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Sample records for cholecalciferol

  1. Incorportion of oxygen-18 into the 25-position of cholecalciferol by hepatic cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhok, T C; Schnoes, H K; DeLuca, H F

    1978-11-01

    The oxygen enzymically inserted as a hydroxy function by rat liver post-mitochondrial fraction into the 25-position of cholecalciferol to giver 25-hydroxycholecaliferol is derived exclusively from molecular O2. Therefore like the other two cholecalciferol hydroxylases, i.e. 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1alpha-hydroxylase and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 24-hydroxylase, the cholecalciferol 25-hydroxylase is also a mono-oxygenase ('mixed-function oxidase'). PMID:217341

  2. Bread fortified with cholecalciferol increases the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in women as effectively as a cholecalciferol supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natri, A. M.; Salo, P.; Vikstedt, T.;

    2006-01-01

    Fortification of foods is a feasible way of preventing low vitamin D status. Bread could be a suitable vehicle for fortification because it is a common part of diets worldwide. The bioavailability of cholecalciferol from bread is not known. We studied cholecalciferol stability, the concentration...... as effectively as the cholecalciferol supplement. Supplementation or fortification did not affect serum intact parathyrold hormone concentration or urinary calcium excretion. In conclusion, fortified bread is a safe and feasible way to improve vitamin D nutrition....... of the added cholecalciferol, the dispersion of cholecalciferol in bread, and the bioavailability of cholecalciferol from fortified bread. Three batches of fortified low-fiber wheat and high-fiber rye breads were baked; from each batch, 3 samples of dough and bread were analyzed for their cholecalciferol...

  3. Cholecalciferol sulfate identification in human milk by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulch, N L; Cancela, L; Miravet, L

    1982-04-01

    Synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate was prepared by reacting cholecalciferol with sulfamic acid in pyridine. Vitamin D3 sulfate ammonium salt was purified by crystallisation and transformed in sulfate sodium salt. Homogeneity was controlled by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purified synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate sodium salt was used as a reference. Milk whey was obtained after protein precipitation by adding ethanol. Vitamin D3 sulfoconjugate was identified in supernatant (lyophylized) after purification by Sephadex LH 20 and HPLC. Milk whey purified fraction obtained exhibited the same ultra-violet absorption (UV) as synthetic vitamin D3 sulfate; after solvolysis, cholecalciferol was liberated from natural and synthetic sulfoconjugate. The results confirmed that vitamin D3 sulfate was present in human milk. PMID:6294930

  4. Combining Aspirin with Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) – A Potential New Tool for Controlling Possum Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, David R.; Arrow, Jane; Smith, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums...

  5. Combining aspirin with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3--a potential new tool for controlling possum populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Morgan

    Full Text Available The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested.

  6. Physiological limit of the daily endogenous cholecalciferol synthesis from UV light in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, L.; Jensen, S. K.; Kaas, P.;

    2016-01-01

    The link between UV light (sunlight) and endogenous cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) synthesis in the skin of humans has been known for more than a 100 years, since doctors for the first time successfully used UV light to cure rickets in children. Years later, it was shown that UV light also had...

  7. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We...... conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU......]. We determined naive CD4(+) and CD8(+), activated CD4(+) and CD8(+), and regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) T lymphocytes. Baseline levels of P1NP and CTx correlated (coefficient 0.5, p...

  8. Dietary boron modified the effects of magnesium and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C D

    1989-11-01

    The metabolic effects of dietary boron, magnesium, and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick, with emphasis on growth cartilage histology, were studied. One-day-old cockerel chicks were assigned to groups in a fully-crossed, three factor, 2 x 2 x 2 design. The basal diet was based on ground corn, high-protein casein, and corn oil and contained 125 IU cholecalciferol (inadequate), 0.465 mg B, 2.500 mg Mg, and 0.420 mg Mo/kg. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal diet with B at O or 3; Mg at 300 (inadequate) or 500 (adequate); and Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg. At d 25, B depressed mortality, alleviated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced distortion of the marrow sprouts (MS) of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, and elevated the numbers of osteoclasts within the MS. Adequate Mg exacerbated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced bone lesions. Mo widened the MS markedly. In Mg-deficient chicks, B elevated plasma Ca and Mg concentrations and growth, but inhibited initiation of cartilage calcification; B had the opposite effect in Mg-adequate chicks. An interaction among B, Mg, and Mo affected plasma uric acid and glucose concentrations. B may function to modify mineral metabolism in cholecalciferol deficiency, suppressing bone anabolism in concurrent Mg deficiency and bone catabolism in concurrent Mg adequacy.

  9. Action of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol on Staphylococcus aureus efflux pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintino, Saulo R; Morais-Tintino, Cícera D; Campina, Fábia F; Pereira, Raimundo L; Costa, Maria do S; Braga, Maria Flaviana B M; Limaverde, Paulo W; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Siqueira-Junior, José P; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Balbino, Valdir Q; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol is one the most abundant and biologically active isoforms of vitamin E. This compound is a potent antioxidant and one of most studied isoforms of vitamin E. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is an important nutrient for calcium homeostasis and bone health, that has also been recognized as a potent modulator of the immune response. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most important causative agent of both nosocomial and community-acquired infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of alpha-tocopherol and cholecalciferol on both S. aureus and multidrug resistant S. aureus efflux pumps. The RN4220 strain has the plasmid pUL5054 that is the carrier of gene that encodes the macrolide resistance protein (an efflux pump) MsrA; the IS-58 strain possesses the TetK tetracycline efflux protein in its genome and the 1199B strain resists to hydrophilic fluoroquinolones via a NorA-mediated mechanism. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and a possible inhibition of efflux pumps was associated to a reduction of the MIC. In this work we observed that in the presence of the treatments there was a decrease in the MIC for the RN4220 and IS-58 strains, suggesting that the substances presented an inhibitory effect on the efflux pumps of these strains. Significant efforts have been done to identify efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) from natural sources and, therefore, the antibacterial properties of cholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol might be attributed to a direct effect on the bacterial cell depending on their amphipathic structure. PMID:27298617

  10. Effect of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effects of combined and individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine on plasma glucose, plasma insulin and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, between October 2010 and April 2011. It comprised 80 healthy Sprague Dawley rats who were divided into four groups (n = 20 each). Rats were fed high-fat diet for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus. Group I served as diabetic control; group II was given cholecalciferol; group III; levo carnitine; and group IV was administered cholecalciferol and levo carnitine together. After 6 days of supplementation, terminal intracardiac blood extraction was done and samples were analysed for fasting plasma glucose and plasma insulin. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Fasting plasma glucose levels were significantly decreased (p <0.001) in the combined supplementation group compared to the diabetic control and individual supplementation groups. Combined supplementation showed a significant increase in fasting plasma insulin levels when compared with diabetic control and levo carnitine groups (p <0.001), and the effect of combined supplementation on ameliorating insulin resistance was significantly better (p <0.001) as compared to the individual supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine. Conclusions: The combined supplementation of cholecalciferol and levo carnitine for 6 days markedly improved the glycaemic control, insulin secretion and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats on high-fat diet. A prolonged supplementation by both the compounds along with caloric restriction may yield a more promising outcome. (author)

  11. Enzymatic synthesis of cholecalciferol glycosides using β-glucosidase from sweet almond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Balaraman; Divakar, Soundar

    2010-10-01

    β-Glucosidase from sweet almond (Amygdalus communis var. 'Dulcis') entrapped on to calcium alginate beads catalysed the synthesis of water soluble 17-O-(D-glucopyranosyl)cholecalciferol. Optimum conditions for the reaction were: 60% (w/w D-glucose) β-glucosidase, 0.12 mM pH 6 phosphate buffer and 30 h incubation period. β-Glucosidase also catalyzed the reaction with D-glucose 2, D-galactose 3, D-mannose 4 and D-fructose 5 with generally low yields in the range of 3-14%. Both α/β anomers of D-glucose 2, D-galactose 3 and D-mannose 4 reacted, of which the former two formed C6-O derivatives also. PMID:23572673

  12. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    –response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs....... The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25......-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink...

  13. Determination of Panthenol, Cholecalciferol and Tocopherol in Cosmetic Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in SIM Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, H J; Lee, M H; Ro, K W; Hur, C W; Kim, J W

    1999-02-01

    A novel simple method to detect vitamins in cosmetic products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. Three vitamins (panthenol, cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were used for this study. Vitamins were prepared by dissolving in tetrahydrofuran (ThF), and silylated with bis-trimethylsilyltri-fluoroacetamide- trichloromethylsilane (BSTFA). Silylated vitamins were separated on a fused-silica capillary column coated with DB-5. The identification of each vitamin was accomplished by retention time and mass spectrum library search with a computer, and the quantitation was made in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode of GC-MS. SIM mode had given sensitivity to determine 50 pg of panthenol, 285 pg of cholecalciferol and 130 pg of tocopherol. Linearity was maintained over the range 0.005-0.20% for each vitamin. Each cosmetic product (i.e. hair tonic and lotion) was found to contain amounts of the vitamins. This method was sensitive and gave 77.5-99.9% recovery of each vitamin from these cosmetic products. From these results, we concluded that silylation with BSTFA followed by GC-MS analysis allows the simple, convenient and exact determination of panthenol, cholecalciferol and tocopherol. PMID:18505529

  14. Combinations of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol as vitamin D sources in white laying hen feed diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernando Remolina Rivera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholecalciferol (D3 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3 as isolated or associated sources of vitamin D (100%-0%, 75%-25%, 50%-50%, 25%-75%, 0%-100% on the productive performance, egg quality, and bone characteristics was evaluated in white egg-laying hens fed two levels of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P in the basal diet (BD (BD1 = 0.38% Ca - 0.36% available P and BD2 = 3.2% Ca - 0.30% available P. Nine hundred and sixty Dekalb White hens (24 weeks old were distributed into 80 cages, under a completely randomized factorial design for 16 weeks. The use of associated sources of vitamin D reduced the feed intake and feed conversion ratio, as well as BD1, which also increased the egg production and egg mass. The association of vitamin D sources with up to 50% 25-OHD3 increased the eggshell percentage. There was interaction (p<0.05 between the sources of vitamin D and the concentrations of Ca and available P, sources with at least 50% 25-OHD3 increased ash percentage and bone radiographic densitometry (BRD with BD1; in BD2 the use of 25-OHD3 as isolated vitamin D source increased BRD. The association of D3 and 25-OHD3 improved the productive performance, increased the percentage of eggshell and had different positive effects on the bone characteristics that depend on the concentrations of Ca and available P in the balanced feed of white egg-laying hens.

  15. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian;

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1.......8-2.0%) or an identical placebo tanning bed without UVB. The output in the 280-320 nm range was 450 µW/cm(2). Blood samples were analyzed for 25OHD and cholecalciferol at baseline and during 7 days after treatment. We included 20 volunteers, 11 to UVB and 9 to placebo treatment. During the first 6 h, no...... significant differences in 25OHD between the groups were found. At the end of the study, we found a mean increase of 25OHD in the UVB group of 4.5 nmol/l (SD 7 nmol/l) compared to a decline of -1.2 nmol/l (SD 7 nmol/l) in the placebo group (p = 0.1). A linear mixed model yielded an increase of 25OHD in the...

  16. An oral high dose of cholecalciferol restores vitamin D status in deficient postmenopausal HIV-1-infected women independently of protease inhibitors therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Jessica; Mezzaroma, Ivano; Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Falciano, Mario; Salotti, Alessandra; Di Traglia, Mario; Diacinti, Daniele; Biondi, Piergianni; Cipriani, Cristiana; Cilli, Mirella; Minisola, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The best repletion and maintenance dosing regimens with cholecalciferol in vitamin D-deficient HIV-1 patients remain unknown. Protease inhibitors (PIs) have been shown to inhibit vitamin D 1α- and 25α-hydroxylation in hepatocyte and monocyte cultures. We therefore evaluated the effect of a single high dose of cholecalciferol in vitamin D-deficient HIV-1 postmenopausal women undergoing treatment with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with and without PIs. Forty HIV-1 postmenopausal women treated with cART, with hypovitaminosis D (ng/ml), were enrolled. We measured serum changes of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, and urinary calcium excretion following a loading dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol after 3, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. Patients were divided into two groups, whether or not they were taking PI. A significant increase in mean 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels at day 3 and throughout the entire observation period was found in both groups (p < 0.001). PTH levels concomitantly decreased in both groups (p < 0.001). Mean albumin-adjusted serum calcium increases with respect to baseline were significant only at day 3 and day 30 for both groups (p < 0.01). Considering remaining parameters, there were no significant differences between the groups at any time, by two-way RM ANOVA. An oral dose of 600,000 IU of cholecalciferol in HIV-1 postmenopausal women rapidly increases 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels reducing PTH levels, regardless of the presence of PIs in the cART scheme. PMID:26254790

  17. Effect of Different Doses of Oral Cholecalciferol on Serum 1,25(OH)2D in Vitamin D Deficient Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, A A; Hosseinpanah, F; Abdi, H; Hedayati, M; Hasheminia, M; Ghazi, S; Azizi, F

    2016-06-01

    Data regarding 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in adolescents are limited. We aimed to determine serum levels of this active metabolite of vitamin D and the effects of different doses of vitamin D on its concentration in schoolchildren with high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. In a previously published randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 210 subjects, aged 14-20 years, were assigned to 3 regimens of vitamin D treatment: group A (n=70) received 50 000 U oral cholecalciferol monthly, group B (n=70), 50 000 U bimonthly, and group C (n=70), placebo. Serum 25(OH)D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and bone markers were measured at baseline and after 2 and 5 months of treatment. In the present study, serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D were measured in 97 boys and 95 girls. At baseline, girls had significantly higher concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D than boys (36, IQR: 24, 63 vs. 30, IQR: 15, 57.5 pmol/l; psex-stratified analysis did not show any significant difference between different groups at different times of the study period. In an adolescent population with high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D especially in girls, 1,25(OH)2D values were higher in girls than boys. There was no significant change in 1,25(OH)2D concentrations with different doses of vitamin D. PMID:26975346

  18. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established.

  19. Effect of two different doses of oral cholecalciferol supplementation on serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in healthy Indian postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of two different doses (500 and 1000 IU/day of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels in apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women. Materials and Methods: Serum 25(OHD, calcium with albumin, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured in 92 apparently healthy postmenopausal women. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and received supplementation for 3 months each. Each group received 1000 mg calcium carbonate daily while groups B and C received 500 and 1000 IU of cholecalciferol in addition, respectively. The tests were repeated after 3 months. Results: At baseline, 83.7% subjects had vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL. The difference in the percentage change in mean serum 25(OHD levels from baseline in group A (-30.5 ± 5.3%, group B (+8.9 ± 19.7%, and in group C (+97.8 ± 53.3% was statistically significant (P 20 ng/mL was achieved in 4.7% (1/21, 16% (4/25, and 66.67% (12/18 subjects in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No significant change was found in serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 3 months in either of the groups from baseline. Conclusions: Standard dose of cholecalciferol available in "calcium tablets" (250 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate is not adequate for achieving optimum serum 25(OHD levels in Indian postmenopausal women. Higher dose of vitamin D supplementation with 1000 IU/day (500 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate daily is superior to the standard dose therapy. For achievement of optimum serum 25(OHD levels (>30 ng/mL in Indian postmenopausal women, still higher doses of vitamin D are likely to be required.

  20. Phase IIa, randomized placebo-controlled trial of single high dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and daily Genistein (G-2535) versus double placebo in men with early stage prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, David; Konety, Badrinath; Huang, Wei; Downs, Tracy; Kolesar, Jill; Kim, Kyung Mann; Havighurst, Tom; Slaton, Joel; House, Margaret G; Parnes, Howard L; Bailey, Howard H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism. In addition, both genistein and vitamin D inhibit the intraprostatic synthesis of prostaglandin E2, an important mediator of inflammation. The objectives of this prospective multicenter trial were to compare prostate tissue calcitriol levels and down-stream related biomarkers in men with localized prostate cancer randomized to receive cholecalciferol and genistein versus placebo cholecalciferol and placebo genistein during the pre-prostatectomy period. Methods: Men undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 200,000 IU as one dose at study entry plus genistein (G-2535), 600 mg daily or (2) placebo cholecalciferol day 1 and placebo genistein PO daily for 21-28 days prior to radical prostatectomy. Serum and tissue analyses were performed and side-effects recorded. Results: A total of 15 patients were enrolled, 8 in the placebo arm and 7 in the vitamin D3 + genistein (VD + G) arm. All patients were compliant and completed the study. No significant differences in side effect profiles were noted. Utilization of the VD + G trended toward increased calcitriol serum concentrations when compared to placebo (0.104 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0013 ± 0.08; p=0.08); however, prostate tissue levels did not increase. Calcidiol levels did not change (p=0.5). Immunohistochemistry for marker analyses using VECTRA automated quantitation revealed a increase in AR expression (p=0.04) and a trend toward increased

  1. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  2. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable. PMID:27209697

  3. VITA-D: Cholecalciferol substitution in vitamin D deficient kidney transplant recipients: A randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the post-transplant outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiem Ursula

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D does not only regulate calcium homeostasis but also plays an important role as an immune modulator. It influences the immune system through the induction of immune shifts and regulatory cells resulting in immunologic tolerance. As such, vitamin D is thought to exert beneficial effects within the transplant setting, especially in kidney transplant recipients, considering the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in kidney transplant recipients. Methods/Design The VITA-D study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with two parallel groups including a total of 200 kidney transplant recipients, is designed to investigate the immunomodulatory and renoprotective effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 within the transplant setting. Kidney transplant recipients found to have vitamin D deficiency defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 The objective is to evaluate the influence of vitamin D3 substitution in vitamin D deficient kidney transplant recipients on the post-transplant outcome. As a primary endpoint glomerular filtration rate calculated with the MDRD formula (modification of diet in renal disease one year after kidney transplantation will be evaluated. Incidence of acute rejection episodes, and the number and severity of infections (analyzed by means of C-reactive protein within the first year after transplantation will be monitored as well. As a secondary endpoint the influence of vitamin D3 on bone mineral density within the first year post-transplant will be assessed. Three DXA analyses will be performed, one within the first four weeks post-transplant, one five months and one twelve months after kidney transplantation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00752401

  4. HPLC法测定胆维丁原料药的含量和有关物质%Determination of the Content of Cholecalciferol Cholesterol and Related Substances by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹; 杨林

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for the content determination of cholecalciferol cholesterol and related substances. METHODS: HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of cholecalciferol cholesterol and related substances, referring to the determination method of vitamin D3 and cholesterol stated in Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition). UV detector replaced ELSD detector for the determination of cholesterol stated in Chinese Pharmacopeia. Phenomenex Luna 5 μm Silica (2) was used for the content determination of vitamin D5 and related substances, the mobile phase was hexanes-pentanol (997:3) at a flow rate of 2.5 mL·min-1 and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. Waters Sunfire C18 column was used for the determination of cholesterol, the mobile phase was menthol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 and detection wavelength was set at 205 nm. RESULTS: The linear range of cholesterol was 51.15-511.5 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 98.75% (RSD=0.94%). CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, reliable and suitable for the quality control of cholecalciferol cholesterol.%目的:建立测定胆维丁原料药及其有关物质含量的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,参照《中国药典》2010年版二部中维生素D3和胆固醇的含量测定项下方法测定胆维丁中2种成分的含量,其中胆固醇测定时由《中国药典》的蒸发光散射检测器改为二极管阵列检测器,并进行方法学考察.维生素D3和有关物质含量测定的色谱柱为Phenomenex Luna5 μm Silica(2),流动相为正己烷-正戊醇(997:3),测定波长为254nm,流速为2.5 mL·min-1;胆固醇测定的色谱柱为Waters Sunfire C18,流动相为甲醇,检测波长205nm,流速为1.0 mL·min-1.结果:胆固醇检测浓度线性范围为51.15~511.5μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9),平均回收率为98.75%(RSD=0.94%).结论:建立的方法准确、可靠,能有效控制胆维丁原料药的质量.

