in the epidemiology of cholera. In contrast to the well-studied V. cholerae-chitin connection, scarce information is available about the factors employed by the bacteria for the interaction with collagens. Collagens might serve as biologically relevant substrates, because they are the most abundant protein constituents of metazoan tissues and V. cholerae has been identified in association with invertebrate and vertebrate marine animals, as well as in a benthic zone of the ocean where organic matter, including collagens, accumulates. Here, we describe the characterization of the V. cholerae putative collagenase, VchC, encoded by open reading frame VC1650 and belonging to the subfamily M9A peptidases. Our studies demonstrate that VchC is an extracellular collagenase degrading native type I collagen of fish and mammalian origin. Alteration of the predicted catalytic residues coordinating zinc ions completely abolished the protein enzymatic activity but did not affect the translocation of the protease by the type II secretion pathway into the extracellular milieu. We also show that the protease undergoes a maturation process with the aid of a secreted factor(s). Finally, we propose that V. cholerae is a collagenovorous bacterium, as it is able to utilize collagen as a sole nutrient source. This study initiates new lines of investigations aiming to uncover the structural and functional components of the V. cholerae collagen utilization program. PMID:25561716

  16. Cholera-like enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Christelle; Thiam, Fatou; Martino, Cyrille Di; Holton, John; Clements, John D; Kohli, Evelyne

    2010-07-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) and the heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LT), as well as their non toxic mutants, are potent mucosal adjuvants of immunization eliciting mucosal and systemic responses against unrelated co-administered antigens in experimental models and in humans (non toxic mutants). These enterotoxins are composed of two subunits, the A subunit, responsible for an ADP-ribosyl transferase activity and the B subunit, responsible for cell binding. Paradoxically, whereas the whole toxins have adjuvant properties, the B subunits of CT (CTB) and of LT (LTB) have been shown to induce antigen specific tolerance when administered mucosally with antigens in experimental models as well as, recently, in humans, making them an attractive strategy to prevent or treat autoimmune or allergic disorders. Immunomodulation is a complex process involving many cell types notably antigen presenting cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this review, we focus on Treg cells and cholera-like enterotoxins and their non toxic derivates, with regard to subtype, in vivo/in vitro effects and possible role in the modulation of immune responses to coadministered antigens. PMID:22069660

  17. Cholera-Like Enterotoxins and Regulatory T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Kohli

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT and the heat-labile enterotoxin of E. coli (LT, as well as their non toxic mutants, are potent mucosal adjuvants of immunization eliciting mucosal and systemic responses against unrelated co-administered antigens in experimental models and in humans (non toxic mutants. These enterotoxins are composed of two subunits, the A subunit, responsible for an ADP-ribosyl transferase activity and the B subunit, responsible for cell binding. Paradoxically, whereas the whole toxins have adjuvant properties, the B subunits of CT (CTB and of LT (LTB have been shown to induce antigen specific tolerance when administered mucosally with antigens in experimental models as well as, recently, in humans, making them an attractive strategy to prevent or treat autoimmune or allergic disorders. Immunomodulation is a complex process involving many cell types notably antigen presenting cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs. In this review, we focus on Treg cells and cholera-like enterotoxins and their non toxic derivates, with regard to subtype, in vivo/in vitro effects and possible role in the modulation of immune responses to coadministered antigens.

  18. Genes de Vibrio cholerae involucrados en la tolerancia al cobre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Marrero

    2010-01-01

    sensibilidad a cobre en aerobiosis y anaerobiosis. El principal sistema de resistencia a cobre en V. cholerae está constituido por la ATPasa transportadora de cationes CopA, codificada por VC2215, que funciona en aerobiosis y anaerobiosis. La proteína hipotética conservada codificada por VC2216 no es significativa en la resistencia a cobre en aerobiosis, pero en anaerobiosis es importante si CopA es funcional. La proteína codificada por los genes VCA0261-0260, anotados previamente como independientes, es importante en aerobiosis y a una alta concentración de cobre, pero en anaerobiosis su participación en la resistencia a cobre es solo evidente si CopA no es funcional. De esta manera, los sistemas de tolerancia a cobre en V. cholerae incluyen el producto de los genes VC2215, VC2216 y VCA0261-0260, que desempeñan diferentes funciones en diversas condiciones de cultivo.

  19. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ribosome hibernation promoting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor from V. cholerae has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor (HPF) from Vibrio cholerae is presented at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of HPF linked by four Co atoms. The metal-binding sites observed in the crystal are probably not related to biological function. The structure of HPF has a typical β–α–β–β–β–α fold consistent with previous structures of YfiA and HPF from Escherichia coli. Comparison of the new structure with that of HPF from E. coli bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome [Polikanov et al. (2012 ▶), Science, 336, 915–918] shows that no significant structural changes are induced in HPF by binding

  20. Parallel quorum sensing signaling pathways in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sarah A; Hawver, Lisa A; Ng, Wai-Leung

    2016-05-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a microbial signaling process for monitoring population density and complexity. Communication among bacterial cells via QS relies on the production, secretion, and detection of small molecules called autoinducers. Many bacteria have evolved their QS systems with different network architectures to incorporate information from multiple signals. In the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae, at least four parallel signaling pathways converge to control the activity of a single regulator to modulate its QS response. By integrating multiple signal inputs, it is believed that Vibrio species can survey intra-species, intra-genus, and inter-species populations and program their gene expression accordingly. Our recent studies suggest that this "many-to-one" circuitry is also important for maintaining the integrity of the input-output relationship of the system and minimizes premature commitment to QS due to signal perturbation. Here we discuss the implications of this specific parallel network setup for V. cholerae intercellular communication and how this system arrangement affects our approach to manipulate the QS response of this clinically important pathogen. PMID:26545759

  1. HutZ Is Required for Efficient Heme Utilization in Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, Elizabeth E.; Schmitt, Michael; Wilks, Angela; Shelley M Payne

    2004-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, requires iron for growth. One mechanism by which it acquires iron is the uptake of heme, and several heme utilization genes have been identified in V. cholerae. These include three distinct outer membrane receptors, two TonB systems, and an apparent ABC transporter to transfer heme across the inner membrane. However, little is known about the fate of the heme after it enters the cell. In this report we show that a novel heme utilization protein...

  2. Recombinant toxin-coregulated pilus A (TcpA) as a candidate subunit cholera vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Kiaie; Hamid Abtahi; Ghasem Mosayebi; MohammadYosef Alikhani; Iraj Pakzad

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The toxin co-regulated pilus A (TcpA) has been described as a critical pathogenicity factor of Vibrio cholerae. TcpA is a candidate for making subunit vaccine against cholera. The aim of this study was to produce a candidate vaccine by expressing recombinant TcpA in E. coli. Materials and Methods In this study, the toxin co-regulated pilus A gene from EL-Tor, V. cholerae subspecies, was amplified by PCR and sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T1. E. co...

  3. [On the epidemic of cholera and its prevention and control by the railway authorities in 1932].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H P; Song, M H

    2016-01-28

    In 1932, the epidemic of cholera in China was serious, spreading to all provinces nationwide, causing heavy casualties. In order to prevent cholera epidemics spread along the railway line, the National Government Ministry of Railways and the local railway administration had taken all countermeasures, including the promulgation of epidemic prevention laws and regulations, quarantine, isolated check-up, disinfection, vaccination and even interruption of traffic. The measures of railway authorities had achieved a certain success. In August 1932, cholera epidemic began to subside gradually. PMID:27049743

  4. Biofilm formation and phenotypic variation enhance predation-driven persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; McDougald, D.; Moreno, A.M.; Yung, P.Y.; Yildiz, F.H.; Kjelleberg, S.

    2005-01-01

    . Alternatively, it has been proposed that bacterial pathogens are an integral part of the natural microbial food web and thus their survival is constrained by protozoan predation. Here, we report that both explanations are interrelated. our data show that biofilms are the protective agent enabling V. cholerae to...... of V. cholerae biofilms was found to be widespread among toxigenic and nontoxigenic isolates. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the adaptive advantage of surf ace-associated growth in the environmental persistence of V. cholerae and suggest an important contribution of protozoan...

  5. Discussion on detection method for Vibrio cholera in Pearl river water%珠江水霍乱弧菌检测方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟逸雯; 卢嘉明; 罗可天; 牟成惠; 宋妙芳

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较三种霍乱弧菌的检测方法,提高珠江水霍乱弧菌的检出率.方法:用荧光PCR法、胶体金法、常规培养法同时对珠江水中霍乱弧菌进行检测.结果:实时荧光PCR法共检出霍乱弧菌核酸阳性15份,胶体金法检出13份;常规细菌培养法检出11份.实时荧光法灵敏度=90.9%;特异度=98.9%;约登指数=89.8%;Kappa指数=0.81.胶体金法灵敏度=72.7%;特异度=99.4%;约登指数=72.1%;Kappa指数=0.78.结论:实时荧光PCR法与常规细菌培养法结果、胶体金法与常规细菌培养法结果比较差异具有统计学意义,可以考虑用实时荧光PCR法对大量样本进行初筛,再与分离培养法联合使用,确保霍乱病例的早发现、早诊断,其联合使用值得在基层卫生系统防治工作中推广和使用.%Objective:To compare the three detection methods to improve detection rate of Vibrio cholera in Pearl River water.Methods:Fluorescent PCR method,colloidal gold method,conventional culture method were used for detection of Vibrio cholera in Pearl River water.Results:With real-time fluorescent PCR method,fifteen Vibrio cholera strains were found positive,the sensitivity was 90.9%,the specificity was 98.9%,and the Kappa value was 0.81 ; With colloidal gold method,thirteen Vibrio cholera strains were found positive,the sensitivity was 72.7%,the specificity was 99.4%,and the Kappa value was 0.78 ; With conventional bacterial culture method,eleven Vibrio cholera strains were found positive.Conclusion:The detection results of real-time fluorescent PCR method,colloidal gold method and conventional bacterial culture method had statistical difference.Real-time fluorescent PCR method is suitable for preliminary screening of large number of samples.Combination of real-time fluorescent PCR and culture method contribute to the early finding and diagnosis of cholera cases,worthy to popularize and apply in basic hygiene system.

