WorldWideScience

Sample records for chokes

  1. Choking (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Choking KidsHealth > For Kids > Choking Print A A A Text Size What's ...

  2. First Aid: Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  3. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase ...

  4. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Household Safety: Preventing Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > Household Safety: ... and often contain small parts. Make sure small refrigerator magnets are out of your child's reach. Check ...

  5. Choke position effects in double-choked circular waveguide antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, K.; Suzuki, M.

    1984-06-01

    A number of studies have been conducted regarding choke-loaded circular waveguide antennas. Aoki et al. (1970) have obtained improved results with respect to the beam circularity and the wide-angle radiation properties. Cowan (1973) suggested the employment of suitable compact, double choked feeds for frequency-reuse application. Further improvements can apparently be obtained by loading double chokes on a circular waveguide. The present investigation is concerned with the variation of the radiated fields for various choke positions in double-choked circular waveguide antennas. In the case of double-choked small circular waveguide antennas, it is found that the choke position has a pronounced effect on the radiation properties. Particularly sensitive to the choke position is the cross-polar level.

  6. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  7. Choking loops on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Tong, Yiying

    2013-08-01

    We present a method for computing "choking" loops--a set of surface loops that describe the narrowing of the volumes inside/outside of the surface and extend the notion of surface homology and homotopy loops. The intuition behind their definition is that a choking loop represents the region where an offset of the original surface would get pinched. Our generalized loops naturally include the usual 2g handles/tunnels computed based on the topology of the genus-g surface, but also include loops that identify chokepoints or bottlenecks, i.e., boundaries of small membranes separating the inside or outside volume of the surface into disconnected regions. Our definition is based on persistent homology theory, which gives a measure to topological structures, thus providing resilience to noise and a well-defined way to determine topological feature size. More precisely, the persistence computed here is based on the lower star filtration of the interior or exterior 3D domain with the distance field to the surface being the associated 3D Morse function. PMID:23744260

  8. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  9. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our ...

  10. Protection from Unresponsive Flows with Geometric CHOKe

    CERN Document Server

    Eshete, Addisu Tadesse

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple and stateless active queue management (AQM) scheme, called geometric CHOKe (gCHOKe), to protect responsive flows from unresponsive ones. The proposed gCHOKe has its root on and is a generalization of the original CHOKe. It provides an extended power of flow protection, achieved by introducing an extra flow matching trial upon each successful matching of packets. Compared to the plain CHOKe, analysis and simulation show that gCHOKe can achieve over 20% improvement in the bounds of both bandwidth and buffer space used by an aggressive flow. In addition, up to 14% of the total link capacity can be saved from the unresponsive flow, allowing responsive or rate-adaptive flows to obtain a better share of resources in the router.

  11. Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100222.htm Choking first aid - adult or child over 1 year - series—Part ... occur in as little as 4 minutes. Rapid first aid for choking can save a life. The universal ...

  12. On the Transient Behavior of CHOKe

    CERN Document Server

    Eshete, Addisu

    2012-01-01

    CHOKe is a simple and stateless active queue management (AQM) scheme. Apart from low operational overhead, a highly attractive property of CHOKe is that it can protect responsive TCP flows from unresponsive UDP flows. Particularly, previous works have proven that CHOKe is able to bound both bandwidth share and buffer share of (a possible aggregate) UDP traffic (flow) on a link. However, these studies consider, and pertain only to, a steady state where the queue reaches equilibrium in the presence of many (long-lived) TCP flows and an unresponsive UDP flow of fixed arrival rate. If the steady state conditions are perturbed, particularly when UDP traffic rate changes over time, it is unclear whether the protection property of CHOKe still holds. Indeed, it can be examined, for example, that when UDP rate suddenly becomes 0 (i.e., flow stops), the unresponsive flow may assume close to full utilization in sub-RTT scales, potentially starving out the TCP flows. To explain this apparent discrepancy, this paper inves...

  13. The Choking Game on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. Defenderfer MS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The choking game (TCG is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a “high,” occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non–choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG.

  14. Deaths associated with choking in San Diego county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Laura; Stanley, Christina; Smith, Alan M; Vilke, Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Death from choking is the fourth most common cause of unintentional-injury mortality, but little data are published on causes or locations of these episodes. These deaths typically are peaked at the extremes of age, with young children and the elderly having the greatest rate of fatal choking. Our objective was to characterize the causes of fatal airway obstruction in adults. The San Diego County Medical Examiner's database was searched for deaths attributed to choking in decedents 18 years and older during the 10-year period from 1994 to 2004. Data were abstracted regarding the underlying medical conditions, items choked on, location of the choking, and treatments involved in the individual cases. We found 133 victims who died from choking, with 14% having using alcohol or other sedatives and 55% having a documented neurological deficit or anatomic difficulty with swallowing. The most common specified food objects that victims choked on were meat products, and 45% occurred at home, followed by 26% at supervised facilities, and 14% at restaurants. Of the 19 choking episodes occurring in restaurants, only one employee was documented to attempt a resuscitative effort. Most victims who choked to death had an underlying neurological deficit, and occurred at home or supervised facilities appear to have an appropriate initial-response intervention.

  15. The Choking Game on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Defenderfer, Ellen K.; Austin, Jillian E.; Davies, W. Hobart

    2016-01-01

    The choking game (TCG) is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a “high,” occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants...

  16. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M

    1996-11-01

    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  17. Choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when someone cannot breathe because food, a toy, or other object is blocking the throat or ... Choking may be caused by: Eating too fast, not chewing food ... small amount of alcohol affects awareness) Being unconscious and ...

  18. Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100221.htm Choking first aid - infant under 1 year - series—Part 1 To ... Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared FIRST AID 1. DO NOT perform these steps if the ...

  19. Flow choking over weir flow slit-type flip buckets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞; 徐准; 吴建华

    2015-01-01

    The flow choking may occur for weir flow slit-type flip buckets under common operation conditions. An estimation method is developed through introducing a comprehensive coefficient to determine the approach flow Froude number for the flow choking to occur in those flip buckets. The error of the present method relative to the experimental data is less than 5%. The results show that, the Froude number for the flow choking to occur is related to the contraction ratio and the contraction angle of the flip buckets. When the flow choking occurs, the upper jet trajectory decreases and the lower one is almost not affected, and the dynamic pressures on the bottom and the sidewalls increase due to the flow profile rising on the flip buckets.

  20. 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161039.html 'Baby-Led' Weaning Doesn't Raise Choking Risk: Study But ... study tested a popular trend known as "baby-led" weaning: Instead of introducing solid foods the traditional ...

  1. A phenomenological exploration of coping responses associated with choking in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Denise M.; Hemmings, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of choking in sport is moderated by the athlete’s choice of coping strategy. Yet a lack of consensus exists with regards to which strategies encourage or prevent the choke. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to explore, through qualitative methods, the coping responses perceived to be associated with choking episodes. Semi-structured interviews were completed with six elite golfers who had experienced both choking and clutch performances under pressure. It was revealed that...

  2. 30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250... Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a) Your BOP system must include a choke manifold that is suitable for the anticipated surface...

  3. EMDR treatment of children and adolescents with a choking phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. de Roos; A. de Jongh

    2008-01-01

    Given the limited number of reported cases in literature, it might be concluded that it is rare to develop a choking phobia in childhood. However, it appears as though confusion in terminology and the time lapse between the onset of the disorder and treatment often results in the diagnosis being mis

  4. The Choking Game on YouTube: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defenderfer, Ellen K; Austin, Jillian E; Davies, W Hobart

    2016-01-01

    The choking game (TCG) is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a "high," occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non-choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG.

  5. The Choking Game on YouTube: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defenderfer, Ellen K; Austin, Jillian E; Davies, W Hobart

    2016-01-01

    The choking game (TCG) is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a "high," occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non-choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG. PMID:27335992

  6. Choking under pressure : attention and motor control in performance situations

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix

    2007-01-01

    When top sports performers fail or “choke” under pressure, everyone asks: why? Research has identified a number of conditions (e.g. an audience) that elicit choking and that moderate (e.g. trait-anxiety) pressure – performance relation. Furthermore, mediating processes have been investigated. For example, explicit monitoring theories link performance failure under psychological stress to an increase in attention paid to a skill and its step-by-step execution (Beilock & Carr, 2001). Many studi...

  7. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane

    2013-01-01

    Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...

  8. Design of a choke-mode damped accelerating structure for CLIC Main LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, J; Grudiev, A; Wuensch, W; Tang, C; Chen, H; Huang, W

    2011-01-01

    Choke-mode damped accelerating structures are being studied as an alternative to the baseline structure of the compact linear collider (CLIC) by a CERN-Tsinghua collaboration. Choke-mode structures hold the potential for much lower levels of pulsed surface heating and, since milling is not needed, reduced cost. Structures with radial choke attached are simulated in GdfidL to investigate the damping of the transverse wake. The first pass-band of the dipole modes is well damped, while the higher order dipole modes are possibly reflected by the choke. Therefore, the geometry of the choke is tuned to minimize the reflection of these higher order dipole modes. Based on this damping scheme, an accelerating structure with the same iris dimensions as the nominal CLIC design but with choke-mode damping has been designed. A prototype structure will be manufactured and high power tested in the near future.

  9. Development, modeling and simulation of test equipment for subsea choke valves

    OpenAIRE

    Lia, Bjørn André

    2014-01-01

    As a step toward being more e_ective and to improve test procedures, GE Oil & Gas wants to develop a workshoptool to automate the testing of Choke Valves. The Choke Valve Workshop Tool (CVWT) main functionis to operate the Hydraulic Stepping Actuator automatically by providing controlled pressure pulses. Electricaland hydraulic equipment will have an interface allowing the test equipment to be connected and used on awide range of Choke Valves. Test results will be transferred and stored autom...

  10. RELAPS choked flow model and application to a large scale flow test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5 code was used to simulate a large scale choked flow test. The fluid system used in the test was modeled in RELAP5 using a uniform, but coarse, nodalization. The choked mass discharge rate was calculated using the RELAP5 choked flow model. The calulations were in good agreement with the test data, and the flow was calculated to be near thermal equilibrium

  11. Choke-Mode Damped Structure Design for the CLIC Main Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zha, Hao; Tang, Chuanxiang; Huang, Wenhui; Shi, Jiaru; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Choke-mode damped structures are being studied as an alternative design for the accelerating structures of main linacs of the compact linear collider (CLIC). Choke-mode structures have the potential for much lower pulsed temperature rise, and lower cost of manufacture and fabrication. A new kind of choke-mode structure was proposed and simulated by Gdfidl. This structures has comparable wakefield damping effect as the baseline design of CLIC main linacs.

  12. Development of high pressure two-phase choked flow analysis methodology in complex piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choked flow mechanism, characteristics of two-phase flow sound velocity and compressibility effects on flow through various piping system components are studied to develop analysis methodology for high pressure two-phase choked flow in complex piping system which allows choking flow rate evaluation and piping system design related analysis. Piping flow can be said choked if Mach number is equal to 1 and compressibility effects can be accounted through modified incompressible formula in momentum equation. Based on these findings, overall analysis system is developed to study thermal-hydraulic effects on steady-state piping system flow and future research items are presented. (Author)

  13. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ozdogan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of

  14. TeV Neutrinos from Bursting and Choked Fireballs

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, P

    2001-01-01

    Core collapse of massive stars resulting in a relativistic fireball jet which breaks through the stellar envelope is a widely discussed scenario for gamma-ray burst production. For very extended or slow rotating stars, the fireball may be unable to break through the envelope. Both penetrating and choked fireballs will produce, by photo-meson interactions of accelerated protons, a burst of $\\gtrsim$ 5 TeV neutrinos while propagating in the envelope. The predicted flux, from both penetrating and chocked fireballs, should be easily detectable by planned cubic kilometer neutrino telescopes.

  15. Electrothermal model of choking-coils for the analysis of dc-dc converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecki, Krzysztof, E-mail: gorecki@am.gdynia.pl [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Marine Electronics, Morska 83, Gdynia (Poland); Detka, Kalina [Pomeranian Higher School in Gdynia, Opata Hackiego 8-10, Gdynia (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    The paper concerns modelling the choking-coil for the needs of the electrothermal analysis of dc-dc converters. A new electrothermal model of the choking-coil is proposed. This model is dedicated for SPICE software and it takes into account nonlinearity of the dependences of the inductance on the current, selfheating and mutual thermal interactions between the core and the winding. The structure of this model is described in detail and its correctness is experimentally verified for the choking-coils with the ferrite and powder cores. Both the characteristics of the choking-coils and the buck converter with these choking-coils were considered. The satisfying agreement between the results of calculations and measurements is obtained.

  16. Experimental study of choking flow of water at supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Altan

    Future nuclear reactors will operate at a coolant pressure close to 25 MPa and at outlet temperatures ranging from 500°C to 625°C. As a result, the outlet flow enthalpy in future Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWR) will be much higher than those of actual ones which can increase overall nuclear plant efficiencies up to 48%. However, under such flow conditions, the thermal-hydraulic behavior of supercritical water is not fully known, e.g., pressure drop, forced convection and heat transfer deterioration, critical and blowdown flow rate, etc. Up to now, only a very limited number of studies have been performed under supercritical conditions. Moreover, these studies are conducted at conditions that are not representative of future SCWRs. In addition, existing choked flow data have been collected from experiments at atmospheric discharge pressure conditions and in most cases by using working fluids different than water which constrain researchers to analyze the data correctly. In particular, the knowledge of critical (choked) discharge of supercritical fluids is mandatory to perform nuclear reactor safety analyses and to design key mechanical components (e.g., control and safety relief valves, etc.). Hence, an experimental supercritical water facility has been built at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal which allows researchers to perform choking flow experiments under supercritical conditions. The facility can also be used to carry out heat transfer and pressure drop experiments under supercritical conditions. In this thesis, we present the results obtained at this facility using a test section that contains a 1 mm inside diameter, 3.17 mm long orifice plate with sharp edges. Thus, 545 choking flow of water data points are obtained under supercritical conditions for flow pressures ranging from 22.1 MPa to 32.1 MPa, flow temperatures ranging from 50°C to 502°C and for discharge pressures from 0.1 MPa to 3.6 MPa. Obtained data are compared with the data given in

  17. Choke-mode damped structure design for the Compact Linear Collider main linac

    CERN Document Server

    Zha, Hao; Grudiev, Alexej; Huang, Wenhui; Shi, Jiaru; Tang, Chuanxiang; Wuensch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Choke-mode damped structures are being studied as an alternative design to waveguide damped structures for the main linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Choke-mode structures have the potential for lower pulsed temperature rise and simpler and less expensive fabrication. An equivalent circuit model based on transmission line theory for higher-order-mode damping is presented. Using this model, a new choke geometry is proposed and the wakefield performance is verified using GDFIDL. This structure has a comparable wakefield damping effect to the baseline design which uses waveguide damping. A prototype structure with the same iris dimensions and accelerating gradient as the nominal CLIC design, but with the new choke geometry, has been designed for high-power tests. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.122003

  18. Choking under pressure: The neuropsychological mechanisms for incentives induced performance decrements

    OpenAIRE

    Rongjun eYu

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the assumption of efficiency wage models, which state that wage incentives should be positively correlated with productivity, high incentives may produce performance decrements in real life scenarios. Such a “choking under pressure” phenomenon exemplifies how psychological stress can profoundly shape human behavior, for good or for bad. Previous theories suggest that individual choking under pressure because that high pressure may distract individuals’ attention away from the t...

  19. Factors Related to Choking under Pressure in Sports and the Relationships among Them

    OpenAIRE

    Murayama, Takayuki; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Factors related to choking under pressure during sports were investigated through a questionnaire survey and the relationship among the factors was examined. A questionnaire survey of choking was conducted among university students in sports-oriented school clubs (n=535). Exploratory factor analysis extracted 11 factors: changes in motor control and vicious circles, abnormal physical sensations, perceptual and cognitive confusion, introversion, self-consciousness, feelings of physical heavine...

  20. Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is a new meanline/streamline turbomachinery modeling tool being developed at NASA GRC. During the development process, a limitation of the code was discovered in relation to the analysis of choked flow in axial turbines. This paper describes the relevant physics for choked flow as well as the changes made to OTAC to enable analysis in this flow regime.

  1. Oscillation of high energy neutrinos in Choked GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveros, Andres Felipe Osorio; Sanabria, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that choked gamma-ray bursts (CGRBs) are the potential candidates for the production of high energy neutrinos in GeV-TeV energy range. These CGRBs out number the successful GRBs by many orders. So it is important to observe neutrinos from these cosmological objects with the presently operating neutrino telescope IceCube. We study the three flavor neutrino oscillation of these high energy neutrinos in the presupernova star environment which is responsible for the CGRB. For the presupernova star we consider three different models and calculate the neutrino oscillation probabilities, as well as neutrino flux on the surface of these star. The matter effect modifies the neutrino flux of different flavors on the surface of the star. We have also calculated the flux of these high energy neutrinos on the surface of the Earth. We found that for neutrino energies below \\le 10 TeV the flux ratio does not amount to 1:1:1, whereas for higher energy neutrinos it does.

  2. Choking under pressure: the neuropsychological mechanisms of incentive-induced performance decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the assumption of efficiency wage models, which state that wage incentives should be positively correlated with productivity, high incentives may produce performance decrements in real life scenarios. Such a "choking under pressure" phenomenon exemplifies how psychological stress can profoundly shape human behavior, for good or for bad. Previous theories suggest that individual choking under pressure because that high pressure may distract individuals' attention away from the task (the distraction account), raise the attention paid to step-by-step skill processes (the explicit monitoring account), or elevate the arousal in general (the over-arousal account). Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions implicated in motivation and top-down control of attention also play a key role in stress-induced choking, supporting for the over-arousal and distraction theories of choking. This review aims to identify psychological factors that determine choking and the neural underpinnings of these processes. Insights into how incentives influence performance may aid engineering training regimens and interventions that equip individuals to better handle high-stakes-induced psychological stress, and to thrive under stress. PMID:25713517

  3. Choking under pressure: The neuropsychological mechanisms for incentives induced performance decrements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjun eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the assumption of efficiency wage models, which state that wage incentives should be positively correlated with productivity, high incentives may produce performance decrements in real life scenarios. Such a choking under pressure phenomenon exemplifies how psychological stress can profoundly shape human behavior, for good or for bad. Previous theories suggest that individual choking under pressure because that high pressure may distract individuals’ attention away from the task (the distraction account, raise the attention paid to step-by-step skill processes (the explicit monitoring account, or elevate the arousal in general (the over-arousal account. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that several brain regions implicated in motivation and top-down control of attention also play a key role in stress-induced choking, supporting for the over-arousal and distraction theories of choking. This review aims to identify psychological factors that determine choking and the neural underpinnings of these processes. Insights into how incentives influence performance may aid engineering training regimens and interventions that equip individuals to better handle high-stakes-induced psychological stress, and to thrive under stress.

  4. Choking under pressure: self-consciousness and paradoxical effects of incentives on skillful performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, R F

    1984-03-01

    Choking under pressure is defined as performance decrements under circumstances that increase the importance of good or improved performance. A model for choking on coordination and skill tasks is proposed, holding that the pressure increases the conscious attention to the performer's own process of performance and that this increased conscious attention disrupts the automatic or overlearned nature of the execution. Six experiments provided data consistent with this model. Three studies showed that increased attention to one's own process of performance resulted in performance decrements. Three other studies showed similar decrements produced by situational manipulations of pressure (i.e., implicit competition, a cash incentive, and audience-induced pressure). Individuals low in dispositional self-consciousness were shown to be more susceptible to choking under pressure than those high in it. PMID:6707866

  5. Temperature and high pressure effects on choked flow in the microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parahovnik, Anatoly; Fraiman, Leonid; Rosinsky, Israel; Yossifon, Gilad

    2016-02-01

    We studied the choked flow behavior of gas flow in a single microchannel at inlet pressures of up to 2.2 MPa. Fair agreement was obtained between the basic compressible flow theory, known as Fanno flow, numerical simulations, and experiments for the mass flow rate dependency on the inlet pressure. Investigation of the effect of varying the inlet temperature on the choked flow behavior revealed that the power law scaling of the maximum flow rate on the temperature varies with inlet pressure. This was suggested, using numerical simulations, to be a result of heat loss to the environment.

  6. Choke Points and Opportunities in the Supply Chain of ASEAN Agricultural Products: A Philippine Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies and examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the region of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations: crude coconut oil (which belongs to the HS15 group), and fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (which belong to the HS03 group). For crude coconut oil, no major choke points were identified from mill site to export stages, but cost and delay factors were found at the farm-to-mill stage,...

  7. Laryngeal choking on food and acute ethanol intoxication in adults--An autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Dragan, Babic; Juković, Fehim

    2011-01-01

    The retrospective autopsy study included 98 adults who died because of laryngeal choking on a bolus of food: 67 men and 31 women (χ(2)=6.843, pintoxicated (z=-7.126, pintoxication in individuals without mental disorders, were the most important risk factors for bolus death.

  8. Effect of Resonant Neutrino Oscillation on TeV Neutrino Flavor Ratio from Choked GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Sarira

    2010-01-01

    In the collapsar scenario of the long duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), multi-TeV neutrino emission is predicted as the jet makes its way through the stellar envelope. Such a neutrino signal is also expected for more general ``failed'' GRBs in which a putative jet is ``choked'' by a heavy envelope. If the \

  9. [The handling of acute life-threatening choking in geriatric and nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelgeest, A. van; Melis, R.J.F.; Ritmeijer, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unknown how often choking occurs in geriatric wards and in nursing homes and what the treatment and outcomes are in regular practice. A questionnaire was sent to Dutch geriatricians (N = 130), nursing home physicians (N = 130), and trainees for these disciplines (N = 215), in order to gain inf

  10. Flow influence on a mode of flow choking in the airfoil cascade of the thin plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л.Г. Волянська

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  Flow of viscous compressible gas is considered in the airfoil cascade of the thin plates with great negative angle of attack. Influence of wall boundary layer upon a mode of  flow choking in the airfoil cascade is estimated in the article.

  11. Choking under Pressure: When an Additional Positive Stereotype Affects Performance for Domain Identified Male Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…

  12. Starting of fluorescent tube light by using inverter circuit instead of choke and starter arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Debnath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent tube light generally starts glowing when a large voltage is applied across its terminals at the time of starting for a very short period, once it starts glowing then it will be able to continue with normal supply voltage. Conventionally this needed high voltage, at the time of starting, is provided by the use of choke starter arrangement.On the other hand, the circuit which converts the dc into ac is called inverter circuit. This paper will discuss about an inverter circuit which can be used in place of choke starter arrangement. This inverter circuit develops high voltage at the time of starting and after that its output voltage will come down to the normal rated voltage level. This inverter circuit arrangement not only make the tube light performance faster but also economically preferable.

  13. Choked Jets and Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts as Hidden Neutrino Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Senno, Nicholas; Meszaros, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We consider choked gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets as possible sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics and radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production in dense environments. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays inside a high density stellar environment is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in an extended envelope, and such conditions are favorable also for the GRB jets to become stalled. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic SNe and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs. Focusing on this possibility, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in pp and pgamma interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results on the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although current uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contributi...

  14. One—Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Choking in Case of Heat Addition in Ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoshiakiMiyazato; MasashiKashitani; 等

    2000-01-01

    The thermal choking phenomenon is of great importance in an inlet isolator in dual-mode ram jet/scramjet combustor.In some cases the choked flow creates a pseudo-shock wave including a shock train in it at the engine inlet and causes large amounts of drag and radically reduces the performance of the engine at high flight Mach numbers,The present paper describes a one-dimensional flow model taking account of the upstream boundary-layer as well as heat addition by using a mass-weighted averaging technique.The simple relationships for the flow field in a constant area duct in which the effect of the usptream boundary-layer is considered but the effect of the wall friction in the duct can be neglected are presented.The results of the calculation such as the maximum heat addition when the thermal choking occurs,the downstream Mach number and the static pressure ratio are presented and examined in detail.

  15. Choked jets and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as hidden neutrino sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We consider gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets that are choked by extended material as sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics both inside the progenitor star and the surrounding dense medium. Radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production, are considered as well. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in a dense, extended wind or outer envelope. Such conditions also favor GRB jets to become stalled, and the necessary conditions for stalling are explicitly derived. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic supernovae (SNe) and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs, giving a unified picture of GRBs and GRB-SNe. Focusing on this unified scenario for GRBs, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra from choked jets, including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in p p and p γ interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results for the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux. Our results are consistent with the present IceCube data and do not violate the stacking limits on classical high-luminosity GRBs. We find that high-energy neutrino production in choked jets is dominated by p γ interactions. These sources are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Assuming stalled jets can launch a quasispherical shock in the dense medium, "precursor" TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout gamma-ray emission can be used as smoking-gun evidence for a choked jet model for LL GRBs. Our results strengthen the relevance of wide field-of-view sky monitors with better sensitivities in the 1-100 keV range.

  16. A Case Study of Hypnosis for Phagophobia: It's No Choking Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-04-01

    In this case study the author reviews the benefits of hypnosis for a 13-year-old female suffering from a specific phobia involving a fear of choking and generalized fear of swallowing that resulted in an episode of Restrictive Food Intake Disorder with associated significant weight loss. At the time of the initial consultation, three weeks after her choking episode, the patient weighed 93 pounds. Standing at 5'2", her Body Mass Index (BMI) was 17 (15th percentile) indicative of healthy weight for a child her age and height. She continued to lose weight over the course of 2 months and at her worst weighed 85 pounds (BMI = 15.5, 3rd percentile, classified as underweight). Prior to the incident, she weighed 105 pounds with a BMI of 19.2 (46th percentile). Treatment initially consisted of 12 hypnosis sessions (over a 5-month period), conducted on a weekly and eventually biweekly basis. A scheduled one-month follow-up visit was conducted following the 12th session, at which time the patient was consuming solid foods without fear of choking. Her BMI at that time was 18.7 (39th percentile). Two months after terminating treatment, the patient experienced a mild relapse triggered by conflicts with some female peers. After four additional hypnosis sessions, the patient's symptoms again remitted. During her last session we shared a pizza, providing clear and convincing evidence that she had overcome her fear of swallowing. She retained therapeutic benefits for at least 3 years following treatment. PMID:27003485

  17. New multiphase choke correlations for a high flow rate Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safar Beiranvand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiphase flow through wellhead restrictions of an offshore oil field in Iran is investigated and two sets of new correlations are presented for high flow rate and water cut conditions. The both correlations are developed by using 748 actual data points, corresponding to critical flow conditions of gas-liquid mixtures through wellhead chokes. The first set of correlations is a modified Gilbert equation and predicts liquid flow rates as a function of flowing wellhead pressure, gas-liquid ratio and surface wellhead choke size. To minimize error in such condition, in the second correlation, free water, sediment and emulsion (BS & W is also considered as an effective parameter. The predicted oil flow rates by the new sets of correlations are in the excellent agreement with the measured ones. These results are found to be statistically superior to those predicted by other relevant published correlations. The both proposed correlations exhibit more accuracy (only 2.95% and 2.0% average error, respectively than the existent correlations. These results should encourage the production engineer which works at such condition to utilize the proposed correlations for future practical answers when a lack of available information, time, and calculation capabilities arises.

  18. Effect of resonant neutrino oscillation on TeV neutrino flavor ratio from choked GRBs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarira Sahu; Bing Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In the collapsar scenario of the long duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), multi-TeV neutrino emission is predicted as the jet makes its way through the stellar envelope. Such a neutrino signal is also expected for more general "failed" GRBs in which a putative jet is "choked" by a heavy envelope. If the Ve→ Vμneutrino oscillation parameters are in the atmospheric neutrino oscillation range, we show that the resonant oscillation of Ve ←→Vμ,t can take place within the inner high density region of the choked jet progenitor with a heavy envelope, altering the V flavor ratio on its surface to φsve:φsvμ:φsvt =5:11:2. Considering vacuum oscillations of these neutrinos on their way to Earth, the final flavor ratio detected on Earth is further modified to either 1:1.095:1.095 for the large mixing angle solution to the solar neutrino data, or 1:1.3:1.3 for maximal mixing among the muon and tau neutrinos in the vacuum.