  5. 1~14日龄北京鸭维生素D3和25-羟维生素D3需要量的研究%Research on cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol requirement of Peking ducks from 1~14 days of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石文标; 侯水生; 谢明; 黄苇; 喻俊英

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on growth performance of Peking ducks from 1 to 14 days of age. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) were used to provide 0, 400, 800, 1 200, 1 600, 2 000, 3 000 IU/kg of vitamin D3 activity and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75 μg/kg of 25-OH-D3 in a nutritionally completed corn-soybean meal diet. One thousand and fourty one-day-old male Peking ducks were randomly divided into 13 groups with 8 replicates in each group and 10 ducks in each replicate. Results showed that average dai⁃ly gain(ADG), average daily feed intake(ADFI) and feed conversion(FCR) were increased signifi⁃cantly by increasing vitamin D levels(P0.05). No deficien⁃cy disease was observed during the experimental period. According to the quadratic model and bro⁃ken-line model, the cholecalciferol and 25-cholecalciferol requirements of ADG are 1 849.8 IU/kg (P=0.020 6)and 38.1μg/kg(P=0.029 4),respectively.%  试验采用单因子完全随机试验设计,研究了不同的维生素D3水平(0、400、800、1200、1600、2000、3000 IU/kg)及25-羟维生素D3(25-OH-D3)水平(0、10、20、30、40、50、75μg/kg)对1~14日龄北京鸭生产性能的影响,进而探讨1~14日龄北京鸭维生素D3及25-OH-D3需要量.选取1040只体重基本一致、健康的1日龄雄性北京鸭,随机分为13个处理,每处理8个重复,每重复10只鸭.结果表明,维生素D形式对1~14日龄北京鸭平均日增重、日采食量、料重比和死亡率均无显著影响(P>0.05),维生素D水平对1~14日龄北京鸭平均日增重、日采食量、料重比均有显著的影响(P<0.05),但维生素D缺乏组试验鸭无明显缺乏症.以平均日增重为评价指标,依据二次曲线模型和折线模型估测1~14日龄北京鸭维生素D3和25-OH-D3的需要量分别为1849.8 IU/kg(P=0.0206)和38.1μg/kg(P=0.0294).

  6. 口服维生素D3对维生素D不足绝经后妇女血清25-羟维生素D、骨密度和下肢肌力的影响%Effects of oral cholecalciferol on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, bone mineral density and lower extremity function in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琪仁; 李水军; 张浩; 蒋建新; 虞申; 樊家珠; 胡云秋; 刘玉娟; 章振林

    2015-01-01

    目的:给予不同年龄、维生素D不足的绝经后妇女口服1325 U维生素D3,观察其对血清总25-羟维生素D (25OHD)水平、骨密度( BMD)和下肢肌力(行走八步计时)的影响。方法上海市某社区67名绝经后妇女纳入本研究,按年龄将受试者分成2组:<70岁组[ n=35,(63.6±5.1)岁],≥70岁组[ n=32,(75.2±3.4)岁]。受试者口服1200 U/d维生素D3制剂加1片钙尔奇D (每片含维生素D3125 U和钙600 mg),为期1年。在0、3、6、9和12个月检测血清25OHD,干预前和研究结束时测定BMD及下肢肌力。结果干预1年后,2组平均血清25OHD水平均较基线值显著升高:<70岁组从(17.8±6.7) ng/mL升至(33.8±5.8) ng/mL (P<0.001);≥70岁组从(18.3±6.7) ng/mL升至(34.1±5.7) ng/mL (P<0.001),但2组间增幅差异无统计学意义。有25%受试者(<70岁组9名,≥70岁组6名)平均血清25OHD仍低于30 ng/mL。<70岁组血清甲状旁腺素(PTH)明显降低,从(46.0±14.7) pg/mL降至(37.9±10.0) pg/mL ( P<0.01),各部位BMD较基线值无统计学差异。≥70岁组腰椎BMD提高1.37%(P=0.005),全髋部位BMD提高1.28%( P=0.028)。2组干预后下肢肌力均较干预前改善( P<0.05)。2组均未出现高钙血症及过高的血清25OHD浓度。结论2组维生素D不足的绝经后妇女每日口服1325U维生素D3可将血清25OHD升至理想水平,可改善下肢肌力,≥70岁组腰椎及全髋部BMD均有上升。%Objective To evaluate the effects of daily supplement of 1 325 U cholecalciferol for one year on cir-culation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] level, bone mineral density ( BMD) and lower extremity function in post-menopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.Methods Sixty-seven postmenopausal women were recruited from urban area of Shanghai.The subjects

  7. Randomized controlled trial of cholecalciferol supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients with hypovitaminosis D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Agerskov, Hanne; Thineshkumar, Sasikala;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundHypovitaminosis D is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D replenishment in CKD are not well described.MethodsAn 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel intervention study was conducted in haemodialysis (HD) and non-HD CKD patients...... biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (plasma D-dimer, plasma fibrinogen, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, plasma interleukin 6, plasma C-reactive protein, blood pressure, aortic augmentation index, aortic pulse wave velocity and 24-h urinary protein loss). Objective and subjective...

  8. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  9. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH)2D3/day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

  10. Oral cholecalciferol versus ultraviolet radiation B: effect on vitamin D metabolites in patients with chronic pancreatitis and fat malabsorption - a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich C; Matzen, Peter; Benfield, Thomas Lars Vibe;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) often develop fat malabsorption and are susceptible to hypovitaminosis D.......Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) often develop fat malabsorption and are susceptible to hypovitaminosis D....

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  12. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: a potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidal, D A; Ricordi, C; Garcia-Contreras, M; Sonnino, A; Fabbri, A

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have evaluated the role of inflammation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The safety profile and anti-inflammatory properties of high dose omega-3 fatty acids combined with Vitamin D supplementation make this therapy a possible candidate for T1D intervention trials. Herein, we describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with new onset T1D treated with high dose Omega-3 and vitamin D3. By 12 months, peak C-peptide increased to 0.55 nmol/L (1.66 ng/mL) corresponding to a 20% increment from baseline and AUC C-peptide was slightly higher compared to 9 months (0.33 vs. 0.30 nmol/L/min) although remaining slightly lower than baseline. Combination high-dose Omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose vitamin D3 therapy was well tolerated and may have beneficial effects on beta-cell function. Randomized controlled trials could be of assistance to determine whether this therapy may result in the preservation of beta-cell function in patients with new onset T1D.

  13. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for pigs, piglets, bovines, ovines, calves, equines, chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by Fermenta Biotech Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. No safety concern was identified for the use of vitamin D3 in chickens for fattening and fish. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is sufficiently below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a skin sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No risk to the environment resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  14. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin ...

  15. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vitamin A and 400 U.S.P. Units cholecalciferol. (f) Colloidal oatmeal, 0.007 percent minimum; 0.003... combination with colloidal oatmeal in accordance with § 347.20(a)(4). (m) Petrolatum, 30 to 100 percent....

  16. Effect of vitamin D on the intestinal absorption of /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca in chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1982-03-01

    The transfer of /sup 203/Pb and/or /sup 47/Ca across the intestinal epithelium of the chick was investigated, with emphasis given to the functional role of cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). /sup 203/Pb, after introduction in the intestinal lumen, is rapidly accumulated by the intestinal tissue, and only a fraction of /sup 203/ Pb is translocated parenterally (absorbed). Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect the accumulation of /sup 203/Pb by intestinal tissue but did accelerate /sup 203/Pb movement across the basal-lateral membrane. In contrast, cholecalciferol both decreased /sup 47/Ca tissue levels and increased /sup 47/Ca absorption. In rachitic chicks, the rate of absorption of /sup 203/Pb was greater in the distal than in the proximal segments of the intestine; after cholecalciferol repletion, the degree of absorption in all segments was similar, indicating the order of cholecalciferol effectiveness as duodenum greater than or equal to jejunum > ileum. An acute dose of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ to rachitic chicks also enhanced both /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca absorption, but the time course and pattern of absorption of these metal cations differed. The time at which the absorption of /sup 203/Pb peaked and returned to base-line occurred sooner than for /sup 47/Ca. Also the back-flux (blood ..-->.. intestinal lumen) of /sup 47/Ca was enhanced by cholecalciferol, whereas no effect on the back-flux of /sup 203/Pb was noted. These studies show that cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ affects both the /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca absorptive processes, but the nature of these responses are not identical, suggesting differences in the transport path or the macromolecular interactions of these metal ions during the course of absorption, or both.

  17. Soluble α-klotho and its relation to kidney function and fibroblast growth factor-23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Lise;

    2014-01-01

    clearance, and lower bone-specific alkaline phosphatase compared with patients with higher s-α-klotho. Treatment with cholecalciferol significantly increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The increase of FGF-23 had only borderline significance. There was no significant effect of high-dose cholecalciferol...... administration for 8 weeks on plasma s-α-klotho. CONCLUSIONS: CKD patients with s-α-klotho below 204 pg/mL had higher age, lower phosphate clearance, and lower bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. An association of s-α-klotho with eGFR was observed only in the presence of close to normal, but not high, FGF-23...

  18. Vitamin D levels in fish and shellfish determined by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) levels were determined in finfish and shellfish using UV detection at 265nm (combined with auxiliary full scan UV detection) and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry (MS), using vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) as an internal standard. Analysis of standard referen...

  19. Vitamin D supplementation prevents hypocalcemia and cortical bone loss associated with chronic feeding in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary cholecalciferol supplementation alone or combined with calcium has shown great promise in improving bone health, which has been attributed to endocrine actions involved in calcium regulation and/or paracrine/autocrine actions within bone. Indeed, we and others have suggested that dietary su...

  20. Binding of 7-dehydrocholesterol to sterol carrier protein and vitamin D3 effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was confirmed that deltasup(5,7)-sterol delta7-reductase activity was suppressed by cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the enzyme system consisted of microsomes and sterol carrier protein (SCP). The enzyme activity was significantly decreased in the combination with microsomes obtained from either vitamin D-deficient or vitamin D3-treated rat liver and with SCP obtained from vitamin D3-treated rat. It was also demonstrated by the binding assay of the dextran-charcoal technique that 7-dehydrocholesterol binding to SCP could be specifically displaced by vitamin D3. The inhibition of cholecalciferol on 7-dehydro-cholesterol binding to liver SCP was confirmed to be non-competitive inhibition. (auth.)

  1. Screening Rastafarian children for nutritional rickets.

    OpenAIRE

    James, J A; Clark, C; Ward, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    We examined 42 Rastafarian children under 5 years of age who were registered with a single inner city general practice to determine the prevalence of nutritional rickets. Twenty children were receiving a strict vegan(I-tal) diet and were considered to be at high risk of developing rickets and were referred for biochemical and radiological investigation. Seven of 20 children investigated had rickets, giving an overall prevalence of 7/42. Treatment with oral cholecalciferol was successful in al...

  2. Vitamin D3 stimulates embryonic stem cells but inhibits migration and growth of ovarian cancer and teratocarcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelbaset-Ismail, Ahmed; Pedziwiatr, Daniel; Suszyńska, Ewa; Sluczanowska-Glabowska, Sylwia; Schneider, Gabriela; Kakar, Sham S; Mariusz Z Ratajczak

    2016-01-01

    Background Deficiency in Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) may predispose to some malignancies, including gonadal tumors and in experimental models vitamin D3 has been proven to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. To learn more about the potential role of vitamin D3 in cancerogenesis, we evaluated the expression and functionality of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and its role in metastasis of ovarian cancer cells and of murine and human teratocarcinoma cell lines. Methods In our studies we employed ...

  3. Vitamin D and cancer: Clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial preclinical and epidemiologic data that suggest that vitamin D plays a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Numerous observational studies have shown that low blood levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (cholecalciferol), estimated by geographical location, diet and activity assessment or measured serum levels are associated with a higher risk of cancer and worse cancer-specific survival as well as numerous morbidities to e.g. cardiovascular disease, stroke, infection, a...

  4. Trace Elements, Heavy Metals and Vitamin Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Cebi, Yuksel Kaya, Hasan Gungor, Halit Demir, Ibrahim Hakki Yoruk, Nihat Soylemez, Yilmaz Gunes, Mustafa Tuncer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, we aimed to assess serum concentrations of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, vitamins A (retinol, D (cholecalciferol and E (α-tocopherol in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and to compare with healthy controls.Methods: A total of 30 CAD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (UNICAM-929 was used to measure heavy metal and trace element concentrations. Serum α-tocopherol, retinol and cholecalciferol were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were not statistically different between the groups. Serum concentrations of retinol (0.3521±0.1319 vs. 0.4313±0.0465 mmol/I, p=0.013, tocopherol (3.8630±1.3117 vs. 6.9124±1.0577 mmol/I, p<0.001, cholecalciferol (0.0209±0.0089 vs. 0.0304±0.0059 mmol/I, p<0.001 and Fe (0.5664±0.2360 vs. 1.0689±0,4452 µg/dI, p<0.001 were significantly lower in CAD patients. In addition, while not statistically significant serum Cu (1.0164±0.2672 vs. 1.1934±0.4164 µg/dI, p=0.073 concentrations were tended to be lower in patients with CAD, whereas serum lead (0.1449±0.0886 vs. 0.1019±0.0644 µg/dI, p=0.069 concentrations tended to be higher.Conclusions: Serum level of trace elements and vitamins may be changed in patients with CAD. In this relatively small study we found that serum levels of retinol, tocopherol, cholecalciferol, iron and copper may be lower whereas serum lead concentrations may be increased in patients with CAD.

  5. Relationship of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups to vitamin D-stimulated uptake of [75Se]Selenite by the brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake of selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles isolated from duodena of rachitic or vitamin D-treated chicks was studied by using radioactive selenite and a rapid filtration technique. Cholecalciferol treatment (500 IU at 72 h) significantly enhanced selenite uptake, a response that decreased when the vesicles were stored at room temperature for 2.5 h prior to the uptake measurement. Preincubation of the vesicles in 1.0 mmol/L H2O2 reduced [75Se]selenite uptake, indicating the involvement of oxidizable groups in the uptake reaction. Iodoacetic acid (IAA), a sulfhydryl-blocking reagent, at 1-2 mmol/L concentration eliminated the difference in selenite uptake due to cholecalciferol and had no effect on vesicles from rachitic animals. A higher concentration of IAA (10 mmol/L) enhanced selenite uptake manyfold and increased the absolute difference due to cholecalciferol treatment. Single intravenous doses of 100 IU cholecalciferol, 100 IU ergocalciferol, or 0.1 micrograms 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol also stimulated selenite uptake, suggesting a general response to vitamin D compounds. Normal animals given a single dose of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol 12 h prior to killing also responded. Treatments that enhanced the uptake of [75Se]selenite also increased the amount of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups, suggesting the involvement of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups in the vitamin D response. A significant increase in selenite uptake by intravenous 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol occurred within 10 min. This rapid effect provides a new tool to probe early biochemical effects of vitamin D on intestinal epithelium

  6. Total Vitamin D Assay Comparison of the Roche Diagnostics “Vitamin D Total” Electrochemiluminescence Protein Binding Assay with the Chromsystems HPLC Method in a Population with both D2 and D3 forms of Vitamin D

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Patras; Louisa Grundy; Fasila Pallinalakam; Nafiz Hussein; Faten Mustafa; Arwa Salem; Shoukat Khan; Andrew Turner; Afrozul Haq; Laila Abdel-Wareth; Jaishen Rajah

    2013-01-01

    This study compared two methods of assaying the 25-hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). A fully automated electrochemiluminescence assay from Roche Diagnostics and an HPLC based method from Chromsystems were used to measure vitamin D levels in surplus sera from 96 individuals, where the majority has the D2 form of the vitamin. Deming regression, concordance rate, correlation and Altman Bland agreement were performed. Seventy two subjects (7...

  7. VITamin D supplementation in renAL transplant recipients (VITALE): a prospective, multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial of vitamin D estimating the benefit and safety of vitamin D3 treatment at a dose of 100,000 UI compared with a dose of 12,000 UI in renal transplant recipients: study protocol for a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Courbebaisse, Marie; Alberti, Corinne; Colas, Sandra; Prié, Dominique; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Thervet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to their effects on bone health, high doses of cholecalciferol may have beneficial non-classic effects including the reduction of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. These pleiotropic effects have been documented in observational and experimental studies or in small intervention trials. Vitamin D insufficiency is a frequent finding in renal transplant recipients (RTRs), and this population is at risk of the previously cited complic...

