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Sample records for cholecalciferol

  1. Bread fortified with cholecalciferol increases the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in women as effectively as a cholecalciferol supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natri, A. M.; Salo, P.; Vikstedt, T.

    2006-01-01

    of the added cholecalciferol, the dispersion of cholecalciferol in bread, and the bioavailability of cholecalciferol from fortified bread. Three batches of fortified low-fiber wheat and high-fiber rye breads were baked; from each batch, 3 samples of dough and bread were analyzed for their cholecalciferol......Fortification of foods is a feasible way of preventing low vitamin D status. Bread could be a suitable vehicle for fortification because it is a common part of diets worldwide. The bioavailability of cholecalciferol from bread is not known. We studied cholecalciferol stability, the concentration...... content. In a single-blind bioavailability study, 41 healthy women, 25-45 y old, with mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration 29 nmol/L (range 12-45 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to 4 study groups. Each group consumed fortified wheat bread, fortified rye bread, regular wheat bread (control...

  2. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) improves myelination and recovery after nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabas, Jean-Francois; Stephan, Delphine; Marqueste, Tanguy; Garcia, Stephane; Lavaut, Marie-Noelle; Nguyen, Catherine; Legre, Regis; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Decherchi, Patrick; Feron, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated i) that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) increases axon diameter and potentiates nerve regeneration in a rat model of transected peripheral nerve and ii) that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) improves breathing and hyper-reflexia in a rat model of paraplegia. However, before bringing this molecule to the clinic, it was of prime importance i) to assess which form - ergocalciferol versus cholecalciferol - and which dose were the most efficient and ii) to identify the molecular pathways activated by this pleiotropic molecule. The rat left peroneal nerve was cut out on a length of 10 mm and autografted in an inverted position. Animals were treated with either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, at the dose of 100 or 500 IU/kg/day, or excipient (Vehicle), and compared to unlesioned rats (Control). Functional recovery of hindlimb was measured weekly, during 12 weeks, using the peroneal functional index. Ventilatory, motor and sensitive responses of the regenerated axons were recorded and histological analysis was performed. In parallel, to identify the genes regulated by vitamin D in dorsal root ganglia and/or Schwann cells, we performed an in vitro transcriptome study. We observed that cholecalciferol is more efficient than ergocalciferol and, when delivered at a high dose (500 IU/kg/day), cholecalciferol induces a significant locomotor and electrophysiological recovery. We also demonstrated that cholecalciferol increases i) the number of preserved or newly formed axons in the proximal end, ii) the mean axon diameter in the distal end, and iii) neurite myelination in both distal and proximal ends. Finally, we found a modified expression of several genes involved in axogenesis and myelination, after 24 hours of vitamin supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin D acts on myelination via the activation of several myelin-associated genes. It paves the way for future randomised controlled clinical trials for peripheral nerve or

  3. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃ improves myelination and recovery after nerve injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Francois Chabas

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated i that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 increases axon diameter and potentiates nerve regeneration in a rat model of transected peripheral nerve and ii that cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 improves breathing and hyper-reflexia in a rat model of paraplegia. However, before bringing this molecule to the clinic, it was of prime importance i to assess which form - ergocalciferol versus cholecalciferol - and which dose were the most efficient and ii to identify the molecular pathways activated by this pleiotropic molecule. The rat left peroneal nerve was cut out on a length of 10 mm and autografted in an inverted position. Animals were treated with either cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol, at the dose of 100 or 500 IU/kg/day, or excipient (Vehicle, and compared to unlesioned rats (Control. Functional recovery of hindlimb was measured weekly, during 12 weeks, using the peroneal functional index. Ventilatory, motor and sensitive responses of the regenerated axons were recorded and histological analysis was performed. In parallel, to identify the genes regulated by vitamin D in dorsal root ganglia and/or Schwann cells, we performed an in vitro transcriptome study. We observed that cholecalciferol is more efficient than ergocalciferol and, when delivered at a high dose (500 IU/kg/day, cholecalciferol induces a significant locomotor and electrophysiological recovery. We also demonstrated that cholecalciferol increases i the number of preserved or newly formed axons in the proximal end, ii the mean axon diameter in the distal end, and iii neurite myelination in both distal and proximal ends. Finally, we found a modified expression of several genes involved in axogenesis and myelination, after 24 hours of vitamin supplementation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that vitamin D acts on myelination via the activation of several myelin-associated genes. It paves the way for future randomised controlled clinical trials for peripheral

  4. Moderate cholecalciferol supplementation depresses intestinal calcium absorption in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Bemd, G.J.C.M. van den; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Deluca, H.F.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2002-01-01

    Hormonal regulation of calcium (Ca) absorption was investigated in a cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)supplemented group (hVitD) vs. a control group (cVitD) of growing Great Danes (100 vs. 12.5 μg vitamin D3/kg diet). Although Ca intakes did not differ, fractional Ca absorption was significantly lower in

  5. A human vitamin D receptor mutant activated by cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Amanda M; Castillo, Hilda S; Duraj-Thatte, Anna; Doyle, Donald F; Azizi, Bahareh

    2011-07-01

    The human vitamin D receptor (hVDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, involved in calcium and phosphate homeostasis; hence implicated in a number of diseases, such as Rickets and Osteoporosis. This receptor binds 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (also referred to as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and other known ligands, such as lithocholic acid. Specific interactions between the receptor and ligand are crucial for the function and activation of this receptor, as implied by the single point mutation, H305Q, causing symptoms of Type II Rickets. In this work, further understanding of the significant and essential interactions between the ligand and the receptor was deciphered, through a combination of rational and random mutagenesis. A hVDR mutant, H305F, was engineered with increased sensitivity towards lithocholic acid, with an EC(50) value of 10 μM and 40±14 fold activation in mammalian cell assays, while maintaining wild-type activity with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Furthermore, via random mutagenesis, a hVDR mutant, H305F/H397Y, was discovered to bind a novel small molecule, cholecalciferol, a precursor in the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) biosynthetic pathway, which does not activate wild-type hVDR. This variant, H305F/H397Y, binds and activates in response to cholecalciferol concentrations as low as 100 nM, with an EC(50) value of 300 nM and 70±11 fold activation in mammalian cell assays. In silico docking analysis of the variant displays a dramatic conformational shift of cholecalciferol in the ligand binding pocket in comparison to the docked analysis of cholecalciferol with wild-type hVDR. This shift is hypothesized to be due to the introduction of two bulkier residues, suggesting that the addition of these bulkier residues introduces molecular interactions between the ligand and receptor, leading to activation with cholecalciferol.

  6. Physiological limit of the daily endogenous cholecalciferol synthesis from UV light in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, L.; Jensen, S. K.; Kaas, P.;

    2016-01-01

    The link between UV light (sunlight) and endogenous cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) synthesis in the skin of humans has been known for more than a 100 years, since doctors for the first time successfully used UV light to cure rickets in children. Years later, it was shown that UV light also had...... a significant effect on the cholecalciferol status in the body of cattle. The cholecalciferol status in the body is measured as the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which in cattle and humans is the major circulating metabolite of cholecalciferol. Very little is, however, known about...... the quantitative efficiency of UV light as a source of cholecalciferol in cattle nutrition and physiology. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the efficiency of using UV light for increasing the plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration in cholecalciferol-deprived cattle. Twelve cows deprived...

  7. Metabolism of dihydrotachysterol and 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol in the chick and the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D E; Bell, P A

    1974-07-01

    Dihydrotachysterol and 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol are biologically active analogues of cholecalciferol (vitamin D) with a similarity in steric structure to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active form of the vitamin. The question arises as to the nature of the active form of these analogues. High specific radioactivity (14)C- and (3)H-labelled forms of dihydrotachysterol and 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol and its 25-hydroxy derivative were synthesized and their metabolism was studied in chicks and rats. All these steroids were very rapidly metabolized compared with cholecalciferol; 20% of the dihydrotachysterol dose was excreted in bile in the first 24h, about 50% as a carboxylic acid derivative. Although polar metabolites were detected in tissues, no 1-hydroxy form was observed. Larger proportions of the parent steroid and its 25-hydroxy metabolite were detected in tissues compared with cholecalciferol, but no single metabolite was detected at the intracellular site of action of cholecalciferol. It is suggested that analogues of cholecalciferol will be biologically active if they possess a hydroxyl group in the same steric position as that at C-1 of cholecalciferol, with the greatest activity shown by those that also have a C-25 hydroxyl group. The implication of these findings for the chemical features necessary for binding to receptor proteins are briefly discussed.

  8. Body fat and cholecalciferol supplementation in elderly homebound individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.S. Canto-Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency, observed mainly in the geriatric population, is responsible for loss of bone mass and increased risk of bone fractures. Currently, recommended doses of cholecalciferol are advised, but since there are few studies evaluating the factors that influence the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD following supplementation, we analyzed the relationship between the increase in serum 25(OHD after supplementation and body fat. We studied a group of 42 homebound elderly subjects over 65 years old (31 women in order to assess whether there is a need for adjustment of the doses of cholecalciferol administered to this group according to their adipose mass. Baseline measurements of 25(OHD, intact parathyroid hormone and bone remodeling markers (osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal fraction of type 1 collagen were performed. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The patients were divided into three groups according to their percent body fat index and were treated with cholecalciferol, 7,000 IU a week, for 12 weeks. The increases in serum levels of 25(OHD were similar for all groups, averaging 7.46 ng/mL (P < 0.05. It is noteworthy that this increase only shifted these patients from the insufficiency category to hypovitaminosis. Peak levels of 25(OHD were attained after only 6 weeks of treatment. This study demonstrated that adipose tissue mass does not influence the elevation of 25(OHD levels following vitamin D supplementation, suggesting that there is no need to adjust vitamin D dose according to body fat in elderly homebound individuals.

  9. Synthesis, Evaluation and Docking studies of Cholecalciferol Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improved synthesis of 3b-acetoxy-9, 10-seco-19, 8(8-spiro-5(10, 6-cholestadiene has been reported after reacting cholecalciferol acetate with dimethylbutadiene by incorporating BF3·OEt2, SnCl4, ZnBr2, p-TsOH in toluene under Diels-Alder condition to get better yields. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed the potential in vitro DNA damaging nature while as the comet assay depicted the genotoxic nature by mobilizing the tail of the comet in lymphocytes. The molecular docking depicted the intercalation of steroid derivative with minor groove of the DNA molecule and in this configuration the phosphodiester bond of DNA stabilizes the acetoxy group. The bioactivity score and PASS software analysis confirmed the potential physicochemical features of the compound to act as active drug.

  10. Multifunctional hydroxyapatite and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for the local delivery of cholecalciferol

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović, Nenad; Uskoković, Vuk; Ajduković, Zorica; Uskoković, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    Cholecalciferol, vitamin D3, plays an important role in bone metabolism by regulating extracellular levels of calcium. Presented here is a study on the effects of the local delivery of cholecalciferol (D3) using nanoparticulate carriers composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Multifunctional nanoparticulate HAp-based powders were prepared for the purpose of: (a) either fast or sustained, local delivery of cholecalciferol, and (b) the secondary, osteoconduct...

  11. Oral Postdialysis Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis: A Dose-Response Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Descombes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dose of postdialysis cholecalciferol needed to maintain the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels in the optimal range of 75–150 nmol/L. Twenty-six patients who had low baseline 25(OHD levels (mean 27.5±14.9 nmol/L were studied. The 25(OHD levels were measured every 2 months for one year. During the first two months, all the patients received 2000 IU of cholecalciferol after each hemodialysis (=6000 IU/wk. Thereafter, the dose was individualized and adapted every 2 months by administering 1 to 6 cholecalciferol tablets (2000 IU each per week (total weekly dose = 2000–12000 IU/wk. During cholecalciferol supplementation, the 25(OHD concentrations rapidly increased from baseline to 140.1±28.3 nmol/L at month 6 and 95.6±20.9 nmol/L at month 12. At month twelve, 86% of the patients had 25(OHD levels within the target range with a mean dose of 5917±4106 IU/wk of cholecalciferol; however, the amount needed to maintain these levels varied widely from 0 (n=2 to 12000 IU/wk (n=5. In conclusion, postdialysis cholecalciferol prescription is quite effective in correcting vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, but the amount of cholecalciferol needed to maintain the 25(OHD levels within the optimal range over the long-term varies widely among patients and must be individualized.

  12. Combining aspirin with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)--a potential new tool for controlling possum populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David R; Arrow, Jane; Smith, Mark P

    2013-01-01

    The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested.

  13. Combining aspirin with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3--a potential new tool for controlling possum populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Morgan

    Full Text Available The introduced Australian brushtail possum is a major vertebrate pest in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 is registered for use in controlling possums and despite its many advantages it is expensive and relatively inhumane. Combination of a high proportion of aspirin with a low proportion of cholecalciferol was effective in killing high proportions of groups of acclimatised, caged possums: this is attributed to both an unexpectedly high toxicity of the type of cholecalciferol used, and a proposed synergistic mechanism between the two compounds. Death was caused by localised damage to heart ventricles by aspirin, and inhibition of tissue repair by both aspirin and cholecalciferol. The observed toxicosis had lower impact on the welfare of possums than either compound administered alone, particularly aspirin alone. Residue analyses of bait remains in the GI tract suggested a low risk of secondary poisoning by either compound. The combination of cholecalciferol and aspirin has the potential to meet key requirements of cost-effectiveness and humaneness in controlling possum populations, but the effect of the combination in non-target species has yet to be tested.

  14. Modulation of the inflammatory response of bovine mammary epithelial cells by cholecalciferol (vitamin D) during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Téllez-Pérez, Ana Dolores; Medina-Estrada, Ivan; Alvarez-Aguilar, Cleto; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2014-12-01

    Vitamin D is an immunomodulator that exerts anti-inflammatory effects. In this work, the effects of cholecalciferol, a vitamin D precursor, on the inflammatory response of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) during the internalization of Staphylococcus aureus were analyzed. Cholecalciferol and S. aureus inhibited TLR2 mRNA expression, but cholecalciferol differentially modulated the TLR2 membrane abundance. In fact, 50 nM cholecalciferol inhibited the TLR2 membrane abundance in bMECs infected with S. aureus, and this concentration also exerted the highest inhibitory effect on internalization. Cholecalciferol down-regulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-1β and up-regulated that of RANTES and IL-10 but did not modify IL-6 and IL-8 expression. S. aureus strongly induced the mRNA expression of TNF-α, RANTES and IL-10 and inhibited IL-8 expression. Interestingly, cholecalciferol pre-treatments inhibited the bacterial-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES and IL-10. In conclusion, cholecalciferol differentially regulates the inflammatory response of bMECs during S. aureus internalization and may be an effective innate immunity modulator in mammary gland tissues.

  15. Multifunctional hydroxyapatite and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles for the local delivery of cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović, Nenad; Uskoković, Vuk; Ajduković, Zorica; Uskoković, Dragan

    2013-03-01

    Cholecalciferol, vitamin D3, plays an important role in bonemetabolism by regulating extracellular levels of calcium. Presented here is a study on the effects of the local delivery of cholecalciferol (D3) using nanoparticulate carriers composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Multifunctional nanoparticulate HAp-based powders were prepared for the purpose of: (a) either fast or sustained, local delivery of cholecalciferol, and (b) the secondary, osteoconductive and defect-filling effect of the carrier itself. Two types of HAp-based powders with particles of narrowly dispersed sizes in the nano range were prepared and tested in this study: HAp nanoparticles as direct cholecalciferol delivery agents and HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol-loaded poly(D,L)-lactide-co-glycolide (HAp/D3/PLGA). Satisfying biocompatibility of particulate systems, when incubated in contact with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells in vitro, was observed for HAp/D3/PLGA and pure HAp. In contrast, an extensively fast release of cholecalciferol from the system comprising HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol (HAp/D3) triggered necrosis of the osteoblastic cells in vitro. Artificial defects induced in the osteoporotic bone of the rat mandible were successfully reconstructed following implantation of cholecalciferol-coated HAp nanoparticles as well as those comprising HAp nanoparticles coated with cholecalciferol-loaded PLGA (HAp/D3/PLGA). The greatest levels of enhanced angiogenesis, vascularization, osteogenesis and bone structure differentiation were achieved upon the implementation of HAp/D3/PLGA systems.

  16. Suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide toxicosis in avian species at a zoological institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Julie; Bradley, Gregory A

    2013-06-01

    Over a 2-month period, individual birds belonging to species in multiple avian families, including Bucerotidae, Sturnidae, Columbidae, Corvidae, and Anatidae, were presented to the Animal Care Center at the Phoenix Zoo for emergency medical care. Common clinical findings were subdued behavior, weight loss, and an inability to fly. Biochemical abnormalities commonly included high calcium and uric acid concentrations and high to high-normal phosphorus concentrations. In cases in which necropsies were done, mineralization of organs often was present, frequently of the kidneys and cardiovascular system. Because of the high calcium and phosphorus concentrations, mineralization of tissues, cases representing multiple avian species, and the recent addition of rodent bait boxes containing cholecalciferol to the zoo's pest control program, a presumptive diagnosis of cholecalciferol toxicosis was made. Treatment most commonly consisted of daily fluid diuresis. These cases demonstrate that, although cholecalciferol is considered unlikely to cause relay toxicosis, primary toxicosis still should be considered in cases with sudden onset of nonspecific signs when exposure to cholecalciferol was possible.

  17. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) boosts hydrogen sulfide tissue concentrations in heart and other mouse organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiliński, Bogdan; Wiliński, Jerzy; Somogyi, Eugeniusz; Piotrowska, Joanna; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is a crucial co-regulator of bone growth and remodeling, neuromuscular function, inflammation, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells. Intensive research on endogenous sulfur metabolism has revealed that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important modulator of various physiological processes in mammals. Noteworthy, these compounds are perceived as potential agents in the treatment of numerous disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and different types of cancer. The interaction between vitamin D3 and H2S is unknown. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, calcitriol) on H2S tissue concentrations in mouse brain, heart and kidney. Twenty four SJL mice were given intraperitoneal injections of cholecalciferol at 10000 IU/kg body weight (b.w.) per day (group A, n = 8) or 40000 IU/kg b.w. per day (group B, n = 8). The control group (n = 8) received physiological saline. Free H2S tissue concentrations were measured via the SIEGEL spectrophotometric modified method. There was a significant progressive increase in the H2S concentration along with the rising cholecalciferol doses as compared to the control group in the heart (by 29.6% and by 74.1%, respectively). Higher vitamin D3 dose caused H2S accumulation in the brain (by 10.9%) and in the kidney (by 10.1%). Our study has proven that cholecalciferol affects H2S tissue concentration in different mouse organs.

  18. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We...

  19. Oral supplementation with cholecalciferol 800 IU ameliorates albuminuria in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low vitamin D levels can be associated with albuminuria, and vitamin D analogs are effective anti-proteinuric agents. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in vitamin D levels between those with micro- and those with macroalbuminuria, and to determine whether low dose cholecalciferol increases vitamin D levels and ameliorates albuminuria. METHODS: Two studies were performed in which 25-OH vitamin D(3 (25(OHD(3 concentrations were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay: 1 a cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM (n = 481 and healthy controls (n = 78; and 2 a longitudinal study of T2DM patients with albuminuria treated with conventional doses, 800 IU, of cholecalciferol for 6 months (n = 22, and a control group (n = 24. RESULTS: 1 Cross-sectional study: Compared to controls and T2DM patients with normoalbuminuria, serum 25(OHD(3 concentrations were significantly lower in patients with macro-albuminuria, but not in those with micro-albuminuria. Serum 25(OHD(3 levels were independently correlated with microalbuminuria. 2 Longitudinal study: Cholecalciferol significantly decreased microalbuminuria in the early stages of treatment, in conjunction with an increase in serum 25(OHD(3 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin D levels are common in type 2 diabetic patients with albuminuria, particularly in patients with macroalbuminuria, but not in those with microalbuminuria. Conventional doses of cholecalciferol may have antiproteinuric effects on Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

  20. Dietary 135-fold cholecalciferol supplementation severely disturbs the endochondral ossification in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Holl, M.S.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Buurman, C.J.; Deluca, H.F.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of excessive non-toxic dietary Vitamin D3 supplementation on Ca homeostasis with specific effects on endochondral ossification and skeletal remodeling were investigated in a group of growing Great Dane dogs supplemented with cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3; HVitD) versus a control group (CVi

  1. Comparative Efficacy of Bromadiolone, Cholecalciferol and Zinc Phosphide Against Short -Tailed Mole Rat Nesokia indica in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    PERVEZ, Amjad; AHMAD, Syed M.; Waqar, S; RIZVI, A.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted no-choice and paired choice feeding trials with individually caged Nesokia indica to evaluate the efficacy of Bromadiolone, Cholecalciferol and Zinc phosphide baits. Under no-choice test (1 day and 3 day) male rats consumed less bromadiolone bait. However, sex-wise difference was observed non-significant. Under choice feeding test, difference between bromadiolone bait intake and sex was observed non-significant. Under cholecalciferol bait, treated bait was consumed more than ...

  2. A novel bile salts-lipase polymeric film-infused minitablet system for enhanced oral delivery of cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Miles C; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, Lomas K; Du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-11-01

    Few researchers have investigated the use of multiple physiological enhancers combined with synthetic carriers to augment delivery of nutraceuticals. The current work describes the development of an oral delivery system termed a bioactive association platform (BAP) capable of delivering nutraceutical actives from a formulation framework specifically for enhancing the in vitro and in vivo performance of model vitamin, cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3). Synthesis of a novel triple vitamin minitablet and an optimized bile salt/lipase alginate-glycerin film provided unique oral components for inclusion in a BAP capsule. Component validation and physicochemical characterizations included comparative ex vivo permeability, chemical structure mapping, thermodynamic analysis and magnetic resonance imaging. In vitro dissolution studies of the BAP produced an area under the dissolution curve (AUC) for cholecalciferol release that was 28% greater than a conventional comparator product. A total of 84.01% of cholecalciferol was released from the BAP within 3 h versus only 59% from a comparator. Ex vivo permeation studies revealed superior cholecalciferol membrane diffusion from the triple vitamin minitablet BAP component. In vivo performance showed a greater mean change from baseline cholecalciferol to peak plasma levels (Cmax) from the BAP compared to the comparator (55.66 versus 46.05 ng/mL). Cholecalciferol bioavailability was improved in vivo with an AUC0-inf from the BAP that was 3.2× greater than the conventional product. The BAP was also superior at improving and maintaining serum levels of the main metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, compared to the conventional system. In vitro and in vivo results thus confirmed improvements in cholecalciferol dissolution, membrane permeability and plasma drug levels. The study results position the BAP as an ideal oral vehicle for enhanced delivery of cholecalciferol.

  3. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D) differentially regulates antimicrobial peptide expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells: implications during Staphylococcus aureus internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-Pérez, Ana Dolores; Alva-Murillo, Nayeli; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2012-11-09

    Vitamin D has immunomodulatory functions regulating the expression of host defense genes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) on S. aureus internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and antimicrobial peptide (AP) mRNA expression. Cholecalciferol (1-200 nM) did not affect S. aureus growth and bMEC viability; but it reduced bacterial internalization into bMEC (15-74%). Also, bMEC showed a basal expression of all AP genes evaluated, which were induced by S. aureus. Cholecalciferol alone or together with bacteria diminished tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) and bovine neutrophil β-defensin (BNBD) 5 mRNA expression; while alone induced the expression of lingual antimicrobial peptide (LAP), bovine β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) and bovine psoriasin (S100A7), which was inhibited in the presence of S. aureus. This compound (50 nM) increased BNBD10 mRNA expression coinciding with the greatest reduction in S. aureus internalization. Genes of vitamin D pathway (25-hydroxylase and 1 α-hydroxylase) show basal expression, which was induced by cholecalciferol or bacteria. S. aureus induced vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA expression, but not in the presence of cholecalciferol. In conclusion, cholecalciferol can reduce S. aureus internalization and differentially regulates AP expression in bMEC. Thus, vitamin D could be an effective innate immunity modulator in mammary gland, which leads to a better defense against bacterial infection.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of cholecalciferol treatment in dialysis patients – a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients on chronic dialysis are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. In observational studies plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (p-25(OH) D) levels are inversely correlated with plasma BNP and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Whether a causal relation exists has yet to be established. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that cholecalciferol supplementation improves cardiac function and reduces blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients on chronic dia...

  5. Gastrointestinal absorption of lead in chicks: involvement of the cholecalciferol endocrine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelstein, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1984-04-01

    The role of dietary calcium and phosphorus in modifying the intestinal absorption of lead and also the effect of lead ingestion on the metabolism of cholecalciferol were studied in chicks. The efficiency of absorption of /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca was increased when the animals were fed a low calcium diet and treated with cholecalciferol. The synthesis of the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (CaBP) was correspondingly increased. When the chicks were depleted of vitamin D and repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) as their only source of the vitamin, the absorption of both /sup 47/Ca and /sup 203/Pb was unaffected by dietary calcium levels, and no change in CaBP levels occurred. Low dietary intake of phosphorus resulted in an increase in /sup 47/Ca and /sup 203/Pb absorption and in CaBP synthesis when the animals were treated with cholecalciferol. However, when the birds were repleted with 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, the intestinal absorption of /sup 47/Ca and of /sup 203/Pb was increased, as well as the intestinal CaBP levels. Intracardial injection of increasing doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ to rachitic chicks resulted in a concomitant increase in /sup 203/Pb absorption in a manner that correlated with the degree of synthesis of CaBP. Ingestion of lead by the chicks was found to impair growth and renal production of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, resulting in lowered circulating and intestinal content of the hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol.

  6. Cholecalciferol attenuates perseverative behavior associated with developmental alcohol exposure in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

  7. Dietary boron modified the effects of magnesium and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C D

    1989-11-01

    The metabolic effects of dietary boron, magnesium, and molybdenum on mineral metabolism in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick, with emphasis on growth cartilage histology, were studied. One-day-old cockerel chicks were assigned to groups in a fully-crossed, three factor, 2 x 2 x 2 design. The basal diet was based on ground corn, high-protein casein, and corn oil and contained 125 IU cholecalciferol (inadequate), 0.465 mg B, 2.500 mg Mg, and 0.420 mg Mo/kg. The treatments were the supplementation of the basal diet with B at O or 3; Mg at 300 (inadequate) or 500 (adequate); and Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg. At d 25, B depressed mortality, alleviated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced distortion of the marrow sprouts (MS) of the proximal tibial epiphysial plate, and elevated the numbers of osteoclasts within the MS. Adequate Mg exacerbated the cholecalciferol-deficiency induced bone lesions. Mo widened the MS markedly. In Mg-deficient chicks, B elevated plasma Ca and Mg concentrations and growth, but inhibited initiation of cartilage calcification; B had the opposite effect in Mg-adequate chicks. An interaction among B, Mg, and Mo affected plasma uric acid and glucose concentrations. B may function to modify mineral metabolism in cholecalciferol deficiency, suppressing bone anabolism in concurrent Mg deficiency and bone catabolism in concurrent Mg adequacy.

  8. The Effect of High Dose Cholecalciferol on Arterial Stiffness and Peripheral and Central Blood Pressure in Healthy Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bressendorff, Iain; Brandi, Lisbet; Schou, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and blood pressure in healthy normotensive adults. METHODS: 40 healthy adults were randomised in this double-blinded study to either oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day or matching placebo and were followed for 16 weeks to examine any effects on pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), peripheral...... and central blood pressure and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. RESULTS: 22 subjects in the cholecalciferol arm and 18 subjects in the placebo arm completed the 16 weeks of follow-up. There was no difference in changes in PWV, AIx corrected for heart rate or central or peripheral blood pressure between...... the two groups. There was no correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and any of these parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Oral cholecalciferol 3000 IU/day does not affect arterial stiffness or blood pressure after 16 weeks of treatment in healthy normotensive adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...

  9. Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Single Intramuscular High Dose versus an Oral Long-Term Supplementation of Cholecalciferol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannich, Alexander; Heine, Guido; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals. Research design and methods Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies. Results The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264). Conclusions Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations. PMID:28114352

  10. A randomized controlled trial of cholecalciferol supplementation in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in Indian patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD, but optimal dose of cholecalciferol is unclear. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 consenting patients were randomized to intervention and control groups. In the intervention group, patients (n = 35 with serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD < 30 ng/mL (n = 33, received oral cholecalciferol 60,000 units/week for 6 weeks. The serum levels of 25(OHD, calcium, phosphorus, albumin, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were measured at 0, 6, and 12 weeks. In the control group (n = 10, these were estimated at 0 and 6 weeks. Results: In the intervention group, 25/35 patients completed the supplementation at 6 weeks and 20/35 were available at 12 weeks. The mean baseline level of 25(OHD was 9.59 ± 7.59 ng/mL, and after 6 weeks 19.51 ± 4.27 ng/mL, mean increase being 9.99 ± 6.83 ng/mL, which was highly significant (P < 0.0001. After discontinuing supplementation at 6 weeks, serum 25(OHD level dropped significantly from 6 to 12 weeks [−2.84 ± 6.25 ng/mL (P = 0.04]. However, it was still significantly higher at 12 weeks (16.08 ± 8.27 ng/mL as compared with the baseline. PTH and calcium did not change significantly with supplementation. The change in serum 25(OHD level from baseline to 6 weeks in the intervention group was inversely related to baseline 25(OHD levels and patient′s weight. In the control group, change in 25(OHD from baseline to 6 weeks was not significant. Conclusion: Supplementation with cholecalciferol 60,000 unit/week for 6 weeks was insufficient to achieve optimal levels of 25(OHD in Indian patients with CKD on MHD.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of cholecalciferol supplementation in chronic kidney disease patients with hypovitaminosis D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Peter; Agerskov, Hanne; Thineshkumar, Sasikala;

    2012-01-01

    . Treatment consisted of 40 000 IU of cholecalciferol orally per week. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-diOHD), plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum phosphate, ionized serum calcium and serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) were analysed. We also investigated...... biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (plasma D-dimer, plasma fibrinogen, plasma von Willebrand factor antigen and activity, plasma interleukin 6, plasma C-reactive protein, blood pressure, aortic augmentation index, aortic pulse wave velocity and 24-h urinary protein loss). Objective and subjective...

  12. Improvement of the absorption of /sup 3/H-cholecalciferol by formation of its cyclodextrin complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szejtli, J.; Gerloczy, A. (Biochemical Research Laboratory of Chinoin Pharmaceutical and Chemical Works, Budapest (Hungary)); Fonagy, A. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-02-01

    Oral administration of ..beta..-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of /sup 3/H-labelled vitamin D/sub 3/ (cholecalciferol) to rats resulted in significantly higher blood radioactivity as with the non-complexed vitamin. Difference in the first 90 minutes was 2.3-2.8 fold, and it remained significantly higher up to the 6th h. After 24 h there was no difference between the blood radioactivity of animals treated with complexed and with non-complexed vitamin D/sub 3/.

  13. Safety and immunologic effects of high- vs low-dose cholecalciferol in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotirchos, Elias S.; Bhargava, Pavan; Eckstein, Christopher; Van Haren, Keith; Baynes, Moira; Ntranos, Achilles; Gocke, Anne; Steinman, Lawrence; Mowry, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the safety profile and characterize the immunologic effects of high- vs low-dose cholecalciferol supplementation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: In this double-blind, single-center randomized pilot study, 40 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were randomized to receive 10,400 IU or 800 IU cholecalciferol daily for 6 months. Assessments were performed at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Results: Mean increase of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels from baseline to final visit was larger in the high-dose group (34.9 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] 25.0–44.7 ng/mL) than in the low-dose group (6.9 ng/mL; 95% CI 1.0–13.7 ng/mL). Adverse events were minor and did not differ between the 2 groups. Two relapses occurred, one in each treatment arm. In the high-dose group, we found a reduction in the proportion of interleukin-17+CD4+ T cells (p = 0.016), CD161+CD4+ T cells (p = 0.03), and effector memory CD4+ T cells (p = 0.021) with a concomitant increase in the proportion of central memory CD4+ T cells (p = 0.018) and naive CD4+ T cells (p = 0.04). These effects were not observed in the low-dose group. Conclusions: Cholecalciferol supplementation with 10,400 IU daily is safe and tolerable in patients with MS and exhibits in vivo pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects in MS, which include reduction of interleukin-17 production by CD4+ T cells and decreased proportion of effector memory CD4+ T cells with concomitant increase in central memory CD4+ T cells and naive CD4+ T cells. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that cholecalciferol supplementation with 10,400 IU daily is safe and well-tolerated in patients with MS and exhibits in vivo pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects. PMID:26718578

  14. Effect of cholecalciferol and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of zinc in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, S.I.; Fullmer, C.S.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-09-01

    The effect of cholecalciferol on the intestinal absorption of /sup 65/Zn was assessed in zinc-deficient and zinc-replete rachitic chicks, using the in situ ligated loop techniques. Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect /sup 65/Zn absorption in either group, although the synthesis of the intestinal calcium-binding protein (CaBP) in both groups was similar. In an analogous study, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol increased /sup 47/Ca absorption and induced the synthesis of CaBP but exerted no effect on /sup 65/Zn absorption in zinc-deficient rachitic chicks. When fed a diet adequate in cholecalciferol, more CaBP was present in the intestine of the zinc-adequate group than in the zinc-deficient group, possibly due to the greater rate of growth and therefore the greater need for calcium by the former group. These results suggest that cholecalciferol and its most active metabolite do not directly affect zinc absorption and, by inference, that the vitamin D-dependent transport mechanism is not involved in zinc homeostasis, or in the interaction between calcium and zinc.

  15. Absorption of silicon and aluminum by hens fed sodium zeolite A with various levels of dietary cholecalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabon, H W; Roland, D A; Bryant, M M; Smith, R C; Barnes, D G; Laurent, S M

    1995-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether 1) serum Si and Al is increased in hens intubated with sodium zeolite A (SZA); and 2) dietary cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) influences the absorption of Si or Al by hens fed SZA. In Experiment 1, hens were intubated at oviposition with 0, 1, or 2 g of SZA. Blood samples were collected from the brachial vein at oviposition, and 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 h postoviposition. Serum samples were analyzed for Si and Al. Peak serum Si and Al were observed at 4 and 8 h postoviposition, respectively. In Experiment 2, hens consumed commercial layer diets ad libitum containing five levels of dietary cholecalciferol (100 to 500 IU/kg) with or without .75% SZA for 6 wk. Blood samples were collected at the end of the 6-wk period by cardiac puncture at oviposition. When dietary cholecalciferol was increased from 100 to 200 IU/kg of diet there was an increase (P < .05) in serum Si but not Al. Levels of cholecalciferol above 200 IU/kg did not produce an additional increase in serum Si. The results showed increased (P < .01) serum concentrations of Si and Al for hens intubated with or fed SZA. It was concluded that Si and Al from SZA are absorbed by commercial Leghorn hens, and a possible involvement of Si or Al should be considered in the mechanism of action of SZA associated with improved eggshell quality and bone development.

  16. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian;

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1.......0 nmol/l per 24 h (p exposure to UVB....

  17. Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Everts, Hendrik; Marais, Johan; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of oral calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on several parameters of calcium status in plasma and urine of captive Asian (Elephas maximus; n=10) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana; n=6) and to detect potential species differences. Calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation were investigated in a feeding trial using a crossover design consisting of five periods of 28 days each in summer. From days 28-56 (period 2), elephants were fed the Ca-supplemented diet and from days 84-112, elephants were fed the cholecalciferol-supplemented diet (period 4). The control diet was fed during the other periods and was based on their regular ration, and the study was repeated similarly during winter. Periods 1, 3, and 5 were regarded as washout periods. This study revealed species-specific differences with reference to calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Asian elephants showed a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration following calcium supplementation during summer, suggesting summer-associated subclinical hypocalcemia in Western Europe. During winter, no effect was seen after oral calcium supplementation, but a significant increase was seen both in mean plasma, total, and ionized calcium concentrations after cholecalciferol supplementation in Asian elephants. In contrast, evidence of subclinical hypocalcemia could be demonstrated neither in summer nor in winter in African elephants, although 28 days of cholecalciferol supplementation during winter reversed the decrease in plasma 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol and was followed by a significant increase in mean plasma total calcium concentration. Preliminary findings indicate that the advisable permanent daily intake for calcium in Asian elephants and cholecalciferol in both elephant species at least during winter might be higher than current guidelines. It is strongly recommended to monitor blood calcium concentrations and, if

  18. Consequences of phosphorus interactions with calcium, phytase, and cholecalciferol on zootechnical performance and mineral retention in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Maertens, L; Huyghebaert, G

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of calcium (Ca), total phosphorus (Ptot), cholecalciferol, and phytase level in the diet on the performance, tibia ash percentage, and Ca and P retention in broilers until slaughter age. Broilers were randomly assigned to 12 treatments, each with 6 replicates, comprising 3 diets differing in Ca and P level: 1) normal Ca and Ptot level (NN); 2) normal Ca and low Ptot level (NL), 3) low Ca and Ptot level (LL). Broilers were also given 2 levels of cholecalciferol and 2 levels of phytase. The normal levels of Ca and Ptot for the starter, grower, and finisher phases were 0.90, 0.82, 0.74% and 0.67, 0.62, 0.57%, respectively. The low Ca and Ptot levels for the 3 phases were 0.67, 0.60, 0.52% and 0.57, 0.51, 0.46%, respectively. Broilers of the NL treatment obtained the lowest BW, whereas BW of the NN and LL groups were comparable. Cholecalciferol significantly affected the BW, with differences up to 2.6 and 1.2% for the starter and grower phases, respectively. The highest cholecalciferol effect was found in combination with the NN treatment. The percentage of retained Ca increased from 33% to 41% and 48% when the imbalanced diet was replaced by the NN and LL balanced diets, respectively. P release from phytate was 64 and 67% for the NL and LL diets, respectively. Phytase and cholecalciferol had significantly favorable effects on retention values but these effects were dependent on Ca and Ptot levels and their ratio. In conclusion, both diets with the balanced Ca/Ptot ratio resulted in the best performance, highest tibia ash percentage and P release from phytate. A reduction of the Aviagen (2009) recommended P requirements by 25 to 30% and Ca by 15 to 20% over the various phases did not negatively affect performance, bone development, and improved Ca and Ptot retention. The effects of supplementing cholecalciferol and phytase were additive but not significant and no synergism between both was present.

  19. An in-vitro-in-vivo model for the transdermal delivery of cholecalciferol for the purposes of rodent management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J; Ingham, A

    2015-06-20

    The natural selection of anticoagulant resistant rats has resulted in a need for an alternative to anticoagulant rodenticides which differs in both active ingredient and in the method of dosing. Cholecalciferol toxicity to rodents using the dermal route is demonstrated using a variety of penetration enhancing formulations in two in-vitro models and finally in-vivo. A 1 ml dose of 50/50 (v/v) DMSO/ethanol containing 15% (v/v) PEG 200 and 20% (w/v) cholecalciferol was judged as 'sufficiently effective' in line with the European Union's Biocidal Products Regulation (No. 528/2012) during in-vivo studies. This dose was found to cause 100% mortality in a rat population in 64.4h (± 22h).

  20. Regulation of RUNX2 transcription factor-DNA interactions and cell proliferation by vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) prohormone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Karen F; D'Souza, David R; Mochin-Peters, Maria; Pierce, Adam D; Kommineni, Sravya; Choe, Moran; Bennett, Jessica; Gnatt, Averell; Habtemariam, Bahru; MacKerell, Alexander D; Passaniti, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The fat-soluble prohormone cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) is a precursor of the circulating 25-OH Vitamin D3, which is converted by 1α-hydroxylase to the biologically active 1,25-OH Vitamin D3. Active Vitamin D3 interacts with the Vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor that plays an important role in calcium mobilization and bone formation. RUNX2 is a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates target genes important in bone formation, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. Using computer-assisted drug design (CADD) and a microtiter plate-based DNA-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (D-ELISA) to measure nuclear RUNX2 DNA binding, we have found that Vitamin D3 prohormones can modulate RUNX2 DNA binding, which was dose-dependent and sensitive to trypsin, salt, and phosphatase treatment. Unlabeled oligonucleotide or truncated, dominant negative RUNX2 proteins were competitive inhibitors of RUNX2 DNA binding. The RUNX2 heterodimeric partner, Cbfβ, was detected in the binding complexes with specific antibodies. Evaluation of several RUNX2:DNA targeted small molecules predicted by CADD screening revealed a previously unknown biological activity of the inactive Vitamin D3 precursor, cholecalciferol. Cholecalciferol modulated RUNX2:DNA binding at nanomolar concentrations even in cells with low VDR. Cholecalciferol and 25-OH Vitamin D3 prohormones were selective inhibitors of RUNX2-positive endothelial, bone, and breast cancer cell proliferation, but not of cells lacking RUNX2 expression. These compounds may have application in modulating RUNX2 activity in an angiogenic setting, in metastatic cells, and to promote bone formation in disease-mediated osteoporosis. The combination CADD discovery and D-ELISA screening approaches allows the testing of other novel derivatives of Vitamin D and/or transcriptional inhibitors with the potential to regulate DNA binding and biological function.

  1. Metabolism of orally administered (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol and (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol by dairy calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeldt, J.L.; Napoli, J.L.; Littledike, E.T.; Beitz, D.C.; Horst, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    Concentrations of ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, and their metabolites in plasma were determined after a single oral dose of (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol or (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol was given to 95- to 105-kg Jersey bull calves. One group (three calves) was given 365 muCi of (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol (1.2 Ci/mmol) per calf, and the other group (three calves) was given 365 muCi of (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol (1.2 Ci/mmol) per calf. Fourteen blood samples were taken from each calf during the 3 weeks after administration. Total plasma radioactivity was highest at 80 hours in both groups (8400 dpm/ml and 4600 dpm/ml in the (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol- and (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol-treated calves, respectively). For determination of the time-dependent appearance and disappearance of plasma vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites, the plasma /sup 3/H-labeled steroids were extracted and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. In both groups, (/sup 3/H)vitamin D peaked at 24-48 hours and was the predominant radioactive form in plasma 10-15 hours after dosing. After 15 hours, 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyvitamin D became the predominant labeled metabolite, reaching its maximal concentration between 48 and 96 hours. Concentrations of 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxycholecalciferol were about twice those of 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyergocalciferol. The appearance/disappearance profile of 25,26-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25(/sup 3/H)hydroxycholecalciferol resembled that of 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxycholecalciferol.

  2. Calculated free and bioavailable vitamin D metabolite concentrations in vitamin D-deficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, Paul; Chew, Gerard T; Inderjeeth, Charles A; Taranto, Mario; Fraser, William D

    2013-10-01

    We previously showed that oral cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol have comparable effects in decreasing circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), despite a greater increase in total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration with cholecalciferol supplementation. However, the effects of cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol on total serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), free 25OHD and free 1,25(OH)2D concentrations have not been previously studied. We randomized 95 hip fracture patients (aged 83±8 years) with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day (n=47) or ergocalciferol 1000 IU/day (n=48) for three months. All were given matching placebos of the alternative treatment to maintain blinding. We measured serum 25OHD (high-pressure liquid chromatography), 1,25(OH)2D (Diasorin radioimmunoassay), DBP (immunonephelometry), ionized calcium (Bayer 800 ion-selective electrode) and albumin (bromocresol green) concentrations before and after treatment. We calculated free and bioavailable concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites using albumin and DBP, and calculated free vitamin D metabolite indices as the ratios between the molar concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites and DBP. Seventy participants (74%) completed the study with paired samples for analysis. Total serum 1,25(OH)2D did not change significantly with either treatment (p>0.05, post-treatment vs baseline). Both treatments were associated with comparable increases in DBP (cholecalciferol: +18%, ergocalciferol: +16%, p=0.32 between groups), albumin (cholecalciferol: +31%, ergocalciferol: +21%, p=0.29 between groups) and calculated free 25OHD (cholecalciferol: +46%, ergocalciferol: +36%, p=0.08), with comparable decreases in free 1,25(OH)2D (cholecalciferol: -17%, ergocalciferol: -19%, p=0.32 between groups). In the treatment-adherent subgroup the increase in ionized calcium was marginally greater with cholecalciferol compared with ergocalciferol

  3. Accumulation of the Vitamin D Precursor Cholecalciferol Antagonizes Hedgehog Signaling to Impair Hemogenic Endothelium Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Cortes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs are born from hemogenic endothelium in the dorsal aorta. Specification of this hematopoietic niche is regulated by a signaling axis using Hedgehog (Hh and Notch, which culminates in expression of Runx1 in the ventral wall of the artery. Here, we demonstrate that the vitamin D precursor cholecalciferol (D3 modulates HSPC production by impairing hemogenic vascular niche formation. Accumulation of D3 through exogenous treatment or inhibition of Cyp2r1, the enzyme required for D3 25-hydroxylation, results in Hh pathway antagonism marked by loss of Gli-reporter activation, defects in vascular niche identity, and reduced HSPCs. Mechanistic studies indicated the effect was specific to D3, and not active 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, acting on the extracellular sterol-binding domain of Smoothened. These findings highlight a direct impact of inefficient vitamin D synthesis on cell fate commitment and maturation in Hh-regulated tissues, which may have implications beyond hemogenic endothelium specification.