  6. Caracterización genotípica y fenotípica de aislamientos clínicos de Vibrio cholerae provenientes de Sudáfrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Suzarte-Portal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas epidemias de cólera causadas por cepas de Vibrio cholerae toxigénico del serogrupo O1 azotan a muchos países de Africa Subsahariana, sin embargo, existe poco conocimiento de las características de estas cepas epidémicas. El presente trabajo caracteriza un grupo de cepas de V. cholerae biotipo El Tor aisladas en pacientes de cólera en Sudáfrica durante 2003. Se estudió la producción de toxina colérica, la organización del profago CTX¿ en el genoma, el perfil proteico por SDS-PAGE, el polimorfismo de los fragmentos de restricción del gen que codifica para el ARN ribosomal 16S y la resistencia a tetraciclina. La cantidad de toxina producida en medio AKI por estos aislamientos, se determinó mediante un ensayo de GM1-ELISA y osciló entre 200 y 2 200 ng/mL, lo cual concuerda con las cantidades informadas para otras cepas El Tor cultivadas en las mismas condiciones. Todas las cepas analizadas mostraron resistencia a tetraciclina como consecuencia de la presencia del gen tetA en su genoma. Al analizar la organización del profago CTX¿ en el genoma de estas cepas, se pudo demostrar la existencia de una estructura particular de CTX¿ caracterizada por una o múltiples copias en tándem del profago integrado en el cromosoma II de V. cholerae y un RS1 independiente en el sitio dif del cromosoma I o mayor. Esta estructura difiere de la descrita para la mayoría de las cepas de V. cholerae El Tor. El perfil proteico en SDS-PAGE y el análisis de ribotipos en estas cepas mostró que todas conformaban un grupo fenotípicamente homogéneo con un posible origen clonal.

  7. Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio Cholerae Paradigm (7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, Rita [University of Maryland

    2012-06-01

    Rita Colwell on "Experimental Reservoirs of Human Pathogens: The Vibrio cholerae paradigm" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  8. Research Spotlight: Model suggests path to ending the ongoing Haitian cholera epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-05-01

    Since early November 2010 a deadly cholera epidemic has been spreading across the Caribbean nation of Haiti, killing thousands of people and infecting hundreds of thousands. While infection rates are being actively monitored, health organizations have been left without a clear understanding of exactly how the disease has spread across Haiti. Cholera can spread through exposure to contaminated water, and the disease travels over long distances if an infected individual moves around the country. Using representations of these two predominant dispersion mechanisms, along with information on the size of the susceptible population, the number of infected individuals, and the aquatic concentration of the cholera-causing bacteria for more than 500 communities, Bertuzzo et al. designed a model that was able to accurately reproduce the progression of the Haitian cholera epidemic. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046823, 2011)

  9. Gauze Filtration and Enrichment Procedures for Recovery of Vibrio cholerae from Contaminated Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Spira, W M; Ahmed, Q S

    1981-01-01

    Gauze filtration followed by 18-h enrichment in alkaline bile-peptone water is a simple, inexpensive, and efficient method for isolation Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor from contaminated surface waters.

  10. A comparison of biologically active elements in geese in relation to avian cholera

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Avian cholera caused an estimated mortality of between 166,000 to 197,000 migrating waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska in the 10-year period 1975 through...

  11. Cholera Incidence and Mortality in Sub-Saharan African Sites during Multi-country Surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sauvageot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cholera burden in Africa remains unknown, often because of weak national surveillance systems. We analyzed data from the African Cholera Surveillance Network (www.africhol.org.During June 2011-December 2013, we conducted enhanced surveillance in seven zones and four outbreak sites in Togo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Guinea, Uganda, Mozambique and Cote d'Ivoire. All health facilities treating cholera cases were included. Cholera incidences were calculated using culture-confirmed cholera cases and culture-confirmed cholera cases corrected for lack of culture testing usually due to overwhelmed health systems and imperfect test sensitivity. Of 13,377 reported suspected cases, 34% occurred in Conakry, Guinea, 47% in Goma, DRC, and 19% in the remaining sites. From 0-40% of suspected cases were aged under five years and from 0.3-86% had rice water stools. Within surveillance zones, 0-37% of suspected cases had confirmed cholera compared to 27-38% during outbreaks. Annual confirmed incidence per 10,000 population was <0.5 in surveillance zones, except Goma where it was 4.6. Goma and Conakry had corrected incidences of 20.2 and 5.8 respectively, while the other zones a median of 0.3. During outbreaks, corrected incidence varied from 2.6 to 13.0. Case fatality ratios ranged from 0-10% (median, 1% by country.Across different African epidemiological contexts, substantial variation occurred in cholera incidence, age distribution, clinical presentation, culture confirmation, and testing frequency. These results can help guide preventive activities, including vaccine use.

  12. Impact of Religious and Cultural practices on recent Cholera outbreak in a village of South India

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen K H; Sumanth Mallikarjuna Majgi; Khan, Mudassir A.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, there are an estimated 3–5 million cholera cases and 100000–120000 deaths due to cholera. Religion and culture continue to influence the sharing of water by certain communities of Indian villages, especially the scheduled casteMethodFollowing the information of many admissions in Krishnarajendra (K.R.) hospital and cheluvamba hospital, the department of Community Medicine, Mysore investigated the outbreak. Majority of cases were from Harohalli village. The data was collected by us...

  13. The Impact of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Control Cholera: A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, DL; Kahawita, TM; Cairncross, S; Ensink, JH

    2015-01-01

    Background and Methods Cholera remains a significant threat to global public health with an estimated 100,000 deaths per year. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions are frequently employed to control outbreaks though evidence regarding their effectiveness is often missing. This paper presents a systematic literature review investigating the function, use and impact of WASH interventions implemented to control cholera. Results The review yielded eighteen studies and of the five st...

  14. A transcriptional regulator linking quorum sensing and chitin induction to render Vibrio cholerae naturally transformable

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Scrudato, Mirella; Blokesch, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is an aquatic bacterium associated with zooplankton and their chitinous exoskeletons. On chitinous surfaces, V. cholerae initiates a developmental programme, known as natural competence, to mediate transformation, which is a mode of horizontal gene transfer. Competence facilitates the uptake of free DNA and recombination into the bacterial genome. Recent studies have indicated that chitin surfaces are required, but not sufficient to induce competence. Two ad...

  15. Identification of a Vibrio cholerae chemoreceptor that senses taurine and amino acids as attractants

    OpenAIRE

    So-ichiro Nishiyama; Yohei Takahashi; Kentaro Yamamoto; Daisuke Suzuki; Yasuaki Itoh; Kazumasa Sumita; Yumiko Uchida; Michio Homma; Katsumi Imada; Ikuro Kawagishi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, was found to be attracted by taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a major constituent of human bile. Mlp37, the closest homolog of the previously identified amino acid chemoreceptor Mlp24, was found to mediate taxis to taurine as well as L-serine, L-alanine, L-arginine, and other amino acids. Methylation of Mlp37 was enhanced upon the addition of taurine and amino acids. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated that a purified periplasm...

  16. Use of oral cholera vaccines in an outbreak in Vietnam: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Duc Anh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Killed oral cholera vaccines (OCVs are available but not used routinely for cholera control except in Vietnam, which produces its own vaccine. In 2007-2008, unprecedented cholera outbreaks occurred in the capital, Hanoi, prompting immunization in two districts. In an outbreak investigation, we assessed the effectiveness of killed OCV use after a cholera outbreak began. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 16 to 28 January 2008, vaccination campaigns with the Vietnamese killed OCV were held in two districts of Hanoi. No cholera cases were detected from 5 February to 4 March 2008, after which cases were again identified. Beginning 8 April 2008, residents of four districts of Hanoi admitted to one of five hospitals for acute diarrhea with onset after 5 March 2008 were recruited for a matched, hospital-based, case-control outbreak investigation. Cases were matched by hospital, admission date, district, gender, and age to controls admitted for non-diarrheal conditions. Subjects from the two vaccinated districts were evaluated to determine vaccine effectiveness. 54 case-control pairs from the vaccinated districts were included in the analysis. There were 8 (15% and 16 (30% vaccine recipients among cases and controls, respectively. The vaccine was 76% protective against cholera in this setting (95% CI 5% to 94%, P = 0.042 after adjusting for intake of dog meat or raw vegetables and not drinking boiled or bottled water most of the time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of the reactive use of killed OCVs during a cholera outbreak. Our findings suggest that killed OCVs may have a role in controlling cholera outbreaks.