  8. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Arterial Vasomotion, Stiffness and Endothelial Biomarkers in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chitalia, Nihil; Ismail, Tuan; Tooth, Laura; Boa, Frances; Hampson, Geeta; Goldsmith, David; Kaski, Juan Carlos; Banerjee, Debasish

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular events are frequent and vascular endothelial function is abnormal in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We demonstrated endothelial dysfunction with vitamin D deficiency in CKD patients; however the impact of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular stiffness and vasomotor function, endothelial and bone biomarkers in CKD patients with low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] is unknown, which this study investigated. Methods We assessed non-diabetic patients wi...

  9. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhamo, Y; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C D

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  10. Vitamin D: two dihydroxylated metabolites are required for normal chicken egg hatchability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, H L; Norman, A W

    1978-09-01

    When hens are raised to sexual maturity from hatching with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] as their sole source of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), fertile eggs appear to develop normally but fail to hatch. When hens receive a combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3], hatchability equivalent to that with hens given vitamin D3 is obtained. These results suggest a biological role for 24,25(OH)2D3 not previously recognized.

  11. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy due to milk alkali syndrome and injection teriparatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male, a known case of severe osteoporosis with vertebral fracture and prostatic carcinoma, was treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue, calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol sachet and injection teriparatide. His diet consisted of milk and curd. He developed altered behavior and generalized weakness, and on investigation, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis with low parathyroid hormone levels were detected. Injection teriparatide was stopped and he was managed with forced saline diuresis and injection zoledronic acid. He was diagnosed as a case of milk alkali syndrome in whom teriparatide and prolonged immobilization played a permissive role in the development of hypercalcemic encephalopathy.

  12. Vitamin D as Supplementary Treatment for Tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, Christian; Gomes, Victor F; Rabna, Paulo;

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vitamin D has been shown to be involved in host immune response towards M. tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: To test whether vitamin D supplementation of TB patients improved clinical outcome and reduced mortality. METHODS: We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in TB...... clinics at a Demographic Surveillance Site in Guinea Bissau. We included 365 adult TB patients starting anti-tuberculosis treatment, 281 completed 12 month follow-up. The intervention was 100,000 IU cholecalciferol or placebo at inclusion and again at 5 and 8 months after start of treatment. Measurements...

  13. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    François Feron; van Amerongen, Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D) with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU)/day ...

  14. No Evidence for an Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Migraine: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Lippi; Gianfranco Cervellin; Camilla Mattiuzzi

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a number of human disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, frailty, and infections. Since an association between vitamin D and migraine has also been recently speculated, we performed an electronic search on Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science using the keywords “migraine” and “vitamin D,” “25OH-D” “cholecalciferol,” “ergocalciferol,” with no language or date restriction. The electronic search allowed identifying seven studies (3 o...

  15. Low Vitamin D Status: Definition, Prevalence, Consequences and Correction

    OpenAIRE

    Binkley, Neil; Ramamurthy, Rekha; Krueger, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is obtained from cutaneous production when 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) by ultraviolet B radiation or by oral intake of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3. An individual's vitamin D status is best evaluated by measuring the circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. Though controversy surrounds the definition of low vitamin D status, there is increasing agreement that the optimal circulating 25(OH)D level should be ~30-32 ng/ml or a...

  16. Prevention of antipsychotic-induced hyperglycaemia by vitamin D: a data mining prediction followed by experimental exploration of the molecular mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Takuya; Shirakawa, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kaneko, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics are associated with an increased risk of hyperglycaemia, thus limiting their clinical use. This study focused on finding the molecular mechanism underlying antipsychotic-induced hyperglycaemia. First, we searched for drug combinations in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database wherein a coexisting drug reduced the hyperglycaemia risk of atypical antipsychotics, and found that a combination with vitamin D analogues significantly decreased the occurrence of quetiapine-induced adverse events relating diabetes mellitus in FAERS. Experimental validation using mice revealed that quetiapine acutely caused insulin resistance, which was mitigated by dietary supplementation with cholecalciferol. Further database analysis of the relevant signalling pathway and gene expression predicted quetiapine-induced downregulation of Pik3r1, a critical gene acting downstream of insulin receptor. Focusing on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling pathway, we found that the reduced expression of Pik3r1 mRNA was reversed by cholecalciferol supplementation in skeletal muscle, and that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into C2C12 myotube was inhibited in the presence of quetiapine, which was reversed by concomitant calcitriol in a PI3K-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that vitamin D coadministration prevents antipsychotic-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance by upregulation of PI3K function. PMID:27199286

  17. Effects of a single, high oral dose of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on the mineral metabolism markers in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jose Luis; Teruel, Jose Luis; Fernández-Lucas, Milagros; Villafruela, Juan José; Bueno, Blanca; Gomis, Antonio; Paraíso, Vicente; Quereda, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Low levels have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality. We evaluated the administration of a high, single oral dose of 25-OH cholecalciferol (3 mg of Hidroferol, 180 000 IU) in patients on chronic hemodialysis. The 94 chronic hemodialysis patients with vitamin D deficiency 25 (OH)D mEq/L) were modified. Of the 86 patients who finished the study, 42 were in the treated group and 44 in the control group. An increase in 25(OH)D levels was observed in the treated group that persisted after 16 weeks and was associated with a significant decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels during the 8 weeks post-treatment. Baseline 1,25(OH)2 D levels of the treated group increased two weeks after treatment (5.9 vs. 21.9 pg/mL, Preduced to 8.4 at week 16. The administration of a single 3 mg dose of 25-OH cholecalciferol seems safe in patients on hemodialysis and maintains sufficient levels of 25(OH)D with a decrease in PTH for 3 months. PMID:25656524

  18. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güerri-Fernández, Roberto; Villar García, Judit; González Mena, Alicia; Guelar Grinberg, Ana; Montero, María Milagro; Sorli, Luisa; Calzado, Sonia; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel Freud, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D 65 pg/mL) were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg) weekly (if deficiency) or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels). Rates of normalization of 25(OH)D (levels above 20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL) were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL). Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF) and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27699068

  19. Evidence for the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Vitamin D in Residential Care and in the Community Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. A. Geddes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D is common treatment for osteoporosis. Both age >70 years and living in residential care are associated with increased fracture risk. Community dwelling elderly are a heterogeneous group who may have more similatiry with residential care groups than younger community dwelling counterparts. Aims. To review the evidence for cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol tretment of osteoporosis in either community dwelling patients aged ≥70 years of age, or redidential care patients. Secondly endpoints were changes in bone mineral denisty, and in bone turnover markers. Methods. We performed a literature search using search terms for osteoporosis and vitamin D. Treatment for at least one year was required. Results. Only one residential care study using cholecalciferol, showed non-vertebral and hip fracture reduction in vitamin D deficient subjects. In the community setting one quasi randomised study using ergocalciferol showed reduction in total but not hip or non-vertebral fracture, and a second randomised study showed increased hip fracture risk. Three studies reported increases in hip bone mineral denisty. Discussion. A minority of studies demonstrated a fracture benefit form vitamin D and one suggested possible harm in a community setting. Current practice should be to only offer this treatment to subjects identified as deficient.

  20. Correlation of Increases in 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D During Vitamin D Therapy With Activation of CD4+ T Lymphocytes in HIV-1-Infected Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    Background: In HIV-1-infected individuals, levels of CD4+ T lymphocytes are depleted and regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs) are elevated. In vitro studies have demonstrated effects of vitamin D on the growth and differentiation of these cells. We speculated whether supplementation with vitamin D...... could have an effect on CD4+ T lymphocytes or Tregs in HIV-1-infected males. Methods: We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study that ran for 16 weeks and included 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. The participants were randomized to 1 of 3 daily treatments: (1) 0.......5-1.0 µg calcitriol and 1200 IU (30 µg) cholecalciferol, (2) 1200 IU cholecalciferol, (3) placebo. Percentages of the following T-lymphocyte subsets were determined: naïve CD4+ and CD8+ cells, activated CD4+ and CD8+ cells, and CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127low Tregs. Furthermore 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 25...

  1. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Lerma-Chippirraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OHD 65 pg/mL were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg weekly (if deficiency or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels. Rates of normalization of 25(OHD (levels above 20 ng/mL and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL. Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism.

  2. Reproductive performance and bone status markers of gilts and lactating sows supplemented with two different forms of vitamin D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Halekoh, U; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    of the 2 different vitamin D sources [200, 800, 1,400, and 2,000 IU•kg-1 from cholecalciferol or corresponding levels of 5, 20, 35 and 50 µg•kg-1 feed from 25(OH)D3 (Hy•D)]. In a concurrent experiment, the same 8 dietary treatments were provided to 160 multiparous sows from the first day of mating until......In swine nutrition, little is known about the requirements of vitamin D in reproductive processes and bone health. Vitamin D recommendation of sows during gestation and lactation is not consequently based on scientific reports. The current study was undertaken to obtain information on the dose...... weaning. The plasma concentration of 25(OH)D3 was influenced by a dose and form interaction (P sows. Irrespective of dietary dose and form of vitamin D for the sows, very little vitamin D was transferred to the progeny. Reproductive performance...

  3. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  4. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving.

  5. Clinical potential for vitamin D as a neoadjuvant for photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Rollakanti, Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprising basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common form of human cancer worldwide. Effective therapies include surgical excision, cryotherapy, and ionizing radiation, but all of these cause scarring. ALA-based PDT is a non-scarring modality used routinely for NMSC in Europe but not in the USA, primarily due to lingering uncertainties about efficacy. We have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can be used as neoadjuvants, i.e., can be given as a pretreatment prior to ALA-PDT, to improve the efficacy of tumor killing in mouse models of NMSC. Vitamin D (VD3) is the most recent neoadjuvant on this list. In this presentation we make the case that VD3 may be superior to the other agents to improve results of ALA-PDT skin cancer treatment. The active form of VD3 (calcitriol) is available topically as a pharmaceutical grade cream or ointment (FDA-approved for psoriasis), and works well for boosting ALA-PDT tumor treatment in mouse models. For deep tumors not reachable by a topical route, calcitriol can be given systemically and is very effective, but carries a risk of causing hypercalcemia as a side effect. To circumvent this risk, we have conducted experiments with the natural dietary form of VD3 (cholecalciferol), and showed that this improves ALA-PDT efficacy almost to the same extent as calcitriol. Because cholecalciferol does not increase serum calcium levels, this represents a potentially extremely safe approach. Data in mouse models of BCC and SCC will be presented.

  6. Uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane.

  7. Metabolic evaluation in first-time renal stone formers in north India: A single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of stone recurrence in first-time stone formers (FTSF varies from 26% to 53%. There is no consensus regarding metabolic evaluation in these individuals. We evaluated the metabolic abnormalities in first-time renal stone forming patients in North India. Thirty-nine patients, (29 males and 10 females with mean age 39.3 ± 12.9 years who presented with nephrolithiasis for the first time were evaluated. We evaluated the calcium homeostasis [serum corrected total calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathormone (iPTH, 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD 3 , 1-25 di-hydroxy cholecalciferol (1,25(OH 2 D 3 ] and performed the calcium load test also. Two 24-h urine collections were taken for citrate, oxalate, calcium and uric acid. Ammonium chloride loading test for diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis was performed in all patients. For each of the diagnostic categories, descriptive statistics were computed for all biochemical variables. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Metabolic abnormalities were detected in 92.3% of the patients (n = 39 studied. Of them, almost 60% had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormality was hypo-citraturia (82%, followed by hyper-oxaluria (56% and hyper-calciuria (41%. Five percent of the patients had incomplete renal tubular acidosis, signifying the importance of the ammonium chloride loading test in patients with renal stones. None of the study patients were detected to have primary hyperparathyroidism. In three patients, the etiology could not be detected. Our findings suggest that an underlying disorder is present in majority of first-time renal stone formers. Intervention with appropriate treatment can prevent recurrences. Hence, comprehensive metabolic evaluation is recommended in all FTSF.

  8. Monitoring of osteoporosis among geriatric population in the primary care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipovac Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Osteoporosis is a chronic, progressive bone disease which leads to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone micro-architecture. Patients with osteoporosis have an increased risk of fractures caused by “small trauma” - stresses which would not normally cause fracture in a non-osteoporotic individual. This study was aimed at determining the incidence of osteoporosis in geriatric population, crucial demographic parameters (gender and age structure in patients, presence of comorbidities, and the most common drug choice in treatment of osteoporosis. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in the period from August 1st, 2012 to May 12th, 2014 and it included 526 patients over 65 years of age who were diagnosed to have osteoporosis based on clinical findings (presence/absence of pathological fractures, laboratory tests and osteodensitometry. Data were analyzed by using standard statistical methods and statistical significance was assessed by x2 and t - test. Results. The most affected patients were women (91%. The incidence of pathological fractures was 31.80%. The presence of two or more fractures caused by a “small trauma” was determined in 13.6%. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 72.70% of cases. The most common therapeutic choice was the bisphosphonates, being administered in 77% along with the simultaneous use of vitamin D analogs - alfacalciferol (13.6%, cholecalciferol (40.9%, calcium carbonate + cholecalciferol (22.7%. Conclusion. Osteoporosis shows predominance in females aged 65-70 years. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease but significantly reduce the quality of life in patients. Bisphosphonates are the most common drug choice with the simultaneous use of calcium and vitamin D analogs.

  9. Effects of vitamin D on kidney histology and trpv1 channels in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Ali; Atli, Hasan; Kaya, Nalan; Onalan, Ebru; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aygen, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an antineoplastic agent of the anthracycline group, and may show nephrotoxic effects in animal models and humans. We investigated changes in kidney tissue following doxorubicin treatment and the effects of vitamin D on kidney tissue and TRPV1 channels. In this study, 24 adult male Wistar Albino rats were used. The animals were divided into four groups of six animals. During the 14-day experiment period, Group I did not have any application. 200 IU/day cholecalciferol was administered orally to Group II. Group III received 10 mg/kg single dose of DXR intraperitoneally (IP); and Group IV had a single 10 mg/kg dose of IP DXR and 200 IU/day of oral cholecalciferol. At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated, and their kidney tissues were removed. TRPV1 expression and apoptosis were detected in the tissue section by using immunohistochemical, TUNEL and real time-PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. The findings were examined and photographed with BH2 Olympus photomicroscope. As result of immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and examination with light microscope, it was found that the TRPV 1 immunoreactivity of the DXR group decreased in comparison with the control group, and the vitamin D application did not reverse this effect. Apoptosis detected by the TUNEL method tended to increase in the doxorubicin group and was relatively reversed with the administration of vitamin D. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed to correlate with the findings of apoptosis. This study showed that vitamin D has anti- apoptotic and antioxidant effects on kidney tissue after DXR-induced injury.

  10. Uptake of 75Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane

  11. Fate of tritium-labeled vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in rabbit does and thier pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammary transfer of label from intraperitoneally injected 50 μCi [1α, 2α(n)-hydrogen-3] cholecalciferol, and 50 μCi (26,27-methyl-hydrogen-3)cholecalciferol was studied in nursing rabbits. Does were injected at 3 days postpartum with one of the two labeled compounds. Pups were killed at either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days after dosing of the does, and does were killed after 5 days. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in tissues of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D3 than in tissues of those dosed with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in maternal tissues than in tissues of pups. On the 5th day following administration of tritiated vitamin D3 or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, the major portion of the radioactivity in does' plasma and liver was associated with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. In pups from the tritiated vitamin D3 group, the concentration of plasma radioactivity associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography) increased significantly with time, reaching 85% of the total vitamin D and metabolite radioactivity in the pups at the 5th day. Over 90% of the total recovered plasma radioactivity of pups of the tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 group was associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Much more radioactivity was secreted in the milk of tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 dosed does than in milk of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D3. 16 references, 3 tables

  12. Bones and Crohn's: No benefit of adding sodium fluoride oribandronate to calcium and vitamin D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Klaus; Max Reinshagen; Katharina Herdt; Christoph Schr(o)ter; Guido Adler; Georg BT von Boyen; Christian von Tirpitz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of calcium and cholecalciferol alone and along with additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Patients (n =148) with reduced BMD (T-score< -1) were randomized to receive cholecalciferol (1000 IU) and calcium citrate (800 mg) daily alone(group A, n =32) or along with additional sodium fluoride (25 mg bid ) (group B, n = 62) or additional ibandronate (1 mg iv/3-monthly) (group C, n = 54). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal right femurand X-rays of the spine were performed at baseline and after 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 years. Fracture-assessment included visual reading of X-rays and quantitative morphometry of vertebral bodies (T4-L4).RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (83.1%) patients completed the first year for intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety two (62.2%) patients completed thesecond year and 71 (47.8%) the third year available for per-protocol (PP) analysis. With a significant increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by +0.28 ± 0.35 [95%confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.460, P < 0.01], +0.33 ± 0.49 (95% CI: 0.109-0.558, P < 0.01), +0.43 ± 0.47 (95% CI: 0.147-0.708, P < 0.01) in group A, +0.22 ±0.33 (95% CI: 0.125-0.321, P < 0.01); +0.47 ± 0.60 (95% CI: 0.262-0.676, P < 0.01), +0.51 ± 0.44 (95%CI: 0.338-0.682, P < 0.01) in group B and +0.22 ±0.38 (95% CI: 0.111-0.329, P < 0.01), +0.36 ± 0.53(95% CI: 0.147-0.578, P < 0.01), +0.41 ± 0.48 (95%CI: 0.238-0.576, P < 0.01) in group C, respectively, duringthe 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 year periods (PP analysis), no treatment regimen was superior in any in- or betweengroup analyses. In the ITT analysis, similar results in allin- and between-group analyses with a significant ingroup but non-significant between-group increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by 0.38 ± 0.46 (group A,P < 0.01), 0.37 ± 0.50 (group B, P < 0.01) and 0.35 ±0.49 (group C, P < 0.01) was

  13. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Deeb, Kristin K; Johnson, Candace S