  4. Accumulation of the Vitamin D Precursor Cholecalciferol Antagonizes Hedgehog Signaling to Impair Hemogenic Endothelium Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Mauricio; Liu, Sarah Y; Kwan, Wanda; Alexa, Kristen; Goessling, Wolfram; North, Trista E

    2015-10-13

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are born from hemogenic endothelium in the dorsal aorta. Specification of this hematopoietic niche is regulated by a signaling axis using Hedgehog (Hh) and Notch, which culminates in expression of Runx1 in the ventral wall of the artery. Here, we demonstrate that the vitamin D precursor cholecalciferol (D3) modulates HSPC production by impairing hemogenic vascular niche formation. Accumulation of D3 through exogenous treatment or inhibition of Cyp2r1, the enzyme required for D3 25-hydroxylation, results in Hh pathway antagonism marked by loss of Gli-reporter activation, defects in vascular niche identity, and reduced HSPCs. Mechanistic studies indicated the effect was specific to D3, and not active 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, acting on the extracellular sterol-binding domain of Smoothened. These findings highlight a direct impact of inefficient vitamin D synthesis on cell fate commitment and maturation in Hh-regulated tissues, which may have implications beyond hemogenic endothelium specification.

  5. The involvement of intracellular calcium ion concentration and calmodulin in the 25-hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in ovine and rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, S C; Chaudhary, M S; Tomlinson, S; Care, A D

    1987-08-01

    The effect of Ca2+ ion concentration on the 25 hydroxylation of tritiated cholecalciferol (3HD3) was investigated using homogenates of ovine liver from vitamin D replete sheep. A significant decrease in the production of 25 hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3) was observed when the concentration of Ca2+ in the homogenate was raised above 0.68 mmol/l by the addition of calcium gluconate. Similarly, a final concentration of 37 mumol EGTA/1 (equivalent to a Ca2+ concentration of 26.5 nmol/l) was associated with a 50% reduction of 25OHD3 production. That is, a broad bell-shaped relationship was observed between the production of 25OHD3 and the Ca2+ concentration in the homogenate. These changes in the rate of production of 25OHD3 were reproduced with hepatocytes from vitamin D replete rats, prepared by collagenase perfusion, using the drugs dantrolene sodium (DaNa) to reduce (ED50 = 57 mmol/l) and veratridine to increase (ED50 = 550 mmol/l) the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Hepatocytes from vitamin D replete rats also showed a reduction in 25 hydroxylation of D3 (ED50 = 6 ng/ml) in response to the addition of 1-25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1-25 (OH)2D3). The calmodulin antagonists; W7, compound 48/80, trifluoperazine (TFP) and calmidazolium (R24571) were all found to effect a dose response inhibition of the 25 hydroxylation of cholecalciferol by homogenates of ovine liver. R24571 had a similar inhibitory effect (ED50 = 70 mumol/l) upon the 25 hydroxylase enzyme of rat hepatocytes. It is concluded that the 25 hydroxylation of cholecalciferol in liver of vitamin D replete rats and sheep is calcium sensitive and is reduced in the presence of increased concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3. Calmodulin may also be involved in the regulation of hepatocyte 25-hydroxylase activity by Ca2+.

  6. Early changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levelsand bone markers after monthly risedronatewith cholecalciferol in Korean patients with osteoporosis

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    Chung HY

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ho Yeon Chung,1 Jawon Koo,1 Su Kyoung Kwon,2 Moo-IL Kang,3 Seong-Hwan Moon,4 Jin-Young Park,5 Chan Soo Shin,6 Byung-Koo Yoon,7 Hyun-Koo Yoon,8 Jae-Suk Chang,9 Yoon-Sok Chung,10 Hyoung-Moo Park111Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 2Department of Statistics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 4Department of Orthopedics, Yonsei University, 5Department of Orthopedics, Konkuk University, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, 7Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sungkyunkwan University, 8Department of Internal Medicine, Kwandong University, 9Department of Orthopedics, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea; 10Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea; 11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South KoreaPurpose: This study investigated the efficacy and safety of monthly risedronate, with and without cholecalciferol, on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and bone markers in Korean patients with osteoporosis.Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, prospective, 16-week clinical trial was conducted in ten hospitals. A total of 150 subjects with osteoporosis were randomized to one of the two treatment groups: RSDM+ (monthly risedronate 150 mg and cholecalciferol 30,000 IU combined in a single pill, n = 74 or RSDM (monthly risedronate 150 mg alone, n = 76. We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and bone markers, as well as performing muscle-function tests at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment.Results: After 16 weeks, serum 25(OHD levels significantly increased from 17.8 to 26.8 ng/mL in the RSDM+ group, but did not change in the RSDM group. The RSDM+ group exhibited significantly decreased serum PTH from 46 to 36.7 pg/mL, while the RSDM group showed a tendency for PTH to increase from 38 to 40.6 pg/mL. In both groups, serum bone

  7. Cholecalciferol inhibits lipid accumulation by regulating early adipogenesis in cultured adipocytes and zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hyoun; Kang, Smee; Jung, Yu Na; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2016-01-15

    Cholecalciferol (CCF) is a common dietary supplement as a precursor of active vitamin D. In the present study, the effect of CCF on lipid accumulation was investigated in adipocyte cells and zebrafish models. CCF effectively inhibited lipid accumulation in both experimental models; this effect was attributed to the CCF-mediated regulation of early adipogenic factors. CCF down-regulated the expressions of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-β (C/EBPβ), C/EBPδ, Krueppel-like factor (KLF) 4, and KLF5, while KLF2, a negative adipogenic regulator, was increased by CCF treatment. CCF inhibited cell cycle progression of adipocytes through down-regulation of cyclin A and cyclinD; p-Rb was suppressed by CCF, but p27 was up-regulated with CCF treatment. This CCF-mediated inhibition of cell cycle progression is highly correlated to the inhibitions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), serine threonine-specific kinase (AKT), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Furthermore, CCF-induced inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a fatty acid synthetic enzyme, with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) was also observed. Consistent with the observations in adipocytes, CCF effectively inhibited lipid accumulation with the down-regulation of adipogenic factors in zebrafish. The present study indicates that CCF showed anti-adipogenic effect in adipocytes and zebrafish, and its inhibitory effect was involved in the regulation of early adipogenic events including cell cycle arrest and activation of AMPKα signaling.

  8. Combinations of cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol as vitamin D sources in white laying hen feed diets

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    Diego Fernando Remolina Rivera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cholecalciferol (D3 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3 as isolated or associated sources of vitamin D (100%-0%, 75%-25%, 50%-50%, 25%-75%, 0%-100% on the productive performance, egg quality, and bone characteristics was evaluated in white egg-laying hens fed two levels of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P in the basal diet (BD (BD1 = 0.38% Ca - 0.36% available P and BD2 = 3.2% Ca - 0.30% available P. Nine hundred and sixty Dekalb White hens (24 weeks old were distributed into 80 cages, under a completely randomized factorial design for 16 weeks. The use of associated sources of vitamin D reduced the feed intake and feed conversion ratio, as well as BD1, which also increased the egg production and egg mass. The association of vitamin D sources with up to 50% 25-OHD3 increased the eggshell percentage. There was interaction (p<0.05 between the sources of vitamin D and the concentrations of Ca and available P, sources with at least 50% 25-OHD3 increased ash percentage and bone radiographic densitometry (BRD with BD1; in BD2 the use of 25-OHD3 as isolated vitamin D source increased BRD. The association of D3 and 25-OHD3 improved the productive performance, increased the percentage of eggshell and had different positive effects on the bone characteristics that depend on the concentrations of Ca and available P in the balanced feed of white egg-laying hens.

  9. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N; Jensen, Søren K

    2016-03-14

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose-response and chemical form. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of increasing the amount of retinol in combination with RRR-α-tocopherol or all-rac-α-tocopherol in the feed given to growing mink on their retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentrations in plasma and selected organs. The results showed that the mink met their retinol requirements from the basal diet, but there were no negative effects of supplying various amounts of retinol on their plasma α-tocopherol concentrations. On the other hand, the study showed that the cholecalciferol status in plasma, assessed as the 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration, was low when retinol was supplemented in the feed at high levels. In addition, supplementation with RRR-α-tocopherol in the feed negatively affected the plasma concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol compared with supplementation with all-rac-α-tocopherol. In general, female mink had higher concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in plasma than male mink.

  10. Medical Management of Hypovitaminosis D With Cholecalciferol and Elastic Therapeutic Taping in Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozel, Caitlin A; Kinney, Matthew E; Hanley, Christopher S; Padilla, Luis R

    2016-03-01

    Three hand-reared, 50-53 day-old, red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) chicks were evaluated for acute lameness and reluctance to ambulate. Two of the 3 chicks presented with angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsi and external rotation of the legs. Radiographs demonstrated decreased opacity of the long bone of the legs, with poorly delineated cortices and deviation of the proximal tarsometarsi. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol revealed all 3 chicks were deficient in vitamin D(3) at presentation. The chicks were administered injectable vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol), oral vitamin D(3), and an ultraviolet B (UV-B) light was placed in their enclosure. Elastic, therapeutic taping was used to correct angular limb deformities present in 2 of the 3 chicks. Taping was continued until the angular limb deformities were corrected and lameness resolved. Hypovitaminosis D is a common cause of metabolic bone disease in captive avian species. Cholecalciferol administration, UV-B light supplementation, and elastic, therapeutic taping were effective treatments for osteodystrophy and secondary angular limb deformities due to hypovitaminosis D. This multifaceted treatment may be useful in other long-legged juvenile birds with similar clinical signs.

  11. The effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on vitamin D levels and insulin sensitivity is dose related in vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukel, CJ van den Bout-va; Bos, M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Sweep, F.C.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bosch, M.E.; Burger, D.M.; Koopmans, P.P.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of cholecalciferol supplementation on vitamin D levels, bone mineral density (BMD), body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: Twenty vitamin D-deficient HIV-1-infected patients we

  12. Cholecalciferol Additively Reduces Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Increases Vitamin D and Cathelicidin Levels in Paricalcitol-Treated Secondary Hyperparathyroid Hemodialysis Patients

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    Jing-Quan Zheng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active Vitamin D analogues are used clinically for prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT in hemodialysis (HD patients. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation is used for additional local parathyroid (PTH suppression, with lower incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. This study evaluates the possible beneficial effects of combined vitamin D treatment (paricalcitol and cholecalciferol. Methods: Sixty HD patients with serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH >300 pg/mL were enrolled. All patients administered 2 mcg/day of paricalcitol and were randomly allocated into control group (placebo or study group (cholecalciferol for 16 weeks. Serum 25(OHD3, iPTH and human cathelicidin (hCAP-18 were measured at baseline and during follow-up. Results: iPTH levels decreased in the study group appropriately and were more significantly decreased at 16 weeks. Study group had significantly increased 25(OHD3 levels. In addition, the study group had significantly increased serum hCAP-18 levels compared with control group. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the percentage increase in serum hCAP-18 and 25(OHD3 levels. Conclusions: Cholecalciferol, in combination with paricalcitol, additively lowers the iPTH levels in a significant number of patients after 16 weeks of supplementation. A dose of 5000 IU/week of cholecalciferol could maintain serum 25(OHD3 levels above 30 ng/dL as early as 8 weeks after beginning supplementation. Doubling of serum cathelicidin levels were noted after 16 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation in 40% of study patients.

  13. Cholecalciferol Additively Reduces Serum Parathyroid Hormone and Increases Vitamin D and Cathelicidin Levels in Paricalcitol-Treated Secondary Hyperparathyroid Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing-Quan; Hou, Yi-Chou; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Lu, Chien-Lin; Liu, Wen-Chih; Wu, Chia-Chao; Huang, Ming-Te; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Active Vitamin D analogues are used clinically for prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation is used for additional local parathyroid (PTH) suppression, with lower incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. This study evaluates the possible beneficial effects of combined vitamin D treatment (paricalcitol and cholecalciferol). Methods: Sixty HD patients with serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >300 pg/mL were enrolled. All patients administered 2 mcg/day of paricalcitol and were randomly allocated into control group (placebo) or study group (cholecalciferol) for 16 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D3, iPTH and human cathelicidin (hCAP-18) were measured at baseline and during follow-up. Results: iPTH levels decreased in the study group appropriately and were more significantly decreased at 16 weeks. Study group had significantly increased 25(OH)D3 levels. In addition, the study group had significantly increased serum hCAP-18 levels compared with control group. Correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the percentage increase in serum hCAP-18 and 25(OH)D3 levels. Conclusions: Cholecalciferol, in combination with paricalcitol, additively lowers the iPTH levels in a significant number of patients after 16 weeks of supplementation. A dose of 5000 IU/week of cholecalciferol could maintain serum 25(OH)D3 levels above 30 ng/dL as early as 8 weeks after beginning supplementation. Doubling of serum cathelicidin levels were noted after 16 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation in 40% of study patients. PMID:27827962

  14. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D₃) improves functional recovery when delivered during the acute phase after a spinal cord trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, Yatma; Marqueste, Tanguy; Maurel, Fanny; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Decherchi, Patrick; Feron, François

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, based on a rat model of thoracic spinal cord compression, we demonstrated that cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3), delivered at the dose of 200 IU/kg/day, significantly improved ventilatory frequency and spasticity. In order to confirm the restorative potential of vitamin D, we performed a new study, using a rat model of left cervical hemisection (C2). From Day 1 or Day 7, animals received, during three months, a weekly oral bolus of either cholecalciferol, at the dose of 500 IU/kg/day, or vehicle, namely triglycerides. Rats were assessed every month, using a ladder test for sensori-locomotor ability and neuromuscular capacity. Three months after injury, H-reflex was recorded from left extensor digitorum muscle in order to measure the reflexivity of the sub-lesional region. Ventilatory frequency was also monitored during an electrically induced muscle fatigue of the hindlimb known to enhance muscle metaboreflex and increase respiratory rate. After recording the phrenic nerve activity, ipsilateral to the lesion, during spontaneous breathing, animals were artificially ventilated while paralyzed with a neuromuscular blocking agent and then the brainstem respiratory centres were provoked to maximal output by temporarily stopping the ventilator. Spinal cords were immunostained with an anti-neurofilament antibody to evaluate axon numbers. We show here that vitamin D-treated animals display i) an enhanced locomotor activity, ii) an improved breathing when hindlimb muscle was electrically stimulated to induce fatigue, iii) an H-reflex depression similar to control animals, iv) a phrenic nerve activity response to a temporary asphyxial stress and v) a non significant decreased number of axons in the proximal stump when compared with the Sham group. This new set of data confirms that vitamin D is a potent molecule that could be tested in clinical trials assessing functional recovery in para-/tetra-plegic patients, shortly after a trauma.

  15. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D profile after single large oral doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 in medical staff in North India: A pilot study

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    L Priyambada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency is widely prevalent in India and subjects who have almost no exposure to sunlight are severely deficient. Daily oral doses of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 are costly as compared to stoss doses and further, take a long time for the serum levels to reach a plateau. Compliance to supplementation may also be better if a regimen involves single oral doses of vitamin D at specified intervals rather than daily doses. Evidence-based guidelines regarding the dosing and the frequency of dosing for prophylactic intermittent supplementation (stoss doses in severely-deficient subjects are few. Materials and Methods: In a prospective intervention study, we serially assessed 30 asymptomatic healthy medical staff for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and parathyroid hormone (PTH; (a at baseline; (b monthly for 3 months after single oral 60,000 units (U cholecalciferol; (c monthly for 3 months after 120,000 (or 180,000 for those with elevated alkaline phosphatase U cholecalciferol; and, (d subsequently, at 3 months after a repeat dose of 60,000 U cholecalciferol by repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The baseline serum 25(OHD was 7.1 ± 5.4 ng/mL (< 10 ng/mL in 85% subjects which increased to 18.7 ± 8.9 ng/mL at 1 month after 60,000 U of cholecalciferol (P < 0.001 and decreased to 11.1 ± 5.3 ng/mL by the 3 rd month. The higher dose of 120,000 (or 180,000 U increased mean 25(OHD to 28.9 ± 9.9 ng/mL at the end of 1 st month, declining to 17.9 ± 4.9 ng/mL (P < 0.001 at 3 months. With the subsequent 60,000 U the serum 25(OHD was 18.4 ± 3.9 ng/mL at 3 months. PTH showed a corresponding negative trend. No hypercalcemia was observed. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent amongst medical staff in Northern India. An initial dose of 120,000-180,000 U of cholecalciferol is required to elevate 25(OHD out of the deficiency range. Maintenance dose is needed at 2 months.

  16. Dietary cholecalciferol regulates the recruitment and growth of skeletal muscle fibers and the expressions of myogenic regulatory factors and the myosin heavy chain in European sea bass larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Bazin, Didier; Mazurais, David; Zambonino-Infante, José L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary cholecalciferol affects the recruitment and growth of axial skeletal muscle fibers in first-feeding European sea bass. Larvae were fed diets containing 0.28 (VD-L, low dose), 0.69 (VD-C, control dose), or 3.00 (VD-H, high dose) mg cholecalciferol/kg from 9 to 44 d posthatching (dph). Larvae were sampled at 44 dph for quantification of somatic growth, muscle growth, and muscle growth dynamics and at 22 and 44 dph for the relative quantification of transcripts encoded by genes involved in myogenesis, cell proliferation, and muscle structure. The weight increase of the VD-L-fed larvae was less than that of the VD-H-fed group, whereas that of VD-C-fed larvae was intermediate. The level of expression of genes involved in cell proliferation (PCNA) and early myogenesis (Myf5) decreased between 22 and 44 dph, whereas that of the myogenic determination factor MyoD1 and that of genes involved in muscle structure and function (myosin heavy chain, myosin light chains 2 and 3) increased. Dietary cholecalciferol regulated Myf5, MyoD1, myogenin, and myosin heavy chain gene expression, with a gene-specific shape of response. The maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibers was higher in larvae fed the VD-C and VD-H diets than in larvae fed the VD-L diet. White muscle hyperplasia was highly stimulated in VD-H-fed larvae compared to VD-L- and VD-C-fed ones. These findings demonstrate a dietary cholecalciferol effect on skeletal muscle growth mechanisms of a Teleost species.

  17. The effect of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on biochemical bone markers in HIV type 1-infected males: results of a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Benfield, Thomas; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2013-04-01

    HIV-1-infected patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the bone metabolism in HIV-1-infected patients exposed to calcitriol and cholecalciferol. We also investigated the relationship between T cells and bone markers. We conducted a placebo-controlled randomized study running for 16 weeks including 61 HIV-1-infected males, of whom 51 completed the protocol. Nineteen participants were randomized to daily treatment with (A) 0.5-1.0 μg calcitriol and 1,200 IU (30 μg) cholecalciferol, 17 participants to (B) 1,200 IU cholecalciferol, and 15 participants to (C) placebo. At baseline and after 16 weeks, we determined collagen type 1 trimeric cross-linked peptide (CTx), procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. We determined naive CD4(+) and CD8(+), activated CD4(+) and CD8(+), and regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(low) T lymphocytes. Baseline levels of P1NP and CTx correlated (coefficient 0.5, pcholecalciferol, the mean levels of P1NP (pcholecalciferol induced biochemical indications of bone formation in HIV-1 patients.

  18. Cholecalciferol supplementation improves suppressive capacity of regulatory T-cells in young patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus - A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiber, Gerlies; Prietl, Barbara; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Lechner, Evelyne; Ribitsch, Anja; Fritsch, Maria; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Steigleder-Schweiger, Claudia; Graninger, Winfried; Borkenstein, Martin; Pieber, Thomas R

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown if cholecalciferol is able to modify defects in regulatory T cells (Tregs) in type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial 30 young patients with new-onset T1D were assigned to cholecalciferol (70IU/kgbodyweight/day) or placebo for 12months. Tregs were determined by FACS-analysis and functional tests were assessed with ex vivo suppression co-cultures at months 0, 3, 6 and 12. Suppressive capacity of Tregs increased (pcholecalciferol from baseline (-1.59±25.6%) to 3 (30.5±39.4%), 6 (44.6±23.8%) and 12months (37.2±25.0%) and change of suppression capacity from baseline to 12months was significantly higher (pcholecalciferol (22.2±47.2%) than placebo (-16.6±21.1%). Serum calcium and parathormone stayed within normal range. This is the first study, which showed that cholecalciferol improved suppressor function of Tregs in patients with T1D and vitamin D could serve as one possible agent in the development of immunomodulatory combination therapies for T1D.

  19. Phenotypic shift of adipocytes by cholecalciferol and 1α,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in relation to inflammatory status and calcium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoico, Elena; Franceschetti, Guido; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Rossi, Andrea P; Mazzali, Gloria; Rizzatti, Vanni; Budui, Simona; Zamboni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Recent experimental data seem to suggest a relevant role for 1,25[OH]2cholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3) in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology, with some studies showing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory properties, and others lipolytic and anti-inflammatory functions. Moreover, to our knowledge, the role of cholecalciferol (D3) in adipocytes function is still not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of 1,25[OH]2D3, as well as of D3, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in basal and inflammatory conditions, testing the effects of different calcium concentrations in adipocytes culture medium. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 mRNA were detected in basal conditions and induced after D3 treatment. Pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes not only with 1,25[OH]2D3, but also with D3 before inflammatory stimulation, significantly prevented the increase in gene expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α, and significantly increased IL-10 mRNA and protein production compared with adipocytes treated only with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Biological effects of D3 were still present after inhibition of P450 activity with ketokonazole. LPS determined a decrease in cell area compared with controls, paralleled by a significant increase in optical density (OD) of lipid droplets, whereas 1,25[OH]2D3 and D3 alone significantly increased adipocytes area and decreased OD. Pretreatment with both forms of vitamin D preserved cells from the reduction in their area observed after LPS treatment. LPS decreased more the area of cells grown in a high calcium medium than of adipocytes grown in a low calcium medium. In the presence of a high calcium medium, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment preserved cell area, maintaining its anti-inflammatory and adipogenic properties. In conclusion our results show that D3, besides 1,25[OH]2D3, presents anti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1, as well as that adipocytes have the enzymatic pathways necessary to locally regulate the

  20. A review of the cholecalciferol for commensal rodent control%胆钙化醇灭鼠剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈谊; 张彩菊; 蒋洪

    2014-01-01

    长期高强度的施用抗凝血灭鼠剂,家栖鼠已经出现较大范围的拒食和耐药现象,需要研发一种可以有效克服抗凝血灭鼠剂耐药性或抗药性的新型灭鼠剂.胆钙化醇灭鼠剂(cholecalciferol)是一种安全性好、可以防治对抗凝血灭鼠剂产生抗药性鼠的新型灭鼠剂,在美国、新西兰等发达国家得到广泛应用.本文综述了胆钙化醇灭鼠剂的毒力、现场灭效、适口性及对抗药鼠灭效等国内外研究进展,以此展望胆钙化醇灭鼠剂在我国的应用潜力.

  1. Simultaneous determination of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) in foods by selected reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimartino, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) were determined simultaneously by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry for different food matrixes. A small amount of starting sample was saponified and extracted before injection into a linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. Dihydrotachysterol, which is absent from food and has a structure similar to that of vitamins D3 and D2, was used as an internal standard. Calibration curves for the 2 vitamins showed linearity with R2 values of 0.9999 and 0.9989 for vitamins D3 and D2, respectively. Limits of detection for vitamins D3 and D2 were 0.5 ng/g (1.3 pmol/g) and 1.75 ng/g (4.4 pmol/g) and limits of quantitation were 1.25 ng/g (3.24 pmol/g), and 3.75 ng/g (9.45 pmol/g), respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method were tested with the infant formula reference standard of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, which showed a relative standard deviation of 6%. Recoveries ranged from 95 to 105%. Several food products were tested with AOAC Method 982.29, which is currently in use for vitamins D3 and D2, and results were comparable within 6%.

  2. Dietary cholecalciferol and calcium levels in a Western-style defined rodent diet alter energy metabolism and inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastie, Claire C; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Lee, Ting-Wen A; Dhima, Elena; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2012-05-01

    Male and female C57Bl6 mice were fed a control AIN76A diet, a new Western-style diet (NWD1) reflecting dietary patterns linked to elevated colon cancer incidence (higher fat, lower cholecalciferol, calcium, methyl donors, fiber), or NWD1 with elevated cholecalciferol and calcium (NWD2) from weaning. After 24 wk, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] decreased by >80% in the NWD1 group compared with controls, but with no alteration in serum calcium or bone mineral density. The decreased serum 25(OH)D was prevented in the NWD2 group. After 32 wk, the NWD1 group compared with controls reduced overall energy expenditure by 15% without altering food consumption or physical activity and induced glucose intolerance, phenotypes associated with metabolic syndrome. These responses were unexpectedly exacerbated in the NWD2 group, further shifting mice toward greater fatty acid storage rather than oxidation compared with both control and NWD1 groups, but there was no change in physical activity, causing significant weight gain due to increased fat mass. The NWD1 group also exhibited inflammatory responses compared with controls, including macrophage-associated crown-like structures in epididymal adipose tissue and increased serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β, and of its targets, MCP-1 and Rantes, which were prevented or greatly mitigated in the NWD2 group. However, there was also elevated lipid storage in the liver and steatosis not seen in the control and NWD1 groups. Thus, elevating cholecalciferol and calcium in a Western-style diet can reduce inflammation associated with risk for colon tumor development, but interaction of nutrients in this diet can compromise liver function when fed long term.

  3. Efficacy of a Once-Monthly Pill Containing Ibandronate and Cholecalciferol on the Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Bone Markers in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jin Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe present study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of ibandronate and cholecalciferol on the restoration of the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D and various bone markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.MethodsThis was a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, prospective 16-week clinical trial conducted in 20 different hospitals. A total of 201 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were assigned randomly to one of two groups: the IBN group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate (n=99, or the IBN+ group, which received a once-monthly pill containing 150 mg ibandronate and 24,000 IU cholecalciferol (n=102. Serum levels of 25(OHD, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and various bone markers were assessed at baseline and at the end of a 16-week treatment period.ResultsAfter 16 weeks of treatment, the mean serum levels of 25(OHD significantly increased from 21.0 to 25.3 ng/mL in the IBN+ group but significantly decreased from 20.6 to 17.4 ng/mL in the IBN group. Additionally, both groups exhibited significant increases in mean serum levels of PTH but significant decreases in serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX at 16 weeks; no significant differences were observed between the groups. However, in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, IBN+ treatment resulted in a significant decrease in serum CTX levels compared with IBN treatment.ConclusionThe present findings demonstrate that a once-monthly pill containing ibandronate and cholecalciferol may be useful for the amelioration of vitamin D deficiency in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, this treatment combination effectively decreased serum levels of resorption markers, especially in subjects with a vitamin D deficiency, over the 16-week treatment period.

  4. Changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdahl, Jacob H; Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Bang, Ulrich Christian; Jensen, Jens-Erik Beck

    2012-10-01

    We wanted to evaluate the cutaneous synthesis of 25OHD and cholecalciferol after one whole-body exposure to ultraviolet radiation type B (UVB) in a randomized setup. Healthy volunteers were randomized to one whole-body exposure in a commercial tanning bed with UVB emission (UVB/UVA ratio 1.8-2.0%) or an identical placebo tanning bed without UVB. The output in the 280-320 nm range was 450 µW/cm². Blood samples were analyzed for 25OHD and cholecalciferol at baseline and during 7 days after treatment. We included 20 volunteers, 11 to UVB and 9 to placebo treatment. During the first 6 h, no significant differences in 25OHD between the groups were found. At the end of the study, we found a mean increase of 25OHD in the UVB group of 4.5 nmol/l (SD 7 nmol/l) compared to a decline of -1.2 nmol/l (SD 7 nmol/l) in the placebo group (p = 0.1). A linear mixed model yielded an increase of 25OHD in the UVB group of 1.0 nmol/l per 24 h (p cholecalciferol, we found a near significant increase of 1 pmol/l per hour in the UVB group compared to the placebo group during the first 6 h (p = 0.052). One tanning bed session had significant, but modest impact on the level of 25OHD during 7 days after exposure to UVB.

  5. Efficacy of Alendronate and Cholecalciferol Combination in the Treatment of Osteoporosis in Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis Receiving Antiviral Therapy: Report of Two Cases

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    İlke Coşkun Benlidayı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, the efficacy of 12-month alendronate and cholecalciferol combination therapy for the treatment of osteoporosis in two male patients with chronic viral hepatitis aged above 60 years who were on antiviral treatment was evaluated. The patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry while receiving 245 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate once daily and started on alendronate and cholecalciferol combination (70 mg/2800 IU. Baseline T-scores of the two patients were -2.6 and -4.9, respectively. Baseline bone mineral density (BMD and 25(OHD (ng/ml values were compared with post-treatment values. Regarding the first case, following treatment, lumbar, femoral neck and total hip BMD values were improved by 1.9%, 5.2% and 13.8%, respectively. In the second case, L1-L4 lumbar, femoral neck and total hip BMD values were improved by 23.2%, 25.9% and 14.8%, respectively. However, when pre- and posttreatment 25(OHD levels were compared, a decrease was observed in both patients. In conclusion, 12-month treatment with alendronate and cholecalciferol combination improved BMD values, in patients with chronic viral hepatitis who were on antiviral therapy. Considering that tenofovir therapy effects vitamin D metabolism independently in these patients, it is necessary to control 25(OHD levels in a regular basis and to support the patient with adequate vitamin D supplementation, in order to optimize serum vitamin D levels and prevent from vitamin D insufficiency. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2015;21: 96-9

  6. Effect of two different doses of oral cholecalciferol supplementation on serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in healthy Indian postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial

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    Niti Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of two different doses (500 and 1000 IU/day of oral vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol on serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OHD] levels in apparently healthy postmenopausal Indian women. Materials and Methods: Serum 25(OHD, calcium with albumin, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were measured in 92 apparently healthy postmenopausal women. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups and received supplementation for 3 months each. Each group received 1000 mg calcium carbonate daily while groups B and C received 500 and 1000 IU of cholecalciferol in addition, respectively. The tests were repeated after 3 months. Results: At baseline, 83.7% subjects had vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL. The difference in the percentage change in mean serum 25(OHD levels from baseline in group A (-30.5 ± 5.3%, group B (+8.9 ± 19.7%, and in group C (+97.8 ± 53.3% was statistically significant (P 20 ng/mL was achieved in 4.7% (1/21, 16% (4/25, and 66.67% (12/18 subjects in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No significant change was found in serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels at 3 months in either of the groups from baseline. Conclusions: Standard dose of cholecalciferol available in "calcium tablets" (250 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate is not adequate for achieving optimum serum 25(OHD levels in Indian postmenopausal women. Higher dose of vitamin D supplementation with 1000 IU/day (500 IU per 500 mg calcium carbonate daily is superior to the standard dose therapy. For achievement of optimum serum 25(OHD levels (>30 ng/mL in Indian postmenopausal women, still higher doses of vitamin D are likely to be required.

  7. Effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on serum cholecalciferol concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitris, Michelle C; Perumal, Nandita; Craig-Barnes, Hayley A; Leadley, Michael; Mahmud, Abdullah A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Roth, Daniel E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D status is conventionally defined by the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. However, it has been proposed that the serum cholecalciferol concentration (D3) also determines functional vitamin D sufficiency. The objective of this study was to describe the effect of weekly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation on inter-dose serum D3 in pregnant women. We conducted a sub-study of a completed randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 (35,000 IU/week) supplementation in late pregnancy (AViDD trial) in Dhaka, Bangladesh. This study included pregnant women enrolled at 26-29 weeks gestation who fully adhered to the prenatal supplement intervention for ≥8 consecutive weeks and for whom serum samples were available for D3 analysis (n=65). Serum D3 was uniformly low at enrolment. Mean D3 increased and was maximal at 1 day after vitamin D dose administration (152.09nmol/L, SD 25.11nmol/L) and remained significantly higher in VitD vs. Pl at 7 days (29.59nmol/L vs. 1.92nmol/L, p=0.007). Daily average of the group mean D3 during the week following dosing was 66.97nmol/L in VitD versus 2.13nmol/L in Pl. In conclusion, serum D3 remained significantly elevated throughout the week following ≥8 consecutive weekly doses of 35,000 IU D3 in pregnant women. However, the clinically significant minimum threshold of serum D3 remains to be established.

  8. Comparison of the effects of cholecalciferol and calcitriol on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in Chinese postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao ZHANG; Qi-ren HUANG; Jie-mei GU; Wei-wei HU; Yu-juan LIU; Yun-qiu HU; Zhen-lin ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To compare the effects of cholecalciferol (800 IU/d)and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d)on calcium metabolism and bone turnover in Chinese postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.Methods:One hundred Chinese postmenopausal women aged 63.8+7.0 years and with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D]concentration <30 ng/mL were recruited.The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the age and serum 25(OH)D concentration:50 subjects (group A)received cholecalciferol (800 IU/d),and 50 subjects (group B)received calcitriol (0.25 μg/d)for 3 months.In addition,all the subjects received Caltrate D (calcium plus 125 IU cholecalciferol)daily in the form of one pill.The markers of calcium metabolism and bone turnover,including the serum levels of calcium,phosphorus,alkaline phosphatase,intact parathyroid hormone,25(OH)D and β-CrossLaps of type Ⅰ collagen containing cross-linked C-telopeptide (β-CTX),were measured before and after the intervention.Results:After the 3-month intervention,the serum 25(OH)D concentration in group A was significantly increased from 16.01+5.0 to 20.02+4.5 ng/mL,while that in group B had no significant change.The serum calcium levels in both the groups were significantly increased (group A:from 2.36+0.1 to 2.45±0.1 mmol/L; group B:from 2.36±0.1 to 2.44±0.1 mmol/L).The levels of serum intact parathyroid hormone in both the groups were significantly decreased (group A:from 48.56+12.8 to 39.59±12.6 pg/mL; group B:from 53.67±20.0 to 40.32±15.4 pg/mL).The serum levels of β-CTX in both the groups were also significantly decreased (group A:from 373.93±135.3 to 325.04±149.0 ng/L; group B:from 431.00+137.1 to 371.74±185.0 ng/L).Conclusion:We concluded that both cholecalciferol (800 IU/d)and calcitriol (0.25 μg/d)plus Caltrate D modifies the serum calcium and bone turnover markers in Chinese postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency,in addition,cholecalciferol (800 IU/d)plus Caltrate D significantly increased the serum 25(OH

  9. A randomised comparison of increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration after 4 weeks of daily oral intake of 10 microg cholecalciferol from multivitamin tablets or fish oil capsules in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvik, Kristin; Madar, Ahmed A; Meyer, Haakon E; Lofthus, Cathrine M; Stene, Lars C

    2007-09-01

    Many types of vitamin supplements are available on the market, but little is known about whether cholecalciferol obtained from fat-containing capsules differs in bioavailability from that of solid tablets. Our objective was to test whether 4 weeks of daily supplementation with 10 mug cholecalciferol given as a fish oil capsule produces a larger increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) concentration compared with the same dose of cholecalciferol given as a multivitamin tablet. A total of seventy-four healthy subjects aged 19-49 years were initially included and fifty-five of these completed the study and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After completing a self-administered questionnaire about diet and sunshine exposure and having a non-fasting venous blood sample drawn, participants were randomised to receive daily multivitamin tablets (n 28) or fish oil capsules (n 27), each containing equal doses of cholecalciferol. A second blood sample was drawn after 28 d. Mean baseline s-25(OH)D was 40.3 (sd 22.0) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 48.5 (24.8) nmol/l in the fish oil group. When controlling for baseline s-25(OH)D, mean 4-week increase in s-25(OH)D was 35.8 (95 % CI 30.9, 40.8) nmol/l in the multivitamin group and 32.3 (95 % CI 27.3, 37.4) nmol/l in the fish oil group; the mean difference was 3.5 (95 % CI - 3.6, 10.6) nmol/l (P = 0.33). The results were unaltered by statistical adjustment for BMI, ethnic background, age and sex. We conclude that fish oil capsules and multivitamin tablets containing 10 microg cholecalciferol administered over a 4-week period produced a similar mean increase in s-25(OH)D concentration.

  10. [Study of hard mineralized tissues effect of calcium-deficient diets with and without cholecalciferol supplementation on the incisor dentine of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, M; Takada, H; Fuda, H; Watanabe, Y; Ikeda, K; Hasegawa, H

    1989-01-01

    It has been known that both tooth and bone have an apatite structure similar to that of mineral hydroxyapatite. The apatite crystal in living tissues of tooth and bone generally is constructed from submicrocrystals and has many impurities. It seems that chemical and physical aspects of resistance of hard tissues depend on the diet. Consequently, the matrix of organic, free radicals in X-ray irradiated hard tissues were studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR). The effects of calcium-deficient diets with and without cholecalciferol supplementation on the incisor dentine of rats were examined by the rate of decay of organic, free fadicals in X-ray irradiated incisor dentine of rats. The crystal size of incisor dentine became smaller in case of calcium contained diet.

  11. Effects of a 1-year supplementation with cholecalciferol on interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilfuss, Julia; Berg, Vivian; Sneve, Monica; Jorde, Rolf; Kamycheva, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Insufficient vitamin D status has been linked to autoimmune diseases, cancer and metabolic disorders, like obesity and insulin resistance. In vitro and animal studies suggest that vitamin D may play a crucial role in immune activation and inflammation. The relation between vitamin D and pro-inflammatory cytokines is not completely established. Furthermore, it is not known if the effect of vitamin D on entities of metabolic syndrome is mediated through its effect on cytokines or other biomarkers. The objectives of this study were to investigate if there is a relationship between vitamin D status and such pro-inflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with overweigh and obesity. We also proposed that the intervention with high dose of cholecalciferol may have effect on the cytokine levels and result in corresponding changes in the measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and QUICKI). Serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP were measured in 332 overweight and obese subjects who completed a 1-year randomised intervention with either 40,000 IU vitamin D (cholecalciferol) per week or 20,000 IU vitamin D per week, or placebo. We found significant associations between IL-6, TNF-α, vitamin D and insulin resistance indices at baseline. One year intervention with vitamin D decreased serum IL-6 levels; however hs-CRP levels were significantly increased. Neither measures of insulin resistance, nor TNF-α were influenced by a 1-year vitamin D supplementation.

  12. Phase IIa, randomized placebo-controlled trial of single high dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and daily Genistein (G-2535) versus double placebo in men with early stage prostate cancer undergoing prostatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, David; Konety, Badrinath; Huang, Wei; Downs, Tracy; Kolesar, Jill; Kim, Kyung Mann; Havighurst, Tom; Slaton, Joel; House, Margaret G; Parnes, Howard L; Bailey, Howard H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Prostate cancer (PCa) represents an important target for chemoprevention given its prolonged natural history and high prevalence. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that vitamin D and genistein (soy isoflavone) may decrease PCa progression. The effect of vitamin D on prostate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation is well documented and genistein may augment this affect through inhibition of the CYP24 enzyme, which is responsible for intracellular vitamin D metabolism. In addition, both genistein and vitamin D inhibit the intraprostatic synthesis of prostaglandin E2, an important mediator of inflammation. The objectives of this prospective multicenter trial were to compare prostate tissue calcitriol levels and down-stream related biomarkers in men with localized prostate cancer randomized to receive cholecalciferol and genistein versus placebo cholecalciferol and placebo genistein during the pre-prostatectomy period. Methods: Men undergoing radical prostatectomy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: (1) cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) 200,000 IU as one dose at study entry plus genistein (G-2535), 600 mg daily or (2) placebo cholecalciferol day 1 and placebo genistein PO daily for 21-28 days prior to radical prostatectomy. Serum and tissue analyses were performed and side-effects recorded. Results: A total of 15 patients were enrolled, 8 in the placebo arm and 7 in the vitamin D3 + genistein (VD + G) arm. All patients were compliant and completed the study. No significant differences in side effect profiles were noted. Utilization of the VD + G trended toward increased calcitriol serum concentrations when compared to placebo (0.104 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0013 ± 0.08; p=0.08); however, prostate tissue levels did not increase. Calcidiol levels did not change (p=0.5). Immunohistochemistry for marker analyses using VECTRA automated quantitation revealed a increase in AR expression (p=0.04) and a trend toward increased

  13. Effects of three-monthly oral 150,000 IU cholecalciferol supplementation on falls, mobility, and muscle strength in older postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendenning, Paul; Zhu, Kun; Inderjeeth, Charles; Howat, Peter; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Daily vitamin D in addition to calcium supplementation reduces falls and fractures in older women. However, poor adherence to therapy is a common clinical problem. To examine the effects of supervised oral 3-monthly vitamin D therapy on falls, muscle strength, and mobility, we conducted a 9-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 686 community-dwelling ambulant women aged over 70 years. Participants received either oral cholecalciferol 150,000 IU every 3 months (n = 353) or an identical placebo (n = 333). All participants were advised to increase dietary calcium intake. Falls data were collected 3-monthly. At baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months, muscle strength was measured by a handheld dynamometer and mobility by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was measured in a subgroup of 40 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 76.7 ± 4.1 years. The average serum 25OHD value at baseline was 65.8 ± 22.7 nmol/L. By 3, 6, and 9 months after supplementation, 25OHD levels of the vitamin D group were approximately 15 nmol/L higher than the placebo group. Calcium intake did not change significantly between baseline (864 ± 412 mg/day) and 9 months (855 ± 357 mg/day). Faller rates in the two groups did not differ: vitamin D group, 102 of 353 (29%); placebo group, 89 of 333 (27%). At 9 months, compared to placebo or baseline, muscle strength, and TUG were not altered by vitamin D. In conclusion, oral cholecalciferol 150,000 IU therapy administered 3-monthly had neither beneficial nor adverse effects on falls or physical function. These data together with previous findings confirm that intermittent large doses of vitamin D are ineffective or have a deleterious effect on falls. Thus despite adherence issues with daily vitamin D replacement, an intermittent, high-dose vitamin D regimen cannot be supported as a strategy to reduce falls and fractures.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin sensitivity: the effects of a one-year cholecalciferol supplementation in middle-aged overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, Elena; Berg, Vivian; Jorde, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Both altered GH-IGF-I axis and low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are linked to measures of metabolic syndrome. Our hypothesis was that there is a relation between GH, IGF-I, and 25(OH)D; and that vitamin D supplementation may have an effect on the levels of GH, IGF-I, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio. 318 overweight and obese subjects completed a one-year randomized intervention with either 40,000 or 20,000 IU cholecalciferol per week or placebo. GH, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and measures of insulin resistance were evaluated at baseline and at the end of study. There was a significant relation between entities of GH-IGF-I axis and insulin resistance. Subjects with severe obesity had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and had a significant linear decline in IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with increasing serum 25(OH)D quartiles. Vitamin D status was an independent predictor of GH-IGF-I axis and supplementation with vitamin D decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in subjects without severe obesity. No corresponding effect of vitamin D supplementation on BMI or insulin resistance was observed. Adverse effects of GH-IGF-I axis on glucose metabolism and the development of metabolic syndrome may be in part associated with the changes in vitamin D status.

  15. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  16. VITA-D: Cholecalciferol substitution in vitamin D deficient kidney transplant recipients: A randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the post-transplant outcome

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    Thiem Ursula

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D does not only regulate calcium homeostasis but also plays an important role as an immune modulator. It influences the immune system through the induction of immune shifts and regulatory cells resulting in immunologic tolerance. As such, vitamin D is thought to exert beneficial effects within the transplant setting, especially in kidney transplant recipients, considering the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in kidney transplant recipients. Methods/Design The VITA-D study, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with two parallel groups including a total of 200 kidney transplant recipients, is designed to investigate the immunomodulatory and renoprotective effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 within the transplant setting. Kidney transplant recipients found to have vitamin D deficiency defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 The objective is to evaluate the influence of vitamin D3 substitution in vitamin D deficient kidney transplant recipients on the post-transplant outcome. As a primary endpoint glomerular filtration rate calculated with the MDRD formula (modification of diet in renal disease one year after kidney transplantation will be evaluated. Incidence of acute rejection episodes, and the number and severity of infections (analyzed by means of C-reactive protein within the first year after transplantation will be monitored as well. As a secondary endpoint the influence of vitamin D3 on bone mineral density within the first year post-transplant will be assessed. Three DXA analyses will be performed, one within the first four weeks post-transplant, one five months and one twelve months after kidney transplantation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00752401

  17. HPLC法测定胆维丁原料药的含量和有关物质%Determination of the Content of Cholecalciferol Cholesterol and Related Substances by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹; 杨林

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for the content determination of cholecalciferol cholesterol and related substances. METHODS: HPLC method was adopted to determine the contents of cholecalciferol cholesterol and related substances, referring to the determination method of vitamin D3 and cholesterol stated in Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition). UV detector replaced ELSD detector for the determination of cholesterol stated in Chinese Pharmacopeia. Phenomenex Luna 5 μm Silica (2) was used for the content determination of vitamin D5 and related substances, the mobile phase was hexanes-pentanol (997:3) at a flow rate of 2.5 mL·min-1 and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. Waters Sunfire C18 column was used for the determination of cholesterol, the mobile phase was menthol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1 and detection wavelength was set at 205 nm. RESULTS: The linear range of cholesterol was 51.15-511.5 μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 98.75% (RSD=0.94%). CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, reliable and suitable for the quality control of cholecalciferol cholesterol.%目的:建立测定胆维丁原料药及其有关物质含量的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,参照《中国药典》2010年版二部中维生素D3和胆固醇的含量测定项下方法测定胆维丁中2种成分的含量,其中胆固醇测定时由《中国药典》的蒸发光散射检测器改为二极管阵列检测器,并进行方法学考察.维生素D3和有关物质含量测定的色谱柱为Phenomenex Luna5 μm Silica(2),流动相为正己烷-正戊醇(997:3),测定波长为254nm,流速为2.5 mL·min-1;胆固醇测定的色谱柱为Waters Sunfire C18,流动相为甲醇,检测波长205nm,流速为1.0 mL·min-1.结果:胆固醇检测浓度线性范围为51.15~511.5μg·mL-1 (r=0.999 9),平均回收率为98.75%(RSD=0.94%).结论:建立的方法准确、可靠,能有效控制胆维丁原料药的质量.