  17. Avian cholera causes marine bird mortality in the Bering Sea of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara; Kimberlee Beckmen; Gay Sheffield; Kathy Kuletz; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2015-01-01

    The first known avian cholera outbreak among wild birds in Alaska occurred during November 2013. Liver, intestinal, and splenic necrosis consistent with avian cholera was noted, and Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from liver and lung or spleen in Crested Auklets (Aethia cristatella), Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), and Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

  18. Social and News Media Enable Estimation of Epidemiological Patterns Early in the 2010 Haitian Cholera Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Chunara, Rumi; Andrews, Jason R.; Brownstein, John S.

    2012-01-01

    During infectious disease outbreaks, data collected through health institutions and official reporting structures may not be available for weeks, hindering early epidemiologic assessment. By contrast, data from informal media are typically available in near real-time and could provide earlier estimates of epidemic dynamics. We assessed correlation of volume of cholera-related HealthMap news media reports, Twitter postings, and government cholera cases reported in the first 100 days of the 201...

  19. Transmission of Vibrio cholerae is antagonized by lytic phage and entry into the aquatic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Nelson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholera outbreaks are proposed to propagate in explosive cycles powered by hyperinfectious Vibrio cholerae and quenched by lytic vibriophage. However, studies to elucidate how these factors affect transmission are lacking because the field experiments are almost intractable. One reason for this is that V. cholerae loses the ability to culture upon transfer to pond water. This phenotype is called the active but non-culturable state (ABNC; an alternative term is viable but non-culturable because these cells maintain the capacity for metabolic activity. ABNC bacteria may serve as the environmental reservoir for outbreaks but rigorous animal studies to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. In this project, we wanted to determine the relevance of ABNC cells to transmission as well as the impact lytic phage have on V. cholerae as the bacteria enter the ABNC state. Rice-water stool that naturally harbored lytic phage or in vitro derived V. cholerae were incubated in a pond microcosm, and the culturability, infectious dose, and transcriptome were assayed over 24 h. The data show that the major contributors to infection are culturable V. cholerae and not ABNC cells. Phage did not affect colonization immediately after shedding from the patients because the phage titer was too low. However, V. cholerae failed to colonize the small intestine after 24 h of incubation in pond water-the point when the phage and ABNC cell titers were highest. The transcriptional analysis traced the transformation into the non-infectious ABNC state and supports models for the adaptation to nutrient poor aquatic environments. Phage had an undetectable impact on this adaptation. Taken together, the rise of ABNC cells and lytic phage blocked transmission. Thus, there is a fitness advantage if V. cholerae can make a rapid transfer to the next host before these negative selective pressures compound in the aquatic environment.

  20. The Role of Temperature in the Environmental Survival and Transmission of Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Townsley, Yolanda Frances Anne

    2015-01-01

    V. cholerae the causative agent of the diarrheal disease cholera is able to thrive within the small intestines of human hosts, however, between epidemics is found as an autochthonous member of aquatic microbial communities throughout the world (Kaper, 1979; Gil, 2004; Huq, 2005). This pathogen must endure changes in environmental parameters such as temperature, salinity, pH, and iron availability between their human hosts and aquatic reservoirs as well as within the environment. Temperature...

  1. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  2. Factors affecting phaeomelanin production by a melanin-producing (mel) mutant of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivins, B E; Holmes, R K

    1981-01-01

    In a previous study we isolated melanin-producing (mel) mutants of Vibrio cholerae and demonstrated that production of melanin during growth on solid media was stimulated by L-tyrosine and L-cysteine. In the studies reported here we analyzed factors that affected melanin production in liquid media and determined the abilities of radioactively labeled amino acids to serve as precursors for the formation of melanin by V. cholerae. Radioactivity from L-cysteine and from L-tyrosine was preferenti...

  3. Optimal allocation of the limited oral cholera vaccine supply between endemic and epidemic settings

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sean M.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently established a global stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) to be preferentially used in epidemic response (reactive campaigns) with any vaccine remaining after 1 year allocated to endemic settings. Hence, the number of cholera cases or deaths prevented in an endemic setting represents the minimum utility of these doses, and the optimal risk-averse response to any reactive vaccination request (i.e. the minimax strategy) is one that allocates the r...

  4. Cholera toxin-like toxin released by Salmonella species in the presence of mitomycin C.

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, N C; Peterson, J W

    1980-01-01

    Several serotypes of Salmonella were shown to release increased amounts of a cholera toxin-like toxin during culture in vitro with mitomycin C (MTC). Filter-sterilized culture supernatants containing the toxin caused elongation of Chinese hamster ovary cells, which could be blocked by heating the supernatants at 100 degrees C for 15 min or by adding mixed gangliosides or monospecific cholera antitoxin. When MTC was not added to the Salmonella cultures, little or no toxin was detected in crude...

  5. The Simultaneous Effects of Spatial and Social Networks on Cholera Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Emch; Mohammad Yunus; Mohammad Ali; Sophia Giebultowicz

    2011-01-01

    This study uses social network and spatial analytical methods simultaneously to understand cholera transmission in rural Bangladesh. Both have been used separately to incorporate context into health studies, but using them together is a new and recent approach. Data include a spatially referenced longitudinal demographic database consisting of approximately 200,000 people and a database of all laboratory-confirmed cholera cases from 1983 to 2003. A complete kinship-based network linking house...

  6. Solar disinfection of drinking water protects against cholera in children under 6 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, R; Meegan, M; Joyce, T; McGuigan, K; Barnes, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—We have previously reported a reduction in risk of diarrhoeal disease in children who used solar disinfected drinking water. A cholera epidemic, occurring in an area of Kenya in which a controlled trial of solar disinfection and diarrhoeal disease in children aged under 6 had recently finished, offered an opportunity to examine the protection offered by solar disinfection against cholera.
METHODS—In the original trial, all children aged under 6 in a Ma...

  7. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ToxT reveals a mechanism for fatty acid regulation of virulence genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowden, Michael J.; Skorupski, Karen; Pellegrini, Maria; Chiorazzo, Michael G.; Taylor, Ronald K.; Kull, F. Jon (Dartmouth)

    2010-03-04

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. In order for V. cholerae to cause disease, it must produce two virulence factors, the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) and cholera toxin (CT), whose expression is controlled by a transcriptional cascade culminating with the expression of the AraC-family regulator, ToxT. We have solved the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of ToxT, which reveals folds in the N- and C-terminal domains that share a number of features in common with AraC, MarA, and Rob as well as the unexpected presence of a buried 16-carbon fatty acid, cis-palmitoleate. The finding that cis-palmitoleic acid reduces TCP and CT expression in V. cholerae and prevents ToxT from binding to DNA in vitro provides a direct link between the host environment of V. cholerae and regulation of virulence gene expression.

  8. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 7th pandemic Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Connie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seven pandemics of cholera have been recorded since 1817, with the current and ongoing pandemic affecting almost every continent. Cholera remains endemic in developing countries and is still a significant public health issue. In this study we use multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs analysis (MLVA to discriminate between isolates of the 7th pandemic clone of Vibrio cholerae. Results MLVA of six VNTRs selected from previously published data distinguished 66 V. cholerae isolates collected between 1961–1999 into 60 unique MLVA profiles. Only 4 MLVA profiles consisted of more than 2 isolates. The discriminatory power was 0.995. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, except for the closely related profiles, the relationships derived from MLVA profiles were in conflict with that inferred from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP typing. The six SNP groups share consensus VNTR patterns and two SNP groups contained isolates which differed by only one VNTR locus. Conclusions MLVA is highly discriminatory in differentiating 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates and MLVA data was most useful in resolving the genetic relationships among isolates within groups previously defined by SNPs. Thus MLVA is best used in conjunction with SNP typing in order to best determine the evolutionary relationships among the 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates and for longer term epidemiological typing.

  9. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor...

  10. Optimal intervention strategies for cholera outbreak by education and chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the control of infectious diseases in the framework of optimal control approach. A case study on cholera control was studied by considering two control strategies, namely education and chlorination. We distinct the former control into one regarding person-to-person behaviour and another one concerning person-to-environment conduct. Model are divided into two interacted populations: human population which follows an SIR model and pathogen population. Pontryagin maximum principle was applied in deriving a set of differential equations which consists of dynamical and adjoin systems as optimality conditions. Then, the fourth order Runge-Kutta method was exploited to numerically solve the equation system. An illustrative example was provided to assess the effectiveness of the control strategies toward a set of control scenarios.

  11. Identification and characterization of Vibrio cholerae surface proteins by radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole cells and isolated outer membrane from Vibrio cholerae (Classical, Inaba) were radiolabeled with Iodogen or Iodo-beads as catalyst. Radiolabeling of whole cells was shown to be surface specific by sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cells and cell fractions. Surface-labeled whole cells regularly showed 16 distinguishable protein species, of which nine were found in radiolabeled outer membrane preparations obtained by a lithium chloride- lithium acetate procedure. Eight of these proteins were found in outer membranes prepared by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and Triton X-100 extraction of radiolabeled whole cells. The mobility of several proteins was shown to be affected by temperature, and the major protein species exposed on the cell surface was shown to consist of at least two different peptides

  12. Massive Fluid Requirements and an Unusual BUN/Creatinine Ratio for Pre-Renal Failure in Patients with Cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Muhammad; Memon, Murtaza; Jafferani, Asif; Shoukat, Sana; Gowani, Saqib Ali; Nusrat, Rabeeya; Riaz, Mehmood; Patel, Junaid; Jamil, Bushra; Raymond A. Smego

    2009-01-01

    Background Cholera is an important infectious cause of secretory diarrhea. The primary symptom of infection is the sudden onset of watery diarrhea with subsequent volume depletion causing renal insufficiency. The objective of this research is to study the level of dehydration at presentation and subsequent fluid management in patients with cholera. Methods This study was conducted on 191 patients of Cholera admitted at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan during the period of 5 years...