  19. Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of turbomachinery performance characteristics is an important part of the conceptual aircraft engine design process. During this phase, the designer must examine the effects of a large number of turbomachinery design parameters to determine their impact on overall engine performance and weight. The lack of detailed design information available in this phase necessitates the use of simpler meanline and streamline methods to determine the turbomachinery geometry characteristics and provide performance estimates prior to more detailed CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analyses. While a number of analysis codes have been developed for this purpose, most are written in outdated software languages and may be difficult or impossible to apply to new, unconventional designs. The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is currently being developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to provide a flexible meanline and streamline analysis capability in a modern object-oriented language. During the development and validation of OTAC, a limitation was identified in the code's ability to analyze and converge turbines as the flow approached choking. This paper describes a series of changes which can be made to typical OTAC turbine meanline models to enable the assessment of choked flow up to limit load conditions. Results produced with this revised model setup are provided in the form of turbine performance maps and are compared to published maps.

  20. Enhancing Supply Chain Connectivity and Competitiveness of ASEAN Agricultural Products: Identifying Choke Points and Opportunities for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the ASEAN region; within the HS15 group the study focuses on crude coconut oil (CNO); for HS03 the study covers fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (HS 03). For CNO, no major choke points have been identified from mill site to export stages; cost and delay factors can be found at the farm to mill stage, namely low farm productivity, poor postharvest practi...

  1. Active Queue Management Algorithm:CHOKe Performance Analysis%主动队列管理算法:CHOKe性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂敏

    2011-01-01

    CHOKe is a kind of fair active queue management algorithm without state. The re is few research on the features of CHOKe. This paper analyzed the features of CHOKe using ns2 simulation platform. The result shows that CHOKe algorithm can not adapt to the dynamic changes of the flow, and the CHOKe hit probability, the effectiveness are main reason for the equity.%CHOKe是一种无状态的近似公平的主动队列管理算法,有关它性能的研究较少,本文利用ns2仿真平台分析了CHOKe性能。研究表明,CHOKe算法不能适应流量的动态变化,CHOKe击中的概率以及击中的有效性是影响其公平性的主要原因。

  2. High energy neutrinos from choked GRBs and their flavor ratio measurement by the IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, Karla; Oliveros, Andres Felipe Osorio; Sanabria, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The high energy neutrinos produced in a choked GRB can undergo matter oscillation before emerging out of the stellar envelope. Before reaching the detector on Earth, these neutrinos can undergo further vacuum oscillation and then Earth matter oscillation. In the context of IceCube we study the Earth matter effect on neutrino flux in the detector. For the calculation of track-to-shower ratio R in the IceCube, we have included the shadowing effect and the additional contribution from the muon track produced by the high energy tau lepton decay in the vicinity of the detector. We observed that R is different for different CP phases in vacuum but the matter effect suppresses these differences. We have also studied the behavior of R when the spectral index $\\alpha$ varies.

  3. Delayed equilibrium model and validation experiments for two-phase choked flows relevant to LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the 1-D Delayed Equilibrium Model (DEM) for choked or critical flow rate in steady state or quasi-steady state conditions and the selection of the relevant experimental data for assessing such models. In particular, the focus is made on thermodynamic non-equilibrium conditions, which prevail in the flashing process near the critical section. In this regard, relaxation models such as the DEM developed and tested in previous studies at UCL was revisited and improved in view of their implementation in the next CATHARE code generation during the EU NURISP (NUclear Reactor Integrated Software Platform) project. A methodology to implement the DEM into is developed. Some new results of the DEM are compared against experimental data such as Super Moby-Dick experiments done in CEA and the well-known Marviken experiments performed at quasi-real scale geometry of Nuclear Plant. (author)

  4. High energy neutrinos from choked GRBs and their flavor ratio measurement by the IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high energy neutrinos produced in a choked gamma-ray burst can undergo matter oscillation before emerging out of the stellar envelope. Before reaching the detector on Earth, these neutrinos can undergo further vacuum oscillation and then Earth matter oscillation when crossing the diameter of the Earth. In the context of IceCube we study the Earth matter effect on neutrino flux in the detector. For the calculation of the track-to-shower ratio R in the IceCube, we have included the shadowing effect and the additional contribution from the muon track produced by the high energy tau lepton decay in the vicinity of the detector. We observed that R is different for different CP phases in vacuum but the matter effect suppresses these differences. We have also studied the behavior of R when the spectral index α varies. (orig.)

  5. Design of an 18 Tesla, tandem mirror, fusion reactor, hybrid choke coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid, part normal part superconducting 18-Tesla solenoid choke coil is designed for a tandem mirror fusion reactor. The present state of the art is represented by the 12-Tesla, superconducting NbSn coil. Future applications other than tandem mirror fusion devices needing high field solenoids might require hybrid magnets of the type described herein. The hybrid design was generated because of critical field performance limitations on present, practical superconducting wires. A hybrid design might be required (due to structural limits) even if the critical field were higher. Also, hybrids could be a cost-effective way of getting very high fields for certain applications. The 18-Tesla solenoid described is composed of an inner coil made of water-cooled, high-strength zirconium copper which generates 3 Tesla. A superconducting NbSn background coil contributes the remaining 15 Tesla. The focus of the design study was on the inner coil. Demonstration fabrication and testing was performed

  6. Submillimeter Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows Models of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Shcherbakov, Roman V

    2013-01-01

    High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appear in general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of magnetically choked accretion flows around rapidly rotating black holes (BHs). We perform polarized radiative transfer calculations with our ASTRORAY code in order to explore the manifestations of these QPOs for Sgr A*. We construct a simulation-based model of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow and find model parameters by fitting the mean observed polarized source spectrum. The simulated QPOs have a total sub-mm flux amplitude of under 5% and a linearly polarized flux amplitude of up to 2%. The oscillation period $T\\approx100M\\approx35$ min corresponds to the rotation period of the BH magnetosphere that produces a trailing spiral in resolved disk images. The total flux signal is statistically significant over noise for all tested frequencies 87 GHz, 230 GHz, and 857 GHz and inclination angles $10^\\circ,$ $37^\\circ,$ and $80^\\circ$. The non-detection in the 230 GHz Sub-Millimeter Array lig...

  7. Strong volume reduction of common mode choke for RFI filters with the help of nanocrystalline cores design and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of common mode chokes (CMC) for radio frequency interference filter is considered, explained and applied to the compared magnetic core characterization and computation between ferrite and nanocrystalline materials. The latter shows some better insertion losses at low frequencies when comparison is made with the same component characteristics. The volume of the component can be reduced by 50-80% when an appropriate ferrite is replaced by a well-chosen nanocrystalline core, as a result of its superimposed advantages of high and tailored permeabilitys, high saturation and inductive behavior near CMC resonance

  8. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.

    2012-04-26

    Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is

  9. Change in abundance of three phytophagous mite species (Acari: Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae) on quackgrass in the presence of choke disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Brian G; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Skoracka, Anna; Lembicz, Marlena

    2016-09-01

    Phytophagous mites and endophytic fungi may interact when sharing a host plant, potentially influencing one another's growth or population dynamics; however, interactions between them are poorly known and remain largely unexplored. In this study, quantitative associations between three species of phytophagous mites and the endophytic fungus Epichloë bromicola Leuchtm. & Schardl (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycotina) on quackgrass, Elymus repens (L.) Gould are reported. The mites' abundance was assessed on field-collected grass shoots that were either exhibiting choke disease symptoms or without the fungus. Overall, the abundance of Tetranychus urticae and Aculodes mckenziei was significantly lower on quackgrass plants infected by E. bromicola compared to plants without the fungus. Conversely, populations of Abacarus hystrix were significantly larger on plants colonised by the fungus than on uninfected plants. Thus, the presence of this endophytic fungus may have divergent effects on different phytophagous mite species although the basis of these effects is not yet known. PMID:27388448

  10. Examining choking in basketball: effects of game outcome and situational variables during last 5 minutes and overtimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Jiménez, Sergio; Navarro, Rafael M; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-02-01

    This study examined choking in basketball by identifying the effects of game outcome and situational variables during the last 5 min. and overtimes of close games. The sample consisted of two 5 min. segments (last 5 min. of the game, n = 147, of which 97 did not go into overtime; 5 min. of overtime, n = 50) drawn from 147 games from the Spanish Professional Basketball League (2007 to 2011). The following game-related statistics were gathered: 3- and 2-point field goals and free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), offensive and defensive rebounds, assists, recovered balls, turnovers, blocks (both made and received), and fouls committed and received. The results suggested the need to account for the temporal structure and multi-skilled nature of the task when devising appropriate interventions.

  11. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scales is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing imagery of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  12. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scale is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing images of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  13. Fluid-structure interaction analysis and lifetime estimation of a natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor under near-choke and near-surge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yaping; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ziyun; Xing, Peng; Zhang, Chuhua

    2015-11-01

    Up to present, there have been no studies concerning the application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis to the lifetime estimation of multi-stage centrifugal compressors under dangerous unsteady aerodynamic excitations. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a three-stage natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor are performed under near-choke and near-surge conditions, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure acting on impeller blades are obtained. Then computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis is conducted through a one-way coupling FSI model to predict alternating stresses in impeller blades. Finally, the compressor lifetime is estimated using the nominal stress approach. The FSI results show that the impellers of latter stages suffer larger fluctuation stresses but smaller mean stresses than those at preceding stages under near-choke and near-surge conditions. The most dangerous position in the compressor is found to be located near the leading edge of the last-stage impeller blade. Compressor lifetime estimation shows that the investigated compressor can run up to 102.7 h under the near-choke condition and 200.2 h under the near-surge condition. This study is expected to provide a scientific guidance for the operation safety of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  14. Fluid-structure Interaction Analysis and Lifetime Estimation of a Natural Gas Pipeline Centrifugal Compressor under Near-choke and Near-surge Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Yaping; LIU Hui; YAO Ziyun; XING Peng; ZHANG Chuhua

    2015-01-01

    Up to present, there have been no studies concerning the application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis to the lifetime estimation of multi-stage centrifugal compressors under dangerous unsteady aerodynamic excitations. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a three-stage natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor are performed under near-choke and near-surge conditions, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure acting on impeller blades are obtained. Then computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis is conducted through a one-way coupling FSI model to predict alternating stresses in impeller blades. Finally, the compressor lifetime is estimated using the nominal stress approach. The FSI results show that the impellers of latter stages suffer larger fluctuation stresses but smaller mean stresses than those at preceding stages under near-choke and near-surge conditions. The most dangerous position in the compressor is found to be located near the leading edge of the last-stage impeller blade. Compressor lifetime estimation shows that the investigated compressor can run up to 102.7 h under the near-choke condition and 200.2 h under the near-surge condition. This study is expected to provide a scientific guidance for the operation safety of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  15. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface roughness and heat flux conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Alper Ozalp

    2006-02-01

    Choked converging nozzle flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that integrates the axisymmetric continuity, state, momentum and energy equations. To predict the combined effects of nozzle geometry, friction and heat transfer rates, analyses are conducted with sufficiently wide ranges of covergence half angle, surface roughness and heat flux conditions. Numerical findings show that inlet Mach and Nusselt numbers decrease up to 23.1% and 15.8% with surface heat flux and by 15.13% and 4.8% due to surface roughness. Considering each convergence half angle case individually results in a linear relation between nozzle discharge coefficients and exit Reynolds numbers with similar slopes. Heat flux implementation, by decreasing the shear stress values, lowers the risks due to wear hazards at upstream sections of flow walls; however the final 10% downstream nozzle portion is determined to be quite critical, where shear stress attains the highest magnitudes. Heat transfer rates are seen to increase in the streamwise direction up to 2.7 times; however high convergence half angles, heat flux and surface roughness conditions lower inlet Nusselt numbers by 70%, 15.8% and 4.8% respectively.

  16. A response to Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma? [35 (2015) 33-37].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaznik, John G

    2016-04-01

    In the recently published article in this journal, "Mimics of Child Abuse: Can Choking Explain Abusive Head Trauma?",(1) the author chose to revisit a discussion prompted by a case report from 5 years ago which was inappropriate in his opinion. He went further to suggest that bringing an unvalidated mechanism of injury into the legal setting "obstructs justice", is a "further victimization of the child", and is a "travesty of justice".(1) Given the "Shaken Baby Syndrome: Rotational Cranial Injuries" has always been only an unvalidated hypothesis lacking experimental confirmation, the exploring of alternative injury mechanisms should be entirely appropriate. In 2010, the post publication discussion ended with a challenge to the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (AAP COCAN) to either support the pure shaking mechanism with quality EBMS or eliminate any positive support for it from any official policy statement until the exact nature of each injury that pure abusive shaking has the potential to cause is clearly defined and supported with quality experimental research.(4) Since this is an area of acknowledged controversy by the AAP, it is appropriate to examine the evidence based experimental literature that has emerged over the last five years that is relevant to the abusive shaking hypothesis and the hypothesis of any primary brain-lethal hypoxic event leading to the findings of retinal hemorrhages, extra-axial bleeding, and brain injury when an infant presents to medical attention after an Acute/Apparent Life Threatening Event. In that light, this review was undertaken. PMID:26828828

  17. 井下可调节防砂节流器模型设计%Downhole Adjustable Choke Modeling Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国强; 张跃; 李庆军; 李建

    2011-01-01

    为了更好地实现气井区块数字化无人管理模式,增强气井生产过程动态研究特性,以现有节流器为出发点,设法改变气嘴内部构造.由孔洞式变为缝隙,充分利用缝隙的可调节性,连通套管、节流器气嘴、地面压力装置,借助地面压力调控系统,来实现对节流器气嘴缝隙宽窄的调节,从而实现不同时期定压、定量的生产过程.同时利用气嘴内部强大的“负压差”来实现气嘴清洗,解决砂堵问题.因此,不仅延续了井底防治水合物形成的方法,解决了不更换气嘴就能调节气量、排水生产等功能;而且还能时刻测算出井底套压,降低作业成本.为下一步数字化区块无人管理提供了可能.%In order to achieve better gas block no management of digital and strengthen the dynamic of gas well production characteristics, as a starting point the existing choke, try to change the internal structure of gas nozzle from the hole into a slot-type, take full advantage of the gap adjustable, connectivity casing, restrictor gas nozzle, ground pressure equipment, pressure control system with the ground, the gas nozzle restrictor regulation of gap width to achieve different periods of constant pressure, the quantitative production process are achieved. While taking advantage of the internal gas nozzle powerful "negative pressure" to achieve the gas nozzle cleaning, sand plug solve the problem. Therefore, the idea of not only the continuation of the bottom control hydrate formation method to solve the gas nozzle can be adjusted without changing gas, water production and other functions, but also to measure the bottom set of time pressure, reduce operating costs. Digital blocks for the next unattended possible.

  18. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    sediments and also that the total amount of erosion does not exceed the mean postglacial sediment thickness in the area and the water depths are deeper than 25 metres. If the water depth is less than 5 metres and the pixel is situated outside a future lake object, erosion of glacial clay is allowed with a value that corresponds to the mean thickness of glacial clay in the water depth interval 0-5 metres. Output from the module is a text-file with values for each object for time step, water volume, water area and sea level. The module steps until a time when a future lake object is isolated or a terrestrial object is completely situated on land. The time for future lake isolation is calculated using the future lake threshold level and the shoreline displacement equation. When the module ends, the DEM at the actual time writes to a file in ASCII-format that can be used as an input for the lake module. Input to the lake module is either the DEM from the future lake isolation time or a DEM calculated from depth sounding data for an existing lake. The lake module simulates the progress from a newly isolated lake to a wetland considering accumulation of fine-grained sediments and choke-up processes. The accumulation of sediments at each time step is calculated using the actual lake water volume, a relationship that is calibrated using data from eight lakes in the Forsmark area. If the lake at actual time step has pixels that have water depths exceeding two metres, all new sediments are placed evenly over that area: otherwise, they are evenly distributed over the entire lake not occupied by vegetation. The choke-up rate is calculated using the area of the newly isolated lake, a relationship calibrated by data from 84 wetlands in the Forsmark area. The lake module calculates the number of pixels that will be occupied by vegetation at each time step. This process searches for the shallowest pixel in the lake not already occupied by vegetation and marks this pixel as vegetated. The

  19. 精神科住院患者噎食的相关因素分析%The Risk Factors of Choking for Psychiatric Inpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晋建芳

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the related risk factors of choking among the psychiatric inpatients in order to prevent it happening effectively.Methods To collect 28 psychiatric inpatients with choking from January 2010 to May 2014 as the case group, 65 hameochronous inpatients in the same ward without choking were selected as control group. And use self-made questionnaire to investigate the related factors.Results As to the comparisons between case group and control, there were several factors statistically higher in the case group than that in the control including age, duration, length of stay (LOS), proportion of eating cooked wheaten food and diagnosis of schizophrenia (P<0.05). By Logistic regression, age≥60 years old (OR=2.14,P=0.000), duration≥12 month (OR=1.81,P=0.020), proportion of eating cooked wheaten food (OR=1.58,P=0.015) and diagnosis of schizophrenia (OR=1.51,P=0.044)were selected as risk factors of choking. ConclusionFor psychiatric inpatients, The age (≥60 years old) with schizophrenia who have more than 1 year’s duration and prefer eating cooked wheaten food are much more easily to have choking.%目的:探讨住院精神病患者发生噎食事件的危险因素。方法收集我院2010年1月~2014年5月发生噎食事件的住院患者28例,按照病例同期同病房未发生噎食的住院患者65例为对照,按照自编的危险因素进行调查,采取Logistic回归方法选取危险因素。结果两组比较发现,病例组的年龄、病程、住院时间、食用面食的比例和精神分裂症的构成均高于对照组(P<0.05);经过Logistic分析之后,选取年龄≥60岁(OR=2.14,P=0.000)、病程≥12个月(OR=1.81,P=0.020)、面食饮食(OR=1.58, P=0.015)、精神分裂症(OR=1.51,P=0.044)作为住院患者发生噎食的危险因素。结论住院精神病患者中年龄≥60岁、病程≥12个月、面食饮食、精神分裂症患者更容易发生噎食。

  20. 精神疾病住院患者噎食风险评估与护理对策%Assessment of choke risks in inpatients with mental disorders and nursing strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冲; 李菲菲; 许冬梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of food choking and assess its risk so as to prevent its occurrence. Methods We made choking risk evaluation scale by analyzing the food choking events, which happened to inpatients. The scale was adopted to assess the choking risks of 1364 inpatients with mental disorders, the results shown that 166 cases had the risk; thus further targeted nursing was applied in them to get rid of the risk. Results The incidence rate of choking in intervention period (from October, 2009 to February, 2010) was significantly lower that in the control period (from March, 2009 to August, 2009) (P <0. 05). Conclusions it is effective to prevent incidence of food choking by dynamically assessing food choking risks, establishing corresponding management system and performing nursing interventions on inpatients with mental disorders.%目的 分析噎食发生的原因,评估噎食风险,防范噎食发生.方法 分析我院发生的47例噎食事件,制定噎食风险评估表,对1 364例住院精神疾病患者进行噎食风险因素评估,评估出166例患者存在噎食风险,针对风险因素分别采取针对性护理对策.结果 干预期(2009年9月至2010年2月)噎食发生例数明显低于未进行噎食护理干预期(2009年3-8月),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 精神科制定噎食风险管理制度,临床动态做好噎食风险因素评估,并采取针对性护理对策,可有效地降低患者噎食的发生.

  1. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety.

  2. Choking phobia: full remission following behavior therapy Fobia de deglutição: remissão com terapia comportamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scemes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A phobic behavior pattern is learned by classical and operant conditioning mechanisms. The present article reviews the main determinants of choking phobia etiology and describes the behavior therapy of an adult patient. METHOD: Psychoeducation, functional analysis, and graded exposure to aversive stimuli were used to treat the patient, after extensive psychiatric and psychological assessment. Ingesta and anxiety levels were measured along treatment and at follow-up. RESULTS: A multiple assessment baseline design was used to demonstrate the complete remission of symptoms after seven sessions, each of them exposing the patient to a different group of foods. CONCLUSION: Psychoeducation and exposure were critical components of a successful choking phobia treatment.OBJETIVO: O padrão comportamental da fobia é adquirido com base no condicionamento clássico e mecanismos operantes de aprendizagem. Este artigo faz uma revisão dos principais determinantes da etiologia da fobia de deglutição e descreve o tratamento da terapia comportamental em uma paciente adulta. MÉTODO: Foram usadas psicoeducação, análise funcional e gradativa exposição a estímulos aversivos no tratamento da paciente, depois de uma extensiva avaliação psiquiátrica e psicológica. Níveis de ingesta e ansiedade foram medidos ao longo de todo o tratamento e no follow-up. RESULTADOS: Para demonstrar a completa remissão dos sintomas, após sete sessões de exposição a diferentes grupos de alimentos foi usado um delineamento de linha de base de avaliações múltiplas. CONCLUSÃO: Terapia de exposição e psicoeducação foram componentes que contribuíram de modo crítico para a obtenção de resultados positivos ao tratamento.

  3. Engasgamento em bebês após busca às cegas com os dedos Infants choking following blind finger sweep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. Abder-Rahman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em situações estressantes, as pessoas geralmente usam os dedos para retirar corpos estranhos de faringe da boca. Este artigo relata três casos de óbito de bebês após o uso dessa técnica. MÉTODOS: Um total de 26 casos de engasgamento causado por aspiração de corpos estranhos nas vias respiratórias superiores e inferiores envolvendo crianças menores de 11 anos submetidas a autopsia no Departamento de Medicina Forense da Universidade da Jordânia entre 1996 e 2006 foram revisados. RESULTADOS: O uso de busca às cegas com os dedos para retirar corpos estranhos de faringe foi relatado em três bebês durante o choro. Todas as crianças eram menores de 1 ano e haviam se engasgado com grãos-de-bico, uma bola de gude e um lápis curto. A diversidade, o tamanho, a forma, e a maciez da superfície são as principais características que fazem com que esses corpos estranhos sejam mais difíceis de ser removidos com os dedos e facilitam sua entrada via respiratória. CONCLUSÃO: Esses casos mostraram que a busca às cegas com os dedos na boca de bebês durante o choro não é somente uma manobra perigosa, mas também pode ser fatal.OBJECTIVE: In stressful situations, people usually use finger sweep to remove pharyngeal foreign bodies from the mouth. This article reports on three cases of death of infants following the use of this technique. METHODS: A total of 26 cases of choking caused by foreign bodies aspiration in the upper and lower respiratory passages involving children younger than 11 years of age autopsied at the Forensic Department of University of Jordânia between 1996 and 2006 were reviewed. RESULTS: Blind finger sweep to remove pharyngeal foreign bodies were reported in three crying infants. All of these cases were younger than 1 year of age and choked on a chickpea, a marble and a short pencil. Diversity, size, shape and smoothness of the surface are the main characteristics that render the foreign bodies less easily

  4. Choking criterium for the secondary flow of a supersonic ejector with a cylindrical mixing chamber; Blockierungs-Kriterium fuer den Sekundaerstrom eines Ueberschall-Ejektors mit zylindrischer Mischkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatt, R. [Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Grave, H. [GEA-Wiegand GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany); Ursenbacher, T. [Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-03-01

    Today`s state-of-the-art methods for determining theoretically the maximum secondary flow of a supersonic ejector are confined to the use of some rather particular choking criteria. These are based on highly idealized flow models, which partly rely on heuristic assumptions. The two best known criteria, the P- and M-criteria, are compared to the newly proposed AE-criterium (or Criterium of the Adapted Entropy), on the basis of experimental data from the industry. The calculation procedure is valid for a perfect gas, as well as for the (ideal) TH-vapour (which is a good approximation for steam and ammonia). (orig.) [Deutsch] Die rechnerische Voraussage des maximalen Sekundaerstromes eines Ueberschall-Ejektors kann z.Z. nur mittels spezieller Blockierungskriterien erfolgen. Letztere basieren auf stark idealisierten Stroemungsmodellen, welche z.T. heuristische Annahmen enthalten. Die zwei bekanntesten Kriterien, das P-Kriterium und das M-Kriterium, werden mit dem neu vorgeschlagenen AE-Kriterium (oder Kriterium der Angepassten Entropie) mittels experimenteller Daten aus der Industrie verglichen. Das Berechnungsverfahren gilt fuer den (idealen) TH-Dampf (naeherungsweise also auch fuer Wasserdampf und Ammoniak). (orig.)

  5. Measurement of groove features and dimensions of the vertical test cathode and the choke joint of the superconducting electron gun cavity of the Energy Recovery LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L.; Ke, M.

    2011-10-13

    A testing program for the superconducting electron gun cavity that has been designed for the Energy Recovery LINAC is being planned. The goal of the testing program is to characterize the RF properties of the gun cavity at superconducting temperatures and, in particular, to study multipacting that is suspected to be occurring in the choke joint of the cavity where the vertical test cathode is inserted. The testing program will seek to understand the nature and cause of this multipacting and attempt to eliminate it, if possible, by supplying sufficient voltage to the cavity. These efforts are motivated by the multipacting issues that have been observed in the processing of the fine-grain niobium gun cavity. This cavity, which is being processed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory for Brookhaven, has encountered multipacting at a gradient of approximately 3 MV/m and, to date, has resisted efforts at elimination. Because of this problem, a testing program is being established here in C-AD that will use the large-grain niobium gun cavity that currently resides at Brookhaven and has been used for room-temperature measurements. The large-grain and fine-cavities are identical in every aspect of construction and only differ in niobium grain size. Thus, it is believed that testing and conditioning of the large-grain cavity should yield important insights about the fine-grain cavity. One element of this testing program involves characterizing the physical features of the choke joint of the cavity where the multipacting is believed to be occurring and, in particular the grooves of the joint. The configuration of the cavity and the vertical test cathode is shown in Figure 1. In addition, it is important to characterize the groove of the vertical test cathode. The grooved nature of these two components was specifically designed to prevent multipacting. However, it is suspected that, because of the chemical processing that the fine-grain gun cavity underwent along with the

  6. Finite Element Simulation of PET Film Extrusion and Analysis of Choked Flow%PET薄膜挤出成型有限元模拟和阻流分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦升学; 杨迁; 许星明

    2012-01-01

    设计了厚度为0.12mm的聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)薄膜衣架式挤出流道,使用有限元软件模拟了聚合物熔体的流动规律,获得了流道内部的压力场、速度场和温度场的分布,分析了阻流设计对流场的影响。研究表明,流道结构对压力分布影响显著,对速度、温度分布影响不明显;流道阻流部分尺寸较小的改变,会引起流道内部熔体压力较大的变化,易导致挤出成型过程的不稳定,从而显著影响产品质量。此外,挤出流量对流场压力分布影响很小。%A coathanger type extrusion runner of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film with thickness 0.12mm was designed. The polymer flow was simulated through finite element software, and the distribution of pressure, velocity and temperature field were obtained. The influence of polymer flow on the choked flow design was analyzed. The results show that the runner structure influences the pressure distribution significantly, influenles the distribution of speed and temperature slightly. If the size of choked flow structure of the runner is changed slightly, the pressure of the melt flow within the range of the runner will be changed markedly. So the size change of choked flow structure easily causes the process of extrusion instable, and significantly affects the product quality. Furthermore, the influence of melt flow rate on pressure distribution is insignificant.