  18. Oral Calcidiol Is More Effective Than Cholecalciferol Supplementation to Reach Adequate 25(OH)D Levels in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases Chronically Treated with Low Doses of Glucocorticoids: A “Real-Life” Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego-Jurado, Miguel; Callejas-Rubio, José-Luis; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; González-Moreno, Juan; González Ramírez, Amanda Rocío; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the cornerstone of the therapy in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, it is well known that their use is a double edged sword, as their beneficial effects are associated almost universally with unwanted effects, as, for example glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Over the last years, several clinical practice guidelines emphasize the need of preventing bone mass loss and reduce the incidence of fractures associated with GC use. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation, as adjunctive therapy, are included in all the practice guidelines. However, no standard vitamin D dose has been established. Several studies with postmenopausal women show that maintaining the levels above 30–33 ng/mL help improve the response to bisphosphonates. It is unknown if the response is the same in GIO, but in the clinical practice the levels are maintained at around the same values. In this study we demonstrate that patients with autoimmune diseases, undergoing glucocorticoid therapy, often present suboptimal 25(OH)D levels. Patients with higher body mass index and those receiving higher doses of glucocorticoids are at increased risk of having lower levels of 25(OH)D. In these patients, calcidiol supplementations are more effective than cholecalciferol to reach adequate 25(OH)D levels. PMID:26124976

  19. Oral Calcidiol Is More Effective Than Cholecalciferol Supplementation to Reach Adequate 25(OHD Levels in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases Chronically Treated with Low Doses of Glucocorticoids: A “Real-Life” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ortego-Jurado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are the cornerstone of the therapy in many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, it is well known that their use is a double edged sword, as their beneficial effects are associated almost universally with unwanted effects, as, for example glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO. Over the last years, several clinical practice guidelines emphasize the need of preventing bone mass loss and reduce the incidence of fractures associated with GC use. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation, as adjunctive therapy, are included in all the practice guidelines. However, no standard vitamin D dose has been established. Several studies with postmenopausal women show that maintaining the levels above 30–33 ng/mL help improve the response to bisphosphonates. It is unknown if the response is the same in GIO, but in the clinical practice the levels are maintained at around the same values. In this study we demonstrate that patients with autoimmune diseases, undergoing glucocorticoid therapy, often present suboptimal 25(OHD levels. Patients with higher body mass index and those receiving higher doses of glucocorticoids are at increased risk of having lower levels of 25(OHD. In these patients, calcidiol supplementations are more effective than cholecalciferol to reach adequate 25(OHD levels.

  20. Chemical reactivity of Ro-26-9228, 1alpha-fluoro-25-hydroxy-16,23E-diene-26,27-bishomo-20-epi-cholecalciferol in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Michael; Wu, Xiaoyang; Liu, Yanzhou; Pease, Joseph; Holper, Marites; Hooijmaaijer, Elvira; Lu, Yvonne; Wu, Ping

    2003-10-01

    The degradation of Ro-26-9228, 1alpha-fluoro-25-hydroxy-16,23E-diene-26,27-bishomo-20-epi-cholecalciferol, 2, was studied in aqueous solution in the pH range of 1.17-10.56 and in alcohol solutions, at 25, 40, and 50 degrees C. The degradation of Ro-26-9228 was found to be acid catalyzed and to be independent of potassium acetate buffer concentration. Above pH 4, the reaction rate is independent of pH, with a T90 of 14.3 h at 25 degrees C in pH 7.75 buffer. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance was used to study the ratio of the vitamin (6-s-trans) to previtamin form in acetonitrile at 40 degrees C. The equilibrium percentage of previtamin and the rate of approach to equilibrium were 13.8% and 0.2 h(-1), respectively. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to elucidate the structure of the degradation products. Novel products were formed from the elimination of the fluorine and addition of solvent to C9, with formation occurring through the previtamin form. Additional degradation products result from reaction of the side chain 25-hydroxyl and addition of solvent to C1.

  1. Development of a validated UPLC method for simultaneous estimation of both free and entrapped (in solid lipid nanoparticles) all-trans retinoic acid and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and its pharmacokinetic applicability in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Sharma, Gaurav; Singla, Dinesh; Singh, Sukhjeet; Sahwney, Sudhir; Chauhan, Anurag S; Singh, Gagandeep; Kaur, Indu Pal

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for simultaneous estimation of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in rat plasma. The method was validated over the linear range of 1.0-5000ng/ml (r(2)=0.999) for both vitamins with a limit of detection of 0.5ng/ml. Chromatographic separation was achieved using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) on an Acquity BEH RP 18 column (2.1mm×50mm, I.D. 1.7μm), with mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile:methanol:water (90:8:2, v/v/v), at a flow rate of 0.20ml/min and a total run time of 5min. Intra and inter-day variability (RSD) was ≤3.1%, and the accuracy varied between 95.4-99.9% and 95.3-101.1% respectively, for ATRA and 98.5-100.8% and 99.3-101.7%, respectively for vitamin D3. High recovery of ≥96.0% for ATRA and ≥87.80% for vitamin D3 was achieved. ATRA and vitamin D3 were stable in plasma under different storage and processing conditions. The method was applied to estimate the total drug content and entrapment efficiency of ATRA and vitamin D3 loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Concentration of these two agents was determined in rat plasma after simultaneous subcutaneous administration in free form or when loaded into SLNs thus establishing pharmacokinetic application of the developed procedure. Results indicated an improvement in AUC0-∞ by 5.4 times and 29.4 times for ATRA and vitamin D3, respectively, upon their incorporation into SLNs. Simultaneous administration of these two vitamins and their improved and prolonged bioavailability has scope for their use in treatment and control of tuberculosis.

  2. Fortified malted milk drinks containing low-dose ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol do not differ in their capacity to raise serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy men and women not exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Catherine M; Theobald, Hannah E; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2012-07-01

    Uncertainty remains regarding the efficacy of low intakes of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 or D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or D3) provided in food to increase serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) metabolite concentrations when UV-B exposure is low. We recruited 40 healthy men and women into a double-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. Participants received placebo or 1 of 4 experimental treatments (D2 or D3 at 5 or 10 μg/d) supplied as a malted milk drink for 4 wk during a period of minimal UV-B exposure in the UK. The primary outcome was a change in serum 25-OH-D2 and 25-OH-D3 concentrations measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem MS. The secondary outcomes were changes in concentrations of plasma parathyroid hormone and serum calcium (Ca(2+)). Baseline concentrations (geometric mean ± SD) of 25-OH-D2, 25-OH-D3, and total 25-OH-D were 3 ± 4, 32 ± 22, and 37 ± 22 nmol/L, respectively. Both D2- and D3-fortified drinks resulted in dose-dependent increases (P D2 were (mean ± SEM) 9.4 ± 2.5 and 17.8 ± 2.4 nmol/L for 25-OH-D2 and following 5 and 10 μg/d of D3 were 15.1 ± 4.7 and 22.9 ± 4.6 nmol/L for 25-OH-D3, respectively. There was no difference between D2 and D3 groups in the incremental AUC of their respective metabolites. These findings suggest that D2 and D3 are equipotent in increasing 25-OH-D in healthy men and women with negligible UV-B exposure.

  3. 1~14日龄北京鸭维生素D3和25-羟维生素D3需要量的研究%Research on cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol requirement of Peking ducks from 1~14 days of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石文标; 侯水生; 谢明; 黄苇; 喻俊英

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) on growth performance of Peking ducks from 1 to 14 days of age. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) were used to provide 0, 400, 800, 1 200, 1 600, 2 000, 3 000 IU/kg of vitamin D3 activity and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75 μg/kg of 25-OH-D3 in a nutritionally completed corn-soybean meal diet. One thousand and fourty one-day-old male Peking ducks were randomly divided into 13 groups with 8 replicates in each group and 10 ducks in each replicate. Results showed that average dai⁃ly gain(ADG), average daily feed intake(ADFI) and feed conversion(FCR) were increased signifi⁃cantly by increasing vitamin D levels(P0.05). No deficien⁃cy disease was observed during the experimental period. According to the quadratic model and bro⁃ken-line model, the cholecalciferol and 25-cholecalciferol requirements of ADG are 1 849.8 IU/kg (P=0.020 6)and 38.1μg/kg(P=0.029 4),respectively.%  试验采用单因子完全随机试验设计,研究了不同的维生素D3水平(0、400、800、1200、1600、2000、3000 IU/kg)及25-羟维生素D3(25-OH-D3)水平(0、10、20、30、40、50、75μg/kg)对1~14日龄北京鸭生产性能的影响,进而探讨1~14日龄北京鸭维生素D3及25-OH-D3需要量.选取1040只体重基本一致、健康的1日龄雄性北京鸭,随机分为13个处理,每处理8个重复,每重复10只鸭.结果表明,维生素D形式对1~14日龄北京鸭平均日增重、日采食量、料重比和死亡率均无显著影响(P>0.05),维生素D水平对1~14日龄北京鸭平均日增重、日采食量、料重比均有显著的影响(P<0.05),但维生素D缺乏组试验鸭无明显缺乏症.以平均日增重为评价指标,依据二次曲线模型和折线模型估测1~14日龄北京鸭维生素D3和25-OH-D3的需要量分别为1849.8 IU/kg(P=0.0206)和38.1μg/kg(P=0.0294).

  4. Determination of cholecalciferol in infant formula milk powder by ultra performance liquid chromatography method%超高效液相色谱法测定婴幼儿乳粉中维生素D3质量分数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊垚; 任国谱; 王力清; 綦艳; 陈洪涛

    2012-01-01

    A fast、accurate and efficient ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for the determination of vitamin D3 in infant milk powder. Infant formula milk powder was extracted by petroleum ether after saponification together with lipase,ascorbic acid - ethanol solution and KOH solution at a low temperature. The residue was dissolved in methanol and finally injected into the UPLC system after the extraction solution was evaporated to?dry under a rotary evaporator. The chromatographic separation was performed at 30℃ in the isocratic elution mode using a mobile phase composed of a mixture of methanol and water (97:3,V/V) at the flow of 0.1mL/min under the detective wavelength of 264 nm.The cholecalciferol was finally quantified by external standard method.Results: The average spike recoveries of 3 replicates were at 3 levels of 93.4% 、95.3% and 96.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSD)of 1.45%. The detection limit of cholecalciferol was 0.2 μg /100 g. This method demonstrated to be simple with high recovery and precision, and thus had a promising potential for practical applications in cholecalciferol determination.%针对婴幼儿配方乳粉中维生素D3的测定,开发出一种快速、准确、高效的超高效液相色谱方法.耍幼儿配方乳粉经脂肪酶、抗坏血酸-乙醇溶液和KOH溶液低温皂化后石油醚萃取,萃取液经旋转蒸发,最终用甲醇定容后,用超高效液相色谱仪检测.以甲醇+水为流动相等度洗脱,流速0.1 mL/min,柱温30 ℃,DAD扫描波长范围190~400 nm,检测波长为264 nm,维生素D3外标法定量.结果表明:维生素D3加标回收率为93.4%,95.3%和96.5%,RSD为1.45%,最低检出限为0.2 μg/100 g.本法操作步骤简单、回收率及精密度较高,适用于婴幼儿配方乳粉及同类产品中维生素D3的快速测定.

  5. 胆维丁乳对糖尿病性骨质疏松症患者骨代谢指标影响的研究%Effect of cholecalciferol cholesterol emulsion on the index of bone metabolism in diabetic patients with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑旭磊; 刘志文; 盛宏光; 毛旭东; 那日苏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察糖尿病性骨质疏松症患者应用胆维丁乳治疗后骨密度(BMD)和有关骨代谢生化指标的变化。方法:对50例糖尿病性骨质疏松症患者应用胆维丁乳治疗6个月,对比治疗前后髋部BMD、血清钙(Ca)、磷(P)、血清肌酐(Cr)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)、25-羟维生素D2、25-羟维生素D3、25-羟维生素D2+D3、甲状旁腺素( PTH )、血清骨钙素(BGLAP)、降钙素(CT)、空腹血糖、空腹胰岛素及空腹C肽的变化。结果:研究显示,服用胆维丁乳能够明显改善患者的临床症状,有效率为90.6%;治疗6个月后,血钙浓度、AKP、25-羟维生素D3及25-羟维生素D2+D3均有所升高,差异具统计学意义(均P<0.05)。结论:应用胆维丁乳可以有效地改善有关骨代谢的生化指标。%Objective:To investigate the change of biochemical indexes such as bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism in 50 cases of diabetic patients with osteoporosis, who were treated with a cholecalciferol cholesterol emulsion for 6 months. Methods:The levels of hip BMD, serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, AKP, 25-hydroxy vitamin D2, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 25-hydroxy vitamin D2+D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, calcitonin (CT), fasting blood-glucose (FBG), fasting insulin and C-P were compared before treatment and 6 months after. Results:Cholecalciferol cholesterol emulsion could signiifcantly improve the clinical symptoms with the effective rate 90.6%. The levels of calcium, AKP, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxy vitamin D2+D3 were all elevated after 6 months treatment and their differences were statistically significant (average P<0.05). Conclusion:Cholecalciferol cholesterol emulsion can effectively improve the biochemical indexes related to bone metabolism.

  6. Analysis of the level of Serum 1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol in 30 children with Endogenous Hyperphosphatemia%内源性高磷血症患儿血清1,25-二羟基胆骨化醇水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉莉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of the level of 1,25-Dihydroxy Cholecalciferol in 30 cases of children with endogenous hyperphosphatemia. Methods Using fasting blood and OLPUMS AU400, determination of phosphorus by Phosphomolybdate ultraviolet France, determination of serum calcium by methyl thymol blue spectrophotometry (MTB) colorimetric, Determination of 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in 30 cases of high-phosphorus blood group and 30 cases of normal serum phosphate group by Ydioimmunoassay. Results The phosphorus and calcium phosphate product in hyperphosphatemia group is significantly higher than the normal serum phosphate group. The difference is statistically significant. The calcium is slightly lower than the normal serum phosphate in hyperphosphatemia group, The difference is not significant ( P > 0. 05 ). The 1,25 (OH)2D3 of hyperphosphatemia group is significantly lower than the normal serum phosphate group. The difference ia statistically significant( P 0.05);高磷血症组1,25(OH)2D3的含量明显低于正常血磷组,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 高磷血症可抑制1,25(OH)2D3的合成.

  7. 口服维生素D3对维生素D不足绝经后妇女血清25-羟维生素D、骨密度和下肢肌力的影响%Effects of oral cholecalciferol on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, bone mineral density and lower extremity function in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琪仁; 李水军; 张浩; 蒋建新; 虞申; 樊家珠; 胡云秋; 刘玉娟; 章振林

    2015-01-01

    目的:给予不同年龄、维生素D不足的绝经后妇女口服1325 U维生素D3,观察其对血清总25-羟维生素D (25OHD)水平、骨密度( BMD)和下肢肌力(行走八步计时)的影响。方法上海市某社区67名绝经后妇女纳入本研究,按年龄将受试者分成2组:<70岁组[ n=35,(63.6±5.1)岁],≥70岁组[ n=32,(75.2±3.4)岁]。受试者口服1200 U/d维生素D3制剂加1片钙尔奇D (每片含维生素D3125 U和钙600 mg),为期1年。在0、3、6、9和12个月检测血清25OHD,干预前和研究结束时测定BMD及下肢肌力。结果干预1年后,2组平均血清25OHD水平均较基线值显著升高:<70岁组从(17.8±6.7) ng/mL升至(33.8±5.8) ng/mL (P<0.001);≥70岁组从(18.3±6.7) ng/mL升至(34.1±5.7) ng/mL (P<0.001),但2组间增幅差异无统计学意义。有25%受试者(<70岁组9名,≥70岁组6名)平均血清25OHD仍低于30 ng/mL。<70岁组血清甲状旁腺素(PTH)明显降低,从(46.0±14.7) pg/mL降至(37.9±10.0) pg/mL ( P<0.01),各部位BMD较基线值无统计学差异。≥70岁组腰椎BMD提高1.37%(P=0.005),全髋部位BMD提高1.28%( P=0.028)。2组干预后下肢肌力均较干预前改善( P<0.05)。2组均未出现高钙血症及过高的血清25OHD浓度。结论2组维生素D不足的绝经后妇女每日口服1325U维生素D3可将血清25OHD升至理想水平,可改善下肢肌力,≥70岁组腰椎及全髋部BMD均有上升。%Objective To evaluate the effects of daily supplement of 1 325 U cholecalciferol for one year on cir-culation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD] level, bone mineral density ( BMD) and lower extremity function in post-menopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.Methods Sixty-seven postmenopausal women were recruited from urban area of Shanghai.The subjects

  8. Cholecalciferol(25-[OH]-Vitamin D) in Treating Patients With Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-16

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer

  9. Cholecalciferol in Improving Survival in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cancer With Vitamin D Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T-Cell Lymphoma

  10. Cholecalciferol synthesized after UV-activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol onto titanium implants inhibits osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, María; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2015-07-01

    UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) has been successfully used as a biocompatible coating for titanium (Ti) implants producing active vitamin D with positive effect on osteoblast differentiation. Since an osseointegrating implant must promote bone formation while delay resorption, here we determine the effect of this coating on the pre-osteoclast cell line RAW 264.7. Moreover, D3 synthesis was optimized by (1) the supplementation with VitE of the 7-DHC coating to reduce 7-DHC oxidation and (2) the addition of an incubation step (48 h at 23°C) after UV-irradiation to favor isomerization. In vitro results with RAW264.7 cells showed no cytotoxic effect of the coatings and a significant decrease of osteoclastogenesis. Indeed, TRAP immunostaining suggested an inhibition of Trap-positive multinucleated cells and the mRNA levels of different phenotypic, fusion, and activity markers were reduced, particularly with 7-DHC:VitE. In conclusion, we demonstrate an improvement of the D3 synthesis from UV-activated 7-DHC when combined with VitE and show that these implants inhibit osteoclastogenesis in vitro.

  11. Optimalization of the competitive protein binding assays of functional metabolites of cholecalciferol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justova, V.; Starka, L. (Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). 3. Interni Klinika)

    1982-03-16

    Competitive protein binding assays of metabolites of vitamin D were compared using different plasmatic binding proteins from normal and pathological subjects and tritium tracer techniques. The conditions of competitive protein binding assays are optimalized in respect to their routine clinical use.

  12. Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Intensive Induction Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Plasma transport of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol and their 25-hydroxylated metabolites in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2017-01-01

    . About 70% to 90% of 25ERG was found in the protein fraction and the remaining 25ERG was found in HLP, whereas ERG was found in both HLP and LLP fractions. In liver tissue, the expression of vitamin D-25-hydroxylase was lower in D2+D3 (P ≤ 0.05) and SUN (P ≤ 0.05) than that in the remaining groups......, and the vitamin D receptor was expressed in the liver to a larger extent in D2+SUN than that in D2+D3 (P ≤ 0.05) and SUN (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, different plasma transport mechanisms may explain the lower physiological efficiency of ERG compared to CHO in securing the vitamin D status in plasma but do...... treatments: D2, housed indoor and fed 625-μg/d (25.000 IU) ERG; D3, housed indoor and fed 625-μg/d CHO; D2+D3, housed indoor and fed 625-μg/d ERG and 625-μg/d CHO; SUN, let out for daily pasture to facilitate CHO synthesis from sunlight; and D2+SUN, fed 625-μg/d ERG and let out for daily pasture. Blood...

  14. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-04

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  15. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-04-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

  16. Daily cholecalciferol supplementation during pregnancy alters markers of regulatory immunity, inflammation, and clinical outcomes in a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in pregnancy and has been associated with adverse health conditions for mothers and infants. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy may support maintenance of pregnancy by its effects on adaptive and innate immunity. We assessed the effects of vitamin D supplement...

  17. Interactions between retinol, α-tocopherol and cholecalciferol need consideration in diets for farmed mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Clausen, Tove N.; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2016-01-01

    A sufficient but balanced vitamin supplementation is a prerequisite for a satisfactory growth pattern and an effective immune system in mink and all other species. The fat-soluble vitamins are very sensitive to over- or under-supply because they interact with each other with respect to dose–respo...

  18. Marked suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism by intravenous administration of 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol in uremic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Slatopolsky, E.; Weerts, C; Thielan, J; van der Horst, R.; Harter, H; Martin, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 to patients with chronic renal insufficiency results in suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism only if hypercalcemia occurs. However, since the parathyroid glands possess specific receptors for 1,25(OH)2D3 and a calcium binding protein, there is considerable interest in a possible direct effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion independent of changes in serum calcium. Recent findings indicate substantial de...

  19. 维生素D3微囊的制备及含量测定%Preparation and Content Determination of Cholecalciferol Microcapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓文; 裴元英; 陆国椿

    2008-01-01

    目的:制备维生素D3微囊并建立其含量测定方法.方法:采用复凝聚法制备微囊;以高效液相色谱法测定维生素D3含量.结果:所制微囊粒径分布均匀,平均粒径(103.9±26.2)μm,包封率(90.8±2.68)%;维生素D3检测浓度的线性范围为0.1~1.0μg·mL-1(r=0.999 3),平均回收率为98.65%,45 min溶出度为75%以上.结论:该法成功制得维生素D3微囊,所建立的含量测定方法简便可行.

  20. Oral cholecalciferol versus ultraviolet radiation B: effect on vitamin D metabolites in patients with chronic pancreatitis and fat malabsorption - a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich C; Matzen, Peter; Benfield, Thomas Lars Vibe;

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) often develop fat malabsorption and are susceptible to hypovitaminosis D.......Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) often develop fat malabsorption and are susceptible to hypovitaminosis D....

  1. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cholecalciferol. (3) Shark liver oil, provided that the product is labeled so that the amount of the product that... 400 U.S.P. units of cholecalciferol. (4) Zinc oxide not to exceed 25 percent by weight per dosage unit....

  2. A Phase 2 Trial on the Effect of Low-Dose versus High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Mass in Adults with Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Delegated Institution. The Clinical Trials office in Hamburg is assessing the manufacture, shipment, and custodianship of study drug, cholecalciferol ...Center for Clinical & Translational Science at the University of Utah Cholecalciferol =vitamin D3 CIN = University of Cincinnati enrollment center...CGRP = Clinical Genetics Research Program DEXA = dual energy x-ray absorptiometry Ddrops = formulation of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) DXA = dual

  3. Rat adipose tissue rapidly accumulates and slowly releases an orally-administered high vitamin D dose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; van Beek, J; Ferwerda, H; Brugman, AM; van der Klis, FRM; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effect of oral high-dose cholecalciferol on plasma and adipose tissue cholecalciferol and its subsequent release, and on plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Female Wistar rats (n 126) received 37.5 mu g cholecalciferol/d for 14 d and were subsequently studied for a further 88 d

  4. 1alpha(OH)D3 One-alpha-hydroxy-cholecalciferol--an active vitamin D analog. Clinical studies on prophylaxis and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic patients on chronic dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, Lisbet

    2008-11-01

    Chronic uremia is characterized by decreased levels of plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 due to decreased renal 1-hydroxylase activity and by decreased renal phosphate excretion. The consequence is an increased synthesis and secretion of parathyroid hormone--secondary hyperparathyroidism--due to the low levels of plasma calcium, low levels of plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 and high levels of phosphate. The association between renal bone disease and chronic renal failure is well described. Epidemiological studies have indicated that an association also exists between secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased mortality and cardiovascular calcifications in chronic uremic patients. Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic uremia focuses on avoiding hyperphosphatemia by the use of oral phosphate binders, which bind phosphate in the intestine and a concomitant substitution by a 1 alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D analog in order to compensate for the reduced renal hydroxylation. Additional treatment with aluminum containing phosphate binders to overcome phosphate absorption and retention was initiated already in the 1960s and used extensively until aluminum toxicity was disclosed in the mid-1980s. Instead calcium carbonate and calcium acetate were used as phosphate binders. Until recently, the most commonly used active vitamin D drug was either the natural 1,25(OH)2D3, or the 1 alpha-hydroxylated analog, 1alpha(OH)D3 which after 25-hydroxylation in the liver is converted to 1,25(OH)2D3. 1alpha(OH)D3 was produced by LEO Pharma in 1973. The two vitamin D analogs were used in different geographical areas: In Europe 1alpha(OH)D3 was mainly used, while 1,25(OH)2D3 was mainly used in the USA. 1,25(OH)2D3 increases the intestinal absorption of calcium and improves skeletal abnormalities. The combined treatment with calcium containing phosphate binders and active vitamin D induces an increase in plasma Ca 2+ and hypercalcemia became a clinical problem. Subsequently therefore, dialysis fluid with a reduced calcium concentration ("low-calcium") was introduced. In 1981 Madsen et al. [148] demonstrated for the first time a direct suppressive effect of intravenous 1,25(OH)2D3 on plasma PTH in acutely uremic patients. In 1984, Slatopolsky et al. [74] demonstrated that intravenous 1,25(OH)2D3 induces a marked suppression of plasma PTH with no increase in plasma Ca 2+ in chronic uremic patients. In the middle of the 1980s, 1alpha(OH)D3 became available not only as an oral, but also as an intravenous formulation. The main purpose of the present studies was to increase the knowledge of the action and effects of different treatment regimes with 1alpha(OH)D3, and thereby to improve the prophylaxis and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic patients on chronic dialysis. 168 patients on chronic dialysis treatment and six healthy volunteers were included in the seven studies included in this thesis. The first part of the studies, focused on short- (12 weeks) and long-term (103 weeks) effects of intravenous 1alpha(OH)D3 on plasma PTH and plasma Ca 2+ in relation to the doses of 1alpha(OH)D3 given. Further, it was examined whether the marked suppression of plasma PTH induced by 300 days of intermittent intravenous treatment with 1alpha(OH)D3, could be maintained when the administration was changed from intravenous to the oral route for 16 further weeks and then shifted back to intravenous administration for another 16 weeks. The second part focused on long-term effects (88 weeks in hemodialysis patients and 52 weeks in CAPD patients) of a treatment modality combining 1alpha(OH)D3, and CaCO3 as phosphate binders instead of aluminum containing compounds and a decreased calcium concentration in the dialysis fluid to 1.25 mmol/l in an attempt to avoid development of hypercalcemia. The third part focused upon the pharmacokinetic differences between intravenous and oral administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 and 1alpha(OH)D3 and upon the acute effects of different doses of the two compounds on the plasma levels of PTH, Ca 2+ and phosphate. Plasma PTH is a biochemical parameter most often used for the diagnosis and monitoring of bone disease in patients with chronic uremia. The level of plasma PTH measures depends on the assay used. More specific assays measuring only whole PTH 1-84 without co-measuring large C-terminal fragments have been developed. In this thesis, five different assays were used - one "N-terminal", one "C-terminal", two "Intact" and one "Whole" PTH assay. Each sample was analyzed by 1-3 different assays. Based on the results of my studies [1-7], it is concluded that: 1a. Intravenous administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 induces a marked suppression of plasma PTH without causing serious side-effects in patients on chronic hemodialysis. It is possible to prevent hypercalcemia by closely monitoring plasma Ca 2+ levels and by adjusting the dose of 1alpha(OH)D3 accordingly. 1b. Long-term intermittent intravenous treatment with 1alpha(OH)D3 was effective in suppressing plasma levels of Intact PTH. 1c. When plasma intact PTH was suppressed to a stable level by intravenous 1alpha(OH)D3 the suppression could be maintained by intermittent oral 1alpha(OH)D3 therapy. It was not examined whether a similar degree of suppression of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism could be induced by intermittent oral 1alpha(OH)D3 treatment alone. The responses following chronic intravenous or oral administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 on circulating levels of intact PTH and N- and C-terminal PTH fragments did not reveal any significant differences between the two routes of administration on the actions on the parathyroid glands. 2a. The combination of "low-calcium" hemodialysis fluid (1.25 mmol/l), CaCO3 as a phosphate binder, and intermittent intravenous 1alpha(OH)D3 prevented development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic patients with normal PTH at the initiation of the study and induced a long-term suppression of PTH in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. No clinical or biochemical indications of development of adynamic bone disease were observed. Intravenous administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 prevented a decrease of BMC in the lumbar spine and femoral neck of hemodialysis patients both with normal and with elevated PTH levels. It was possible to use larger doses of CaCO3 and to reduce, but not exclude, the use of aluminum-containing phosphate binders in combination with intravenous administration of 1alpha(OH)D3. A decrease of plasma Ca 2+ was induced during dialysis, and special care had to be taken on the compliance of the patients as to the use of CaCO3 binders in order not to aggravate secondary hyperparathyroidism. 2b. In patients on CAPD, the use of low-calcium dialysis (1.25 mmol/l) made it possible to use larger doses of CaCO3 phosphate binders and to reduce, but not exclude, the use of aluminium containing phosphate binder in combination with oral pulses of 1alpha(OH)D3. A negative calcium balance was induced, and it is therefore recommended that a reduction of the calcium concentration in the dialysis fluid is only used in patients under strict control. 3a. The metabolic clearance rate of 1,25(OH)2D3 was 57% lower in uremic patients than in normal subjects (p < 0.03). The bioavailability of 1,25(OH)2D3 in both normal subjects and uremic patients was markedly lower following administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 both intravenously and orally than after administration of oral 1,25(OH)2D3. Despite lower plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 levels after administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 than after 1,25(OH)2D3, no significant difference was observed in the PTH suppressive effect in uremic patients of 4 mug intravenously of either of the two vitamin D analogs. 3b. A single intravenous high dose of 10 mug of 1alpha(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly suppressed plasma PTH. The acute suppressive effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 was three times greater than that of 1alpha(OH)D3.The increase in plasma Ca 2+ after intravenous administration of 10 mug 1,25(OH)2D3 was significantly higher than that of 1alpha(OH)D3. Due to the simultaneous effect on plasma Ca 2+ observed it was not possible to decide whether 1alpha(OH)D3 has a direct effect per se on the parathyroid glands or not. The study further did not give any further knowledge about the possible therapeutic equivalence of long-term treatment with 1alpha(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3. The PTH responses to acute administration of the 1alpha(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 analogs were in principle the same when measured by one "whole" PTH and two "intact" PTH assays, namely mainly in a parallel shift of the PTH response curve. In this study on chronic uremic patients circulating levels of large C-terminal PTH fragments were not affected by differences in plasma Ca 2+ concentration or by the intravenous administration of 1alpha(OH)D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3. There is now a general agreement on the importance of carefully controlling plasma phosphate, normalize and avoid increases of plasma Ca 2+, and not to oversuppress PTH during treatment. Focus today is on the potential deleterious role of calcium overloading in the development of vascular calcifications in uremic patients. There is an urgent need for a development of an algorithm for the use of phosphate binders and vitamin D supplementation in combination with calcimimetics focusing upon long term morbidity and mortality in uremic patients.

  5. Combination high-dose omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose cholecalciferol in new onset type 1 diabetes: a potential role in preservation of beta-cell mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidal, D A; Ricordi, C; Garcia-Contreras, M; Sonnino, A; Fabbri, A

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have evaluated the role of inflammation in type 1 diabetes (T1D). The safety profile and anti-inflammatory properties of high dose omega-3 fatty acids combined with Vitamin D supplementation make this therapy a possible candidate for T1D intervention trials. Herein, we describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with new onset T1D treated with high dose Omega-3 and vitamin D3. By 12 months, peak C-peptide increased to 0.55 nmol/L (1.66 ng/mL) corresponding to a 20% increment from baseline and AUC C-peptide was slightly higher compared to 9 months (0.33 vs. 0.30 nmol/L/min) although remaining slightly lower than baseline. Combination high-dose Omega-3 fatty acids and high-dose vitamin D3 therapy was well tolerated and may have beneficial effects on beta-cell function. Randomized controlled trials could be of assistance to determine whether this therapy may result in the preservation of beta-cell function in patients with new onset T1D.

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for all animal species or categories based on a dossier submitted by Lohmann Animal Health GmbH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum authorised content of vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs and fish, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. The two vitamin sources under application are considered safe for the target animals provided the current maximum contents in feed are respected. Any administration of vitamin D3 via water for drinking could exceed the safe amounts of vitamin D and therefore represents a safety concern. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed, and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a dermal sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No environmental risk resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  7. Vitamin D accelerates clinical recovery from tuberculosis: results of the SUCCINCT Study [Supplementary Cholecalciferol in recovery from tuberculosis]. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Nawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D enhances host protective immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by suppressing Interferon-gamma (IFN-g and reducing disease associated inflammation in the host. The objectives of this study were to determine whether vitamin D supplementation to patients with tuberculosis (TB could influence recovery. Methods Two hundred and fifty nine patients with pulmonary TB were randomized to receive either 600,000 IU of Intramuscular vitamin D3 or placebo for 2 doses. Assessments were performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Early secreted and T cell activated 6 kDa (ESAT6 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate (MTBs antigen induced whole blood stimulated IFN-g responses were measured at 0 and 12 weeks. Statistical comparisons between outcome variables at 0 and 12 weeks were performed using Student’s t-test and Chi2 tests. Results After 12 weeks, the vitamin D supplemented arm demonstrated significantly greater mean weight gain (kg + 3.75, (3.16 – 4.34 versus + 2.61 (95% CI 1.99 – 3.23 p 0.009 and lesser residual disease by chest radiograph; number of zones involved 1.35 v/s 1.82 p 0.004 (95% CI 0.15, 0.79 and 50% or greater reduction in cavity size 106 (89.8% v/s 111 (94.8%, p 0.035. Vitamin D supplementation led to significant increase in MTBs-induced IFN-g secretion in patients with baseline ‘Deficient’ 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels (p 0.021. Conclusions Supplementation with high doses of vitamin D accelerated clinical, radiographic improvement in all TB patients and increased host immune activation in patients with baseline ‘Deficient’ serum vitamin D levels. These results suggest a therapeutic role for vitamin D in the treatment of TB. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01130311; URL: clinicaltrials.gov

  8. Simultaneous determination of retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol concentration in human serum by RP-HPLC%反相高效液相色谱法同时测定血清中维生素A,D3,E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵裕坤; 徐军; 王珏

    2005-01-01

    目的建立RP-HPLC法测定血清中脂溶性维生素A,D3,E的含量.方法血清经甲醇沉淀蛋白后,以正己烷提取,经氮气吹干,甲醇定容后进样分析.色谱柱:Hypersil ODS 5μm,250×4.0mm;流动相:甲醇-异丙醇(95:5,v/v);流速:1mL/min;检测波长:维生素A 325nm,维生素D3265nm,维生素E 292nm;柱温:25℃.结果三种维生素的提取回收率均大于85%,方法回收率均大于90%;日内、日间相对标准偏差均小于7%.线性范围:维生素A 0.2~2.0μg/mL(r=0.9987),维生素D340~400ng/mL(r=0.9994),维生素E 4.0~30.0μg/mL(r=0.9988).结论本法操作快速、灵敏、简便易行.

  9. Analysis on the effect of cholecalciferol with two kinds of feeding methods%2种投饵方法测试胆钙化醇杀鼠剂的结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘大鹏; 褚宏亮; 杨维芳; 刘慧; 张育富; 陈志龙; 王开诚

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare two kinds of feeding methods on rodenticide effect. Methods The acute and anticoagulant rodenticide test methods were used to carry out the killing rate, feeding coefficient in lab, and the killing rate in field. Results The anticoagulant rodenticide test method is better than the acute rodenticide test method. Conclusion Anticoagulant test method can identify killing effect.%目的 比较2种投饵方式对杀鼠剂效果的影响.方法 按急性和抗凝血类2种试验方法进行实验室的杀灭率、摄食系数以及现场杀灭率的试验.结果 抗凝血杀鼠剂的试验方法优于急性杀鼠剂试验方法的效果.结论 抗凝血的试验方法能够测定出钙化醇类杀鼠剂的现场杀灭效果.

  10. Changes in vitamin-D metabolites and parathyroid hormone in plasma following cholecalciferol administration to pre- and postmenopausal women in the Netherlands in early spring and to postmenopausal women in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKlis, FRM; Jonxis, JHP; vanDoormaal, JJ; Sikkens, P; Saleh, AEC; Muskiet, FAJ

    1996-01-01

    To study the effect on plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D), 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1, 25(OH)(2)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) we supplemented premenopausal (aged 30 (so 7) years) and postmenopausal (aged 61 (so 2) years) white women living in The Netherlands in late winter/early sp

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-02

    also known as cholecalciferol . This is a result of the reaction between 7-dehydrocholesterol in the epidermis and ultraviolet radiation in the...skin) (From Diet) Vitamin D3 ( Cholecalciferol ) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...monthly oral vitamin D3 ( cholecalciferol ) supplementation on fractures and mortality in men and women living in the community: randomized double

  12. Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hitz, Mette F; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Eskildsen, Peter C

    2007-01-01

    : In a double-blinded design, patients with fracture of the hip (lower-extremity fracture, or LEF) or upper extremity (UEF) were randomly assigned to receive 3000 mg calcium carbonate + 1400 IU cholecalciferol or placebo (200 IU cholecalciferol). BMD of the hip (HBMD) and lumbar spine (LBMD) were evaluated...

  13. Fatty acids affect micellar properties and modulate vitamin D uptake and basolateral efflux in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gleize, Béatrice; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2013-10-01

    We have recently shown that vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) absorption is not a simple passive diffusion but involves cholesterol transporters. As free fatty acids (FAs) modulate cholesterol intestinal absorption and metabolism, we hypothesized that FAs may also interact with vitamin D absorption. Effects of FAs were evaluated at different levels of cholecalciferol intestinal absorption. First, the physicochemical properties of micelles formed with different FAs were analyzed. The micelles were then administered to human Caco-2 cells in culture to evaluate FA effects on (i) cholecalciferol uptake and basolateral efflux and (ii) the regulation of genes coding proteins involved in lipid absorption process. Micellar electric charge was correlated with both FA chain length and degree of unsaturation. Long-chain FAs at 500 μM in mixed micelles decreased cholecalciferol uptake in Caco-2 cells. This decrease was annihilated as soon as the long-chain FAs were mixed with other FAs. Oleic acid significantly improved cholecalciferol basolateral efflux compared to other FAs. These results were partly explained by a modulation of genes coding for lipid transport proteins such as Niemann-pick C1-like 1 and scavenger receptor class B type I. The data reported here show for the first time that FAs can interact with cholecalciferol intestinal absorption at different key steps of the absorption process. Cholecalciferol intestinal absorption may thus be optimized according to oil FA composition.

  14. 21 CFR 107.10 - Nutrient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... retinol equivalents, vitamin D content in units of micrograms cholecalciferol, vitamin E content in units... Allowance, and (ii) is provided at a level considered in these publications as having biological significance, when these levels are known....

  15. Behandling af uraemisk osteodystrofi med laegemidler, som påvirker calcium-fosfor-omsaetningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Peter; Eiken, Pia A

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the mineral bone disorders in patients with chronic kidney disease. We focus on the management of these conditions by administration of calcium, vitamin D (ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol), vitamin D receptor activators (calcitriol, alphacalcidiol), phosphate binders...

  16. Vitamin D Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25- ...

  17. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vitamin A and 400 U.S.P. Units cholecalciferol. (f) Colloidal oatmeal, 0.007 percent minimum; 0.003... combination with colloidal oatmeal in accordance with § 347.20(a)(4). (m) Petrolatum, 30 to 100 percent....

  18. Effect of oral versus intramuscular Vitamin D replacement in apparently healthy adults with Vitamin D deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Gupta; Khalid J Farooqui; Chandar M Batra; Raman K Marwaha; Ambrish Mithal

    2017-01-01

    Context: A number of controversies exist regarding appropriate treatment strategy for Vitamin D deficiency. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of equivalent doses of oral cholecalciferol (60,000 IU weekly for 5 weeks) versus intramuscular (IM) cholecalciferol (300,000 IU) in correcting Vitamin D deficiency in apparently healthy volunteers working in a hospital. Settings and Design: Prospective randomized open-label single institution study. Subjects and Methods: This ...

  19. Uncertainty Evaluation for the Determination of Cholecalciferol in Infant Formula Milk Powder by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography%超高效液相色谱法测定婴幼儿配方乳粉中的VD3含量的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊垚; 黄翠丽; 王力清; 任国谱; 周桂萍; 陈洪涛

    2013-01-01

    根据JJF 1059-1999《测量不确定度评定与表示》的原理与方法,建立了超高效液相色谱法测定婴幼儿配方乳粉中VD3含量的测量不确定度评定的数学模型.对数学模型中各不确定度分量的来源进行分析、量化和合成.当取样量为10.0g,其测定的VD3含量为(7.45±0.2091)μg/100g.最终结果的不确定度主要由标准溶液、标准曲线的建立及测量随机性因素的不确定度引起.整体评定方法清晰合理,简便准确,适合超高效液相色谱法、高效液相色谱法的不确定度评定.

  20. 高效液相色谱法同时测定人血清中维生素A、D3、E的含量%Simultaneous determination of retinol,cholecalciferol(D3),α-tocopherol in human serum by double channel HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晶萍; 陈海波; 高颖

    2008-01-01

    目的:建立双通道高效液相色谱法同时测定人体血清中维生素A、D3、E的含量,以诊断维生素缺乏症,监视营养状况.方法:取血清100 μL,加入100 μL乙醇,震荡,加入0.7 mL正已烷萃取,通氮气将正己烷提取液挥发干后用乙醇溶解,进样分析.色谱条件:色谱柱为Nova-Pak C18(3.9 mm×150 mm,4μm),流动相为甲醇-水(95∶5),流速为1.5 mL·min-1,检测波长维生素A、E为300 nm,维生素D3为265 nm.结果:维生素A在0.10~0.90 mg·L-1范围内呈线性关系,r=0.999 9,维生素D3在5.00~45.00 mg·L-1范围内呈线性关系,r=0.999 3,维生素E在1.00~40.00 mg·L-1范围内呈线性关系,r=0.9970;维生素A、D3、E的平均回收率分别为94.7%,90.2%,98.8%.结论:本方法快速、灵敏、准确,简便易行.

  1. 肉鸡日粮中1α-羟基维生素D3与维生素D3的生物学效价评估%Comparison of Bioavailability of Dietary 1α-hydroxycholecalciferol and Cholecalciferol in Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 陈冠华; 黄凯; 张金龙; 瞿红侠; 王志祥; 韩进诚; 闫永峰

    2015-01-01

    为比较1~42日龄肉鸡低钙低磷日粮中1α-羟基维生素D3(1α-OH-D3)和维生素D3(VD3)的相对生物学效价,将350只1日龄罗斯308肉鸡公雏随机分为7个处理,每处理5个重复,每重复10只.设计7种日粮,在基础日粮(钙0.50%,非植酸磷0.25%)中分别添加4个水平(2.5、5、10和20 μg/kg) VD3和3个水平(1.25、2.5和5μg/kg) 1α-OH-D3.斜率比法测定1α-OH-D3与VD3的相对生物学效价.结果显示:以1~42日龄肉鸡体增重和采食量为评价指标,1α-OH-D3生物学效价分别是VD3的3.99和3.85倍;以胫骨强度、重量、长度和灰分重量为评价指标,1α-OH-D3生物学效价分别是VD3的6.02、4.36、3.68和4.39倍;以股骨强度、重量、长度和灰分重量为评价指标,1α-OH-D3生物学效价分别是VD3的4.47、3.81、3.81和4.24倍;以跖骨强度、重量、长度和灰分重量为评价指标,1α-OH-D3生物学效价分别是VD3的3.34、4.43、4.41和4.30倍.表明在1~42日龄肉鸡低钙低磷日粮中,以生长性能和骨骼矿化指标综合评价,1α-OH-D3的生物学效价约为VD3的4.22倍.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol as a feed additive for pigs, piglets, bovines, ovines, calves, equines, chickens for fattening, turkeys, other poultry, fish and other animal species or categories, based on a dossier submitted by Fermenta Biotech Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The principal physiological role of vitamin D in all vertebrates is in calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The classic clinical deficiency syndrome is rickets. The FEEDAP Panel notes that for turkeys for fattening, equines, bovines, ovines and pigs the maximum content for vitamin D3 in feed does not provide any margin of safety, and that, except for pigs, the maximum content is above the upper safe level, according to National Research Council data when animals were fed a supplemented diet for more than 60 days. No safety concern was identified for the use of vitamin D3 in chickens for fattening and fish. The FEEDAP Panel is not in a position to draw final conclusions on the safety of vitamin D for target animals but considers the current maximum contents temporarily acceptable pending a review of the recent scientific literature. Current nutritional surveys in 14 European countries showed that vitamin D intake is sufficiently below the upper safe limit. The FEEDAP Panel assumes that foodstuffs of animal origin were produced following current production practices, including vitamin D3 supplementation of feed and concludes that the use of vitamin D in animal nutrition at the currently authorised maximum dietary content has not and will not cause the tolerable upper intake level to be exceeded. Vitamin D3 should be considered as irritant to skin and eyes, and as a skin sensitiser. Inhaled vitamin D3 is highly toxic; exposure to dust is harmful. No risk to the environment resulting from the use of vitamin D3 in animal nutrition is expected. The vitamin D3 under application is regarded as an effective dietary source of the vitamin in animal nutrition.