    2010-01-01

    Considerable preclinical and epidemiologic data suggest that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis, progression, and therapy for cancer. Numerous epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis that individuals with lower serum vitamin D levels have a higher risk of a number of cancers. Measures of vitamin D level in such studies include both surrogate estimates of vitamin D level (residence in more northern latitudes, history of activity, and sun exposure) as well as measured serum 25(OH) cholecalciferol levels. Perhaps, the most robust of these epidemiologic studies is that of Giovannucci et al, who developed and validated an estimate of serum 25(OH) cholecalciferol level and reported that among >40,000 individuals in the Health Professionals Study, an increase in 25(OH) cholecalciferol level of 62.5 ng/mL was associated with a reduction in the risk of head/neck, esophagus, pancreas cancers, and acute leukemia by >50%. Unfortunately, very limited data are available to indicate whether or not giving vitamin D supplements reduces the risk of cancer. Many preclinical studies indicate that exposing cancer cells, as well as vascular endothelial cells derived from tumors, to high concentrations of active metabolites of vitamin D halts progression through cell cycle, induces apoptosis and will slow or stop the growth of tumors in vivo. There are no data that one type of cancer is more or less susceptible to the effects of vitamin D. Vitamin D also potentiates the antitumor activity of a number of types of cytotoxic anticancer agents in in vivo preclinical models. Vitamin D analogues initiate signaling through a number of important pathways, but the pathway(s) essential to the antitumor activities of vitamin D are unclear. Clinical studies of vitamin D as an antitumor agent have been hampered by the lack of a suitable pharmaceutical preparation for clinical study. All commercially available formulations are inadequate because of the necessity to administer large

  14. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Deeb, Kristin K; Johnson, Candace S

    2010-01-01

    Considerable preclinical and epidemiologic data suggest that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis, progression, and therapy for cancer. Numerous epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis that individuals with lower serum vitamin D levels have a higher risk of a number of cancers. Measures of vitamin D level in such studies include both surrogate estimates of vitamin D level (residence in more northern latitudes, history of activity, and sun exposure) as well as measured serum 25(OH) cholecalciferol levels. Perhaps, the most robust of these epidemiologic studies is that of Giovannucci et al, who developed and validated an estimate of serum 25(OH) cholecalciferol level and reported that among >40,000 individuals in the Health Professionals Study, an increase in 25(OH) cholecalciferol level of 62.5 ng/mL was associated with a reduction in the risk of head/neck, esophagus, pancreas cancers, and acute leukemia by >50%. Unfortunately, very limited data are available to indicate whether or not giving vitamin D supplements reduces the risk of cancer. Many preclinical studies indicate that exposing cancer cells, as well as vascular endothelial cells derived from tumors, to high concentrations of active metabolites of vitamin D halts progression through cell cycle, induces apoptosis and will slow or stop the growth of tumors in vivo. There are no data that one type of cancer is more or less susceptible to the effects of vitamin D. Vitamin D also potentiates the antitumor activity of a number of types of cytotoxic anticancer agents in in vivo preclinical models. Vitamin D analogues initiate signaling through a number of important pathways, but the pathway(s) essential to the antitumor activities of vitamin D are unclear. Clinical studies of vitamin D as an antitumor agent have been hampered by the lack of a suitable pharmaceutical preparation for clinical study. All commercially available formulations are inadequate because of the necessity to administer large

  15. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  16. Effect of vitamin D on aortic remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetes

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    Salum Erik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with micro- and macrovascular complications and increased cardiovascular risk. Elevated levels of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA may be responsible for endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes-induced vascular impairment. Vitamin D may have potential protective effects against arterial stiffening. This study aimed to examine both the effects of diabetes on the functional/structural properties of the aorta and the endothelial function and the effects of vitamin D supplementation. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 30 were randomly assigned to control untreated, diabetic untreated, and diabetic + cholecalciferol groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, followed by oral administration of cholecalciferol (500 IU/kg for 10 weeks in the treatment group. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV was recorded over a mean arterial pressure (MAP range of 50 to 200 mmHg using a dual pressure sensor catheter. Intravenous infusion of phenylephrine and nitroglycerine was used to increase and decrease MAP, respectively. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels were measured using a radioimmune assay. ADMA levels in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Aortic samples were collected for histomorphometrical analysis. Results PWV up to MAP 170 mmHg did not reveal any significant differences between all groups, but in diabetic rats, PWV was significantly elevated across MAP range between 170 and 200 mmHg. Isobaric PWV was similar between the treated and untreated diabetic groups, despite significant differences in the levels of serum 25(OHD (493 ± 125 nmol/L vs 108 ± 38 nmol/L, respectively. Serum levels of ADMA were similarly increased in the treated and untreated diabetic groups, compared to the control group. The concentration and integrity of the elastic lamellae in the medial layer of the aorta was impaired in untreated

  17. Impact of vitamin D supplementation on arterial vasomotion, stiffness and endothelial biomarkers in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihil Chitalia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular events are frequent and vascular endothelial function is abnormal in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We demonstrated endothelial dysfunction with vitamin D deficiency in CKD patients; however the impact of cholecalciferol supplementation on vascular stiffness and vasomotor function, endothelial and bone biomarkers in CKD patients with low 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] is unknown, which this study investigated. METHODS: We assessed non-diabetic patients with CKD stage 3/4, age 17-80 years and serum 25(OHD <75 nmol/L. Brachial artery Flow Mediated Dilation (FMD, Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV, Augmentation Index (AI and circulating blood biomarkers were evaluated at baseline and at 16 weeks. Oral 300,000 units cholecalciferol was administered at baseline and 8-weeks. RESULTS: Clinical characteristics of 26 patients were: age 50±14 (mean±1SD years, eGFR 41±11 ml/min/1.73 m2, males 73%, dyslipidaemia 36%, smokers 23% and hypertensives 87%. At 16-week serum 25(OHD and calcium increased (43±16 to 84±29 nmol/L, p<0.001 and 2.37±0.09 to 2.42±0.09 mmol/L; p = 0.004, respectively and parathyroid hormone decreased (10.8±8.6 to 7.4±4.4; p = 0.001. FMD improved from 3.1±3.3% to 6.1±3.7%, p = 0.001. Endothelial biomarker concentrations decreased: E-Selectin from 5666±2123 to 5256±2058 pg/mL; p = 0.032, ICAM-1, 3.45±0.01 to 3.10±1.04 ng/mL; p = 0.038 and VCAM-1, 54±33 to 42±33 ng/mL; p = 0.006. eGFR, BP, PWV, AI, hsCRP, von Willebrand factor and Fibroblast Growth Factor-23, remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates for the first time improvement of endothelial vasomotor and secretory functions with vitamin D in CKD patients without significant adverse effects on arterial stiffness, serum calcium or FGF-23. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02005718.

  18. Vitamin D Supplementation for Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome Refractory to Conventional Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seok Hyun; Shin, Young Joo; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang; Park, Shin Goo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES) refractory to conventional treatment with vitamin D deficiency. A total of 105 patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and vitamin D deficiency that was treated with an intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol (200,000 IU). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured. Eye discomfort was assessed using ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and visual analogue pain score (VAS). Tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein staining score (FSS), eyelid margin hyperemia, and tear secretion test were measured before treatment, and 2, 6, and 10 weeks after vitamin D supplementation. Mean serum 25(OH)D level was 10.52 ± 4.61 ng/mL. TBUT, and tear secretion test showed an improvement at 2 and 6 weeks after vitamin D supplementation compared to pretreatment values (p vitamin D supplementation (p vitamin D supplementation is effective and useful in the treatment of patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27698364

  19. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K. Danner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP+ B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 (P value = 0.01]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  20. Vitamin D improves endothelial dysfunction and restores myeloid angiogenic cell function via reduced CXCL-10 expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John A; Haque, Sahena; Williamson, Kate; Ray, David W; Alexander, M Yvonne; Bruce, Ian N

    2016-03-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated cardiovascular disease and dysfunctional endothelial repair mechanisms. Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs), derived from circulating monocytes, augment vascular repair by paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic factors. We observed that SLE MACs are dysfunctional and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also found that the vitamin D receptor was transiently expressed during MAC differentiation and that in vitro, calcitriol increased differentiation of monocytes into MACs in both SLE and in a model using the prototypic SLE cytokine, interferon-alpha. The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) restored the SLE MAC phenotype towards that of healthy subjects with reduced IL-6 secretion, and normalised surface marker expression. Calcitriol also augmented the angiogenic capacity of MACs via the down-regulation of CXCL-10. In SLE patients treated with cholecalciferol for 12 weeks, the improvement in endothelial function correlated with increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations independently of disease activity. We also show that MACs were able to positively modulate eNOS expression in human endothelial cells in vitro, an effect further enhanced by calcitriol treatment of SLE MACs. The results demonstrate that vitamin D can positively modify endothelial repair mechanisms and thus endothelial function in a population with significant cardiovascular risk.

  1. Kidney bone disease and mortality in CKD: revisiting the role of vitamin D, calcimimetics, alkaline phosphatase, and minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Shah, Anuja; Duong, Uyen; Hechter, Rulin C; Dukkipati, Ramanath; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2010-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the traditional syndromes known as renal osteodystrophy, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency are related to mortality in persons with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). The so-called 'kidney bone disease', also known as 'mineral and bone disorders', is defined to include bone disorders, mineral disarrays, and vascular calcification. We have identified 14 common and clinically relevant conditions of contemporary nature that are related to the kidney bone disease, including calcitriol (active vitamin D) deficiency, 25(OH)-vitamin D deficiency, biochemical hyperparathyroidism, relatively low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasemia), elevated fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, high turnover bone disease, adynamic bone disease, uremic osteoporosis, vascular calcification, hyper- and hypophosphatemia, and hyper- and hypocalcemia. We present a critical review of these 14 conditions with emphasis on patient survival and other pertinent clinical outcomes. We also review unresolved controversies surrounding the management of these conditions by administration of nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol), vitamin D receptor activators (calcitriol, alphacalcidiol, doxercalciferol), D-mimetics (paricalcitol, maxacalcitol), calcimimetics (cinacalcet), recombinant PTH (teriparatide), and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand modulators (denosumab); compare mortality predictability of PTH and alkaline phosphatase; and examine potential risks of bone disorders and mineral disarrays in CKD patients. PMID:20671739

  2. Vitamin D intoxication caused by ingestion of commercial cat food in three kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.

  3. Effective treatment of severe pregnancy and lactation-related osteoporosis with teriparatide: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Sefika Burcak; Evranos, Berna; Aydin, Cevdet; Cuhaci, Neslihan; Ersoy, Reyhan; Cakir, Bekir

    2015-07-01

    Pregnancy or lactation-related osteoporosis (PLO) is a very rare and debilitating condition which is usually diagnosed during the last trimester of the pregnancy or early postpartum period. Herein, we report a case with severe PLO and multiple vertebral compression fractures that were successfully treated with teriparatide. Twenty-three-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic two months after her first spontaneous vaginal delivery with the complaint of severe back pain. Bone mineral density was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and low T- and Z-scores were observed in lumbar vertebrae. In vertebral MRI, severe height loss was detected in thoracic (T) 5,7,10,11,12 vertebrae. After exclusion of the other possible causes of OP, she was diagnosed to have PLO and the lactation was stopped. She was treated with calcium 1000 mg/day, cholecalciferol 800 mg/day and teriparatide 20 µg/day. At the 12th and 18th month of therapy, BMD was increased by 8% and 27%, respectively, at the lumbar spine and pain was completely relieved in few months. There are pharmacological therapy modalities that can be used in PLO. Bisphosphonates are effective, but there are some concerns that they accumulate in bone and may expose fetus in subsequent pregnancies. Teriparatide is a strong candidate to be the optimal medical therapy in severe cases since it is effective and safe. PMID:25893268

  4. Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D-Effective UVB Availability in Europe and Associations with Population Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Ryan, Mary J; Barber, Niamh; Sempos, Christopher T; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Kiely, Mairead; Webb, Ann R; Cashman, Kevin D

    2016-08-30

    Low vitamin D status is common in Europe. The major source of vitamin D in humans is ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced dermal synthesis of cholecalciferol, whereas food sources are believed to play a lesser role. Our objectives were to assess UVB availability (Jm(-2)) across several European locations ranging from 35° N to 69° N, and compare these UVB data with representative population serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from Ireland (51-54° N), Iceland (64° N) and Norway (69° N), as exemplars. Vitamin D-effective UVB availability was modelled for nine European countries/regions using a validated UV irradiance model. Standardized serum 25(OH)D data was accessed from the EC-funded ODIN project. The results showed that UVB availability decreased with increasing latitude (from 35° N to 69° N), while all locations exhibited significant seasonal variation in UVB. The UVB data suggested that the duration of vitamin D winters ranged from none (at 35° N) to eight months (at 69° N). The large seasonal fluctuations in serum 25(OH)D in Irish adults was much dampened in Norwegian and Icelandic adults, despite considerably lower UVB availability at these northern latitudes but with much higher vitamin D intakes. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake can ameliorate the impact of low UVB availability on serum 25(OH)D status in Europe.

  5. UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants promote differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, María; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are essential for bone regeneration and mineral homeostasis. The vitamin D precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol can be used after UV irradiation to locally produce active vitamin D by osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol is a biocompatible coating for titanium implants with positive effects on osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the impact of titanium implants surfaces coated with UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol on the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. First, the synthesis of cholecalciferol (D3) was achieved through the incubation of the UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol coating for 48 h at 23℃. Further, we investigated in vitro the biocompatibility of this coating in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and its potential to enhance their differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured onto UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants surfaces, combined with osteogenic supplements, upregulated the gene expression of several osteogenic markers and showed higher alkaline phosphatase activity and calcein blue staining, suggesting increased mineralization. Thus, our results show that the use of UV irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol -treated titanium implants surfaces generates a bioactive coating that promotes the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, with regenerative potential for improving osseointegration in titanium-based bone anchored implants.

  6. The role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in promoting insulin resistance and inflammation in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson David W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 50% of patients with stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease are 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficient, and this prevalence increases with falling glomerular filtration rate. Vitamin D is now recognised as having pleiotropic roles beyond bone and mineral homeostasis, with the vitamin D receptor and metabolising machinery identified in multiple tissues. Worryingly, recent observational data has highlighted an association between hypovitaminosis D and increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly mediated via vitamin D effects on insulin resistance and inflammation. The main hypothesis of this study is that oral Vitamin D supplementation will ameliorate insulin resistance in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease stage 3 when compared to placebo. Secondary hypotheses will test whether this is associated with decreased inflammation and bone/adipocyte-endocrine dysregulation. Methods/Design This study is a single-centre, double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Inclusion criteria include; estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2; aged ≥18 on entry to study; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels Discussion To date, no randomised controlled trial has been performed in pre-dialysis CKD patients to study the correlation between vitamin D status with supplementation, insulin resistance and markers of adverse cardiovascular risk. We remain hopeful that cholecalciferol may be a safe intervention, with health benefits beyond those related to bone-mineral homeostasis. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000246280.

  7. Vitamin D improves endothelial dysfunction and restores myeloid angiogenic cell function via reduced CXCL-10 expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John A; Haque, Sahena; Williamson, Kate; Ray, David W; Alexander, M Yvonne; Bruce, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated cardiovascular disease and dysfunctional endothelial repair mechanisms. Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs), derived from circulating monocytes, augment vascular repair by paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic factors. We observed that SLE MACs are dysfunctional and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also found that the vitamin D receptor was transiently expressed during MAC differentiation and that in vitro, calcitriol increased differentiation of monocytes into MACs in both SLE and in a model using the prototypic SLE cytokine, interferon-alpha. The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) restored the SLE MAC phenotype towards that of healthy subjects with reduced IL-6 secretion, and normalised surface marker expression. Calcitriol also augmented the angiogenic capacity of MACs via the down-regulation of CXCL-10. In SLE patients treated with cholecalciferol for 12 weeks, the improvement in endothelial function correlated with increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations independently of disease activity. We also show that MACs were able to positively modulate eNOS expression in human endothelial cells in vitro, an effect further enhanced by calcitriol treatment of SLE MACs. The results demonstrate that vitamin D can positively modify endothelial repair mechanisms and thus endothelial function in a population with significant cardiovascular risk. PMID:26930567

  8. Hypercalcaemia in two dogs caused by excessive dietary supplementation of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellanby, R J; Mee, A P; Berry, J L; Herrtage, M E

    2005-07-01

    A three-year-old Border collie was presented with a two-week history of lethargy, stiff gait, polydipsia and polyuria. Biochemical analysis revealed hypercalcaemia. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) were markedly elevated and parathyroid hormone was undetectable. Subsequent analysis of the dog's diet revealed that the food contained excessive amounts of vitamin D. The hypercalcaemia resolved following treatment with bisphosphonates and dietary change. Hypervitaminosis D was diagnosed in a second unrelated dog, which had been fed the same brand of dog food as case 1. The dog was also hypercalcaemic and had markedly elevated serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D. Hypervitaminosis D in dogs has been reported to occur secondarily to ingestion of either rodenticides containing cholecalciferol or antipsoriatic ointments that contain vitamin D analogues. Hypervitaminosis D has also been reported following the treatment of hypoparathyroidism. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hypervitaminosis D in dogs following the accidental over supplementation of a commercial diet with vitamin D. While the benefits of adequate dietary vitamin D are well established in dogs, the potential deleterious effects of over supplementation of vitamin D should also be acknowledged. PMID:16035450

  9. Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D-Effective UVB Availability in Europe and Associations with Population Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Ryan, Mary J; Barber, Niamh; Sempos, Christopher T; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Kiely, Mairead; Webb, Ann R; Cashman, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Low vitamin D status is common in Europe. The major source of vitamin D in humans is ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced dermal synthesis of cholecalciferol, whereas food sources are believed to play a lesser role. Our objectives were to assess UVB availability (Jm(-2)) across several European locations ranging from 35° N to 69° N, and compare these UVB data with representative population serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from Ireland (51-54° N), Iceland (64° N) and Norway (69° N), as exemplars. Vitamin D-effective UVB availability was modelled for nine European countries/regions using a validated UV irradiance model. Standardized serum 25(OH)D data was accessed from the EC-funded ODIN project. The results showed that UVB availability decreased with increasing latitude (from 35° N to 69° N), while all locations exhibited significant seasonal variation in UVB. The UVB data suggested that the duration of vitamin D winters ranged from none (at 35° N) to eight months (at 69° N). The large seasonal fluctuations in serum 25(OH)D in Irish adults was much dampened in Norwegian and Icelandic adults, despite considerably lower UVB availability at these northern latitudes but with much higher vitamin D intakes. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake can ameliorate the impact of low UVB availability on serum 25(OH)D status in Europe. PMID:27589793

  10. Vitamin D and Psoriasis Pathology in the Mediterranean Region, Valencia (Spain

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    Maria Morales Suárez-Varela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects on psoriasis in the Mediterranean region. To measure vitamin D intake in subjects with and without psoriasis, and to find an association with relevant clinical features, a case-control study was performed using cases (n = 50, 50% participation rate clinically diagnosed with psoriasis and 200 healthy subjects (39.5% participation rate, leaving a final sample of 104 people. A survey was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire and clinical histories. Cases and controls were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed insufficient intake of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 for both cases and controls. Patients with psoriasis were at greater risk of associated pathologies: dyslipidaemia (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 0.8–15.2; metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.2–53.9; hypertension (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.4–7.2. Insufficient vitamin D intake in both psoriasis patients and controls in the Mediterranean population, and cardiovascular comorbility is more frequent in patients with psoriasis.