  13. Cloning of a Vibrio cholerae vibriobactin gene cluster: identification of genes required for early steps in siderophore biosynthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, E E; Stoebner, J A; Reed, K E; Payne, S M

    1997-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae secretes the catechol siderophore vibriobactin in response to iron limitation. Vibriobactin is structurally similar to enterobactin, the siderophore produced by Escherichia coli, and both organisms produce 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) as an intermediate in siderophore biosynthesis. To isolate and characterize V. cholerae genes involved in vibriobactin biosynthesis, we constructed a genomic cosmid bank of V. cholerae DNA and isolated clones that complemented mutations in E....

  14. Sociocultural Determinants of Anticipated Oral Cholera Vaccine Acceptance in Three African Settings: a Meta-analytic Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Neisha; Schaetti, Christian; Merten, Sonja; Schindler, Christian; Ali, Said M.; Nyambedha, Erick O; Lapika, Bruno; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Hutubessy, Raymond; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2016-01-01

    Background Controlling cholera remains a significant challenge in Sub-Saharan Africa. In areas where access to safe water and sanitation are limited, oral cholera vaccine (OCV) can save lives. Establishment of a global stockpile for OCV reflects increasing priority for use of cholera vaccines in endemic settings. Community acceptance of vaccines, however, is critical and sociocultural features of acceptance require attention for effective implementation. This study identifies and compares soc...

  15. Action of cholera toxin in the intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary event in the action of cholera toxin on the isolated chick intestinal epithelial cell is its interaction with the cell membrane. This involves a large number (17 million per cell) of high affinity binding sites which belong to a single class. Binding of biologically active 125I-labeled toxin is rapid, temperature-dependent, reversible, and saturable over a wide range of concentrations and includes only a small contribution from nonspecific sites. A characteristic lag phase of 10 min occurs following the complete binding of toxin before any increase in cellular cAMP levels can be detected in the isolated cells. The response (elevation of cellular cAMP) of the enterocytes to cholera toxin is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eight-fold increase over control levels at steady stae. cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Cl--independent Na+ influx into the isolated enterocytes whereas chlorporomazine (CPZ) which completely abolishes toxin-induced elevation of cAMP both reverses and prevents the cAMP-mediated inhibition of Na+ entry. Correlation between cellular cAMP levels and the magnitude of Na+ influx into the enterocytes provides evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal Na+ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT and Na+ during induction of intestinal secretion. The effect of cAMP on Na+ but no Cl- influx in our villus cell preparation can be partially explained in terms of a cAMP-regulated Na+/H+ neutral exchange system

  16. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  17. Cost-benefit comparisons of investments in improved water supply and cholera vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuland, Marc; Whittington, Dale

    2009-05-18

    This paper presents the first cost-benefit comparison of improved water supply investments and cholera vaccination programs. Specifically, we compare two water supply interventions -- deep wells with public hand pumps and biosand filters (an in-house, point-of-use water treatment technology) -- with two types of cholera immunization programs with new-generation vaccines -- general community-based and targeted and school-based programs. In addition to these four stand-alone investments, we also analyze five combinations of water and vaccine interventions: (1) borehole+hand pump and community-based cholera vaccination, (2) borehole+hand pump and school-based cholera vaccination, (3) biosand filter and community-based cholera vaccination, (4) biosand filter and school-based cholera vaccination, and (5) biosand filter and borehole+hand pump. Using recent data applicable to developing country locations for parameters such as disease incidence, the effectiveness of vaccine and water supply interventions against diarrheal diseases, and the value of a statistical life, we construct cost-benefit models for evaluating these interventions. We then employ probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate a frequency distribution of benefit-cost ratios for all four interventions, given a wide variety of possible parameter combinations. Our results demonstrate that there are many plausible conditions in developing countries under which these interventions will be attractive, but that the two improved water supply interventions and the targeted cholera vaccination program are much more likely to yield attractive cost-benefit outcomes than a community-based vaccination program. We show that implementing community-based cholera vaccination programs after borehole+hand pump or biosand filters have already been installed will rarely be justified. This is especially true when the biosand filters are already in place, because these achieve substantial cholera risk reductions on their own

  18. The light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri possesses a homolog of the Vibrio cholerae transmembrane transcriptional activator ToxR.

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, K A; Schoolnik, G K

    1994-01-01

    A cross-hybridizing DNA fragment to Vibrio cholerae toxR was cloned from the nonpathogenic light organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri, and three proteins homologous to V. cholerae ToxR, ToxS, and HtpG were deduced from its DNA sequence. V. fischeri ToxR was found to activate a V. cholerae ToxR-regulated promoter, and an antiserum raised against the amino-terminal domain of V. cholerae ToxR cross-reacts V. fischeri ToxR.

  19. Oral cholera vaccine use in Zanzibar: socioeconomic and behavioural features affecting demand and acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaignat Claire-Lise

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera remains a serious public health problem in low-income countries despite efforts in the past to promote oral rehydration therapy as major treatment. In 2007, the majority of worldwide cases (94% and deaths (99% were reported from Africa. To improve cholera control efforts in addition to maintaining and improving existing water supply, sanitation and hygiene behaviour measures, the World Health Organization has recently started to consider the use of vaccines as an additional public health tool. To assess this new approach in endemic settings, a project was launched in Zanzibar to vaccinate 50,000 individuals living in communities at high risk of cholera with an oral two-dose vaccine (Dukoral®. Immunisation programmes in low-income countries have suffered a reduced coverage or were even brought to a halt because of an ignorance of local realities. To ensure the success of vaccination campaigns, implementers have to consider community-held perceptions and behaviours regarding the infectious disease and the vaccine of interest. The main aim of this study is to provide advice to the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Zanzibar regarding routine introduction of an oral cholera vaccine from a socioeconomic and behavioural perspective as part of a long-term development for a sustained cholera prevention strategy. Methods and design Qualitative and quantitative methods of health social science research will be applied on four stakeholder levels before and after the mass vaccination campaign. Rapid assessment individual interviews and focus groups will be used to describe cholera- and vaccine-related views of policy makers, health care professionals and community representatives. The cultural epidemiological approach will be employed on the individual household resident level in a repeated cross-sectional design to estimate determinants of anticipated and actual oral cholera vaccine acceptance. Discussion The study

  20. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  1. Strategies to Prevent Cholera Introduction during International Personnel Deployments: A Computational Modeling Analysis Based on the 2010 Haiti Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Lewnard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Vibrio cholerae to Haiti during the deployment of United Nations (UN peacekeepers in 2010 resulted in one of the largest cholera epidemics of the modern era. Following the outbreak, a UN-commissioned independent panel recommended three pre-deployment intervention strategies to minimize the risk of cholera introduction in future peacekeeping operations: screening for V. cholerae carriage, administering prophylactic antimicrobial chemotherapies, or immunizing with oral cholera vaccines. However, uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of these approaches has forestalled their implementation by the UN. We assessed how the interventions would have impacted the likelihood of the Haiti cholera epidemic.We developed a stochastic model for cholera importation and transmission, fitted to reported cases during the first weeks of the 2010 outbreak in Haiti. Using this model, we estimated that diagnostic screening reduces the probability of cases occurring by 82% (95% credible interval: 75%, 85%; however, false-positive test outcomes may hamper this approach. Antimicrobial chemoprophylaxis at time of departure and oral cholera vaccination reduce the probability of cases by 50% (41%, 57% and by up to 61% (58%, 63%, respectively. Chemoprophylaxis beginning 1 wk before departure confers a 91% (78%, 96% reduction independently, and up to a 98% reduction (94%, 99% if coupled with vaccination. These results are not sensitive to assumptions about the background cholera incidence rate in the endemic troop-sending country. Further research is needed to (1 validate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid test approaches for detecting asymptomatic carriage, (2 compare prophylactic efficacy across antimicrobial regimens, and (3 quantify the impact of oral cholera vaccine on transmission from asymptomatic carriers.Screening, chemoprophylaxis, and vaccination are all effective strategies to prevent cholera introduction during large-scale personnel

  2. Construction and preclinical evaluation of mmCT, a novel mutant cholera toxin adjuvant that can be efficiently produced in genetically manipulated Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebens, Michael; Terrinoni, Manuela; Karlsson, Stefan L; Larena, Maximilian; Gustafsson-Hedberg, Tobias; Källgård, Susanne; Nygren, Erik; Holmgren, Jan

    2016-04-19

    There is an urgent need for new adjuvants that are effective with mucosally administered vaccines. Cholera toxin (CT) is the most powerful known mucosal adjuvant but is much too toxic for human use. In an effort to develop a useful mucosal adjuvant we have generated a novel non-toxic mutant CT molecule that retains much of the adjuvant activity of native CT. This was achieved by making the enzymatically active A subunit (CTA) recalcitrant to the site-specific proteolytic cleavage ("nicking") required for toxicity, which was found to require mutations not only in the two residues rendering the molecule resistant to trypsin but also in neighboring sites protecting against cleavage by Vibrio cholerae proteases. This multiple-mutated CT (mmCT) adjuvant protein could be efficiently produced in and purified from the extracellular medium of CT-deleted V. cholerae. The mmCT completely lacked detectable enterotoxicity in an infant mouse model and had >1000-fold reduced cAMP inducing activity compared to native CT in a sensitive mammalian target cell system. It nonetheless proved to have potent adjuvant activity on mucosal and systemic antibody as well as cellular immune responses to mucosally co-administered antigens including oral cholera and intranasal influenza vaccines. We conclude that mmCT is an attractive novel non-toxic mucosal adjuvant for enhancing immune responses to co-administered mucosal vaccines. PMID:26973069

  3. Antibacterial effect of Costus spiralis leaves extract on pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Pérez; Alina Falero; Blanca Rosa Hung; Talena Ledón; Rafael Fando

    2008-01-01

    La utilización de remedios de origen vegetal cubre una amplia variedad de enfermedades y constituye una vía alternativa a la terapia con antibióticos, que por otra parte, no parece ser promisoria a largo plazo, debido la amplia diseminación de la resistencia a los antibióticos entre los microorganismos patógenos. Los principios activos que muestran actividad antimicrobiana pueden ser extraídos y purificados a partir de plantas para el desarrollo de nuevos medicamentos. Entre las diversas e...