  7. Experimental Research of Hydroxyl Radical Production in Choking Cavitator%壅塞空化器羟自由基产量试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤华; 李念; 唐川林; 单礼伟; 卓杜

    2014-01-01

    针对空泡溃灭瞬间产生羟自由基和氢基,而羟自由基具有强氧化性,能够与难降解有机物分子发生反应的问题,探讨了羟自由基的产量与壅塞空化器的空化强度的关系。以壅塞空化器作为空化发生元件,亚甲基蓝作为自由基捕捉剂,采用可见分光光度计检测反应前后MB(methylene blue)质量浓度的变化量,间接获得羟自由基的产量,探讨了MB初始质量浓度、背压孔当量直径和反应时间对羟自由基产量的影响。试验结果表明:背压孔当量直径为5.4 mm,亚甲基蓝溶液的初始质量浓度为12 mg/L时,自由基产量最高。%When cavities collapse, the radicals of ·OH and ·H are generated. The hydroxyl radical with strong oxidizing property can react with refractory organic compound molecule, and it has a direct relevant to cavitation effect. With choking cavitator as the cavitation generator and methylene blue (MB) as free radical scavenger, applied visible spectrophotometer to detect MB mass concentration before and after the reaction, obtained indirectly hydroxyl radical production, and investigated the influences of the initial concentration of MB, equivalent diameter of back-pressure holes and reaction time on hydroxyl radical production. The experimental results showed that the highest hydroxyl radical was acquired when the equivalent diameter of back-pressure holes was 5.4 mm and the initial concentration of MB was 12 mg/L.

  8. Study on Liquid-solid Two-phase Movement and Wall Wear in the Needle Shape Choke Valve%针型节流阀内部液固两相运动及壁面磨损研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷伟伟; 殷舜时; 未莉莉; 丁靓

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method, the flow coefficient (Cv), internal liq-uid-solid two-phase movement and wall wear are computed using the discrete phase model and erosion model of FLUENT. The results show that the larger degrees of choke opening lead to higher Cv and better flow capability. The range of increase of Cv decreases with the opening degree. The changes of the pressure and velocity mainly happen at the choke window. The fluid velocity increases with the decrease of the choke area. The pressure drop and velocity reach peak values at the position of the smallest flow section. The peak value of the particle concentration is located at the center of the down-cavity cylinder and the border of the upper-cavity cylinder wall and the sidewall. The wall wear of the choke inner chamber and needle valve is main localized wear. The valve needle is the most vulnerable component of the choke considering erosion. The most worn part of the valve needle wall is 5 mm above the smallest flow section, while the most worn part of the inner chamber is 8 mm above the smallest flow section. The most wear area of the valve needle and the inner chamber increases first and then decreases with the increase of the opening degree, reaching the peak wear under the opening degree of 15 mm.%关于针型节流阀的相关研究和报道较少.为此,基于计算流体力学(CFD)方法,应用Fluent软件中的离散相模型和磨损模型,对节流阀的流量系数(Cv值)、 内部液固两相运动和壁面磨损进行了模拟研究.研究结果表明,针型节流阀的开度越大,Cv值越大,对于流体的流通能力越强;Cv值的增长幅度随着开度的增大而减小;节流阀的压力及速度变化主要在节流口位置,流体速度随着流通面积的减小而增大,压降和速度在最小流通截面位置达到最大值;节流阀内腔和阀针的壁面磨损以局部磨损为主,阀针是整个节流阀内部最易被冲蚀

  9. The Empirical Research on Self-efficacy and Coping Strategies of College Basketball Players under the Choking Phenomenon%Choking现象下大学生篮球运动员的应对自我效能及应对策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李革

    2016-01-01

    通过研究129名大学生篮球运动员的应对自我效能、应对策略和choking之间的关系,结果发现,不同训练年限的运动员在应对自我效能、面向任务的应对策略和choking指数上存在显著性差异;应对自我效能与choking指数之间呈显著的负相关性,并且应对策略在应对自我效能与choking指数之间起部分中介作用。%This paper examines the relationships among coping self-efficacy, coping strategies and choking of college basketball players. The results show that there is a significant difference in coping self-efficacy, coping strategies and choking index of the athletes of different training periods. There is a very significant negative correla-tion between coping self-efficacy and choking index, and coping partially mediated the relationship between cop-ing self-efficacy and choking index.

  10. Choking - adult or child over 1 year

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a very hard time breathing because food, a toy, or other object is blocking the throat or ... caused by any of the following: Eating too fast, not chewing food well, or eating with dentures that do not ...

  11. Why India choked when Lehman broke

    OpenAIRE

    Ila Patnaik; Ajay Shah

    2010-01-01

    India has an elaborate system of capital controls which impede cap- ital mobility and particularly short-term debt. Yet, when the global money market fell into turmoil after the bankruptcy of Lehman Broth- ers on 13/14 September 2008, the Indian money market immediately experienced considerable stress, and the operating procedures of mon- etary policy broke down. We suggest that Indian multinationals were using the global money market and were short of dollars on 15 Septem- ber. They borrowed...

  12. Choking of optically thin spherical accreation by dissipative heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1981-05-15

    Dissipative heating can be sufficient to reduce the Mach number of supersonic spherical accretion to unity in the optically thin part of the flow: at a radius of order 10/sup 2/--10/sup 3/ Schwarzchild radii. If the flow at a larger radius is forced to be supersonic and cold, by some cooling process like collisional excitation of line radiation, the flow cannot be time-independent. The critical accretion rates below which accretion flows either are forced to be time dependent, or become optically thick before the minimum in the Mach number is reached, are determined. The implication for the time variability of quasars and active galactic nuclei is briefly discussed.

  13. Vacuum Cleaner Saves Man Choking on Rice Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王硕

    2001-01-01

    日本人在过新年时喜食糯米糕团,而这种粘性十足的食物对老年人或孩童来说却异常危险,每年都有糯米糕团夺走人命的传媒报道。今年,一位70岁的老者的家人却在老人生命垂危之际,巧用吸尘器,吸出糕团,老者得以及时挽救!不过。读者朋友,请不要以为本文提供了“抢救良法”而鼓励老人猛食糯米糕团。请看本文末句。】

  14. Is oil supply choked by financial market pressures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term profitability for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. The increasing pressure for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. The current high oil price is partly due to low exploration activity in the oil industry the last decade. We present and discuss the background for this development-based on previous academic research, industry trends and current valuation practices. An estimated econometric model of stock market valuation among oil and gas companies suggests that analysts and companies have put exaggerate weight on short-term earnings and accounting profitability. We therefore expect that the attention will shift back to long-term reserve and production growth

  15. Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between shot valence, avoidance behavior, and performance in soccer penalty shootouts. Video analyses were conducted with all penalty shootouts ever held ill the World Cup, the European Championships. and the UEFA Champions League (n = 36 sh

  16. Is oil supply choked by financial market pressures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1990s, financial analysts have focused strongly on short-term profitability for benchmarking and valuation of international oil and gas companies. The increasing pressure for strict capital discipline among oil and gas companies may have reduced their willingness to invest for future reserves and production growth. The current high oil price is partly due to low exploration activity in the oil industry the last decade. We present and discuss the background for this development - based on previous academic research, industry trends and current valuation practices. An estimated econometric model of stock market valuation among oil and gas companies suggests that analysts and companies have put exaggerate weight on short-term earnings and accounting profitability. We therefore expect that the attention will shift back to long-term reserve and production growth. (author)

  17. Testing of the Osmotic Membrane Pressure Actuator (OMPA) principle for autonomous water choking

    OpenAIRE

    Mammadli, Ruslan

    2011-01-01

    This Master thesis is a part of OMPA (Osmotic Membrane Pressure Actuator) which Is initiated andpatented by Statoil ASA Porsgrunn research centre at Feb. 27, 2007 (US). The objective of the OMPA project is to develop a self regulating autonomous valve that can be used in oil wells. The work was completely carried out at Statoil research centre in Porsgrunn under the supervision of Lene Amundsen from Statoil and Professor Harald Asheim from Trondheim, NTNU.This project contains two parts. The ...

  18. Paradigm shift or choke? The future of the Western European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw an enormous worldwide growth of the housing stock. In particular the building boom after WW-II, during which the housing stock in most countries was multifolded, focussed the attention of the housing sector primarily to the planning and realisation of new construction; the consc

  19. A paradigm shift or choke? The future of Western European housing stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.

    2011-01-01

    The 20th century saw an enormous worldwide growth of the housing stock. In particular the building boom after WW-II, during which the housing stock in most countries was multifolded, focussed the attention of the housing sector primarily to the planning and realisation of new construction; the consc

  20. A new regime of the Agulhas Current Retroflection: Turbulent Choking of Indian-Atlantic leakag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Bars, D.L.B.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the Indian Ocean circulation and the Agulhas Current retroflection is carried out using a primitive equation model with simplified coastline and flat bottom. Four configurations with 0.258 and 0.18 horizontal resolution and in barotropic and baroclinic cases are considered. The wind s

  1. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    McKinney, Jonathan C; Blandford, Roger D

    2012-01-01

    Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We describe fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height $H$ to cylindrical radius $R$ ratio of $|H/R|\\sim 0.2--1$) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins ($a/M$, with BH mass $M$) and with initially toroidally-dominated ($\\phi$-directed) and poloidally-dominated ($R-z$ directed) magnetic fields. For initially toroidally-dominated magnetic field models, patches of spontaneously generated coherent large-scale dipolar magnetic flux do reach the BH but only lead to transient mildly relativistic winds and weak relativistic jets. For initially poloidally-dominated magnetic field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. For sufficiently high $|a/M|$ or low $|H/R|$ the polar magnetic field compresses the th...

  2. Negative instructions and choking under pressure in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Binsch, O.; Bakker, F.C.

    2013-01-01

    Providing instructions to avoid an action may ironically increase the tendency to engage in that action, especially when attentional resources are taxed. In the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such ironic effects has rarely been investigated even though anxiety both affects a

  3. Size Reduction of a DC Link Choke Using Saturation Gap and Biasing with Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Zuccherato, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the design procedure of permanent magnet biased DC inductors using the Saturation-gap technique [1]. This biasing configuration can provide a 50% reduction in either the core volume or the number of turns, while meeting its current and inductance requirements. A design...

  4. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design an

  5. Team history and choking under pressure in major soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between historical team results and individual players subsequent performances in a high-pressure real-world sport situation. Videos were obtained from all soccer penalty shootouts held in two major international tournaments (World Cup and European Championships) betwee

  6. Determination of viscous pressure losssand resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O.F.

    2007-01-01

    /mair)2- a  (JAP 48:313-319,1980), where r is gas  density and  m  is viscosity. a is an exponent  = 1 for laminar flow and  2 for turbulent flow MATERIAL AND METHOD: Nine healthy males , mean age (sd) = 32 (10) years examined in a pressure corrected flow body-plethysmograph, with measurement of maximum...... 1, but certainly different from1.5, indicating predominant laminar flow upstream to CP. The upstream resistance is low, and lower than directly measured (JAP 83:1721-32,1997). This is a possibility if CP is more peripheral than assumed in that study.  ....... BACKGROUND. If maximum expiratory flow is corrected for density (Fmaxcorr = Fmaxgas * (rair/rgas)0.5 ,and plotted against elastic recoil pressure, these curves would be superimposed, if the viscous loss was negligible (Pfr = 0). If they are not, Pfrgas/Pfrair = (Fmaxgas /Fmaxair) a (rgas/rair) a-1(mgas...

  7. Enhanced high-energy neutrino emission from choked gamma-ray bursts due to meson and muon acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, Hylke B J

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that a potentially large fraction of supernovae could be accompanied by relativistic outflows that stall below the stellar surface. In this letter we point out that internal shocks that are believed to accelerate protons to very high energies in these flows will also accelerate secondary mesons and muons. As a result the neutrino spectrum from meson and muon decay is expected to be much harder compared to previous estimates, extending as a single power law up to ~10^3 TeV. This greatly improves the detection prospects.

  8. "How to stop choking to death": Rethinking lesbian separatism as a vibrant political theory and feminist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enszer, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary feminist discourses, lesbian separatism is often mocked. Whether blamed as a central reason for feminism's alleged failure or seen as an unrealistic, utopian vision, lesbian separatism is a maligned social and cultural formation. This article traces the intellectual roots of lesbian feminism from the early 1970s in The Furies and Radicalesbians through the work of Julia Penelope and Sarah Lucia Hoagland in the 1980s and 1990s, then considers four feminist and lesbian organizations that offer innovative engagements with lesbian separatism. Olivia Records operated as a separatist enterprise, producing and distributing womyn's music during the 1970s and 1980s. Two book distributors, Women in Distribution, which operated in the 1970s, and Diaspora Distribution, which operated in the 1980s, offer another approach to lesbian separatism as a form of economic and entrepreneurial engagement. Finally, Sinister Wisdom, a lesbian-feminist literary and arts journal, enacts a number of different forms of lesbian separatism during its forty-year history. These four examples demonstrate economic and cultural investments of lesbian separatism and situate its investments in larger visionary feminist projects. More than a rigid ideology, lesbian separatism operates as a feminist process, a method for living in the world.

  9. "How to stop choking to death": Rethinking lesbian separatism as a vibrant political theory and feminist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enszer, Julie R

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary feminist discourses, lesbian separatism is often mocked. Whether blamed as a central reason for feminism's alleged failure or seen as an unrealistic, utopian vision, lesbian separatism is a maligned social and cultural formation. This article traces the intellectual roots of lesbian feminism from the early 1970s in The Furies and Radicalesbians through the work of Julia Penelope and Sarah Lucia Hoagland in the 1980s and 1990s, then considers four feminist and lesbian organizations that offer innovative engagements with lesbian separatism. Olivia Records operated as a separatist enterprise, producing and distributing womyn's music during the 1970s and 1980s. Two book distributors, Women in Distribution, which operated in the 1970s, and Diaspora Distribution, which operated in the 1980s, offer another approach to lesbian separatism as a form of economic and entrepreneurial engagement. Finally, Sinister Wisdom, a lesbian-feminist literary and arts journal, enacts a number of different forms of lesbian separatism during its forty-year history. These four examples demonstrate economic and cultural investments of lesbian separatism and situate its investments in larger visionary feminist projects. More than a rigid ideology, lesbian separatism operates as a feminist process, a method for living in the world. PMID:26914821

  10. Role of the Alboran Sea volcanic arc choking the Mediterranean to the Messinian salinity crisis and foundering biota diversification in North Africa and Southeast Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemer, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccated ~5.96 million years ago when it became isolated from the world oceans during the Messinian salinity crisis. This event permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present rich biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The cause chocking the Mediterranean has been proposed to be tectonic uplift and dynamic topography but the driving mechanism still remains debated. We present a new wide-angle seismic profile that provides a detailed image of the thickness and seismic velocity distribution of the crust in the eastern Alboran basin. The velocity model shows a characteristic structure of a subduction-related volcanic arc with a high-velocity lower crust and a 16-18 km total-thickness igneous crust that magmatic accreted mostly between ~10-6 Ma across the eastern Alboran basin. Estimation of the isostatically corrected depth of the arc crust taking into account the original thermal structure and sediment-loading subsidence since 6 Ma places a large area of the eastern Alboran basin above sea level at the time. This estimation is supported by geophysical data showing subaereal erosional unconformities for that time. This model may explain several up-to-now-disputed features of the Messinian salinity crisis, including: the progressive isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma with the disappearance of open marine taxa, the existence of evaporites mostly to the east of the volcanic arc, the evidence that the Gibraltar straits were not a land bridge offered by continuous Messinian open marine sediments at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, the importance of southeastern Iberia and North Africa as centres of biota diversification since before the salinity crisis, and patterns of speciation irradiating from SE Iberia and the eastern Rif in some taxons.

  11. 天然气节流温降机理模型%Model of Temperature Drop Mechanism when Gas Flowing through Chokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖川; 胡顺渠; 郭春秋

    2003-01-01

    基于能量守恒原理和范德华混合规则,导出了天然气节流温降的数学模型,该模型采用Peng-Robinson方程描述天然气节流的相平衡过程.应用Brown焓熵图版数据进行实例计算,并将本模型计算结果与查焓熵图的值进行了对比分析.在天然气相对密度0.6~1.0、压力0.034 4~68.95 MPa和温度93.3~371.1℃的条件下,两种不同方法得到的计算结果十分吻合,其平均误差仅为-0.21%,平均绝对误差为0.55%,由此证明本模型的正确性且具有较宽的适用范围.应用本模型的计算机程序较查焓熵图版方法具有快捷、简便和适应性好等优点,为工程上进行采输工艺设计和生产动态分析(如天然气水合物的预测和防止等)提供了重要手段.

  12. Role of the Alboran Sea volcanic arc choking the Mediterranean to the Messinian salinity crisis and foundering biota diversification in North Africa and Southeast Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo, Booth-Rea; Ranero, Cesar; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccated 5.96 million years ago when it became isolated from the world oceans during the Messinian salinity crisis. This event permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present rich biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The cause chocking the Mediterranean has been proposed to be tectonic uplift and dynamic topography but the driving mechanism still remains debated. We present a new wide-angle seismic profile that pr...

  13. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  14.   Concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aronia melanocarpa (choke berry) juice by osmotic membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Horn, Vibeke G;

    2009-01-01

    melanocarpa is among the red fruits with the highest content of antioxidants [2] and has gained must interest due to the content of phenolic acids, procyanidins and polyphenolic compounds as anthocyanins [3]. In this study, osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) has been tested for the concentration of not only...

  15. 78 FR 13882 - Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857 in the Sugarloaf Conference Room. Interested persons may present.... Saunders, Acting, Designated Federal Official, SAMHSA, CMHS, National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1610 - Blowout preventer systems and system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., to provide for separate kill and choke lines. (5) A choke line and a kill line each equipped with two full-opening valves. At least one of the valves on the choke line and one valve on the kill line shall.... (7) A choke manifold designed with consideration of anticipated pressures to which it may...

  17. 地佐辛和地塞米松对芬太尼呛咳反应的抑制作用%Dezocine and dexamethasone inhibition of choking cough relfex fentanyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 刘风

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the dezocine, dexamethasone suppress fentanyl-induced cough. Methods 90 cases ASAⅠ-Ⅱ grade anesthesia in patients undergoing elective surgery were randomly divided into three groups. 2 minutes before induction,Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲgroup were given saline 2 mL、the dezocine 0.1 mg/kg、dexamethasone 10 mg, each group was given fentanyl 4μg/kg , after 15seconds, midazolam 0.1 mg/kg, propofol 2 mg/kg (0.4 mL/s), cis-atracurium 0.2 mg/kg was given. The coughing rate and extent of fentanyl was observed, and the hemodynamic changes before and after induction was also observed.Results The incidence of cough was:Ⅰ group, 53.3%,Ⅱ group 13.3%,Ⅲ group, 20.0%. Compared with groupⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ group, the incidence of cough was significantly lower (P<0.05), but between the two experimental groups cough incidence and intensity did not differ significantly. The hemodynamic changes of Each group before and after the induction was consistent. Conclusion Pre-injection of dezocine 0.1 mg/kg, 10 mg of dexamethasone can effectively reduce the fentanyl-induced cough response.%目的:评价地佐辛、地塞米松抑制芬太尼呛咳反应的作用。方法选择90例ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级择期行全麻手术的患者,随机均分为3组。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组分别于诱导前1 min给予生理盐水2 mL、地佐辛0.1 mg/kg、地塞米松10 mg,各组均由外周静脉给予芬太尼4μg/kg,15 s后给予咪达唑仑0.1 mg/kg、丙泊酚2 mg/kg(0.4 ml/s)、顺阿曲库铵0.2 mg/kg。观察芬太尼呛咳的发生率和程度、诱导前后血流动力学的变化。结果各组呛咳的发生率分别为:Ⅰ组53.3%、Ⅱ组13.3%、Ⅲ组20.0%,与Ⅰ组比,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组呛咳的发生率明显降低(P<0.05),但两个试验组间呛咳的发生率及强度并无明显差异。各组诱导前后血流动力学的变化一致。结论预注射地佐辛0.1 mg/kg、10 mg的地塞米松均能有效地减轻芬太尼引发的呛咳反应。

  18. Research about the Choke Points of Chinese Sports Insurance's Development and Countermeasures%我国竞技体育保险业发展的瓶颈及其对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红军

    2007-01-01

    通过文献资料法、专家访谈法对体育保险在当今社会的地位,美国体育保险业的特点以及我国当前竞技体育保险发展的现状、瓶颈问题进行深入地分析和探讨,并为我国竞技体育保险突破当前的瓶颈提出了对策.

  19. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider must watch for 2 important problems: Choking and breathing food particles into your airway (called ... provider if any of the following problems occur: Choking and coughing while eating or drinking Cough, fever, ...

  20. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... block your throat or esophagus and may cause choking. Do not take this product if you have ... take enough water. Otherwise, black psyllium might cause choking. Take at least 150 mL water for each ...

  1. Unconsciousness - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by substance (drug) and alcohol use. Choking on an object can result in unconsciousness as ... and weakness) If the person is unconscious from choking, symptoms may include: Inability to speak Difficulty breathing ...

  2. Stroke - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating safer. The signs of swallowing problems are choking or coughing when eating. Learn tips to make ... redness Pain that is becoming worse Recent falls Choking or coughing when eating Signs of a bladder ...

  3. 16 CFR 1501.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IDENTIFYING TOYS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE WHICH PRESENT CHOKING... under 3 years of age that presents a choking, aspiration, or ingestion hazard because of small...

  4. Olivopontocerebellar atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Speech and physical therapy Techniques to prevent choking Walking aids to help with balance and prevent ... Choking Infection from inhaling food into the lungs ( aspiration pneumonia ) Injury from falls Nutrition problems due to ...

  5. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out for swallowing problems, such as: Coughing or choking, during or after eating Gurgling sounds from your ... lose weight because of swallowing problems. You are choking or coughing when you eat or swallow It ...

  6. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has stopped. This may happen after drowning, suffocation, choking, or an injury. CPR involves: Rescue breathing, which ... need to do CPR on a child include: Choking Drowning Electrical shock Excessive bleeding Head trauma or ...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1337-96 - Engine dynamometer test run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... holders in the sample flow line (filter holders may be preassembled). (8) Follow the manufacturer's choke... the sample flow line (filter holders may be preassembled). (21) Follow the manufacturer's choke...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1319-90 - CVS calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Kv as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For choked flow, Kv will have a relatively constant value... instruments. Be sure to avoid choke condition. (6) Vary the flow through a minimum of eight steps covering...

  9. 75 FR 25272 - Advisory Committee for Women's Services; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... 27, 2010 from 9 a.m. to 12 noon EST: OPEN. Place: 1 Choke Cherry Road, Seneca Conference Room... Women's Services, 1 Choke Cherry Road, ] Room 8-1112, Rockville, Maryland 20857, Telephone: (240)...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1625 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tests, all BOP systems shall be tested to a pressure of 200 to 300 psi. (b) Ram-type BOP's and the choke... of BOP systems required in paragraph (d) of this section, the choke manifold valves, upper and...

  11. 75 FR 22147 - Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Rd., Sugarloaf and Seneca Conference Rooms, Rockville, Maryland 20857. Contact... Management Officer, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 8-1089, Rockville, Maryland 20857, Telephone: (240)...

  12. 77 FR 51545 - Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS); Revised as of August 21, 2012; Amendment of Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... would be convening on August 24, 2012 at 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD. The discussion and... Official, Crystal C. Saunders, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 6-1063, Rockville, MD 20857, telephone number...

  13. 76 FR 34231 - Advisory Committee for Women's Services; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ....m. to 5 p.m. (E.S.T.): Open. Place: 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 8-1070, Rockville, Maryland 20857... Choke Cherry Road, Room 8-1058, Rockville, Maryland 20857, Telephone: (240) 276-2331; Fax: (240)...

  14. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    .... Date/Time/Type: June 27, 2013, 2:30-3:30 p.m. CLOSED. Place: SAMHSA Building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, VTC... CSAT National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 5- 1035, Rockville, Maryland 20857,...

  15. 77 FR 50519 - Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS); Amendment of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... announcing that the CMHS National Advisory Council would be convening on August 24, 2012 at 1 Choke Cherry..., Crystal C. Saunders, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 6-1063, Rockville, MD 20857, telephone number...

  16. 77 FR 50144 - Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS); Amendment of Meeting Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... that the CMHS National Advisory Council would be convening on August 24, 2012 at 1 Choke Cherry Road... CMHS National Advisory Council, Acting Designated Federal Official, Crystal C. Saunders, 1 Choke...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 86 - Vehicle and Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Carburetor-idle RPM, mixture ratio. (3) Choke mechanism. (4) Fuel system filter and fuel system lines and connections. (5) Choke plate and linkage. III. Ignition Components. (1) Ignition timing and advance...

  18. 75 FR 47819 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    .... Date/Time/Type: August 19, 2010, 1- 3 p.m.: Closed. Place: SAMHSA Building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Great... Official, SAMHSA CSAT National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 5- 1035, Rockville,...

  19. 75 FR 38112 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Date/Time/Type: July 14, 2010, 1-3 p.m.: Closed. Place: SAMHSA Building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rock..., SAMHSA CSAT National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 5- 1035, Rockville, Maryland...

  20. 77 FR 12065 - Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ...: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, SAMHSA 1st Floor Conference Rooms, Rockville, Maryland 20857. Contact... Council, SAMHSA's Advisory Committee for Women's Services, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857...:45 p.m. (OPEN). Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Sugarloaf Conference Room, Rockville,...

  1. 78 FR 15961 - Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857 in the 1st floor Conference Rooms. Attendance by the... EDT: Open. Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, SAMHSA 1st floor Conference Rooms, Rockville, Maryland... National Advisory Council and SAMHSA's Advisory Committee for Women's Services, 1 Choke Cherry...

  2. 78 FR 45543 - National Advisory Councils; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... at the SAMHSA building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857 in the 1st floor Conference Rooms.../Time/Type: Thursday, August 15, 2013 from 9 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. EDT: Open. Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry...., Acting Designated Federal Official, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 5-1035, Rockville, Maryland...

  3. 76 FR 13198 - Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    .../Type: March 29, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-5:30 p.m. (OPEN). Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, SAMHSA Conference... Designated Federal Official, SAMHSA National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857... 30, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-12 p.m. (OPEN). Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Sugarloaf Conference...

  4. 16 CFR 1117.5 - Information that must be reported and to whom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND...) The name and address of the subject firm, (3) The name and address of the child who choked and the person(s) who notified the subject firm of the choking incident, (4) Identification of the...

  5. 78 FR 15961 - National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... drug abuse. The meeting is open to the public and will be held at the SAMHSA building, 1 Choke Cherry..., April 12, 2013 from 9 a.m. to 3:30 EDT: OPEN. Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, SAMHSA Sugarloaf...'s Services, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857, Telephone: (240) 276-2326, Fax:...

  6. 78 FR 45544 - Advisory Committee for Women's Services; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Future of SAMHSA. The meeting is open to the public and will be held at the SAMHSA building, 1 Choke.../Type: Wednesday, August 14, 2013 from 9 a.m. to 5:15 EDT: OPEN. Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road..., SAMHSA's Advisory Committee for Women's Services, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland...

  7. 78 FR 45545 - National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Abuse Issues. The meeting is open to the public and will be held at the SAMHSA building, 1 Choke Cherry..., August 16, 2013 from 9 a.m. to 2:30 EDT: Open. Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, SAMHSA Sugarloaf... SAMHSA National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, Maryland 20857, Telephone: (240)...

  8. 78 FR 15962 - Advisory Committee for Women's Services; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... public and will be held at the SAMHSA building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857 in Conference...: OPEN. Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, SAMHSA Conference Room 8- 1070, Rockville, Maryland 20857... Advisory Council and SAMHSA's Advisory Committee for Women's Services, 1 Choke Cherry Road,...

  9. 76 FR 34086 - Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; Request for Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Workplace Programs, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 2-1049, Rockville, MD 20857. Please allow sufficient time for... Administration, Attention: Division of Workplace Programs, 1 Choke Cherry ] Road, Room 2-1049, Rockville, MD... Choke Cherry Road, Room 2-1049, Rockville, MD 20850. To deliver your comments to the Rockville...

  10. 30 CFR 250.443 - What associated systems and related equipment must all BOP systems include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the BOP stack for separate kill and choke lines. If your stack does not have side outlets, you must install a drilling spool with side outlets. (d) A choke and a kill line on the BOP stack. You must equip..., both valves in each line must be remote-controlled. In addition: (1) You must install the choke...