  11. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-12-01

    [Methoxy-(11)C]PD-153035, 2-Methoxyestradiol; Adalimumab, Adecatumumab, Adefovir dipivoxil, ADH-1, ADX-10059, Aflibercept, AIR-human growth hormone, Aliskiren fumarate, AMG-221, Amlodipine besylate/olmesartan medoxomil, Aprepitant; Bavituximab, Bevacizumab, Bexarotene, BIBW-2992, BMS-690514, Bortezomib, Bosentan, Briakinumab; Capecitabine, Certolizumab pegol, Cetuximab, Cholecalciferol, Choline fenofibrate, Chorionic gonadotropin (human), Cixutumumab, Clopidogrel, CP-690550 citrate; Dabigatran, Dacetuzumab, Daclizumab, Dapagliflozin, Darbepoetin alfa, Dasatinib, Denosumab; Efavirenz, Elisidepsin, Enoxaparin, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Everolimus, Exenatide; Fenobam, Figitumumab, Filibuvir, Fondaparinux sodium, Fresolimumab; Gefitinib, Golimumab, Golnerminogene pradenovec; Ifosfamide, Imatinib mesylate, Ipilimumab, Ivabradine hydrochloride, Ixabepilone; Lapatinib ditosylate, Lenalidomide, Levocetirizine dihydrochloride, Liposomal vincristine, Liraglutide; M-118, Masitinib mesylate, Metformin hydrochloride, Micafungin sodium, Moxifloxacin hydrochloride; Neratinib; Oblimersen sodium, Ofatumumab, Olmesartan medoxomil; Paclitaxel nanoparticles, Palifosfamide lysine, Panobacumab, Panobinostat, Patupilone, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pegylated arginine deiminase 20000, Piclozotan hydrochloride hydrate, Pixantrone maleate, Prasterone, Prasugrel, Prednisone, Progesterone, Prucalopride, pVGI.1 (VEGF-2); Retigabine, rhFSH, Rituximab, Rivaroxaban, Rosuvastatin calcium; Salinosporamide A, Selumetinib, Sipuleucel-T, Somatropin, Sorafenib, SSR-244738, Sunitinib malate; Tamoxifen citrate, Teduglutide, Telavancin hydrochloride, Telmisartan, Telmisartan/amlodipine, Telmisartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Temsirolimus, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tipifarnib, Tolvaptan, Trastuzumab, Trastuzumab-MCC-DM1, Travoprost, Tremelimumab; Valsartan/amlodipine besylate, Valsartan/amlodipine besylate/hydrochlorothiazide, Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, Vandetanib

  12. Reversible vascular calcifications associated with hypervitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in 2002 with symptoms of stupor, weakness, and renal colic. The clinical examination indicated borderline hypertension, small masses in the glutei, and polyuria. Laboratory tests evidenced high serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and phosphate. Imaging assessments disclosed widespread vascular calcifications, gluteal calcifications, and pelvic ectasia. Subsequent lab tests indicated suppressed serum parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and normal serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Treatment was started with intravenous infusion of saline and furosemide due to the evidence of hypercalcemia. Prednisone and omeprazole were added given the evidence of hypervitaminosis D. The treatment improved serum calcium, kidney function, and consciousness. The medical history disclosed recent treatment with exceptionally high doses of slow-release intra-muscular cholecalciferol and the recent excretion of urinary stones. The patient was discharged when it was possible to stop the intravenous treatment. The post-discharge treatment included oral hydration, furosemide, prednisone and omeprazole for approximately 6 months up to complete resolution of the hypercalcemia. The patient came back 12 years later because of microhematuria. Lab tests were normal for calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and kidney function. Imaging tests indicated only minor vascular calcifications. This is the first evidence of reversible vascular calcifications secondary to hypervitaminosis D. PMID:26318020

  13. Predicting In Silico Which Mixtures of the Natural Products of Plants Might Most Effectively Kill Human Leukemia Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany A. El-Shemy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the analysis of just 13 natural products of plants was to predict the most likely effective artificial mixtures of 2-3 most effective natural products on leukemia cells from over 364 possible mixtures. The natural product selected included resveratrol, honokiol, chrysin, limonene, cholecalciferol, cerulenin, aloe emodin, and salicin and had over 600 potential protein targets. Target profiling used the Ontomine set of tools for literature searches of potential binding proteins, binding constant predictions, binding site predictions, and pathway network pattern analysis. The analyses indicated that 6 of the 13 natural products predicted binding proteins which were important targets for established cancer treatments. Improvements in effectiveness were predicted for artificial combinations of 2 or 3 natural products. That effect might be attributed to drug synergism rather than increased numbers of binding proteins bound (dose effects. Among natural products, the combinations of aloe emodin with mevinolin and honokiol were predicted to be the most effective combination for AML-related predicted binding proteins. Therefore, plant extracts may in future provide more effective medicines than the single purified natural products of modern medicine, in some cases.

  14. Vitamin D and cancer: Clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial preclinical and epidemiologic data that suggest that vitamin D plays a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Numerous observational studies have shown that low blood levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (cholecalciferol), estimated by geographical location, diet and activity assessment or measured serum levels are associated with a higher risk of cancer and worse cancer-specific survival as well as numerous morbidities to e.g. cardiovascular disease, stroke, infection, autoimmune disease, and neuromuscular dysfunction among large populations. A considerable number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the most active metabolite of vitamin D – 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol – has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, pro-differentiating, and anti-angiogenic properties. Combined treatment of calcitriol and many types of cytotoxic agents has synergistic or at least additive effects. However, clinical trials testing these hypotheses have been less encouraging, though a number of methodological, pharmacological, and pharmaceutical issues confound all trials ever conducted. In order to properly assess the clinical value of vitamin D, its metabolites and analogs in cancer prevention and treatment, more studies are needed. PMID:21872802

  15. Vitamin D in the Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: When, to Whom and in Which Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Drasko; Katicic, Dajana; Gulin, Tonko; Josipovic, Josipa

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in vitamin D metabolism has a central role in the pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and is also associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). For more than sixty years, vitamin D, nutritional vitamin D (ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol or calcifediol) and nonselective vitamin D receptor (VDR) activators (calcitriol, alfacalcidol) have been used in the prevention and treatment of SHPT. In the last twenty years, selective VDR activators (paricalcitol, maxacalcitol) have been used to target SHPT. However, there are many open questions regarding use of nutritional vitamin D or VDR activators. The K/DOQI and KDIGO guidelines recommended testing for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in patients with CKD, but there is no consensus on the definition of vitamin D insufficiency in CKD. There are a many open questions, for example, regarding the optimal nutritional vitamin D type and the dose and co-administration of nutritional vitamin and VDR activators. Therapy with VDRAs is required in the majority of patients with CKD, particularly in dialysis patients. However, when to start with VDRAs is not so apparent. Is PTH level the only indication of when to start therapy? Although VDRAs are very effective in lowering PTH levels and bone metabolism the effect of patients mortality is not so straightforward. Despite many unanswered questions, there is a large body of experimental and clinical data to support vitamin D use in patients with CKD. To obtain answers to the open questions, we need more randomized controlled trials. PMID:26005391

  16. Optimal vitamin D status for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) sufficiency is essential for maximising bone health. Vitamin D enhances intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The major source of vitamin D for both children and adults is exposure of the skin to sunlight. Season, latitude, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, clothing and aging can dramatically influence the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D or are fortified with vitamin D. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; calcifediol] is the best measure of vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency [as defined by a serum 25(OH)D level of Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, increasing the risk of fracture. Unlike osteoporosis, which is a painless disease, osteomalacia causes aching bone pain that is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia or chronic pain syndrome or is simply dismissed as depression. Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, increasing the risk of falls and fractures, and should be aggressively treated with pharmacological doses of vitamin D. Vitamin D sufficiency can be sustained by sensible sun exposure or ingesting at least 800-1000 IU of vitamin D(3) daily. Patients being treated for osteoporosis should be adequately supplemented with calcium and vitamin D to maximise the benefit of treatment. PMID:18020534

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and its role in neurological conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpandzou, G; Aït Ben Haddou, E; Regragui, W; Benomar, A; Yahyaoui, M

    2016-02-01

    This review exposes recent advances on the role of vitamin D, cholecalciferol, a secosteroid, in the central nervous system. In humans, vitamin D arises from cutaneous transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol under the effect of UVB exposure or from food intake. Vitamin D has an immunomodulatory role through its anti-inflammatory and anti-autoimmune actions. In the nervous system, vitamin D is involved in the regulation of calcium-mediated neuronal excitotoxicity, in the reduction of oxidative stress, and in the induction of synaptic structural proteins, neurotrophic factors and deficient neurotransmitters. Reduced exposure to sunlight and low food intake can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Increasing evidence highlights the impact of vitamin D deficiency as a favoring factor in various central or peripheral neurological diseases, especially multiple sclerosis and several neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, several clinical trials on vitamin D supplementation stressed the role of vitamin D as a protective and/or prognostic factor in the onset and progress of such neurological conditions. PMID:26867662

  18. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Feron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  19. Comparison of Vitamin D Levels in Patients with and without Acne: A Case-Control Study Combined with a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeong-Min; Lee, Young-Ho; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Im, Myung

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune system, and its deficiency has been implicated in various skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease; however, the association with vitamin D remains unclear. Objectives We evaluated vitamin D levels in patients with acne to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Methods This study included 80 patients with acne and 80 healthy controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured, and demographic data were collected. Vitamin D-deficient patients were treated with oral cholecalciferol at 1000 IU/day for 2 months. Results Deficiency in 25(OH)D was detected in 48.8% of patients with acne, but in only 22.5% of the healthy controls. The level of 25(OH)D was inversely associated with the severity of acne, and there was a significant negative correlation with inflammatory lesions. In a subsequent trial, improvement in inflammatory lesions was noted after supplementation with vitamin D in 39 acne patients with 25(OH)D deficiency. Limitations Limitations of the study include the small number of patients in the supplementation study and the natural fluctuation of acne. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency was more frequent in patients with acne, and serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with acne severity, especially in patients with inflammatory lesions. PMID:27560161

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency and Glycemic Status in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastio, Silvia; Cadario, Francesco; Genoni, Giulia; Bellomo, Giorgio; Bagnati, Marco; Secco, Gioel; Picchi, Raffaella; Giglione, Enza; Bona, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D (25OHD) effects on glycemic control are unclear in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Aims of this study were to investigate 25OHD status among children with T1DM and its relationship with insulin sensitivity and glycemic status. Subjects and Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 2008–2014. A total of 141 patients had a T1DM >12 months diagnosis and were enrolled in the present study. Of these 35 (24.8%) were migrants and 106 (75.2%) Italians (T2). We retrospectively analyzed data at the onset of the disease (T0)(64 subjects) and 12–24 months before the last visit (T1,124 subjects). Fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 25OHD levels and daily insulin requirement were evaluated and Cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day supplementation for the management of vitamin D insufficiency (metabolic control (HbA1c 8%), both at T1 and T2. In supplemented subjects, we found a significant increase in 25OHD levels (pmetabolic status and glycemic homeostasis. Vitamin D supplementation improves glycemic control and should be considered as an additional therapy. PMID:27607348

  1. Alzheimer's disease - input of vitamin D with mEmantine assay (AD-IDEA trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Gautier Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current treatments for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD are symptomatic and can only temporarily slow down ADRD. Future possibilities of care rely on multi-target drugs therapies that address simultaneously several pathophysiological processes leading to neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that the combination of memantine with vitamin D could be neuroprotective in ADRD, thereby limiting neuronal loss and cognitive decline. The aim of this trial is to compare the effect after 24 weeks of the oral intake of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol with the effect of a placebo on the change of cognitive performance in patients suffering from moderate ADRD and receiving memantine. Methods The AD-IDEA Trial is a unicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, intent-to-treat, superiority trial. Patients aged 60 years and older presenting with moderate ADRD (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] score between 10-20, hypovitaminosis D (i.e., serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] Discussion The combination of memantine plus vitamin D may represent a new multi-target therapeutic class for the treatment of ADRD. The AD-IDEA Trial seeks to provide evidence on its efficacy in limiting cognitive and functional declines in ADRD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01409694

  2. Uptake of [3H]vitamin D3 from low and high density lipoproteins by cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma distribution and cellular uptake of [3H]vitamin D3 was studied in vitro using cultured human fibroblasts. Incubation of [3H]vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) with plasma followed by sequential ultracentrifugal fractionation of the lipoproteins indicated that 2-4% of the radioactivity associated with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 12% with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and approximately 60% with the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The remaining radioactivity, 25%, was associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. By comparison, an average of 86% of the radioactivity from [3H] 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. The uptake of [3H]vitamin D3 from plasma, LDL, or HDL was studied in cultured human cells; uptake by normal fibroblasts was greatest from LDL and least from plasma. The cellular association of vitamin D3 was time, concentration, and temperature dependent. At a concentration of 50 μg LDL/ml of medium, the uptake of [3H]vitamin D3 from LDL at 370C was rapid and reached a maximum at approximately 4 hr; it was slower from HDL but continued to increase slowly up to 24 hr. The significance of these in vitro findings is uncertain since much of the vitamin D3 absorbed from the intestine reportedly associates with chylomicrons and is rapidly taken up by the liver

  3. Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu-Lu; Lu, Fang-Guo; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Xu, Hui-Lan; Luo, Bang-An

    2016-01-01

    There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through August 2015 with the following keywords: "vitamin D" or "cholecalciferol" or "25-hydroxyvitamin D" or "25(OH)D" in combination with "premature birth" or "preterm birth" or "PTB" or "preterm delivery" or "PTD" or "prematurity". Our meta-analysis of 10 studies included 10,098 participants and found that pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency (maternal serum 25 (OH) D levels ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of PTB (odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, 95% confidence intervals(CI): 1.16, 1.45) with low heterogeneity (I² = 25%, p = 0.21). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In the subgroup analyses, we found that heterogeneity was obvious in prospective cohort studies (I² = 60%, p = 0.06). In conclusion, pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have an increasing risk of PTB. PMID:27213444

  4. Vitamin D supplementation review and recommendations for women diagnosed with breast or ovary cancer in the context of bone health and cancer prognosis/risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Herranz, Ana; Salinas-Hernández, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D review and supplementation recommendations for women diagnosed with breast or ovary cancer have been defined in the context of bone health and cancer prognosis/risk taking as reference wider cancer patients and postmenopausal women. This specific group has been selected due to its higher osteoporosis risk versus postmenopausal women. Early vitamin D supplementation could help maintain bone health, as well as potentially enhance cancer survival rate. Factors considered for supplementation include daily dose, periodicity, chemical form, administration, and serum levels. Sufficient vitamin D serum levels are recommended to be above 30 ng/ml (75 nmol/l). Maintenance oral supplementation equivalent to a minimum daily dosage of 800-1000 IU (20-25 μg) cholecalciferol provided in a daily to monthly bases is preferred, also advised to start with higher dosages when vitamin D serum levels are ng/ml (25 nmol/l). Calcidiol supplementation is more effective, making it advantageous for cases with very low or difficult to raise vitamin D serum levels. PMID:26068240

  5. Optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels for multiple health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has harmful effects on health and that recent vitamin D intake recommendations may be associated with better health outcomes. In this chapter, evidence is summarized from different studies that evaluate threshold levels for serum 25(OH)D levels in relation to bone mineral density (BMD), lower extremity function, dental health, risk of falls, fractures, cancer prevention, incident hypertension and mortality. For all endpoints, levels in the deficient range (nmol/l; ng/ml) are associated with no benefit or adverse effects, while the most advantageous serum levels for 25(OH)D appeared to be close to 75 nmol/l (30 ng/ml). An intake of 800 IU (20 microg) of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) per day for all adults may bring 97% of the population to level of at least 50 nmol/l and about 50% up to 75 nmol/l. Thus, higher doses of vitamin D than currently recommended are needed to bring most individuals to75 nmol/l. While estimates suggest that 1600 to 2000 IU vitamin D3 per day may successfully and safely achieve this goal, the implications of higher doses for the total adult population need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25207384

  6. A study on the effects of a calcium drug on the bone mineral density (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of osteoporosis might contain errors caused by the calcium drug used in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. This study conducted a lumbar spine phantom experiment to examine whether a calcium drug can influence the measured values of the bone mineral density (BMD) because of the drug taken by a real patient remaining undigested in the stomach. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure the BMD for a calcium-drug in an equipment-dedicated lumbar spine phantom and 10 patients selected for the BMD measurement. Three types of drugs that are prescribed in actual clinical practice calcium drugs were used for the phantom experiment, and the drugs were divided into a fixed dose, 1/2 of the fixed dose, 1/4 of the fixed dose and 1/8 of the fixed dose. Without the drugs included, the phantom was scanned 60 times continuously to calculate the baseline BMD. The BMD was measured as the calcium drug coated with paraffin was placed in the lumbar vertebra 2 and the soft tissue region of the phantom. To determine when the drug was invisible to the naked eye are measured, the BMD at different drug dilutions. The measurements were conducted three times to calculate the mean. In the patient experiment, patients were selected who visited hospital after taking the drug before measuring the BMD. After a certain time had passed, the BMD was measured again to examine the difference in images and the change in BMD values due to the calcium-drug intake. The BMD measurements of lumbar 1-4 in the phantom were higher, with statistical significant, than the least significant change (LSC) in the bone region for all three drugs (Ca carbonate, Ca citrate and Ca cholecalciferol), showing a significant increase. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the soft tissue. When Ca Cholecalciferol was used in a fixed dose, the BMD of L2 increased by 11.6%, showing the largest increase among the drugs examined, but only a 2.8% increase in the BMD of L1

  7. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually.