  4. Informal urban settlements and cholera risk in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Penrose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a result of poor economic opportunities and an increasing shortage of affordable housing, much of the spatial growth in many of the world's fastest-growing cities is a result of the expansion of informal settlements where residents live without security of tenure and with limited access to basic infrastructure. Although inadequate water and sanitation facilities, crowding and other poor living conditions can have a significant impact on the spread of infectious diseases, analyses relating these diseases to ongoing global urbanization, especially at the neighborhood and household level in informal settlements, have been infrequent. To begin to address this deficiency, we analyzed urban environmental data and the burden of cholera in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholera incidence was examined in relation to the percentage of a ward's residents who were informal, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without an improved water source, the percentage of a ward's informal residents without improved sanitation, distance to the nearest cholera treatment facility, population density, median asset index score in informal areas, and presence or absence of major roads. We found that cholera incidence was most closely associated with informal housing, population density, and the income level of informal residents. Using data available in this study, our model would suggest nearly a one percent increase in cholera incidence for every percentage point increase in informal residents, approximately a two percent increase in cholera incidence for every increase in population density of 1000 people per km(2 in Dar es Salaam in 2006, and close to a fifty percent decrease in cholera incidence in wards where informal residents had minimally improved income levels, as measured by ownership of a radio or CD player on average, in comparison to wards where informal residents did not own any items about which they were

  5. Avian cholera, a threat to the viability of an Arctic seabird colony?

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    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available Evidence that infectious diseases cause wildlife population extirpation or extinction remains anecdotal and it is unclear whether the impacts of a pathogen at the individual level can scale up to population level so drastically. Here, we quantify the response of a Common eider colony to emerging epidemics of avian cholera, one of the most important infectious diseases affecting wild waterfowl. We show that avian cholera has the potential to drive colony extinction, even over a very short period. Extinction depends on disease severity (the impact of the disease on adult female survival and disease frequency (the number of annual epidemics per decade. In case of epidemics of high severity (i.e., causing >30% mortality of breeding females, more than one outbreak per decade will be unsustainable for the colony and will likely lead to extinction within the next century; more than four outbreaks per decade will drive extinction to within 20 years. Such severity and frequency of avian cholera are already observed, and avian cholera might thus represent a significant threat to viability of breeding populations. However, this will depend on the mechanisms underlying avian cholera transmission, maintenance, and spread, which are currently only poorly known.

  6. Determination of tolerable fatty acids and cholera toxin concentrations using human intestinal epithelial cells and BALB/c mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Farshad; Tychowski, Joanna; Lorentzen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The positive role of fatty acids in the prevention and alleviation of non-human and human diseases have been and continue to be extensively documented. These roles include influences on infectious and non-infectious diseases including prevention of inflammation as well as mucosal immunity to infectious diseases. Cholera is an acute intestinal illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It occurs in developing nations and if left untreated, can result in death. While vaccines for cholera exist, they are not always effective and other preventative methods are needed. We set out to determine tolerable concentrations of three fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids) and cholera toxin using mouse BALB/C macrophages and human intestinal epithelial cells, respectively. We solubilized the above fatty acids and used cell proliferation assays to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of the fatty acids that are not detrimental to human intestinal epithelial cell viability. We solubilized cholera toxin and used it in an assay to determine the concentration ranges and specific concentrations of cholera toxin that do not statistically decrease cell viability in BALB/C macrophages. We found the optimum fatty acid concentrations to be between 1-5 ng/μl, and that for cholera toxin to be < 30 ng per treatment. This data may aid future studies that aim to find a protective mucosal role for fatty acids in prevention or alleviation of cholera infections. PMID:23748896

  7. Small RNA target genes and regulatory connections in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Brian K; Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    2011-01-01

    The two-component quorum sensing (QS) system, first described in the marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi and evolutionarily conserved among members of the genus Vibrio, has been best studied in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae (1, 2). In the V. cholerae QS system, the response to the accumulation of...

  8. Predictive Time Series Analysis Linking Bengal Cholera with Terrestrial Water Storage Measured from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Akanda, Ali; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, including cholera, are related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. However, availability of data on water scarcity and abundance in transnational basins, are a prerequisite for developing cholera forecasting systems. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, conditions favorable for predicting cholera occurrence may now be determined. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during spring and autumn seasons, two separate logistical models between TWS and disease time series (2002-2010) were developed. TWS representing water availability showed an asymmetrical, strong association with cholera prevalence in the spring (τ = -0.53; P water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% (confidence interval [CI] = 20-31%; P water by 1 unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% (CI = 22-33%; P < 0.05). PMID:26526921

  9. A pelagic outbreak of avian cholera in North American gulls: Scavenging as a primary mechanism for transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Michelle; McBurney, Scott; Robertson, Gregory J.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Blehert, David; Soos, Catherine; Dunphy, Ron; Whitney, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is an endemic disease globally, often causing annual epizootics in North American wild bird populations with thousands of mortalities. From December 2006 to March 2007, an avian cholera outbreak caused mortality in marine birds off the coast of Atlantic Canada, largely centered 300–400 km off the coast of the island of Newfoundland. Scavenging gulls (Larus spp.) were the primary species detected; however, mortality was also identified in Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and one Common Raven (Corvus corax), a nonmarine species. The most common gross necropsy findings in the birds with confirmed avian cholera were acute fibrinous and necrotizing lesions affecting the spleen, air sacs, and pericardium, and nonspecific hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The etiologic agent, P. multocida serotype 1, was recovered from 77 of 136 carcasses examined, and confirmed or probable avian cholera was diagnosed in 85 cases. Mortality observed in scavenging gull species was disproportionately high relative to their abundance, particularly when compared to nonscavenging species. The presence of feather shafts in the ventricular lumen of the majority of larid carcasses diagnosed with avian cholera suggests scavenging of birds that died from avian cholera as a major mode of transmission. This documentation of an outbreak of avian cholera in a North American pelagic environment affecting primarily scavenging gulls indicates that offshore marine environments may be a component of avian cholera dynamics.

  10. Viability of Vibrio cholerae 01 on frog legs under frozen and refrigerated conditions and low dose radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frog legs were contaminated with Vibrio cholerae 01, Inaba serotype, EITor biotype. The organism remained viable for more than 28 and 2 d when stored at -20°C and 4°C, respectively. Exposure to a multicuries 60Cobalt source of 50 and 100 kilorads eliminated V. cholerae from both the frozen and fresh frog legs

  11. The Costs of Climate Change: A Study of Cholera in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Markandya, Anil

    2011-01-01

    to climate change are shown to be in the range of 0.32 to 1.4 percent of GDP in Tanzania 2030. The results provide useful insights into national-level estimates of the implications of climate change on the health sector and offer information which can feed into both national and international debates......Increased temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns as a result of climate change are widely recognized to entail potentially serious consequences for human health, including an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. This study integrates historical data on temperature and rainfall with the...... risk of cholera increases by 15 to 29 percent. Based on the modeling results, we project the number and costs of additional cases of cholera that can be attributed to climate change by 2030 in Tanzania for a 1 and 2 degree increase in temperatures, respectively. The total costs of cholera attributable...

  12. The Effect of Predators on Cholera Biofilms: If it Lyses, We Can Smash It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalziqi, Arben; Bernardy, Eryn; Thomas, Jacob; Ratcliff, Will; Hammer, Brian; Yunker, Peter

    Many microbes form biofilms--dense clumps of cells and proteins--on surfaces. Biofilms are complex communities that facilitate the study of biological competition (e.g., two types of microbes may compete to form a biofilm in the same location) and interesting physics (e.g., the source of a biofilm's rigidity). Vibrio cholerae can produce biofilms which have a network-like structure--however, cholera can be genetically engineered to kill other cholera with different genotypes, which leaves behind a structureless ``slime'' rather than such a biofilm. Through mechanical creep testing of both predator-prey and non-predator populations, we found that the predator-prey population responds viscously and decreases in height with repeated compression, whereas the non-predator population responds elastically and maintains its original height. The current work suggests that cell lysis after killing disrupts biofilm formation, preventing microbial colonies from forming rigid networks.

  13. Antagonistic Activity of Probiotic Organism Against Vibrio cholerae and Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbes are useful in many ways in the modern world. Probiotics one of them, which refers to, acid adherence bacteria in the intestinal cells, are able to survive at low pH and produce large amount of lactic acid. The present investigation deals with the antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus organism against pathogens. The organism was isolated from the curd sample. Identification of bacteria was done by various biochemical testing. The present study revealed that L. acidophilus inhibits Vibrio cholerae more efficiently than Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysentriae. When L. acidophilus and V. cholerae were grown together, L. acidophilus dominated the growth and competitively inhibited the growth of V. cholerae. L. acidophilus was also found to inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans.