  11. 27 CFR 53.61 - Imposition and rates of tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... choke, a flash hider, a muzzle brake, a magazine, a set of sling swivels, and/or an attachable ramrod... mounts (in addition to iron sights), spare magazines, spare cylinders, extra choke tubes, and spare pins... the firearm, such as telescopic sights and mounts, recoil pads, slings, sling swivels, chokes,...

  12. 40 CFR 86.536-78 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... initial 20 second idle period shall begin when the engine starts. (2) Choke operation. (i) Vehicles equipped with automatic chokes shall be operated according to the instructions in the manufacturer's operating instructions or owner's manual including choke setting and “kick-down” from cold fast idle....

  13. 40 CFR 86.1833-01 - Adjustable parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... idle fuel-air mixture parameter on Otto-cycle vehicles; the choke valve action parameter(s) on... with simple tools in one-half hour or for $20 (1978 dollars) or less; (B) In the case of a choke... members (e.g., the choke vacuum break), the elongation of the adjustable member is limited by design...

  14. 40 CFR 86.136-90 - Engine starting and restarting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... idle period shall begin when the engine starts. (2) Choke operation: (i) Vehicles equipped with automatic chokes shall be operated according to the manufacturer's operating instructions in the owner's manual, including choke setting and “kick-down” from cold fast idle. (ii) Vehicles equipped with...

  15. Design and Analysis of Coalitions in Data Swarming Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Honggang

    2012-01-01

    We design and analyze a mechanism for forming coalitions of peers in a data swarming system where peers have heterogeneous upload capacities. A coalition is a set of peers that explicitly cooperate with other peers inside the coalition via choking, data replication, and capacity allocation strategies. Further, each peer interacts with other peers outside its coalition via potentially distinct choking, data replication, and capacity allocation strategies. Following on our preliminary work in IEEE ICNP 2011 that demonstrated significant performance benefits of coalitions, we present here a comprehensive analysis of the choking and data replication strategies for coalitions. We first develop an analytical model to understand a simple random choking strategy as a within-coalition strategy and show that it accurately predicts a coalition's performance. Our analysis formally shows that the random choking strategy can help a coalition achieve near-optimal performance by optimally choosing the re-choking interval len...

  16. Defending Against LDoS Attacks Using Fair AQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianqin Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the instant high rate and high intensity of LDoS attacks, this paper explores using fair queue management mechanism to mitigate their effect. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of fair AQM FRED and CHOKe under LDoS attacks. The simulation results show that they are able to reduce the impact of the attacks in various degrees. FRED outperforms CHOKe in throttling the attacks, but it is slightly inferior to CHOKe in time performance.

  17. Parametric Amplifiers for Microwave Kinectic Inductance Detector (MKID) Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Find numerical solutions to the non-linear partial differential equations describing our amplifier transmission lines. Optimize periodic choke structure to block...

  18. Observation on clinical therapy effect of tuberculose respiratory tract choke with therapeutic procedures of tiny electronic bronchoscope cut and intervention%经电子气管镜微创介入治疗结核性气道阻塞临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春梅

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨经电子气管镜微创介入治疗结核性气道阻塞的临床疗效.方法 对68例结核性气道阻塞的患者给予全身常规抗结核治疗的同时,加用电子气管镜微创介入治疗,镜下根据气管阻塞情况选择钳夹、刷洗、微波烧灼、激光等微创治疗后再介入抗结核药物.结果 68例中管口完全通畅44例、基本通畅22例.气道阻塞未改变2例.总有效率97%.结论 经电子气管镜微创加介入治疗可逆性结核性气道阻塞疗效肯定,并发症少,有效改善肺不张、防止进一步肺毁损.

  19. 16 CFR 1117.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING... of this part is to set forth the Commission's interpretative regulations for reporting of choking..., distributor, retailer, and importer of a marble, small ball, or latex balloon, or a toy or a game...

  20. 16 CFR 1117.3 - Reportable information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER SMALL PARTS § 1117.3... the company, orally or in writing, which states that a child choked on a marble, small ball, latex balloon, or on a marble, small ball, latex balloon or other small part contained in a toy or game and,...

  1. 16 CFR 1117.4 - Time for filing a report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER SMALL PARTS § 1117.4... reasonably supports the conclusion that an incident occurred in which a child (regardless of age) choked on a... contained in a toy or game and, as a result of that incident the child died, suffered serious injury,...

  2. 75 FR 16488 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Date/Time/Type: April 21, 2010. From 8:30 a.m.-9 a.m.: CLOSED. From 9 a.m.-5 p.m.: OPEN. Place: 1 Choke..., Designated Federal Official, SAMHSA/ CSAT National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room...

  3. 75 FR 16487 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Date/Time/Type: April 21, 2010. From 8:30 a.m.-9 a.m.: Closed. From 9 a.m.-5 p.m.: Open. Place: 1 Choke..., Designated Federal Official, SAMHSA/ CSAT National Advisory Council, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room...

  4. Circuit Controls Turn-On Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    Single choke used in primary circuit with diode arrangement, maintaining dc current flow through choke and setting up a unidirectional magnetic field, limits turn-on current of transformer-rectifier power supply. Technique reduces number and weight of components and minimizes effect of initial inrush surge current on source.

  5. Performance of Axial-Flow Supersonic Compressor of XJ55-FF-1 Turbojet Engine. II - Performance of Inlet Guide Vanes as Separate Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert C.; Tysl, Edward R.

    1949-01-01

    The inlet wide vanes for the supersonic compressor of the XJ55-FF-1 engine were studied as a separate component in order to determine the performance prior to installation in the compressor test rig. Turning angles approached design values, and increased approximately to through the inlet Mach number range from 0.30 to choke. A sharp break in turning angle was experienced when the choke condition was reached. The total-pressure loss through the guide vanes was approximately 1 percent for the unchoked conditions and from 5 to 6 percent when choked.

  6. Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Alfred A

    1946-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is

  7. 75 FR 56113 - Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ..., Sugarloaf and Seneca Conference Rooms, Rockville, Maryland 20857. Open: September 28, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-4 p.m...(s): September 27, 2010 Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Seneca Conference Room,...

  8. Abuse during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partner may try to hurt your body. This physical abuse can include hitting, slapping, kicking, choking, pushing or ... your unborn baby in grave danger. During pregnancy, physical abuse can lead to miscarriage and vaginal bleeding . It ...

  9. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical abuse is hitting hard with a hand or an ... choking, painful grabbing, and kicking also can be physical abuse. Sexual abuse: Your body has private parts. These ...

  10. Innovative Incontinence Surgery: The Male Sling

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... two weeks after surgery. She started choking on food and he did the Heimlich maneuver on her. ... I wore five to six adult pads a day and hampered my lifestyle severely. 00:31:50 ...

  11. Blockage of upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is made through the neck into the airway ( tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy). If the obstruction is due to ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Choking Throat Disorders Tracheal Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  12. Focal neurological deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reflex, swallowing difficulty, and frequent choking Speech or language difficulties, such as aphasia (a problem understanding or producing words) or dysarthria (a problem making the sounds of words), poor enunciation, poor understanding of speech, ...

  13. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 ounces yogurt ¾ ounce cheese 1 string cheese Some foods are easy for your child to choke on while eating. Skip hard, small, whole foods, such as popcorn, nuts, seeds, and hard candy. Cut up foods such ...

  14. Swallowing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysphagia; Impaired swallowing; Choking - food; Globus sensation ... The process of swallowing involves several steps. These include Chewing food Moving it into the back of the mouth Moving it down the ...

  15. Is the "Cinnamon Challenge" Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Your Lungs & Respiratory System Choking Dealing With Peer Pressure What Should I Do if My Friend Is Having an Asthma Attack? Peer Pressure Lungs and Respiratory System Contact Us Print Resources ...

  16. Hysteria, or "suffocation of the mother".

    OpenAIRE

    Merskey, H.; Merskey, S J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand or explain the surprising adherence of prominent physicians throughout the centuries to terms suggesting that the womb could move and cause suffocation, choking or difficulty in swallowing. DATA SOURCES: Hippocratic writings on hysterical symptoms and the views of subsequent authors and contexts surrounding such views. DATA SYNTHESIS: Physicians who followed Hippocrates repeatedly related difficulties in breathing or choking and difficulties in swallowing to the uteru...

  17. Modified 3½-Cell SC Cavity Made of Large Grain Niobium for the FZD SRF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Murcek, P; Michel, P; Moeller, K; Arnold, A; Teichert, J; Xiang, R; Freitag, M; Kneisel, P

    2010-01-01

    An SRF photoinjector has been successfully tested in FZD under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In order to improve the gun cavity quality and thus reach a higher gradient, a new 3+1/2 superconducting cavity is being fabricated in cooperation with JLab. The modified cavity is made of large grain niobium, composed of one filter choke, one special designed half-cell (gun-cell) and three TESLA cavities. In this paper, the main updates of the new cavity design will be explained in detail. The deformation of the filter choke and the gun-cell, which is caused by pressure fluctuation in the He-line and also by the effect of the Lorentz force, will be minimized by stiffening between the filter choke and the gun-cell. Meanwhile, the cathode hole in the choke and gun-cell is enlarged for better rinsing. To simplify assembly, the NbTi pick-up will be welded directly on the wall of filter choke.

  18. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

  19. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  20. Terminal-shock and restart control of a Mach 2.5, axisymmetric, mixed compression inlet with 40 percent internal contraction. [wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of experimental tests conducted on a supersonic, mixed-compression, axisymmetric inlet are presented. The inlet is designed for operation at Mach 2.5 with a turbofan engine (TF-30). The inlet was coupled to either a choked orifice plate or a long duct which had a variable-area choked exit plug. Closed-loop frequency responses of selected diffuser static pressures used in the terminal-shock control system are presented. Results are shown for Mach 2.5 conditions with the inlet coupled to either the choked orifice plate or the long duct. Inlet unstart-restart traces are also presented. High-response inlet bypass doors were used to generate an internal disturbance and also to achieve terminal-shock control.

  1. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  2. Incidental intraoperative diagnosis of retained foreign body lung misdiagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Radhakrishna; Dewan, Ravindra Kumar; Ramchandani, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a very common and lethal problem among children. It can easily be diagnosed with a typical history of choking crisis. Clinical examination and radiology play a secondary role in diagnosis. Acute choking episode may lead to death or else to serious sequels such as bronchiectasis, atelectasis, and recurrent pneumonia. Here, we report an interesting case of bronchiectasis in a young female initially thought to be a consequence of pulmonary tuberculosis, who was subsequently found to have retained foreign body in the left lower lobe lung which was the actual cause of her symptoms. PMID:27578942

  3. Maximum discharge rate of liquid-vapor mixtures from vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discrepancy exists in theoretical predictions of the two-phase equilibrium discharge rate from pipes attached to vessels. Theory which predicts critical flow data in terms of pipe exit pressure and quality severely overpredicts flow rates in terms of vessel fluid properties. This study shows that the discrepancy is explained by the flow pattern. Due to decompression and flashing as fluid accelerates into the pipe entrance, the maximum discharge rate from a vessel is limited by choking of a homogeneous bubbly mixture. The mixture tends toward a slip flow pattern as it travels through the pipe, finally reaching a different choked condition at the pipe exit

  4. Formation mechanism of cracks in saturated sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lu; Zhemin Zheng; Yongren Wu

    2006-01-01

    The formation mechanism of "water film" (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed theoretically and numerically.The theoretical analysis shows that there will be no stable "water film" in the saturated sand if the strength of the skeleton is zero and no positions are choked.It is shown by numerical simulation that stable water films initiate and grow if the choking state keeps unchanged once the fluid velocities decrease to zero in the liquefied sand column.The developments of "water film" based on the model presented in this paper are compared with experimental results.

  5. IR signature study of aircraft engine for variation in nozzle exit area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Nidhi; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-01-01

    In general, jet engines operate with choked nozzle during take-off, climb and cruise, whereas unchoking occurs while landing and taxiing (when engine is not running at full power). Appropriate thrust in an aircraft in all stages of the flight, i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing is achieved through variation in the nozzle exit area. This paper describes the effect on thrust and IR radiance of a turbojet engine due to variation in the exit area of a just choked converging nozzle (Me = 1). The variations in the nozzle exit area result in either choking or unchoking of a just choked converging nozzle. Results for the change in nozzle exit area are analyzed in terms of thrust, mass flow rate and specific fuel consumption. The solid angle subtended (Ω) by the exhaust system is estimated analytically, for the variation in nozzle exit area (Ane), as it affects the visibility of the hot engine parts from the rear aspect. For constant design point thrust, IR radiance is studied from the boresight (ϕ = 0°, directly from the rear side) for various percentage changes in nozzle exit area (%ΔAne), in the 1.9-2.9 μm and 3-5 μm bands.

  6. ‘ SILENT’ LARYNGEAL FOREIGN BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  7. What Are Some of the Basics of Infant Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fever, diarrhea, or difficulty with breathing Some parents worry that their infant will spit up and choke if they are put to sleep on their backs, but this is not the case. Healthy infants naturally swallow or cough up fluids—it's a reflex all people have. Where the opening to the windpipe is ...

  8. Application of RELAP5 to a pipe blowdown experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the RELAP5 computer program to a pipe blowdown experiment is described in this paper. The basic hydrodynamic model, constitutive relations, and special process models included in RELAP5 are also briefly discussed. The results of this application confirm the effectiveness of using a choked flow model

  9. When favourites fail: Tournament trophies as reward cues in tennis finals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Custers, R.; Aarts, H.A.G.

    2011-01-01

    In tournaments in various sports that feature one-on-one competition, the trophy is sometimes prominently displayed near the athletes during the final. Based on recent research on subtle reward cues, we propose that such trophies have the potential to induce choking under pressure in the match favou

  10. 16 CFR 1501.3 - Exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IDENTIFYING TOYS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE WHICH PRESENT CHOKING..., and other paint sets; (i) Rattles (as defined at 16 CFR 1510.2); and (j) Pacifiers (as defined at 16 CFR 1511.2(a))....

  11. 16 CFR 1117.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... various children's games, generally as a playing piece or marker. (f) Serious injury includes not only the..., or other small part. (h) Toy or game includes any toy or game, including those exempt under 16 CFR... CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER SMALL PARTS §...

  12. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  13. Microwave Feeding System Devices Of Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdanovich, B Yu; Kaminsky, V I; Lalayan, M V; Sobenin, N P; Zavadtsev, D A

    2004-01-01

    The simulations, manufacturing and experimental results for two devices of linear collider RF power distribution system are presented. One of these devices is magic tee with movable choke plungers in E- and H-arms for the tuning the coupling-factor and RF phase of highpower accelerating cavities. The QEXT

  14. 16 CFR 1117.8 - Effect of reports on liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of reports on liability. 1117.8 Section 1117.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER...

  15. 16 CFR 1117.6 - Relation to section 15(b) of the CPSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REPORTING OF CHOKING INCIDENTS INVOLVING MARBLES, SMALL BALLS, LATEX BALLOONS AND OTHER SMALL... injury or death. The Commission's rules interpreting this provision are set forth at 16 CFR part 1115... obligation to report under section 15(b) of the CPSA whether or not they obtain information about...

  16. 16 CFR 1500.19 - Misbranded toys and other articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... games, generally as a playing piece or marker. The term “marble” does not include a marble permanently enclosed in a toy or game. A marble is permanently enclosed if, when tested in accordance with 16 CFR 1500... cautionary labeling addressing small parts hazards or choking hazards associated with any toy, game,...

  17. 78 FR 45543 - Center for Mental Health Services; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Advisory Council Designated Federal Official, Ms. Deborah DeMasse-Snell (see contact information below... Building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Great Falls Room, Rockville, Maryland 20857. Contact: Deborah DeMasse-Snell....DeMasse-Snell@samhsa.hhs.gov . Cathy J. Friedman, Public Health Analyst, SAMHSA. BILLING CODE...

  18. How a clogged canal affects ecological and human health in a tropical urban wetland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal city of San Juan, Puerto Rico is a tropical urban ecosystem woven among a series of interconnected bays, lagoons, drains, canals, and mangroves. As the city has expanded, infilling and urban development by the region’s poorest residents has choked an important c...

  19. Successful Treatment of an Iatrogenic Tracheal Laceration With a Temporary Polyurethane-Coated Nitinol Stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin E; Korst, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    We report the case of a 63-year-old woman who required emergent intubation after a choking episode at home. It resulted in a 5-cm tear in the membranous trachea. She was treated by placement of a temporary tracheal stent, which was successfully removed 3 months later. PMID:27343518

  20. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind study comparing 20 and 40 mg of pantoprazole for symptom relief in adolescents (12 to 16 years of age) with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An age-appropriate questionnaire (GASP-Q) was used to assess the frequency and severity of the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms: abdominal/belly pain, chest pain/heartburn, pain after eating, nausea, burping/belching, vomiting/regurgitation, choking when eating, and difficulty swallow...

  1. The LDBC Social Network Benchmark: Interactive Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erling, O.; Averbuch, A.; Larriba-Pey, J.; Chafi, H.; Gubichev, A.; Prat, A.; Pham, M.D.; Boncz, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) is now two years underway and has gathered strong industrial participation for its mission to establish benchmarks, and benchmarking practices for evaluating graph data management systems. The LDBC introduced a new choke-point driven methodology for developin

  2. Biofilm development on new and cleaned membrane surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents a comprehensive research report on microbiological aspects of biofouling occurrence in full-scale reverse osmosis (RO) systems. Biofouling is a process in which microorganisms attach to membranes and develop into a thick film that can choke the entire RO system. Management of th

  3. Letalt forløb efter overset fremmedlegeme i luftvejen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karen Schow; Sommer, Jesper; Toft, Jan Green;

    2012-01-01

    A 52-year-old previously healthy woman suffered death from choking. Asphyxia after aspiration of a foreign body is a well-known, but frequently overlooked cause of sudden death. We describe a case in which a foreign body in the airway was initially overlooked. Early recognition and treatment might...

  4. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke tube

  5. Response of macrobenthic communties to oil spills along Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gregory, A.

    important oil choke point. This is followed by the Strait of Malacca, which connects the Indian Ocean with the South China Sea and is close to the Andaman Sea. Oil bound for Japan, South Korea, China and other Pacific rim countries passes through...

  6. Transformation of Epichloë typhina by electroporation of conidia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choke, caused by the endophytic fungus Epichloë typhina is an important disease of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) grown for seed. Very little is known concerning the conditions necessary for successful infection of orchardgrass by E. typhina. Detection of E. typhina early in the disease cycle ...

  7. Reduction of dangerously aggressive behavior in a severely retarded resident through a combination of positive reinforcement procedures1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelich, Ron; Hake, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A severely retarded resident was released from a timeout chair only occasionally for brief periods of time. Under the timeout contingency alone, the subject made a choke response within minutes of being released. Attention, such as hugs, smiles, and candy was then increased, first by providing it non-contingently and continuously as long as there were no aggressive responses and then, by making it contingent upon incompatible responses. Under conditions of timeout plus increased attention, choking decreased aburptly. Grabbing responses, which increased when choking was reduced, were also reduced under conditions of timeout plus attention. Unrestrained time was gradually increased and all extra attention, i.e., more scheduled attention than provided other residents, was gradually withdrawn. When the resident was unrestrained all day and all extra attention was withdrawn, grabs and, to a lesser extent, chokes increased. Both were again reduced to a manageable level by scheduling several brief periods of attention each day. Hence, the program resulted in quick reductions that endured when the program was largely withdrawn. The changes in aggressive responding as a function of the presence and absence of extra attention suggest the importance of extra “positive reinforcement” in programs based upon positive reinforcement procedures and dealing with retarded residents for whom positive reinforcers may be scarce. PMID:16795297

  8. Weed-suppressive bacteria to reduce annual grass weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica L.) are exotic, annual grasses that negatively affect cereal production in cropland; reduce protein-rich forage for cattle; choke out native plants in the shrub-steppe habi...

  9. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  10. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergencies A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Heat-Related ... if the person becomes unconscious. READ IN EMERGENCIES A-Z Seizures Teeth (Dental Emergencies) Choking (Heimlich Maneuver) ...

  11. Theoretical Investigation of Operation Modes of MHD Generators for Energy-bypass Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingfeng Tang; Nan Li; Daren Yu

    2014-01-01

    A MHD generator with different arrangements of electromagnetic fields will lead the generator working in three modes.A quasi-one-dimensional approximation is used for the model of the MHD generator to analyze the inner mechanism of operation modes.For the MHD generator with a uniform constant magnetic field,a specific critical electric field Ecr is required to decelerate a supersonic entrance flow into a subsonic exit flow.Otherwise,the generator works in a steady mode with a larger electric field than Ecr in which a steady supersonic flow is provided at the exit,or the generator works in a choked mode with a smaller electric field than Ecr in which the supersonic entrance flow is choked in the channel.The detailed flow field characteristics in different operation modes are discussed,demonstrating the relationship of operation modes with electromagnetic fields.

  12. Of Mussels and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2016-08-01

    Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species. Understanding the "rules" that govern the numbers and diversity of species in an ecosystem is essential to efficient and sustainable management. But those same rules apply to us. Free of predation, humans are swarming over the planet, choking out other species. We are the planetary mussels. What next? A "mussel-bound" world, or perhaps renewed microbial predation? PMID:27585022

  13. Critical flow phenomena and modeling in advanced nuclear safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge could be non-choking or choking, depending on the break shape, length and conditions. This presents a challenge in the calculation of standard problems. A stable experiment of water was performed to study the break flow rate in nozzles of diameter of 1.41 and 2.0 mm with rounded-edge and sharp-edge. The pressure covered the ranges of 0.5 to 29.5 MPa, inlet quality 0 to 1.0 and subcooling up to 350 C. The results exhibited a close relation of thermal non-equilibrium with pressure. For supercritical pressure a modified equilibrium model in combination with the Bernoulli equation is presented.

  14. Hanging on the line – on the need to assess the risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure – an example of the Hawaiian "bottleneck" and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominey-Howes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available National economies are becoming increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system – and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. We note that a variety of natural hazard processes are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure, both in deep water and at the coast. Some places within the global telecommunications system are already known to be bottlenecks or "choke points". Hawaii is just such a choke point and interestingly, Hawaii is also affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazard processes. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia. We propose that proper risk assessments be undertaken at all bottlenecks in the global telecommunications system affected by natural hazards (such as tsunami. We use Hawaii as an example of the sort of research that should be undertaken.

  15. Modeling of Compressible Flow with Friction and Heat Transfer Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.

  16. A tabulation of pipe length to diameter ratios as a function of Mach number and pressure ratios for compressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G. V.; Barringer, S. R.; Gray, C. E.; Leatherman, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs and resulting tabulations are presented of pipeline length-to-diameter ratios as a function of Mach number and pressure ratios for compressible flow. The tabulations are applicable to air, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for compressible isothermal flow with friction and compressible adiabatic flow with friction. Also included are equations for the determination of weight flow. The tabulations presented cover a wider range of Mach numbers for choked, adiabatic flow than available from commonly used engineering literature. Additional information presented, but which is not available from this literature, is unchoked, adiabatic flow over a wide range of Mach numbers, and choked and unchoked, isothermal flow for a wide range of Mach numbers.

  17. Experimental study of critical flow of water at supercritical pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhou CHEN; Chunsheng YANG; Shuming ZHANG; Minfu ZHAO; Kaiwen DU; Xu CHENG

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies of the critical flow of water were conducted under steady-state conditions with a nozzle 1.41mm in diameter and 4.35 mm in length, covering the inlet pressure range of 22.1-26.8 MPa and inlet temperature range of 38^74°C. The parametric trend of the flow rate was investigated, and the experimental data were compared with the predictions of the homogeneous equilibrium model, the Bernoulli correlation, and the models used in the reactor safety analysis code RELAP5/ MOD3.3. It is concluded that in the near or beyond pseudo-critical region, thermal-dynamic equilibrium is dominant, and at a lower temperature, choking does not occur. The onset of the choking condition is not predicted reasonably by the RELAP5 code.

  18. Electromagnetic interference filter for automotive electrical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Carlson, Douglas S; Tang, David; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-02

    A filter for an automotive electrical system includes a substrate having first and second conductive members. First and second input terminals are mounted to the substrate. The first input terminal is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second input terminal is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A plurality of capacitors are mounted to the substrate. Each of the capacitors is electrically connected to at least one of the first and second conductive members. First and second power connectors are mounted to the substrate. The first power connector is electrically connected to the first conductive member, and the second power connector is electrically connected to the second conductive member. A common mode choke is coupled to the substrate and arranged such that the common mode choke extends around at least a portion of the substrate and the first and second conductive members.

  19. Critical flow phenomena and modeling in advanced nuclear safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuzhou [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    The discharge could be non-choking or choking, depending on the break shape, length and conditions. This presents a challenge in the calculation of standard problems. A stable experiment of water was performed to study the break flow rate in nozzles of diameter of 1.41 and 2.0 mm with rounded-edge and sharp-edge. The pressure covered the ranges of 0.5 to 29.5 MPa, inlet quality 0 to 1.0 and subcooling up to 350 C. The results exhibited a close relation of thermal non-equilibrium with pressure. For supercritical pressure a modified equilibrium model in combination with the Bernoulli equation is presented.

  20. A life-threatening respiratory complication of gastro-oesophageal reflux in a patient with tetraplegia.

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, I P; Gear, M. W.; Wilkinson, S P

    1987-01-01

    Recurrent attacks of life-threatening dyspnoea and choking occurred in a patient with tetraplegia. Conventional investigations for gastro-oesophageal reflux were normal, but 24-hour oesophageal pH recording revealed gross reflux in association with an attack of dyspnoea. Surgical correction of the reflux abolished the attacks. The possibility of autonomic dysreflexia as the mechanism linking reflux and respiratory symptoms in this patient is discussed.

  1. Book Review: The future is not what it used to be: climate change and energy scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    "The Future Is Not What it Used to Be: Climate Change and Energy Scarcity." Jörg Friedrichs. MIT Press. September 2013. --- In this book, Jorg Friedrichs argues that industrial society itself is transitory, and he examines the prospects for our civilization’s coming to terms with its two most imminent choke points: climate change and energy scarcity. The author contends that industrial civilization cannot outlast our ability to burn fossil fuels and that the demise of industrial society would...

  2. What is Pressure? Evidence for Social Pressure as a Type of Regulatory Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Darrell A. Worthy; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that pressure leads to choking when learning to classify items based on an explicit rule, but leads to excelling when learning to classify based on an implicit strategy. In this paper we relate social pressure to regulatory focus theory. We propose that the effects of pressure on performance arise because pressure induces a prevention focus that interacts with the more local reward structure of the task. To test this hypothesis, we repeat this previous research with...

  3. An hybrid ensemble based approach for process parameter estimation in offshore oil platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Baraldi, Piero; Zio, Enrico; Mangili, Francesca; Gola, Giulio; Nystad, Bent H.

    2011-01-01

    International audience The valve flow coefficient is commonly used as a parameter to assess the erosion state of choke valves in offshore oil platforms. In particular, the difference between the theoretical value of the valve flow coefficient and its actual value calculated during operation is retained as the valve health indicator. The actual valve flow coefficient is analytically calculated from the oil, water and gas mass flow rates. These quantities, which are allocated on a daily basi...

  4. Gender Differences in Reaction to Psychological Pressure: Evidence from Tennis Players

    OpenAIRE

    De Paola, Maria; Scoppa, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Using data on about 35,000 professional tennis matches, we test whether men and women react differently to psychological pressure arising from the outcomes of sequential stages in a competition. We show that, with respect to males, females losing the first set are much more likely to play poorly the second set, choking under the pressure of falling behind and receiving negative feedback. The gender differential is stronger in high stakes matches. On the other hand, when players are tied in th...