  3. Effect of vitamin D on the intestinal absorption of /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca in chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1982-03-01

    The transfer of /sup 203/Pb and/or /sup 47/Ca across the intestinal epithelium of the chick was investigated, with emphasis given to the functional role of cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). /sup 203/Pb, after introduction in the intestinal lumen, is rapidly accumulated by the intestinal tissue, and only a fraction of /sup 203/ Pb is translocated parenterally (absorbed). Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect the accumulation of /sup 203/Pb by intestinal tissue but did accelerate /sup 203/Pb movement across the basal-lateral membrane. In contrast, cholecalciferol both decreased /sup 47/Ca tissue levels and increased /sup 47/Ca absorption. In rachitic chicks, the rate of absorption of /sup 203/Pb was greater in the distal than in the proximal segments of the intestine; after cholecalciferol repletion, the degree of absorption in all segments was similar, indicating the order of cholecalciferol effectiveness as duodenum greater than or equal to jejunum > ileum. An acute dose of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ to rachitic chicks also enhanced both /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca absorption, but the time course and pattern of absorption of these metal cations differed. The time at which the absorption of /sup 203/Pb peaked and returned to base-line occurred sooner than for /sup 47/Ca. Also the back-flux (blood ..-->.. intestinal lumen) of /sup 47/Ca was enhanced by cholecalciferol, whereas no effect on the back-flux of /sup 203/Pb was noted. These studies show that cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ affects both the /sup 203/Pb and /sup 47/Ca absorptive processes, but the nature of these responses are not identical, suggesting differences in the transport path or the macromolecular interactions of these metal ions during the course of absorption, or both.

  4. Effect of vitamin D on the intestinal absorption of 203Pb and 47Ca in chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkaenen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1982-03-01

    The transfer of 203Pb and/or 47Ca across the intestinal epithelium of the chick was investigated, with emphasis given to the functional role of cholecalciferol (vitamin D-3). 203Pb, after introduction in the intestinal lumen, is rapidly accumulated by the intestinal tissue, and only a fraction of 203Pb is translocated parenterally (absorbed). Cholecalciferol did not significantly affect the accumulation of 203Pb by intestinal tissue but did accelerate 203Pb movement across the basal-lateral membrane. In contrast, cholecalciferol both decreased 47Ca tissue levels and increased 47Ca absorption. In rachitic chicks, the rate of absorption of 203Pb was greater in the distal than in the proximal segments of the intestine; after cholecalciferol repletion, the degree of absorption in al segments was similar, indicting the order of cholecalciferol effectiveness as duodenum greater than or equal to jejunum greater than ileum. An acute dose of 1,25(OH)2D3 to rachitic chicks also enhanced both 203Pb and 47Ca absorption, but the time course and pattern of absorption of these metal cations differed. The time at which the absorption of 203Pb peaked and returned to base-line occurred sooner than for 47Ca. Also the back-flux (blood leads to intestinal lumen) of 47Ca was enhanced by cholecalciferol, whereas no effect on the back-flux of 203Pb was noted. These studies show that cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH)2D3 affects both the 203Pb and 47Ca absorptive processes, but the nature of these responses are not identical, suggesting differences in the transport path or the macromolecular interactions of these metal ions during the course of absorption, or both.

  5. Correlation of Increases in 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D During Vitamin D Therapy With Activation of CD4+ T Lymphocytes in HIV-1-Infected Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich; Kolte, Lilian; Hitz, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    .5-1.0 µg calcitriol and 1200 IU (30 µg) cholecalciferol, (2) 1200 IU cholecalciferol, (3) placebo. Percentages of the following T-lymphocyte subsets were determined: naïve CD4+ and CD8+ cells, activated CD4+ and CD8+ cells, and CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127low Tregs. Furthermore 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 25...... = .01) in adjusted models. Changes in parathyroid hormone correlated inversely with Tregs (P = .02). Smokers had higher levels of naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes (37% vs 25%;P = .01), naïve CD8+ T lymphocytes (28% vs 19%; P = .03), and Tregs (9% vs 7%; P = .03). Conclusion: Cholecalciferol and calcitriol...

  6. 1-Alpha Hydroxyvitamin D(5) as a Chemotherapeutic and Possibly Chemopreventive Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    differ, in their side-chain structures. They are classified into five forms [2]; vitamin D2 , ergosterol; D3 , cholecalciferol; D4, 22,23...side chain modifications with no definitive function assigned to them. The overall path of metabolism of vitamin D2 is similar to vitamin D3 with a few...analog of vitamin D2 . On the other hand vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is modified by either methyl or ethyl group on C-24 position. These vitamin D

  7. Association between vitamin D metabolites in fat tissue and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D in overweight and obese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecalciferol has been measured in human white adipose tissue (WAT), but little is known about the relationship between the other circulating vitamin D metabolites and WAT. We measured concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D in subcutaneous fat tissue from 20 overweight and obese subjects partic...

  8. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  9. Design, history and results of the Thiazolidinedione Intervention with vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punthakee, Z; Bosch, J; Dagenais, G;

    2012-01-01

    AIMS/OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data regarding cardiovascular effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and extra-skeletal effects of vitamin D supported the need for a definitive trial. The Thiazolidinedione Intervention with vitamin D Evaluation (TIDE) trial aimed to assess the effects of TZDs...... (rosiglitazone and pioglitazone) on cardiovascular outcomes and the effects of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on cancers and mortality....

  10. 21 CFR 172.380 - Vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vitamin D3. 172.380 Section 172.380 Food and Drugs... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.380 Vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 may be used safely in foods as a... prescribed conditions: (a) Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is the chemical...

  11. Collaborative Undergraduate HBCU Student Summer Prostate Cancer Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Vitamin D2 : Plants/supplements... Vitamin D3 : Fish (cod liver oil), meat, fortified milk, egg yolk, butter Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 ...mineralization Parathyroid hormone (+) (−) (SPF > 8, clothes, glass) 5’ 3’ Nucleus Vitamin D3 pathway in SKIN Biological Response Anti-proliferation

  12. Reproductive performance and bone status markers of gilts and lactating sows supplemented with two different forms of vitamin D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Halekoh, U; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    -response pattern of two vitamin D sources, the commonly used cholecalciferol, called vitamin D3, and a newly developed Hy•D product (25-hydroxycholecalciferol). In experiment 1, 160 gilts were randomly assigned from the first estrus until d 28 of gestation to dietary treatments containing 4 concentrations of one...... of the 2 different vitamin D sources [200, 800, 1,400, and 2,000 IU•kg-1 from cholecalciferol or corresponding levels of 5, 20, 35 and 50 µg•kg-1 feed from 25(OH)D3 (Hy•D)]. In a concurrent experiment, the same 8 dietary treatments were provided to 160 multiparous sows from the first day of mating until...

  13. Trace Elements, Heavy Metals and Vitamin Levels in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Cebi, Yuksel Kaya, Hasan Gungor, Halit Demir, Ibrahim Hakki Yoruk, Nihat Soylemez, Yilmaz Gunes, Mustafa Tuncer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, we aimed to assess serum concentrations of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, vitamins A (retinol, D (cholecalciferol and E (α-tocopherol in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD and to compare with healthy controls.Methods: A total of 30 CAD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (UNICAM-929 was used to measure heavy metal and trace element concentrations. Serum α-tocopherol, retinol and cholecalciferol were measured simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics were not statistically different between the groups. Serum concentrations of retinol (0.3521±0.1319 vs. 0.4313±0.0465 mmol/I, p=0.013, tocopherol (3.8630±1.3117 vs. 6.9124±1.0577 mmol/I, p<0.001, cholecalciferol (0.0209±0.0089 vs. 0.0304±0.0059 mmol/I, p<0.001 and Fe (0.5664±0.2360 vs. 1.0689±0,4452 µg/dI, p<0.001 were significantly lower in CAD patients. In addition, while not statistically significant serum Cu (1.0164±0.2672 vs. 1.1934±0.4164 µg/dI, p=0.073 concentrations were tended to be lower in patients with CAD, whereas serum lead (0.1449±0.0886 vs. 0.1019±0.0644 µg/dI, p=0.069 concentrations tended to be higher.Conclusions: Serum level of trace elements and vitamins may be changed in patients with CAD. In this relatively small study we found that serum levels of retinol, tocopherol, cholecalciferol, iron and copper may be lower whereas serum lead concentrations may be increased in patients with CAD.

  14. Prevention of Post-Radiotherapy Failure in Prostate Cancer by Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Lee H, Hartman J, Greco C, Ryu JK, O’Donnell R and Boggan J. Secondary Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor following Irradiation in a...cholecalciferol) has shown anti- tumor activity at non-hypercalcemic concentrations in animals. Based on our preliminary research, we believe D5 can be given in...recurrence or of a second primary tumor . Such event. SEBs are alternatives to the actual endpoint, the tertiary patient populations have included

  15. Relationship of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups to vitamin D-stimulated uptake of ( sup 75 Se)Selenite by the brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The uptake of selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles isolated from duodena of rachitic or vitamin D-treated chicks was studied by using radioactive selenite and a rapid filtration technique. Cholecalciferol treatment (500 IU at 72 h) significantly enhanced selenite uptake, a response that decreased when the vesicles were stored at room temperature for 2.5 h prior to the uptake measurement. Preincubation of the vesicles in 1.0 mmol/L H2O2 reduced (75Se)selenite uptake, indicating the involvement of oxidizable groups in the uptake reaction. Iodoacetic acid (IAA), a sulfhydryl-blocking reagent, at 1-2 mmol/L concentration eliminated the difference in selenite uptake due to cholecalciferol and had no effect on vesicles from rachitic animals. A higher concentration of IAA (10 mmol/L) enhanced selenite uptake manyfold and increased the absolute difference due to cholecalciferol treatment. Single intravenous doses of 100 IU cholecalciferol, 100 IU ergocalciferol, or 0.1 micrograms 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol also stimulated selenite uptake, suggesting a general response to vitamin D compounds. Normal animals given a single dose of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol 12 h prior to killing also responded. Treatments that enhanced the uptake of (75Se)selenite also increased the amount of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups, suggesting the involvement of membrane-bound sulfhydryl groups in the vitamin D response. A significant increase in selenite uptake by intravenous 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol occurred within 10 min. This rapid effect provides a new tool to probe early biochemical effects of vitamin D on intestinal epithelium.

  16. Study and Applications of VD3 in Animal Production%维生素D3在动物生产中的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有超; 程茂基

    2006-01-01

    维生素D3(vitaminD3,VD3)又名胆钙化醇(cholecalciferol),是畜禽重要的必需维生素之一.本文就VD3促进动物体钙、磷的吸收,提高免疫机能和繁殖性能,以及改善畜禽肌肉嫩度等方面做一综述.

  17. Effects of Chronic Vitamin D3 Hormone Administration on Anxiety-Like Behavior in Adult Female Rats after Long-Term Ovariectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Fedotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present preclinical study was created to determine the therapeutic effects of vitamin D hormone treatment as an adjunctive therapy alone or in a combination with low dose of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 on anxiety-like behavior in female rats with long-term absence of estrogen. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of chronic cholecalciferol administration (1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg subcutaneously, SC, once daily, for 14 days on the anxiety-like state after long-term ovariectomy in female rats. Twelve weeks postovariectomy, cholecalciferol was administered to ovariectomized (OVX rats and OVX rats treated with 17β-E2 (0.5 µg/rat SC, once daily, for 14 days. Anxiety-like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM and the light/dark test (LDT, and locomotor and grooming activities were tested in the open field test (OFT. Cholecalciferol at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg alone or in combination with 17β-E2 produced anxiolytic-like effects in OVX rats as evidenced in the EPM and the LDT, as well as increased grooming activity in the OFT. Our results indicate that cholecalciferol, at two doses of 1.0 and 2.5 mg/kg, has a profound anxiolytic-like effects in the experimental rat model of long-term estrogen deficiency.

  18. Late-onset hypogonadism: beyond testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset hypogonadism is defined as a combination of low testosterone (T levels and typical symptoms and signs. A major area of uncertainty is whether T concentrations are always really sufficient to fully reflect Leydig cell (dysfunction. Mild testicular alteration could be diagnosed only by additional biochemical markers, such as luteinizing hormone (LH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These markers help in identifying the so-called "subclinical" hypogonadism (normal T, high LH levels. Patients with hypogonadism have frequently low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D due to impairment of the hydroxylating enzyme CYP2R1 in the testis. However, no data have been published dealing with the best treatment option (cholecalciferol - the Vitamin D precursor, or calcidiol - 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D in these patients. We studied 66 patients with classic hypogonadism (total T [TT] <12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 26 and subclinical hypogonadism (TT ≥ 12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 40 and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<50 nmol l−1 . Subjects received cholecalciferol (5000 IU per week (n = 20 or calcidiol (4000 IU per week (n = 46, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH were evaluated after 3 months of therapy. Supplementation with calcidiol significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and significantly decreased PTH levels in both groups of men with hypogonadism (primary, n = 16 and subclinical, n = 30, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol did not modify their levels. This study shows for the first time that the administration of the 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D (calcidiol, and not the administration of the precursor cholecalciferol, restores 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with hypogonadism.

  19. Sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients: does vitamin D deficiency have a role?

    OpenAIRE

    Kidir, Veysel; Altuntas, Atila; Inal, Salih; Akpinar, Abdullah; Orhan, Hikmet; Sezer, Mehmet Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in dialysis patients. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to many diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between vitamin D and sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients has not been previously reported in the literature. Materials and methods: Cholecalciferol, 50,000 IU/week, was orally administered to 37 dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency for 3 months followed by dosage of 10,000 I...

  20. Simultaneous and accurate determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multivitamin tablets by using an RP-HPLC method

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid) and four fat-soluble vitamins (retinol acetate, cholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, and phytonadione) in multivitamin tablets. The linearity of the method was excellent (R² > 0.999) over the concentration...

  1. Vitamine D2 ou vitamine D3?

    OpenAIRE

    MISTRETTA, Virginie; Delanaye, Pierre; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Cavalier, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nearly one billion people around the world are deficient in vitamin D and need to be supplemented. Vitamin D is available in medicines and fortified foods. It is available in two forms: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). KEY POINTS: The pharmacopeiae consider these steroid hormones as equivalent and interchangeable. However, several studies have showed that serum level of 25(OH)D is increased more effectively with vitamin D3 than vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 has ...

  2. Studies on the 1. cap alpha. ,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like activity in a calcinagenic plant, Cestrum diurnum, in the chick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R.H. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Corradino, R.A.; Krook, L.; Hughes, M.R.; Haussler, M.R.

    1976-04-01

    Cestrum diurnum (day-blooming jessamine) has been proposed to cause calcinosis in horses and cattle in Florida. The present studies investigated some physiological properties of the plant, using the chick as the experimental animal. The inclusion of dried leaf powder in a rachitogenic diet restored intestinal calcium-binding protein synthesis (CaBP) and increased calcium absorption in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick. The estimated level of cholecalciferol-equivalents in the dried leaf was about 30,000 to 35,000 IU/kg. Most of the activity was extractable with methanol : chloroform (2:1), indicating that the major cholecalciferol-like component in C. diurnum was different from the water soluble factor(s) in Solanum malacoxylon. The time course of effect of C. diurnum extract in rachitic chicks was similar to that of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol but the former had a longer lag time. The strontium fed chick, in which the kidney 25-hydroxycholecaliciferol-1..cap alpha..-hydroxylase is inhibited, responded to C. diurnum extract, confirming the 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like character of the Cestrum factor. The extract also appeared to interact with the intestinal 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol cytosol receptor although this observation is preliminary. These findings indicate that the 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like principle in C. diurnum may cause excessive calcium and phosphate absorption leading to calcinosis.

  3. Studies on the 1alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like activity in a calcinogenic plant. Cestrum diurnum, in the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, R H; Corradino, R A; Krook, L; Hughes, M R; Haussler, M R

    1976-04-01

    Cestrum diurnum (day-blooming jessamine) has been proposed to cause calcinosis in horses and cattle in Florida. The present studies investigated some physiological properties of the plant, using the chick as the experimental animal. The inclusion of dried leaf powder in a rachitogenic diet restored intestinal calcium-binding protein synthesis (CaBP) and increased calcium absorption in the cholecalciferol-deficient chick. The estimated level of cholecalciferol-equivalents in the dried leaf was about 30,000 to 35,000 IU/kg. Most of the activity was extractable with methanol:chloroform (2:1), indicating that the major cholecalciferol-like component in C. diurnum was different from the water soluble factor(s) in Solanum malacoxylon. The time course of effect of C. diurnum extract in rachitic chicks was similar to that ot 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol but the former had a longer lag time. The strontium fed chick, in which the kidney 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1alpha-hydroxylase is inhibited, responded to C. diurnum extract, confirming the 1alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like character of the Cestrum factor. The extract also appeared to interact with the intestinal 1 alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol cytosol receptor although this observation is preliminary. These findings indicate that the l alpha,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like principle in C. diurnum many cause excessive calcium and phosphate absorption leading to calcinosis.

  4. Bulgarian Marine and Freshwater Fishes as a Source of Fat-Soluble Vitamins for a Healthy Human Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Stancheva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study evaluates the fat-soluble vitamins all-trans retinol (vitamin A, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 and α-tocopherol (vitamin E content in the fresh edible tissue of Bulgarian fish species: marine—grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and bonito (Sarda sarda, and freshwater—rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and common carp (Cyprinus carpio. The sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. All-trans retinol, cholecalciferol and α-tocopherol were analyzed simultaneously using RP-HPLCUVFL system with analytical column C18 ODS2 Hypersil™. The fat soluble vitamins content (μg per 100 g wet weight in the fresh edible fish tissue of analyzed fishes are in the ranges: vitamin A from 2.7 ± 0.4 to 37.5 ± 3.4 μg/100 g ww; vitamin D3 from 1.1 ± 0.1 to 11.4 ± 0.6 μg/100 g ww; vitamin E from 121.4 ± 9.6 to 1274.2 ± 44.1 μg/100 g ww. Three fat-soluble vitamins occur in higher amounts in rainbow trout and grey mullet species. According to recommended daily intake (RDI, they are a good source of cholecalciferol.

  5. Vitamin D supplementation therapy – comparison of efficacy of three different protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinarayan CV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation therapy with three different protocols. Methods: In protocols 1 (intensive and 3 (standard oral cholecalciferol was given 60,000 IU/week/8 weeks followed bimonthly for 12 weeks. In protocol 2 parenteral-bolus cholecalciferol was given as 600,000 IU loading dose, 8 weeks later followed by cholecalciferol 60,000IU bimonthly for 12 weeks. Elemental calcium (1 g/day was administered for full duration of study in all three protocols. Serum albumin, calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD and parathyroid hormone were tested at baseline, at 2nd, and 5th months. Statistical analysis was performed using random measures analysis of variance. As patients receiving protocol 3 were significantly older compared to the other two groups, age-adjusted analysis was carried out. Results: Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis showed that patients receiving protocol 2 had achieved 25OHD sufficiency levels at 8 weeks suggesting that protocol 2 appeared to perform best among the three protocols. However, these differences were not sustained at 5 months suggesting the need for continuing supervision. Conclusions: Despite varied responses of different biochemical markers, all three protocols were effective in bringing up 25OHD levels. However, protocol 2 performed the best among the three protocols. Our observation also highlight the importance of need for ongoing supplementation and continuing supervision of the same.

  6. Determinants of Vitamin D Levels in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Stagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor studies have evaluated 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OHD levels in Down syndrome (DS. Objective. To assess in DS subjects serum 25(OHD value, to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OHD value can be restored with a 400 I.U. daily supplement of cholecalciferol in respect to controls. Methods. We have longitudinally evaluated 31 DS patients (aged 4.5–18.9 years old and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In these subjects, we analysed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH, 25(OHD concentrations, and calcium and 25(OHD dietary intakes, and we quantified outdoor exposure. After 12.3 months (range 8.1–14.7 months of 25(OHD supplementation, we reevaluated these subjects. Results. DS subjects showed reduced 25(OHD levels compared to controls (P<0.0001, in particular DS subjects with obesity (P<0.05 and autoimmune diseases history (P<0.005. PTH levels were significantly higher in DS subjects than controls (P<0.0001. After cholecalciferol supplementation, 25(OHD levels were significantly ameliorated (P<0.05, even if reduced compared to controls (P<0.0001, in particular in DS subjects with obesity (P<0.05 and autoimmune diseases (P<0.001. Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in DS subjects, in particular in presence of obesity and autoimmune diseases. In these subjects, there could be a need for higher cholecalciferol supplementation.

  7. Vitamin D supplements in the Indian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Lhamo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5% or alfacalcidiol (43% as tablets (51.1% and capsules (35.2%. Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large.

  8. Vitamin D3 potentiates myelination and recovery after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montava, Marion; Garcia, Stéphane; Mancini, Julien; Jammes, Yves; Courageot, Joël; Lavieille, Jean-Pierre; Feron, François

    2015-10-01

    Roles of vitamin D on the immune and nervous systems are increasingly recognized. Two previous studies demonstrated that ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) induced functional recovery and increased myelination in a rat model of peroneal nerve transection. The current report assessed whether cholecalciferol was efficient in repairing transected rabbit facial nerves. Animals were randomized into two groups of rabbits with an unilateral facial nerve surgery: the vitamin D group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vitamin D3 (200 IU/kg/day), from day 1 post-surgery; the control group included animals receiving a weekly oral bolus of vehicle (triglycerides). Contralateral unsectioned facial nerves from all experimental animals were used as controls for the histological study. The facial functional index was measured every week while the inner diameter of myelin sheath and the G ratio were quantified at the end of the 3 month experiment. The current report indicates that cholecalciferol significantly increases functional recovery and myelination, after 12 weeks of treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the therapeutic benefit of vitamin D supplementation in an animal model of facial paralysis. It paves further the way for clinical trials based on the administration of this steroid in individuals with injured facial nerves.

  9. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morgan

    Full Text Available Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula and rat species (Rattus spp. are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080 has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational

  10. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David; Warburton, Bruce; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) and rat species (Rattus spp.) are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080) has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits) would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational site, along with

  11. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation is a requisite for modulation of skin-homing markers on regulatory T cells in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Ai-Leng; Koenen, Hans J P M; Michels, Meta; Ooms, Sharon; Bosch, Marjolein; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Irma; van der Ven, André J A M

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D(3) is known to have an effect on the immune function. We investigated the immunomodulatory capability of vitamin D(3) in HIV-infected patients and studied the expression of chemokine receptors on regulatory T cells (Treg). Vitamin D(3)-deficient HIV-1-seropositive subjects were treated with cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) at a dose of 800 IU daily for 3 months (n=9) or 25,000 IU weekly for 2 months (n=7). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and analyzed for skin-homing (CCR4 and CCR10) and gut-homing (CCR9 and integrin α(4)β(7)) marker expression on Treg, by flow cytometry, before and after supplementation. Serum 25(OH)D(3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were determined at baseline and after the treatment period. Weekly doses of 25,000 IU cholecalciferol effectively achieved the optimal target serum 25(OH)D(3) concentration of >75 nmol/liter (30 ng/ml) in HIV-infected patients. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation differentially influenced skin-homing markers on Treg with an increased level of CCR10 expression and while a reduction in CCR4 expression level was observed together with a lower percentage of Treg expressing CCR4. For both dosing regimens, there were no significant differences in the expression of gut-homing markers, CCR9, and integrin α(4)β(7). High-dose vitamin D(3) supplementation is needed to reverse vitamin D(3) deficiency in HIV-infected individuals and this results in modulation of skin-homing markers but not gut-homing markers expression on Treg. At a standard dose of 800 IU/day, vitamin D(3) is not effective in achieving an optimal 25(OH)D(3) concentration in patients with an underlying T cell dysfunction and is unable to exert any immunomodulatory effects.

  12. Pilot study on the bioactivity of vitamin d in the skin after oral supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel-Lewandrowski, Clara; Tang, Jean Y; Einspahr, Janine G; Bermudez, Yira; Hsu, Chiu Hsieh; Rezaee, Melika; Lee, Alex H; Tangrea, Joseph; Parnes, Howard L; Alberts, David S; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory studies suggest that vitamin D (VD) supplementation inhibits skin carcinogenesis. However, epidemiologic studies report mixed findings in the association between circulating VD levels and skin cancer risk. We conducted a clinical study to determine whether oral cholecalciferol supplementation would exert direct bioactivity in human skin through modulation of the VD receptor (VDR). We enrolled 25 individuals with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels skin photodamage to take 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol biweekly for 8 to 9 weeks. Then, we obtained baseline and end-of-study skin biopsies from photodamaged (PD) and photoprotected (PP) skin, and from benign nevi (BN) and tested for mRNA expression of VDR and cytochrome P450-24 (CYP24), and markers of keratinocytic differentiation. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation significantly elevated circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (P skin showed minimum changes after supplementation. CYP24 expression in PD- and PP-skin was increased after supplementation by 186%, P = 0.08, and 134%, P = 0.07, respectively. In BNs from 11 participants, a trend for higher VDR and CYP24 expression was observed (average of 20%, P = 0.08, and 544%, P = 0.09, respectively). Caspase-14 expression at the basal layer in PD skin samples was the only epidermal differentiation marker that was significantly increased (49%, P skin. Our findings of significant variability in the range of VDR and CYP24 expression across study samples represent an important consideration in studies evaluating the role of VD as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent.

  13. Effect of gastrointestinal events on treatment patterns, discontinuation, resource utilization, and cost in osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Jakob; Jørgensen, Andreas D.; Vestergaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    treatment with 70 microgram (2,800 IU) cholecalciferol or placebo for 52 weeks. Treatment was administered 26 weeks prior to PTX and continued for 26 weeks after PTX. Main outcome measures: Changes in QoL and measures of muscle strength and function. Results: Preoperatively, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD......) increased significantly (50 to 94 nmol/L) compared with placebo (57 to 52 nmol/L). We did not measure any beneficial effects of supplementation with vitamin D compared with placebo regarding well-being, QoL, postural stability, muscle strength, or function. In all patients, we measured marked improvements...

  14. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on health status in non-vitamin D deficient people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westra, S; Krul-Poel, Y H M; van Wijland, H J;

    2016-01-01

    both groups was seen concerning the SF-36 domain role limitations due to physical problems in disadvantage of the vitamin D group. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of vitamin D supplementation did not improve HRQOL in non-vitamin D-deficient people with type 2 DM managed on oral antidiabetic therapy........ The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on dimensions of HRQOL in people with type 2 DM. DESIGN: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: The effect of monthly cholecalciferol 50,000 IU vs placebo on HRQOL was assessed in 275 adults...

  15. Hypercalcemic encephalopathy due to milk alkali syndrome and injection teriparatide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old male, a known case of severe osteoporosis with vertebral fracture and prostatic carcinoma, was treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue, calcium carbonate, cholecalciferol sachet and injection teriparatide. His diet consisted of milk and curd. He developed altered behavior and generalized weakness, and on investigation, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis with low parathyroid hormone levels were detected. Injection teriparatide was stopped and he was managed with forced saline diuresis and injection zoledronic acid. He was diagnosed as a case of milk alkali syndrome in whom teriparatide and prolonged immobilization played a permissive role in the development of hypercalcemic encephalopathy.

  16. Phorbol esters, but not the hormonal form of vitamin D, induce changes in protein kinase C during differentiation of human histiocytic lymphoma cell line (U-937)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezzetti, G.; Bagnara, G.P.; Monti, M.G.; Casolo, L.P.; Bonsi, l.; Brunelli, M.A.

    1987-05-25

    Human histiocytic lymphoma cells (U-937) undergo similar differentiation when incubated with the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. In this action, TPA somehow implicates calcium-sensitive and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C), which is rapidly and significantly affected by this inducer. On the contrary, 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol in its differentiating action does not involve protein kinase C thus suggesting that the secosteroid induces monocytic differentiation possibly through a different mechanism of that of phorbol ester. 13 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Assessing the relationship between vitamin D3 and stratum corneum hydration for the treatment of xerotic skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Meghan

    2012-09-01

    Vitamin D(3) has been called the "sunshine" vitamin since the formation of vitamin D is mediated by exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D(3) is linked to many health benefits, however serum levels of vitamin D(3) have been decreasing over the last few decades and the lower levels of vitamin D(3) may have consequences on normal physiology. We investigated the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and stratum corneum conductance as well as the effect of topical application of cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) on dry skin. Eighty three subjects were recruited and blood serum levels and skin conductance measurements were taken after a one week washout. A correlation was observed between vitamin D levels and skin moisture content, individuals with lower levels of vitamin D had lower average skin moisture. Subsequently, a 3-week split leg, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was conducted on a subset of 61 of the above individuals who were identified with non-sufficient vitamin D serum levels. Topical supplementation with cholecalciferol significantly increased measurements of skin moisturization and resulted in improvements in subjective clinical grading of dry skin. Taken together our finding suggest a relationship between serum vitamin D(3) (25(OH)D) levels and hydration of the stratum corneum and further demonstrate the skin moisture benefit from topical application of vitamin D(3).

  18. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güerri-Fernández, Roberto; Villar García, Judit; González Mena, Alicia; Guelar Grinberg, Ana; Montero, María Milagro; Sorli, Luisa; Calzado, Sonia; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel Freud, Hernando

    2016-01-01

    Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OH)D 65 pg/mL) were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg) weekly (if deficiency) or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels). Rates of normalization of 25(OH)D (levels above 20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL) were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL). Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF) and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism. PMID:27699068

  19. Vitamin D reduces musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Atteritano, Marco; Basile, Giorgio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2012-04-01

    The acute-phase response (APR) is a frequent occurrence after infusion of zoledronic acid and is caused by activation of γδ T cells. Vitamin D receptor is expressed in immune cells, and vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this prospective study was to test the effect of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) on the incidence of APR and intensity of pain in women undergoing infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis. 60 women were enrolled and randomized into two groups. At baseline, 30 women received an oral bolus of cholecalciferol (300,000 IU), while another 30 women received placebo. On day 5 both groups were treated with a single infusion of zoledronic acid (5 mg) and received a daily supplementation of calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D (800 IU). Patients were clinically evaluated and inflammatory markers were assayed before zoledronic acid administration and every 24 h for the following 2 days. The onset of APR has been defined by the occurrence of fever or at least one of the typical symptoms, such as musculoskeletal pain after zoledronic acid infusion. Intensity of pain was measured by a one-dimensional scale (0 = no pain, 10 = unbearable pain). APR developed in 66.6% of patients, with no significant difference between groups. The vitamin group experienced less musculoskeletal pain [median 1 (0-4) vs. 2 (1-8), P osteoporosis.

  20. Evidence for the Treatment of Osteoporosis with Vitamin D in Residential Care and in the Community Dwelling Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. A. Geddes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D is common treatment for osteoporosis. Both age >70 years and living in residential care are associated with increased fracture risk. Community dwelling elderly are a heterogeneous group who may have more similatiry with residential care groups than younger community dwelling counterparts. Aims. To review the evidence for cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol tretment of osteoporosis in either community dwelling patients aged ≥70 years of age, or redidential care patients. Secondly endpoints were changes in bone mineral denisty, and in bone turnover markers. Methods. We performed a literature search using search terms for osteoporosis and vitamin D. Treatment for at least one year was required. Results. Only one residential care study using cholecalciferol, showed non-vertebral and hip fracture reduction in vitamin D deficient subjects. In the community setting one quasi randomised study using ergocalciferol showed reduction in total but not hip or non-vertebral fracture, and a second randomised study showed increased hip fracture risk. Three studies reported increases in hip bone mineral denisty. Discussion. A minority of studies demonstrated a fracture benefit form vitamin D and one suggested possible harm in a community setting. Current practice should be to only offer this treatment to subjects identified as deficient.

  1. Validation Protocol of Vitamin D Supplementation in Patients with HIV-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Lerma-Chippirraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism are frequent among HIV-infected patients. As there are no data about the best supplementation therapy both in treatment and in maintenance, we conducted an observational study of 300 HIV-infected patients for whom vitamin D and parathormone (PTH had been measured in order to validate a protocol of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HIV-infection. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (defined as 25(OHD 65 pg/mL were supplemented with cholecalciferol 16.000IU (0.266 mg weekly (if deficiency or fortnightly (if insufficiency or high PTH levels. Rates of normalization of 25(OHD (levels above 20 ng/mL and PTH levels (<65 pg/mL were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of factors related to normalization was carried out. With a median follow-up of 2 years, 82.1% of patients with deficiency and 83.9% of cases with insufficiency reached levels above 20 ng/mL. However, only 67.2% of individuals with hyperparathyroidism at baseline reached target levels (<65 pg/mL. Independent factors for not achieving PTH objective were tenofovir (TDF and protease inhibitors use. In HIV-infected patients with hypovitaminosis, the protocol of cholecalciferol supplementation normalized vitamin D levels regardless of antiretroviral regimen in a high proportion of patients but it was less effective to correct hyperparathyroidism.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions. Final report, September 1, 1975-December 31, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R.H.; Fullmer, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the effects of various factors on the intestinal absorption of cadmium, zinc, arsenate and lead as well as the toxic effects of cadmium and lead on the intestinal transport of calcium. Intestinal cadmium absorption was influenced by many of the same factors which influence calcium transport, although there was no direct evidence for a common transport pathway. Cadmium inhibited the intestinal absorption of calcium, primarily at the intestinal level, since no effect on the cholecalciferol endocrine system was observed. Many similarities and differences were documented for intestinal lead and calcium transport, suggesting that these two cations share some of the same transport components. The effect of dietary lead was far more severe under conditions of dietary calcium restriction, effectively eliminating the adaptation response via the cholecalciferol endocrine system. This effect was attributed partially to lead inhibition of renal production of the active hormone, although direct inhibition, at the intestinal level, was also suggested. Several members of the troponin C family of calcium-binding proteins were shown to bind lead in preference to calcium, suggesting that many of the toxic manifestations of lead may be related to perturbation of calcium-mediated cellular processes. 110 refs.

  3. Pharmacoeconomic profile of vitamin D3: in the prevention of osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypovitaminosis D is one of the principal risk factors for osteoporosis. Some studies estimated that more of 40% of Italian women over sixty are osteoporotic. Osteoporotic fracture is a significant cause of morbidity and cost. In Italy, in 2002, the global burden for hip fractures in over 65-years old patients has been estimated in more than one billion euro. Administration of vitamin D to prevent pathological fractures has a low cost-efficacy ratio, which reaches dominance compared to non-treatment in women over 70, i.e. avoided management costs of fractures exceed cost of therapy. In primary prevention, use of vitamin D3 involves some advantages with respect to partially or totally activated forms: higher safety and tolerability, lower costs and less frequent administrations. In order to prevent hypovitaminosis D, Regional Health Service of Toscana started to dispense free cholecalciferol to every person with more than 65 years (two 300.000 UI vials. The impact on the National Health Service budget, supposing all Italians over 65 would take cholecalciferol, has been estimated; annual savings resulted in more than 100.000.000 euro, only for hospitalization costs due to avoided fractures.

  4. The effect of a combined oral calcium and vitamin D supplement for treating mild to moderate vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Golombick

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Terry Golombick, Terry DiamondDepartment of Endocrinology, St George Hospital, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combined calcium and vitamin D (Ca-D3 supplement for vitamin D deficiency in a small group of postmenopausal women.Methods: A prospective open label 3 month-study.Participants: 23 postmenopausal women (mean age 61.2 yrs with vitamin D deficiency were given a combined oral Ca-D3 supplement called “Osteoblast”. The supplement comprises 500 mg elemental calcium and 500 IU of cholecalciferol. The dosing regimen comprised a loading dose of 1000 IU of cholecalciferol per day for one month (two tablets and thereafter a maintenance dose of 500 IU of cholecalciferol per day for 2 months (one tablet.Outcome measure: Serum was collected for calcium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3, and PTH measurements, as well as early morning 2-hour urine calcium/creatinine excretion index (Uca/creat. Specimens were collected at baseline and after 3 months of therapy. Data are reported as mean ± 1 standard error and 95% confi dence intervals.Results: Data was available for the 21 subjects who completed the study. Two subjects (9% withdrew because of gastrointestinal intolerance. There were 3 subjects with moderate (12.5–24 nmol/L and 18 with mild (25–49 nmol/L vitamin D deficiency. Ten subjects (48% had secondary hyperparathyroidism. Following the oral Ca-D3 combination, serum 25OHD3 levels normalised in all subjects with 18 (86% subjects achieving values of greater than 70 nmol/L. Serum 25OHD3 levels increased from 36 (31–41 to 91 (79–102 nmol/L (p = 0.0001, increasing by an average of 152% over the 3-month period. There was a corresponding 38% decrease in serum PTH concentrations at 3 months (5.1 + 0.6 pmol/L, compared with baseline (8.0 + 1 pmol/L (p = 0.001. No subject developed hypercalcemia, but an elevated Uca/creat excretion index occurred in one subjects.Conclusions: A combined oral Ca-D3 product

  5. Induction of CFTR gene expression by 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, 25OH vitamin D3, and vitamin D3 in cultured human airway epithelial cells and in mouse airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Kristina M; Mulligan, Jennifer K; Sumal, Aman S; Diamond, Gill

    2017-01-24

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which often leads to protein misfolding and no CFTR surface localization. This then leads to chronic airway infections, inflammation, and tissue damage. Although vitamin D has been explored as a therapy to treat CF due to its antimicrobial-inducing and anti-inflammatory properties, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) on CFTR directly has not been studied. We treated cultured healthy and diseased bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) with 10nM 1α,25(OH)2D3 for 6 and 24h and found that 1α,25(OH)2D3 increases both mRNA and protein CFTR levels using RT-qPCR, flow cytometry and fluorescence immunohistochemistry. Treatment of CF cells with 10nM 1α,25(OH)2D3 led to an increase in both total and surface CFTR expression, suggesting 1α,25(OH)2D3 could be used to increase properly localized CFTR in airway cells. To determine if BEC could convert the more clinically relevant cholecalciferol to 25OHD3, cultured non-CF and CF BECs were treated with a range of cholecalciferol concentrations, and 25OHD3 levels were quantified by ELISA. We found that 25OHD3 levels increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of BEC with 10μM cholecalciferol led to increases in both CYP24A1 and CFTR mRNA levels, even when added to the apical surface of cells grown in an air-liquid interface, suggesting that topical administration of vitamin D could be used therapeutically. To demonstrate this in vivo, we intranasally delivered 1μM 1α,25(OH)2D3 into mice. After 6h, we observed induction of both Cyp24A1 and CFTR expression in the tracheas of treated mice. The major findings of this study are that vitamin D can be converted to the active form when topically administered to the airway, and this could be used to increase CFTR levels in patients with CF. This could potentially be useful as an adjunctive therapy, together with

  6. Successful neridronate therapy in pregnancy-associated osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Agostino; Fiore, Carmelo Erio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare condition. The pathogenesis is probably multifactorial but has not yet been completely clarified. In this case report, a 38-year-old woman was referred to hospital after suffering an acute, non-traumatic back pain one month after delivering her first child. The radiological examination revealed four vertebral fractures. Bone mineral density was reduced, particularly at spine level. Biochemical tests were within normal range, except for increased urinary deoxypyridinoline and a slight reduction of the serum 25-OH vitamin D level. The patient was treated with neridronate, calcium and cholecalciferol. After one month, the patient was free of pain and DXA measurement after six months showed a marked recovery of bone mineral density at the spine and hip level. PMID:28228790

  7. Cestrum diurnum poisoning in Florida cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, L; Wasserman, R H; McEntee, K; Brokken, T D; Teigland, M B

    1975-10-01

    Cestrum diurnum poisoning was described in a Florida bull. Clinical signs included chronic wasting and progressive lameness. Plasma calcium was elevated for long periods of time but decreased toward low normal values. There was pronounced C-cell hyperplasia. Osteopetrosis was very severe and reflected retarded osteocytic osteolysis and chondrolysis. Further negative effects on the osteocytes eventually lead to osteonecrosis. Soft tissue calcinosis involved tendons and ligaments, major arteries and veins but kidneys and lungs were spared. Whereas the osteopetrosis could be explained by hypercalcitoninism, the osteonecrosis was believed to result from direct action by the Cestrum diurnum factor, previously shown to have an action similar to that of 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol, which is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3.

  8. Pseudoarthrosis and fracture: interaction between severe vitamin D deficiency and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashu; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Bhansali, Anil

    2013-11-01

    A young woman with severe vitamin D deficiency presented with proximal muscle weakness, fragility fracture and pseudoarthrosis. On evaluation, she was found to have hypercalcaemia, a single parathyroid adenoma and an undetectable 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. She received parenteral cholecalciferol and subsequently underwent curative parathyroidectomy. Postoperatively, she had hungry bone syndrome, which she gradually recovered from with calcium and calcitriol replacement. Notably, her calcium levels were in the lower limit of normal range and associated with elevated alkaline phosphatase levels at postoperative Day 14. Follow-up for the next four years showed that the patient had remarkable symptomatic and radiological improvements. In this report, we discuss the pathophysiological interactions between vitamin D deficiency and associated primary hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Simultaneous and accurate determination of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in multivitamin tablets by using an RP-HPLC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semahat Kucukkolbasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC procedure was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven water-soluble vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, folic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid and four fat-soluble vitamins (retinol acetate, cholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, and phytonadione in multivitamin tablets. The linearity of the method was excellent (R² > 0.999 over the concentration range of 10 - 500 ng mL-1. The statistical evaluation of the method was carried out by performing the intra- and inter-day precision. The accuracy of the method was tested by measuring the average recovery; values ranged between 87.4% and 98.5% and were acceptable quantitative results that corresponded with the label claims.

  10. Rapid determination of vitamin D₃ in milk-based infant formulas by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Byung-Man; Jeong, In-Seek; Lee, Moon-Seok; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Jong-Su

    2014-12-15

    A rapid and simple sample preparation method for vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) was developed for emulsified dairy products such as milk-based infant formulas. A sample was mixed in a 50 mL centrifuge tube with the same amount of water and isopropyl alcohol to achieve chemical extraction. Ammonium sulfate was used to induce phase separation. No-heating saponification was performed in the sample tube by adding KOH, NaCl, and NH3. Vitamin D3 was then separated and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results for added recovery tests were in the range 93.11-110.65%, with relative standard deviations between 2.66% and 2.93%. The results, compared to those obtained using a certified reference material (SRM 1849a), were within the range of the certificated values. This method could be implemented in many laboratories that require time and labour saving.

  11. Effects of dietary addition of vitamins C and D3 on growth and calcium and phosphorus content of pond-cultured channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launer, C.A.; Tiemeier, O.W.; Deyoe, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fingerling channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, were fed one of three diets: one deficient in vitamin C (ascorbic acid), one deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), or one containing both vitamins. Semimonthly from May to September and monthly from September to February, calcium and phosphorus were determined in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons by neutron activation analysis. Body weight gains, survival rate, and feed conversion rates were determined for the May to September period. Fish on the three diet regimens showed no significant difference in weight gain, feed conversion, or survival. Interactions between sampling date and diet indicated no correlation between vitamin C or D3 and the calcium and phosphorus in eviscerated bodies and fat-free skeletons of the fish.

  12. Vitamin D content in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, Susanna; Højskov, Carsten S; Møller, Ulla Kristine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parents are advised to avoid the direct sun exposure of their newborns. Therefore, the vitamin D status of exclusively breastfed newborns is entirely dependent on the supply of vitamin D from breast milk. OBJECTIVES: We explored concentrations of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2......) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) (vitamin D) and 25-hydroxivitamin D2 plus D3 (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]) in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and identified indexes of importance to the concentrations. DESIGN: We collected blood and breast-milk samples from mothers at 2 wk (n = 107), 4 mo......, (n = 90), and 9 mo (n = 48) postpartum. Blood samples from infants were collected 4 and 9 mo after birth. We measured concentrations of vitamin D metabolites in blood and milk samples with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Concentrations of vitamin D and 25(OH...

  13. A.S.P.E.N. position paper: recommendations for changes in commercially available parenteral multivitamin and multi-trace element products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, Vincent W; Borum, Peggy; Buchman, Alan; Fessler, Theresa A; Howard, Lyn; Jeejeebhoy, Khursheed; Kochevar, Marty; Shenkin, Alan; Valentine, Christina J

    2012-08-01

    The parenteral multivitamin preparations that are commercially available in the United States (U.S.) meet the requirements for most patients who receive parenteral nutrition (PN). However, a separate parenteral vitamin D preparation (cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol) should be made available for treatment of patients with vitamin D deficiency unresponsive to oral vitamin D supplementation. Carnitine is commercially available and should be routinely added to neonatal PN formulations. Choline should also be routinely added to adult and pediatric PN formulations; however, a commercially available parenteral product needs to be developed. The parenteral multi-trace element (TE) preparations that are commercially available in the U.S. require significant modifications. Single-entity trace element products can be used to meet individual patient needs when the multiple-element products are inappropriate (see Summary/A.S.P.E.N. Recommendations section for details of these proposed modifications).