  14. Effect of ionizing radiation on fresh vegetables artificially contaminated with Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettuce, cabbage and celery were artificially contaminated with Vibrio cholerae El Tor 01 Inaba, and irradiated at 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 kGy. Non-irradiated samples were used as controls. The effect of irradiation was measured during 7-days storage under refrigeration, from the viewpoints of microbiological (MPN), nutritional (Vitamin C content), and sensory quality. Irradiation proved to be an effective technique to eliminate V. cholerae in fresh vegetables. Doses of less than 0.75 kGy were sufficient to eliminate an initial contamination of 105 cells/g of V. cholerae; neither sensory properties or nutritional quality (Vitamin C content) were adversely affected by the treatment. The cost of irradiating the vegetables at 0.5 kGy under the conditions of the study was US$ 0.131, 0.067 and 0.445 per unit of lettuce, cabbage and celery, respectively. (author)

  15. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia

  16. Haiti's progress in achieving its 10-year plan to eliminate cholera: hidden sickness cannot be cured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski-Karell, Victoria; Farmer, Paul E; Isaac, Benito; Campa, Elizabeth M; Viaud, Loune; Namphy, Paul C; Ternier, Ralph; Ivers, Louise C

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the cholera epidemic in Haiti 5 years ago, the prevalence of this deadly water-borne disease has fallen far below the initial rates registered during its explosive outset. However, cholera continues to cause extensive suffering and needless deaths across the country, particularly among the poor. The urgent need to eliminate transmission of cholera persists: compared to the same period in 2014, the first 4 months of 2015 saw three times the number of cholera cases. Drawing upon epidemiology, clinical work (and clinical knowledge), policy, ecology, and political economy, and informed by ethnographic data collected in a rural area of Haiti called Bocozel, this paper evaluates the progress of the nation's 10-year Plan for the Elimination of Cholera. Bocozel is a rice-producing region where most people live in extreme poverty. The irrigation network is decrepit, the land is prone to environmental shocks, fertilizer is not affordable, and the government's capacity to assist farmers is undermined by resource constraints. When peasants do have rice to sell, the price of domestically grown rice is twice that of US-imported rice. Canal water is not only used to irrigate thousands of acres of rice paddies and sustain livestock, but also to bathe, wash, and play, while water from wells, hand pumps, and the river is used for drinking, cooking, and bathing. Only one out of the three government-sponsored water treatment stations in the research area is still functional and utilized by those who can afford it. Latrines are scarce and often shared by up to 30 people; open defecation remains common. Structural vulnerabilities cut across all sectors - not just water, sanitation, health care, and education, but agriculture, environment, (global and local) commerce, transportation, and governance as well. These are among the hidden sicknesses that impede Haiti and its partners' capacity to eliminate cholera. PMID:27307774

  17. On Spatially Explicit Models of Epidemic and Endemic Cholera: The Haiti and Lake Kivu Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, A.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Finger, F.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    The first part of the Lecture deals with the predictive ability of mechanistic models for the Haitian cholera epidemic. Predictive models of epidemic cholera need to resolve at suitable aggregation levels spatial data pertaining to local communities, epidemiological records, hydrologic drivers, waterways, patterns of human mobility and proxies of exposure rates. A formal model comparison framework provides a quantitative assessment of the explanatory and predictive abilities of various model settings with different spatial aggregation levels. Intensive computations and objective model comparisons show that parsimonious spatially explicit models accounting for spatial connections have superior explanatory power than spatially disconnected ones for short-to intermediate calibration windows. In general, spatially connected models show better predictive ability than disconnected ones. We suggest limits and validity of the various approaches and discuss the pathway towards the development of case-specific predictive tools in the context of emergency management. The second part deals with approaches suitable to describe patterns of endemic cholera. Cholera outbreaks have been reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since the 1970s. Here we employ a spatially explicit, inhomogeneous Markov chain model to describe cholera incidence in eight health zones on the shore of lake Kivu. Remotely sensed datasets of chlorophyll a concentration in the lake, precipitation and indices of global climate anomalies are used as environmental drivers in addition to baseline seasonality. The effect of human mobility is also modelled mechanistically. We test several models on a multi-year dataset of reported cholera cases. Fourteen models, accounting for different environmental drivers, are selected in calibration. Among these, the one accounting for seasonality, El Nino Southern Oscillation, precipitation and human mobility outperforms the others in cross-validation.

  18. Detection of Vibrio Cholerae in Turtles by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Colloidal Gold Immunochromatographic Assay and Conventional Bacterial Culture%实时荧光PCR法、胶体金法和培养法检测甲鱼中霍乱弧菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜淑妩; 李哲婷; 邓婵

    2012-01-01

    目的 优化水产品甲鱼中霍乱弧菌的检测程序,提高甲鱼中霍乱弧菌检出率.方法 用实时荧光PCR、常规细菌培养、胶体金法同时对甲鱼中霍乱弧菌进行检测,并用实时荧光PCR法检测标本中霍乱弧菌ctx基因.结果 共检测185份甲鱼样品,其中实时荧光PCR法检出28份霍乱弧菌核酸阳性,阳性率为15.14%;6份ctx基因核酸阳性,阳性率21.43% (6/28).常规细菌培养法分离出2株菌株,一株为O139群霍乱弧菌,一株为小川型霍乱弧菌,用实时荧光PCR检测这两株纯培养菌株或原始标本,霍乱弧菌ctx基因均为阴性;胶体金法未检出阳性标本.结论 对于水产品标本,可先用实时荧光PCR法筛检霍乱弧菌,阳性标本再进行传统细菌分离培养,以提高霍乱弧菌菌株的检出率;同时阳性标本进行霍乱弧菌ctx基因核酸检测,如也为阳性,需提高警惕,加强流行病学上的预防控制措施,及时防范霍乱疫情的发生.%Objective To optimize the detection procedure of Vibrio Cholerae (v. cholerae) and increase its detection rate in turtles. Methods The v. cholerae in turtles was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (real time PCR), conventional bacterial culture and colloidal gold immunochrornatographic assay, and the ctx gene of the virus was detected by real time PCR. Results Real time PCR revealed that among 185 turtle samples, 28 ones were positive with v. cholerae nucleic acid, with a positive rate of 15.14% (28/185), and six samples were positive with ctx gene, with a positive rate of 21.43% (6/ 28). Two strains of v.cholerae were isolated by conventional bacterial culture, Vibrio cholerae O139, and Vibrio cholerae Ol serotype Ogawa. Neither the pure cultures nor the original samples of both stains were positive with ctx gene. No v. cholerae was detected by colloidal gold immunochromatugraphic assay. Conclusions For V. cholerae detection in seafood samples, real time PCR can be first used for

  19. Fuse or die: how to survive the loss of Dam in Vibrio cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Val, Marie-Eve; Kennedy, Sean P; Soler-Bistue, Alfonso J.;

    2014-01-01

    Dam methylates GATC sequences in γ-proteobacteria genomes, regulating several cellular functions including replication. In Vibrio cholerae, which has two chromosomes, Dam is essential for viability, owing to its role in chr2 replication initiation. In this study, we isolated spontaneous mutants of...... V. cholerae that were able to survive the deletion of dam. In these mutants, homologous recombination and chromosome dimer resolution are essential, unless DNA mismatch repair is inactivated. Furthermore, the initiator of chr2 replication, RctB, is no longer required. We show that, instead...

  20. Enterotoxin production by Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio mimicus grown in continuous culture with microbial cell recycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Spira, W M; Fedorka-Cray, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    We have examined the effect of complete cell recycle on the production of cholera toxin (CT) by Vibrio cholerae and CT-like toxin by Vibrio mimicus in continuous culture fermentations. Complete cell recycle was obtained by filtering culture fluids through Amicon hollow fibers with an exclusion limit of 100,000 daltons (H1P100-20) and returning the concentrated cell slurry to the fermentor. A single 1-liter laboratory fermentor system modified with this recycle loop was capable of producing ov...

  1. Contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial kinetics of Vibrio cholerae 569B in the local infection of mice was examined after the γ-ray-irradiation or the treatment with carrageenan. In the control mice, bacterial number decreased exponentially. In the mice treated with carrageenan gave similar tendency. In the irradiated mice, however, decrease in bacterial number was not as significant and the clearance was never observed. From these results, it is concluded that the protection against V. cholerae local infection depends mainly on polymorphonuclear cells in the early phase. (author)

  2. Treatment of Cholera with Hydrotherapy by Lanaras: A Page from History

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Katsogridakis

    2011-01-01

    Cholera is reemerging as a major public health concern in rural areas. The advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of this disease have enriched the clinicians’ therapeutic armamentarium. Treatment of cholera however, was not always effective or straightforward. In this article we present the use of the controversial treatment of hydrotherapy, as described in the book Mémoire sur le Choléra Asiatique de 1894 à Samsoun by Dr. C. Lanaras. Klimik Dergisi 2011; 24(2): 8...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2 WATERBORNE CHALLENGE MODEL FOR FUTURE ERM VACCINE TESTING IN RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Aalbæk, Bent; Otani, Maki; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Raida, Martin Kristian

    obtained from a population of rainbow trout which had been immersion vaccinated with a commercial vaccine containing a bacterin of both Y.r. O1 bt 1 and 2 and received an oral booster vaccination 4 month later as recommended by the manufacturer. The characterization of this highly virulent strain of Y.r. O......Yersinia ruckeri (Y.r.) O1 biotype (bt) 2 causes outbreaks of Enteric Redmouth disease (ERM) in vaccinated, farmed rainbow trout around the world. Y.r. O1 bt 1 has been known since first described from the Hagerman Valley in Idaho in the 1950’s and outbreaks have now been controlled by vaccination...... for more than 35 years. Recent years have shown ERM outbreaks caused by Y.r. O1 bt 2 reported from ERM vaccinated farmed rainbow trout stocks in both Europe and the USA. It has been suggested that Y.r. O1 bt 2 is more virulent than bt 1. In order to test this hypothesis we have collected Y.r. O1...