  5. No Sandstorm in a Teacup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANCISCO; LITTLE

    2006-01-01

    The sand was everywhere, covering the city like dirty talcum powder. It choked, clogged and floated its way into the lives of Beijing residents in a day of madness. Well it had actually been four days of madness. You felt it in your eyes, hair, teeth and worst of all you had to breathe this wind bom menace that lingered painfully like unwanted relatives at Christmas time. On the way to work April 17, even people used to pollution and poor weather were

  6. Secure Reconciliation for Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y; Chen, J; Gui, Y; Wu, L; Guo, G; Zhao, Yi-bo; Han, Zheng-fu; Chen, Jin-jian; Gui, You-zhen; Wu, Ling-an; Guo, Guang-can

    2006-01-01

    The Continuous Variable approach for Quantum Key Distribution has been presented for a long time. Up to now how to effectively realize the reconciliation, one of the important steps for this approach, turns to be a choke point. In this paper, an effective single-bit-reconciliation protocol for Gauss modulated method is given, which is proved secure and effective even the transmission distance longer than 100km.

  7. Gamma Ray Bursts as Neutrino Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, P

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst sources appear to fulfill all the conditions for being efficient cosmic ray accelerators, and being extremely compact, are also expected to produce multi-GeV to PeV neutrinos. I review the basic model predictions for the expected neutrino fluxes in classical GRBs as well as in low luminosity and choked bursts, discussing the recent IceCube observational constraints and implications from the observed diffuse neutrino flux.

  8. Anticipation of distress after discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in the ICU at the end of life

    OpenAIRE

    Kompanje, Erwin; Hoven, Ben; Bakker, Jan

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A considerable number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) die following withdrawal of mechanical ventilation. After discontinuation of ventilation without proper preparation, excessive respiratory secretion is common, resulting in a 'death rattle'. Post-extubation stridor can give rise to the relatives' perception that the patient is choking and suffering. Existing protocols lack adequate anticipatory preparation to respond to all distressing symptoms...

  9. H type tracheoesophageal fistula detected by radionuclide salivagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Congenital H type tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare anomaly in infants and the early diagnosis of this disorder is still a challenge to pediatricians due to scarcity, non specific symptoms and lack of a single diagnostic examination. We report the case of a 3 month old baby with choking and recurrent aspiration which finally turned out to be a tracheoesophageal fistula without esophageal atresia (H type)by radionuclide salivagram.

  10. Management of Panic Anxiety with Agoraphobia by Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, Naeem

    2012-01-01

    Panic disorder with agoraphobia is a psychological disorder. We are presenting a case report of male client, visted as out door patient in the counseling centre of National Institute of psychology. Client reported the symptoms such as palpitations, pounding heart, accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling/shaking, feeling of choking, chest pain, discomfort, nausea, abdominal distress, feeling dizzy, lightheadedness, and fear of losing control when he is in the crowd. The signs and symptoms ...

  11. Modelling three-phase releases of carbon dioxide from high-pressure pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Martynov, S.; S. Brown; Mahgerefteh, H.; Sundara, V.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a three-phase flow model for predicting the transient outflow following the failure of pressurised CO2 pipelines and vessels. The choked flow parameters at the rupture plane, spanning the dense-phase and saturated conditions to below the triple point, are modelled by maximisation of the mass flowrate with respect to pressure and solids mass fraction at the triple point. The pertinent solid/vapour/liquid phase equilibrium data...

  12. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)

  13. The effect of Reynolds number on transonic compressor blade rotor section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti Amiri, H.; Shahrabi Farahani, A.; Khazaei, H.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of Reynolds number on transonic compressor blade rotor section is investigated. After passing through the first transonic compressor stages , the flow becomes remarkably compressed. In the present work, it is intended to numerically investigate the effects of the inflow Reynolds number on the unique incidence, flow losses, deviation angle, and shock position, at three different important points of "Minimum Loss" and "Choked Flow" in started conditions and "Stall Operation" in un-started conditions.

  14. Features of Traction Transformer Windings Utilised as Inductances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Danzer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses features of traction transformer desing. Secondary windings of the transformer are utilized as a choke of an locomotive input filter at DC supplying system. Different ways of connections of the secondary windings coils are compared, reachable inductances are determined and forces affecting the coils are computed. The analysis is performed by FEM method for differend locomotive operating modes including breakdown service.

  15. Robust control solutions for stabilizing flow from the reservoir: S-Riser experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilpour Abardeh, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    One of the best suggested solutions for prevention of severe-slugging flow conditions at offshore oilfields is the active control of the production choke valve. This thesis is a study of robust control solutions for stabilizing multiphase flow inside the riser systems; through S-riser experiments and OLGA simulations. ?Nonlinearity? as the important characteristic of slugging system poses some challenges for control. Focus of this thesis is on online tuning rules that take into account nonlin...

  16. Botulinum toxin for upper oesophageal sphincter dysfunction in neurological swallowing disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Walshe, Margaret; Coughlan, Tara; MCMAHON, BARRY; REGAN, JULIE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED Art. No.: CD009968. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009968.pub2 Adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening is critical to safe and efficient swallowing due to the close proximity of the UOS to the airway entrance. Many people with neurological conditions, progressive and non-progressive, present with UOS dysfunction. The consequences for the person include difficulty swallowing food with subsequent choking and aspiration (passage of material into the trachea beyond the level o...

  17. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  18. VOICES FROM THE PEOPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Stabilizing the Housing Market Guo Guoqing: deputy to the 11th NPC and Director of the China Marketing Research Center at Renmin University of China The country is now faced with the ur-gent task of curbing surges in house prices in major cities that is choking consumption and widening the rich-poor gap. To achieve this, it will be necessary to clamp down on speculators hoarding empty houses and property developers sitting on unused land.

  19. Security through Design in the Public Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan, Daniel Richard

    2015-01-01

    The following thesis project is an investigation in the topic of security through design. The study sought a site and program susceptible to attack in the public environment in order to design an appropriate response to the inherent tension from those attributes. The work represents an architectural reaction to the engineered assessments and solutions that permeate the post 9/11 world. The seemingly indiscriminate deployment of bollards, planters, and jersey barriers choke the ...

  20. Decoupling the scholarly journal

    OpenAIRE

    Jason ePriem; Bradley H. Hemminger

    2012-01-01

    Although many observers have advocated the reform of the scholarly publishing system, improvementsto functions like peer review have been adopted sluggishly. We argue that this is due to the tightcoupling of the journal system: the system's essential functions of archiving, registration,dissemination, and certification are bundled together and siloed into tens of thousands of individualjournals. This tight coupling makes it difficult to change any one aspect of the system, choking outinnovati...

  1. Disordered Eating and Food Restrictions in Children with PANDAS/PANS

    OpenAIRE

    Toufexis, Megan D.; Hommer, Rebecca; Gerardi, Diana M.; Grant, Paul; Rothschild, Leah; D'Souza, Precilla; Williams, Kyle; Leckman, James; Swedo, Susan E.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sudden onset clinically significant eating restrictions are a defining feature of the clinical presentation of some of the cases of pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS). Restrictions in food intake are typically fueled by contamination fears; fears of choking, vomiting, or swallowing; and/or sensory issues, such as texture, taste, or olfactory concerns. However, body image distortions may also be present. We investigate the clinical presentation of PANS disordered...

  2. Computational modelling of the shot pattern of a sporting shotgun

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, R.; Thomson, R. D.; Birkbeck, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    There is an abundance of experimental data on the ballistic performance of sporting shotguns. However the successful development of computational models, that will help to reduce the commercial and environmental costs of extensive test programs, has been elusive. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a 3-D model that uses a commercial implementation of the distinct element method. The simulation gives realistic results for the effect of muzzle chokes on the spread of shot and...

  3. Expertise mission at the Rance river estuary; Mission d'expertise sur l'estuaire de la rance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The Rance tidal power plant was inaugurated in 1968. This report presents the environmental impacts of the dam (choking up of Rance river with marine sediments) and proposes several remedial actions for the preservation of the site: dredging and agricultural valorization of muds by spreading. This project leads to several questions which are analyzed in the document: populations reaction, salinity of muds, dimensions of the decantation pool, impact of muds on cultures, lack of alternative solutions etc.. (J.S.)

  4. POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE ASIAN CLIMBING PERCH ON QUEENSLAND

    OpenAIRE

    East, Miriam; Micke, Wade

    2008-01-01

    Risk of establishment of the freshwater climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) in mainland Queensland from the Torres Strait is high. The species is dispersed through human assistance and/or attributes that assist its own spread. The species has the potential to out-compete native freshwater and estuarine species, and has sharp well-developed gill plates and spines that may choke and kill predatory species like barramundi if swallowed. The presence of climbing perch would severely impact Queensl...

  5. Internet Censorship in China: Where Does the Filtering Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueyang; Mao, Z. Morley; Halderman, J. Alex

    China filters Internet traffic in and out of the country. In order to circumvent the firewall, it is helpful to know where the filtering occurs. In this work, we explore the AS-level topology of China's network, and probe the firewall to find the locations of filtering devices. We find that even though most filtering occurs in border ASes, choke points also exist in many provincial networks. The result suggests that two major ISPs in China have different approaches placing filtering devices.

  6. Early Recognition of H-Type Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riazulhaq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF without associated esophageal atresia (EA is a rare congenital anomaly. Diagnosis in neonatal period is usually not made and most of the patients are treated as cases of pneumonia. A case of H-type of tracheoesophageal fistula, diagnosed within 24 hours of delivery based upon choking and cyanosis on first trial of feed, is being reported. Diagnosis was confirmed with contrast esophagram. Through cervical approach fistula was repaired and baby had uneventful post operative outcome.

  7. Inspecting the supernova gamma-ray burst connection with high-energy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Tamborra, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been often considered as the natural evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). While GRBs with relativistic jets emit an electromagnetic signal, GRBs with mildly relativistic jets are opaque to photons and, therefore, could be detectable through neutrinos only. We discuss the possibility that successful GRBs and choked jets belong to the same class of astrophysical transients with different Lorentz factor Gamma_b and study the production of high-energy neutrinos as a function of Gamma_b, by including both proton-photon and proton-proton interactions. By assuming a SN-GRB connection, we find that the diffuse neutrino emission from optically thick jets with intermediate Lorentz factors with respect to the ones of choked and successful GRBs can be one of the main components of the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux. Moreover, under the assumption that choked and successful jets belong to the same class of astrophysical transients, we show that the IceCube hig...

  8. Appropriate Separator Sizing: A Modified Stewart and Arnold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boukadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas separators were one of the first pieces of production equipment to be used in the petroleum industry. The different stages of separation are completed using the following three principles: gravity, centrifugal force, and impingement. The sizes of the oil droplets, in the production water, are based mainly on the choke valve pressure drop. The choke valve pressure drop creates a shearing effect; this reduces the ability of the droplets to combine. One of the goals of oil separation is to reduce the shearing effect of the choke. Separators are conventionally designed based on initial flow rates; as a result, the separator is no longer able to accommodate totality of produced fluids. Changing fluid flow rates as well as emulsion viscosity effect separator design. The reduction in vessel performance results in recorded measurements that do not match actual production levels inducing doubt into any history matching process and distorting reservoir management programs. In this paper, the new model takes into account flow rates and emulsion viscosity. The generated vessel length, vessel diameter, and slenderness ratio monographs are used to select appropriate separator size based on required retention time. Model results are compared to API 12J standards.

  9. The Social Capital of the Silver Ornaments in Northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warit Witsrutwait

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The silver ornaments is the well known handicraft for Chum Chon Ban Choke, Tambon Khawao Sinrin, Amphoe Khawao Sinrin and Surin province. The study of social capital concerning silver ornaments at Ban Choke community, the Khmer ethnic focused on the low quality of the making the silver ornaments. The silver craftsmen earned less income because the capital productions were higher. Some craftsmen stopped making the silver ornaments to find new jobs for getting more income. That was the problem for the remaining of a silver ornaments handicraft. The purpose of the study was to study the management of social capital of silver ornament making at Chum Chon Ban Choke. Approach: It was qualitative and carried out using documentary studies, surveys, observations, and interviews and focused group discussions, 47 research informants were community and silver market leaders, silver craftsmen, shop owners, buyers, government and private personnel over looking promotion and development of silver ornaments in Surin Province. The analysis of data was done descriptively. Results: The social capital was divided into 2 categories internal and external. The internal social capital included the traditional skills of making silver ornaments and social and cultural coherence of the people. The second one came from capitalism and economic development, such as, roads, vehicles, electricity, mass media and markets. To some extent, Chum Chon Ban Choke changed. People picked up a new habit of buying goods from outside, Spending more with limited income made people go into debt. What made things even worse were low prices of their farm produce and severe droughts. The people who were in the business of silver ornaments came up with a plan bringing government and private entrepreneurs to revitalize social capital by running workshop trainings and using appropriate technology, such as, setting up a village fund, farm machinery and establish community

  10. Study of a superconducting spoke-type cavity and of its associated power coupler; Etude d'une cavite acceleratrice supraconductrice de type spoke et de son coupleur de puissance associe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielot, Ch

    2004-12-01

    This work deals with the study of a spoke-type cavity and its associated power coupler. The results of this study are used in the framework of the high power proton linear accelerator of the experimental accelerator-driven system project (XADS). The cavity (F=352 MHz, {beta}=0.35) was tested at 4 K and 2 K. The results at 4 K gave good margins toward XADS requirements that increase the reliability of a spoke based driver. At 2 K the accelerating field reached is the highest in the world for spoke cavities: 16 MV/M. The position and diameter of the coupling have been optimized in order to decrease the HF losses and avoid multi-factor risk. In order to decrease HF losses (taking into account the 20 kW power fed into the cavity) the electric coupling mode has been chosen. Different types of ceramic windows have been studied in order to make this critical point of the coupler reliable: coaxial disk with or without chokes or empty coaxial cylinder. The optimization process focused on the reflected power, the losses in the ceramic and the surface electric field. The risk with chokes has been modeled and studied with the propagation lines theory. A systematic study of the different windows has been done regarding the geometrical parameters. The disk without chokes seems to be a good solution for our application. The power source will be a solid state amplifier (for reliability and modularity reasons). An all over coaxial coupler can be designed and will be fabricated and tested soon. (author)

  11. Simplified geometric model for the calculation of neutron yield in an accelerator of 18 MV for radiotherapy; Modelo geometrico simplificado para el calculo del rendimiento de neutrones en un acelerador de 18 MV para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C.; Balcazar G, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The results of the neutrons yield in different components of the bolster of an accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MV for radiotherapy are presented, which contribute to the radiation of flight of neutrons in the patient and bolster planes. For the calculation of the neutrons yield, a simplified geometric model of spherical cell for the armor-plating of the bolster with Pb and W was used. Its were considered different materials for the Bremsstrahlung production and of neutrons produced through the photonuclear reactions and of electro disintegration, in function of the initial energy of the electron. The theoretical result of the total yield of neutrons is of 1.17x10{sup -3} n/e, considering to the choke in position of closed, in the patient plane with a distance source-surface of 100 cm; of which 15.73% corresponds to the target, 58.72% to the primary collimator, 4.53% to the levelled filter of Fe, 4.87% to the levelled filter of Ta and 16.15% to the closed choke. For an initial energy of the electrons of 18 MeV, a half energy of the neutrons of 2 MeV was obtained. The calculated values for radiation of experimental neutrons flight are inferior to the maxima limit specified in the NCRP-102 and IEC-60601-201.Ed.2.0 reports. The absorbed dose of neutrons determined through the measurements with TLD dosemeters in the isocenter to 100 cm of the target when the choke is closed one, is approximately 3 times greater that the calculated for armor-plating of W and 1.9 times greater than an armor-plating of Pb. (Author)

  12. Comparison of Standard and Novel Signal Analysis Approaches to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife eRoebuck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a disorder characterised by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep, which leads to deoxygenation and voiced chokes at the end of each episode. OSA is associated by daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of serious conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Between 2-7% of the adult population globally has OSA, but it is estimated that up to 90% of those are undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis of OSA requires expensive and cumbersome screening. Audio offers a potential non-contact alternative, particularly with the ubiquity of excellent signal processing on every phone.Previous studies have focused on the classification of snoring and apnoeic chokes. However, such approaches require accurate identification of events. This leads to limited accuracy and small study populations. In this work we propose an alternative approach which uses multiscale entropy (MSE coefficients presented to a classifier to identify disorder in vocal patterns indicative of sleep apnoea. A database of 858 patients was used, the largest reported in this domain. Apnoeic choke, snore, and noise events encoded with speech analysis features were input into a linear classifier. Coefficients of MSE derived from the first 4 hours of each recording were used to train and test a random forest to classify patients as apnoeic or not.Standard speech analysis approaches for event classification achieved an out of sample accuracy (Ac of 76.9% with a sensitivity (Se of 29.2% and a specificity (Sp of 88.7% but high variance. For OSA severity classification, MSE provided an out of sample Ac of 79.9%, Se of 66.0% and Sp = 88.8%. Including demographic information improved the MSE-based classification performance to Ac = 80.5%, Se = 69.2%, Sp = 87.9%. These results indicate that audio recordings could be used in screening for OSA, but are generally under-sensitive.

  13. A restoration plan for the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The Fly River Catchment drains about 3,300 km2 of southwester Papua New Guinea. The Fly River and its largest tributary, the Strickland river, are both subject to sediment discharges from mines in their headwaters. However, because of a naturally large sediment load, the increased loading on the Strickland and on the Lower fly below the confluence of the two rivers is not problematic. However, the discharge form the Ok Tedi mine into a tributaries of the Fly by the same name has choked po...

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) final report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) has resulted in an overview of a first-generation tandem mirror reactor. The central cell fusion plasma is self-sustained by alpha heating (ignition), while electron-cyclotron resonance heating and negative ion beams maintain the electrostatic confining potentials in the end plugs. Plug injection power is reduced by the use of high-field choke coils and thermal barriers, concepts to be tested in the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) and Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  15. Miedo a la evaluación negativa, autoestima y presión psicológica:Efectos sobre el rendimiento deportivo en adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, José; Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M.; Sandín, Bonifacio

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en examinar el miedo a la evaluación negativa y la autoestima como posibles factores moduladores del choking (caída del rendimiento deportivo asociado a la presión psicológica). Participaron 100 estudiantes de secundaria (el 56% eran mujeres), los cuales cumplimentaron la Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) y la Self-Esteem Scale (SES) antes de participar en un set de bádminton en condiciones de baja y alta presión. Los datos b...

  16. Learning control for riser-slug elimination and production-rate optimization for an offshore oil and gas production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production attracts lot of attention due to it's limitation of production rate, periodic overload on processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergency shutdown. This work aims at two correlated objectives: (i) Preventing slugging flow; and meanwhile......, (ii) maximizing the production rate at the riser of an offshore production platform, by manipulating a topside choke valve through a learning switching model-free PID controller. The results show good steady-state performance, though a long settling time due to the unknown reference for no slugging...

  17. Lessons Carved in Stone: Basics of Buddhism at Sichuan's Dazu Rock Carvings Part Ⅱ%大足石刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The thing is, even with the carvings to yourself, there's still too much to appreciate in one visit. The figures choke the cliff face, telling stories on salvation via animated figures tinted in rosy ochre,plum, lapis lazuli and gold leaf. I began with Sakyamuni's Filial Piety, 68 statues which depicted the prince's devout attention to his parents and self-sacrifice through such acts as nourishing them by cutting off a slice of his own flesh and offering his eye as medicine when his father fell ill.

  18. Eight-fold signal amplification of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector using a multiple-avalanche architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Qingyuan; Dane, Andrew; Najafi, Faraz; Bellei, Francesco; De Fazio, Domenico; Sunter, Kristen; Ivry, Yachin; Berggren, Karl K

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire avalanche single-photon detectors (SNAPs) with n parallel nanowires are advantageous over single-nanowire detectors because their output signal amplitude scales linearly with n. However, the SNAP architecture has not been viably demonstrated for n > 4. To increase n for larger signal amplification, we designed a multi-stage, successive-avalanche architecture which used nanowires, connected via choke inductors in a binary-tree layout. We demonstrated an avalanche detector with n = 8 parallel nanowires and achieved eight-fold signal amplification, with a timing jitter of 54 ps.

  19. Analysis of ventilation systems subjected to explosive transients: far-field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in developing a far-field explosion simulation computer code is outlined. The term far-field implies that this computer code is suitable for modeling explosive transients in ventilation systems that are far removed from the explosive event and are rather insensitive to the particular characteristics of the explosive event. This type of analysis is useful when little detailed information is available and the explosive event is described parametrically. The code retains all the features of the TVENT code and allows completely compressible flow with inertia and choking effects. Problems that illustrate the capabilities and limitations of the code are described

  20. Anti-Slug Control with Non-Linear State Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Syre, Terese Vardenær

    2012-01-01

    In offshore production, the two-phase mixture of oil and gas is transported from the seabed oil wells to the surface facilities by pipelines and risers. The two-phase flow can have different flow regimes, where severe slugging is one undesirable flow regime and an effective solution is needed to prevent it. The recommended solution is active control of the top-side choke valve. Previously, controllability analysis is done of two-phase flow in a 4-state pipeline-riser model. This analyze concl...

  1. Aerodynamic performance of 0.4066-scale model to JT8D refan stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. D.; Kovich, G.; Tysl, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a scale model of the split flow JT8D rafan stage is presented over a range of flows at speeds from 40 to 100 percent design. The bypass stage peak efficiency of 0.800 occurred at a total weight flow of 35.82 kilograms per second and a pressure ratio of 1.697. The stall margin was 15 percent based on pressure ratio and weight flow at stall and peak efficiency conditions. The data indicated that the hub region of the core stators was choked at design speed over the entire flow range tested.

  2. The Role of the Craniocervical Junction in Craniospinal Hydrodynamics and Neurodegenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Flanagan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The craniocervical junction (CCJ is a potential choke point for craniospinal hydrodynamics and may play a causative or contributory role in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, MS, and ALS, as well as many other neurological conditions including hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraines, seizures, silent-strokes, affective disorders, schizophrenia, and psychosis. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the critical role of the CCJ in craniospinal hydrodynamics and to stimulate further research that may lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of the above neurodegenerative and neurological conditions.

  3. Valveless Thermally-Driven Phase-Change Micropump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沫然; 李志信

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic model with moving heat sources was developed to analyze the pumping mechanism of a valveless thermally-driven phase-change micropump. The coupled equations were solved to determine the pumping characteristics. The numerical results agree with experimental data from micropumps with different diameter microtubes. The maximum flow rate reached 33 μL / min and the maximum pump pressure was over 20 kPa for a 200-μm diameter microtube. Analysis of the pumping mechanism shows that the main factors affecting the flow come from the large density difference between the liquid and vapor phases and the choking effect of the vapor region.

  4. Delay by Staged Elevation of Flaps and Importance of Inclusion of the Perforator Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Acartürk, Tahsin Oğuz; Dinçyürek, Hüseyin; Dağlıoğlu, Kenan

    2014-01-01

    “Surgical delay” is aimed at increasing blood flow to adjacent angiosomes by opening choke vessels, to obtain larger and more reliable flaps. We hypothesized that staged elevation (delay) from distal to proximal, in addition to preservation perforator artery near the base will improve survival. Thirty-two Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and 3x8cm caudal McFarlane flaps were elevated. In “delay” groups the 3 × 4 cm distal part was elevated and sutured back, with complete elevati...

  5. Detection of ''beading faults'' in welded tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the steel tube industry the word ''beading'' refers to a highly localised leak affecting the welded zone. During the pneumatic test its flow rate is generally very low no more than a few thousandths of a mm3/second. Detection of such a fault by this test is consequently slow, and those which are choked or at the limit of leakage may escape detection. For greater safety, the tube technician is now using non-destructive testing methods such as eddy-currents and ultrasonics

  6. Radial Forces in a Centrifugal Compressor; Experimental Investigation by Using Magnetic Bearings and Static Pressure Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arttu REUNANEN; Jaakko LARJOLA

    2005-01-01

    The volute of a centrifugal compressor causes a non-uniform pressure distribution which leads to a radial force on the impeller. This force was measured using magnetic bearings. In addition, the radial force was estimated using the static pressure distribution measured at the impeller outlet. The impeller force was found to be the highest at choke, the lowest at the design flow and moderate at stall. The radial force determined from the pressure measurements was only slightly different from the force obtained from the bearing measurements. The rotational speed was seen to affect the force to some extent.

  7. Exploitation of existing Voice over Internet Protocol Technology for the Navy application

    OpenAIRE

    Vegter, Henry M.; Wallace, David T.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis documents an investigation into the technology of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). VoIP promises to be a widely accepted technology in the future. The issues of efficient use of bandwidth over network choke points, cost savings gained from a common data and voice infrastructure, reduced cost associated with toll calls and the merger of the telephone with the desktop will keep adoption of this technology on the path to ubiquitous use. Topics explored in the thesis include conve...

  8. [Newborn sleep positioners and sudden infant death syndrome risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Norma Elena

    2013-01-01

    The rate of sudden infant death decreased after the publication of the first guidelines regarding infant sleep position and safe environment in 1992. From 2005 onwards, infant deaths by suffocation, choking or entrapment have increased. Some of them were associated with wedges, positioning devices, and bumper pads. Media and manufacturers should follow safe sleep guidelines in their messaging and advertising, but there is a lack of control over this. We emphasize the important role of health professionals in disseminating the recommendation for a safe infant sleep environment. PMID:23381706

  9. Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases. III - Sorption of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon on carbon - Elemental fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, John F.

    1989-01-01

    The sorption of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe was studied in carbon black, acridine carbon, and diamond in an attempt to understand the origin of trapped noble gases in meteorites. The results support a model in which gases are physically adsorbed on interior surfaces formed by a pore labyrinth within amorphous carbons. The data show that: (1) the adsorption/desorption times are controlled by choke points that restrict the movement of noble gas atoms within the pore labyrinth, and (2) the physical adsorption controls the temperature behavior and elemental fractionation patterns.

  10. Present status of linear induction accelerator development at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Linear Induction Electron Accelerator of rating- 200 keV, 5 kA, 100ns, 10-100 Hz, is in the advanced stage of commissioning at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This paper presents a few experimental results while developing the various sub-systems of this accelerator. It comprises of 3-stage induction cavities, solid state modulator based command resonant charging system with high power SCR switching in 10-100 Hz to amorphous core based 2.5 kV/20 kV, 20μs pulse transformer, magnetic switches and DC choke along with 100 A DC reset current systems. (author)

  11. Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Nearly-Implicit Numerical Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved with regard to its nearly-implicit numerical scheme for two phase flow and single-phase flow. Changes were made to the nearly-implicit numerical scheme finite difference momentum equations as follows: (1) added the velocity flip-flop mass/energy error mitigation logic, (2) added the modified Henry-Fauske choking model, (3) used the new time void fraction in the horizontal stratification force terms and gravity head, and (4) used an implicit form of the artificial viscosity. The code modifications allow the nearly-implicit numerical scheme to be more implicit and lead to enhanced numerical stability

  12. Device for improved air and fuel distribution to a combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, Walter R.; Schilp, Reinhard

    2016-05-31

    A flow conditioning device (30, 50, 70, 100, 150) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including a plurality of flow elements (32, 34, 52, 54, 72, 74, 102) disposed in a compressed air flow path (42, 60, 80, 114, 122) leading to a combustor (12), configured such that relative adjustment of at least one flow directing element (32, 52, 72, 110) with respect to an adjacent flow directing element (34, 54, 74, 112, 120) during operation of the gas turbine engine is effective to adjust a level of choking of the compressed air flow path (42, 60, 80, 114, 122).

  13. Improvements to the RELAP5-3D Nearly-Implicit Numerical Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard A. Riemke; Walter L. Weaver; RIchard R. Schultz

    2005-05-01

    The RELAP5-3D computer program has been improved with regard to its nearly-implicit numerical scheme for twophase flow and single-phase flow. Changes were made to the nearly-implicit numerical scheme finite difference momentum equations as follows: (1) added the velocity flip-flop mass/energy error mitigation logic, (2) added the modified Henry-Fauske choking model, (3) used the new time void fraction in the horizontal stratification force terms and gravity head, and (4) used an implicit form of the artificial viscosity. The code modifications allow the nearly-implicit numerical scheme to be more implicit and lead to enhanced numerical stability.