  14. Clinical potential for vitamin D as a neoadjuvant for photodynamic therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Rollakanti, Kishore

    2015-03-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), comprising basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), is the most common form of human cancer worldwide. Effective therapies include surgical excision, cryotherapy, and ionizing radiation, but all of these cause scarring. ALA-based PDT is a non-scarring modality used routinely for NMSC in Europe but not in the USA, primarily due to lingering uncertainties about efficacy. We have identified three agents (methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, and vitamin D) that can be used as neoadjuvants, i.e., can be given as a pretreatment prior to ALA-PDT, to improve the efficacy of tumor killing in mouse models of NMSC. Vitamin D (VD3) is the most recent neoadjuvant on this list. In this presentation we make the case that VD3 may be superior to the other agents to improve results of ALA-PDT skin cancer treatment. The active form of VD3 (calcitriol) is available topically as a pharmaceutical grade cream or ointment (FDA-approved for psoriasis), and works well for boosting ALA-PDT tumor treatment in mouse models. For deep tumors not reachable by a topical route, calcitriol can be given systemically and is very effective, but carries a risk of causing hypercalcemia as a side effect. To circumvent this risk, we have conducted experiments with the natural dietary form of VD3 (cholecalciferol), and showed that this improves ALA-PDT efficacy almost to the same extent as calcitriol. Because cholecalciferol does not increase serum calcium levels, this represents a potentially extremely safe approach. Data in mouse models of BCC and SCC will be presented.

  15. The Involvement of miR-29b-3p in Arterial Calcification by Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhanman; Yang, Han; Lin, Qiuning; Han, Chuangye

    2017-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a risk predictor and common pathological change in cardiovascular diseases that are associated with elastin degradation and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells via gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2). However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationships between miR-29b-3p and MMP2, to confirm miR-29b-3p-mediated MMP2 expression at the posttranscriptional level in arterial calcification. In male Sprague Dawley rats, arterial calcification was induced by subcutaneous injection of a toxic dose of cholecalciferol. In vivo, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that MMP2 expression was upregulated in calcified arterial tissues, and miR-29b-3p expression was downregulated. There was a negative correlation between MMP2 mRNA expression and miR-29b-3p levels (P = 0.0014, R2 = 0.481). Western blotting showed that MMP2 expression was significantly increased in rats treated with cholecalciferol. In vitro, overexpression of miR-29b-3p led to decreased MMP2 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, while downregulation of miR-29b-3p expression led to increased MMP2 expression. Moreover, the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that MMP2 is the direct target of miR-29b-3p. Together, our results demonstrated that a role of miR-29b-3p in vascular calcification involves targeting MMP2. PMID:28164126

  16. Plasma Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein as a Marker of Kidney Damage and Cardiovascular Risk in Advanced Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Ilona Kurnatowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP is formed as a result of vitamin K insufficiency. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma dp-ucMGP, kidney function and cardiovascular risk factors before and after 9-months substitution of vitamin K2 in non-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 4 and 5. Methods: 38 CKD patients were supplemented for 270±12 days with 90 µg vitamin K2 and 10 µg cholecalciferol or 10 µg cholecalciferol alone. At baseline and at follow-up circulating calcium, phosphate, lipids, hemoglobin, albumin and total protein, dp-ucMGP, osteoprotegerin, fetuin A, osteocalcin and fibroblast grown factor 23 (FGF-23 were assessed. Proteinuria was assessed in the first morning void. Results: Baseline plasma dp-ucMGP was 1018.6±498.3 pmol/l and was significantly higher in patients at stage 5 CKD (1388.3 ±505.4 pmol/l than at stage 4 (885.1±419.7 pmol/l, p=0.04. Vitamin K2 supplementation resulted in a decrease of dp-ucMGP level by 10.7%. Plasma dp-ucMGP was positively associated with proteinuria, serum creatinine, PTH and FGF-23; and inversely associated with glomerular filtration rate, serum hemoglobin and albumin. Conclusions: High dp-ucMGP level, reflecting a poor vitamin K status seems to be associated with kidney damage and may be also a marker of cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. Supplementation with vitamin K2 may improve the carboxylation status of MGP.

  17. Effect of High- versus Low-Fat Meal on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels after a Single Oral Dose of Vitamin D: A Single-Blind, Parallel, Randomized Trial

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    Fabiana Viegas Raimundo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Vitamin D3 is liposoluble, so dietary fat could increase its oral absorption. Our aim was to compare serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] after the oral intake of cholecalciferol with a high- or low-fat meal. Methods. In a single-blind, parallel clinical trial, 32 healthy physicians were divided into two groups. In the same day, they ingested 50,000 IU (1.25 mg of vitamin D3 with food: group 1 (G1: lipids: 25.6 g and group 2 (G2 lipids: 1.7 g. Serum 25(OHD (0, 7, and 14 days, and parathyroid hormone (PTH, and calcium (0 and 14 days were measured. Results. Baseline mean serum 25(OHD levels were 42.7±19.0 nmol/L in G1 and 36.4±19.0 nmol/L in G2 (P=0.38. After cholecalciferol, mean serum 25(OHD was higher in G1 (P<0.001: 7 days: G1 = 46.2 (38.4–53.9 nmol/L and G2 = 33.7 (25.4–40.1 nmol/L; 14 days: G1 = 53.7 (45.2–62.1 nmol/L and G2 = 33.7 (25.2–42.2 nmol/L. Serum PTH and 25(OHD were negatively correlated before and after the intake of vitamin D3, respectively, r=-0.42 (P=0.02 and r=-0.52 (P=0.003. Conclusions. A high-fat meal increased the absorption of vitamin D3, as measured by serum 25(OHD.

  18. Fate of tritium-labeled vitamin D/sub 3/ and 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in rabbit does and thier pups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidiroglou, H.

    1984-01-01

    Mammary transfer of label from intraperitoneally injected 50 ..mu..Ci (1..cap alpha.., 2..cap alpha..(n)-hydrogen-3) cholecalciferol, and 50 ..mu..Ci (26,27-methyl-hydrogen-3)cholecalciferol was studied in nursing rabbits. Does were injected at 3 days postpartum with one of the two labeled compounds. Pups were killed at either 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days after dosing of the does, and does were killed after 5 days. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in tissues of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/ than in tissues of those dosed with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Concentrations of radioactivity were greater in maternal tissues than in tissues of pups. On the 5th day following administration of tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/ or 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, the major portion of the radioactivity in does' plasma and liver was associated with tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. In pups from the tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/ group, the concentration of plasma radioactivity associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ (isolated by high pressure liquid chromatography) increased significantly with time, reaching 85% of the total vitamin D and metabolite radioactivity in the pups at the 5th day. Over 90% of the total recovered plasma radioactivity of pups of the tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ group was associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/. Much more radioactivity was secreted in the milk of tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ dosed does than in milk of does dosed with tritiated vitamin D/sub 3/. 16 references, 3 tables.

  19. The Involvement of miR-29b-3p in Arterial Calcification by Targeting Matrix Metalloproteinase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhong Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a risk predictor and common pathological change in cardiovascular diseases that are associated with elastin degradation and phenotypic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells via gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationships between miR-29b-3p and MMP2, to confirm miR-29b-3p-mediated MMP2 expression at the posttranscriptional level in arterial calcification. In male Sprague Dawley rats, arterial calcification was induced by subcutaneous injection of a toxic dose of cholecalciferol. In vivo, the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR showed that MMP2 expression was upregulated in calcified arterial tissues, and miR-29b-3p expression was downregulated. There was a negative correlation between MMP2 mRNA expression and miR-29b-3p levels (P=0.0014, R2=0.481. Western blotting showed that MMP2 expression was significantly increased in rats treated with cholecalciferol. In vitro, overexpression of miR-29b-3p led to decreased MMP2 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, while downregulation of miR-29b-3p expression led to increased MMP2 expression. Moreover, the luciferase reporter assay confirmed that MMP2 is the direct target of miR-29b-3p. Together, our results demonstrated that a role of miR-29b-3p in vascular calcification involves targeting MMP2.

  20. Uptake of /sup 75/Se-selenite by brush border membrane vesicles from chick duodenum stimulated by vitamin D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykkanen, H.M.; Wasserman, R.H.

    1989-02-01

    Brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from mucosal homogenates of duodena from normal, rachitic and vitamin D-treated rachitic chicks using a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and further purified by glycerol gradient centrifugation. In vitro uptake of 75Se-selenite by purified brush border membrane vesicles was studied using a rapid filtration technique. The time course of 75Se uptake was non-linear; rapid initial binding was followed by a gradual decrease in the rate of uptake until an equilibrium value was reached at 60-120 min. The initial binding at 36 s was not affected by selenite concentration in the incubation buffer, while the fractional rate of uptake between the 36 s and 2 min time periods was clearly lower with 1 mM Se than with 4-100 microM Se. 75Se uptake did not show any dependency on the external Na-gradient, nor could it be inhibited by other anions (arsenate, phosphate). Treatment of rachitic chicks either with cholecalciferol (500 Iu, 72 h) or with 1,25(OH)2-cholecalciferol (0.5 microgram given 16 h prior to isolation of the vesicles) significantly enhanced 75Se uptake. A threefold excess of mannitol in the outside buffer reduced 75Se uptake by vesicles from vitamin D-deficient and D-treated chicks 60% and 35% respectively, but had no effect on vesicles from vitamin D-treated chicks preloaded with 75Se. Neither saponin treatment nor excess cold selenite could release the label from the vesicles preloaded with 75Se. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that selenite easily crosses the brush border membrane into the intravesicular space and, once inside, is tightly bound by the membrane.

  1. Metabolic evaluation in first-time renal stone formers in north India: A single center study

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    Akhil Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of stone recurrence in first-time stone formers (FTSF varies from 26% to 53%. There is no consensus regarding metabolic evaluation in these individuals. We evaluated the metabolic abnormalities in first-time renal stone forming patients in North India. Thirty-nine patients, (29 males and 10 females with mean age 39.3 ± 12.9 years who presented with nephrolithiasis for the first time were evaluated. We evaluated the calcium homeostasis [serum corrected total calcium, phosphorous, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, parathormone (iPTH, 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD 3 , 1-25 di-hydroxy cholecalciferol (1,25(OH 2 D 3 ] and performed the calcium load test also. Two 24-h urine collections were taken for citrate, oxalate, calcium and uric acid. Ammonium chloride loading test for diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis was performed in all patients. For each of the diagnostic categories, descriptive statistics were computed for all biochemical variables. A two-tailed P-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Metabolic abnormalities were detected in 92.3% of the patients (n = 39 studied. Of them, almost 60% had two or more metabolic abnormalities. The most common metabolic abnormality was hypo-citraturia (82%, followed by hyper-oxaluria (56% and hyper-calciuria (41%. Five percent of the patients had incomplete renal tubular acidosis, signifying the importance of the ammonium chloride loading test in patients with renal stones. None of the study patients were detected to have primary hyperparathyroidism. In three patients, the etiology could not be detected. Our findings suggest that an underlying disorder is present in majority of first-time renal stone formers. Intervention with appropriate treatment can prevent recurrences. Hence, comprehensive metabolic evaluation is recommended in all FTSF.

  2. Effects of vitamin D on kidney histology and trpv1 channels in doxorubicin-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurel, Ali; Atli, Hasan; Kaya, Nalan; Onalan, Ebru; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Aygen, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an antineoplastic agent of the anthracycline group, and may show nephrotoxic effects in animal models and humans. We investigated changes in kidney tissue following doxorubicin treatment and the effects of vitamin D on kidney tissue and TRPV1 channels. In this study, 24 adult male Wistar Albino rats were used. The animals were divided into four groups of six animals. During the 14-day experiment period, Group I did not have any application. 200 IU/day cholecalciferol was administered orally to Group II. Group III received 10 mg/kg single dose of DXR intraperitoneally (IP); and Group IV had a single 10 mg/kg dose of IP DXR and 200 IU/day of oral cholecalciferol. At the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated, and their kidney tissues were removed. TRPV1 expression and apoptosis were detected in the tissue section by using immunohistochemical, TUNEL and real time-PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. The findings were examined and photographed with BH2 Olympus photomicroscope. As result of immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and examination with light microscope, it was found that the TRPV 1 immunoreactivity of the DXR group decreased in comparison with the control group, and the vitamin D application did not reverse this effect. Apoptosis detected by the TUNEL method tended to increase in the doxorubicin group and was relatively reversed with the administration of vitamin D. Tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were observed to correlate with the findings of apoptosis. This study showed that vitamin D has anti- apoptotic and antioxidant effects on kidney tissue after DXR-induced injury.

  3. A novel CaSR mutation presenting as a severe case of neonatal familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

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    Tonyushkina Ksenia N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH is a generally benign disorder caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR gene resulting in altered calcium metabolism. Objective We report a case of unusually severe neonatal FHH due to a novel CaSR gene mutation that presented with perinatal fractures and moderate hypercalcemia. Case overview A female infant was admitted at 2 weeks of age for suspected non-accidental trauma (NAT. Laboratory testing revealed hypercalcemia (3.08 mmol/L, elevated iPTH (20.4 pmol/L and low urinary calcium clearance (0.0004. Radiographs demonstrated multiple healing metaphyseal and rib fractures and bilateral femoral bowing. The femoral deformity and stage of healing were consistent with prenatal injuries rather than non-accidental trauma (NAT. Treatment was initiated with cholecalciferol, 400 IU/day, and by 6 weeks of age, iPTH levels had decreased into the high-normal range. Follow up radiographs demonstrated marked improvement of bone lesions by 3 months. A CaSR gene mutation study showed heterozygosity for a T>C nucleotide substitution at c.1664 in exon 6, resulting in amino acid change I555T in the extracellular domain consistent with a missense mutation. Her mother does not carry the mutation and the father is unknown. At 18 months of age, the child continues to have relative hyperparathyroidism and moderate hypercalcemia but is otherwise normal. Conclusion This neonate with intrauterine fractures and demineralization, moderate hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism was found to have a novel inactivating missense mutation of the CaSR not detected in her mother. Resolution of bone lesions and reduction of hyperparathyroidism was likely attributable to the natural evolution of the disorder in infancy as well as the mitigating effect of cholecalciferol treatment.

  4. Bones and Crohn's: No benefit of adding sodium fluoride oribandronate to calcium and vitamin D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Klaus; Max Reinshagen; Katharina Herdt; Christoph Schr(o)ter; Guido Adler; Georg BT von Boyen; Christian von Tirpitz

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect of calcium and cholecalciferol alone and along with additional sodium fluoride or ibandronate on bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures in patients with Crohn's disease (CD).METHODS: Patients (n =148) with reduced BMD (T-score< -1) were randomized to receive cholecalciferol (1000 IU) and calcium citrate (800 mg) daily alone(group A, n =32) or along with additional sodium fluoride (25 mg bid ) (group B, n = 62) or additional ibandronate (1 mg iv/3-monthly) (group C, n = 54). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal right femurand X-rays of the spine were performed at baseline and after 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 years. Fracture-assessment included visual reading of X-rays and quantitative morphometry of vertebral bodies (T4-L4).RESULTS: One hundred and twenty three (83.1%) patients completed the first year for intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Ninety two (62.2%) patients completed thesecond year and 71 (47.8%) the third year available for per-protocol (PP) analysis. With a significant increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by +0.28 ± 0.35 [95%confidence interval (CI): 0.162-0.460, P < 0.01], +0.33 ± 0.49 (95% CI: 0.109-0.558, P < 0.01), +0.43 ± 0.47 (95% CI: 0.147-0.708, P < 0.01) in group A, +0.22 ±0.33 (95% CI: 0.125-0.321, P < 0.01); +0.47 ± 0.60 (95% CI: 0.262-0.676, P < 0.01), +0.51 ± 0.44 (95%CI: 0.338-0.682, P < 0.01) in group B and +0.22 ±0.38 (95% CI: 0.111-0.329, P < 0.01), +0.36 ± 0.53(95% CI: 0.147-0.578, P < 0.01), +0.41 ± 0.48 (95%CI: 0.238-0.576, P < 0.01) in group C, respectively, duringthe 1.0, 2.25 and 3.5 year periods (PP analysis), no treatment regimen was superior in any in- or betweengroup analyses. In the ITT analysis, similar results in allin- and between-group analyses with a significant ingroup but non-significant between-group increase in T-score of the lumbar spine by 0.38 ± 0.46 (group A,P < 0.01), 0.37 ± 0.50 (group B, P < 0.01) and 0.35 ±0.49 (group C, P < 0.01) was

  5. Vitamin D: considerations in the continued development as an agent for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Deeb, Kristin K; Johnson, Candace S

    2010-01-01

    Considerable preclinical and epidemiologic data suggest that vitamin D may play a role in the pathogenesis, progression, and therapy for cancer. Numerous epidemiologic studies support the hypothesis that individuals with lower serum vitamin D levels have a higher risk of a number of cancers. Measures of vitamin D level in such studies include both surrogate estimates of vitamin D level (residence in more northern latitudes, history of activity, and sun exposure) as well as measured serum 25(OH) cholecalciferol levels. Perhaps, the most robust of these epidemiologic studies is that of Giovannucci et al, who developed and validated an estimate of serum 25(OH) cholecalciferol level and reported that among >40,000 individuals in the Health Professionals Study, an increase in 25(OH) cholecalciferol level of 62.5 ng/mL was associated with a reduction in the risk of head/neck, esophagus, pancreas cancers, and acute leukemia by >50%. Unfortunately, very limited data are available to indicate whether or not giving vitamin D supplements reduces the risk of cancer. Many preclinical studies indicate that exposing cancer cells, as well as vascular endothelial cells derived from tumors, to high concentrations of active metabolites of vitamin D halts progression through cell cycle, induces apoptosis and will slow or stop the growth of tumors in vivo. There are no data that one type of cancer is more or less susceptible to the effects of vitamin D. Vitamin D also potentiates the antitumor activity of a number of types of cytotoxic anticancer agents in in vivo preclinical models. Vitamin D analogues initiate signaling through a number of important pathways, but the pathway(s) essential to the antitumor activities of vitamin D are unclear. Clinical studies of vitamin D as an antitumor agent have been hampered by the lack of a suitable pharmaceutical preparation for clinical study. All commercially available formulations are inadequate because of the necessity to administer large

  6. Altered Bone Metabolism and Bone Density in Patients with Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Haas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Due to maldigestion, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI in chronic pancreatitis may lead to deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins, including vitamin D. This may, in turn, can cause disturbances in bone metabolism and reduce bone mineral density. Objective To conduct a prospective study of maldigestion, bone metabolism, and bone mineral density in a group of patients with chronic pancreatitis. Methods A total of 50 male patients with proven chronic pancreatitis (36/50 alcohol; 42/50 smokers were studied. Pancreatic exocrine function was assessed using the fecal elastase-1 test. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for parameters related to pancreatitis, nutrition, endocrine status, and bone metabolism. Bone mineral density was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorption (DXA and conventional vertebral X-rays. A standardized questionnaire for osteoporosis was given. Results Twenty-eight of the patients had PEI (fecal elastase-1 200 µg/g, 25 had bone pain, and 21 had a history of bne fractures. Serum 25-OH-cholecalciferol and urine calcium were decreased and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were increased in urine. Serum calcium, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were within normal limits. There was no statistical correlation between three classes of fecal elastase-1 (200 µg/g and calcium, 25-OH-cholecalciferol, or deoxypyridinoline. Of the 15 patients who underwent DXA, 5 had normal bone mineral density (T score >-1, 9 had osteopenia (T score from -1 to -2.5, and 1 had osteoporosis (T score -2.5. There was a trend toward a correlation between low fecal elastase-1 and low T scores (P=0.065. Low fecal elastase-1 correlated with low bone mineral density in conventional X-rays (p<0.05. Patients receiving pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT had significantly higher DXA values (p<0.05. Conclusions Patients with chronic pancreatitis have osteoporosis, along with abnormal bone metabolism and reduced bone

  7. Role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 dose in determining rat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieth, R.; McCarten, K.; Norwich, K.H. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    To understand the relationships among (1) the dose of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in vivo, (2) the activity of 1-hydroxylase in renal mitochondria, and (3) the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) in vivo, we gave rats different chronic or acute doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). We followed the metabolism of intracardially administered (25-hydroxy-26,27-methyl-3H)cholecalciferol (25(OH)(3H)D3) for 24 h before killing by measuring extracts of serum by chromatography. Specific activity of 1-hydroxylase in kidney was measured at death. In rats given 0-2,000 pmol 25(OH)D3 chronically by mouth, there was a dose-dependent decline in the percent of serum radioactivity made up of 1,25-dihydroxy-(26,27-methyl-3H)cholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2(3H)D3) as well as a decline in mitochondrial 1-hydroxylase, and these correlated significantly (r = 0.83, P less than 0.001). Serum %1,25(OH)2(3H)D3 in this experiment ranged from 0.8 to 42%. A small part of this range could be accounted for by a faster metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of 1,25(OH)2D3 from rats supplemented with 25(OH)D3 (MCR, 2.12 +/- 0.10 ml/min) compared with rats restricted in vitamin D (MCR, 0.94 +/- 0.06 ml/min, P less than 0.001). The activity of 1-hydroxylase was by far the major factor determining serum %1,25(OH)2(3H)D3. When different acute doses of 25(OH)D3 were given to rats with identical specific activities of 1-hydroxylase, the resulting 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations in serum correlated with the 25(OH)D3 dose (r = 0.99, P less than 0.001). We conclude that the behavior of 1-hydroxylase in vivo is analogous to the classic behavior in vitro of an enzyme functioning below its Michaelis constant (Km). The amount of 1-hydroxylase present in renal mitochondria determines the fraction (not simply the quantity) of 25(OH)D metabolized to 1,25(OH)2D3 in vivo.

  8. Female asylum seekers with musculoskeletal pain: the importance of diagnosis and treatment of hypovitaminosis D

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    Pécoud A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypovitaminosis D is well known in different populations, but may be under diagnosed in certain populations. We aim to determine the first diagnosis considered, the duration and resolution of symptoms, and the predictors of response to treatment in female asylum seekers suffering from hypovitaminosis D. Methods Design: A pre- and post-intervention observational study. Setting: A network comprising an academic primary care centre and nurse practitioners. Participants: Consecutive records of 33 female asylum seekers with complaints compatible with osteomalacia and with hypovitaminosis D (serum 25-(OH vitamin D Treatment intervention: The patients received either two doses of 300,000 IU intramuscular cholecalciferol as well as 800 IU of cholecalciferol with 1000 mg of calcium orally, or the oral treatment only. Main outcome measures: We recorded the first diagnosis made by the physicians before the correct diagnosis of hypovitaminosis D, the duration of symptoms before diagnosis, the responders and non-responders to treatment, the duration of symptoms after treatment, and the number of medical visits and analgesic drugs prescribed 6 months before and 6 months after diagnosis. Tests: Two-sample t-tests, chi-squared tests, and logistic regression analyses were performed. Analyses were performed using SPSS 10.0. Results Prior to the discovery of hypovitaminosis D, diagnoses related to somatisation were evoked in 30 patients (90.9%. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 2.53 years (SD 3.20. Twenty-two patients (66.7% responded completely to treatment; the remaining patients were considered to be non-responders. After treatment was initiated, the responders' symptoms disappeared completely after 2.84 months. The mean number of emergency medical visits fell from 0.88 (SD 1.08 six months before diagnosis to 0.39 (SD 0.83 after (P = 0.027. The mean number of analgesic drugs that were prescribed also decreased from 1.67 (SD

  9. The Steady-State Serum Concentration of Genistein Aglycone Is Affected by Formulation: A Bioequivalence Study of Bone Products

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    Alessandra Bitto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An FDA-regulated, prescription medical food (Fosteum; 27 mg natural genistein, 200 IU cholecalciferol, 20 mg citrated zinc bisglycinate (4 mg elemental zinc per capsule and an over-the-counter (OTC supplement (Citracal Plus Bone Density Builder; 27 mg synthetic genistein, 600 mg elemental calcium (calcium citrate, 400 IU vitamin D3, 50 mg magnesium, 7.5 mg zinc, 1 mg copper, 75 μg molybdenum, 250 μg boron per two tablets were compared to a clinically proven bone formulation (27 mg natural genistein, 400 IU cholecalciferol, 500 mg elemental calcium (calcium carbonate per tablet; the Squadrito formulation in an 8-day steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK study of healthy postmenopausal women (n=30 randomized to receive 54 mg of genistein per day. Trough serum samples were obtained before the final dose on the morning of the ninth day followed by sampling at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hrs. Total serum genistein, after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase digestion, was measured by time-resolved fluorometric assay. Maximal time (Tmax, concentration (Cmax, half-life (T1/2, and area under the curve (AUC were determined for genistein in each formulation. Fosteum and the Squadrito study formulation were equivalent for genistein Tmax (2 hrs, Cmax (0.7 μM, T1/2 (18±6.9 versus 21±4.9 hrs, and AUC (9221±413 versus 9818±1370 ng·hr/mL. The OTC supplement’s synthetically derived genistein, however, showed altered Tmax (6 hrs, Cmax (0.57 μM, T1/2 (8.3±1.9 hrs, and AUC (6474±287 ng·hr/mL. Differences in uptake may be due to multiple ingredients in the OTC supplement which interfere with genistein absorption.

  10. Effect of vitamin D on aortic remodeling in streptozotocin-induced diabetes

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    Salum Erik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with micro- and macrovascular complications and increased cardiovascular risk. Elevated levels of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA may be responsible for endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes-induced vascular impairment. Vitamin D may have potential protective effects against arterial stiffening. This study aimed to examine both the effects of diabetes on the functional/structural properties of the aorta and the endothelial function and the effects of vitamin D supplementation. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 30 were randomly assigned to control untreated, diabetic untreated, and diabetic + cholecalciferol groups. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, followed by oral administration of cholecalciferol (500 IU/kg for 10 weeks in the treatment group. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV was recorded over a mean arterial pressure (MAP range of 50 to 200 mmHg using a dual pressure sensor catheter. Intravenous infusion of phenylephrine and nitroglycerine was used to increase and decrease MAP, respectively. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] levels were measured using a radioimmune assay. ADMA levels in serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Aortic samples were collected for histomorphometrical analysis. Results PWV up to MAP 170 mmHg did not reveal any significant differences between all groups, but in diabetic rats, PWV was significantly elevated across MAP range between 170 and 200 mmHg. Isobaric PWV was similar between the treated and untreated diabetic groups, despite significant differences in the levels of serum 25(OHD (493 ± 125 nmol/L vs 108 ± 38 nmol/L, respectively. Serum levels of ADMA were similarly increased in the treated and untreated diabetic groups, compared to the control group. The concentration and integrity of the elastic lamellae in the medial layer of the aorta was impaired in untreated

  11. Seasonal Changes in Vitamin D-Effective UVB Availability in Europe and Associations with Population Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Ryan, Mary J; Barber, Niamh; Sempos, Christopher T; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Jorde, Rolf; Grimnes, Guri; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Cotch, Mary Frances; Kiely, Mairead; Webb, Ann R; Cashman, Kevin D

    2016-08-30

    Low vitamin D status is common in Europe. The major source of vitamin D in humans is ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced dermal synthesis of cholecalciferol, whereas food sources are believed to play a lesser role. Our objectives were to assess UVB availability (Jm(-2)) across several European locations ranging from 35° N to 69° N, and compare these UVB data with representative population serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) data from Ireland (51-54° N), Iceland (64° N) and Norway (69° N), as exemplars. Vitamin D-effective UVB availability was modelled for nine European countries/regions using a validated UV irradiance model. Standardized serum 25(OH)D data was accessed from the EC-funded ODIN project. The results showed that UVB availability decreased with increasing latitude (from 35° N to 69° N), while all locations exhibited significant seasonal variation in UVB. The UVB data suggested that the duration of vitamin D winters ranged from none (at 35° N) to eight months (at 69° N). The large seasonal fluctuations in serum 25(OH)D in Irish adults was much dampened in Norwegian and Icelandic adults, despite considerably lower UVB availability at these northern latitudes but with much higher vitamin D intakes. In conclusion, increasing the vitamin D intake can ameliorate the impact of low UVB availability on serum 25(OH)D status in Europe.

  12. Recognition and management of vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Paula; Ghetu, Maria V; Langan, Robert C

    2009-10-15

    Vitamin D deficiency affects persons of all ages. Common manifestations of vitamin D deficiency are symmetric low back pain, proximal muscle weakness, muscle aches, and throbbing bone pain elicited with pressure over the sternum or tibia. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D level should be obtained in patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Deficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 20 ng per mL (50 nmol per L), and insufficiency is defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 to 30 ng per mL (50 to 75 nmol per L). The goal of treatment is to normalize vitamin D levels to relieve symptoms and decrease the risk of fractures, falls, and other adverse health outcomes. To prevent vitamin D deficiency, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants and children receive at least 400 IU per day from diet and supplements. Evidence shows that vitamin D supplementation of at least 700 to 800 IU per day reduces fracture and fall rates in adults. In persons with vitamin D deficiency, treatment may include oral ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) at 50,000 IU per week for eight weeks. After vitamin D levels normalize, experts recommend maintenance dosages of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) at 800 to 1,000 IU per day from dietary and supplemental sources.

  13. Plasma levels and therapeutic effect of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in epileptic patients taking anticonvulsant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, T C; Round, J M; Rowe, D J; Haddad, J G

    1972-10-07

    Plasma levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-HCC) were measured by a specific competitive protein-binding assay. Mean levels in both normal London adults and adolescent schoolchildren were 16 ng/ml and the mean level in a group of epileptic patients on high-dosage anticonvulsant therapy was 5 ng/ml, (difference from normals P < 0.001). Two further epileptic patients, with well-marked anticonvulsant osteomalacia, were treated with small doses of 25-HCC during full metabolic balance studies; rapid healing followed administration of 25-HCC by mouth in doses of 10-45 mug daily, which is well below the effective dose range of calciferol in this condition. These findings provided further evidence that anticonvulsant osteomalacia results from hepatic enzyme induction which, by increasing the metabolism of cholecalciferol to inactive compounds, lowers 25-HCC levels in patients whose dietary vitamin D intake and exposure to sunlight are otherwise adequate. Results also indicated that under certain circumstances 25-HCC may have considerably stronger antirachitic potency in man than has hitherto been recognized.

  14. The effect of dietary supplements on the quality of life of retired professional football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Robert; Maddela, Rolando Lorenzo; Bae, Sejong; Best, Talitha

    2012-11-22

    Professional football players may experience negative health consequences when they retire such as chronic pain, cognitive problems as well as other consequences of sports-related injuries. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multiple nutrients on the quality of life of retired football players. Fifteen retired players received daily supplementation of fish oil with cholecalciferol, antioxidants, natural vitamins and minerals, polysaccharides and phytosterol-amino acid complex for 6 months. Using an open-labeled repeated measures design, volunteers completed self-report assessment measures at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures were CDC HRQOL-4, WHOQOL-BREF, POMS, MFQ and pain self-assessment. General health rating improvement on CDC HRQOL-4 from month 1 was sustained to month 6 (pquality of life in retired football players. Further research using a placebo-controlled design is needed to characterize the potential benefit to physical and psychological well-being of multiple dietary supplementations for this cohort.

  15. Optimal vitamin D status for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin D(3) (cholecalciferol) sufficiency is essential for maximising bone health. Vitamin D enhances intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus. The major source of vitamin D for both children and adults is exposure of the skin to sunlight. Season, latitude, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, clothing and aging can dramatically influence the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D or are fortified with vitamin D. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; calcifediol] is the best measure of vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency [as defined by a serum 25(OH)D level of Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, increasing the risk of fracture. Unlike osteoporosis, which is a painless disease, osteomalacia causes aching bone pain that is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia or chronic pain syndrome or is simply dismissed as depression. Vitamin D deficiency causes muscle weakness, increasing the risk of falls and fractures, and should be aggressively treated with pharmacological doses of vitamin D. Vitamin D sufficiency can be sustained by sensible sun exposure or ingesting at least 800-1000 IU of vitamin D(3) daily. Patients being treated for osteoporosis should be adequately supplemented with calcium and vitamin D to maximise the benefit of treatment.

  16. Stimulatory effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like substances from Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum on phosphate transport in chick jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlik, M; Wasserman, R H

    1978-10-01

    Extracts of the calcinogenic plants Solanum malocoxylon and Cestrum diurnum stimulate phosphate absorption by the jejunum of vitamin D-deficient chicks, as determined by everted gut sac technique. Their action on cellular pathways of transepithelial phosphate transport is indistinguishable thereby from that of cholecalciferol. Increased net absorption from the lumen was due to enhanced uptake of phosphate from the luminal side, while leakage of tissue phosphate in the opposite direction was apparently unaffected. Steep serosa/mucosa concentration gradients were observed as consequence of enhanced levels of transepithelial phosphate flux in the mucosa-to-serosa direction. With respect to their stimulatory action on phosphate absorption, the calcinogenic plant factors retained their biological activity when phosphate transport was depressed by a high strontium diet. Their action in overcoming the strontium inhibition of phosphate absorption, calcium-binding protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity, was comparable to the effect of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol. On the basis of these biological responses, the action of the plant factors from Solanum malacoxylon and Cestrum diurnum provides further evidence for their close resemblance to the hormonally active sterol.

  17. Uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from low and high density lipoproteins by cultured human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireman, R.B.; Williams, D.; Remsen, J.F.

    1986-03-01

    The plasma distribution and cellular uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ was studied in vitro using cultured human fibroblasts. Incubation of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ (cholecalciferol) with plasma followed by sequential ultracentrifugal fractionation of the lipoproteins indicated that 2-4% of the radioactivity associated with the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), 12% with low density lipoprotein (LDL), and approximately 60% with the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The remaining radioactivity, 25%, was associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. By comparison, an average of 86% of the radioactivity from (/sup 3/H) 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol associated with the sedimented plasma fractions. The uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from plasma, LDL, or HDL was studied in cultured human cells; uptake by normal fibroblasts was greatest from LDL and least from plasma. The cellular association of vitamin D/sub 3/ was time, concentration, and temperature dependent. At a concentration of 50 ..mu..g LDL/ml of medium, the uptake of (/sup 3/H)vitamin D/sub 3/ from LDL at 37/sup 0/C was rapid and reached a maximum at approximately 4 hr; it was slower from HDL but continued to increase slowly up to 24 hr. The significance of these in vitro findings is uncertain since much of the vitamin D/sub 3/ absorbed from the intestine reportedly associates with chylomicrons and is rapidly taken up by the liver.

  18. Significant Independent Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Inpatients and Outpatients of a Nephrology Unit

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    Recep Bentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Kidney disease was found to be a major risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in a population study of patients hospitalized. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency inpatients and outpatients in a nephrology department during fall and to evaluate effect of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels and previous supplementation of cholecalciferol on vitamin D status. Methods. We studied 280 subjects in total, between October and January. The subjects were recruited from the following two groups: (a inpatients and (b outpatients in nephrology unit. We examined previous documentary evidence of vitamin D supplementation of the patients. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among these 280 patients was 62,1% (174 patients. Fifty-three patients (18.9% had severe vitamin D deficiency, 121 patients (43.2% moderate vitamin D deficiency, and 66 patients (23.6% vitamin D insufficiency. In logistic regression analysis female gender, not having vitamin D supplementation history, low serum albumin, and low blood urea nitrogen levels were significant independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency while no association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine, eGFR, and being hospitalized was found. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency, seems to be an important problem in both inpatients and outpatients of nephrology. Monitoring serum 25(OHD concentrations regularly and replacement of vitamin D are important. Women in Turkey are at more risk of deficiency and may therefore need to consume higher doses of vitamin D.

  19. Experimental induction of parathyroid adenomas in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynford-Thomas, V.; Wynford-Thomas, D.; Williams, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neonatal inbred Wistar albino rats were given either 5 or 10 microCi radioiodine (/sup 131/I) within 24 hours of birth. After weaning, animals were placed on diets high, normal, or deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for periods up to 2 years. In animals aged 12 months and older, adenomas were found in 0 of 67 unirradiated controls, in 22 of 67 given 5 microCi /sup 131/I, and in 25 of 67 given to microCi /sup 131/I. The incidence of tumors in irradiated animals was highest (55%) in those on a low-vitamin D diet and lowest (20%) in those on a high-vitamin D diet. Plasma calcium levels were significantly increased by the high-vitamin D diet, but the low-vitamin D diet did not lead to any significant decrease as compared to the calcium levels of the normal vitamin D diet group. Small but significant calcium increases were found in tumor-bearing animals. These findings indicate that parathyroid tumors in the rat can be induced by radiation and that their incidence is strongly influenced by dietary vitamin D content. The possibility that metabolites of vitamin D3 may influence parathyroid growth and tumor formation directly is discussed.

  20. Proteasome (Prosome Subunit Variations during the Differentiation of Myeloid U937 Cells

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    Laurent Henry

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 20S proteasomes (prosomes/multicatalytic proteinase are protein particles built of 28 subunits in variable composition. We studied the changes in proteasome subunit composition during the differentiation of U937 cells induced by phorbol‐myristate‐acetate or retinoic acid plus 1,25‐dihydroxy‐cholecalciferol by western blot, flow cytometry and immuno‐fluorescence. p25K (C3, p27K (IOTA and p30/33K (C2 subunits were detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of undifferentiated cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated a biphasic decrease in proteasome subunits detection during differentiation induced by RA+VD. PMA caused an early transient decrease in these subunits followed by a return to their control level, except for p30/33K, which remained low. Immuno‐fluorescence also showed differences in the cytolocalization of the subunits, with a particular decrease in antigen labeling in the nucleus of RA+VD‐induced cells, and a scattering in the cytoplasm and a reorganization in the nucleus of PMA‐induced cells. Small amounts of proteasomal proteins were seen on the outer membrane of non‐induced cells; these membrane proteins disappeared when treated with RA+VD, whereas some increased on PMA‐induced cells. The differential changes in the distribution and type of proteasomes in RA+VD and PMA‐induced cells indicate that, possibly, 20S proteasomes may play a role in relation to the mechanisms of differentiation and the inducer used.

  1. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women

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    Salehpour Amin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D concentrations are linked to body composition indices, particularly body fat mass. Relationships between hypovitaminosis D and obesity, described by both BMI and waist circumference, have been mentioned. We have investigated the effect of a 12-week vitamin D3 supplementation on anthropometric indices in healthy overweight and obese women. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38±8.1 years, BMI 29.8±4.1 kg/m2 were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 μg per day as cholecalciferol and placebo (25 μg per day as lactose for 12 weeks. Body weight, height, waist, hip, fat mass, 25(OH D, iPTH, and dietary intakes were measured before and after the intervention. Results Serum 25(OHD significantly increased in the vitamin D group compared to the placebo group (38.2±32.7 nmol/L vs. 4.6±14.8 nmol/L; P Conclusion Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01344161.

  2. Predicting In Silico Which Mixtures of the Natural Products of Plants Might Most Effectively Kill Human Leukemia Cells?

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    Hany A. El-Shemy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the analysis of just 13 natural products of plants was to predict the most likely effective artificial mixtures of 2-3 most effective natural products on leukemia cells from over 364 possible mixtures. The natural product selected included resveratrol, honokiol, chrysin, limonene, cholecalciferol, cerulenin, aloe emodin, and salicin and had over 600 potential protein targets. Target profiling used the Ontomine set of tools for literature searches of potential binding proteins, binding constant predictions, binding site predictions, and pathway network pattern analysis. The analyses indicated that 6 of the 13 natural products predicted binding proteins which were important targets for established cancer treatments. Improvements in effectiveness were predicted for artificial combinations of 2 or 3 natural products. That effect might be attributed to drug synergism rather than increased numbers of binding proteins bound (dose effects. Among natural products, the combinations of aloe emodin with mevinolin and honokiol were predicted to be the most effective combination for AML-related predicted binding proteins. Therefore, plant extracts may in future provide more effective medicines than the single purified natural products of modern medicine, in some cases.

  3. Effect of High-Dose Vitamin D3 Intake on Ambulation, Muscular Pain and Bone Mineral Density in a Woman with Multiple Sclerosis: A 10-Year Longitudinal Case Report

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    François Feron

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence correlate vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol supplementation or higher serum levels of vitamin D (25(OHD with a lower risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS, reduced relapse rate, slower progression or fewer new brain lesions. We present here the case of a woman who was diagnosed with MS in 1990. From 1980 to 2000, her ability to walk decreased from ~20 to 1 km per day. Since January 2001, a vitamin D3 supplement was ingested daily. The starting dose was 20 mcg (800 IU/day and escalated to 100 mcg (4000 IU/day in September 2004 and then to 150 mcg (6000 IU/day in December 2005. Vitamin D3 intake reduced muscular pain and improved ambulation from 1 (February 2000 to 14 km/day (February 2008. Vitamin D intake over 10 years caused no adverse effects: no hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis or hypercalciuria were observed. Bowel problems in MS may need to be addressed as they can cause malabsorption including calcium, which may increase serum PTH and 1,25(OH2D levels, as well as bone loss. We suggest that periodic assessment of vitamin D3, calcium and magnesium intake, bowel problems and the measurement of serum 25(OHD, PTH, Ca levels, UCa/Cr and bone health become part of the integral management of persons with MS.

  4. The role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in promoting insulin resistance and inflammation in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: a randomised controlled trial

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    Johnson David W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 50% of patients with stage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease are 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficient, and this prevalence increases with falling glomerular filtration rate. Vitamin D is now recognised as having pleiotropic roles beyond bone and mineral homeostasis, with the vitamin D receptor and metabolising machinery identified in multiple tissues. Worryingly, recent observational data has highlighted an association between hypovitaminosis D and increased cardiovascular mortality, possibly mediated via vitamin D effects on insulin resistance and inflammation. The main hypothesis of this study is that oral Vitamin D supplementation will ameliorate insulin resistance in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease stage 3 when compared to placebo. Secondary hypotheses will test whether this is associated with decreased inflammation and bone/adipocyte-endocrine dysregulation. Methods/Design This study is a single-centre, double-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Inclusion criteria include; estimated glomerular filtration rate 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2; aged ≥18 on entry to study; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels Discussion To date, no randomised controlled trial has been performed in pre-dialysis CKD patients to study the correlation between vitamin D status with supplementation, insulin resistance and markers of adverse cardiovascular risk. We remain hopeful that cholecalciferol may be a safe intervention, with health benefits beyond those related to bone-mineral homeostasis. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000246280.

  5. Clinical implications of vitamin D deficiency

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    Beata Matyjaszek-Matuszek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is a common medical problem worldwide and its prevalence rises along with latitude, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, limited sunlight exposure and aging. A great body of evidence has shown that patients with vitamin D deficiency have increased cardiovascular risks and total mortality. Conversely, the presence of comorbidities progressive with age such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and hypertension places the patients at an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. The multidirectional effect of vitamin D deficiency is present in different phases of the aging process. Based on the literature review, the risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency most often found in post-menopausal women include limited sun exposure and time spent outdoors, inadequate dietary vitamin D intake, winter season and increased age. Vitamin D supplementation in this group might offer prevention of falls and fractures and may be beneficial for cardiovascular health, what may be especially important in osteoporotic and elderly populations. Prevention and treatment processes involve education regarding sunlight exposure and pharmacological cholecalciferol supplementation according to the recommendations for Central Europe. This manuscript reviews the role of vitamin D and its deficiency and considers their clinical implications, with particular regard to peri- and postmenopausal women.

  6. Experimental induction of parathyroid adenomas in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynford-Thomas, V.; Wynford-Thomas, D.; Williams, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    Neonatal inbred Wistar albino rats were given either 5 or 10 mCi radioiodine (/sup 131/I) within 24 hours of birth. After weaning, animals were placed on diets high, normal, or deficient in vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for periods up to 2 years. In animals aged 12 months and older, adenomas were found in 0 of 67 unirradiated controls, in 22 of 67 given 5 mCi /sup 131/I, and in 25 of 67 given 10 mCi /sup 131/I. The incidence of tumors in irradiated animals was highest (55%) in those on a low-vitamin D diet and lowest (20%) in those on a high-vitamin D diet. Plasma calcium levels were significantly increased by the high-vitamin D diet, but the low-vitamin D diet did not lead to any significant decrease as compared to the calcium levels of the normal vitamin D diet group. Small but significant calcium increases were found in tumor-bearing animals. These findings indicate that parathyroid tumors in the rat can be induced by radiation and that their incidence is strongly influenced by dietary vitamin D content. The possibility that metabolites of vitamin D3 may influence parathyroid growth and tumor formation directly is discussed.

  7. Vitamin D biology: from the discovery to its significance in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppari, Lilian; Garcia Lopes, Miriam Ghedini; Kamimura, Maria Ayako

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D was discovered and had its chemical structure described in the early years of the last century. Although classified as a nutrient because it was found in small quantities in butter, it soon became clear that exposure of skin to sunlight, supplies most of the vitamin D necessary for good health in human beings. Vitamin D (D3 or cholecalciferol) synthesis in the skin is extremely rapid and remarkably robust despite the complexity of the mechanisms involved. However, a number of factors related to latitude location, season, and skin characteristics can interfere with the photoproduction of vitamin D. The 2 forms of vitamin D (D3 or D2-ergocalciferol) are biologically inactive and require activation in the liver and kidney. The product of the first hydroxylation of vitamin D in the liver, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), is the marker of vitamin D status. Hypovitaminosis D (serum 25(OH)D, <30 ng/mL) is highly prevalent in the general population, and patients with chronic kidney disease seem to be at higher risk for the development of hypovitaminosis D. It is believed that, besides the traditional factors, protein losses, gastrointestinal malabsorption, and defective skin synthesis of vitamin D might contribute to the elevated number of patients with suboptimal level of vitamin D status.