  8. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  9. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  10. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  11. Hip fracture risk in relation to vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

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    Roddam Andrew W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D supplementation for fracture prevention is widespread despite conflicting interpretation of relevant randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence. This study summarises quantitatively the current evidence from RCTs and observational studies regarding vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH and hip fracture risk. Methods We undertook separate meta-analyses of RCTs examining vitamin D supplementation and hip fracture, and observational studies of serum vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD level, PTH and hip fracture. Results from RCTs were combined using the reported hazard ratios/relative risks (RR. Results from case-control studies were combined using the ratio of 25(OHD and PTH measurements of hip fracture cases compared with controls. Original published studies of vitamin D, PTH and hip fracture were identified through PubMed and Web of Science databases, searches of reference lists and forward citations of key papers. Results The seven eligible RCTs identified showed no significant difference in hip fracture risk in those randomised to cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol supplementation versus placebo/control (RR = 1.13[95%CI 0.98-1.29]; 801 cases, with no significant difference between trials of 21 (heterogeneity = 51.02, p 216 (heterogeneity = 137.9, p 29 (heterogeneity = 149.68, p Conclusions Neither higher nor lower dose vitamin D supplementation prevented hip fracture. Randomised and observational data on vitamin D and hip fracture appear to differ. The reason for this is unclear; one possible explanation is uncontrolled confounding in observational studies. Post-fracture PTH levels are unrelated to hip fracture risk.

  12. Vitamin D Metabolism and Effects on Pluripotency Genes and Cell Differentiation in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Martin Blomberg Jensen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas. Both tumors originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS cells, which are derived from transformed fetal gonocytes. CIS, seminoma, and the undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC retain an embryonic phenotype and express pluripotency factors (NANOG/OCT4. Vitamin D (VD is metabolized in the testes, and here, we examined VD metabolism in TGCT differentiation and pluripotency regulation. We established that the VD receptor (VDR and VD-metabolizing enzymes are expressed in human fetal germ cells, CIS, and invasive TGCTs. VD metabolism diminished markedly during the malignant transformation from CIS to EC but was reestablished in differentiated components of nonseminomas, distinguished by coexpression of mesodermal markers and loss of OCT4. Subsequent in vitro studies confirmed that 1,25(OH2D3 (active VD downregulated NANOG and OCT4 through genomic VDR activation in EC-derived NTera2 cells and, to a lesser extent, in seminoma-derived TCam-2 cells, and up-regulated brachyury, SNAI1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and fibroblast growth factor 23. To test for a possible therapeutic effect in vivo, NTera2 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated with 1,25(OH2D3, which induced down-regulation of pluripotency factors but caused no significant reduction of tumor growth. During NTera2 tumor formation, down-regulation of VDR was observed, resulting in limited responsiveness to cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH2D3 treatment in vivo. These novel findings show that VD metabolism is involved in the mesodermal transition during differentiation of cancer cells with embryonic stem cell characteristics, which points to a function for VD during early embryonic development and possibly in the pathogenesis of TGCTs.

  13. Most blood biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway show adequate preanalytical stability and within-person reproducibility to allow assessment of exposure or nutritional status in healthy women and cardiovascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midttun, Oivind; Townsend, Mary K; Nygård, Ottar; Tworoger, Shelley S; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ueland, Per Magne

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of stability during sample transportation and changes in biomarker concentrations within person over time are paramount for proper design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies based on a single measurement of biomarker status. Therefore, we investigated stability and intraindividual vs. interindividual variation in blood concentrations of biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway. Whole blood (EDTA and heparin, n = 12) was stored with an icepack for 24 or 48 h, and plasma concentrations of 38 biomarkers were determined. Stability was calculated as change per hour, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and simple Spearman correlation. Within-person reproducibility of biomarkers was expressed as ICC in samples collected 1-2 y apart from 40 postmenopausal women and in samples collected up to 3 y apart from 551 patients with stable angina pectoris. Biomarker stability was similar in EDTA and heparin blood. Most biomarkers were essentially stable, except for choline and total homocysteine (tHcy), which increased markedly. Within-person reproducibility in postmenopausal women was excellent (ICC > 0.75) for cotinine, all-trans retinol, cobalamin, riboflavin, α-tocopherol, Gly, pyridoxal, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and Ser; was good to fair (ICC of 0.74-0.40) for pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, tHcy, cholecalciferol, flavin mononucleotide, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, sarcosine, anthranilic acid, cystathionine, homoarginine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, betaine, Arg, folate, total cysteine, dimethylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, neopterin, symmetric dimethylarginine, and Trp; and poor (ICC of 0.39-0.15) for methionine sulfoxide, Met, choline, and trimethyllysine. Similar reproducibilities were observed in patients with coronary heart disease. Thus, most biomarkers investigated were essentially stable in cooled whole blood for up to 48 h and had a

  14. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

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    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  15. A clinical approach to the nutritional care process in protein-energy wasting hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Ruperto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malnutrition/wasting/cachexia are complex-disease conditions that frequently remain undiagnosed and/or untreated in up to 75% of prevalent hemodialysis (HD patients. The nutrition care process (NCP based on assessment, diagnosis, intervention and monitoring of nutritional status is a systematic method that nutrition professionals use to make decisions in clinical practice. Objective: This review examines from a clinical-nutritional practice point of view: a nutritional status as a mortality causative factor; b phenotypic characteristics of malnutri-tion/wasting/cachexia, and c current trends of NCP with special emphasis on nutritional support and novel nutrient and pharmacologic adjunctive therapies in HD patients. Method: A literature review was conducted using the Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, and Medline electronic scientific basis. Studies which assessing nutritional status and nutritional support published from 1990 to 2013 in HD patients were included and discussed. Results: From all the epidemiological data analyzed, NCP was the suggested method for identifying malnut rition/ wasting or cachexia in clinical practice. Nutrition support as an unimodal therapy was not completely able to reverse wasting in HD patients. Novel experimental therapeutic strategies including the use of appetite stimulants, ghrelin agonist, MC4-R antagonists, anabolic steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs, cholecalciferol, and other components are still under clinical evaluation. Conclusion: Nutritional status is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in HD patients. The terms called malnutrition, wasting and cachexia have different nutritional therapeutics implications. The NCP is a necessary tool for assessing and monitoring nutritional status in the current clinical practice. Novel pharmacological therapies or specific nutrient supplementation interventions studies are required.

  16. Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-Ageing Biomarkers after Diet Micronutrient Supplementation

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    Aneta Balcerczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35–55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day, ubiquinone (300 mg/day, astaxanthin (15 mg/day, lycopene (45 mg/day, lutein palmitate (30 mg/day, zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day, L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day, cholecalciferol (30 µg/day and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day. We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex.

  17. Association of protein intake with the change of lean mass among elderly women: The Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2015-01-01

    Low protein intake can lead to declined lean mass (LM) in elderly. We examined the associations of total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with LM. The association of TP intake with LM change was further evaluated according to weight change status. This cross-sectional and prospective cohort study included 554 women aged 68 (sd 1·9) years from the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). The intervention group (n 270) received daily cholecalciferol (800 IU; 20 μg) and Ca (1000 mg) for 3 years while the control group received neither supplementation nor placebo (n 282). Participants filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and a 3-d food record in 2002 and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements at baseline and 3 years. Multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between protein intake and LM, adjusting for relevant covariates. At the baseline TP and AP intakes were positively associated with LM and trunk LM, TP was associated also with appendicular LM (aLM). Follow-up results showed that in the total population and the intervention group, higher TP and AP were associated with increased LM and aLM (P ≤ 0·050). No such associations were observed in the control group. PP intake was also associated with aLM change in the total population. Overall, the associations were independent of fat mass. Further, among weight maintainers, TP intake was positively associated with LM, aLM and trunk LM changes (P ≤ 0·020). In conclusion, dietary TP, especially AP, intake may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia by preserving LM in the elderly.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity: interactions, implications, and recommendations

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    Peterson CA

    2015-02-01

    supplementation in attenuating the conditions associated with childhood obesity, and to further elucidate the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effects on health. Keywords: cholecalciferol, childhood overweight, hypovitaminosis D

  19. Cryofixation, ultracryomicrotomy, and X-ray microanalysis of enterocytes from chick duodenum: Vitamin-D-induced formation of an apical tubulovesicular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.L.; Hagler, H.K.; Jones, R.G.; Farmer, G.R.; Cooper, O.J.; Martin, J.H.; Bridges, G.E.; Goodman, D.B. (Baylor Univ. Medical Center, Dallas, TX (USA))

    1991-02-01

    New methods of tissue preparation were developed to study the morphology and distribution of calcium ions in duodenal enterocytes from normal, rachitic, and vitamin D-replete (either cholecalciferol (CC) or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-DHCC) treated) chicks. Frozen hydrated sections were prepared from cryofixed tissues by ultracryomicrotomy at -125 degrees C. Sections were subsequently freeze-dried by increasing the temperature to -100 degrees C. The latter temperature was maintained throughout both the structural and elemental analyses. In cells from normal, rachitic, and vitamin D-treated (CC) animals the brush border from lanthanum-infused tissues was electron dense and calcium-lanthanum positive by x-ray analysis. In the absence of lanthanum, i.e., sucrose-infused duodena, the microvilli were still calcium positive. In the terminal web region of normal and CC-treated enterocytes, numerous, apparently interconnected, tubules and vesicles were seen. Vacuole-like structures were also seen. Such structures were especially prominent in the enterocytes from the vitamin-treated (CC) animals. Except for the vacuoles, the tubules and vesicles were electron dense in the lanthanum-infused duodena, and clear in sucrose-infused tissues. In both instances, the structures were calcium positive. Similar, but even larger structures were seen below the terminal web. Here however, the tubules and vesicles seemed to be organized into multiple complex interconnecting networks, i.e., tubulo-vesicular complexes. Both the tubules and the vesicles seemed to be interconnected via smaller channel-like entities. The extensiveness of this structure was better appreciated in the enterocytes from lanthanum-infused tissues, where it appeared similar in structure and complexity to an en face view of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle.

  20. Refractory rickets due to Fanconi′s Syndrome secondary to Wilson′s disease

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    Chitra Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular disorders are an important cause of refractory rickets. Wilson′s disease, an inherited disorder of copper metabolism has varied presentations. We present a case of refractory rickets due to Fanconi′s syndrome attributable to Wilson′s disease. An adolescent girl presented with pain in the hip and knee joints and a knock-knee deformity since six years. She had received multiple doses of cholecalciferol with little improvement. There was no history of seizures, polyuria, jaundice, intake of drugs, or similar complaints in the family. Examination revealed a severely short stature with widening of the wrist joint and genu valgum. Examination of the central nervous system (CNS was normal. Skeletal radiographs showed features suggestive of rickets at the hip and knee joints. Routine biochemistry was normal, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was adequate (57.1 ng/dL, with normal corrected calcium (9.24 mg/dL, low phosphate (2.76 mg/dL, elevated bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and normal renal functions. Twenty-four-hour urine revealed phosphaturia, kaliuresis, and glucosuria with normal blood sugars and aminoaciduria. Blood gas analysis revealed normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with a urine pH of 7. Ammonium chloride (NH 4 CL challenge test revealed proximal tubular acidosis. A search for causes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings. The diagnosis of Wilson′s disease was confirmed by low serum ceruloplasmin levels (6.5 mg/dL; normal: 18-35 mg/dL with high 24-hour urine copper levels (433 mcg; normal: 20-50 mcg. She was started on a replacement of alkali, phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, with zinc acetate for Wilson′s disease. Rickets as a presenting feature of Wilson′s disease has been reported rarely. Recognition of this entity is important, as treatment of the primary condition may improve tubular function as well.

  1. Super pharmacological levels of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits mineral deposition and decreases cell proliferation in a strain dependent manner in chicken mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V.; Chousalkar, Kapil C.; Bhanugopan, Marie S.; Quinn, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D3, calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3), plays a key role in mineral homeostasis and bone formation and dietary vitamin D3 deficiency is a major cause of bone disorders in poultry. Supplementary dietary cholecalciferol (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH), the precursor of calcitriol, is commonly employed to combat this problem; however, dosage must be carefully determined as excess dietary vitamin D can cause toxicity resulting in a decrease in bone calcification, hypercalcinemia and renal failure. Despite much research on the therapeutic administration of dietary vitamin D in humans, the relative sensitivity of avian species to exogenous vitamin D has not been well defined. In order to determine the effects of exogenous 1,25-(OH)2D3 during avian osteogenesis, chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were exposed to varying doses of 1,25-(OH)2D3 during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and examined for markers of early proliferation and osteogenic induction. Similar to humans and other mammals, poultry BM-MSCs were found to be highly sensitive to exogenous 1,25-(OH)2D3 with super pharmacological levels exerting significant inhibition of mineralization and loss of cell proliferation in vitro. Strain related differences were apparent, with BM-MCSs derived from layers strains showing a higher level of sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)2D3 than those from broilers. These data suggest that understanding species and strain specific sensitivities to 1,25-(OH)2D3 is important for optimizing bone health in the poultry industry and that use of avian BM-MSCs are a useful tool for examining underlying effects of genetic variation in poultry. PMID:26500277

  2. Normalization of bone mineral density after five years of treatment with strontium ranelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Julio Ariel

    2015-01-01

    E.F., female, age 58, mother of 4 children and otherwise healthy, had gone into menopause when she was 42. She had received hormone replacement therapy during 8 years. Due to low bone mass she had been treated with oral alendronate during 7 years. She had a normal calcium intake in her diet and engaged in regular physical activity. She did not smoke, and drank alcohol only occasionally. Her mother had sustained a hip fracture at age 90. Bone densitometry of her lumbar spine by DXA showed a T-score of -3.0; standardized bone mineral density (sBMD) had decreased by 11% in the previous 3 years. She was advised to start treatment with strontium ranelate (SrR) 2 g/day, plus oral cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Three months later serum alkaline phosphatase had increased 10%, and serum osteocalcin was 18.9 ng/ml (upper normal limit 13.7). One year later her lumbar BMD had increased by 13.5%. After five years of treatment the BMD value was normal (1.357 g/cm(2); T-score -0.3). The case presented here is noteworthy for two reasons. Firstly, the patient maintained low bone mass after several years of combined treatment with alendronate and hormone replacement; this combination usually induces greater densitometric responses than either treatment given alone. Secondly, she responded promptly and significantly to SrR in spite of the previous long exposure to alendronate. SrR is widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis. It is an effective and safe drug, provided the patients are properly selected. As shown here, it can help some patients to achieve a normal BMD. PMID:26811705

  3. Determination of eight water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multi-vitamin pharmaceutical formulations by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, P; Salvadó, V

    2000-02-18

    In the present work, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure has been developed for the determination of water-soluble vitamins (thiamine hydrochloride, pyridoxine hydrochloride, nicotinamide, riboflavin phosphoric ester and cyanocobalamine) and fat-soluble vitamins (retinol palmitate, cholecalciferol, alpha-tocopherol acetate) in multi-vitamin pharmaceutical formulations. The sample treatment proposed consists of a solid-phase extraction with C18 AR cartridges that allow the separation of fat-soluble vitamins, which were retained on the sorbent, from water-soluble vitamins. Afterwards, the water-soluble vitamins were analysed by HPLC on a Nova-Pack C18 (150x3.9 mm, 4 microm) analytical column, using CH3OH-0.05 M CH3COONH4 as mobile phase. The chromatographic analysis of the fat-soluble vitamins was carried out after their sequential elution with methanol and chloroform from C18 sorbent, on the above column. The mobile phase employed was MeOH-CH2CN (95:5, v/v) working at a flow-rate of 2 ml min(-1) in isocratic mode. The solid-phase extraction for these vitamins had been previously optimised. The experimental variables studied were: application volume, elution solvents and cleaning solutions. The UV-Vis detection of vitamins was made at 270 nm for all the water-soluble vitamins (362 nm for B12) and 285 nm for the water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins present in real samples at different concentration levels. The accuracy of the method was tested obtaining an average recovery ranging between 78 and 116%. PMID:10722078

  4. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  5. Influence of supplemental vitamin D on intensity of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: A longitudinal clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Mahboobeh; Lotfi, Yones; Mousavi, Abdollah; Heidari, Behzad; Monadi, Mohsen; Bakhshi, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is linked to vitamin D deficiency. This clinical trial aimed to determine the influence of vitamin D supplementation on intensity of BPPV. Methods: The study population was selected consecutively and the diagnosis of BPPV was made by history and clinical examination and exclusion of other conditions. Intensity of BPVV was assessed based on VAS score (0-10). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was measured using ELISA method and levels < 20 ng/ml was considered a deficiency. All patients received rehabilitation treatment using Epley's maneuver one time per week for one month. Serum 25-OHD deficient patients were classified as treated and non-treated groups (rehabilitation with or without 50.000 IU cholecalciferol weekly for two months).The results of treatment were compared with vitamin D sufficient group as control. All patients were followed-up for 6 months. Results: After two months of treatment, in both vitamin D treated and non-treated groups the intensity of BPPV decreased significantly as compared with control (P=0.001 for both groups) but at endpoint, the intensity of BPPV aggravated and regressed to the baseline value in vitamin D deficient non-treated group (P=0.001) whereas, in vitamin D treated group, improvement of BPPV remained stable and unchanged over the study period. Conclusion: This study indicates that correction of vitamin D deficiency in BPPV provides additional benefit to rehabilitation therapy (Epley maneuver) regarding duration of improvement. These findings suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in recurrent BPPV. PMID:27386060

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of vitamin D3 hydroxylase, a novel cytochrome P450 isolated from Pseudonocardia autotrophica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of vitamin D3 hydroxylase isolated from P. autotrophica are reported. Vitamin D3 hydroxylase (Vdh) is a novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenase isolated from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia autotrophica and consisting of 403 amino-acid residues. Vdh catalyzes the activation of vitamin D3via sequential hydroxylation reactions: these reactions involve the conversion of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol or VD3) to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)VD3] and the subsequent conversion of 25(OH)VD3 to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [calciferol or 1α,25(OH)2VD3]. Overexpression of recombinant Vdh was carried out using a Rhodococcus erythropolis expression system and the protein was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The form I crystal belonged to the trigonal space group P31, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.7, c = 98.8 Å. There is one Vdh molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 47.6%. The form II crystal was grown in the presence of 25(OH)VD3 and belonged to the orthorhombic system P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 63.4, b = 65.6 c = 102.2 Å. There is one Vdh molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 46.7%. Native data sets were collected to resolutions of 1.75 and 3.05 Å for form I and form II crystals, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. The structure solution was obtained by the molecular-replacement method and model refinement is in progress for the form I crystal

  7. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review.