  14. Martial arts sports medicine: current issues and competition event coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishime, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    More sports medicine professionals are becoming actively involved in the care of the martial arts athlete. Although there are many different forms of martial arts practiced worldwide, certain styles have shown a potential for increased participation in competitive-type events. Further research is needed to better understand the prevalence and profiles of injuries sustained in martial arts full-contact competitive events. Breaking down the martial art techniques into basic concepts of striking, grappling, and submission maneuvers, including choking and joint locking, may facilitate better understanding and management of injuries. This article outlines this approach and reviews the commonly encountered injuries and problems during martial arts full-contact competitions.

  15. Tracheo-esophageal fistula in children: a diagnosis to keep in mind. Two case reports and review of the literature = Fístula traqueoesofágica en niños: un diagnóstico para tener en cuenta. Reporte de dos casos y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Morales Múnera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tracheo-esophageal fistula without esophageal atresia is a rare type esophageal malformation. It has a multifactorial etiology including environmental and genetic factors. Common clinical manifestations are coughing and choking after meals, cyanosis and/or recurrent pneumonia. Diagnosis requires a high clinical suspicion index. Fistula confirmation is done with imaging studies including upper digestive series, video-fluoroscopy or with the use of bronchoscopy wich allows direct visualization of the fistula or methylene blue passage through the abnormal communication. Fistula closure can be done endoscopically or surgically, in both cases with good results.

  16. RELAP5 analysis of two-phase decompression and rarefaction wave propagation under a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capability of RELAP5 to model single and two-phase acoustic waves is demonstrated with the use of fine temporal and spatial discretizations. Two cases were considered: a single phase air shock tube problem and pressure waves observed by Takeda and Toda in a two-phase decompression experiment in a pipe. Whereas the agreement for the single phase case is excellent, some discrepancies were observed in the two-phase case. However, RELAP5 produced markedly better results after adjusting the bubble size and the choked flow area. These results illustrate the need of a dynamic model for the interfacial area concentration (i.e., the bubble size). (author)

  17. Electric Voltage Control as an Implementation of Neural Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al-Rababah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was proposed the monitoring of mathematical model of electric voltage source with using neural network for application in control systems as sensor and command signal. The monitoring system, consist of toroidal choke or transformer with high saturated ferromagnetic cores. The input information we receive from current periodic curves. The current was distributed into Fourier or walsh series. The combination of these harmonics and their amplitude values determine monitoring voltage value directly. For increase of this system precision, the mathematical model was constructed on basis of partial differential quasi-stationary electromagnetic field equations and ordi-nary differential electromagnetic circuit equations combination.

  18. Demountable damped cavity for HOM-damping in ILC superconducting accelerating cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konomi, T.; Yasuda, F.; Furuta, F.; Saito, K.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed a new higher-order-mode (HOM) damper called a demountable damped cavity (DDC) as part of the R&D efforts for the superconducting cavity of the International Linear Collider (ILC). The DDC has two design concepts. The first is an axially symmetrical layout to obtain high damping efficiency. The DDC has a coaxial structure along the beam axis to realize strong coupling with HOMs. HOMs are damped by an RF absorber at the end of the coaxial waveguide and the accelerating mode is reflected by a choke filter mounted at the entrance of the coaxial waveguide. The second design concept is a demountable structure to facilitate cleaning, in order to suppress the Q-slope problem in a high field. A single-cell cavity with the DDC was fabricated to test four performance parameters. The first was frequency matching between the accelerating cavity and the choke filter. Since the bandwidth of the resonance frequency in a superconducting cavity is very narrow, there is a possibility that the accelerating field will leak to the RF absorber because of thermal shrinkage. The design bandwidth of the choke filter is 25 kHz. It was demonstrated that frequency matching adjusted at room temperature could be successfully maintained at 2 K. The second parameter was the performance of the demountable structure. At the joint, the magnetic field is 1/6 of the maximum field in the accelerating cavity. Ultimately, the accelerating field reached 19 MV/m and Q0 was 1.5×1010 with a knife-edge shape. The third parameter was field emission and multipacting. Although the choke structure has numerous parallel surfaces that are susceptible to the multipacting problem, it was found that neither field emission nor multipacting presented problems in both an experiment and simulation. The final parameter was the Q values of the HOM. The RF absorber adopted in the system is a Ni-Zn ferrite type. The RF absorber shape was designed based on the measurement data of permittivity and permeability

  19. 空気吸入によるねじ形遠心ポンプ内の圧力変動

    OpenAIRE

    金, 由澤; 田中, 和博; 山田, 五代治; 松本, 洋一郎

    2000-01-01

    It is reported recently that the pump head deterioration near the best efficiency point, from single-phase flow to the choke due to air entrainment became less in a screw-type centrifugal pump than in a general centrifugal pump. Moreover, at a narrow tip clearance, the pump head became partially higher in two-phase flow than that in single-phase flow. However, the internal pressure fluctuations on this pump due to air entrainment have not been studied yet. For that reason, we have examined th...

  20. 断面積一定流路におけるMHD相互作用を伴うプラズマ流れの数値解析

    OpenAIRE

    青木, 俊之; 右近, 哲哉; 益田, 光治; 松尾, 一泰

    1992-01-01

    Numerical analysis has been carried out to explain and predict MHD effects, the choking phenomena and the occurrence of a shock wave in plasma flow with MHD interaction. This study is intended to provide one of data bases for a large scale flow with MHD interaction. The steady one-dimensional conservation equation, coupled the generalized Ohm’s law are solved. It was shown that, on account of the effect of the Joule heating and Lorentz force attractive possibilities was found for controlled a...

  1. Experimental study on influence of coal structural anisotropy to gas permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yan-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Based on "true triaxial coal rock permeability of coal sample test system",the permeability under different gaspressure to coal specimen in bedding plane and the vertical bedding directions are tested.The results show that coal structuralanisotropy has a greater impact on gas permeability properties,differences in experimental coal permeability are roughly oneorder of magnitude.In view of the differences of the gas flow characteristics in the coal bedding plane and vertical bedding,established series and parallel choked flow model of coal sample gas seepage,and made a theoretical analysis to the influencesof the bedding structure to gas permeability properties.

  2. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Detector with High Efficiency, Broad Bandwidth, and Highly Symmetric Coupling to Transition Edge Sensor Bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, E.; Cao, N.; Chuss, D.; Denis, K.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Schneider, G.; Stevenson, T.; Travers, D.; U-yen, K.

    2008-01-01

    Four probe antennas transfer signals from waveguide to microstrip lines. The probes not only provide broadband impedance matching, but also thermally isolate waveguide and detector. In addition, we developed a new photonic waveguide choke joint design, with four-fold symmetry, to suppress power leakage at the interface. We have developed facilities to test superconducting circuit elements using a cryogenic microwave probe station, and more complete systems in waveguide. We used the ring resonator shown below to measure a dielectric loss tangent bolometers. The result below shows the planar circuit and waveguide interface can utilize the high beam symmetry of HE11 circular feedhorns with > 99% coupling efficiency over 30% fractional bandwidth.

  3. A NOVEL TOPOLOGY FOR RIPPLE-FREE INPUTTING CURRENT TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕征宇; 陈国柱; 钱照明; 钱挺

    2001-01-01

    A novel topology for ripple-free input current circuit is put forward in the paper. Compared to traditional EMI(electromagnetic interference) filter consisting of choke and capacitor, the ripple-free topology can reduce the converter's ripple current with the use of smaller component. The new ripple-free topology proposed in this paper does not need elaborate adjustment of the coupling coefficient as required by conventional ripple-free techniques, and is ripple voltage cancellation or isolation mode, which can attenuate the ripple further if the line impedance is considered. The theoretical prediction is confirmed by experimental results.

  4. Terahertz applications of integrated circuits based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huabing; Wu, Peiheng; Yamashita, Tsutomu

    2001-10-01

    Using a newly developed double-side fabrication method, an IJJ stack plus a bow-tie antenna and chokes were integrated in a slice 200 nm thick and singled out from inside a bulk Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (BSCCO) single crystal. The junctions in the fabricated stack were very uniform, and the number of junctions involved was rather controllable. In addition to this method, which can be used to fabricate integrated circuits based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature (Tc) superconductors, also reported will be terahertz responses of IJJs, and the possible applications in quantum voltage standard, spectroscopy, and so on.

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverly, Leon H.; Hance, Richard D.; Kristalinski, Alexandr L.; Visser, Age T.

    1996-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer.

  6. Metal vapor lasers with increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A. N.; Sabotinov, N. V.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Shumeiko, A. S.; Kostadinov, I. K.; Vasilieva, A. V.; Reimer, I. V.

    2015-12-01

    Results of investigation and development of an excitation pulse generator with magnetic pulse compression by saturation chokes for pumping of active media of CuBr, Sr, and Ca vapor lasers are presented. A high-power IGBT transistor is used as a commutator. The generator can operate at excitation pulse repetition frequencies up to 20 kHz. The total average power for all laser lines of the CuBr laser pumped by this generator is ~6.0 W; it is ~1.3-1.7 W for the Sr and Ca lasers.

  7. Study of cavitation phenomena based on a technique for visualizing bubbles in a liquid pressurized chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)], E-mail: rpayri@mot.upv.es; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    In this paper, the influence of nozzle geometry on cavitation and near-nozzle spray behavior under liquid pressurized ambient is studied. For this purpose, eight steel drilled plates, with different diameters and degrees of conicity of their holes, are analyzed. A special near-nozzle field visualization technique, using a test rig pressurized with fuel, is used. Due to the difference in refractive index between liquid and vapor phase, bubbles present at the outlet of the orifice are visualized. The pressure conditions at which bubbles start appearing at the orifice outlet are compared with those at which choked flow appears. The results showed that pressure conditions for inception of cavitation obtained in the visualization tests differs from those seen for choked flow (5-8% in terms of cavitation number). In addition to this, the images taken are analyzed to get the angle of the jet formed by fuel bubbles, showing that it increases significantly for those conditions more prone to cavitate. Furthermore, comparison of bubbles generation when increasing or decreasing backpressure indicates the presence of hysteresis in cavitation inception phenomena.

  8. Tidal dynamics in a frictionally dominated tropical lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Fernandez, L.; Gomez-Valdes, J.; Marino-Tapia, I.; Enriquez, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Parra, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the dynamics of tidal propagation inside a tropical lagoon. Sea surface elevation (inside) and current profiles (at the inlet) were examined over 60 days at the Chelem lagoon, which is a branched tropical lagoon located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. Tides were predominantly diurnal with a wavelength at least 20 times longer than the total length of the basin. Spatial variations of sea surface elevation and the longitudinal transport were described in each branch by applying a linear analytical model and the results were compared to observations. Results showed that the coastal lagoon was highly frictional. The tidal signal was attenuated between 30% and 40% toward the lagoon heads, a result of the balance between pressure gradient and frictional forces. A causeway that chokes the western side of the lagoon allowed the propagation of the diurnal signal toward the west head of the basin but damped the semidiurnal signal. The causeway acted as a hydraulic low-pass filter, as in natural choked systems. The causeway's filter effect was included in the analytical model by optimizing the frictional parameters.

  9. Near-Field Coupling Communication Technology For Human-Area Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Nagai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses near-field coupling TRXs. This technology aims to achieve a "touch and connect" form of communication and a new concept of "touch the world" by using a quasi-electrostatic field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body. This paper explains the principles underlying near-field coupling communication. Special attention has been paid to common-mode noise since our communication system is strongly susceptible to this. We designed and made a common-mode choke coil and a transformer to act as common-mode noise filters to suppress common-mode noise. Moreover, we describe how we evaluated the quality of communication using a phantom model with the same electrical properties as the human body and present the experimental results for the packet error rate (PER as a function of the signal to noise ratio (SNR both with the common-mode choke coil or the transformer and without them. Finally, we found that our system achieved a PER of less than 10-2 in general office rooms using raised floors, which corresponded to the quality of communication demanded by communication services in ordinary office spaces.

  10. Trimble NetR9在国家测绘地理信息局现代测绘基准工程项目中的应用%The Application of Trimble NetR9 in Modern Geomatics Engineering Project of NASG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明

    2015-01-01

    国家测绘地理信息局现代测绘基准工程项目使用 Trimble NetR9作为核心采集设备,在国家 GNSS 连续运行基准站上安装运行。Trimble NetR9和 GNSS-Ti Choke Ring 天线组合作为近年来国家级大项目使用最多的 GNSS 采集设备,其高稳定性、高可靠性、高精度的特性保证了项目的连续运行以及国家大地基准体系的完善和发展。%As the core acquisition equipment of modern geomatics engineering project of National Administration of Surveying,Mapping and Geoinformation of China,Trimble NetR9 was installed in GNSS continuously operating reference stations(CORS). The antenna combination of Trimble NetR9 and GNSS-Ti Choke Ring is the most used GNSS acquisi-tion equipment in recent years’national project for its high stability,high reliability as well as high precision. It ensures to keep projects running smoothly and improves and develops the national geodetic datum system.

  11. Radiation pager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of interdicting nuclear materials to date have favored the use of large portal detectors at choke points, or hand carried instruments used by trained personnel for conducting spot searches. Although these methods are effective in some instances, it is often impractical to insert choke points at busy traffic areas, and it is not cost effective to maintain a force of skilled operators whose focus is nuclear interdiction. Recent technology developments are causing profound changes in the philosophy and methods employed for interdicting nuclear materials. Breakthrough advances in the miniaturization of detectors and low power electronics have made possible a new class of small gamma-ray radiation detectors, roughly the size of a message pager, with unprecedented sensitivity for their size. These instruments, named Radiation PagersTM, are ideally suited for use by untrained individual law enforcement personnel and emergency responders in the course of their regular duties. New tactics that utilize a radiation detector worn by every officer are creating a moving curtain of detection with a significantly higher likelihood of locating illicit nuclear contraband. These individual detectors also provide each officer with a high level of confidence that they are not being unknowingly irradiated in the course of their work. (author)

  12. Modelling and control of growing slugs in horizontal multiphase pipe flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar M. Elgsæter

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of active control to restrict the length of growing slugs in horizontal pipelines is investigated. Specifically, the paper attempts to determine if such control can be attained with realistic measurements and actuators. Simulations in OLGA2000 show that a feedback controller can use measurements or estimates of slug length to control the growth of a slug in a horizontal pipeline by partially closing inlet or outlet chokes. A control-volume approach is used to develop a low-order model of inlet choke-slug growth dynamics based on mass- and impulse balances. The resulting model is a system of nonlinear differential-algebraic equations, which is suitable for observer-design. The tuned model is found to be in good agreement with experiments and OLGA2000-simulations. Linearizations of the model are found to be observable around realistic trajectories when rates and pressures at the inlet and outlet are measured. An extended Luenberger-observer is shown to give good estimates of slug length and -position in simulations even under model uncertainty.

  13. Aeroacoustic Simulation for NASA CC3 Centrifugal Compressor Operating at off Design Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqaradawi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the characterization of the acoustic noise and the unsteady flow field of a high speed centrifugal compressor NASA CC3. In order to accurately predict the noise, all analyses are carried out through the use of Large Eddy Simulation and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings model for noise prediction. The relative effect of hub cavity on flow characteristics and sound levels is investigated, for a compressor stage with a total pressure ratio equal to 4, working from surge to near choke condition. In comparison with the experimental results from literature, the predicted compressor performance and flow field are predicted well. The hub cavity flow effect on the compressor aeroacoustic generated noise is shown in the paper. The unsteady static pressure and sound pressure levels are compared not only at different location but also for design and off design operating points. The internal flow results inside the hub cavity are presented at surge, design and near choke points. The conclusion is that the cavity effect of the centrifugal compressor cannot be ignored in the numerical prediction of aerodynamic generated noise. The impeller back plate of the rotor experiences a strong pressure fluctuation, which is maxima at the impeller outer radius for all operating point, but higher pressure values at the surge point.

  14. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days. PMID:21303536

  15. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masse Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  16. Computational Analysis of the Combustion Processes in an Axisymmetric, RBCC Flowpath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye

    2001-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations have been used to study the combustion processes within an axisymmetric, RBCC flowpath. Two distinct operating modes have been analyzed to date, including the independent ramjet stream (IRS) cycle and the supersonic combustion ramjet (scramJet) cycle. The IRS cycle investigation examined the influence of fuel-air ratio, fuel distribution, and rocket chamber pressure upon the combustion physics and thermal choke characteristics. Results indicate that adjustment of the amount and radial distribution of fuel can control the thermal choke point. The secondary massflow rate was very sensitive to the fuel-air ratio and the rocket chamber pressure. The scramjet investigation examined the influence of fuel-air ratio and fuel injection schedule upon combustion performance estimates. An analysis of the mesh-dependence of these calculations was presented. Jet penetration data was extracted from the three-dimensional simulations and compared favorably with experimental correlations of similar flows. Results indicate that combustion efficiency was very sensitive to the fuel schedule.

  17. Grandmothers' Beliefs and Practices in Infant Safe Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Mary E; Rose, Alison; Mullins, S Hope; Miller, Beverly K; Nick, Todd; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and suffocation are leading causes of infant mortality. Supine sleep position and use of appropriate sleep surfaces reduce SIDS risk but are not universally practiced. Mothers' decisions about sleep position and environment may be influenced by guidance provided by infants' grandmothers and other caregivers. Methods A survey was conducted of a convenience sample of grandmothers aged 30-70 years who provide care at least weekly for an infant grandchild grandmother demographic characteristics and beliefs on their reported practices related to infant sleep. Results Among the 239 grandmothers, 45 % reported placing infants to sleep supine on an appropriate sleep surface at the grandmother's house, while 58 % reported doing so when the infant was sleeping in the mother's house. After adjusting for other factors, respondents were less likely to adhere to recommended guidelines when they believed supine position increased choking risk (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.18-0.62) or believed infants are more comfortable or sleep longer when on their stomachs (OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.28-0.93). Discussion Grandmothers do not universally observe evidence-based safe sleep practices, particularly if the infant is not sleeping in the home of the parent. Interventions for senior caregivers focused on perceived choking risk, infant comfort in the supine position, and other recent changes in recommended safety practices are warranted. PMID:26987862

  18. Design Of EMI Filter For Flash Lamp Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhatt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference in embedded and VLSI systems have become important in recent years with increase in clock frequency and reduction in physical dimensions of interconnects. It is important to understand the noise components in terms of current paths and the mitigation techniques. Although the common mode and differential mode components of conducted noise are analyzed in the context of a power electronics system the analytical and theoretical techniques hold good for other domains as well such as embedded systems and VLSI. This paper deals with modelling design and development of an EMI filter for conducted mode noise in flash lamp power supply. Also a design procedure of EMI filters sustaining to the military standard 461E is presented and it is based on practical measurement of conducted emissions. Design procedure in this paper considers common mode and differential mode separately. The paper also consists of considerations for magnetic core material integrated common mode CM common mode choke size optimization and differential mode DM choke etc. Design examples are given and are experimentally verified.

  19. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  20. The Study of Active Queue Management Algorithm Based on Cellular Genetic Method%基于元胞遗传方法的主动队列管理算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄绍川; 郑华

    2013-01-01

    In order to mitigate the network congestion problem, a novel active queue management algorithm New-SCHOKe is proposed by CHOKe. In this algorithm, the dropping policy and dropping rate are defined by sampling hit and queue hit, and the average queue length is depicted by cellular genetic. Then, a simulation was conducted to research on the performance of New-SCHOKe and SCHOKe, as well as CHOKe algorithm with actual data. The results show that New-SCHOKe has better adaptability.%为了解决网络拥塞现象,基于CHOKe方法建立了一种新的主动队列管理算法New-SCHOKe.该方法首先根据采样击中和队列击中定义了丢包策略和丢包概率,并且利用元胞遗传技术刻画了平均队列长度.同时,以实际数据进行仿真实验,对比分析了该算法与SCHOKe和CHOKe之间的性能,结果表明New-SCHOKe具有较好的适应性.

  1. Measurement and Control of Coal Pipe Temperature of Coal Mills of PF Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamoy Chatterjee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Power plant boiler had no arrangement of measure the coal pipe temperature in a continuous basis, though it is an important parameter for any coal fired large boiler. As pulverized coal flows through the long coal-pipe by the help of flow of hot air as a carrier, coal pipe temperature is only the measurement of the coal flow through the pipe to boiler. Low temperature indicates improper flow of pulverized coal through the pipe. So due to no continuous measurement of these parameters we can’t know about the flow profile of coal through pulveriser outlet pipes. Sometimes the pipe got choked and we were not aware of that for a long time. That caused our equipment loss i.e. we had to stop the pulveriser for a long time for de-choking the large size coal pipe. And indirectly it caused loss of power generation and also affected the economical figure of our power house. So to overcome that kind of losses we have to measure the coal pipe temperature in regular basis.

  2. Transformation of Epichloë typhina by electroporation of conidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombrowski James E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choke, caused by the endophytic fungus Epichloë typhina, is an important disease affecting orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. seed production in the Willamette Valley. Little is known concerning the conditions necessary for successful infection of orchardgrass by E. typhina. Detection of E. typhina in plants early in the disease cycle can be difficult due to the sparse distribution of hyphae in the plant. Therefore, a sensitive method to detect fungal infection in plants would provide an invaluable tool for elucidating the conditions for establishment of infection in orchardgrass. Utilization of a marker gene, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP, transformed into Epichloë will facilitate characterization of the initial stages of infection and establishment of the fungus in plants. Findings We have developed a rapid, efficient, and reproducible transformation method using electroporation of germinating Epichloë conidia isolated from infected plants. Conclusions The GFP labelled E. typhina provides a valuable molecular tool to researchers studying conditions and mechanisms involved in the establishment of choke disease in orchardgrass.

  3. Experimental investigation of combustion mechanisms of kerosene-fueled scramjet engines with double-cavity flameholders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Pan; Jian-Guo Tan; Jian-Han Liang; Wei-Dong Liu; Zhen-Guo Wang

    2011-01-01

    A scramjet combustor with double cavitybased flameholders was experimentally studied in a directconnected test bed with the inflow conditions of M =2.64,Pt =1.84 MPa,Tt =1 300 K.Successful ignition and selfsustained combustion with room temperature kerosene was achieved using pilot hydrogen,and kerosene was vertically injected into the combustor through 4×φ0.5 mm holes mounted on the wall.For different equivalence ratios and different injection schemes with both tandem cavities and parallel cavities,flow fields were obtained and compared using a high speed camera and a Schlieren system.Results revealed that the combustor inside the flow field was greatly influenced by the cavity installation scheme,cavities in tandem easily to form a single side flame distribution,and cavities in parallel are more likely to form a joint flame,forming a choked combustion mode.The supersonic combustion flame was a kind of diffusion flame and there were two kinds of combustion modes.In the unchoked combustion mode,both subsonic and supersonic combustion regions existed.While in the choked mode,the combustion region was fully subsonic with strong shock propagating upstream.Results also showed that there was a balance point between the boundary separation and shock enhanced combustion,depending on the intensity of heat release.

  4. Influence of obstacle-produced turbulence on development of premixed flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立新; 孙文超; 吴承康

    2002-01-01

    An investigation into influence of obstructions on premixed flame propagation has been carried out in a semi-open tube.It is found that there exists flame acceleration and rising overpressure along the path of flame due to obstacles.According to the magnitude of flame speeds,the propagation of flame in the tube can be classified into three regimes:the quenching,the choking and the detonation regimes.In premixed flames near the flammability limits,the flame is observed first to accelerate and then to quench itself after propagating past a certain number of obstacles.In the choking regime,the maximum flame speeds are somewhat below the combustion product sound speeds,and insensitive to the blockage ratio.In the more sensitive mixtures,the transition to detonation (DDT) occurs when the equivalence ratio increases.The transition is not observed for the less sensitive mixtures.The dependence of overpressure on blockage ratio is not monotonous.Furthermore,a numerical study of flame acceleration and overpressure with the unsteady compressible flow model is performed,and the agreement between the simulation and measurements is good.``

  5. Superconducting (radiation hardened) magnets for mirror fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting magnets for mirror fusion have evolved considerably since the Baseball II magnet in 1970. Recently, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) yin-yang has been tested to a full field of 7.7 T with radial dimensions representative of a full scale reactor. Now the emphasis has turned to the manufacture of very high field solenoids (choke coils) that are placed between the tandem mirror central cell and the yin-yang anchor-plug set. For MFTF-B the choke coil field reaches 12 T, while in future devices like the MFTF-Upgrade, Fusion Power Demonstration and Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) reactor the fields are doubled. Besides developing high fields, the magnets must be radiation hardened. Otherwise, thick neutron shields increase the magnet size to an unacceptable weight and cost. Neutron fluences in superconducting magnets must be increased by an order of magnitude or more. Insulators must withstand 1010 to 1011 rads, while magnet stability must be retained after the copper has been exposed to fluence above 1019 neutrons/cm2

  6. 用教学仪器测试电磁炉外泄电磁辐射%Testing Electromagnetic Cooker's Leakage of Electromagnetic Radiation with Teaching Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨道生

    2012-01-01

    根据电磁感应原理,推导出电磁炉外泄电磁辐射中感生电场、磁场的幅值与测试电感线圈中产生的感生电动势有效值的关系,阐述了应用电感线圈、交流毫伏表和示波器测试电磁炉在周围空间产生的电磁场频率和周围空间中不同方位、不同距离的电磁场大小的方法和过程。同时还测试了不同工作状态下电磁炉最大外泄电磁辐射情况和使用不同大小的锅具时电磁炉最大外泄电磁辐射情况。%The paper presents the relations among induced electromotive force, magnetic amplitude and testing electromagnetic inductive choke in induction cooker's leakage of electromagnetic radiation based on electromagnetic induction principle, and elucidates electromagnetic field frequency around the cooker with electromagnetic inductive choke, AC Millivoltmeter and oscilloscope and testing methods and process for the electromagnetic field values in different directions and distances. Meanwhile, cooker's maxim electromagnetic leakages in different working states and using different sizes of cookers are tested.

  7. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  8. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  9. A misdiagnosed myasthenia gravis with anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies with possible childhood onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Childhood onset myasthenia gravis associated with anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies is very rare and atypical in presentation. Case report. As a baby, the pre-sented patient was choking and sleeping with open eyes. She had weak cry and breathing difficulties. In childhood, there were frequent falls and fluctuating swallowing difficulties. At the age of 19 she was misdiagnosed with Miller Fisher syndrome due to the presence of diplopia, ataxia and hyporeflexia with spontaneous recovery. Repetitive nerve stimulation test was normal. Four years later, after several relapses, there was significant decrement on facial muscles. Neostigmine test was negative, provoking muscle fasciculations. Serum anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies were positive. With cyclosporine therapy she achieved the minimal manifestations status. Conclusion. The presented case confirms that childhood onset myasthenia gravis associated with anti-muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies is often with atypical presentation and spontaneous remissions, so it could be easily misdiagnosed.

  10. In-line hydraulic dashpot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Paul E.

    1992-10-01

    An in-line hydraulic dashpot is disclosed that effectively decelerates the piston of a power cylinder by controllably choking off the oil which is providing pressure to the piston. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the invention includes a valve spool member movable between an open and closed position along a fluid flow path that supplies oil to the power cylinder. An actuator rod is cooperative with the valve spool member and the piston shaft of the power cylinder to move tile valve spool member between its open and closed positions. The in-line hydraulic dashpot eliminates the clashing of mechanical parts and therewith eliminates the noise that would otherwise be generated thereby. The in-line hydraulic dashpot of the present invention makes possible the adaptation of a fixed stroke power cylinder to applications that call for a variable stroke length.