  8. [The role of vitamin D3 in the regulation of the mineral metabolism in experimental type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudzynskyi, D O; Lisakovska, O A; Shymanskyy, I A; Riasnyi, V M; Veliky, N N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes was shown to be associated with a considerable lowering of 25(OH)D3 in blood serum of mice. Vitamin D3 deficiency was correlated with impaired mineral metabolism in bone tissue, indicating the development of secondary osteoporosis. A decrease in weight, length and diameter (diaphysis, proximal metaepiphysis) of tibia in diabetic animals was observed as compared with control. Diabetes caused hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia and increased enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and its isoenzymes in serum. This changes were accompanied by the impairments of vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase isoforms (CYP27A1 and CYP2R1) expression, which are the main enzymes of cholecalciferol biotransformation to 25(OH)D3 - precursor of hormonally active form of vitamin D3. A decrease in bone resorption processes was established after vitamin D3 administration as it is evident from normalization of bone morphometrical parameters and mineral metabolism in diabetic mice. Vitamin D3 ability to counter diabetes-induced alterations in bone tissue can be ascribed, at least in part, to its positive effects on the formation of vitamin D3 hormonally active forms.

  9. [Prevalence of decreasing vitamin D reserves in black patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis in Dakar (Senegal): 37 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustapha Cisse, M; Fary Ka, E H; Tall Lemrabott, A; MBacke Leye, M; Faye, M; Niang, A; Diouf, B

    2014-01-01

    It is now established that vitamin D acts as a steroid hormone via a nuclear receptor to perform its varied functions in mineral metabolism. Very few studies in sub-Saharan Africa, and in Senegal in particular, have focused on the prevalence of low vitamin D reserves in black individuals living in this sunny region. We conducted this study to assess the prevalence of a drop in vitamin D reserves in a population of blacks undergoing intermittent hemodialysis. This descriptive study took place at three hemodialysis centers in Dakar and included 37 patients whose 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) levels had been assayed. The patients' mean age was 51 years, and their sex ratio 1.49. The average concentration of 25-OH-D was 70 nmol/L. Below-normal reserves were found in 23 patients (62.2%), especially among those aged 50-75 years. All patients with low 25-OH-D reserves received vitamin D3 supplementation at a dose of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol per month. This supplementation normalized 25-OH-D levels in the 10 patients subsequently tested. Given the small sample size, a study with a larger number of patients is needed to reach a conclusion about the exact prevalence of low vitamin D reserves in this population and to investigate possible associated factors.

  10. Osteomalacia in an HIV-infected man receiving rifabutin, a cytochrome P450 enzyme inducer: a case report

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    Horne Anne M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction People infected with human immunodeficiency virus are frequently treated with medications that can induce or inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Case presentation A 59 year old man treated with zidovudine, lamivudine, indinavir, and ritonavir for infection with human immunodeficiency virus volunteered to take part in a study of bone loss. He was found to have vitamin D insufficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism and received vitamin D and calcium supplementation. He suffered a recurrence of infection with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare for which he received treatment with ciprofloxacin, rifabutin, and ethambutol. Subsequently, he developed worsening vitamin D deficiency with hypocalcaemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and elevated markers of bone turnover culminating in an osteomalacic vertebral fracture. Correction of the vitamin D deficiency required 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol monthly. Rifabutin is a cytochrome P450 inducer, and vitamin D and its metabolites are catabolised by cytochrome P450 enzymes. We therefore propose that treatment with rifabutin led to the induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes catabolising vitamin D, thereby causing vitamin D deficiency and osteomalacia. This process might be mediated through the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR. Conclusion Treatment with rifabutin induces the cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolise vitamin D and patients treated with rifabutin might be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. In complex medication regimens involving agents that induce or inhibit cytochrome P450 enzmyes, consultation with a clinical pharmacist or pharmacologist may be helpful in predicting and/or preventing potentially harmful interactions.

  11. Vitamin D and cancer: Clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial preclinical and epidemiologic data that suggest that vitamin D plays a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Numerous observational studies have shown that low blood levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (cholecalciferol), estimated by geographical location, diet and activity assessment or measured serum levels are associated with a higher risk of cancer and worse cancer-specific survival as well as numerous morbidities to e.g. cardiovascular disease, stroke, infection, autoimmune disease, and neuromuscular dysfunction among large populations. A considerable number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the most active metabolite of vitamin D – 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol – has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, pro-differentiating, and anti-angiogenic properties. Combined treatment of calcitriol and many types of cytotoxic agents has synergistic or at least additive effects. However, clinical trials testing these hypotheses have been less encouraging, though a number of methodological, pharmacological, and pharmaceutical issues confound all trials ever conducted. In order to properly assess the clinical value of vitamin D, its metabolites and analogs in cancer prevention and treatment, more studies are needed. PMID:21872802

  12. Vitamin D Supplementation for Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome Refractory to Conventional Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seok Hyun; Shin, Young Joo; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang; Park, Shin Goo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES) refractory to conventional treatment with vitamin D deficiency. A total of 105 patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and vitamin D deficiency that was treated with an intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol (200,000 IU). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured. Eye discomfort was assessed using ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and visual analogue pain score (VAS). Tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein staining score (FSS), eyelid margin hyperemia, and tear secretion test were measured before treatment, and 2, 6, and 10 weeks after vitamin D supplementation. Mean serum 25(OH)D level was 10.52 ± 4.61 ng/mL. TBUT, and tear secretion test showed an improvement at 2 and 6 weeks after vitamin D supplementation compared to pretreatment values (p vitamin D supplementation (p vitamin D supplementation is effective and useful in the treatment of patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27698364

  13. Vitamin D improves endothelial dysfunction and restores myeloid angiogenic cell function via reduced CXCL-10 expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John A; Haque, Sahena; Williamson, Kate; Ray, David W; Alexander, M Yvonne; Bruce, Ian N

    2016-03-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated cardiovascular disease and dysfunctional endothelial repair mechanisms. Myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs), derived from circulating monocytes, augment vascular repair by paracrine secretion of pro-angiogenic factors. We observed that SLE MACs are dysfunctional and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines. We also found that the vitamin D receptor was transiently expressed during MAC differentiation and that in vitro, calcitriol increased differentiation of monocytes into MACs in both SLE and in a model using the prototypic SLE cytokine, interferon-alpha. The active form of vitamin D (calcitriol) restored the SLE MAC phenotype towards that of healthy subjects with reduced IL-6 secretion, and normalised surface marker expression. Calcitriol also augmented the angiogenic capacity of MACs via the down-regulation of CXCL-10. In SLE patients treated with cholecalciferol for 12 weeks, the improvement in endothelial function correlated with increase in serum 25(OH)D concentrations independently of disease activity. We also show that MACs were able to positively modulate eNOS expression in human endothelial cells in vitro, an effect further enhanced by calcitriol treatment of SLE MACs. The results demonstrate that vitamin D can positively modify endothelial repair mechanisms and thus endothelial function in a population with significant cardiovascular risk.

  14. Exercise for patients with osteoporosis: management of vertebral compression fractures and trunk strengthening for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed

    2012-11-01

    Maintenance of bone health and quality requires mechanical strain, but the mechanical force needs to be within the bone's biomechanical competence. In osteoporosis, compression of vertebral bodies can be insidious. Therefore, absence of pain does not necessarily indicate absence of vertebral microfracture and deformity. Further, patients with previous vertebral fractures are at risk for further vertebral fractures and their associated morbidity. Exercise is a part of the comprehensive management of patients with osteoporosis and has been associated with improvement of quality of life and lowered risk of future fracture. The exercise prescription needs to match the needs of the patient. If exercise is not prescribed properly, then it may have negative consequences. In general, an exercise program, therapeutic or recreational, needs to address flexibility, muscle strength, core stability, cardiovascular fitness, and gait steadiness. As with pharmacotherapy, therapeutic exercises need to be individualized on the basis of musculoskeletal status and an individual's exercise interest. In osteoporosis, axial strength and stability are of primary importance. In particular, a spinal extensor strengthening program should be performed with progressive measured resistance as tolerated. To address falls and fractures, an exercise program should also include balance and lower extremity strength training. Proper dosing of oral cholecalciferol and calcium supplements can enhance the effect of strengthening exercises. Finally, a coordinated approach, such as the Spinal Proprioception Extension Exercise Dynamic (SPEED) program, can improve back extensor strength, the level of physical activity, and locomotion, and reduce back pain and fear and risk of falls.

  15. Vitamin D intoxication caused by ingestion of commercial cat food in three kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Astrid; Katzenberger, Julia; Groth, Anna; Dorsch, Roswitha; Koelle, Petra; Hartmann, Katrin; Weber, Karin

    2013-08-01

    Two siblings, a 6-month-old sexually intact male weighing 2.5 kg (cat 1) and a sexually intact female (cat 2) British Shorthair cat weighing 2.3 kg, were examined because of a 3-week history of polyuria, lethargy and laboured breathing. One year previously, another sibling (cat 3) had been presented because of similar, yet more severe, clinical signs at the age of 5 months. Physical examination revealed lethargy, dehydration and polypnoea with slightly increased inspiratory effort. Diagnostic investigation revealed severe hypercalcaemia (cats 1-3), renal azotaemia (cats 1 and 3) and a radiologically generalised miliary interstitial pattern of the lungs (cats 1-3) attributable to hypervitaminosis D caused by ingestion of commercial cat food. Cat 3 was euthanased. Cats 1 and 2 were treated with isotonic saline solution (180 ml/kg IV daily), sucralfate (30 mg/kg PO q12h), terbutaline (only cat 1: 0.1 mg/kg SC q4h), furosemide (1.5 mg/kg IV q8h) and tapering doses of prednisolone. Cat 2 was normal on day 14. Cat 1 had stable renal disease and was followed up to day 672. The radiological generalised military interstitial pattern of the lungs had improved markedly. Excessive cholecalciferol-containing commercially available cat food poses a great hazard to cats. Supportive treatment may result in long-term survival and improvement of radiological pulmonary abnormalities.

  16. Soluble α-klotho and its relation to kidney function and fibroblast growth factor-23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Relations between fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), soluble α-klotho (s-α-klotho), and kidney function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still unclear. Especially the role of s-α-klotho requires further study. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to analyze the relation of s-α-klotho to......CONTEXT: Relations between fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), soluble α-klotho (s-α-klotho), and kidney function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still unclear. Especially the role of s-α-klotho requires further study. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to analyze the relation of s......-α-klotho to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), FGF-23, and other parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism and to investigate the response of s-α-klotho to cholecalciferol. PATIENTS, DESIGN, AND SETTING: Twenty-four CKD (stage 1-5) patients participated in this 8-week randomized controlled trial (vitamin D....... When patients were subdivided based on FGF-23 concentrations, a positive association of s-α-klotho with eGFR became apparent in patients with lower than median FGF-23 concentrations but not in those above median value. Patients with s-α-klotho below 204 pg/mL showed higher age, lower phosphate...

  17. UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants promote differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, María; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are essential for bone regeneration and mineral homeostasis. The vitamin D precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol can be used after UV irradiation to locally produce active vitamin D by osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol is a biocompatible coating for titanium implants with positive effects on osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the impact of titanium implants surfaces coated with UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol on the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. First, the synthesis of cholecalciferol (D3) was achieved through the incubation of the UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol coating for 48 h at 23℃. Further, we investigated in vitro the biocompatibility of this coating in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and its potential to enhance their differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured onto UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants surfaces, combined with osteogenic supplements, upregulated the gene expression of several osteogenic markers and showed higher alkaline phosphatase activity and calcein blue staining, suggesting increased mineralization. Thus, our results show that the use of UV irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol -treated titanium implants surfaces generates a bioactive coating that promotes the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, with regenerative potential for improving osseointegration in titanium-based bone anchored implants.

  18. Vitamin D and Psoriasis Pathology in the Mediterranean Region, Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morales Suárez-Varela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has important immunomodulatory effects on psoriasis in the Mediterranean region. To measure vitamin D intake in subjects with and without psoriasis, and to find an association with relevant clinical features, a case-control study was performed using cases (n = 50, 50% participation rate clinically diagnosed with psoriasis and 200 healthy subjects (39.5% participation rate, leaving a final sample of 104 people. A survey was conducted using a food frequency questionnaire and clinical histories. Cases and controls were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. We observed insufficient intake of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 or ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 for both cases and controls. Patients with psoriasis were at greater risk of associated pathologies: dyslipidaemia (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 0.8–15.2; metabolic syndrome (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 0.2–53.9; hypertension (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.4–7.2. Insufficient vitamin D intake in both psoriasis patients and controls in the Mediterranean population, and cardiovascular comorbility is more frequent in patients with psoriasis.

  19. Total vitamin D assay comparison of the Roche Diagnostics "Vitamin D total" electrochemiluminescence protein binding assay with the Chromsystems HPLC method in a population with both D2 and D3 forms of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, Laila; Haq, Afrozul; Turner, Andrew; Khan, Shoukat; Salem, Arwa; Mustafa, Faten; Hussein, Nafiz; Pallinalakam, Fasila; Grundy, Louisa; Patras, Gemma; Rajah, Jaishen

    2013-03-22

    This study compared two methods of assaying the 25-hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). A fully automated electrochemiluminescence assay from Roche Diagnostics and an HPLC based method from Chromsystems were used to measure vitamin D levels in surplus sera from 96 individuals, where the majority has the D2 form of the vitamin. Deming regression, concordance rate, correlation and Altman Bland agreement were performed. Seventy two subjects (75%) had a D2 concentration >10 nmol/L while the remaining twenty four subjects had vitamin D2 concentration of less than 10 nmol/L by HPLC. Overall, the Roche Diagnostics method showed a negative bias of -2.59 ± 4.11 nmol/L on the e602 as compared to the HPLC with a concordance rate of 84%. The concordance rate was 91% in samples with D2 of less than 10 nmol/L and 82% in those with D2 concentration >10 nmol/L. The overall correlation had an r value of 0.77. The r value was higher in samples with D2 levels of less than 10 nmol/L, r = 0.96, as compared to those with D2 values of greater than 10 nmol/L, r = 0.74. The observed bias had little impact on clinical decision and therefore is clinically acceptable.

  20. Stability in the rumen and effect on plasma status of single oral doses of vitamin D and vitamin E in high-yielding dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2010-01-01

    ; study 1) or 4,360 mg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate, 250 mg of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), and 250 mg of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3; study 2). After mixing, the ruminal contents were returned to the respective cows. Blood was collected 0, 6, 24, and 30 h after introducing the vitamins into the rumen......The ruminal fate of the fat-soluble vitamins D and E was studied in dairy cows. Ten to 15 kg of ruminal contents was taken from each cow through a ruminal fistula. A sample was taken out (0-h sample) and the rest of the contents were mixed with 4,360 mg of all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (vitamin E...... that no hydrolysis of the acetate form into alcohol form happened in the rumen. In vitro, all added vitamins were found at constant levels; hence, none of the added vitamins were degraded in ruminal contents. The concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma increased at a rate per milligram of ruminally introduced α...

  1. Total Vitamin D Assay Comparison of the Roche Diagnostics “Vitamin D Total” Electrochemiluminescence Protein Binding Assay with the Chromsystems HPLC Method in a Population with both D2 and D3 forms of Vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Patras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study compared two methods of assaying the 25-hydroxylated metabolites of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 and ergocalciferol (vitamin D2. A fully automated electrochemiluminescence assay from Roche Diagnostics and an HPLC based method from Chromsystems were used to measure vitamin D levels in surplus sera from 96 individuals, where the majority has the D2 form of the vitamin. Deming regression, concordance rate, correlation and Altman Bland agreement were performed. Seventy two subjects (75% had a D2 concentration >10 nmol/L while the remaining twenty four subjects had vitamin D2 concentration of less than 10 nmol/L by HPLC. Overall, the Roche Diagnostics method showed a negative bias of −2.59 ± 4.11 nmol/L on the e602 as compared to the HPLC with a concordance rate of 84%. The concordance rate was 91% in samples with D2 of less than 10 nmol/L and 82% in those with D2 concentration >10 nmol/L. The overall correlation had an r value of 0.77. The r value was higher in samples with D2 levels of less than 10 nmol/L, r = 0.96, as compared to those with D2 values of greater than 10 nmol/L, r = 0.74. The observed bias had little impact on clinical decision and therefore is clinically acceptable.

  2. [Is daily supplementation with vitamin D2 equivalent to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 in the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, Mariana; Mastaglia, Silvina; Brito, Graciela; Somoza, Julia; Oliveri, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence of cholecalciferol (D3) and ergocalciferol (D2) as well as their corresponding doses and administration route remain controversial to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily supplementation with 800 IU of D2 (drops) and D3 (pills) on 25-hydroxivitamin D (25OHD) levels (= 30 ng/ml). Twenty-one ambulatory postmenopausal women from Buenos Aires City with a mean (X ± SD) age of 77.1 ± 6.8 years were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: GD2 (n = 13): 800 IU (drops) and GD3 (n = 8): 800 IU (pills). Serum 25OHD levels were measured (RIA-DIASORIN) at baseline, and at 7, 28 and 45 days. Nineteen out of twenty one women showed deficient levels of 25OHD at baseline (vitamin D3 during 45 days was more effective than D2 in increasing 25OHD, but both failed to achieve adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml). but neither succeeded in achieving adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml).

  3. Common variants in CYP2R1 and GC genes are both determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations after UVB irradiation and after consumption of vitamin D3-fortified bread and milk during winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Ioanna; Vogel, Ulla; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2014-01-01

    (CYP2R1) and rs842999 and rs4588 in vitamin D binding protein (GC) predict 25(OH)D concentrations at late summer and after 6-mo consumption of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)–fortified bread and milk. Objectives: In the current study, called the Vitamin D in genes (VitDgen) study, we analyzed associations...... whether the genetic variations in CYP2R1 and GC have similar effects on 25(OH)D concentrations after artificial UVB irradiation and supplementation by vitamin D3–fortified bread and milk. Design: The VitDgen study includes 92 healthy Danes who received 4 whole-body UVB treatments with a total dose of 6...... or 7.5 standard erythema doses during a 10-d period in winter. The VitmaD study included 201 healthy Danish families who were given vitamin D3–fortified bread and milk or placebo for 6 mo during the winter. Results: After UVB treatments, rs10741657 in CYP2R1 and rs4588 in GC predicted UVB-induced 25(OH...

  4. Comparison of Vitamin D Levels in Patients with and without Acne: A Case-Control Study Combined with a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jeong-Min; Lee, Young-Ho; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Im, Myung

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune system, and its deficiency has been implicated in various skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Acne is a common inflammatory skin disease; however, the association with vitamin D remains unclear. Objectives We evaluated vitamin D levels in patients with acne to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation. Methods This study included 80 patients with acne and 80 healthy controls. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured, and demographic data were collected. Vitamin D-deficient patients were treated with oral cholecalciferol at 1000 IU/day for 2 months. Results Deficiency in 25(OH)D was detected in 48.8% of patients with acne, but in only 22.5% of the healthy controls. The level of 25(OH)D was inversely associated with the severity of acne, and there was a significant negative correlation with inflammatory lesions. In a subsequent trial, improvement in inflammatory lesions was noted after supplementation with vitamin D in 39 acne patients with 25(OH)D deficiency. Limitations Limitations of the study include the small number of patients in the supplementation study and the natural fluctuation of acne. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency was more frequent in patients with acne, and serum 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with acne severity, especially in patients with inflammatory lesions. PMID:27560161

  5. The Impact of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Mechanisms of Cell Calcium Signaling in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Lajdova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium concentration in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is significantly increased, and the regulatory mechanisms maintaining cellular calcium homeostasis are impaired. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin D3 on predominant regulatory mechanisms of cell calcium homeostasis. The study involved 16 CKD stages 2-3 patients with vitamin D deficiency treated with cholecalciferol 7000–14000 IU/week for 6 months. The regulatory mechanisms of calcium signaling were studied in PBMCs and red blood cells. After vitamin D3 supplementation, serum concentration of 25(OHD3 increased (P<0.001 and [Ca2+]i decreased (P<0.001. The differences in [Ca2+]i were inversely related to differences in 25(OHD3 concentration (P<0.01. Vitamin D3 supplementation decreased the calcium entry through calcium release activated calcium (CRAC channels and purinergic P2X7 channels. The function of P2X7 receptors was changed in comparison with their baseline status, and the expression of these receptors was reduced. There was no effect of vitamin D3 on P2X7 pores and activity of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases. Vitamin D3 supplementation had a beneficial effect on [Ca2+]i decreasing calcium entry via CRAC and P2X7 channels and reducing P2X7 receptors expression.

  6. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar K. Danner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP+ B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 (P value = 0.01]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  7. A study on the effects of a calcium drug on the bone mineral density (BMD) by using dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of osteoporosis might contain errors caused by the calcium drug used in the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. This study conducted a lumbar spine phantom experiment to examine whether a calcium drug can influence the measured values of the bone mineral density (BMD) because of the drug taken by a real patient remaining undigested in the stomach. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure the BMD for a calcium-drug in an equipment-dedicated lumbar spine phantom and 10 patients selected for the BMD measurement. Three types of drugs that are prescribed in actual clinical practice calcium drugs were used for the phantom experiment, and the drugs were divided into a fixed dose, 1/2 of the fixed dose, 1/4 of the fixed dose and 1/8 of the fixed dose. Without the drugs included, the phantom was scanned 60 times continuously to calculate the baseline BMD. The BMD was measured as the calcium drug coated with paraffin was placed in the lumbar vertebra 2 and the soft tissue region of the phantom. To determine when the drug was invisible to the naked eye are measured, the BMD at different drug dilutions. The measurements were conducted three times to calculate the mean. In the patient experiment, patients were selected who visited hospital after taking the drug before measuring the BMD. After a certain time had passed, the BMD was measured again to examine the difference in images and the change in BMD values due to the calcium-drug intake. The BMD measurements of lumbar 1-4 in the phantom were higher, with statistical significant, than the least significant change (LSC) in the bone region for all three drugs (Ca carbonate, Ca citrate and Ca cholecalciferol), showing a significant increase. On the other hand, there was no significant change in the soft tissue. When Ca Cholecalciferol was used in a fixed dose, the BMD of L2 increased by 11.6%, showing the largest increase among the drugs examined, but only a 2.8% increase in the BMD of L1

  8. Effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism on the response to erythropoietin in chronic renal failure%慢性肾衰甲旁亢对红细胞生成素疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨沐; 刁秀竹; 黄业华; 柴树人

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of erythropoietin(EPO)on patients of chronic renal failure with hyperparathyroidism.Methods:40 cases of chronic renal failure with hyperparathyroidism were involved in this study,among them 20 cases were administered orally with 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol at a dosage of 1.75-4 μg/week and EPO 3000 u S.C.twice a week(treatment group) and 20 cases were given EPO 3000 u S.C.twice a week alone(patient control group).Comparison was made between the two groups in clinical manifestations of hyperparathyroidism,Hb,HCT and serum PTH,ALP,P and Ca were observed.Results:In treatment group,levels of PTH and S-P significantly decreased(P<0.01),Hb,HCT and S-Ca significantly increased(P<0.01) and a better improvement in clinical manifestationa at the end of 10 weeks of treatment.In patient control group,no significantly difference of the level of Hb,HCT and PTH etc was found before and after treatment.Conclusion:Pulse therapy with low dose oral 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol is effective in the treatment of renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism.Secondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the causes for resistance to EPO.%目的:了解慢性肾功能衰竭继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症(简称慢性肾衰继发性甲旁亢)患者对红细胞生成素(EPO)疗效的影响。方法:选择慢性肾衰继发性甲旁亢患者40 例,随机分成2组。Ⅰ组口服1,25二羟胆骨化醇1.75 μg/周~4 μg/周,同时给予EPO 3 000 u皮下注射,2次/周。Ⅱ组单用EPO 3 000 u皮下注射,2次/周,均观察10周。结果:Ⅰ组患者治疗后血甲状旁腺激素、血红蛋白、红细胞压积、血磷、血钙与治疗前相比,差异显著(P<0.01)。Ⅱ组各项指标治疗后与治疗前相比,差异不显著。结论:大剂量1,25二羟胆骨化醇治疗慢性肾衰继发性甲旁亢十分有效,慢性肾衰患者甲状旁腺激素继发性升高是EPO治疗拮抗的一个重要原因。使用EPO治疗

  9. Hip fracture risk in relation to vitamin D supplementation and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roddam Andrew W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D supplementation for fracture prevention is widespread despite conflicting interpretation of relevant randomised controlled trial (RCT evidence. This study summarises quantitatively the current evidence from RCTs and observational studies regarding vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH and hip fracture risk. Methods We undertook separate meta-analyses of RCTs examining vitamin D supplementation and hip fracture, and observational studies of serum vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD level, PTH and hip fracture. Results from RCTs were combined using the reported hazard ratios/relative risks (RR. Results from case-control studies were combined using the ratio of 25(OHD and PTH measurements of hip fracture cases compared with controls. Original published studies of vitamin D, PTH and hip fracture were identified through PubMed and Web of Science databases, searches of reference lists and forward citations of key papers. Results The seven eligible RCTs identified showed no significant difference in hip fracture risk in those randomised to cholecalciferol or ergocalciferol supplementation versus placebo/control (RR = 1.13[95%CI 0.98-1.29]; 801 cases, with no significant difference between trials of 21 (heterogeneity = 51.02, p 216 (heterogeneity = 137.9, p 29 (heterogeneity = 149.68, p Conclusions Neither higher nor lower dose vitamin D supplementation prevented hip fracture. Randomised and observational data on vitamin D and hip fracture appear to differ. The reason for this is unclear; one possible explanation is uncontrolled confounding in observational studies. Post-fracture PTH levels are unrelated to hip fracture risk.

  10. The benefits of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program (HydrOS) for bone metabolism and bone mass of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Linda Denise Fernandes; Fronza, Fernanda Cerveira A O; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Zach, Patrícia Lins; Kunii, Ilda S; Hayashi, Lilian Fukusima; Teixeira, Luzimar Raimundo; Kruel, Luis Fernando Martins; Castro, Marise Lazaretti

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the 24-week effects of a high-intensity aquatic exercise program on bone remodeling markers and bone mass of postmenopausal women. In this randomized, controlled trial we studied 108 women (58.8 ± 6.4 years), randomized into Aquatic Exercise Group (AEG), n = 64, performing 24 weeks of aquatic exercises, and Control Group (CG), n = 44, sedentary. They had their fasting morning blood sample collected for the measures of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). Bone mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Participants of both groups received a daily supplementation of 500 mg of elementary calcium and 1,000 IU of vitamin D (cholecalciferol). Results showed an augment in bone formation marker (P1NP) only in the AEG (15.8 %; p = 0.001), and although both groups experienced significant enhancements in bone resorption marker (CTx), this increase was less considerable in the AEG (15 % in the AEG and 29 % in the CG). IPTH was increased by 19 % in the CG (p = 0.003) at the end. The femoral trochanter BMD presented a 1.2 % reduction in the CG (p = 0.009), whereas in the AEG no change was observed (p = 0.069). The proposed aquatic exercise program was efficient in attenuating bone resorption raise and enhancing bone formation, which prevented the participants in the AEG from reducing the femoral trochanter BMD, as happened in the CG.

  11. Serum vitamin D level – the effect on the clinical course of psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative disorder of the skin, and vitamin D analogs are widely used in its treatment. It is evident that ultraviolet radiation enables vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) formation in the epidermis, and this product is further converted into the active metabolites 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25-hydroxycholecalciferol, which exert several important effects on the skin. The disruption in proper functioning of the skin which occurs in psoriasis leads to a loss of capacity for cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3. In consequence, it activates a vicious circle that impairs homeostasis of the skin and results in a progressive decrease in the level of vitamin D in the whole human body. Aim To estimate the prevalence of vitamin D serum deficiency in patients with psoriasis and analyse the association of vitamin D food intake with clinical features. Material and methods Forty adults with psoriasis and 40 healthy subjects (control group) were recruited. Psoriasis plaques were diagnosed and evaluated by the PASI scale. Collected blood samples enabled measurement of serum vitamin D level by assessment with the immunoenzyme technique. Results The analysis with the Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference in 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level between healthy individuals and patients with psoriasis (p = 0.048). In both groups (control and psoriatic) the level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was seriously deficient (bear in mind that not only the ingestion of food rich in vitamin D is necessary, but also the production of vitamin D with sun exposure. The quantity of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol is very important both in the general population and in patients with psoriasis, because these groups have a distinct metabolism. PMID:28035222

  12. Improving the outcome of established therapies for osteoporosis by adding the active D-hormone analog alfacalcidol.

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    Ringe, J D; Schacht, E

    2007-12-01

    While in other chronic diseases combined treatment regimens are the rule there is a lack of reported experience or study data on combining different specific drugs to treat osteoporosis. Significant differences in the mode of action (MOA) of the substances to be combined may be important for achieving optimal therapeutic results. Recognising that today bisphosphonates are the leading therapy for osteoporosis we suggest that the active D-hormone analog alfacalcidol with its completely different mechanisms of action could be an interesting combination to improve the therapeutic outcome of the pure antiresoptive action of bisphosphonates. Alfacalcidol is activated by the enzyme 25-hydroxylase in the liver for systemic and in osteoblasts for local D-hormone actions. It possesses a unique pattern of pleiotropic effects on, e.g. gut, bone, pararthyroids, muscle and brain. Alfacalcidol is superior to plain vitamin D (cholecalciferol) because the final kidney activation of the latter is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. In vitamin D replete patients or patients with impaired kidney function no increased D-hormone action at the target tissues can be achieved. Animal studies and several trials in humans with alendronate plus calcitriol or alfacalcidol proved that the combination induced significantly higher increases of bone mineral density (BMD) than the respective mono-therapies. The results of the 2-year AAC-trial from our group indicate that the combination alendronate and alfacalcidol is also superior in terms of falls, fractures and back pain. From the review of the literature and the own new results we conclude that this combined therapeutic regimen is a very promising option for treating established osteoporosis and propose a differentiated use of alfacalcidol alone or the combination with alendronate in different stages and clinical situations of osteoporosis.

  13. Complications and nutrient deficiencies two years after sleeve gastrectomy

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    Pech Nicole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this systematic study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG during a median follow-up of two years. Methods Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL. Results From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 100 patients (female: male = 59:41 with a mean age of 43.6 years (range: 22–64 and a preoperative BMI of 52.3 kg/² (range: 36–77 underwent SG. The mean operative time was 86.4 min (range: 35–275. Major complications were observed in 8.0 % of the patients. During the follow-up period, 25 patients (25.0 % underwent a second bariatric intervention (22 DS and 3 RYGBP. Out of the total 100 patients, 48 % were supplemented with iron, 33 % with zinc, 34 % with a combination of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, 24 % with vitamin D, 42 % with vitamin B12 and 40 % with folic acid. The patients who received only a SG (n = 75 had %EWL of 53.6, 65.8 and 62.6 % after 6, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusions SG is a highly effective bariatric intervention for morbidly obese patients. Nutritional deficiencies resulting from the procedure can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Results of the study show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggested routinely.

  14. Customized nutritional enhancement for pregnant women appears to lower incidence of certain common maternal and neonatal complications: an observational study.

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    Stone, Leslie P; Stone, P Michael; Rydbom, Emily A; Stone, Lucas A; Stone, T Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-11-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually.

  15. Refractory rickets due to Fanconi′s Syndrome secondary to Wilson′s disease

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    Chitra Selvan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal tubular disorders are an important cause of refractory rickets. Wilson′s disease, an inherited disorder of copper metabolism has varied presentations. We present a case of refractory rickets due to Fanconi′s syndrome attributable to Wilson′s disease. An adolescent girl presented with pain in the hip and knee joints and a knock-knee deformity since six years. She had received multiple doses of cholecalciferol with little improvement. There was no history of seizures, polyuria, jaundice, intake of drugs, or similar complaints in the family. Examination revealed a severely short stature with widening of the wrist joint and genu valgum. Examination of the central nervous system (CNS was normal. Skeletal radiographs showed features suggestive of rickets at the hip and knee joints. Routine biochemistry was normal, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] was adequate (57.1 ng/dL, with normal corrected calcium (9.24 mg/dL, low phosphate (2.76 mg/dL, elevated bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and normal renal functions. Twenty-four-hour urine revealed phosphaturia, kaliuresis, and glucosuria with normal blood sugars and aminoaciduria. Blood gas analysis revealed normal anion gap metabolic acidosis with a urine pH of 7. Ammonium chloride (NH 4 CL challenge test revealed proximal tubular acidosis. A search for causes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings. The diagnosis of Wilson′s disease was confirmed by low serum ceruloplasmin levels (6.5 mg/dL; normal: 18-35 mg/dL with high 24-hour urine copper levels (433 mcg; normal: 20-50 mcg. She was started on a replacement of alkali, phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, with zinc acetate for Wilson′s disease. Rickets as a presenting feature of Wilson′s disease has been reported rarely. Recognition of this entity is important, as treatment of the primary condition may improve tubular function as well.

  16. The VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL): rationale and design of a large randomized controlled trial of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements for the primary prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease.

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    Manson, Joann E; Bassuk, Shari S; Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R; Albert, Michelle A; Gordon, David; Zaharris, Elaine; Macfadyen, Jean G; Danielson, Eleanor; Lin, Jennifer; Zhang, Shumin M; Buring, Julie E

    2012-01-01

    Data from laboratory studies, observational research, and/or secondary prevention trials suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cancer or cardiovascular disease (CVD), but primary prevention trials with adequate dosing in general populations (i.e., unselected for disease risk) are lacking. The ongoing VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) is a large randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial trial of vitamin D (in the form of vitamin D(3) [cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 fatty acid (Omacor fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) supplements in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD among a multi-ethnic population of 20,000 U.S. men aged ≥ 50 and women aged ≥ 55. The mean treatment period will be 5 years. Baseline blood samples will be collected in at least 16,000 participants, with follow-up blood collection in about 6000 participants. Yearly follow-up questionnaires will assess treatment compliance (plasma biomarker measures will also assess compliance in a random sample of participants), use of non-study drugs or supplements, occurrence of endpoints, and cancer and vascular risk factors. Self-reported endpoints will be confirmed by medical record review by physicians blinded to treatment assignment, and deaths will be ascertained through national registries and other sources. Ancillary studies will investigate whether these agents affect risk for diabetes and glucose intolerance; hypertension; cognitive decline; depression; osteoporosis and fracture; physical disability and falls; asthma and other respiratory diseases; infections; and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroid diseases, and other autoimmune disorders.

  17. Incidence of vitamin B12 / D3 deficiency among company executives

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    Gulvady Chaitanya

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present cross-sectional and interventional study was carried out to assess the incidence of vitamin B12 / vitamin D deficiency in male office executives in the tropical city of Mumbai, India. A total of 75 senior executives were surveyed and subjected to analysis of blood levels of vitamin D (25 Hydroxy Cholecalciferol by RIA method and vitamin B12 by CLIA method. The same was performed in a reputed analytical laboratory with NABL accreditation. History of smoking, exposure to sunlight, exercise, dietary habits, consumption of vitamin supplements, medication etc. was obtained. The results revealed 65% executives with vitamin B12 deficiency (less than 193 pg/ml and 28% executives with vitamin D deficiency (less than 7.6 ng/ml. The prevalence of low levels of vitamin B12 is lower (58% in those who give history of regular exercise than others. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is lower (25% in those who give history of regular exercise than in others (46.2%. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is higher (47% in those whose workday day started earlier than in those whose workday started later (12%. In the second phase of the survey, 58 executives with low B12/ D3 values, were given vitamin B12/D3 oral supplements for a period of three months along with counseling for lifestyle modification. A modified questionnaire was then circulated and the subjects analyzed for B12/D3 values. Significant improvements in serum B12 and D3 values were seen after the oral therapy, sun exposure and dietary modifications.

  18. Incorporation of Cestrum diurnum leaf improves intestinal Ca transport in broilers.

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    Chennaiah, S; Qadri, S S Y H; Reddy, C V K; Rama Rao, S V; Shyamsunder, G; Raghuramulu, N

    2007-03-01

    The economy of Ca utilization is under the control of vitamin D(3), particularly its active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. In sufficient Ca absorption leads to tibial dyschondroplasia resulting in not attaining optimum body weight. Our earlier studies [T.P. Prema, N. Raghuramulu, Phytochemistry 37 (1994) 167] have shown that the Cestrum diurnum (CD) leaves contain vitamin D(3) metabolites. It was felt whether incorporation of CD as a source of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could improve the Ca absorption in broilers. Four groups of 60 birds each were fed with either normal diet or normal diet+0.25% CD or normal diet without vitamin D(3) or normal diet without vitamin D(3)+0.25% CD leaf powder for 45 days. In subsample of six birds it was observed that incorporation of CD leaves in the feed had the maximal effect on all the parameters studied. The results indicate that the intestinal Ca transport as represented by Serosa/Mucosa (S/M) ratio was found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher in broilers fed diet with CD leaf powder and the 1alpha hydroxylase activity in kidney is significantly (p<0.001) higher in negative controls. On the other hand the supplementation of CD leaves enhanced the serum Ca, body weight, tibia weight, density and strength resulting in the disappearance of tibial dyschondroplasia. No lesions of toxicity were observed in any of the soft tissue examined. The results suggest that the incorporation of CD leaf powder in poultry feed could be beneficial to the poultry.

  19. Vitamin D Deficiency in Human and Murine Sepsis*

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    Parekh, Dhruv; Patel, Jaimin M.; Scott, Aaron; Lax, Sian; Dancer, Rachel C. A.; D’Souza, Vijay; Greenwood, Hannah; Fraser, William D.; Gao, Fang; Sapey, Elizabeth; Perkins, Gavin D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and ICU mortality but causality of these associations has not been demonstrated. To determine whether sepsis and severe sepsis are associated with vitamin D deficiency and to determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences the severity of sepsis. Design, Setting, and Patients: Sixty-one patients with sepsis and severe sepsis from two large U.K. hospitals and 20 healthy controls were recruited. Murine models of cecal ligation and puncture and intratracheal lipopolysaccharide were undertaken in normal and vitamin D deficient mice to address the issue of causality. Measurements and Main Results: Patients with severe sepsis had significantly lower concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 than patients with either mild sepsis or age-matched healthy controls (15.7 vs 49.5 vs 66.5 nmol/L; p = 0.0001). 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations were significantly lower in patients who had positive microbiologic culture than those who were culture negative (p = 0.0023) as well as those who died within 30 days of hospital admission (p = 0.025). Vitamin D deficiency in murine sepsis was associated with increased peritoneal (p = 0.037), systemic (p = 0.019), and bronchoalveolar lavage (p = 0.011) quantitative bacterial culture. This was associated with reduced local expression of the cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide as well as evidence of defective macrophage phagocytosis (p = 0.029). In the intratracheal lipopolysaccharide model, 1,500 IU of intraperitoneal cholecalciferol treatment 6 hours postinjury reduced alveolar inflammation, cellular damage, and hypoxia. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in severe sepsis. This appears to contribute to the development of the condition in clinically relevant murine models and approaches to correct vitamin D deficiency in patients with sepsis should be developed. PMID:27632669

  20. A clinical approach to the nutritional care process in protein-energy wasting hemodialysis patients

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    Mar Ruperto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malnutrition/wasting/cachexia are complex-disease conditions that frequently remain undiagnosed and/or untreated in up to 75% of prevalent hemodialysis (HD patients. The nutrition care process (NCP based on assessment, diagnosis, intervention and monitoring of nutritional status is a systematic method that nutrition professionals use to make decisions in clinical practice. Objective: This review examines from a clinical-nutritional practice point of view: a nutritional status as a mortality causative factor; b phenotypic characteristics of malnutri-tion/wasting/cachexia, and c current trends of NCP with special emphasis on nutritional support and novel nutrient and pharmacologic adjunctive therapies in HD patients. Method: A literature review was conducted using the Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus, and Medline electronic scientific basis. Studies which assessing nutritional status and nutritional support published from 1990 to 2013 in HD patients were included and discussed. Results: From all the epidemiological data analyzed, NCP was the suggested method for identifying malnut rition/ wasting or cachexia in clinical practice. Nutrition support as an unimodal therapy was not completely able to reverse wasting in HD patients. Novel experimental therapeutic strategies including the use of appetite stimulants, ghrelin agonist, MC4-R antagonists, anabolic steroids, anti-inflammatory drugs, cholecalciferol, and other components are still under clinical evaluation. Conclusion: Nutritional status is a strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in HD patients. The terms called malnutrition, wasting and cachexia have different nutritional therapeutics implications. The NCP is a necessary tool for assessing and monitoring nutritional status in the current clinical practice. Novel pharmacological therapies or specific nutrient supplementation interventions studies are required.

  1. Supplemental vitamin D and physical performance in COPD: a pilot randomized trial

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    Bjerk SM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonja M Bjerk,1 Bradley D Edgington,1 Thomas S Rector,1,2 Ken M Kunisaki1,21University of Minnesota, 2Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels, commonly observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, are associated with muscle weakness in elderly populations, and vitamin D supplementation appears to improve muscle strength and decrease falls in older individuals. We tested the effect of vitamin D supplementation on physical performance in patients with COPD.Methods: Patients were randomized to daily cholecalciferol (2000 IU or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the 6-week change in Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB score. Secondary outcomes included changes in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ score, and serum 25(OHD.Results: Thirty-six participants (mean age 68 years, all Caucasian males, mean forced expiratory volume in one second 33% of predicted completed the study. Despite an increase in 25(OHD levels in the intervention arm to a mean of 32.6 ng/mL (versus 22.1 ng/mL in the placebo arm, there was no difference in improvements in either SPPB scores (0.3 point difference; 95% confidence interval -0.8 to 1.5; P = 0.56 or SGRQ scores (2.3 point difference; 95% confidence interval -2.3 to 6.9; P = 0.32.Conclusion: Among patients with severe COPD, 2000 IU of daily vitamin D for 6 weeks increased 25(OHD to a level widely considered as normal. However, compared with placebo, short-term vitamin D supplementation had no discernible effect on a simple measure of physical performance.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, randomized controlled trial, vitamin D, skeletal muscle strength

  2. Vitamin D induces increased systolic arterial pressure via vascular reactivity and mechanical properties.

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    Priscila Portugal Dos Santos

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether supplementation of high doses of cholecalciferol for two months in normotensive rats results in increased systolic arterial pressure and which are the mechanisms involved. Specifically, this study assesses the potential effect on cardiac output as well as the changes in aortic structure and functional properties.Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1 Control group (C, n = 20, with no supplementation of vitamin D, 2 VD3 (n = 19, supplemented with 3,000 IU vitamin D/kg of chow; 3 VD10 (n = 21, supplemented with 10,000 IU vitamin D/kg of chow. After two months, echocardiographic analyses, measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP, vascular reactivity, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, mechanical properties, histological analysis and metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity were performed.SAP was higher in VD3 and VD10 than in C rats (p = 0.001. Echocardiographic variables were not different among groups. Responses to phenylephrine in endothelium-denuded aortas was higher in VD3 compared to the C group (p = 0.041. Vascular relaxation induced by acetylcholine (p = 0.023 and sodium nitroprusside (p = 0.005 was impaired in both supplemented groups compared to the C group and apocynin treatment reversed impaired vasodilation. Collagen volume fraction (<0.001 and MMP-2 activity (p = 0.025 was higher in VD10 group compared to the VD3 group. Elastin volume fraction was lower in VD10 than in C and yield point was lower in VD3 than in C.Our findings support the view that vitamin D supplementation increases arterial pressure in normotensive rats and this is associated with structural and functional vascular changes, modulated by NADPH oxidase, nitric oxide, and extracellular matrix components.

  3. In ovo supplementation of 25(OHD3 to broiler embryos

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    E Gonzales

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A dose of 0.3 mL of water solution containing 0.00 (control, 0.625, 1.250 or 1.875 µg of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25(OHD3 was administered to 312 fertile eggs derived from 49-w-old Cobb 500 broiler breeders on the 17th day of incubation (DE17 via allantoic cavity. After treatment, eggs were distributed and maintained until hatching in four incubators set at 37.8 ºC and 55% RH. Each incubator received eggs from all treatments, according to a block design with four treatments of 77-79 replicates each. Hatching was checked every two hours from 484h to 512h of incubation to evaluate productivity and chick qualities. Chicks were housed until 10 days of age in heated battery cages according to a block design with four treatments of 10 replicates of six chicks each for performance and mortality evaluation. Mean hatching time of the chicks treated with 25(OHD3 during the embryonic phase occurred 4 to 5 h earlier than control group (502:31h, with no effects on hatching or neonate qualities. An inverse linear effect of 25(OHD3 dose on chick body weight at hatching was observed, but 10-d-old broiler performance and mortality were not affected. The fast body weight recovery of the broilers obtained from the embryos supplemented with the highest 25(OHD3 level was recorded until 10 days of rearing, equaling final mean body weights (p>0.05 among experimental groups. The results of this study indicate the potential use of 25(OHD3 as exogenous vitamin supplementation to embryos a few days before hatching without affecting neonate qualities and 10-d-old broiler chicken performance.