  4. 乌鲁木齐市水磨沟区霍乱弧菌分离株脉冲场凝胶电泳分析%Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Shuimogou District of the City of Urumqi,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓英; 樊于生

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解新疆乌鲁木齐市水磨沟区相关年份霍乱弧菌分离株分子分型特征和遗传相关性.[方法]用脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)对霍乱菌株进行分子分型,用BioNumericsV4.0软件UPGMA方法进行聚类分析.[结果]54株受试菌以NotI酶切后分为34个型,除1998023、2001009、2006010、1998160外,其他菌株带型高度相似(相似系数0.98),不同年份分离菌株型别不相同.[结论]乌鲁木齐水磨沟区霍乱弧菌可能含有多个克隆系,且分离出的霍乱弧菌为地方株.%Objective To ascertain the molecular and genetic correlation between characteristics of Vibrio cholerae isolates from Shuimogou, City Urumqi, Xinjiang in different years. Methods Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to molecularly type cholera strains, and cluster analysis was performed with UPGMA using BioNumericsV4. 0 software. Results Fifty-four strains were tested; Not I digestion resulted in 34 types that were highly similar (similarity coefficient of 0. 98) with the exception of 1998023, 2001009, 2006010, and 1998160; isolates from different years were of dissimilar types. Conclusion Vibrio cholerae from the Shuimogou District of Urumqi may consist of multiple clones, and Vibrio cholerae isolates may represent local strains.

  5. Synergistic effects of probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Bacillus subtilis in malted ragi (Eleucine corocana) food for antagonistic activity against V. cholerae and other beneficial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VidyaLaxme, B; Rovetto, A; Grau, R; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-11-01

    Finger millet (Elucine corocana), locally known as ragi, and probiotics have been recognized for their health benefits. In the present work we describe novel probiotic ragi malt (functional food) that has been prepared using ragi and probiotic Leuconostoc mesenteroides (Lm) and Bacillus subtilis natto (Bs), alone and in combination, for antagonistic activity against Vibrio cholerae (Vc). In vitro studies using pure cultures showed that each probiotic strain (Lm or Bs) was able to inhibit the planktonic growth of Vc as well as its ability to make biofilms and adhere to extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, Fn) that may function in vivo as initial ports of entrance of the pathogen. Interestingly, the combination of both probiotic strains (Lm plus Bs) produced the strongest activity against the Vc. When both cultures were used together in the ragi malt the antimicrobial activity against Vc was enhanced due to synergistic effect of both probiotic strains. The inclusion of both probiotic strains in the functional food produced higher amounts of beneficial fatty acids like linoleic and linolenic acid and increased the mineral content (iron and zinc). The viability and activity of Lm and Bs against Vc was further enhanced with the use of adjuvants like ascorbic acid, tryptone, cysteine hydrochloride and casein hydrolysate in the ragi malt. In sum, the intake of probiotic ragi malt supplemented with Lm and Bs may provide nutrition, energy, compounds of therapeutic importance and antagonistic activity against Vc to a large extent to the consumer. PMID:26396299

  6. Action of cholera toxin in the intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary event in the action of cholera toxin on the isolated chick intestinal epithelial cell is its interaction with a large number of high affinity binding sites in the cell membrane. Binding of 125I-labeled toxin is rapid, temperature-dependent, reversible, and saturable over a wide range of concentrations and includes only a small contribution from nonspecific sites. A characteristic lag phase of 10 min occurs following the complete binding of toxin before any increase in cellular cAMP levels can be detected. The response (elevation of cellular cAMP) is linear with time for 40 to 50 min and causes a six- to eight-fold increase over control levels (10 to 15 picomole cAMP/mg cellular protein) at steady state. cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Cl--independent Na+ influx into the isolated enterocytes whereas chlorpromazine (CPZ) which completely abolishes toxin-induced elevation of cAMP both reverses and prevents the cAMP-mediated inhibition of Na+ entry. Correlation between cellular cAMP levels and the magnitude of Na+ influx provides evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal Na+ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT on Na+ during induction of intestinal secretion. The effect of cAMP on Na+ but not Cl- influx preparations can be partially explained in terms of a cAMP-regulated Na+/H+ neutral exchange system. Data on the coupling relationship between Na+ transport and the intra- and extracellular pH in the enterocytes show that an amiloride-sensitive electroneutral Na+/H+ exchange process occurs. This coupling between Na+ and H+ is partially inhibited by CT and dbcAMP, suggesting that the Na+/H+ exchange may be a cAMP-regulated process. 31 references, 32 figures, 5 tables

  7. Complete topology of the RNF complex from Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hreha, Teri N; Mezic, Katherine G; Herce, Henry D; Duffy, Ellen B; Bourges, Anais; Pryshchep, Sergey; Juarez, Oscar; Barquera, Blanca

    2015-04-21

    RNF is a redox-driven ion (Na(+) and in one case possibly H(+)) transporter present in many prokaryotes. It has been proposed that RNF performs a variety of reactions in different organisms, delivering low-potential reducing equivalents for specific cellular processes. RNF shares strong homology with the Na(+)-pumping respiratory enzyme Na(+)-NQR, although there are significant differences in subunit and redox cofactor composition. Here we report a topological analysis of the six subunits of RNF from Vibrio cholerae. Although individual subunits from other organisms have previously been studied, this is the first complete, experimentally derived, analysis of RNF from any one source. This has allowed us to identify and confirm key properties of RNF. The putative NADH binding site in RnfC is located on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. FeS centers in RnfB and RnfC are also located on the cytoplasmic side. However, covalently attached FMNs in RnfD and RnfG are both located in the periplasm. RNF also contains a number of acidic residues that correspond to functionally important groups in Na(+)-NQR. The acidic residues involved in Na(+) uptake and many of those implicated in Na(+) translocation are topologically conserved. The topology of RNF closely matches the topology represented in the newly published structure of Na(+)-NQR, consistent with the close relation between the two enzymes. The topology of RNF is discussed in the context of the current structural model of Na(+)-NQR, and the proposed functionality of the RNF complex itself. PMID:25831459

  8. Targeted vaccine adjuvants based on modified cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycke, Nils

    2005-09-01

    The present review describes immunomodulation with targeted adjuvants that will allow for the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines. We have studied cholera toxin (CT) and derivatives thereof, to rationally design vaccine adjuvant vectors that are both highly efficacious as well as safe and non-toxic. Two strategies were exploited; the first using CT or the enzymatically inactive receptor-binding B-subunit of CT (CTB) and the second, using CTA1 or an enzymatically inactive mutant CTA1R7K., that was linked, in a fusion protein, to the B-cell targeting moiety, DD, from Staphylococcus areus proteinA. Our studies provide compelling evidence that delivery of Ag in the absence of ADP-ribosylation can promote tolerance, whereas, ADP-ribosyltransferase-active conjugates, prevent tolerance but induce IgA immunity. Our analysis revealed unique subsets of mucosal and systemic DC that appeared to be responsible for the ADP-ribosyltransferase sensitive dichotomy between tolerance and IgA immunity. Whether targeting of B cells suffice for tolerance-induction or requires participation of DCs, is at present an unresolved issue. Nevertheless, enzymatic modulation differentiates and matures the DC to promote CD4 T cell help for IgA B cell development. Ag-presentation in the absence of enzyme, as seen with CTA1R7K-DD, expands specific T cells to a similar extent as enzymatically active CTA1-DD, but fails to recruit help for germinal center expansion of activated B cells. We have given special attention to the genes that adjuvants turn on using Affymetrix technology. In particular, modulation of the expression of co-stimulatory molecules on the targeted APC; CD80, CD86, CD83 and B7RP-1, play important roles for the effect of the ADP-ribosylating CTA1-based adjuvants for the development of tolerance or active IgA immunity. PMID:16178769

  9. EspO1-2 regulates EspM2-mediated RhoA activity to stabilize formation of focal adhesions in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-infected host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Morita-Ishihara

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC Sakai strain encodes two homologous type III effectors, EspO1-1 and EspO1-2. These EspO1s have amino acid sequence homology with Shigella OspE, which targets integrin-linked kinase to stabilize formation of focal adhesions (FAs. Like OspE, EspO1-1 was localized to FAs in EHEC-infected cells, but EspO1-2 was localized in the cytoplasm. An EHEC ΔespO1-1ΔespO1-2 double mutant induced cell rounding and FA loss in most of infected cells, but neither the ΔespO1-1 nor ΔespO1-2 single mutant did. These results suggested that EspO1-2 functioned in the cytoplasm by a different mechanism from EspO1-1 and OspE. Since several type III effectors modulate Rho GTPase, which contributes to FA formation, we investigated whether EspO1-2 modulates the function of these type III effectors. We identified a direct interaction between EspO1-2 and EspM2, which acts as a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Upon ectopic co-expression, EspO1-2 co-localized with EspM2 in the cytoplasm and suppressed EspM2-mediated stress fiber formation. Consistent with these findings, an ΔespO1-1ΔespO1-2ΔespM2 triple mutant did not induce cell rounding in epithelial cells. These results indicated that EspO1-2 interacted with EspM2 to regulate EspM2-mediated RhoA activity and stabilize FA formation during EHEC infection.