  8. Teriparatide Treatment Following Osteoporotic Hip Fracture in a Male Patient with Multiple Sclerosis and Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Başaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS who had been operated due to a low-energy subtrochanteric femoral fracture was admitted in order to plan anti-osteoporotic treatment and rehabilitation at post-operative first week. Although the patient had a history of glucocorticoid use, he had never received any preventative treatment for osteoporosis. T-scores detected by Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA method were -4.7, -4.9 and -3.3 at femoral neck, total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae, respectively. Since the patient had severe osteoporosis, teriparatide treatment was planned. Following vitamin D supplementation, teriparatide 20 mcg/day was started. After 6 months of treatment, patient improved significantly in terms of symptoms and DXA scores. T-scores of the femoral neck, total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae improved to -3.4, -3.9 and -3.0, respectively. When teriparatide therapy was continued up to 18 months, further increase in DXA values was observed (T-scores of femoral neck, total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae were -2.9, -2.4 and -2.2, respectively. No adverse event was seen during the treatment period. Following the cessation of teriparatide therapy, alendronate and cholecalciferol combination (70 mg/2800 IU was started. Bone health and vitamin D level are affected negatively in patients with MS due to multifactorial reasons. In order to avoid serious consequences such as hip fracture, awareness about osteoporosis should be increased and preventative strategies should be tailored from the early stages of the disease

  9. The role of vitamin D in reproductive health--a Trojan Horse or the Golden Fleece?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Filip A; Grzechocinska, Barbara; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D was in the spotlight in many fields of research. Despite numerous publications, its influence on reproductive health remains ambiguous. This paper presents an up-to-date review of current knowledge concerning the role of cholecalciferol in human reproduction. It covers various infertility issues, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, myoma-induced infertility, male infertility, premature ovary failure and in vitro fertilization techniques. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol of less than 50 nmol/L, is commonly noted more frequently than only in fertility clinic patients. It is a global trend that is observed in all age groups. The results of original publications dated up to 2015 have been summarized and discussed in a critical manner. Most experts agree that vitamin D supplementation is a necessity, particularly in women suffering from obesity, insulin resistance or small ovarian reserve, as well as in men with oligo- and asthenozoospermia if serum concentration should fall below 50 nmol/L (normal range up to 125 nmol/L). High concentration of vitamin D and its metabolites in decidua during the 1st trimester suggests its important role in the implantation process and a local immunological embryo-protection. On the other hand, evidence-based research did not prove a significant difference so far in ovulation stimulation or embryo development depending on vitamin D level. In one of the publications, it was also found that vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) has a molecular similarity to anti-sperm antibodies, and another one concluded that both low (125 nmol/L) concentration of vitamin D are associated with decreased number and quality of spermatozoa in semen. Vitamin D is definitely not a Trojan Horse in reproductive health, since there were no adverse effects reported for vitamin D intake of up to 10,000 IU/day, but to proclaim it the Golden Fleece, more evidence is needed. PMID

  10. Pro: Should we correct vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in chronic kidney disease patients with inactive forms of vitamin D or just treat them with active vitamin D forms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, David J A

    2016-05-01

    Evidence for the usefulness of using vitamin D to treat 'renal bone disease' is now nearly six decades old. In regular clinical practice, however, it is more like three decades, at most, that we have routinely been using vitamin D to try to prevent, or reverse, the impact of hyperparathyroidism on the skeleton of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The practice has been in the main to use high doses of synthetic vitamin D compounds, not naturally occurring ones. However, the pharmacological impacts of the different vitamin D species and of their different modes, and styles of administration cannot be assumed to be uniform across the spectrum. It is disappointingly true to say that even in 2016 there is a remarkable paucity of evidence concerning the clinical benefits of vitamin D supplementation to treat vitamin D insufficiency in patients with stage 3b-5 CKD. This is even more so if we consider the non-dialysis population. While there are a number of studies that report the impact of vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D concentrations (unsurprisingly, usually reporting an increase), and some variable evidence of parathyroid hormone concentration suppression, there has been much less focus on hard or semi-rigid clinical end point analysis (e.g. fractures, hospitalizations and overall mortality). Now, in 2016, with the practice pattern changes of first widespread clinical use of vitamin D and second widespread supplementation of cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol by patients (alone, or as multivitamins), it is now, in my view, next to impossible to run a placebo-controlled trial over a decent period of time, especially one which involved clinically meaningful (fractures, hospitalisation, parathyroidectomy, death) end-points. In this challenging situation, we need to ask what it is we are trying to achieve here, and how best to balance potential benefits with potential harm. PMID:27190390

  11. N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase as a marker of renal damage in hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M F; Beck, M M; Kachman, S D

    1996-12-01

    Urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) is an early physiological indicator of renal damage in several mammalian species. A study was conducted to confirm occurrence of NAG in hen urine, to establish baseline urinary NAG in laying hens, and to assess the feasibility of using the enzyme as a marker of renal damage in hens. Hy-Line hens were used in a completely randomized block design in the first part of the study. Urine was collected at 4 to 6, 6 to 10, 10 to 14, and 14 to 18 h, and serum at 4, 6, 10, and 14 h postoviposition, and assayed by spectrophotometry for NAG. Kidney tissue from additional hens was assayed histochemically for NAG. Serum NAG (range: 0.11 to 0.14 mU/mg protein) was found to be several orders of magnitude lower than urine NAG (6.44 to 12.27 mU/mg protein). Urine NAG increased from 4 to 6 h through 14 to 18 h, indicating that time of collection is critical in order to utilize the enzyme as a valid marker for laying hens. A preliminary study with five hens indicated that 10 d of treatment with liquid cholecalciferol (D3) supplement (three times the recommended level) were not enough to detect renal damage on the basis of significant changes in urine (NAG, but elevated urine NAG was detected at 40 d of D3-supplementation. Overall the results indicate that NAG in urine of laying hens is a potentially useful diagnostic marker of renal damage.

  12. Vitamins D and K as pleiotropic nutrients: clinical importance to the skeletal and cardiovascular systems and preliminary evidence for synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2010-09-01

    Vitamins D and K are lipid-phase nutrients that are pleiotropic - endowed with versatile homeostatic capacities at the organ, tissue, and cellular levels. Their metabolic and physiologic roles overlap considerably, as evidenced in the bone and cardiovascular systems. Vitamin D₃ (cholecalciferol, D₃) is the prehormone for the vitamin D endocrine system. Vitamin D₃ undergoes initial enzymatic conversion to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D, calcidiol), then to the seco-steroid hormone 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D, calcitriol). Beyond its endocrine roles in calcium homeostasis, 1,25D likely has autocrine, paracrine, and intracrine effects. At least 17 tissues likely synthesize 1,25D, and 35 carry the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Vitamin D functional deficiency is widespread in human populations. Vitamin K₁ (phylloquinone) is more abundant in foods but less bioactive than the vitamin K₂ menaquinones (especially MK-4, menatetrenone). Menadione (vitamin K₃) has minimal K activity. Vitamin K compounds undergo oxidation-reduction cycling within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, donating electrons to activate specific proteins via enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of glutamate groups before being enzymatically re-reduced. Warfarin inhibits this vitamin K reduction, necessitating K supplementation during anticoagulation therapy. Along with coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X, and prothrombin), protein C and protein S, osteocalcin (OC), matrix Gla protein (MGP), periostin, Gas6, and other vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins support calcium homeostasis, facilitate bone mineralization, inhibit vessel wall calcification, support endothelial integrity, are involved in cell growth control and tissue renewal, and have numerous other effects. This review updates vitamin D and K skeletal and cardiovascular benefits and evidence for their synergy of action. PMID:21155624

  13. Correction of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients - VITdAL@ICU study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrein Karin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality in the general population and in critically ill patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has evaluated so far whether treatment with sufficiently large doses of vitamin D can improve clinical outcome of patients in an intensive care setting. Methods/design The VITdAL@ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. This study compares high-dose oral cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 versus placebo treatment in a mixed population of 480 critically ill patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels at study enrollment (≤ 20ng/ml. Following an initial loading dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3, patients receive 90,000 IU of vitamin D3 on a monthly basis for 5 months. The study is designed to compare clinical outcome in the two study arms with the primary endpoint being length of hospital stay. Secondary endpoints include among others length of ICU stay, the percentage of patients with 25(OHD levels > 30 ng/ml at day 7, ICU and hospital mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. We describe here the VITdAL@ICU study protocol for the primary report. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 is able to improve morbidity and mortality in a mixed population of adult critically ill patients and correct vitamin D deficiency safely. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01130181

  14. Efficacy of High-Dose Supplementation With Oral Vitamin D3 on Depressive Symptoms in Dialysis Patients With Vitamin D3 Insufficiency: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Lian, Yueying; Li, Ning; Liu, Hong; Li, Guanzeng

    2016-06-01

    Psychological problems are common among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis. We aim to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation has beneficial effects on depressive symptoms in dialysis patients. This prospective, randomized, and double-blind trial includes 746 dialysis patients with depression treated in 3 hospitals in Southeast China. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to 52-week treatment of oral 50,000 IU/wk VD3 (cholecalciferol) (test group) or a placebo (control group). The presence of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II both before and after treatment. Sociodemographic data, clinical data, nutritional indexes, inflammatory biomarkers, and plasma VD3 concentrations were also determined. Finally, 726 patients completed the experiments, including 362 tested patients and 364 controls. After 52 weeks, the depressive symptoms were not significantly improved in the test group (mean BDI II scores changed from -1.1 ± 0.3 to -3.1 ± 0.6) versus the control group. Multivariable logistic regression showed BDI scores were not significantly improved in the test group versus the control group with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity index, dialysis modality, or (OH)D levels (multivariable-adjusted mean change or MAMC [95% confidence interval (CI)], -2.3 [-2.48 to -1.83]) in the whole dialysis population. After stratification by depression types, the findings do support a significant relationship between the VD3 supplementation and the improvement in BDI II scores in dialysis patients with vascular depression (MAMC [95% CI], -4.4 [-5.08 to -2.76]), but the effect was not significant for major depressive disorders (MAMC [95% CI], -0.9 [-1.52 to -0.63]). The high-dose VD3 supplementation did not significantly reduce the depressive symptoms in our total dialysis population, but

  15. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  16. Vitamin D in Real and Simulated Weightlessness: Implications for Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has reemerged as a public health concern in the United States. It is also a concern for astronauts because spacecraft are shielded from ultraviolet light, leaving diet as the sole source of vitamin D. We report here the findings from four studies: one evaluation of astronauts before and after 4- to 6-month missions to the International Space Station, and the other three from a ground-based analog for space flight, long-term bed rest. For the space flight study, blood samples were collected before the flight and within hours of landing after it. Crewmembers (n = 11) were provided vitamin D supplements (as cholecalciferol (10 g/d) throughout the mission. The average number of vitamin D supplements reported to be consumed per week was 5.7 plus or minus 4.0. The vitamin D status indicator serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was 25% less after landing (48 plus or minus 20) than before flight (63 plus or minus 16) (P less than 0.01). A series of three studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 deg. head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. During bed rest the average dietary intake of vitamin D for the three studies was 4.84 plus or minus 0.16 (study 1), 6.24 plus or minus 0.81 (study 2), and 7.16 plus or minus 1.40 (study 3) micrograms/day. In study 1 only, subjects were given a daily supplement of 10 g vitamin D (as ergocalciferol). Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. In the first study, 7 days after the end of the bed rest, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was 30% less than it was before bed rest (p less than 0.05). In the second and third studies, during or after bed rest the serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was not significantly different from its concentration before bed rest. These data demonstrate that vitamin D intake is

  17. Trials and tribulations of recruiting 2,000 older women onto a clinical trial investigating falls and fractures: Vital D study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Roderick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide evidence demonstrating safe, effective interventions that reduce falls and fractures in the elderly. The quality of a clinical trial is dependent on successful recruitment of the target participant group. This paper documents the successes and failures of recruiting over 2,000 women aged at least 70 years and at higher risk of falls or fractures onto a placebo-controlled trial of six years duration. The characteristics of study participants at baseline are also described for this study. Methods The Vital D Study recruited older women identified at high risk of fracture through the use of an eligibility algorithm, adapted from identified risk factors for hip fracture. Participants were randomised to orally receive either 500,000 IU vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol or placebo every autumn for five consecutive years. A variety of recruitment strategies were employed to attract potential participants. Results Of the 2,317 participants randomised onto the study, 74% (n = 1716/2317 were consented onto the study in the last five months of recruiting. This was largely due to the success of a targeted mail-out. Prior to this only 541 women were consented in the 18 months of recruiting. A total of 70% of all participants were recruited as a result of targeted mail-out. The response rate from the letters increased from 2 to 7% following revision of the material by a public relations company. Participant demographic or risk factor profile did not differ between those recruited by targeted mail-outs compared with other methods. Conclusion The most successful recruitment strategy was the targeted mail-out and the response rate was no higher in the local region where the study had extensive exposure through other recruiting strategies. The strategies that were labour-intensive and did not result in successful recruitment include the activities directed towards the GP medical centres

  18. Vitamin D status in children with systemic lupus erythematosus and its association with clinical and laboratory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaleem, Alhanouf; AlE'ed, Ashwaq; AlSaghier, Afaf; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M

    2015-01-01

    To assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) status in Saudi children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and determined its association with clinical, laboratory variables and disease activity. This cross-sectional study comprised children with SLE who are followed at Pediatric Lupus Clinic. All patients reviewed for demographic data, age of first disease manifestations, and disease duration. All included patients evaluated for disease activity, which is completed by using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and laboratory parameters included a vitamin D profile, bone markers at enrollment and 3 months later. All patients treated with Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 2000 IU daily) and calcium supplement (Caltrate 600 mg twice daily). Twenty-eight patients (26 female) with mean age of 9.7 years completed the evaluation. Fifteen patients had more than one major organ involvement. Most of the patients are on daily vitamin D3 supplement (800 IU) prior enrollment. The baseline assessment revealed 24 patients had low levels of serum 25-OH vitamin D levels, with a mean of 51.1 ± 33.6 nmol/L; 25 patients had high autoantibodies; and 18 patients had high protein/creatinine ratio, with a mean of 0.9 ± 1.7. Bone density was subnormal with a mean of 0.9 ± 1. The mean disease activity was 6 ± 5.6. Levels of 25-OH vitamin D correlated inversely with autoantibodies and SLEDAI and positively with bone density but not statistically significant. After 3 months, treatment of vitamin D3 (2000 IU daily) and Caltrate (600 mg twice daily), 17 patients had improvement in SLEDAI score and autoimmune markers. Disease activity of childhood SLE is probably linked with low serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Accordingly, high daily vitamin D3 supplement could potentially impact disease activity of childhood SLE. Further follow up and more patients needed to confirm this finding.

  19. Ingestão alimentar em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal Food intake in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

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    Alice Freitas da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal podem apresentar deficiências nutricionais. OBJETIVO: Verificar a adequação da ingestão alimentar de pacientes com doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa inespecífica. MÉTODOS: Para avaliação da ingestão alimentar de 55 pacientes, 28 com doença de Crohn e 27 com retocolite ulcerativa atendidos em ambulatório de gastroenterologia, utilizou-se o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 Horas e o Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. A atividade inflamatória da doença foi avaliada pelos níveis séricos de proteína C reativa e o Índice de Harvey e Bradshaw. Para comparação de médias foi usado o teste t não pareado e, para as médias não paramétricas, o teste de Mann-Whitney, considerando nível de significância valor de pBACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease may have nutritional deficiencies. AIM: To verify the adequacy of dietary intake of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: To assess food intake of 55 patients, 28 with Crohn's disease and 27 with ulcerative colitis treated in the gastroenterology clinic, was used the 24-Hour Food Recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire. The inflammatory activity of the disease was evaluated by serum C-reactive protein and Harvey and Bradshaw Index. For comparison of means t test was used, and the average on non-parametric, the Mann-Whitney test, with level of significance p <0.05. RESULTS: The patients were aged between 19 and 63 years and time since diagnosis was 7.9 years (1 to 22. According to the food intake was identified deficiency in energy intake, fiber, iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, menadione, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, tocopherol and cholecalciferol in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, active or in remission. The intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products and beans were low, and intake of fats and sweets was higher than the recommendations

  20. ¿Es equivalente la suplementación diaria con vitamina D2 o vitamina D3 en adultos mayores? Is daily supplementation with vitamin D2 equivalent to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 in the elderly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Seijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la equivalencia entre colecalciferol (D3 y ergocalciferol (D2, como las dosis y forma de administración de ambos, son actualmente un tema controvertido. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la efectividad de 800 UI/día de D2 (gotas y D3 (comprimidos para alcanzar niveles adecuados de 25 hidroxivitamina D (25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. Veintiún mujeres posmenopáusicas que vivían en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, edad promedio ( ± DS 77.1 ± 6.8 años fueron incluidas y asignadas en forma aleatoria a uno de los siguientes grupos: GD2 (n = 13: 800 UI (gotas y GD3 (n = 8: 800 UI (comprimidos. Se midió 25OHD sérica (RIA-DIASORIN basal y a los 7, 28 y 45 días del estudio. Basalmente, 19 de las 21 mujeres presentaron niveles de deficiencia de 25(OHD (The equivalence of cholecalciferol (D3 and ergocalciferol (D2 as well as their corresponding doses and administration route remain controversial to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily supplementation with 800 IU of D2 (drops and D3 (pills on 25-hydroxivitamin D (25OHD levels (= 30 ng/ml. Twenty-one ambulatory postmenopausal women from Buenos Aires City with a mean ( ± SD age of 77.1 ± 6.8 years were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: GD2 (n = 13: 800 IU (drops and GD3 (n = 8: 800 IU (pills. Serum 25OHD levels were measured (RIA-DIASORIN at baseline, and at 7, 28 and 45 days. Nineteen out of twenty one women showed deficient levels of 25OHD at baseline (< 20 ng/ml: GD2: 14.0 ± 4.8 ng/ml and GD3: 13.2 ± 4.9 ng/ml (NS. Whereas only GD3 exhibited an increase (~25% at 7 days, both groups showed a significant increase at the end of the study. However, neither attained adequate 25OHD levels (GD2: 17.4 ± 5.5 vs. GD3:22.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml; p < 0.001. Administration of 800 IU of vitamin D3 during 45 days was more effective than D2 in increasing 25OHD, but both failed to achieve adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. but neither