  11. Anomalous hydrocracking of triglycerides over CoMo-catalyst-influence of reaction intermediates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Anand; M G Sibi; D Verma; A K Sinha

    2014-03-01

    Reaction intermediates have been identified and followed to understand anomalous cracking of jathropha oil triglycerides in the presence of sulphided Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. Undesirable C-C coupling reactions are favoured at temperatures between 320° and 340°C, giving waxy oligomerization products, whereas at temperatures above 340°C, direct hydrocracking of triglycerides to lighter and middle distillates were favoured. To minimize undesirable waxy oligomerization products, higher pressures (>80 bar) and higher H2/feed ratios (>1500) were necessary. Aldol condensation and ketonization reactions between the reaction intermediates are counter-productive as they result in waxy long chain oxygenated products which tend to accumulate on the catalyst surface, choke the reactor and cause rapid catalyst deactivation. Reaction conditions have to be optimized to minimize condensation reaction during this process.

  12. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  13. Case Study On Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Power constitutes a major component of the manufacturing cost in industry. In an electrical installation, power factor may become poor because of induction motors, welding machines, powertransformers, voltage regulators, arc and induction furnaces, choke coils, neon signs etc. A poor power factor for the plant causes huge amount of losses, leading to thermal problem in switchgears. However power factor is controllable with a properly designed power factor improvement capacitors system. The power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of electrical useful power, allows a better and more rational technical-economical management of the plants. This paper describes different aspects of power factor improvement in a typical industrial plant with the help of a casestudy.

  14. Approach to the energetic coaxial gun of the steady-state mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behaviors of a coaxial plasma gun operated in a steady-state mode have been studied. It is shown that the gun has potentialities to yield an energetic plasma beam, if a supersonic plasma flow is supplied instead of a neutral gas and if shorting out of the Hall potential is minimized on the surfaces of the electrodes. The former is necessary because a electromagnetic force chokes the subsonic flow appearing in the ionizing zone of the inlet gas. The latter is achieved if the electrodes are segmented into many insulated short elements along the axis. The required minimum number of the segmentation is estimated by the newly developed model based on the boundary layer concept. (author)

  15. Dynamic pressure loads associated with twin supersonic plume resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiner, J. M.; Manning, J. C.; Ponton, M. K.

    1986-01-01

    The phenomenon of twin supersonic plume resonance is defined and studied as it pertains to high level dynamic loads in the inter-nozzle region of aircraft like the F-15 and B1-A. Using a 1/40th scale model twin jet nacelle with powered choked nozzles, it is found that intense internozzle dynamic pressures are associated with the synchrophased coupling of each plume's jet flapping mode. This condition is found most prevalent when each plume's jet flapping mode has constituent elements composed of the B-type helical instability. Suppression of these fatigue bearing loads was accomplished by simple geometric modifications to only one plume's nozzle. These modifications disrupt the natural selection of the B-type mode and thereby decouple the plumes.

  16. Management of feeding Problem in a Patient with Cleft Lip/Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mridula; Jangra, Babita; Bhushan, Urvashi

    2016-01-01

    In a child with cleft lip and/or palate, nutrition is the first priority as for any other child. These children have specific physical limitations. To fulfill their nutritional requirement, these children need modifications in order to thrive and grow. Failure to adjust to these needs could place the children into a potential life-threatening situation. One of the immediate problems to be addressed in a newborn with cleft lip/palate is difficulty in feeding. Nasal regurgitation and choking are common because of inability of the palate to separate the nasal and oral cavities. The case presented here discusses the management of feeding problem in the infant with cleft lip/palate. How to cite this article: Goswami M, Jangra B, Bhushan U. Management of feeding Problem in a Patient with Cleft Lip/ Palate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):143-145. PMID:27365936

  17. Riser simulation and radial porosity distribution characterization for gas-fluidized bed of cork particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Ouyang, Jie; Li, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    Numerical simulations are carried out for gas-solid fluidized bed of cork particles, using discrete element method. Results exhibit the existence of a so-called anti core-annular porosity profile with lower porosity in the core and higher porosity near the wall for non-slugging fluidization. The tendency to form this unfamiliar anti core-annular porosity profile is stronger when the solid flux is higher. There exist multiple inflection points in the simulated axial solid volume fraction profile for non-slugging fluidization. Results also show that the familiar core-annular porosity profile still appears for slugging fluidization. In addition, the classical choking phenomenon can be captured at the superficial gas velocity slightly lower than the correlated transport velocity.

  18. 基于BT协议的数据分发机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智超; 岳炎

    2012-01-01

      BT协议是一种用于文件分发的P2P协议,目前是internet网上应用最为广泛的协议之一。它所采用基于tit-for-tat算法的Choking/Unchoking机制来选择意愿进行数据传输的对等节点,但该机制对新加入网络,并没有相关数据的节点而言,意味着更少的机会获得数据,难以快速融入整个数据交换网络中以快速完成文件的下载。本文在分析BitTorrent协议的基础上,介绍一种改进方法以解决上述问题。

  19. Book5 unit5重点词汇短语释疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春苗

    2013-01-01

    词汇是英语学习的基础,下面是第五单元的重点考纲词汇的讲解和易混词汇短语的辨析。一、重点单汇讲解1.temporary adj.暂时的,临时的,短暂的a temporary relief from pain暂时缓解疼痛a temporary solution临时解决方案a temporary job临时工作a temporary loss of memory暂时失忆They just reached a temporary agreement.他们只是达成一个临时协议。2.choke vi&vt噎住,(使)哽住;(使)掐死,勒

  20. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide. PMID:17596343

  1. Geological Characteristics and Exploration Potential of Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Herong

    1997-01-01

    @@ Dongying Sag is an area where the country's earlier large-scale exploration campaign was conducted in Bohai Bay Basin in 1961. An 8.1 t/d of commercial oil flow was discovered in Well Hua-8. Well blowout happened in Well Ying-2 on Sept. 23, 1962.After the drilling, the tested production was 555 t/d with a 15 mm choke, which was the highest single well daily production in China at that time. Since then, stepout exploration has been carried out in Dongying Sag. With 32years of unremitting efforts, 32 oil/gas fields with a 870-square-kilemeter of proved oil-bearing area and 1.75 billion tons of original oil in place, as well as 100-square-kilemeter of proved gas-bearing area and 13.48 billion m3 of gas in place have been discovered in Dongying Sag.

  2. Numerical Investigation & Comparison of a Tandem-Bladed Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Stage with Conventional Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Noman Danish; Shafiq Rehman Qureshi; Abdelrahman EL-Leathy; Salah Ud-Din Khan; Usama Umer; Ma Chaochen

    2014-01-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor.Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels,axial spacings and circumferential clockings.Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle,meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design.Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance.Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed.Comparing two designs,it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates.However; near choke flow,tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area.Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  3. New mission for the national labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a testing moratorium takes hold, the future of the weapons laboratories may lie in a $3 billion package of science projects meant to keep the arsenal reliable-and weapons-designing talents sharp. When President Clinton declared an end to all nuclear testing a month ago, he offered the nation's three weapons laboratories an enormous, expensive pacifier-a $3 billion package of scientific projects to replace testing. The labs swallowed hard, choked back their conviction that explosive testing is the best and cheapest means of ensuring the reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile, and took the bait. The lab directors duly issued statements embracing the test ban-providing the new program materializes

  4. Scaling and design report of ECC performance test facility (SWAT) of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) was designed by 1/5 scaling ratio using the modified linear scaling method. The design characteristics of the SMART such that the elevation of RCP suction nozzles is the same with that of the ECC injection nozzles are maintained to reduce a distortion caused by the gravitational effect. Thermal hydraulic phenomena in a test facility designed by the modified linear scaling method can be simulated more accurately than those by the full-height and reduced area scaling method. The main part of the test section is SG-side upper down-comer. The boundary conditions are saturated steam and water flow condition and drain flow rate to control the collapsed water level in the down-comer. The test data of the SWAT can produce the well-defined boundary condition to validate the thermal hydraulic analysis code for the SMART

  5. The galaxy ancestor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, Mike

    2011-01-01

    HST finds galaxies whose Tolman dimming should exceed 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies? Or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore this latter hypothesis and argue that Surface Brightness Selection Effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus the HST z=7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighborhood easily today. Conversely the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbors will have completely sunk below the sky at z>1.2 although their diffuse light could account for the missing Reionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well,including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightnesses found in deep fields, the angular size ~ inverse (1+z) law,'Downsizing' which turn...

  6. Clipper circuit of pulse modulator used for klystron-5045 power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, A V

    2001-01-01

    While the operation of modulator to the pulsed transformer of klystron-5045, current through the primary winding of the pulse transformer (PT) continues to flow even upon the end of the klystron voltage operating pulse. This is determined by an energy stored in magnetizing inductance. The prolongation of magnetizing current passing process simultaneously with the premature choking of thyratron can cause high voltage of inverse polarity at the klystron, which cause the destruction of the cathode. We have considered the possibility of shortening time of magnetizing current passage for the charge of reasonable choice of clipper circuit parameters. The behavior of clipper circuit was studied in modulators used for the VEPP-5 (BINP, Russia) preinjector klystron power supply. The optimum operation run of the circuit was selected and its design features are described.

  7. Nasopharyngeal foreign body triggered by a blind finger sweep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takaaki; Inoue, Nobuaki

    2016-01-01

    A previously healthy 1-year-old boy suddenly began choking and coughing after ingesting a coin. The child's mother attempted to extract the coin by inserting her fingers in his mouth and sweeping the oral cavity. The mother felt the object momentarily with her fingertips but was unable to retrieve it, and brought her son to a local hospital for assistance. The patient was referred to our emergency department (ED) for possible oesophageal obstruction by a foreign body based on the X-ray findings. On arrival at our ED, the child exhibited mild gagging but presented no respiratory symptoms and normal pulmonary examination. The chest X-ray revealed a nasopharyngeal foreign body. The patient was placed under procedural sedation and emergency removal was successfully completed by an otolaryngologist. Subsequently, the patient was discharged without complications. PMID:27605001

  8. Neutrino-Induced Cascades From GRBs With AMANDA-II

    CERN Document Server

    Hughey, B; Ahrens, J; Atlee, D W; Bahcall, J N; Bai, X; Baret, B; Bartelt, M; Bay, R; Barwick, S W; Beattie, K; Becka, T; Becker, K H; Becker, J K; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Clem, J; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Davour, A; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Desiati, P; De Young, T R; Dreyer, J; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Ekstrom, P; Ellsworth, R W; Evenson, P A; Fazely, A R; Feser, T; Filimonov, K; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Greene, M G; Grullon, S; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J; Gro, A; Gunasingha, R M; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, D; Hardtke, R; Harenberg, T; Hart, J E; Hauschildt, T; Hays, D; Heise, J; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hoffman, K D; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jones, A; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K H; Karle, A; Kawai, H; Kelley, J L; Kestel, M; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Kujawski, E; Landsman, H; Lang, R; Leich, H; Liubarsky, I; Lundberg, J; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McCauley, T; McParland, C P; Meli, A; Messarius, T; Mészáros, P; Minor, R H; Miocinovic, P; Miyamoto, H; Mokhtarani, A; Montaruli, T; Morey, A; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Munich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Olivas, A; Patton, S; Peña-Garay, C; Perez de los Heros, C; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Pretz, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Razzaque, S; Refflinghaus, F; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Rizzo, A; Robbins, S; Rott, C; Rutledge, D; Sander, H G; Schlenstedt, S; Schneider, D; Schwarz, R; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Silvestri, A; Smith, A J; Solarz, M; Song, C; Sopher, J E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steffen, P; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M; Stoyanov, S; Sulanke, K H; Sullivan, G W; Sumner, T J; Taboada, I; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Voigt, B; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Waldmann, H; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wendt, C; Wiebusch, C; Wikström, G; Williams, D; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, X W; Yoshida, S; Yodh, G

    2005-01-01

    Using AMANDA-II we have performed a search for neutrino-induced cascades in coincidence with 73 bursts reported by BATSE in 2000. Background is greatly suppressed by the BATSE temporal constraint. No evidence of neutrinos was found. We set a limit on a WB-like spectrum, $A_{90}^{all flavors}$ = 9.5$\\times10^{-7}$ GeV cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. The determination of systematic uncertainties is in progress, and the limit will be somewhat weakened once these uncertainties are taken into account. We are also conducting a rolling time-window search for neutrino-induced cascades consistent with a GRB signal in 2001. The data set is searched for a statistically significant cluster of signal-like events within a 1 s or 100 s time window. The non-triggered search has the potential to discover phenomena, including gamma-ray dark choked bursts, which did not trigger gamma-ray detectors.

  9. Anakyzing the performance of Active Queue Management Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahammed, G F Ali; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2201

    2010-01-01

    Congestion is an important issue which researchers focus on in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) network environment. To keep the stability of the whole network, congestion control algorithms have been extensively studied. Queue management method employed by the routers is one of the important issues in the congestion control study. Active queue management (AQM) has been proposed as a router-based mechanism for early detection of congestion inside the network. In this paper we analyzed several active queue management algorithms with respect to their abilities of maintaining high resource utilization, identifying and restricting disproportionate bandwidth usage, and their deployment complexity. We compare the performance of FRED, BLUE, SFB, and CHOKe based on simulation results, using RED and Drop Tail as the evaluation baseline. The characteristics of different algorithms are also discussed and compared. Simulation is done by using Network Simulator(NS2) and the graphs are drawn using X- graph.

  10. Probing the Structure of Jet Driven Core-Collapse Supernova and Long Gamma Ray Burst Progenitors with High Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Imre; Marka, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Times of arrival of high energy neutrinos encode information about their sources. We demonstrate that the energy-dependence of the onset time of neutrino emission in advancing relativistic jets can be used to extract important information about the supernova/gamma-ray burst progenitor structure. We examine this energy and time dependence for different supernova and gamma-ray burst progenitors, including red and blue supergiants, helium cores, Wolf-Rayet stars, and chemically homogeneous stars, with a variety of masses and metallicities. For choked jets, we calculate the cutoff of observable neutrino energies depending on the radius at which the jet is stalled. Further, we exhibit how such energy and time dependence may be used to identify and differentiate between progenitors, with as few as one or two observed events, under favorable conditions.

  11. Jet collimation in the ejecta of double neutron star merger: new canonical picture of short gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Nagakura, Hiroki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru; Ioka, Kunihito

    2014-01-01

    The observations of jet breaks in the afterglows of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) indicate that the jet has a small opening angle of 10^{-2} M_{sun}, the jet is well confined by the cocoon and emerges from the ejecta with the required collimation angle. Our results also suggest that there are some populations of choked (failed) SGRBs or low-luminous new types of event. By constructing a model for SGRB 130603B, which is associated with the first kilonova/macronova can- didate, we infer that the equation-of-state of neutron stars would be soft enough to provide sufficient ejecta to collimate the jet, if this event was associated with a double neutron star merger.

  12. Analyzing the Performance of Active Queue Management Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahammed, G F Ali; 10.5121/ijcnc.2010.2201

    2010-01-01

    Congestion is an important issue which researchers focus on in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) network environment. To keep the stability of the whole network, congestion control algorithms have been extensively studied. Queue management method employed by the routers is one of the important issues in the congestion control study. Active queue management (AQM) has been proposed as a router-based mechanism for early detection of congestion inside the network. In this paper we analyzed several active queue management algorithms with respect to their abilities of maintaining high resource utilization, identifying and restricting disproportionate bandwidth usage, and their deployment complexity. We compare the performance of FRED, BLUE, SFB, and CHOKe based on simulation results, using RED and Drop Tail as the evaluation baseline. The characteristics of different algorithms are also discussed and compared. Simulation is done by using Network Simulator(NS2) and the graphs are drawn using X- graph.

  13. HOM-Free Linear Accelerating Structure for e+ e- Linear Collider at C-Band

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, K

    2003-01-01

    HOM-free linear acceleration structure using the choke mode cavity (damped cavity) is now under design for e sup + e sup - linear collider project at C-band frequency (5712 MHz). Since this structure shows powerful damping effect on most of all HOMs, there is no multibunch problem due to long range wakefields. The structure will be equipped with the microwave absorbers in each cells and also the in-line dummy load in the last few cells. The straightness tolerance for 1.8 m long structure is closer than 30 (micro)m for 25% emittance dilution limit, which can be achieved by standard machining and braising techniques. Since it has good vacuum pumping conductance through annular gaps in each cell, instabilities due to the interaction of beam with the residual-gas and ions can be minimized.

  14. Thermal Calculations Of Input Coupler For Erl Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Sobenin, N P; Bogdanovich, B Yu; Kaminsky, V I; Krasnov, A A; Lalayan, M V; Veshcherevich, V G; Zavadtsev, A A; Zavadtsev, D A

    2004-01-01

    The thermal calculation results of input coupler for ERL injector cavities are presented [1]. A twin coaxial coupler of TTF-3 type was chosen for 2×75 kW RF power transfer. TTF-3 coupler was intended for high pulse and not high average power transmission, so there were revisings proposed in its design. New coupler configuration provides thermal leakage not more than 0.2 W at temperature 2.0K, 2 W at the temperature 4,0K and 50 W at temperature 80K. Construction revising was made at "cold" and "warm" bellows. In particularly, bellows separating was proposed to install additional heat sink. Coupler configuration with "warm" window of choke type was examined. It provides mechanical uncoupling of input waveguide and ceramic insulator. Electrodynamics simulations were carried out by MicroWaveStudio and HFSS codes, thermal analysis was maid using ANSYS.

  15. Probing the central engine of long gamma-ray bursts and hypernovae with gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Yudai

    2009-01-01

    There are the two common candidates as the viable energy source for the central engine of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and hypernovae (HNe), neutrino annihilation and magnetic fields. We investigate gravitational wave (GW) emission accompanied by these two mechanisms. Especially, we focus on GW signals produced by neutrinos from a hyper-accreting disk around a massive black hole. We show that neutrino-induced GWs are detectable for $\\sim$1 Mpc events by LISA and $\\sim$ 100 Mpc by DECIGO/BBO, if the central engine is powered by neutrinos. Simultaneous neutrino detections are also expected, and helpful for diagnosing the explosion mechanism when later electromagnetic observations enable us to identify the source. GW and neutrino observations are potentially useful for probing choked jets that do not produce prompt emission, as well as successful jets. Even in non-detection cases, observations of GWs and neutrinos could lead to profitable implications for the central engine of GRBs and HNe.

  16. Sudden acceleration of flames in open channels driven by hydraulic resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Yanez, J; Bykov, V

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen-air deflagrations with venting at the end of obstructed tubes are studied experimentally and numerically. A shockless transition to the so-called chocked regime of the flame propagation is reported. Mixtures with 13% vol. of hydrogen were ignited from the open end of the tube at the interface between fuel and the ambient air. Three venting ratios were selected, closed, 40% and 100%. In all cases the flame initially propagates without acceleration at a velocity close to the laminar flame speed. The flame configuration excludes most of conventionally acknowledged phenomena of the DDT, namely, volumetric explosions, igniting shock and shock waves interactions. However, after an induction period, of the order of 1 sec, the flame accelerates more than 100 times, within a period of 3-30 ms, until the steady-state choked regime is established. The mechanism of such rapid acceleration is investigated both numerically and analytically. A one dimensional reduced description was suggested and analyzed to model ...

  17. DT-burning upgrade to MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve MFTF-B, one must raise the ion energy and the electrostatic confining potential. This requires higher beam energy (200 keV in this case) and, to preserve end-plug adiabaticity and hold higher plasma density in the central cell, a higher level of magnetic field. In the MFTF Upgrade we also want to incorporate the new end plug configuration first invented for the MARS reactor. This new magnet design is compared with the present MFTF-B magnet set. The differences include the addition of a pair of recircularizing coils on the ends to be used in conjunction with the end region pumping and direct converter schemes, the use of a yin-yang pair rather than a baseball-type coil in the transition, and the elimination of the axicell in favor of the simple choke coil. Also, as noted earlier, an axisymmetric mirror cell is imbedded in the central cell

  18. Orally dissolving strips: A new approach to oral drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Rajni; Pawar, Pravin; Khanna, Sushil; Arora, Sandeep

    2013-04-01

    Recently, fast dissolving films are gaining interest as an alternative of fast dissolving tablets. The films are designed to dissolve upon contact with a wet surface, such as the tongue, within a few seconds, meaning the consumer can take the product without need for additional liquid. This convenience provides both a marketing advantage and increased patient compliance. As the drug is directly absorbed into systemic circulation, degradation in gastrointestinal tract and first pass effect can be avoided. These points make this formulation most popular and acceptable among pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with fear of choking. Over-the-counter films for pain management and motion sickness are commercialized in the US markets. Many companies are utilizing transdermal drug delivery technology to develop thin film formats. In the present review, recent advancements regarding fast dissolving buccal film formulation and their evaluation parameters are compiled.

  19. On the causal mechanisms of stereotype threat: can skills that don't rely heavily on working memory still be threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Jellison, William A; Rydell, Robert J; McConnell, Allen R; Carr, Thomas H

    2006-08-01

    Recent work suggests that stereotype threat (ST) harms performance by reducing available working memory capacity. Is this the only mechanism by which ST can occur? Three experiments examined ST's impact on expert golf putting, which is not harmed when working memory is reduced but is hurt when attention is allocated to proceduralized processes that normally run outside working memory. Experiment 1 showed that well learned golf putting is susceptible to ST. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that giving expert golfers a secondary task eliminates ST-induced impairment. Distracting attention away from the stereotype-related behavior eliminates the harmful impact of negative stereotype activation. These results are consistent with explicit monitoring theories of choking under pressure, which suggest that performance degradation can occur when too much attention is allocated to processes that usually run more automatically. Thus, ST alters information processing in multiple ways, inducing performance decrements for different reasons in different tasks. PMID:16861310

  20. Inhaled Foreign Bodies In Pediatric Patients: Proven Management Techniques In The Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraynes, Megan; Agoritsas, Konstantinos

    2015-10-01

    Foreign body inhalation affects thousands of children every year, and it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Inhaled organic or inorganic foreign bodies can become lodged in the posterior nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, or bronchi. Presentation of foreign body inhalation can range from nonspecific respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure associated with a choking episode. In this issue, an in-depth review of the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of inhaled foreign bodies is presented. Risk factors for foreign body inhalation and clinical clues to diagnosis, as well as emergent management of inhaled foreign bodies are reviewed. A systematic approach, as described in this issue, will aid in timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment of inhaled foreign bodies, thereby limiting future complications and morbidity. PMID:26510331

  1. The coral reefs optimization algorithm: a novel metaheuristic for efficiently solving optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S; Del Ser, J; Landa-Torres, I; Gil-López, S; Portilla-Figueras, J A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems.

  2. Management of Panic Anxiety with Agoraphobia by Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Panic disorder with agoraphobia is a psychological disorder. We are presenting a case report of male client, visted as out door patient in the counseling centre of National Institute of psychology. Client reported the symptoms such as palpitations, pounding heart, accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling/shaking, feeling of choking, chest pain, discomfort, nausea, abdominal distress, feeling dizzy, lightheadedness, and fear of losing control when he is in the crowd. The signs and symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and usually reach their peak within 10 min. Most panic attacks end within 20 to 30 min, and they rarely last more than an hour. The client was diagnosed, Panic Anxiety with Agoraphobia. Cognitive behaviour therapy was used for the treatment. After seven sessions, client′s symptoms were diminished.

  3. Aerodynamic performance of axial-flow fan stage operated at nine inlet guide vane angles. [to be used on vertical lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. D.; Reid, L.

    1979-01-01

    The overall performance of a fan stage with nine inlet guide vane angle settings is presented. These data were obtained over the stable flow range at speeds from 60 to 120 percent of design for vane setting angles from -25 to 42.5 degrees. At design speed and design inlet guide vane angle, the stage has a peak efficiency of 0.892 at a pressure ratio of 1.322 and a flow of 25.31 kg/s. The stall margin based on peak efficiency and stall was 20 percent. Based on an operating line passing through the peak efficiency point at the design setting angle, the useful operating range of the stage at design speed is limited by stall at the positive setting angles and by choke at the negative angles. At design the calculated static thrust along the operating line varied from 68 to 114 percent of that obtained at design setting angle.

  4. A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.nemoto@usp.br, jlbalino@usp.br; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails: rafael.tanaka@prysmian.com, carlos.godinho@prysmian.com

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

  5. Preliminary paleoecological reconstruction of long-term relationship between human and environment in the northern part of Danube-along Plain, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustár, Rozália; Molnár, Dávid; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sávai, Szilvia

    2016-06-01

    The peat bog at Ócsa is located at the northern part of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves at the transitional zone of two landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves and the Danube-along Plain a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. We extended our research to the Ócsa peat bog to complete the environmental historical investigations in the examined area, as well. The bog is located in a former pool formed by the Danube River in which aeolian sand and thick lake sediment deposited from the Late Pleistocene. The initial oligotrophic lake became mesotrophic, therefore thick carbonate sediment deposited. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Neolithic human occupations, the natural development of the lake changed drastically and the lake choked up. The pollen and quartermalacological analysis of the area support the mentioned geological processes.

  6. An encroachment on hydro[Sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, B.S.K. [REC, Government of India, New Delhi (India)

    2000-05-01

    The article explains how, following dry weather followed by flooding, soil is eroded and if deposited in reservoirs can be a serious cause for concern since stream beds become raised, flood heights are increased and irrigation and navigation channels are choked. Also, the live storage capacity of reservoirs is reduced. Siltation is particularly bad on the Yellow River (China), the Ganga (India) and the Brahmaputra (India). It has been estimated that by 2020, at least 1 in 5 reservoirs in India will have lost 50% of its storage capacity due to this phenomenon. Silt which passes the desilting system in hydro plants can interfere with the workings of hydraulic turbines and valves, and this should be borne in mind at the design stage; points to consider are discussed. The characterisation of the various silts is mentioned. Some points considered at a recent international conference on the subject are mentioned briefly. A list of 'further reading' (six documents) is given.

  7. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.

    1998-03-01

    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  8. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  9. An evaluation of 1D loss model collections for the off-design performance prediction of automotive turbocharger compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.

    2013-12-01

    Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.

  10. Hydraulics of a multiple slit-type energy dissipater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 姚莉; 马飞; 吴伟伟

    2014-01-01

    With the constructions of high dam projects in China, the energy dissipation downstream of a dam becomes a serious concern. In this study, a multiple slit-type energy dissipater, with different reduction size slits in the outlet, is developed on the basis of conventional slit-type energy dissipaters, aiming to enhance the energy dissipation through the turbulence and the friction between the different layers of the jet flow and the air entrainment due to the increased surface of the flow to the air. The hydraulic characteristics of the energy dissipater are experimentally investigated by means of three sets of physical models in nine cases, to characterize the geometric parameters with suitable performance. The main concerns are the flow regime, the jet flow trajectory, the energy dissipation, the cavitation characteristics, and the flow choking. The results indicate that the dissipater enjoys a high energy dissipation ratio with suitable hydraulic performance comparing with the conventional slit-type energy dissipaters.

  11. Panic attack symptoms differentiate patients with epilepsy from those with psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Rick; Popescu, Alexandra; Dixit, Ronak; Ghearing, Gena; Bagic, Anto

    2014-08-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic spells (PNES) are frequently challenging to differentiate from epileptic seizures. The experience of panic attack symptoms during an event may assist in distinguishing PNES from seizures secondary to epilepsy. A retrospective analysis of 354 patients diagnosed with PNES (N=224) or with epilepsy (N=130) investigated the thirteen Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV-Text Revision panic attack criteria endorsed by the two groups. We found a statistically higher mean number of symptoms reported by patients with PNES compared with those with epilepsy. In addition, the majority of the panic attack symptoms including heart palpitations, sweating, shortness of breath, choking feeling, chest discomfort, dizziness/unsteadiness, derealization or depersonalization, fear of dying, paresthesias, and chills or hot flashes were significantly more frequent in those with PNES. As patients with PNES frequently have poor clinical outcomes, treatment addressing the anxiety symptomatology may be beneficial. PMID:25084477

  12. Engineering design and fabrication of tapered damped X-Band accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Solodko, A; Gudkov, D; Riddone, G; Grudiev, A; Atieh, S; Taborelli, M

    2011-01-01

    The accelerating structures (AS) are one of the main components of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), under study at CERN. Each accelerating structure contains about 30 copper discs, which form the accelerating cavity. The requirements of different technical systems, such as vacuum and cooling, have to be considered during the engineering design. A fully featured AS is very challenging and requires several technologies. Different damping methods, waveguides, vacuum manifolds, slots and chokes, result in various design configurations. In the CLIC AS each cell is damped by means of four waveguides coupled to the cell. The vacuum manifolds combine a number of functions such as damping, vacuum pumping and cooling. A silicon carbide absorber, fixed inside of each manifold, is required for effective damping of Higher Order Modes (HOMs). This paper describes the engineering design of the X-band AS with damping material, and focuses on few technical solutions.