  4. Correction of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients - VITdAL@ICU study protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

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    Amrein Karin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality in the general population and in critically ill patients. However, no randomized controlled trial has evaluated so far whether treatment with sufficiently large doses of vitamin D can improve clinical outcome of patients in an intensive care setting. Methods/design The VITdAL@ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, non-commercial, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. This study compares high-dose oral cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 versus placebo treatment in a mixed population of 480 critically ill patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin-D levels at study enrollment (≤ 20ng/ml. Following an initial loading dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3, patients receive 90,000 IU of vitamin D3 on a monthly basis for 5 months. The study is designed to compare clinical outcome in the two study arms with the primary endpoint being length of hospital stay. Secondary endpoints include among others length of ICU stay, the percentage of patients with 25(OHD levels > 30 ng/ml at day 7, ICU and hospital mortality and duration of mechanical ventilation. We describe here the VITdAL@ICU study protocol for the primary report. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 is able to improve morbidity and mortality in a mixed population of adult critically ill patients and correct vitamin D deficiency safely. Trial registration ClinicalTrials: NCT01130181

  5. Interactions among dietary boron, molybdenum, and magnesium in the chick

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    Hunt, C.D.; Nielsen, F.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that dietary B affects plasma Mo concentrations in chicks fed inadequate levels of Mg and cholecalciferol (vit. D/sub 3/). Because of this finding, they studied the effect of dietary Mo and Mg on the signs of B deficiency in vit. D/sub 3/ deprived chicks. In a fully crossed, 2 x 2 x 2 factorially arranged experiment, day-old cockerel chicks (19 per group) were fed a ground corn-casein-corn oil based diet (containing 0.850 mg B, 0.319 mg Mo, and 125 IU vit. D/sub 3//kg) supplemented with B at 0 or 3 mg/kg, Mo at 0 or 20 mg/kg, and Mg at 300 or 500 mg/kg. After four weeks, B deprivation depressed growth and elevated the plasma glucose and the brain wt/body wt ratio. Low dietary Mo elevated the heart wt/body wt ratio. An interaction between B and Mg affected hemoglobin and plasma alkaline phosphatase and an interaction between B and Mo affected the heart wt/body wt and liver wt/body wt ratios. Mg deficiency gave usual signs including depressed growth, plasma alkaline phosphatase, glucose, and spleen and liver wt/body wt ratios and elevated hematocrit and brain wt/body wt ratio. The findings suggest that physiological levels of Mg and Mo affect B metabolism. The effects of low dietary Mo on vit. D/sub 3/ and/or Mg-deficient chicks needs to be elucidated.

  6. Teriparatide Treatment Following Osteoporotic Hip Fracture in a Male Patient with Multiple Sclerosis and Current Recommendations

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    Sibel Başaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old male patient with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS who had been operated due to a low-energy subtrochanteric femoral fracture was admitted in order to plan anti-osteoporotic treatment and rehabilitation at post-operative first week. Although the patient had a history of glucocorticoid use, he had never received any preventative treatment for osteoporosis. T-scores detected by Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA method were -4.7, -4.9 and -3.3 at femoral neck, total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae, respectively. Since the patient had severe osteoporosis, teriparatide treatment was planned. Following vitamin D supplementation, teriparatide 20 mcg/day was started. After 6 months of treatment, patient improved significantly in terms of symptoms and DXA scores. T-scores of the femoral neck, total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae improved to -3.4, -3.9 and -3.0, respectively. When teriparatide therapy was continued up to 18 months, further increase in DXA values was observed (T-scores of femoral neck, total hip and L1-L4 vertebrae were -2.9, -2.4 and -2.2, respectively. No adverse event was seen during the treatment period. Following the cessation of teriparatide therapy, alendronate and cholecalciferol combination (70 mg/2800 IU was started. Bone health and vitamin D level are affected negatively in patients with MS due to multifactorial reasons. In order to avoid serious consequences such as hip fracture, awareness about osteoporosis should be increased and preventative strategies should be tailored from the early stages of the disease

  7. Vitamin D levels and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes

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    Sarita Bajaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D has important actions on glucose metabolism. These include improved insulin exocytosis, direct stimulation of insulin receptor, improved uptake of glucose by peripheral tissues, improving insulin resistance. It has got various pleiotropic effects like suppression of cell mediated immunity, regulation of cell proliferation, stimulation of neurotropic factors such as nerve growth factor, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotropin, suppression of RAAS, reduction of albuminuria, immunomodulatory effects, and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, vitamin D is implicated in many ways in the pathogenesis of retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy. Objectives: To study the correlation of vitamin D levels with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional case-control study of 18 patients (18-70 years, who met the American Diabetes Association 2011 criteria for type 2 diabetes, was conducted. Age and sex matched healthy controls were taken. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of microvascular complications by clinical evaluation, urine examination, fundus examination, nerve conduction studies, and various biochemical tests. 25-OH cholecalciferol levels were done for each. Cut off level for vitamin D deficiency was 20 ng/ml. Results: Mean vitamin D was lower in type 2 diabetics than healthy subjects (19.046 vs. 27.186 ng/ml. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was found to significantly higher in diabetics when compared to healthy subjects (P = 0.0001. Vitamin D deficiency was found to be significantly associated with neuropathy (χ2 = 5.39, df = 1, P = 0.020, retinopathy, (χ2 = 6.6, df = 1, P = 0.010 and nephropathy (χ2 = 10. 52, df = 1, P = 0.001. Lower levels of vitamin D were found to be associated with increasing prevalence of combinations of microvascular complications namely neuropathy with retinopathy (P = 0.036, neuropathy with nephropathy (P = 0

  8. Cryofixation, ultracryomicrotomy, and X-ray microanalysis of enterocytes from chick duodenum: Vitamin-D-induced formation of an apical tubulovesicular system

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    Davis, W.L.; Hagler, H.K.; Jones, R.G.; Farmer, G.R.; Cooper, O.J.; Martin, J.H.; Bridges, G.E.; Goodman, D.B. (Baylor Univ. Medical Center, Dallas, TX (USA))

    1991-02-01

    New methods of tissue preparation were developed to study the morphology and distribution of calcium ions in duodenal enterocytes from normal, rachitic, and vitamin D-replete (either cholecalciferol (CC) or 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-DHCC) treated) chicks. Frozen hydrated sections were prepared from cryofixed tissues by ultracryomicrotomy at -125 degrees C. Sections were subsequently freeze-dried by increasing the temperature to -100 degrees C. The latter temperature was maintained throughout both the structural and elemental analyses. In cells from normal, rachitic, and vitamin D-treated (CC) animals the brush border from lanthanum-infused tissues was electron dense and calcium-lanthanum positive by x-ray analysis. In the absence of lanthanum, i.e., sucrose-infused duodena, the microvilli were still calcium positive. In the terminal web region of normal and CC-treated enterocytes, numerous, apparently interconnected, tubules and vesicles were seen. Vacuole-like structures were also seen. Such structures were especially prominent in the enterocytes from the vitamin-treated (CC) animals. Except for the vacuoles, the tubules and vesicles were electron dense in the lanthanum-infused duodena, and clear in sucrose-infused tissues. In both instances, the structures were calcium positive. Similar, but even larger structures were seen below the terminal web. Here however, the tubules and vesicles seemed to be organized into multiple complex interconnecting networks, i.e., tubulo-vesicular complexes. Both the tubules and the vesicles seemed to be interconnected via smaller channel-like entities. The extensiveness of this structure was better appreciated in the enterocytes from lanthanum-infused tissues, where it appeared similar in structure and complexity to an en face view of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle.

  9. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

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    Monika Sabolová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition. Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new source of minor lipophilic compounds such as sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols and tocopherols in our diet. For this reason, the objective of this work was to characterize the sterols and tocopherols composition of fat from larvae of edible insect Zophobas morio L. and Tenebrio mollitor L. Cholesterol and three phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were reliably identified and quantified after hot saponification and derivatization by GC-MS. Other steroid compounds, including 5,6-trans-cholecalciferol were identified only according to the NIST library. Cholesterol was the predominant sterol in all analysed samples. Both types of larvae also contained high amount of phytosterols. Different region of origin had a no significant impact on sterols composition, while the effect of beetle genus was crucial. Tocopherols were analysed by reverse phase HPLC coupled with amperometric detection. Tocopherols content in mealworm larvae was lower than content in edible oils, but important from the nutritional point of view. Change of tocopherols composition was not observed during the storage under different conditions. Larvae of edible insect can be a potential good dietary source of cholesterol, but also vitamin D3 isomers, phytosterols and tocopherols.  

  10. Customized Nutritional Enhancement for Pregnant Women Appears to Lower Incidence of Certain Common Maternal and Neonatal Complications: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P. Michael; Rydbom, Emily A.; Stone, Lucas A.; Stone, T. Elliot; Wilkens, Lindsey E.; Reynolds, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective chart review analyzed the effect of customized nutrition on the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational diabetes (GDM), and small- and large-for-gestational-age (SGA, LGA) neonates, examining consecutive deliveries between January 1, 2011, and Decem ber 31, 2012, at a low-risk community hospital. The population was divided into 3 groups: (1) study group (SG), (2) private practice (PP), and (3) community healthcare clinic (CHCC). All groups received standard perinatal management, but additionally the study group was analyzed for serum zinc, carnitine, total 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol (25 OH-D), methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and catechol-O-methyl transferase polymorphisms in the first trimester prior to intervention, with subsequent second trimester and postpartum assessment of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D after intervention. Intervention consisted of trimesterby-trimester nutrition and lifestyle education, supplementation of L-methyl folate, magnesium, essential fatty acids, and probiotics for all SG patients, with targeted supplementation of zinc, carnitine, and 25 OH-D. Because of small case occurrence rates of individual conditions in the study group, unreportable reductions were found, except GDM (SG vs CHCC, P value .046 with 95.38% confidence interval [CI]), and PIH (SG vs PP, P value .0505 with 94.95% CIl). The aggregated occurrence rate of the four conditions, however, was significantly lower in the study population than in either comparison population (PP P value .0154 with 98.46% CI, and CHCC P value .0265 with 97.35% CI). Customized nutritional intervention appears to have significantly reduced adverse perinatal outcomes. Prospective study within larger, at-risk populations is needed to determine whether customized nutrition improves conditions individually. PMID:25568832

  11. Vitamin D Metabolism and Effects on Pluripotency Genes and Cell Differentiation in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Martin Blomberg Jensen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs are classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas. Both tumors originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS cells, which are derived from transformed fetal gonocytes. CIS, seminoma, and the undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma (EC retain an embryonic phenotype and express pluripotency factors (NANOG/OCT4. Vitamin D (VD is metabolized in the testes, and here, we examined VD metabolism in TGCT differentiation and pluripotency regulation. We established that the VD receptor (VDR and VD-metabolizing enzymes are expressed in human fetal germ cells, CIS, and invasive TGCTs. VD metabolism diminished markedly during the malignant transformation from CIS to EC but was reestablished in differentiated components of nonseminomas, distinguished by coexpression of mesodermal markers and loss of OCT4. Subsequent in vitro studies confirmed that 1,25(OH2D3 (active VD downregulated NANOG and OCT4 through genomic VDR activation in EC-derived NTera2 cells and, to a lesser extent, in seminoma-derived TCam-2 cells, and up-regulated brachyury, SNAI1, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and fibroblast growth factor 23. To test for a possible therapeutic effect in vivo, NTera2 cells were xenografted into nude mice and treated with 1,25(OH2D3, which induced down-regulation of pluripotency factors but caused no significant reduction of tumor growth. During NTera2 tumor formation, down-regulation of VDR was observed, resulting in limited responsiveness to cholecalciferol and 1,25(OH2D3 treatment in vivo. These novel findings show that VD metabolism is involved in the mesodermal transition during differentiation of cancer cells with embryonic stem cell characteristics, which points to a function for VD during early embryonic development and possibly in the pathogenesis of TGCTs.

  12. The effect of Vitamin D treatment on thyroid function and the levels of thyroid autoantibodies, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis

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    Fettah Acıbucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease and vitamin D treatment. Method: Fifty four (54 patients with both vitamin D deficiency and newly diagnosed euthyroid Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT were recruited for this study. The patients were given intramuscular administration of cholecalciferol at a dose of 300,000 IU/month for 3 months. At the time of diagnoses and after the treatment of vitamin D, free T3 (FT3, free T4 (FT4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, antithyroglobulin (anti-TG, 25 (OH D3, parathormone (PTH, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels were measured in all patients; TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-1ß levels were measured in only 43 patients. Results: A statistically significant difference (p˂0.05 was observed between the pre and post treatment FT4, TSH, antiTPO, antiTG, PTH and ALP levels. After the treatment of vitamin D, a statistically significant increase was found in 25 (OH D3 and FT4 levels, and a significant decrease was found in TSH, antiTPO, antiTG, PTH and ALP levels, whereas no significant difference was noted in FT3, Ca, P, TNF- a, IL-6 and IL-1ß levels. Further, levels of vitamin D were not correlated with FT3, FT4, TSH, antiTPO, antiTG, TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-1ß levels (p˃0.05. Conclusions: For patients with both vitamin D deficiency and newly diagnosed HT, treatment of vitamin D had a positive effect on the thyroid antigenicity and thyroid function.

  13. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment delays cellular aging in human mesenchymal stem cells while maintaining their multipotent capacity.

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    Barbara Klotz

    Full Text Available 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3 was reported to induce premature organismal aging in fibroblast growth factor-23 (Fgf23 and klotho deficient mice, which is of main interest as 1,25D3 supplementation of its precursor cholecalciferol is used in basic osteoporosis treatment. We wanted to know if 1,25D3 is able to modulate aging processes on a cellular level in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC. Effects of 100 nM 1,25D3 on hMSC were analyzed by cell proliferation and apoptosis assay, β-galactosidase staining, VDR and surface marker immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR of 1,25D3-responsive, quiescence- and replicative senescence-associated genes. 1,25D3 treatment significantly inhibited hMSC proliferation and apoptosis after 72 h and delayed the development of replicative senescence in long-term cultures according to β-galactosidase staining and P16 expression. Cell morphology changed from a fibroblast like appearance to broad and rounded shapes. Long term treatment did not induce lineage commitment in terms of osteogenic pathways but maintained their clonogenic capacity, their surface marker characteristics (expression of CD73, CD90, CD105 and their multipotency to develop towards the chondrogenic, adipogenic and osteogenic pathways. In conclusion, 1,25D3 delays replicative senescence in primary hMSC while the pro-aging effects seen in mouse models might mainly be due to elevated systemic phosphate levels, which propagate organismal aging.

  14. Effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin deposition in the whole egg of laying hens

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    H Zang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary vitamin combinations on the egg quality and vitamin concentrations in the eggs of commercial laying hens. A total of 1,800 25-week-old Lohman pink-shell hens were randomly assigned to four dietary vitamin treatments as follows: NRC(1994 level, NRC (1994 level with Hy.D® (25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol, Local level (current average industry level in China and OVN® level (optimum vitamin nutrition level, with 10 replicates per treatment and 45 layers per replicate. Hens were housed in commercial laying cages with three birds per cage and given ad libitum access to feed. Results showed the hens that received the fortified vitamin levels in the OVN® treatment had a significantly (p<0.05 lower number of cracked (.47% and dirty eggs (.27%, and increased egg deposition of vitamin B12, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, 25-OH-D3, vitamin E, vitamin B1, biotin and pantothenate (p<0.05. Treatments had no significant effect on egg-shape index, egg specific gravity, Haugh units and eggshell thickness. Hens fed the NRC-Hy.D® combination also experienced a significant decrease in cracked and dirty eggs (.70% and .44%, respectively and an increased deposition of 25-OH-D3 in comparison with the NRC treatment. Results of the present study suggest that that the Local treatment was able to improve egg quality parameters of laying hens, but resulted in more cracked and dirty eggs. OVN® reduced the number of cracked eggs and dirty eggs, and improved the deposition of several vitamins in eggs. With the addition of Hy.D®, eggshell strength and 25-OH-D3 deposition in eggs were also improved, and cracked and dirty egg rates declined.

  15. Prenatal vitamin d supplementation and child respiratory health: a randomised controlled trial.

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    Stephen T Goldring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest high prenatal vitamin D intake may be associated with reduced childhood wheezing. We examined the effect of prenatal vitamin D on childhood wheezing in an interventional study. METHODS: We randomised 180 pregnant women at 27 weeks gestation to either no vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery or single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol, in an ethnically stratified, randomised controlled trial. Supplementation improved but did not optimise vitamin D status. Researchers blind to allocation assessed offspring at 3 years. Primary outcome was any history of wheeze assessed by validated questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included atopy, respiratory infection, impulse oscillometry and exhaled nitric oxide. Primary analyses used logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 158 of 180 (88% offspring at age 3 years for the primary outcome. Atopy was assessed by skin test for 95 children (53%, serum IgE for 86 (48%, exhaled nitric oxide for 62 (34% and impulse oscillometry of acceptable quality for 51 (28%. We found no difference between supplemented and control groups in risk of wheeze [no vitamin D: 14/50 (28%; any vitamin D: 26/108 (24% (risk ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.49, 1.50; P = 0.69]. There was no significant difference in atopy, eczema risk, lung function or exhaled nitric oxide between supplemented groups and controls. CONCLUSION: Prenatal vitamin D supplementation in late pregnancy that had a modest effect on cord blood vitamin D level, was not associated with decreased wheezing in offspring at age three years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN68645785.

  16. Vitamin D for combination photodynamic therapy of skin cancer in individuals with vitamin D deficiency: Insights from a preclinical study in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanjay; Thomas, Erik; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.

    2016-03-01

    Combination photodynamic therapy (cPDT) in which vitamin D (VD) is given prior to aminolevulinate, a precursor (pro-drug) for protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is an approach developed in our laboratory. We previously showed that 1α,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol), given prior to PDT, enhances accumulation of PpIX and improves cell death post-PDT in a mouse skin cancer model. However, since calcitriol poses a risk for hypercalcemia, we replaced systemic calcitriol with oral cholecalciferol (D3), administered as a high (tenfold, "10K") diet over a ten-day period. Here, we ask whether VD deficiency might alter the response to cPDT. Nude mice were fed a VD-deficient diet for at least 4 weeks ("deficient"); controls were fed a normal 1,000 IU/kg diet ("1K"). Human A431 cells were implanted subcutaneously and mice were switched to the 10K diet or continued on their baseline diets (controls). In other experiments, mice received a human equivalent dose of 50,000 IU D3 by oral gavage, to simulate administration of a single, high-dose VD pill. At various times, tumors were harvested and serum was collected to measure levels of VD metabolic intermediates. A significant increase in PpIX levels and in the expression of differentiation and proliferation markers in tumor tissue was observed after VD supplementation of both the deficient and 1K mice. Further results describing mechanistic details of PpIX enhancement through alteration of heme- and VD-metabolic enzyme levels will be presented. Based on these results, a clinical study using oral vitamin D prior to PDT for human skin cancer should be performed.

  17. The Vitamin D Assessment (ViDA) Study: design of a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory infection, falls and non-vertebral fractures.

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    Scragg, Robert; Waayer, Debbie; Stewart, Alistair W; Lawes, Carlene M M; Toop, Les; Murphy, Judy; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies have shown that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, acute respiratory infection, falls and non-vertebral fractures. We recruited 5110 Auckland adults, aged 50-84 years, into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether vitamin D supplementation protects against these four major outcomes. The intervention is a monthly cholecalciferol dose of 100,000IU (2.5mg) for an estimated median 3.3 years (range 2.5-4.2) during 2011-2015. Participants were recruited primarily from family practices, plus community groups with a high proportion of Maori, Pacific, or South Asian individuals. The baseline evaluation included medical history, lifestyle, physical measurements (e.g. blood pressure, arterial waveform, lung function, muscle function), and a blood sample (stored at -80°C for later testing). Capsules are being mailed to home addresses with a questionnaire to collect data on non-hospitalized outcomes and to monitor adherence and potential adverse effects. Other data sources include New Zealand Ministry of Health data on mortality, hospitalization, cancer registrations and dispensed pharmaceuticals. A random sample of 438 participants returned for annual collection of blood samples to monitor adherence and safety (hypercalcemia), including repeat physical measurements at 12 months follow-up. The trial will allow testing of a priori hypotheses on several other endpoints including: weight, blood pressure, arterial waveform parameters, heart rate variability, lung function, muscle strength, gait and balance, mood, psoriasis, bone density, and chronic pain.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity: interactions, implications, and recommendations

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    Peterson CA

    2015-02-01

    supplementation in attenuating the conditions associated with childhood obesity, and to further elucidate the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its effects on health. Keywords: cholecalciferol, childhood overweight, hypovitaminosis D

  19. Association of protein intake with the change of lean mass among elderly women: The Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; Mursu, Jaakko; Sirola, Joonas; Kröger, Heikki; Rikkonen, Toni; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2015-01-01

    Low protein intake can lead to declined lean mass (LM) in elderly. We examined the associations of total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with LM. The association of TP intake with LM change was further evaluated according to weight change status. This cross-sectional and prospective cohort study included 554 women aged 68 (sd 1·9) years from the Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention - Fracture Prevention Study (OSTPRE-FPS). The intervention group (n 270) received daily cholecalciferol (800 IU; 20 μg) and Ca (1000 mg) for 3 years while the control group received neither supplementation nor placebo (n 282). Participants filled out a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and a 3-d food record in 2002 and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurements at baseline and 3 years. Multiple linear regressions evaluated the association between protein intake and LM, adjusting for relevant covariates. At the baseline TP and AP intakes were positively associated with LM and trunk LM, TP was associated also with appendicular LM (aLM). Follow-up results showed that in the total population and the intervention group, higher TP and AP were associated with increased LM and aLM (P ≤ 0·050). No such associations were observed in the control group. PP intake was also associated with aLM change in the total population. Overall, the associations were independent of fat mass. Further, among weight maintainers, TP intake was positively associated with LM, aLM and trunk LM changes (P ≤ 0·020). In conclusion, dietary TP, especially AP, intake may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia by preserving LM in the elderly.

  20. Hypovitaminosis D and "small burden" uterine fibroids: Opportunity for a vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Serri, Matteo; Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Tozzi, Alessandra; Aggiusti, Alice; Clemente, Nicolò

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with hypovitaminosis D and "small burden" uterine fibroids.This study focused on 208 women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and concomitant hypovitaminosis D, from January to December 2014. One hundred eight women of the initial study population were diagnosed with "small burden" uterine fibroids. Among them, those who underwent a proper vitamin D supplementation constituted the "study group" (n = 53), while women who spontaneously refused the therapy or did not perform it properly, constituted the "control group" (n = 55). The characteristics of uterine fibroids, the fibroid-related symptoms, and the vitamin D serum levels were evaluated 12 months after the initial diagnosis.In women with uterine fibroids, a negative correlation emerged between the baseline 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) concentration and both the volume of the largest fibroid (r = -0.18, P = 0.01) and the total volume of fibroids (r = -0.19, P = 0.01). No correlation was found between the baseline 25-OH-D3 levels and the number of fibroids per patient (r = -0.10, P = 0.16). In women of the "study group," a significant increase in the 25-OH-D3 serum level was observed after 12 months of supplementation, and a lower rate of surgical or medical treatment due to the "progression to extensive disease" was reported (13.2% vs 30.9%, P = 0.05).Supplementation therapy with 25-OH-D3 restores normal vitamin D serum levels in women with "small burden" fibroids. In these women, vitamin D supplementation seems to reduce the progression to an extensive disease, and thus the need of conventional surgical or medical therapy.

  1. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  2. Development of a sensitive LC/MS/MS method for vitamin D metabolites: 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 measurement using a novel derivatization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Curtis J; Wiebe, Donald A; Dey, Subhakar; Plath, Josh; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Ziegler, Toni E

    2014-03-15

    Active vitamin D metabolites 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 [1,25-(OH)2-D2; derived from ergocalciferol] and D3 [1,25-(OH)2-D3; derived from cholecalciferol] are found in low levels in the circulation and require a very sensitive method for measurement. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) has been the method of choice, but it lacks the specificity needed to distinguish between 1,25-(OH)2-D2 and -D3, whereas liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) methods have the advantage of high specificity and sensitivity. Here, we compare a new derivative for ionizing 1,25-(OH)2-D to enhance the signal and provide the most sensitive assay for measuring vitamin D. We used the Amplifex diene method of derivatizing prior to LC/MS/MS and compared it to the standard RIA method and the 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-dione (PTAD) method of derivatizing prior to LC/MS/MS. In the evaluation of 20 human serum samples, all methods correlated strongly across the upper levels of the standard 1,25-(OH)2-D2 and -D3 ranges (Amplifex and RIA, pc=0.97; Amplifex and PTAD, pc=0.96) but less strongly on the lower levels of the standard range (Amplifex and RIA, pc=0.81; Amplifex and PTAD, pc=0.65) suggesting differences in the sensitivities between the assays. The Amplifex method was determined to be more sensitive than the PTAD method, as peak areas were significantly higher for the Amplifex method and provided for a 10 fold higher signal-to-noise ratio than PTAD. Therefore, the Amplifex LC/MS/MS method is the most sensitive and specific method available for measuring 1,25-(OH)2-D2 and -D3 while using the smallest sample volume.

  3. Vitamin D dependent rickets type I

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    Chan Jong Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is present in two forms, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2 produced by plants and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 produced by animal tissues or by the action of ultraviolet light on 7-dehydrocholesterol in human skin. Both forms of vitamin D are biologically inactive pro-hormones that must undergo sequential hydroxylations in the liver and the kidney before they can bind to and activate the vitamin D receptor. The hormonally active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH2D], plays an essential role in calcium and phosphate metabolism, bone growth, and cellular differentiation. Renal synthesis of 1,25(OH2D from its endogenous precursor, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD, is the rate-limiting and is catalyzed by the 1?#7016;ydroxylase. Vitamin D dependent rickets type I (VDDR-I, also referred to as vitamin D 1?#7016;ydroxylase deficiency or pseudovitamin D deficiency rickets, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by hypotonia, muscle weakness, growth failure, hypocalcemic seizures in early infancy, and radiographic findings of rickets. Characteristic laboratory features are hypocalcemia, increased serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH, and low or undetectable serum concentrations of 1,25(OH2D despite normal or increased concentrations of 25OHD. Recent advances have showed in the cloning of the human 1?#7016;ydroxylase and revealed mutations in its gene that cause VDDR-I. This review presents the biology of vitamin D, and 1?#7016;ydroxylase mutations with clinical findings.

  4. Effect of vitamin D2- and D3-enriched diets on egg vitamin D content, production, and bird condition during an entire production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, P; Valaja, J; Rossow, L; Venäläinen, E; Tupasela, T

    2004-03-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency during winter is a common problem for humans in Europe. One way to ease this problem is through the production of vitamin D-fortified eggs. To evaluate such a production process, the effects of vitamin D supplementation during an entire production period were assessed. Transfer of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) from the diet to egg yolks was measured using 2 different levels of both vitamins (6,000 and 15,000 IU/kg feed) relative to a control treatment (2,500 IU vitamin D3/kg feed). During the experiment, production parameters, egg quality (egg weight, Haugh unit, specific gravity, eggshell fracture force, and Ca content of eggshell), and the condition of hens were monitored. At the end of the experiment histopathological tests were performed. Supplementing diets with vitamin D3 increased egg yolk vitamin D content more effectively than did supplementation with vitamin D2. For groups of hens receiving 6,000 or 15,000 IU of vitamin D3/kg feed, egg yolk vitamin D3 content ranged from 9.1 to 13.6 and from 25.3 to 33.7 microg/100 g, respectively. Corresponding values for birds fed vitamin D2 were 4.7 to 7.0 and 13.3 to 21.0 microg/100 g. Both supplements enhanced vitamin D3 content of egg yolks relative to the control diet (2.5 to 5.0 microg/100 g of egg yolk). Vitamin D supplements had no effects on production parameters compared with the control diet. However, especially vitamin D3 improved bone strength (P < 0.05). Autopsy at the end of the experiment indicated no detrimental accumulation of calcium in the kidneys, liver, heart, muscles, or lungs.

  5. Serum 25-OH vitamin D levels in systemic sclerosis: analysis of 140 patients and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, M; Cassone, G; Fallahi, P; Lumetti, F; Spinella, A; Campomori, F; Manfredi, A; Manzini, C U; Antonelli, A; Ferri, C

    2017-03-01

    Hypovitaminosis D is increasingly reported in autoimmune diseases. We investigated the 25-OH-vitamin D (25-OH-vitD) levels in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, in correlation with disease's features. We measured the 25-OH-vitD serum levels in 140 consecutive patients (F/M 126/15; mean age 61 ± 15.1 years), 91 without (group A) and 49 with (group B) 25-OH-cholecalciferol supplementation. Patients of group A invariably showed low 25-OH-vitD levels (9.8 ± 4.1 ng/ml vs. 26 ± 8.1 ng/ml of group B); in particular, 88/91 (97%) patients showed vitamin D deficiency (D levels (D deficiency persisted in 12/49 (24.5%) individuals. Parathormone levels inversely correlated with 25-OH-vitD (r = -0.3, p D was statistically associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (p = 0.008), while calcinosis was more frequently observed in patients of group A (p = 0.057). Moreover, we found significantly higher percentage of serum anticentromere antibodies in group B patients with 25-OH-vitD level ≥30 ng/ml (8/15 vs. 6/34; p = 0.017). In literature, hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in SSc patients. An association with disease duration, calcinosis, or severity of pulmonary involvement was occasionally recognized. Hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in SSc and severe in a relevant percentage of patients; furthermore, less than one third of supplemented subjects reached normal levels of 25-OH-vitD. The evaluation of 25-OH-vitD levels should be included in the routine clinical work-up of SSc. The above findings expand previous observations and may stimulate further investigations.

  6. Lung VITAL: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of an ancillary study evaluating the effects of vitamin D and/or marine omega-3 fatty acid supplements on acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease, asthma control, pneumonia and lung function in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Diane R; Litonjua, Augusto A; Carey, Vincent J; Manson, JoAnn E; Buring, Julie E; Lee, I-Min; Gordon, David; Walter, Joseph; Friedenberg, Georgina; Hankinson, John L; Copeland, Trisha; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike

    2016-03-01

    Laboratory and observational research studies suggest that vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for pneumonia, acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) or asthma, and decline of lung function, but prevention trials with adequate dosing, adequate power, and adequate time to follow-up are lacking. The ongoing Lung VITAL study is taking advantage of a large clinical trial-the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL)--to conduct the first major evaluation of the influences of vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on pneumonia risk, respiratory exacerbation episodes, asthma control and lung function in adults. VITAL is a 5-year U.S.-wide randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial of supplementation with vitamin D3 ([cholecalciferol], 2000 IU/day) and marine omega-3 FA (Omacor® fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]+docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 1g/day) for primary prevention of CVD and cancer among men and women, at baseline aged ≥50 and ≥55, respectively, with 5107 African Americans. In a subset of 1973 participants from 11 urban U.S. centers, lung function is measured before and two years after randomization. Yearly follow-up questionnaires assess incident pneumonia in the entire randomized population, and exacerbations of respiratory disease, asthma control and dyspnea in a subpopulation of 4314 randomized participants enriched, as shown in presentation of baseline characteristics, for respiratory disease, respiratory symptoms, and history of cigarette smoking. Self-reported pneumonia hospitalization will be confirmed by medical record review, and exacerbations will be confirmed by Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data review.

  7. Super pharmacological levels of calcitriol (1,25-(OH)2D3) inhibits mineral deposition and decreases cell proliferation in a strain dependent manner in chicken mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Vivek V; Chousalkar, Kapil C; Bhanugopan, Marie S; Quinn, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    The biologically active form of vitamin D₃, calcitriol (1,25-(OH)₂D₃), plays a key role in mineral homeostasis and bone formation and dietary vitamin D₃deficiency is a major cause of bone disorders in poultry. Supplementary dietary cholecalciferol (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25-OH), the precursor of calcitriol, is commonly employed to combat this problem; however, dosage must be carefully determined as excess dietary vitamin D can cause toxicity resulting in a decrease in bone calcification, hypercalcinemia and renal failure. Despite much research on the therapeutic administration of dietary vitamin D in humans, the relative sensitivity of avian species to exogenous vitamin D has not been well defined. In order to determine the effects of exogenous 1,25-(OH)₂D₃during avian osteogenesis, chicken bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were exposed to varying doses of 1,25-(OH)₂D₃during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and examined for markers of early proliferation and osteogenic induction. Similar to humans and other mammals, poultry BM-MSCs were found to be highly sensitive to exogenous 1,25-(OH)₂D₃with super pharmacological levels exerting significant inhibition of mineralization and loss of cell proliferation in vitro. Strain related differences were apparent, with BM-MCSs derived from layers strains showing a higher level of sensitivity to 1,25-(OH)₂D₃than those from broilers. These data suggest that understanding species and strain specific sensitivities to 1,25-(OH)₂D₃is important for optimizing bone health in the poultry industry and that use of avian BM-MSCs are a useful tool for examining underlying effects of genetic variation in poultry.

  8. Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-Ageing Biomarkers after Diet Micronutrient Supplementation

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    Aneta Balcerczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35–55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day, ubiquinone (300 mg/day, astaxanthin (15 mg/day, lycopene (45 mg/day, lutein palmitate (30 mg/day, zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day, L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day, cholecalciferol (30 µg/day and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day. We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex.

  9. Vitamin D: a critical and essential micronutrient for human health

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    Igor eBendik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a micronutrient that is needed for optimal health throughout the whole life. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol can be either synthesized in the human skin upon exposure to the UV light of the sun, or it is obtained from the diet. If the photoconversion in the skin due to reduced sun exposure (e.g. in wintertime is insufficient, intake of adequate vitamin D from the diet is essential to health. Severe vitamin D deficiency can lead to multitude of avoidable illnesses; among them are well known bone diseases like osteoporosis, a number of autoimmune diseases, many different cancers and some cardiovascular diseases like hypertension are being discussed. Vitamin D is found naturally in only very few foods. Foods containing vitamin D include some fatty fish, fish liver oils, and eggs from hens that have been fed vitamin D and some fortified foods in countries with respective regulations. Base on geographic location or food availability adequate vitamin D intake might not be sufficient on a global scale. The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF has collected the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels in populations of different countries using published data and developed a global vitamin D map. This map illustrates the parts of the world, where vitamin D did not reach adequate 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels: 6.7 % of the papers report 25-hydroxyvitamin D plasma levels below 25 nmol/L, which indicates vitamin D deficiency, 37.3 % are below 50 nmol/Land only 11.9% found 25-hydroxy-vitamin D plasma levels above 75 nmol/L target as suggested by vitamin D experts. The vitamin D map is adding further evidence to the vitamin D insufficiency pandemic debate, which is also an issue in the developed world. Besides malnutrition, a condition where the diet does not match to provide the adequate levels of nutrients including micronutrients for growth and maintenance, we obviously have a situation where enough nutrients were consumed, but lacked to

  10. Vitamin D₃ Supplementation in Batswana Children and Adults with HIV: A Pilot Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Schall, Joan I.; Samuel, Julia; Seme, Boitshepo; Marape, Marape; Ratshaa, Bakgaki; Goercke, Irene; Tolle, Michael; Nnyepi, Maria S.; Mazhani, Loeto; Zemel, Babette S.; Rutstein, Richard M.; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Since vitamin D insufficiency is common worldwide in people with HIV, we explored safety and efficacy of high dose cholecalciferol (D₃) in Botswana, and evaluated potential modifiers of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D change (Δ25D). Design Prospective randomized double-blind 12-week pilot trial of subjects ages 5.0–50.9 years. Methods Sixty subjects randomized within five age groups to either 4000 or 7000IU per day of D₃ and evaluated for vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, HIV, safety and growth status. Efficacy was defined as serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25D) ≥32ng/mL, and safety as no simultaneous elevation of serum calcium and 25D. Also assessed were HIV plasma viral RNA viral load (VL), CD4%, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regime, and height-adjusted (HAZ), weight-adjusted (WAZ) and Body Mass Index (BMIZ) Z scores. Results Subjects were 50% male, age (mean±SD) 19.5±11.8 years, CD4% 31.8±10.4, with baseline VL log₁₀ range of 1.4) in 22%. From baseline to 12 weeks, 25D increased from 36±9ng/ml to 56±18ng/ml (p<0.0001) and 68% and 90% had 25D ≥32ng/ml, respectively (p = 0.02). Δ25D was similar by dose. No subjects had simultaneously increased serum calcium and 25D. WAZ and BMIZ improved by 12 weeks (p<0.04). HAZ and CD4% increased and VL decreased in the 7000IU/d group (p<0.04). Younger (5–13y) and older (30–50y) subjects had greater Δ25D than those 14–29y (26±17 and 28±12 vs. 11±11ng/ml, respectively, p≤0.001). Δ25D was higher with efavirenz or nevirapine compared to protease inhibitor based treatment (22±12, 27±17, vs. 13±10, respectively, p≤0.03). Conclusions In a pilot study in Botswana, 12-week high dose D₃ supplementation was safe and improved vitamin D, growth and HIV status; age and ART regimen were significant effect modifiers. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189902 PMID:25706751

  11. The Role of Vitamin D in Reproductive Health—A Trojan Horse or the Golden Fleece?

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    Filip A. Dabrowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, vitamin D was in the spotlight in many fields of research. Despite numerous publications, its influence on reproductive health remains ambiguous. This paper presents an up-to-date review of current knowledge concerning the role of cholecalciferol in human reproduction. It covers various infertility issues, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, endometriosis, myoma-induced infertility, male infertility, premature ovary failure and in vitro fertilization techniques. Vitamin D deficiency, defined as serum concentration of 25-hydroxycalciferol of less than 50 nmol/L, is commonly noted more frequently than only in fertility clinic patients. It is a global trend that is observed in all age groups. The results of original publications dated up to 2015 have been summarized and discussed in a critical manner. Most experts agree that vitamin D supplementation is a necessity, particularly in women suffering from obesity, insulin resistance or small ovarian reserve, as well as in men with oligo- and asthenozoospermia if serum concentration should fall below 50 nmol/L (normal range up to 125 nmol/L. High concentration of vitamin D and its metabolites in decidua during the 1st trimester suggests its important role in the implantation process and a local immunological embryo-protection. On the other hand, evidence-based research did not prove a significant difference so far in ovulation stimulation or embryo development depending on vitamin D level. In one of the publications, it was also found that vitamin D binding protein (VDBP has a molecular similarity to anti-sperm antibodies, and another one concluded that both low (<50 nmol/L and high (>125 nmol/L concentration of vitamin D are associated with decreased number and quality of spermatozoa in semen. Vitamin D is definitely not a Trojan Horse in reproductive health, since there were no adverse effects reported for vitamin D intake of up to 10,000 IU/day, but to proclaim it the Golden

  12. Cestrum diurnum leaf as a source of 1,25(OH)2 Vitamin D3 improves egg shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaiah, S; Qadri, S S Y H; Rao, S V Rama; Shyamsunder, G; Raghuramulu, N

    2004-05-01

    A continuing concern of the poultry industry is the high incidence (12%) of egg losses in the laying house due to poor egg shell quality. Calcium (Ca) homeostasis is a key factor in egg shell formation. The economy of Ca utilisation is under the control of Vitamin D(3), particularly its active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy cholecalciferol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. Supplementation of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has been shown to increase specific gravity, shell thickness and shell weight of the egg. However, commercially available synthetic 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) is very expensive. Earlier studies from our Institute [Phytochemistry 37 (1994) 677] have identified a cheap, natural and rich source of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the leaves of Cestrum diurnum (CD), a member of the Solanaceae family. In this study, CD leaves were explored as a source of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in the feed of layer birds to improve the egg shell thickness. Fifteen-week-old white leghorn layers were divided into four treatments of 60 birds each and as follows: (I) normal diet with Vitamin D(3), (II) normal diet with Vitamin D(3) + CD, (III) normal diet without Vitamin D(3) and, (IV) normal diet without Vitamin D(3) + CD powder. CD leaf powder was incorporated in to the feed at 0.3% level. The experimental feeding was continued up to 72 weeks of age of the birds. Weekly food intake and daily egg production were noted throughout the experimental period and the specific gravity of the eggs, feed consumed to lay one egg and egg shell thickness were determined. Incorporation of CD leaves in the feed had the maximal effect on all the parameters studied. The feed consumed to lay one egg was 20 g less than the control group. The specific gravity of the egg was higher by 0.005, than the control egg, indicating a 5% decrease in the breakage of eggs in CD fed chicks. Also there was a significant increase (P < 0.001) in egg shell thickness. The data suggest that incorporation of CD leaf powder in the feed of poultry layers increased the egg shell

  13. Vitamin D₃supplementation in Batswana children and adults with HIV: a pilot double blind randomized controlled trial.

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    Andrew P Steenhoff

    Full Text Available Since vitamin D insufficiency is common worldwide in people with HIV, we explored safety and efficacy of high dose cholecalciferol (D₃ in Botswana, and evaluated potential modifiers of serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D change (Δ25D.Prospective randomized double-blind 12-week pilot trial of subjects ages 5.0-50.9 years.Sixty subjects randomized within five age groups to either 4000 or 7000 IU per day of D₃ and evaluated for vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, HIV, safety and growth status. Efficacy was defined as serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25D ≥32 ng/mL, and safety as no simultaneous elevation of serum calcium and 25D. Also assessed were HIV plasma viral RNA viral load (VL, CD4%, anti-retroviral therapy (ART regime, and height-adjusted (HAZ, weight-adjusted (WAZ and Body Mass Index (BMIZ Z scores.Subjects were 50% male, age (mean±SD 19.5±11.8 years, CD4% 31.8±10.4, with baseline VL log₁₀ range of 1.4 in 22%. From baseline to 12 weeks, 25D increased from 36±9 ng/ml to 56±18 ng/ml (p<0.0001 and 68% and 90% had 25D ≥32 ng/ml, respectively (p = 0.02. Δ25D was similar by dose. No subjects had simultaneously increased serum calcium and 25D. WAZ and BMIZ improved by 12 weeks (p<0.04. HAZ and CD4% increased and VL decreased in the 7000 IU/d group (p<0.04. Younger (5-13y and older (30-50y subjects had greater Δ25D than those 14-29y (26±17 and 28±12 vs. 11±11 ng/ml, respectively, p≤0.001. Δ25D was higher with efavirenz or nevirapine compared to protease inhibitor based treatment (22±12, 27±17, vs. 13±10, respectively, p≤0.03.In a pilot study in Botswana, 12-week high dose D₃ supplementation was safe and improved vitamin D, growth and HIV status; age and ART regimen were significant effect modifiers.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02189902.

  14. Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis (EVIDIMS Trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Dörr Jan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in young adults. Despite the fact that numerous lines of evidence link both the risk of disease development and the disease course to the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D it still remains elusive whether multiple sclerosis patients benefit from boosting the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, mainly because interventional clinical trials that directly address the therapeutic effects of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis are sparse. We here present the protocol of an interventional clinical phase II study to test the hypothesis, that high-dose vitamin D supplementation of multiple sclerosis patients is safe and superior to low-dose supplementation with respect to beneficial therapeutic effects. Methods/Design The EVIDIMS trial is a German multi-center, stratified, randomized, controlled and double-blind clinical phase II pilot study. Eighty patients with the diagnosis of definite multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome who are on a stable immunomodulatory treatment with interferon-β1b will be randomized to additionally receive either high-dose (average daily dose 10.200 IU or low-dose (average daily dose 200 IU cholecalciferol for a total period of 18 months. The primary outcome measure is the number of new lesions detected on T2-weighted cranial MRI at 3 tesla. Secondary endpoints include additional magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography parameters for neuroinflammation and -degeneration, clinical parameters for disease activity, as well as cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Safety and tolerability of high-dose vitamin D supplementation are further outcome parameters. Discussion In light of the discrepancy between existing epidemiological and preclinical data on the one hand and available clinical data on the other the EVIDIMS trial will substantially contribute to the evaluation

  15. Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults

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    Marta D. Van Loan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD is found in detectable concentrations. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether 25(OHD is detectable in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT in overweight and obese persons enrolled in a twelve week energy restricted diet. Baseline and post-intervention gluteal SWAT biopsies were collected from 20 subjects participating in a larger clinical weight loss intervention. LC-MS/MS was utilized to determine SWAT 25(OHD concentrations. Serum 25(OHD and 1,25(OH2D were measured by RIA. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. SWAT 25(OHD concentrations were 5.8 ± 2.6 nmol/kg tissue and 6.2 ± 2.7 nmol/kg tissue pre- and post-intervention SWAT, respectively. There was a significant positive association between SWAT 25(OHD concentration and serum 25(OHD concentration (r = 0.52, P < 0.01. Both SWAT and serum 25(OHD concentrations did not significantly change after a twelve-week period of energy restriction with approximately 5 kg of fat loss. In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OHD3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. Additionally, our findings of no significant changes in SWAT 25(OHD3 or serum 25(OHD after a 6% loss of total body weight and 13% reduction in total fat provides the first human evidence that adipose 25(OHD does not likely contribute to serum 25(OHD with moderate weight loss; whether this is also the case with larger amounts of weight loss is unknown. Weight loss alone is not sufficient to increase serum 25(OHD and increases in dietary or dermal biosynthesis of vitamin D appear to be the most critical contributors to in vitamin D status.