  1. [Vitamin D, determinant of bone and extrabone health. Importance of vitamin D supplementation in milk and dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is obtained mainly from ultraviolet irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to form cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and minimally from diet, unless vitamin D fortified food is taken, mainly enriched milk. In some countries, vitamin D is added to diet as ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). In the liver, vitamin D3 is hydroxylated to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (marker of body nutritional status of vitamin D). Subsequently, in the kidney, 25OHD3 is hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). By VDR stimulation, (1,25)OH)2D3 controls calcium homeostasis and bone health and, what is more, many other cells and tissues including skin, muscle, cardiovascular and immune systems as well as glucose homeostasis. Thus, about 3% of the human genome is regulated by this hormone. Association and recent intervention studies describe beneficial effects on bone, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2,colorectal cancer, breast cancer, multiple sclerosis, immune function inflammation etc. A minimum target for public health should be to achieve serum 25OHD levels above 20 ng/ml to ensure optimum status for bone health. However, levels above 30 ng/ml should be reached to achieve other health goals. Paradoxically, inadequacy (or even deficiency) in vitamin D levels is highly prevalent in children and youth in Spain. This deficit persists in adults, as well as in postmenopausal women (osteoporotic or not) and the elderly (especially amongst those institutionalized). Seasonal variation barely normalizes serum 25OHD levels after summer-autumn. Treated postmenopausal osteoporotic women also show high prevalence of inadequate levels of vitamin D, a major contributor to antiresortive treatments failure. A normalization of serum vitamin D enables diet to provide the calcium necessary to achieve a good bone health and an adequate response to antiresortive drugs. Given the difficulty to get adequate levels of vitamin D by UV irradiation and diet, a

  2. Vitamin D₃supplementation in Batswana children and adults with HIV: a pilot double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Steenhoff

    Full Text Available Since vitamin D insufficiency is common worldwide in people with HIV, we explored safety and efficacy of high dose cholecalciferol (D₃ in Botswana, and evaluated potential modifiers of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D change (Δ25D.Prospective randomized double-blind 12-week pilot trial of subjects ages 5.0-50.9 years.Sixty subjects randomized within five age groups to either 4000 or 7000 IU per day of D₃ and evaluated for vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, HIV, safety and growth status. Efficacy was defined as serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25D ≥32 ng/mL, and safety as no simultaneous elevation of serum calcium and 25D. Also assessed were HIV plasma viral RNA viral load (VL, CD4%, anti-retroviral therapy (ART regime, and height-adjusted (HAZ, weight-adjusted (WAZ and Body Mass Index (BMIZ Z scores.Subjects were 50% male, age (mean±SD 19.5±11.8 years, CD4% 31.8±10.4, with baseline VL log₁₀ range of 1.4 in 22%. From baseline to 12 weeks, 25D increased from 36±9 ng/ml to 56±18 ng/ml (p<0.0001 and 68% and 90% had 25D ≥32 ng/ml, respectively (p = 0.02. Δ25D was similar by dose. No subjects had simultaneously increased serum calcium and 25D. WAZ and BMIZ improved by 12 weeks (p<0.04. HAZ and CD4% increased and VL decreased in the 7000 IU/d group (p<0.04. Younger (5-13y and older (30-50y subjects had greater Δ25D than those 14-29y (26±17 and 28±12 vs. 11±11 ng/ml, respectively, p≤0.001. Δ25D was higher with efavirenz or nevirapine compared to protease inhibitor based treatment (22±12, 27±17, vs. 13±10, respectively, p≤0.03.In a pilot study in Botswana, 12-week high dose D₃ supplementation was safe and improved vitamin D, growth and HIV status; age and ART regimen were significant effect modifiers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189902.

  3. Vitamin D₃ Supplementation in Batswana Children and Adults with HIV: A Pilot Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Schall, Joan I.; Samuel, Julia; Seme, Boitshepo; Marape, Marape; Ratshaa, Bakgaki; Goercke, Irene; Tolle, Michael; Nnyepi, Maria S.; Mazhani, Loeto; Zemel, Babette S.; Rutstein, Richard M.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Since vitamin D insufficiency is common worldwide in people with HIV, we explored safety and efficacy of high dose cholecalciferol (D₃) in Botswana, and evaluated potential modifiers of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D change (Δ25D). Design Prospective randomized double-blind 12-week pilot trial of subjects ages 5.0–50.9 years. Methods Sixty subjects randomized within five age groups to either 4000 or 7000IU per day of D₃ and evaluated for vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, HIV, safety and growth status. Efficacy was defined as serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25D) ≥32ng/mL, and safety as no simultaneous elevation of serum calcium and 25D. Also assessed were HIV plasma viral RNA viral load (VL), CD4%, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regime, and height-adjusted (HAZ), weight-adjusted (WAZ) and Body Mass Index (BMIZ) Z scores. Results Subjects were 50% male, age (mean±SD) 19.5±11.8 years, CD4% 31.8±10.4, with baseline VL log₁₀ range of 1.4) in 22%. From baseline to 12 weeks, 25D increased from 36±9ng/ml to 56±18ng/ml (p<0.0001) and 68% and 90% had 25D ≥32ng/ml, respectively (p = 0.02). Δ25D was similar by dose. No subjects had simultaneously increased serum calcium and 25D. WAZ and BMIZ improved by 12 weeks (p<0.04). HAZ and CD4% increased and VL decreased in the 7000IU/d group (p<0.04). Younger (5–13y) and older (30–50y) subjects had greater Δ25D than those 14–29y (26±17 and 28±12 vs. 11±11ng/ml, respectively, p≤0.001). Δ25D was higher with efavirenz or nevirapine compared to protease inhibitor based treatment (22±12, 27±17, vs. 13±10, respectively, p≤0.03). Conclusions In a pilot study in Botswana, 12-week high dose D₃ supplementation was safe and improved vitamin D, growth and HIV status; age and ART regimen were significant effect modifiers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189902 PMID:25706751

  4. Distribution and characterization of Heterobilharzia americana in dogs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J Y; Lewis, B C; Snowden, K F

    2014-06-16

    were fibrosis, pigment in macrophages, and organ mineralization. Glomerulonephritis was identified in four cases. Of 20 necropsy cases where death was attributable to H. americana infection, only one case was diagnosed ante mortem. Eleven of these dogs were examined by a veterinarian but H. americana was included as a differential diagnosis in only two cases. Reported differential diagnoses included ethylene glycol toxicity, cholecalciferol toxicity, lymphoma, and pancreatitis. These data indicate that this parasite is more widely distributed and more common than is generally recognized. Increased awareness may aid in more diagnoses and timely therapy. PMID:24746236

  5. Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis (EVIDIMS Trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörr Jan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in young adults. Despite the fact that numerous lines of evidence link both the risk of disease development and the disease course to the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D it still remains elusive whether multiple sclerosis patients benefit from boosting the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mainly because interventional clinical trials that directly address the therapeutic effects of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis are sparse. We here present the protocol of an interventional clinical phase II study to test the hypothesis, that high-dose vitamin D supplementation of multiple sclerosis patients is safe and superior to low-dose supplementation with respect to beneficial therapeutic effects. Methods/Design The EVIDIMS trial is a German multi-center, stratified, randomized, controlled and double-blind clinical phase II pilot study. Eighty patients with the diagnosis of definite multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome who are on a stable immunomodulatory treatment with interferon-β1b will be randomized to additionally receive either high-dose (average daily dose 10.200 IU or low-dose (average daily dose 200 IU cholecalciferol for a total period of 18 months. The primary outcome measure is the number of new lesions detected on T2-weighted cranial MRI at 3 tesla. Secondary endpoints include additional magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography parameters for neuroinflammation and -degeneration, clinical parameters for disease activity, as well as cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Safety and tolerability of high-dose vitamin D supplementation are further outcome parameters. Discussion In light of the discrepancy between existing epidemiological and preclinical data on the one hand and available clinical data on the other the EVIDIMS trial will substantially contribute to the evaluation

  6. The Role of Vitamin D in Reproductive Health—A Trojan Horse or the Golden Fleece?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. Dabrowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, vitamin D was in the spotlight in many fields of research. Despite numerous publications, its influence on reproductive health remains ambiguous. This paper presents an up-to-date review of current knowledge concerning the role of cholecalciferol in human reproduction. It covers various infertility issues, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, myoma-induced infertility, male infertility, premature ovary failure and in vitro fertilization techniques. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol of less than 50 nmol/L, is commonly noted more frequently than only in fertility clinic patients. It is a global trend that is observed in all age groups. The results of original publications dated up to 2015 have been summarized and discussed in a critical manner. Most experts agree that vitamin D supplementation is a necessity, particularly in women suffering from obesity, insulin resistance or small ovarian reserve, as well as in men with oligo- and asthenozoospermia if serum concentration should fall below 50 nmol/L (normal range up to 125 nmol/L. High concentration of vitamin D and its metabolites in decidua during the 1st trimester suggests its important role in the implantation process and a local immunological embryo-protection. On the other hand, evidence-based research did not prove a significant difference so far in ovulation stimulation or embryo development depending on vitamin D level. In one of the publications, it was also found that vitamin D binding protein (VDBP has a molecular similarity to anti-sperm antibodies, and another one concluded that both low (<50 nmol/L and high (>125 nmol/L concentration of vitamin D are associated with decreased number and quality of spermatozoa in semen. Vitamin D is definitely not a Trojan Horse in reproductive health, since there were no adverse effects reported for vitamin D intake of up to 10,000 IU/day, but to proclaim it the Golden

  7. Chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by 1α-hydroxyvitamin D5, a synthetic analog of Vitamin D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous analogs of Vitamin D have been synthesized in recent years with the hope of generating a compound that retains the anticarcinogenic activity of Vitamin D without causing any toxicity. We synthesized such an analog, 1α-hydroxy-24-ethylcholecalciferol [1α-hydroxyvitamin D5 or 1α(OH)D5], and showed that it was tolerated by rats and mice at a much higher dose than 1α,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol [1α,25(OH)2D3]. This property makes it a prime candidate for chemoprevention studies. In the mouse mammary gland organ culture (MMOC), 1α(OH)D5 inhibited carcinogen-induced development of both mammary alveolar and ductal lesions. In vivo carcinogenesis study showed statistically significant reduction of tumor incidence and multiplicity in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-treated rats that were fed 25-50 μg 1α(OH)D5/kg diet. There were no adverse effects on plasma calcium concentrations. In order to determine if the effect of 1α(OH)D5 would be selective in suppressing proliferation of transformed cells, its effects on cell growth and proliferation were compared between BT474 (cancer) and MCF12F (non-tumorigenic) human breast epithelial cells. Results showed that 1α(OH)D5 induced apoptosis and cell cycle G1 phase arrest in BT474 breast cancer cells without having any effects on proliferation of the MCF12F cells. In addition, in MMOC it had no growth inhibitory effects on normal epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of carcinogen. Similarly, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells in explant culture did not respond to 1α(OH)D5, whereas treatment with 1α(OH)D5 induced cell death in the explants of cancer tissue. These results collectively indicate that 1α(OH)D5 selectively induced apoptosis only in transformed cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory effects of 1α(OH)D5 were observed in Vitamin D receptor positive (VDR+) breast cancer cells, but not in highly metastatic VDR- breast cancer cells, such as

  8. The Vitamine D3 Analogue (1α Hydroxyvitamin D3) Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1α position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 compound

  9. Vitaminas D e C para poedeiras na fase inicial de produção de ovos Vitamins D and C for laying hens at the initial phase of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniely Salvador

    2009-05-01

    quality, and bone strength characteristics. In addition, the total and ionic blood calcium concentrations, bone ash and calcium were determined. Two hundred and eighty eight 23-week-old ISA Babcock B-300® laying hens were used during the 12-week study in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: vitamin D sources (cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol - 25(OHD3 and vitamin C levels (0, 100 and 200 ppm resulting in six treatments with eight replicates of six hens each. The basal cholecalciferol level was 2,756 IU/kg, corresponding to 5.51 g Hy.D®/t, as source of 25(OHD3. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass were not influenced by the treatments. An interaction was observed for feed conversion, which was improved when 25(OHD3 was added without vitamin C. Haugh unit and yolk index were not influenced, however, interactions were observed for albumen percent and yolk percent, which were improved when 200 ppm of vitamin C was supplemented. Egg specific gravity, serum calcium, bone ash and bone strength resistance were not influenced by the treatments. There was an interaction for shell percent and shell thickness, which were improved when vitamin C was added in association with 25(OHD3. It was concluded, for laying hens at initial phase of egg production, that feed conversion is improved when 25(OHD3 was the vitamin D source, and that shell thickness and shell percent are improved when the vitamin D source was 25(OHD3 with diets supplemented with vitamin C (100 or 200 ppm, respectively.

  10. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-05-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  11. Cambios en la viscosidad del agua con espesantes por la adición de fármacos altamente prescritos en geriatría Viscosity changes in thickened water due to the addition of highly prescribed drugs in geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Garin

    2012-08-01

    pneumonia due to bronchial aspiration. In this condition, it is usual to add commercial thickeners in liquids, as well as the addition of drugs in this mixture to improve their administration. However, there are no studies regarding the possible change in viscosity produced by their addition. Objectives: To assess the change in viscosity of water thickened with commercial products by adding the drugs frequently used in elderly patients. Methods: Samples of water mixed with the commercial thickener Resource® (modified corn starch or Nutilis® (modified corn starch, maltodextrin, and gums: tara, xhantan, and guar to achieve an intermediate consistence as "honey". The viscosity of these samples was measured as well as for similar samples to which one of the following drugs was added: galantamine, rivastigmin, ciprofloxacin, cholecalciferol, memantine, fosfomycin, calcium, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Results: In the samples with Resource® thickener we observed decreased viscosity by adding galantamine, memantine, fosfomycin or calcium, and increased viscosity with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The viscosity of the samples with Nutilis® decreased with galantamine, rivastigmine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and calcium. Conclusion: The viscosity of water with commercial thickeners may be affected by some drugs or their preservatives, which may influence the swallowing capability. It is recommended to perform further in vitro and in vivo studies in order to adjust these formulations if necessary.

  12. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  13. Vitamin D metabolites and/or analogs: which D for which patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferro, S; Goldsmith, D; Larsson, T E; Massy, Z A; Cozzolino, M

    2014-03-01

    Numerous drugs with vitamin D activity are available for clinical use and it may not be easy for the nonspecialist to select the most suitable for the individual patient. In this paper we review the main characteristics of the available drugs and provide evidence about any potential specific clinical indications, with special emphasis on renal patients, in order to facilitate the optimal choice. Natural vitamin D products (i.e. those identical to natural metabolites) are first examined, followed by the most frequently used synthetic molecules (i.e. bioengineered molecules not-existing in nature), which are generally indicated as " analogs". Either cholecalciferol, ergocalciferol or calcifediol can be employed in subjects with normal renal function and in CKD stage 3-5 patients to correct vitamin D deficiency and improve, respectively, age- or growth-related bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcifediol can be considered more rapid and effective. In all cases, especially with increasing doses, the risk of hypercalcemia must be taken into account. Calcitriol, which can be regarded as the active hormonal form of vitamin D, has the most potent hypercalcemic effect in both normal and renal failure patients. In renal patients calcitriol is a potent inhibitor of parathyroid activity, but the risk of hypercalcemia, now regarded as harmful, is evident whenever pharmacologic doses are used. Alfacalcidol, requiring 25-hydroxylation to become the active hormonal form of vitamin D3, is prescribed in normal subjects to treat osteoporosis and in renal patients to cure hyperparathyroidism and renal bone disease. Doxercalciferol, transformed into the active hormonal form of vitamin D2 following 25-hydroxylation, is mostly studied in renal patients in whom it cures secondary hyperparathyroidism, possibly with a lower calcemic effect than calcitriol. Paricalcitol, a vitamin D2 analog not requiring activation, has been specifically developed to suppress PTH in renal

  14. 肉鸡日粮中25-羟基维生素D3与维生素D3生物学效价比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿红侠; 王建国; 陈冠华; 张金龙; 韩进诚; 张进良; 席丽; 闫永峰

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the relative bioavailability(RBV)of 25-hydroxycholecalcifer-ol(25-OH-D3)to cholecalciferol (VD3)for broilers from 1 to 42 days of age.On the day of hatch,300 female Ross 308 broilers were allotted to 6 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 each.The basal diet contained 0.50% calcium (Ca),0.25%non-phytate phosphorus (NPP),and was not supplemented with VD3.VD3 adding level was 5.0,10.0,20.0 μg/kg and 25-OH-D3 adding level was 2.5,5.0,10.0 μg/kg.The results showed that using body weight gain (BWG)as the criteria,the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to VD3 was 1.78.Using tibia breaking-strength,weight and ash weight as the criteria,the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to VD3 were 2.09,1.82 and 1.73.Using femur weight,length and ash weight as the criteria,the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to VD3 were 1.80,1.65 and 1.81.These data indicated that 25-OH-D3 was approximately 1.81 times as active as vitamin D3 for promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age.%为比较肉鸡日粮中25-羟基维生素D3(25-OH-D3)与维生素D3相对生物学效价,选用1日龄罗斯308肉鸡母雏300只,随机分为6个处理组,每处理5个重复,每重复10只。设计6种日粮,在含0.50%Ca、0.25%非植酸磷(NPP),无维生素D3的玉米-豆粕型基础日粮中分别添加3个水平25-OH-D3(2.5、5.0、10.0μg/kg)和3个水平维生素D3(5.0、10.0、20.0μg/kg)。结果显示:(1)以1~42日龄肉鸡体增重评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价是维生素D3的1.78倍;(2)以42日龄肉鸡胫骨强度、重量和灰分重量评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价分别是维生素D3的2.09、1.82和1.73倍;(3)以42日龄肉鸡股骨重量、长度和灰分重量评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价分别是维生素D3的1.80、1.65和1.81倍。综合分析,在1~42日龄肉鸡日粮中,以生长性能和骨骼矿化指标评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价约为维生素D3的1.81倍。