  10. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cholera preparedness and prevention in Ga-Mampuru village, Limpopo, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Ncube

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cholera prevention and preparedness in Ga-Mampuru village (Limpopo, South Africa. Interviewers collected data using a two-pronged method, namely a household questionnaire (open- and closed-ended questions to assess knowledge and attitudes about cholera and observations to assess practices in the prevention and management of the disease. Additionally, interviewers took pictures with the respondents’ permission. Ninety-six respondents were interviewed. Most respondents (86% indicated they knew how cholera was contracted with 84% indicating contaminated water as a source. Ninety percent of the respondents indicated they knew how to prevent contracting cholera. All respondents generally knew that cholera could be treated with medicine received at a health-care facility or worker. Fewer respondents (58% had specific knowledge such as the use of rehydration solutions. The respondents’ high level of prevention practices could be biased. Interviewers observed that many practices were not adhered to, like not washing hands, not using toilet paper and throwing waste in respondents’ yards. Therefore, the community of Ga-Mampuru had not reached a stage of adequate cholera prevention and preparedness in spite of the fact that they were aware of cholera risks and risk-reduction measures.

  11. Five pond-centred outbreaks of cholera in villages of West Bengal, India: evidence for focused interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rita; Halder, Debasish; Saha, Subhasish; Shyamali, Rudra; Subhranshu, Chakrabarti; Ramakrishnan, R; Murhekar, Manoj V; Hutin, Yvan J

    2011-10-01

    In rural West Bengal, outbreaks of cholera are often centred around ponds that is a feature of the environment. Five investigations of laboratory-confirmed, pond-centred outbreaks of cholera were reviewed. Case-control odds ratios were approximated with relative risks (RRs) as the incidence was low. The environment was investigated to understand how the pond(s) could have become contaminated and could have infected villagers. The five outbreaks of cholera in 2004-2008 led to 277 cases and three deaths (median attack rate: 51/1,000 people; case fatality: 1.1%; median age of case-patients: 22 years; median duration: 13 days, range: 6-15 days). Factors significantly (pwater, including drinking (2 outbreaks of cholera, RR range: 2.1-3.2), mouth washing (1 outbreak of cholera, RR: 4.8), and cooking (1 outbreak of cholera, RR: 3.0). Initial case-patients contaminated ponds through washing soiled clothes (n=4) or defaecation (n=1). Ubiquitous ponds used for many purposes transmit cholera in West Bengal. Focused health education, hygiene, and sanitation must protect villagers, particularly following the occurrence of an index case in a village that has ponds. PMID:22106747

  12. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanungo Suman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year. Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens.

  13. Protection from annual flooding is correlated with increased cholera prevalence in Bangladesh: a zero-inflated regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration of natural or historical aquatic flows can have unintended consequences for regions where waterborne diseases are endemic and where the epidemiologic implications of such change are poorly understood. The implementation of flood protection measures for a portion of an intensely monitored population in Matlab, Bangladesh, allows us to examine whether cholera outcomes respond positively or negatively to measures designed to control river flooding. Methods Using a zero inflated negative binomial model, we examine how selected covariates can simultaneously account for household clusters reporting no cholera from those with positive counts as well as distinguishing residential areas with low counts from areas with high cholera counts. Our goal is to examine how residence within or outside a flood protected area interacts with the probability of cholera presence and the effect of flood protection on the magnitude of cholera prevalence. Results In Matlab, living in a household that is protected from annual monsoon flooding appears to have no significant effect on whether the household experiences cholera, net of other covariates. However, counter-intuitively, among households where cholera is reported, living within the flood protected region significantly increases the number of cholera cases. Conclusions The construction of dams or other water impoundment strategies for economic or social motives can have profound and unanticipated consequences for waterborne disease. Our results indicate that the construction of a flood control structure in rural Bangladesh is correlated with an increase in cholera cases for residents protected from annual monsoon flooding. Such a finding requires attention from both the health community and from governments and non-governmental organizations involved in ongoing water management schemes.

  14. High-resolution spatial analysis of cholera patients reported in Artibonite department, Haiti in 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Allan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion/significance: These findings demonstrate the value of high-resolution mapping for pinpointing locations most affected by cholera, and in the future could help prioritize the places in need of interventions such as improvement of sanitation and vaccination. The findings also describe spatio-temporal transmission patterns of the epidemic in a cholera-naïve country such as Haiti. By identifying transmission hubs, it is possible to target prevention strategies that, over time, could reduce transmission of the disease and eventually eliminate cholera in Haiti.

  15. The two chromosomes of Vibrio cholerae are initiated at different time points in the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tue; Jensen, Rasmus Bugge; Skovgaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the cause of the diarrhoeal disease cholera, has its genome divided between two chromosomes, a feature uncommon for bacteria. The two chromosomes are of different sizes and different initiator molecules control their replication independently. Using novel methods for...... approximately the same time and the average number of replication origins per cell is higher for chromosome I than for chromosome II. Analysis of cell-cycle parameters shows that chromosome replication and segregation is exceptionally fast in V. cholerae. The divided genome and delayed replication of chromosome...

  16. Cloning, sequencing, and transcriptional regulation of viuA, the gene encoding the ferric vibriobactin receptor of Vibrio cholerae.

    OpenAIRE

    Butterton, J R; Stoebner, J A; Payne, S M; Calderwood, S B

    1992-01-01

    A 74-kDa iron-regulated outer membrane protein of Vibrio cholerae acts as the receptor for the V. cholerae iron-siderophore complex, ferric vibriobactin. MBG14, a mutant of V. cholerae 0395 containing a TnphoA insertion in a gene designated viuA, lacks this 74-kDa outer membrane protein and is unable to bind or utilize exogenous ferric vibriobactin. Introduction of a plasmid containing the complete viuA coding sequence and 513 bp of upstream DNA into MBG14 restored ferric vibriobactin utiliza...

  17. Five Pond-centred Outbreaks of Cholera in Villages of West Bengal, India: Evidence for Focused Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Rita; Halder, Debasish; Saha, Subhasish; Shyamali, Rudra; Subhranshu, Chakrabarti; Ramakrishnan, R; Manoj V Murhekar; Yvan J. Hutin

    2011-01-01

    In rural West Bengal, outbreaks of cholera are often centred around ponds that is a feature of the environment. Five investigations of laboratory-confirmed, pond-centred outbreaks of cholera were reviewed. Case-control odds ratios were approximated with relative risks (RRs) as the incidence was low. The environment was investigated to understand how the pond(s) could have become contaminated and could have infected villagers. The five outbreaks of cholera in 2004-2008 led to 277 cases and thr...

  18. Cholera toxin binding affinity and specificity for gangliosides determined by surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuziemko, G.M.; Stroh, M.; Stevens, R.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-21

    The present study determines the affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside series GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1A, GD1B, GT1B, asialo GM1, globotriosyl ceramide, and lactosyl ceramide using real time biospecific interaction analysis (surface plasmon resonance, SPR). SPR shows that cholera toxin preferably binds to gangliosides in the following sequence: GM1 > GM2 > GD1A > GM3 > GT1B > GD1B > asialo-GM1. The measured binding affinity of cholera toxin for the ganglioside sequence ranges from 4.61 {times} 10{sup {minus}12} M for GM1 to 1.88 {times} 10{sup {minus}10} M for asialo GM1. The picomolar values obtained by surface plasmon resonance are similar to K{sub d} values determined with whole-cell binding assays. Both whole-cell assays ans SPR measurements on synthetic membranes are higher than free solution measurements by several orders of magnitude. This difference may be caused by the effects of avidity and charged lipid head-groups, which may play a major role in the binding between cholera toxin, the receptor, and the membrane surface. The primary difference between free solution binding studies and surface plasmon resonance studies is that the latter technique is performed on surfaces resembling the cell membrane. Surface plasmon resonance has the further advantage of measuring apparent kinetic association and dissociation rates in real time, providing direct information about binding events at the membrane surface. 34 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Authentic display of a cholera toxin epitope by chimeric type 1 fimbriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentebjerg-Olesen, Bodil; Pallesen, Lars; Jensen, Lars Bogø;

    1997-01-01

    inserted. Several of the chosen positions seemed amenable even for large foreign inserts; the chimeric proteins were exposed on the bacterial surface and the cholera toxin epitope was authentically displayed, i.e. it was recognized on bacteria by specific antiserum. Display of chimeric fimbriae was tested...

  20. Authentic display of a cholera toxin epitope by chimeric type 1 fimbriae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentebjerg-Olesen, Bodil; Pallesen, Lars; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Christiansen, Gunnar; Klemm, Per

    inserted. Several of the chosen positions seemed amenable even for large foreign inserts; the chimeric proteins were exposed on the bacterial surface and the cholera toxin epitope was authentically displayed, i.e. it was recognized on bacteria by specific antiserum. Display of chimeric fimbriae was tested...