  16. Effects of Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Carcass Fat Content and Adipocyte Size in Male Rats

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    J Malekzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Calcium is a micronutrient and now receiving much attention for its doubtful effects on weight and body fatness. A few mechanisms has been suggested for calcium effects on body fatness and the most emphasized one is the reducing of lipolysis and increasing lipogenesis via reducing parathyroid hormone levels. The present study is designed to evaluate the effects of nondairy dietary calcium on adipogenesis and adipocyte size in male Sprague dawley rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was done from November to September of 2005 at Tehran school of health, nutrition department. 48 male Spragu-Dawley rats from Damgostar Company were used in three randomly selected groups. The rats were fed low (0.2% W/W, usual (0.5% W/W and high (1.2% W/W dietary calcium based on AIN-93M purified diet. Rats were housed in 12 hours light-dark cycle, 22-25°C room temperature with free access to their respective diets. At the end of the experiment, rats were decapitated and carcass fat content, carcass ash content and mean adipocyte size in testis, peritoneal and subcutaneous fat pads were compared in three groups. The SPSS 11.5 was used as statistical software, running analysis of variance for comparing the effects. Results: weight gain, carcass fat content and adipocyte size, in groups were not significantly different, while serum parathyroid hormone concentrations in high calcium group was significantly lower than low calcium group (p<0.05 and insignificantly lower than usual calcium group [12.36, 23.57 and 42.2 pg/dl respectively]. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy cholecalciferol were also insignificantly lower in high calcium group. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that physiological concentration of dietary calcium is not effective on weight gain, body fatness and adipocyte size. Relatively equal fat content beside significant difference in serum parathyroid hormone levels is against the parathyroid theory of calcium

  17. Effects of calcium to non-phytate phosphorus ratio and different sources of vitamin D on growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

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    Jincheng Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - A 7 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to test the effects of calcium (Ca to non-phytate phosphorus (NPP ratio (1.14, 1.43, 1.71, 2.00, 2.29, 2.57, and 2.86 and different sources of vitamin D (1α-hydroxycholecalciferol (1α-OH-D3 and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on growth performance and bone mineralization in 1- to 42-d-old broiler chickens. On the day of hatch, 700 female Ross 308 broilers were weighed and randomly assigned to 14 treatments with five stainless steel cages of 10 birds each. Dietary Ca levels were 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0 g kg−1 and the NPP content was 3.5 g kg−1. The dose of 1α-OH-D3 or 25-OH-D3 was 5 µg kg−1. Diets were not supplemented with cholecalciferol (vitamin D3. Results showed that the Ca to NPP ratio, vitamin D source, and their interaction affected body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI, feed efficiency (FE, and carcass and breast yields, as well as tibia weight and length and ash weight in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. Broilers fed 1α-OH-D3 had higher BWG and FI as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, diameter, and ash weight than birds fed 25-OH-D3 at 42 d of age. The Ca to NPP ratio had a quadratic effect on BWG, FI, mortality, as well as tibia breaking strength, weight, length, ash weight, and ash and P contents in 42-d-old broilers. Broiler chickens at 42 d of age obtain optimal growth performance and bone mineralization at the Ca to NPP ratio of 2.32 when 1α-OH-D3 or 25-OH-D3 are used as the vitamin D source.

  18. 成纤维细胞生长因子23与血液透析患者血磷和甲状旁腺激素浓度的关系%Relationship between serum level of fibroblast growth factor 23 and phosphorus and parathyroid hormone in dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丰博; 刘惠兰; 孙懿

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察维持性血液透析患者血中成纤维细胞生长因子23(fibroblast growth factor23,FGF23)浓度,探讨维持性血液透析(maintenance hemodialysis,MHD)患者FGF23的浓度及其与血磷、甲状旁腺激素(parathyroid hormone,PTH)浓度之间的关系.方法 选取稳定MHD患者50例,健康对照30人,透析患者根据PTH浓度分为A1组(PTH500 pg/mL).应用酶联免疫分析法测定血清FGF23和1,25-二羟活性维生素D3[1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol,1,25-(OH)2D3]浓度,同时测定血清PTH、血钙(Ca2+)、磷(P3-)、碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)、白蛋白(albumin,ALB)等指标.结果①透析患者血清Log FGF23水平显著高于对照组,Log1,25-(OH)2D3水平显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义.②Log FGF23水平在PTH>500 pg/mL组显著高于PTH 500 pg/mL). Phosphate, calcium, alkaline phosphatase in their serum were determined too. The level of FGF23 and 1 ,25-(OH)2D3 in serum were detected by the method of ELISA. Results ①The Log FGF23 in MHD group was much higher than that of control, Logl ,25-(OH)2D3 in MHD group was lower than that of control. ②The Log FGF23 in group A3 was much higher than group Al. ③Log FGF23 was positively correlated with serum phosphorus, Log PTH and Log ALP, negatively correlated with Log 1 ,25-(OH)2D3.④ Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the level of serum level of FGF23 in MHD patients was extremely high. Conclusion The serum level of FGF23 in MHD patients was extremely high.

  19. Chemoprevention of mammary carcinogenesis by 1{alpha}-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 5}, a synthetic analog of Vitamin D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Rajendra G.; Hussain, Erum A.; Mehta, Rajeshwari R.; Das Gupta, Tapas K

    2003-03-01

    Numerous analogs of Vitamin D have been synthesized in recent years with the hope of generating a compound that retains the anticarcinogenic activity of Vitamin D without causing any toxicity. We synthesized such an analog, 1{alpha}-hydroxy-24-ethylcholecalciferol [1{alpha}-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 5} or 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5}], and showed that it was tolerated by rats and mice at a much higher dose than 1{alpha},25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol [1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}]. This property makes it a prime candidate for chemoprevention studies. In the mouse mammary gland organ culture (MMOC), 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5} inhibited carcinogen-induced development of both mammary alveolar and ductal lesions. In vivo carcinogenesis study showed statistically significant reduction of tumor incidence and multiplicity in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-treated rats that were fed 25-50 {mu}g 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5}/kg diet. There were no adverse effects on plasma calcium concentrations. In order to determine if the effect of 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5} would be selective in suppressing proliferation of transformed cells, its effects on cell growth and proliferation were compared between BT474 (cancer) and MCF12F (non-tumorigenic) human breast epithelial cells. Results showed that 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5} induced apoptosis and cell cycle G1 phase arrest in BT474 breast cancer cells without having any effects on proliferation of the MCF12F cells. In addition, in MMOC it had no growth inhibitory effects on normal epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of carcinogen. Similarly, non-tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells in explant culture did not respond to 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5}, whereas treatment with 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5} induced cell death in the explants of cancer tissue. These results collectively indicate that 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5} selectively induced apoptosis only in transformed cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory effects of 1{alpha}(OH)D{sub 5

  20. MAVIDOS Maternal Vitamin D Osteoporosis Study: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. The MAVIDOS Study Group

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    Harvey Nicholas C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MAVIDOS is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ISRCTN82927713, registered 2008 Apr 11, funded by Arthritis Research UK, MRC, Bupa Foundation and NIHR. Background Osteoporosis is a major public health problem as a result of associated fragility fractures. Skeletal strength increases from birth to a peak in early adulthood. This peak predicts osteoporosis risk in later life. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnancy is common (31% in a recent Southampton cohort and predicts reduced bone mass in the offspring. In this study we aim to test whether offspring of mothers supplemented with vitamin D in pregnancy have higher bone mass at birth than those whose mothers were not supplemented. Methods/Design Women have their vitamin D status assessed after ultrasound scanning in the twelfth week of pregnancy at 3 trial centres (Southampton, Sheffield, Oxford. Women with circulating 25(OH-vitamin D levels 25-100 nmol/l are randomised in a double-blind design to either oral vitamin D supplement (1000 IU cholecalciferol/day, n = 477 or placebo at 14 weeks (n = 477. Questionnaire data include parity, sunlight exposure, dietary information, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. At 19 and 34 weeks maternal anthropometry is assessed and blood samples taken to measure 25(OH-vitamin D, PTH and biochemistry. At delivery venous umbilical cord blood is collected, together with umbilical cord and placental tissue. The babies undergo DXA assessment of bone mass within the first 14 days after birth, with the primary outcome being whole body bone mineral content adjusted for gestational age and age. Children are then followed up with yearly assessment of health, diet, physical activity and anthropometric measures, with repeat assessment of bone mass by DXA at age 4 years. Discussion As far as we are aware, this randomised trial is one of the first ever tests of the early life origins hypothesis in human participants and has the potential to inform

  1. Vitamin D supplementation reduces thyroid peroxidase antibody levels in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease: An open-labeled randomized controlled trial

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    Sandeep Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD, the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Vitamin D supplementation on thyroid autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase antibody [TPO-Ab] titers in patients with newly diagnosed AITD in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: One hundred two patients with newly diagnosed AITD (TPO-Ab > 34 kIU/L and/or sonographic evidence of thyroiditis patients were randomized into Group-1 (intervention group and Group-2 (control group. Group-1 received cholecalciferol 60,000 IU weekly and calcium 500 mg/day for 8 weeks; Group-2 received calcium 500 mg/day for 8 weeks. Responders were defined as ≥25% fall in TPO-Ab titers. Individuals with at least 3-month follow-up were analyzed. Trial is registered at ctri.nic.in (CTRI/2015/04/005713. Results: Data from 100 AITD patients (68 with thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH] ≤10 mIU/L, 32 with TSH > 10 mIU/L, 93% having Vitamin D insufficiency, were analyzed. TPO-Ab titers were highest among patients in the lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile (P = 0.084. At 3 months follow-up, there was significant fall in TPO-Ab in Group-1 (−46.73% as compared to Group-2 (−16.6% (P = 0.028. Sixty-eight percentage patients in Group-1 were responders compared to 44% in Group-2 (P = 0.015. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed significantly higher response rate in Group-1 (P = 0.012. Significantly greater reduction in TPO-Ab titers was observed in AITD with TSH ≤ 10 mIU/L compared to TSH > 10 mIU/L. Cox regression revealed Group-1 followed by TPO-Ab and free tetraiodothyronine levels to be a good predictor of response to therapy (P = 0.042, 0.069, and 0.074, respectively. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation in AITD may have a beneficial effect on autoimmunity as evidence by significant reductions in TPO-Ab titers.

  2. Effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and β-cell function in multi-ethnic vitamin D-deficient adults at risk for type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Claudia Gagnon

    Full Text Available To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers.6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial.Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15 were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45.Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg and cholecalciferol [2,000-6,000 IU to target 25(OHD >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months.Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index, insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC for C-peptide and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin.Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes. Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OHD concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L, but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda was observed.Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function in multi-ethnic adults with low vitamin D status at risk of type 2 diabetes

  3. Vitamin D Deficiency in Unselected Patients from Swiss Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Seasons.

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    Christoph Merlo

    Full Text Available As published data on 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25(OHD deficiency in primary care settings is scarce, we assessed the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D, potential associations with clinical symptoms, body mass index, age, Vitamin D intake, and skin type in unselected patients from primary care, and the extent of seasonal variations of serum 25(OHD concentrations.25(OHD was measured at the end of summer and/or winter in 1682 consecutive patients from primary care using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Clinical symptoms were assessed by self-report (visual analogue scale 0 to 10, and vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25(OHD concentrations < 50 nmol/l. 25(OHD deficiency was present in 995 (59.2% patients. 25(OHD deficient patients reported more intense muscle weakness (visual analogue scale 2.7, 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 2.9 and had a higher body mass index (25.9kg/m2, 25.5 to 26.2 than non-deficient patients (2.5, 2.3 to 2.7; and 24.2, 23.9 to 24.5, respectively. 25(OHD concentrations also weakly correlated with muscle weakness (Spearman's rho -0.059, 95% confidence interval -0.107 to -0.011 and body mass index (-0.156, -0.202 to -0.108. Self-reported musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and age were not associated with deficiency, nor with concentrations. Mean 25(OHD concentrations in patients with vitamin D containing medication were higher (60.6 ± 22.2 nmol/l than in patients without medication (44.8 ± 19.2 nmol/l, p < 0.0001 but still below the targeted level of 75 nmol/l. Summer and winter 25(OHD concentrations differed (53.4 ± 19.9 vs. 41.6 ± 19.3nmol/l, p < 0.0001, which was confirmed in a subgroup of 93 patients who were tested in both seasons (p = 0.01.Nearly 60% of unselected patients from primary care met the criteria for 25(OHD deficiency. Self-reported muscle weakness and high body mass index were associated with lower 25(OHD levels. As expected 25(OHD concentrations were lower in winter compared to summer.

  4. Ingestão alimentar em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal Food intake in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

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    Alice Freitas da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal podem apresentar deficiências nutricionais. OBJETIVO: Verificar a adequação da ingestão alimentar de pacientes com doença de Crohn e retocolite ulcerativa inespecífica. MÉTODOS: Para avaliação da ingestão alimentar de 55 pacientes, 28 com doença de Crohn e 27 com retocolite ulcerativa atendidos em ambulatório de gastroenterologia, utilizou-se o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 Horas e o Questionário de Frequência Alimentar. A atividade inflamatória da doença foi avaliada pelos níveis séricos de proteína C reativa e o Índice de Harvey e Bradshaw. Para comparação de médias foi usado o teste t não pareado e, para as médias não paramétricas, o teste de Mann-Whitney, considerando nível de significância valor de pBACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease may have nutritional deficiencies. AIM: To verify the adequacy of dietary intake of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. METHODS: To assess food intake of 55 patients, 28 with Crohn's disease and 27 with ulcerative colitis treated in the gastroenterology clinic, was used the 24-Hour Food Recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire. The inflammatory activity of the disease was evaluated by serum C-reactive protein and Harvey and Bradshaw Index. For comparison of means t test was used, and the average on non-parametric, the Mann-Whitney test, with level of significance p <0.05. RESULTS: The patients were aged between 19 and 63 years and time since diagnosis was 7.9 years (1 to 22. According to the food intake was identified deficiency in energy intake, fiber, iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, menadione, riboflavin, niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, tocopherol and cholecalciferol in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, active or in remission. The intake of vegetables, fruits, dairy products and beans were low, and intake of fats and sweets was higher than the recommendations

  5. Trials and tribulations of recruiting 2,000 older women onto a clinical trial investigating falls and fractures: Vital D study

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    Taylor Roderick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomised, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide evidence demonstrating safe, effective interventions that reduce falls and fractures in the elderly. The quality of a clinical trial is dependent on successful recruitment of the target participant group. This paper documents the successes and failures of recruiting over 2,000 women aged at least 70 years and at higher risk of falls or fractures onto a placebo-controlled trial of six years duration. The characteristics of study participants at baseline are also described for this study. Methods The Vital D Study recruited older women identified at high risk of fracture through the use of an eligibility algorithm, adapted from identified risk factors for hip fracture. Participants were randomised to orally receive either 500,000 IU vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol or placebo every autumn for five consecutive years. A variety of recruitment strategies were employed to attract potential participants. Results Of the 2,317 participants randomised onto the study, 74% (n = 1716/2317 were consented onto the study in the last five months of recruiting. This was largely due to the success of a targeted mail-out. Prior to this only 541 women were consented in the 18 months of recruiting. A total of 70% of all participants were recruited as a result of targeted mail-out. The response rate from the letters increased from 2 to 7% following revision of the material by a public relations company. Participant demographic or risk factor profile did not differ between those recruited by targeted mail-outs compared with other methods. Conclusion The most successful recruitment strategy was the targeted mail-out and the response rate was no higher in the local region where the study had extensive exposure through other recruiting strategies. The strategies that were labour-intensive and did not result in successful recruitment include the activities directed towards the GP medical centres

  6. Meta-analysis of long-term vitamin D supplementation on overall mortality.

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    Yayuan Zheng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that vitamin D is effective to prevent mortality. However, there is no consistent conclusion that the effects of vitamin D supplementation on all-cause mortality are associated with duration of treatment. We conducted a meta-analysis regarding this issue in an effort to provide a more robust answer. METHODS: A comprehensive search in a number of databases, including MEDLINE, Embase and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, was conducted for collecting randomized controlled trials (RCTs on vitamin D supplementation preventing mortality. Two investigators independently screened the literature according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria and the relative data were extracted. Data analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.0 software. RESULTS: Data from forty-two RCT s were included. Vitamin D therapy significantly decreased all-cause mortality with a duration of follow-up longer than 3 years with a RR (95% CI of 0.94 (0.90-0.98. No benefit was seen in a shorter follow-up periods with a RR (95% CI of 1.04 (0.97-1.12. Results remain robust after sensitivity analysis. The following subgroups of long-term follow-up had significantly fewer deaths: female only, participants with a mean age younger than 80, daily dose of 800 IU or less, participants with vitamin D insufficiency (baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 50 nmol/L and cholecalciferol therapy. In addition, the combination of vitamin D and calcium significantly reduced mortality and vitamin D alone also had a trend to decrease mortality in a longer time follow up. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that supplementation of vitamin D is effective in preventing overall mortality in a long-term treatment, whereas it is not significantly effective in a treatment duration shorter than 3 years. Future studies are needed to identify the efficacy of vitamin D on specific mortality, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in a long

  7. Vitamin D in Real and Simulated Weightlessness: Implications for Earth

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    Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has reemerged as a public health concern in the United States. It is also a concern for astronauts because spacecraft are shielded from ultraviolet light, leaving diet as the sole source of vitamin D. We report here the findings from four studies: one evaluation of astronauts before and after 4- to 6-month missions to the International Space Station, and the other three from a ground-based analog for space flight, long-term bed rest. For the space flight study, blood samples were collected before the flight and within hours of landing after it. Crewmembers (n = 11) were provided vitamin D supplements (as cholecalciferol (10 g/d) throughout the mission. The average number of vitamin D supplements reported to be consumed per week was 5.7 plus or minus 4.0. The vitamin D status indicator serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was 25% less after landing (48 plus or minus 20) than before flight (63 plus or minus 16) (P less than 0.01). A series of three studies was undertaken to evaluate nutritional changes during and after 60 or 90 days of -6 deg. head-down-tilt bed rest. A total of 11 subjects (8 M, 3 F; age 26-55 y) participated in the studies. Blood and urine were collected twice before bed rest and once per month during bed rest. During bed rest the average dietary intake of vitamin D for the three studies was 4.84 plus or minus 0.16 (study 1), 6.24 plus or minus 0.81 (study 2), and 7.16 plus or minus 1.40 (study 3) micrograms/day. In study 1 only, subjects were given a daily supplement of 10 g vitamin D (as ergocalciferol). Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. In the first study, 7 days after the end of the bed rest, serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol was 30% less than it was before bed rest (p less than 0.05). In the second and third studies, during or after bed rest the serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was not significantly different from its concentration before bed rest. These data demonstrate that vitamin D intake is

  8. Vitamin D status in children with systemic lupus erythematosus and its association with clinical and laboratory parameters.

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    AlSaleem, Alhanouf; AlE'ed, Ashwaq; AlSaghier, Afaf; Al-Mayouf, Sulaiman M

    2015-01-01

    To assess serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) status in Saudi children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and determined its association with clinical, laboratory variables and disease activity. This cross-sectional study comprised children with SLE who are followed at Pediatric Lupus Clinic. All patients reviewed for demographic data, age of first disease manifestations, and disease duration. All included patients evaluated for disease activity, which is completed by using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and laboratory parameters included a vitamin D profile, bone markers at enrollment and 3 months later. All patients treated with Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3 2000 IU daily) and calcium supplement (Caltrate 600 mg twice daily). Twenty-eight patients (26 female) with mean age of 9.7 years completed the evaluation. Fifteen patients had more than one major organ involvement. Most of the patients are on daily vitamin D3 supplement (800 IU) prior enrollment. The baseline assessment revealed 24 patients had low levels of serum 25-OH vitamin D levels, with a mean of 51.1 ± 33.6 nmol/L; 25 patients had high autoantibodies; and 18 patients had high protein/creatinine ratio, with a mean of 0.9 ± 1.7. Bone density was subnormal with a mean of 0.9 ± 1. The mean disease activity was 6 ± 5.6. Levels of 25-OH vitamin D correlated inversely with autoantibodies and SLEDAI and positively with bone density but not statistically significant. After 3 months, treatment of vitamin D3 (2000 IU daily) and Caltrate (600 mg twice daily), 17 patients had improvement in SLEDAI score and autoimmune markers. Disease activity of childhood SLE is probably linked with low serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Accordingly, high daily vitamin D3 supplement could potentially impact disease activity of childhood SLE. Further follow up and more patients needed to confirm this finding.

  9. Effects of Pre-Natal Vitamin D Supplementation with Partial Correction of Vitamin D Deficiency on Early Life Healthcare Utilisation: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

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    Megan Griffiths

    Full Text Available Some observational studies have suggested that higher prenatal Vitamin D intake may be associated with improved health outcomes in childhood. However there have been mixed results in this area with some negative studies, especially for effects on atopic and respiratory outcomes. We examined the effect of prenatal Vitamin D on healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life.In an ethnically stratified randomised controlled trial conducted at St Mary's Hospital London, 180 women at 27 weeks gestation were allocated to no Vitamin D, 800 IU ergocalciferol daily until delivery, or a single oral bolus of 200,000 IU cholecalciferol. Participants were randomised in blocks of 15 using computer-generated numbers and investigators were blinded to group assignment. Supplementation increased maternal and cord blood 25(OH vitamin D concentrations, but levels remained lower than current recommendations. Primary health economic outcome was overall cost of unscheduled healthcare utilisation in the first three years of life as documented in the child's electronic health record. Secondary outcomes included cost attributable to: primary and secondary healthcare visits, respiratory and atopic complaints, cost in years 1, 2 and 3 of life and cost and frequency of prescribed medication. All costs were calculated as pounds sterling. Differences between groups were analysed using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney U test, and analysis of variance for adjusted analyses.We assessed 99/180 (55% complete electronic health records, control (n = 31, daily (n = 36 and bolus (n = 32. We found no difference in total healthcare utilisation costs between the control and daily (mean difference in costs in pounds sterling 1.02, 95%CI -1.60, 1.65; adjusted 1.07, 95%CI -1.62, 1.86 or control and bolus groups (mean difference -1.58, 95%CI -2.63, 1.06; adjusted -1.40, 95%CI -2.45, 1.24. There were no adverse effects of supplementation reported during the trial.We found no evidence

  10. Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamin contents of breast milk from Japanese women.

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    Sakurai, Takayuki; Furukawa, Miyako; Asoh, Miyuki; Kanno, Takahiro; Kojima, Tadashi; Yonekubo, Akie

    2005-08-01

    To determine the concentrations of fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins in the maternal milk of Japanese women, we collected human milk samples from more than 4,000 mothers living throughout Japan between December 1998 and September 1999, and defined as group A the 691 samples among these that met the following conditions: breast milk of mothers who were under 40 y of age, who did not smoke habitually and/or use vitamin supplements, and whose babies showed no symptoms of atopy and had birth weights of 2.5 kg or more. We then analyzed the contents of vitamins individually. Large differences were observed among the contents of individual human milk samples. The mean contents of each component were as follows: vitamin A, 159.0 +/- 95.2 IU/100 mL; vitamin E, 0.325 +/- 0.165 alpha-TE mg/100mL; vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 8.0 +/- 10.7 ng/100mL; vitamin B1 (thiamin), 12.3 +/- 3.2 microg/100 mL; vitamin B2, 38.4 +/- 12.7 microg/100 mL; vitamin B6, 5.7 +/- 2.5 microg/100 mL; vitamin B12, 0.04 +/- 0.02 microg/100 mL; vitamin C, 5.1 +/- 1.9 mg/100 mL; biotin, 0.50 +/- 0.23 microg/100 mL; choline, 9.2 +/- 1.8 mg/100 mL; folic acid, 6.2 +/- 2.9 microg/100 mL; inositol, 12.6 +/- 3.6 mg/100 mL; niacin (nicotinamide), 32.9 +/- 20.4 microg/100 mL and pantothenic acid, 0.27 +/- 0.09 mg/100 mL. The concentrations of derivatives and/or related compounds of vitamin A (retinol, beta-carotene), vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherol), and B2 (riboflavin, FMN, and FAD) were determined separately. The contents of each were found to vary greatly as the duration of lactation increased. The present results indicate that it is necessary to evaluate individual differences in human milk in order to perform valid research regarding infant formula.

  11. Supplementation with bio-calcium from shells Pinctada maxima in postmenopausal women with decreased mineral bone density: Pilot study

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    Vujasinović-Stupar Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Treatment of osteoporosis, in addition to a specific antiresorptive or anabolic treatment, requires supplementation with calcium and vitamin D. Widespread cultivation of pearl shells has made pearls available for commercial use for a very reasonable price. The main chemical compound of pearls from shells Pinctada maxima is calcium-carbonate (CaCO3. Recently developed technologies applied in a micronisation process have provided increased gastrointestinal resorption of calcium, estimated at over 90% of calcium intake. Objective The paper is aimed at monitoring of efficacy and tolerance of six-month bio-calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women with reduced bone mineral density. Methods Group I (30 patients received, three times a day, capsules of pearl powder from shells Pinctada maxima (it is equal to 260 mg of elementary calcium; group II (20 patients received a daily dose of 500 mg inorganic CaCO3. Both groups received 666 IU of cholecalciferol per day. In all patients, bone mineral density (BMD of the spine or hip, serum blood and urine levels of Ca, phosphates and alkaline phosphatase, were measured before and after six months of the treatment. Results Group I/Group II: average age 61.7/61.7 years; beginning of menopause: 48.32 /48 years; menopause duration 13.4/13.7 years; average body mass index 27.2/27 kg/m2 . These two groups did not different significantly before supplementation. Six-month supplementation with CaCO3 of the biological origin led to the increase of BMD from 0.901 g/cm2 to 0.948 g/cm2 (p=0.067, while BMD remained the same in the group supplemented with inorganic CaCO3. Gastrointestinal tolerability of bio-calcium was excellent, without any adverse events. Conclusion These data could not strongly support the hypothesis of better efficacy of bio-calcium taking into account a small number of patients and a short follow-up period in this pilot study. Tolerance of CaCO3 of the biological origin was excellent

  12. ¿Es equivalente la suplementación diaria con vitamina D2 o vitamina D3 en adultos mayores? Is daily supplementation with vitamin D2 equivalent to daily supplementation with vitamin D3 in the elderly?

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    Mariana Seijo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la equivalencia entre colecalciferol (D3 y ergocalciferol (D2, como las dosis y forma de administración de ambos, son actualmente un tema controvertido. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la efectividad de 800 UI/día de D2 (gotas y D3 (comprimidos para alcanzar niveles adecuados de 25 hidroxivitamina D (25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. Veintiún mujeres posmenopáusicas que vivían en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, edad promedio ( ± DS 77.1 ± 6.8 años fueron incluidas y asignadas en forma aleatoria a uno de los siguientes grupos: GD2 (n = 13: 800 UI (gotas y GD3 (n = 8: 800 UI (comprimidos. Se midió 25OHD sérica (RIA-DIASORIN basal y a los 7, 28 y 45 días del estudio. Basalmente, 19 de las 21 mujeres presentaron niveles de deficiencia de 25(OHD (The equivalence of cholecalciferol (D3 and ergocalciferol (D2 as well as their corresponding doses and administration route remain controversial to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of daily supplementation with 800 IU of D2 (drops and D3 (pills on 25-hydroxivitamin D (25OHD levels (= 30 ng/ml. Twenty-one ambulatory postmenopausal women from Buenos Aires City with a mean ( ± SD age of 77.1 ± 6.8 years were included. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: GD2 (n = 13: 800 IU (drops and GD3 (n = 8: 800 IU (pills. Serum 25OHD levels were measured (RIA-DIASORIN at baseline, and at 7, 28 and 45 days. Nineteen out of twenty one women showed deficient levels of 25OHD at baseline (< 20 ng/ml: GD2: 14.0 ± 4.8 ng/ml and GD3: 13.2 ± 4.9 ng/ml (NS. Whereas only GD3 exhibited an increase (~25% at 7 days, both groups showed a significant increase at the end of the study. However, neither attained adequate 25OHD levels (GD2: 17.4 ± 5.5 vs. GD3:22.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml; p < 0.001. Administration of 800 IU of vitamin D3 during 45 days was more effective than D2 in increasing 25OHD, but both failed to achieve adequate levels of 25OHD (= 30 ng/ml. but neither

  13. [Vitamin D, determinant of bone and extrabone health. Importance of vitamin D supplementation in milk and dairy products].

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    Navarro Valverde, Cristina; Quesada Gómez, José Manuel

    2015-04-07

    Vitamin D is obtained mainly from ultraviolet irradiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to form cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), and minimally from diet, unless vitamin D fortified food is taken, mainly enriched milk. In some countries, vitamin D is added to diet as ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). In the liver, vitamin D3 is hydroxylated to form 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (marker of body nutritional status of vitamin D). Subsequently, in the kidney, 25OHD3 is hydroxylated to form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). By VDR stimulation, (1,25)OH)2D3 controls calcium homeostasis and bone health and, what is more, many other cells and tissues including skin, muscle, cardiovascular and immune systems as well as glucose homeostasis. Thus, about 3% of the human genome is regulated by this hormone. Association and recent intervention studies describe beneficial effects on bone, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2,colorectal cancer, breast cancer, multiple sclerosis, immune function inflammation etc. A minimum target for public health should be to achieve serum 25OHD levels above 20 ng/ml to ensure optimum status for bone health. However, levels above 30 ng/ml should be reached to achieve other health goals. Paradoxically, inadequacy (or even deficiency) in vitamin D levels is highly prevalent in children and youth in Spain. This deficit persists in adults, as well as in postmenopausal women (osteoporotic or not) and the elderly (especially amongst those institutionalized). Seasonal variation barely normalizes serum 25OHD levels after summer-autumn. Treated postmenopausal osteoporotic women also show high prevalence of inadequate levels of vitamin D, a major contributor to antiresortive treatments failure. A normalization of serum vitamin D enables diet to provide the calcium necessary to achieve a good bone health and an adequate response to antiresortive drugs. Given the difficulty to get adequate levels of vitamin D by UV irradiation and diet, a

  14. Hypovitaminosis D and “small burden” uterine fibroids: Opportunity for a vitamin D supplementation

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    Ciavattini, Andrea; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Serri, Matteo; Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Tozzi, Alessandra; Aggiusti, Alice; Clemente, Nicolò

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation in women with hypovitaminosis D and “small burden” uterine fibroids. This study focused on 208 women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and concomitant hypovitaminosis D, from January to December 2014. One hundred eight women of the initial study population were diagnosed with “small burden” uterine fibroids. Among them, those who underwent a proper vitamin D supplementation constituted the “study group” (n = 53), while women who spontaneously refused the therapy or did not perform it properly, constituted the “control group” (n = 55). The characteristics of uterine fibroids, the fibroid-related symptoms, and the vitamin D serum levels were evaluated 12 months after the initial diagnosis. In women with uterine fibroids, a negative correlation emerged between the baseline 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) concentration and both the volume of the largest fibroid (r = −0.18, P = 0.01) and the total volume of fibroids (r = −0.19, P = 0.01). No correlation was found between the baseline 25-OH-D3 levels and the number of fibroids per patient (r = −0.10, P = 0.16). In women of the “study group,” a significant increase in the 25-OH-D3 serum level was observed after 12 months of supplementation, and a lower rate of surgical or medical treatment due to the “progression to extensive disease” was reported (13.2% vs 30.9%, P = 0.05). Supplementation therapy with 25-OH-D3 restores normal vitamin D serum levels in women with “small burden” fibroids. In these women, vitamin D supplementation seems to reduce the progression to an extensive disease, and thus the need of conventional surgical or medical therapy. PMID:28033263

  15. 25-Hydroxy- and 1α,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Have Greater Potencies than 25-Hydroxy- and 1α,25-Dihydroxyergocalciferol in Modulating Cultured Human and Mouse Osteoblast Activities

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    Hulley, Philippa A.; Sabokbar, Afsie; Javaid, M. Kassim; Morovat, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Despite differences in the phamacokinetics of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol (25(OH)D2) in man, the effects of these and their 1α-hydroxylated forms (1,25(OH)2D3 and 1,25(OH)2D2) on cellular activity of vitamin D-responsive cells have hardly been compared. We studied differences in the effects of these metabolites on cell number, gene transcription, protein expression and mineralisation of cultured human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (hBMSC) and rapidly mineralising mouse 2T3 osteoblasts. 50–1000 nM 25(OH) and 0.05–10 nM 1,25(OH)2 metabolites were used. At high concentrations, 25(OH)D2/D3 and 1,25(OH)2D2/D3 suppressed cell number in both human and mouse cells. The suppression was greater with cholecalciferol (D3) metabolites than with those of ergocalciferol (D2). In both cell types, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 increased the expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin, collagen-1, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, vitamin D receptor, CYP24A1 and CYP27B1 genes. Whereas there was little or no difference between the effects of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in hBMSCs, differences were observed in the magnitude of the effects of these metabolites on the expression of most studied genes in 2T3 cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was increased by 25(OH)D2/D3 and 1,25(OH)2D2/D3 in hBMSC and 2T3 cells, and the increase was greater with the D3 metabolites at high concentrations. In hBMSCs, mineralisation was also increased by 25(OH)D2/D3 and 1,25(OH)2D2/D3 at high concentrations, with D3 metabolites exerting a greater influence. In 2T3 cells, the effects of these compounds on mineralisation were stimulatory at low concentrations and inhibitory when high concentrations were used. The suppression at high concentrations was greater with the D3 metabolites. These findings suggest that there are differences in the effects of 25-hydroxy and 1α,25(OH)2 metabolites of D3 and D2 on human preosteoblasts and mouse osteoblasts, with

  16. Vitaminas D e C para poedeiras na fase inicial de produção de ovos Vitamins D and C for laying hens at the initial phase of egg production

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    Daniely Salvador

    2009-05-01

    quality, and bone strength characteristics. In addition, the total and ionic blood calcium concentrations, bone ash and calcium were determined. Two hundred and eighty eight 23-week-old ISA Babcock B-300® laying hens were used during the 12-week study in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: vitamin D sources (cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol - 25(OHD3 and vitamin C levels (0, 100 and 200 ppm resulting in six treatments with eight replicates of six hens each. The basal cholecalciferol level was 2,756 IU/kg, corresponding to 5.51 g Hy.D®/t, as source of 25(OHD3. Feed intake, egg production, egg weight and egg mass were not influenced by the treatments. An interaction was observed for feed conversion, which was improved when 25(OHD3 was added without vitamin C. Haugh unit and yolk index were not influenced, however, interactions were observed for albumen percent and yolk percent, which were improved when 200 ppm of vitamin C was supplemented. Egg specific gravity, serum calcium, bone ash and bone strength resistance were not influenced by the treatments. There was an interaction for shell percent and shell thickness, which were improved when vitamin C was added in association with 25(OHD3. It was concluded, for laying hens at initial phase of egg production, that feed conversion is improved when 25(OHD3 was the vitamin D source, and that shell thickness and shell percent are improved when the vitamin D source was 25(OHD3 with diets supplemented with vitamin C (100 or 200 ppm, respectively.

  17. Cambios en la viscosidad del agua con espesantes por la adición de fármacos altamente prescritos en geriatría Viscosity changes in thickened water due to the addition of highly prescribed drugs in geriatrics

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    N. Garin

    2012-08-01

    pneumonia due to bronchial aspiration. In this condition, it is usual to add commercial thickeners in liquids, as well as the addition of drugs in this mixture to improve their administration. However, there are no studies regarding the possible change in viscosity produced by their addition. Objectives: To assess the change in viscosity of water thickened with commercial products by adding the drugs frequently used in elderly patients. Methods: Samples of water mixed with the commercial thickener Resource® (modified corn starch or Nutilis® (modified corn starch, maltodextrin, and gums: tara, xhantan, and guar to achieve an intermediate consistence as "honey". The viscosity of these samples was measured as well as for similar samples to which one of the following drugs was added: galantamine, rivastigmin, ciprofloxacin, cholecalciferol, memantine, fosfomycin, calcium, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Results: In the samples with Resource® thickener we observed decreased viscosity by adding galantamine, memantine, fosfomycin or calcium, and increased viscosity with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. The viscosity of the samples with Nutilis® decreased with galantamine, rivastigmine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and calcium. Conclusion: The viscosity of water with commercial thickeners may be affected by some drugs or their preservatives, which may influence the swallowing capability. It is recommended to perform further in vitro and in vivo studies in order to adjust these formulations if necessary.

  18. Physical activity in the prevention and amelioration of osteoporosis in women : interaction of mechanical, hormonal and dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Katarina T

    2005-01-01

    ; (iv) be relatively brief but intermittent; (v) impose an unusual loading pattern on the bones; (vi) be supported by unlimited nutrient energy; and (vii) include adequate calcium and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) availability.

  19. Pain frequency, severity and QT dispersion in adult patients with sickle cell anemia: correlation with inflammatory markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garadah TS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Taysir S Garadah,1,2 Ahmed A Jaradat,2 Mohammed E AlAlawi,1 Adla B Hassan,1 Reginald P Sequeira2 1Salmanyia Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Background: Inflammatory markers are increased during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in adult patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA, but this is not clear in clinical steady state. Aim: The present study aims to establish the frequency and intensity of bone pain episodes in adult patients with SCA in clinical steady state and to determine the correlation between different inflammatory markers, other variables including QT dispersion (QTd and pain frequency and intensity in SCA. Patients and methods: Patients were classified into two groups: group 1, those with more than three hospital admissions in the last 6 months, and group 2, those with no hospital admission. Pearson correlation between variables such as body mass index (BMI, level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, C-reactive protein (CRP, hemoglobin (Hb, reticulocyte count, white blood cell count (WBC, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, parathormone (PTH, vitamin D3 (25-OH cholecalciferol and bone pain frequency with severity was evaluated. Results: Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study with a mean age of 18.47±5.78 years, with 23 patients in each group. Vitamin D3 and Hb were lower (17.04±5.77 vs 37.59±4.83 ng/L, P<0.01 and 7.96±0.3 vs 8.44±0.27 g/dL, P<0.01, respectively; the inflammatory markers showed significantly higher level of TNF-α, IL-1 and CRP (56.52±5.43 pg/ml, 44.17±4.54 pg/ml and 3.20±0.72 mg/L, respectively, P<0.05; WBC, LDH and reticulocyte count were also significantly higher and the QTd was higher (45.0±2.22 vs 41.55±0.8 ms, P<0.05 in group 1 when compared with group 2. Pearson correlation coefficient showed significant positive correlation between serum level of TNF-α and bone pain frequency

  20. The study of correlation between vitamin D levels and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes%维生素D水平与2型糖尿病患者微血管并发症的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志欣; 陈建都; 匡兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of vitamin D levels with microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Methods Type 2 diabetics of 159 patients was conducted. Age and sex matched healthy controls were taken. Subjects were e-valuated for the presence of microvascular complications by clinical evaluation, urine examination, fundus examination, nerve conduction studies, and various biochemical tests. 25-OH cholecalciferol levels were done for each. Cut off level for vitamin D deficiency was 20ng/ml. Results Mean vitamin D was lower in type 2 diabetics than healthy subjects. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was found to significantly higher in diabetics when compared to healthy subjects. Vitamin D defi-ciency significantly associated with neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Lower levels of vitamin D associated with in-creasing prevalence of combinations of microvascular complications namely neuropathy with retinopathy , neuropathy with nephropathy, retinopathy with nephropathy and neuropathy with retinopathy with nephropathy. Conclusion Some patients with diabetes have vitamin D deficiency and inadequate, it may related to the diabetic microvascular complications. The dietary vitamin D intakes should been adjusted and supple with suitable vitamin D dose in diabetes , this may prevent or delay the oc-crurrence of diabetic microvascular complications.%目的:研究维生素D水平与2型糖尿病微血管并发症的关系。方法159例患者诊断为2型糖尿病,并采用与年龄和性别匹配的对照组。微血管病变检测采用临床评估、尿液检查、眼底检查、神经传导检查以及多种生物化学方法检测,并检测25-羟基胆钙化醇水平,<20ng/ml定为维生素D缺乏。结果2型糖尿病患者的平均维生素D水平显著降低。与对照组相比,病例组中维生素D缺乏与维生素D不足患者明显增多。维生素D缺乏症与糖尿病微血管并发症神经病变、视网膜

  1. Thesis Abstract Levels and forms of vitamin D in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, F R; Silva, M I A; Bertechini, A G

    2016-05-09

    This study aimed to evaluate the concentration effects of two vitamin D isoforms, cholecalciferol (D3) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) in broilers diets on performance, bone and physiological features of these birds. Of a total of 1920 one-day-old male chicks Cobb-500 were used from commercial hatchery, reared under bed creation systems. The animals were distributed in six treatments and eight replicates with 40 birds per treatment in a completely randomized design. The following vitamin D supplementation levels were applied: 70 and 87.5 μg/kg feed in initial phase; 56 and 70 μg/kg feed during the growth phase, and 35 and 47.35 μg/kg of feed in final phase of creation, obtained from two forms (D3 and 25-OHD3). The treatments consisted of supplementation of two levels from each isolated source and their associations (60% D3 + 40% 25-OHD3) according to the study phases. In the metabolism assay, 480 birds (14 and 35 days of age) were separated to be used for evaluation of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) retention and excretion during the periods of 19 to 21 days and 40 to 42 days of age. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal, with supplementation of phytase (500 FTU/kg). The performance, bone characteristics, plasma levels, bone radiographic density, carcass yield, and P and Ca retention were evaluated. In the initial creation phase, we observed an increased P excretion by broilers fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05). In addition, the association between the two vitamin D isoforms resulted in higher retention of Ca and P than the birds fed diets supplemented only with vitamin D3 (P < 0.05), and higher P retention when compared to birds fed diets supplemented with 25-OHD3 (P < 0.05). Dietary supplemental 25-OHD3 at 87.5 μg/kg resulted in higher plasma levels of Ca in relation to the same supplemented source with 70 μg/kg at 21 days of age (P < 0.05). In the final phase, the birds fed diets supplemented with vitamin D3 presented the

  2. 1,25-二羟胆骨化醇对2型糖尿病大鼠肾损伤的影响%Impact of 1, 25 dihydroxycholecalciferol on Kidney Injury of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娟娟; 李书国; 张丹; 韩晴; 孔亚婷; 朱慧铭; 朱正庭; 叶明; 彭艳; 潘希峰

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To study the impact of 1 ,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol on kidney injury of type 2 diabetic rats .[Methods]30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal diet group (N group ,10 rats) and high fat and high glucose diet group (model group ,20 rats) ,Type 2 diabetes model group were successfully set and randomly divided into two groups ,with 10 rats in each group ,diabetes mellitus group (M group) was treated by intraperitoneal injection of 2 5. g/(kg・d) of peanut oil ,and D group by intraperitoneal injection 2 5.μg/(kg・d) 1 ,25 dihydroxy‐cholecalciferol dissolved in peanut oil .After 8 weeks ,blood samples were collected to detect blood glucose ,creatinine and urea nitrogen;At the same time ,the rats were sacrificed and the kidney tissues were kept .Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) ,transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF‐β1) were detected by Blot Western and compared with that in renal tissue[.Results]Blood glucose ,urea nitrogen and creatinine in M group and D group were significantly higher than those in N group ( P <0 0.5) ,but the blood glucose ,urea nitrogen and creatinine in D group were significantly lower than that in M group ( P <0 0.5);The levels of TNF‐α、TGF‐β1 in M group and D group were significantly higher than those in N group ,while the D group was significantly lower than that in M group ( P <0 0.5)[.Conclu‐sion]1 ,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol can inhibit expression of TNF‐α、TGF‐β1 of diabetic rats kidney and take protec‐tive effect on renal injury in rats with diabetes .%【目的】探讨1,25‐二羟胆骨化醇(活性维生素D )对2型糖尿病大鼠肾损伤的影响。【方法】30只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分为普通饲料组即正常组(N组,10只)和高脂高糖饲料组(建模组,20只),2型糖尿病模型组建模成功后随机分为两组,每组10只,糖尿病组(M 组)经腹腔注射25.μg/(kg・d)花生油,D 组腹腔注射25.ug/(kg d

  3. 肉鸡日粮中25-羟基维生素D3与维生素D3生物学效价比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿红侠; 王建国; 陈冠华; 张金龙; 韩进诚; 张进良; 席丽; 闫永峰

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the relative bioavailability(RBV)of 25-hydroxycholecalcifer-ol(25-OH-D3)to cholecalciferol (VD3)for broilers from 1 to 42 days of age.On the day of hatch,300 female Ross 308 broilers were allotted to 6 treatments with 5 replicates of 10 each.The basal diet contained 0.50% calcium (Ca),0.25%non-phytate phosphorus (NPP),and was not supplemented with VD3.VD3 adding level was 5.0,10.0,20.0 μg/kg and 25-OH-D3 adding level was 2.5,5.0,10.0 μg/kg.The results showed that using body weight gain (BWG)as the criteria,the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to VD3 was 1.78.Using tibia breaking-strength,weight and ash weight as the criteria,the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to VD3 were 2.09,1.82 and 1.73.Using femur weight,length and ash weight as the criteria,the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to VD3 were 1.80,1.65 and 1.81.These data indicated that 25-OH-D3 was approximately 1.81 times as active as vitamin D3 for promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age.%为比较肉鸡日粮中25-羟基维生素D3(25-OH-D3)与维生素D3相对生物学效价,选用1日龄罗斯308肉鸡母雏300只,随机分为6个处理组,每处理5个重复,每重复10只。设计6种日粮,在含0.50%Ca、0.25%非植酸磷(NPP),无维生素D3的玉米-豆粕型基础日粮中分别添加3个水平25-OH-D3(2.5、5.0、10.0μg/kg)和3个水平维生素D3(5.0、10.0、20.0μg/kg)。结果显示:(1)以1~42日龄肉鸡体增重评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价是维生素D3的1.78倍;(2)以42日龄肉鸡胫骨强度、重量和灰分重量评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价分别是维生素D3的2.09、1.82和1.73倍;(3)以42日龄肉鸡股骨重量、长度和灰分重量评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价分别是维生素D3的1.80、1.65和1.81倍。综合分析,在1~42日龄肉鸡日粮中,以生长性能和骨骼矿化指标评价,25-OH-D3生物学效价约为维生素D3的1.81倍。