  13. Acupuncture Treatment of Chest Bi Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jinsheng; Wang Xinzhong

    2008-01-01

    @@ CASE HISTORY A male,a retired officer of 61 years old,paid his first visit on May 12,2006.The patient stated that 2 weeks before he suddenly got paroxysmal precordial choking pain,with irregular attacks.Each attack would last several seconds to several minutes.The attack was accompanied with heavy oppressed sensation in the precordial region,palpitation,lassitude,and in severe cases,sweating,which was once diagnosed by a hospital as'coronary heart disease'.Recalling the case history,the patient said that several days before he got angry with others because of some affairs in work,and he was not so used to the life pattern since he had just retired from his busy working post.At usual times,he was quick tempered and peevish.In recent days,he had poor appetite,and loose stool.

  14. Differential Effects of Regulatory Fit on Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Markman, Arthur B; Maddox, W Todd; Baldwin, Grant C

    2008-05-01

    Motivation affects the degree to which people engage in tasks as well as the processes that they bring to bear. We explore the proposal that a fit between a person's situationally-induced self-regulatory focus and the reward structure of the task that they are pursuing supports greater flexibility in processing than does a mismatch between regulatory focus and reward structure. In two experiments, we prime regulatory focus and manipulate task reward structure. Our participants perform a rule-based learning task whose solution requires flexible strategy testing as well as an information-integration task for which flexible strategy use hinders learning. Across two experiments, we predict and obtain a three-way interaction between regulatory focus, reward structure, and task. Relative to a mismatch, a match leads to better rule-based task performance, but worse performance on the information-integration task. We relate these findings to other work on motivation and choking under pressure. PMID:19412324

  15. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...... on VFSS. It is the oral phase of swallowing that is most significantly affected in DMD. The pharyngeal phase is well triggered but is weak with incomplete pharyngeal clearance leaving pharyngeal residue. Insufficient or effortful chewing coupled with weak clearance may predispose them to choking episodes...... either as a one off event or with increasing frequency with age. This study suggests that VFSS may not be of additional benefit to careful feeding history and observation in DMD with feeding difficulties Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  16. Transmission in nonuniform ducts - A comparative evaluation of finite element and weighted residuals computational schemes. [acoustic propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.; Astley, R. J.; Thanh, V. P.

    1977-01-01

    The Method of Weighted Residuals (MWR) and the Finite Element Method (FEM) are considered as computational schemes in the problem of acoustic transmission in nonuniform ducts. MWR is presented in an improved form which includes the interaction of acoustic modes (irrotational) and hydrodynamic modes (rotational). FEM is based on a weighted residuals formulation using eight noded isoparametric elements. Both are applicable to two-dimensional and axially symmetric problems. Calculations are made for several sample problems to demonstrate accuracy and relative efficiency. One test case has implications in the phenomenon of subsonic acoustic choking and it is found that a large transmission loss is not an automatic consequence of propagation against a high subsonic mean flow.

  17. Computational simulation of multi-strut central lobed injection of hydrogen in a scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Choubey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-strut injection is an approach to increase the overall performance of Scramjet while reducing the risk of thermal choking in a supersonic combustor. Hence computational simulation of Scramjet combustor at Mach 2.5 through multiple central lobed struts (three struts have been presented and discussed in the present research article. The geometry and model used here is slight modification of the DLR (German Aerospace Center scramjet model. Present results show that the presence of three struts injector improves the performance of scramjet combustor as compared to single strut injector. The combustion efficiency is also found to be highest in case of three strut fuel injection system. In order to validate the results, the numerical data for single strut injection is compared with experimental result which is taken from the literature.

  18. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  19. MCHOKeM algorithm with assured bandwidth allocation in DiffServ networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Du; Yang Xiao; Kiseon Kim

    2010-01-01

    An active queue management (AQM) algorithm called MCHOKeM is presented, which is borrowed from CHOKeW that draws multi-packets at random from the buffer, the multi-packets are compared with an arriving packet and abandoned if they are from the same flow. But MCHOKeM uses multiple virtual queues for different pdodty packets and enhances the drawing function by adjusting the maximum number of draws based on the current status of virtual queue length. The number of parameters that MCHOKeM needs to maintain is determined by the number of priority levels being supported by the router, which usually has a small limited value. In order to explain the features of MCHOKeM, an analytical model is used. A series of simulation tests to evaluate the performance are given.

  20. Extraction of 10 sec/75 keV/70 A ion beams at prototype neutral beam injector unit for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype neutral beam injector for JT-60 was constructed to test and demonstrate a single beam line performance before fabrication of fourteen injector units for JT-60. The system has been operated over 4 months without serious troubles. Ion beams of 10 sec/75 keV/70 A were extracted repeatedly and most of design values were achieved. Accelerator grids were stable during 10 sec pulse, and other components of the system were confirmed to be sufficiently reliable. The system was also operated with a magnetic field which simulated a stray field from JT-60 tokamak. With the stray field applied, no choking effect in a drift tube like PLT or Culham effects were observed at all. (author)

  1. The Eddington Limit in Cosmic Rays: An Explanation for the Observed Faintness of Starbursting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    We show that the luminosity of a star forming galaxy is capped by the production and subsequent expulsion of cosmic rays from its interstellar medium. By defining an Eddington luminosity in cosmic rays, we show that the star formation rate of a given galaxy is limited by its mass content and the cosmic ray mean free path. When the cosmic ray luminosity and pressure reaches a critical value as a result of vigorous star formation, hydrostatic balance is lost, a cosmic ray-driven wind develops, and star formation is choked off. Cosmic ray pressure-driven winds are likely to produce wind velocities significantly in excess of the galactic escape velocity. It is possible that cosmic ray feedback results in the Faber-Jackson relation for a plausible set of input parameters that describe cosmic ray production and transport, which are calibrated by observations of the Milky Way's interstellar cosmic rays.

  2. Management of feeding Problem in a Patient with Cleft Lip/Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mridula; Bhushan, Urvashi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a child with cleft lip and/or palate, nutrition is the first priority as for any other child. These children have specific physical limitations. To fulfill their nutritional requirement, these children need modifications in order to thrive and grow. Failure to adjust to these needs could place the children into a potential life-threatening situation. One of the immediate problems to be addressed in a newborn with cleft lip/palate is difficulty in feeding. Nasal regurgitation and choking are common because of inability of the palate to separate the nasal and oral cavities. The case presented here discusses the management of feeding problem in the infant with cleft lip/palate. How to cite this article: Goswami M, Jangra B, Bhushan U. Management of feeding Problem in a Patient with Cleft Lip/ Palate. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):143-145. PMID:27365936

  3. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))

    1985-04-01

    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  4. Modeling of fluid dynamics interacting with ductile fraction propagation in high pressure pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihaela Popescu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model for the fluid dynamics in a fractured ductile pipe under high pressure. The pressure profile in front of the crack tip, which is the driving source of crack propagation, is computed using a nonlinear wave equation. The solution is coupled with a one dimensional choked flow analysis behind the crack. The simulation utilizes a high order optimized prefactored com-pact-finite volume method in space, and low dispersion and dissipation Runge-Kutta in time. As the pipe fractures the rapid depressurization take place inside the pipe and the prop-agation of the crack-induced waves strongly influences the outflow dynamics. Consistent with the experimental observa-tion, the model predicts the expansion wave inside the pipe, and the reflection and outflow of the wave. The model also helps characterize the propagation of the crack dynamics and fluid flows around the tip of the crack.

  5. Study on the Effects of End-bend Cantilevered Stator in a 2-stage Axial Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songtao WANG; Xin DU; Zhongqi WANG

    2009-01-01

    Leading edge recambering is applied to the cantilevered stator vanes in a 2-stage compressor in this paper. Dif-ferent curving effects are produced when the end-bend stator vanes are stacked in different ways. Stacking on the leading edge induces a positive curving effect near the casing.When it is stacked on the centre of gravity, a nega-tive curving effect takes place. The numerical investigation shows that the flow field is redistributed when the end-bend stators with leading edge stacking are applied. The variations in the stage matching for the mainstream and near the hub have an impact on the performance of the 2-stage compressor. The isentropic efficiency and the total pressure ratio of the compressor are increased near the design condition. The compressor total pressure ratio is decreased near choke and near stall. The maximum flow rate is reduced and the stall margin is decreased.

  6. SAGD optimization under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossuin, J.; Naccache, P. [Schlumberger SIS, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Bailley, W.; Couet, B. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA, (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but this is a costly method and ways to make it more efficient are needed. Multiple methods have been developed to optimize the SAGD process but none of them explicitly considered uncertainty. This paper presents an optimization method in the presence of reservoir uncertainty. This process was tested on an SAGD model where three equi-probable geological models are possible. Preparatory steps were first performed to identify key variables and the optimization model was then proposed. The method was shown to be successful in handling a significant number of uncertainties, optimizing the SAGD process and preventing premature steam channels that can choke production. The optimization method presented herein was successfully applied to an SAGD process and was shown to provide better strategies than sensitivity analysis while handling more complex problems.

  7. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, an underestimated disorder in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vaquero-Sosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a rather frequent clinical entity in patients with neurological problems that can lead to serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia and other disorders like dehydration or malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. It should be suspected in children with splitting of food intake or prolonged feeding, coughing or choking during feeding, continuous drooling or repeated respiratory symptoms. For the diagnosis, apart from the examination of swallowing, additional tests can be run like the water-swallowing test, the viscosity-volume test (which determines what kind of texture and how much volume the patient is able to tolerate, a fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing or a videofluoroscopic swallow study, which is the gold standard for the study of swallowing disorders. It requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an adequate intake of fluids and nutrients with minimal risk of aspiration. If these two conditions cannot be met, a gastrostomy feeding may be necessary.

  8. Biomass granular screw feeding: An experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Jianjun; Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6 T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Successful feeding is critical to biomass utilization processes, but difficult due to the heterogeneity, physical properties and moisture content of the particles. The objectives of the present study were to find the mechanisms of blockage in screw feeding and to determine the effects of particle mean size (0.5-15 mm), size distribution, shape, moisture content (10-60%), density and compressibility on biomass particle feeding at room temperature. Wood pellets, sawdust, hog fuel and wood shavings were tested in a screw feeder/lock hopper system previously employed to feed sawdust into a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. Experimental results showed that large particles, wide size distributions, large bulk densities and high moisture contents generally led to larger torque requirements for screw feeding. The ''choke section'' and seal plug play important roles in determining the torque requirements. (author)

  9. Two wings and a prayer: should Canada make it easier for Canadian doctors trained abroad to enter practice here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barer, Morris L; Evans, Robert G; Hedden, Lindsay

    2014-05-01

    About 3,600 Canadians are currently studying medicine abroad (CSMAs). Most hope to return to practise in Canada. But the road back is not easy. These graduates must complete postgraduate residency training in Canada and alas, there are less openings than there are aspirants. One might have thought, amid the endless rhetoric of "physician shortages," that an obvious solution would be to increase the number of residency positions. But provincial governments are well aware, even if the media are not, that Canada is in the early stages of a dramatic expansion in physician supply fuelled by increased domestic training capacity. Last time the physician supply outpaced population growth, as it is doing today, governments choked off the entry of international graduates. It could happen again. PMID:24973480

  10. Unsteady Flow Simulation of a Sweeping Jet Actuator Using a Lattice-Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, B.; Wessels, M.; Fares, E.; Vatsa, V.

    2016-01-01

    Active flow control technology is increasingly used in aerospace applications to control flow separation and to improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper, PowerFLOW is used to simulate the flow through a sweeping jet actuator at two different pressure ratios. The lower pressure ratio leads to a high subsonic flow, whereas the high pressure ratio produces a choked flow condition. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data is shown, which includes qualitatively good agreement of pressure histories and spectra. PIV measurements are also available but the simulation overestimates mean and fluctuation quantities outside the actuator. If supply pressure is matched at one point inside the mixing chamber a good qualitative agreement is achieved at all other monitor points.

  11. Hemorrhagic Skin Nodules and Plaques: A Diagnostic Clue to Underlying Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Nath, Amiya Kumar; Subbian, Murugavel; Basu, Debdatta; Hamide, Abdoul; D'Souza, Mariette

    2016-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a malignant proliferation of plasma cells (PC) in blood and marrow. Cutaneous involvement is very rare in PCL. We present the case of a 45-year-old lady who presented with multiple hemorrhagic nodules and plaques in the skin. Her total leucocyte count was 2,00,200/cmm with 85% abnormal plasmacytoid cells in peripheral smear. Biopsy of the skin lesions revealed diffuse infiltration by plasma cells with 'choked' blood vessels. A diagnosis of plasma cell leukemia with cutaneous involvement was made. On the second day of admission, the patient expired probably because of intracranial bleed due to thrombocytopenia. Post-mortem bone marrow and liver biopsy also showed diffuse infiltration by plasma cells. Monoclonality of the cells was proven by demonstrating the production of only kappa light chains. PMID:27057024

  12. Risky Behaviors and Social Networking Sites: How Is YouTube Influencing Our Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Sauer, Penny; Thacker, Paige

    2015-10-01

    Choking, cutting, and setting oneself on fire are just a few of the risky behaviors that the YouTube video sharing website has allowed youth around the world to view, emulate, and comment on. Some researchers contend that the viewing of videos may normalize these behaviors for youth. Disturbing current trends are explored to illustrate the darker side of YouTube. Psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHNs) are in key positions to help parents and youth better understand the benefits and risks of social networking sites, including YouTube, and to encourage healthy and safe use of the Internet. Nursing implications are offered for PMHNs, educators, health care providers, and parents who have contact with this population. PMID:26489101

  13. Plummer-Vinson syndrome and dilation therapy: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Fikret; Savaş, M Cemil; Kepkep, Necip; Okan, Vahap; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Büyükberber, Mehmet; Gülşen, M Taner

    2005-12-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome is known as the association of postcricoid dysphagia, upper esophageal web, and iron deficiency anemia. Although correction of iron deficiency may result in resolution of dysphagia and sometimes disappearance of the webs, dilation therapy is usually necessary to remove webs and relieve dysphagia. We report two cases of Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Both patients presented with significant and longstanding dysphagia, sideropenia, glossitis and koilonychia. Our two patients had occasional choking and aspiration episodes at eating and endoscope did not pass through at the level of the upper esophagus. Patients' esophagograms revealed the presence of webs in part of the post-cricoid region. Both patients were treated with esophageal bougienage or balloon dilation, and iron supplementation. The patients were examined periodically for two years after the initial treatment and found to be in good general condition.

  14. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2005-01-01

    needed to adjust the speed of the motor. The integrated motor drive concept is a result of merging the two units in order to achieve the following benefits [1-3]: reducing the design and the commissioning time in complex industrial equipments, no need for a cabinet to host the frequency converter......-density integration of the converter caused by the large size of the passive components (electrolytic capacitors and iron chokes) and vibration of the converter enclosure. This paper analyzes the implementation aspects for obtaining a compact and cost effective single-phase ASD with sinusoidal input current......, investigating the physical removal of power inductors from the converter enclosure in conjunction with reducing the number of semiconductor active devices. There are two ways to do that: to integrate the inductors in the unused area of the stator yoke of the motor or to use the leakage inductance...

  15. Effect of cathode structure on neutron yield performance of a miniature plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we report the effect of two different cathode structures - tubular and squirrel cage, on neutron output from a miniature plasma focus device. The squirrel cage cathode is typical of most DPF sources, with an outer, tubular envelope that serves as a vacuum housing, but does not carry current. The tubular cathode carries the return current and also serves as the vacuum envelope, thereby minimizing the size of the DPF head. The maximum average neutron yield of (1.82±0.52)x105 n/shot for the tubular cathode at 4 mbar was enhanced to (1.15±0.2)x106 n/shot with squirrel cage cathode at 6 mbar operation. These results are explained on the basis of a current sheath loading/mass choking effect. The penalty for using a non-transparent cathode negates the advantage of the smaller size of the DPF head.

  16. A self-biased 3D tunable helical antenna in ferrite LTCC substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-07-19

    A ferrite LTCC based helical antenna which also provides magneto-static bias for its frequency tuning is presented in this work. The 3D helical-cum-bias winding design avoids the use of large external electromagnets which are traditionally used with ferrite based tunable antennas. This reduces the overall size of the design while making it efficient by getting rid of demagnetization effect experienced at the air-to-ferrite interface. RF choke and DC blocking capacitor, required to isolate the RF and DC passing through a single structure, are integrated within the multi-layer Ferrite LTCC substrate. Magnetostatic and microwave simulations have been carried out for the design optimization. The prototype antenna demonstrates a tuning range of 10 % around 13 GHz. An optimized design with an air cavity is also presented which reduces the biasing power requirement by 40 %.

  17. Inductor Compensation in Three Phase PFC Control with Decoupling the Input Voltage and Bus Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Guang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the nonlinear structure of the boost ac/dc topology, the PFC is difficult to be controlled. The average state space theory has revealed that the choke current is determined by duty-ratio coupled with input voltage and bus voltage, which makes the high-performance sine-wave current track control more challenging. To remove disturbing variables and reduce the zero-crossing distortion, the decoupling control strategy is presented. Also, it is shown in this paper that the variable inductance has a great influence on PFC and THDI. As the inductor in boost converter varies with the current, a compensating coefficient of current is also proposed. The decoupling strategy and the inductor compensation strategy are implemented on a UPS with three phase input voltage. Numerical simulation and experimental results has indicated the high-performance of these control strategy.

  18. Numerical investigation & comparison of a tandem-bladed turbocharger centrifugal compressor stage with conventional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Syed Noman; Qureshi, Shafiq Rehman; EL-Leathy, Abdelrahman; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Umer, Usama; Ma, Chaochen

    2014-12-01

    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor. Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels, axial spacings and circumferential clockings. Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle, meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design. Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance. Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed. Comparing two designs, it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates. However; near choke flow, tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area. Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  19. Analysis and control of wakefields in X-band crab cavities for Compact Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambattu, P.K., E-mail: praveen-kumar.ambattu@stfc.ac.uk [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YW (United Kingdom); Burt, G. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YW (United Kingdom); Khan, V.F.; Jones, R.M. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Dexter, A. [Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YW (United Kingdom); Dolgashev, V. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2011-11-21

    The Compact Linear Collider requires a crab cavity on each beamline prior to the interaction point to rotate the bunches before collision. The cavities are X-band travelling wave type and are located close to the final doublet of the beam delivery system. This makes the beam very sensitive to transverse momentum imparted by wakefields; hence the wakefields must be tightly controlled. Of special concerns are the orthogonal polarisation of the operating mode and the fundamental monopole mode of the crab cavity. The former mode is at the same frequency as the operating mode of a cylindrically symmetric cavity and the latter one is at a lower frequency and hence is difficult to damp using a single means. In this paper major problematic modes of the crab cavity are investigated and damping requirements for them are calculated. Possibility of meeting the required wakefield control using waveguide damping and choke damping is thoroughly investigated. As a comparison, damped-detuning is also investigated.

  20. Analysis and Control of Wakefields in X-Band Crab Cavities for Compact Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambattu, P.K.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Lancaster U.; Burt, G.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Lancaster U.; Khan, V.F.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Manchester U.; Jones, R.M.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Manchester U.; Dexter, A.; /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech. /Lancaster U.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2012-04-25

    The Compact Linear Collider requires a crab cavity on each beamline prior to the interaction point to rotate the bunches before collision. The cavities are X-band travelling wave type and are located close to the final doublet of the beam delivery system. This makes the beam very sensitive to transverse momentum imparted by wakefields; hence the wakefields must be tightly controlled. Of special concerns are the orthogonal polarization of the operating mode and the fundamental monopole mode of the crab cavity. The former mode is at the same frequency as the operating mode of a cylindrically symmetric cavity and the latter one is at a lower frequency and hence is difficult to damp using a single means. In this paper major problematic modes of the crab cavity are investigated and damping requirements for them are calculated. Possibility of meeting the required wakefield control using waveguide damping and choke damping is thoroughly investigated. As a comparison, damped-detuning is also investigated.

  1. One watt gallium arsenide class-E power amplifier with a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator filter embedded in the output network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Holzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a class-E power amplifier (PA and a thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR filter is shown to provide high power added efficiency in addition to superior out-of-band spectrum suppression. A discrete gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor is implemented to operate as a class-E amplifier from 2496 to 2690 MHz. The ACPF7041 compact bandpass FBAR filter is incorporated to replace the resonant LC tank in a traditional class-E PA. To reduce drain voltage stress, the supply choke is replaced by a finite inductance. The fabricated PA provides up to 1 W of output power with a peak power added efficiency (PAE of 58%. The improved out-of-band spectrum filtering is compared to a traditional class-E with discrete LC resonant filtering. Such PAs can be combined with linearisation techniques to reduce out-of-band emissions.

  2. Ballistic penetration of Perma-Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Raymond Albert; Powell, David Arthur; Lew, Adrian

    2012-03-01

    In this study a number of experiments were performed by taking high-speed footage of the firing spherical steel bullets at different speeds into Perma-Gel, a new synthetic thermoplastic material touted to exhibit similar properties to ordnance ballistic gelatin. We found that the gel undergoes very large and recoverable elastic deformations, which could strongly affect the dynamics of the temporary cavity formed behind the projectile. As with ordnance ballistic gelatin, the diameter of the temporary cavity can be many times the diameter of the projectile, in contrast with that of the permanent cavity which is several times smaller.We also observed that the closure of the cavity chokes the air inside, which could affect its dynamics in noticeable ways. Finally, one of the experiments suggest that the precise model of material failure may not be important to determine the dynamics of the temporary cavity.

  3. Propolis-induced descending necrotizing mediastinitis and aspiration pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeng-Yuan; Hsu, Nan-Yung

    2013-04-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by bees as a sealant for their hives. It is also used in traditional medicine as an antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent to treat ulcers, superficial burns, and microbial diseases. In this report, a 40-year-old woman who took liquid propolis for relief of her common cold experienced severe sore throat, dysphagia, and easy choking followed by fever and chills. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis and concomitant aspiration pneumonia were evident on the image studies. We performed video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to achieve immediate and adequate drainage, and the patient resumed normal deglutition 2 months later. Early diagnosis and prompt video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery intervention are paramount to manage this life-threatening situation.

  4. Pressure activated stability-bypass-control valves to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 40 percent internal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

    1974-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. The inlet stable airflow range provided by various stability-bypass entrance configurations in alternate combination with several stability-bypass exit controls was determined for both steady-state conditions and internal transient pulses. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit. Instart angles of attack were determined for the various stability-bypass entrance configurations. The response of the inlet-coldpipe system to internal and external oscillating disturbances was determined. Poppet valves at the stability-bypass exit provided an inlet stable airflow range of 28 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  5. Poppet valve control of throat stability bypass to increase stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5. inlet with 60 percent internal contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.

    1975-01-01

    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. System variations included several stability bypass entrance configurations. Poppet valves controlled the bypass airflow. The inlet stable airflow range achieved with each configuration was determined for both steady state conditions and internal pulse transients. Results are compared with those obtained without a stability bypass system. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit and for the inlet with large and small stability bypass plenum volumes. Poppet valves at the stability bypass exit provided the inlet with a stable airflow range of 20 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  6. Possibilities of electronics and microelectronics for optimation of the fuel consumption of cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziwisch, G.F.; Meissner, F.

    1980-01-01

    Electronics in cars have established themselves internationally not only because the increase in safety and comfort but also where optimation of energy transformation is concerned. Those elements and functional groups have to operate in wide ranges of operational temperature, they have to have a high tolerance for shocks and vibratory stresses, they must be resistent against air humidity and against aggressive and corrosive media. Further demands are: indifference to fluctuations of the voltage, active and passive interference safety, high reliability, low price. They can be used in: engine (electronic ignition, fuel metering, speed control); power transmission (automatic gear); control equipment (indication of momentary fuel consumption, board diagnosis, speed warning system, indicator for position of choke and handbrake). Further possibilities for successful use of microlectronics and electronics are recording and processing of traffic flows for tasks of traffic planning and channeling, optimization of routing, traffic stream control and utilization of transport capacities.

  7. 12-T solenoid-design options for the MFTF-B Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major options for the 12 T magnets examined here are the selection of normal, superconducting or hybrid normal/superconducting magnet systems. The tradeoffs are those between the higher initial cost of superconducting magnet system, the need for thick shielding of superconducting magnets, higher recirculating power in the normal magnets and poorly characterized reliability of lightly shielded normal magnets. The size and shielding tradeoffs among these options are illustrated. The design concepts presented here are evaluated only for the first design iteration of MFTF-B + T, mentioned above. In particular, all concepts now being considered have made topological improvements in the center cell, so that neutral beam power is no longer a strong function of choke coil size. This function was strongly favorable to the use of normal magnets over superconducting magnets and its absence will be discussed qualitatively in the cost comparisons

  8. Gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  9. Risky Behaviors and Social Networking Sites: How Is YouTube Influencing Our Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Sauer, Penny; Thacker, Paige

    2015-10-01

    Choking, cutting, and setting oneself on fire are just a few of the risky behaviors that the YouTube video sharing website has allowed youth around the world to view, emulate, and comment on. Some researchers contend that the viewing of videos may normalize these behaviors for youth. Disturbing current trends are explored to illustrate the darker side of YouTube. Psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHNs) are in key positions to help parents and youth better understand the benefits and risks of social networking sites, including YouTube, and to encourage healthy and safe use of the Internet. Nursing implications are offered for PMHNs, educators, health care providers, and parents who have contact with this population.

  10. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life Questionnaire" into Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life (EoE-QoL-A Questionnaire" was developed in English as a valid, reliable, and disease-specific health-related QoL measure. This research aims to adapt and validate this questionnaire for Spanish-speaking patients. Patients and methods: A multicenter, observational, prospective study was conducted at 8 Spanish hospitals. The cultural adaptation of the original EoE-QoL-A questionnaire was undertaken through a standardized 3-phase procedure: 1. Translation; 2. Retrotranslation; and 3. Pilot study. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Short Form (SF-12, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ, and the adapted EoE-QoL-A, with a retest 3 months later. Statistical analysis included construct validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, and reproducibility. Results: One hundred and seventy adult EoE patients (73.5 % male; aged 33.5 ± 11.4-y were included in the study. With regard to internal validity, all Cronbach alpha values were > 0.75. A significant correlation between items assessed in the SF-12, BIPQ and EoE-QoL-A questionnaires (p < 0.001 was observed. Correlations with the HADS were stronger for anxiety than for depression levels. Anxiety related to disease diagnosis and choking were the most affected dimensions; less affected were the dimensions related to eating, social, and emotional development. Intraclass correlation coefficients between the test and retest assessments were acceptable for all questionnaires, with the highest values (0.73-0.84 calculated for the EoE-QoL-A Spanish version. Conclusion: The Spanish version of the EoE-QoL-A is a reliable, valid, and responsive questionnaire. Diagnosis and choking anxiety were the most affected dimensions in the health-related QoL in adult EoE patients.

  11. Analysis of Unsteady Tip and Endwall Heat Transfer in a Highly Loaded Transonic Turbine Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, vane-rotor shock interactions and heat transfer on the rotor blade of a highly loaded transonic turbine stage were simulated. The geometry consists of a high pressure turbine vane and downstream rotor blade. This study focuses on the physics of flow and heat transfer in the rotor tip, casing and hub regions. The simulation was performed using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code MSU-TURBO. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model was utilized to model turbulence. The rotor blade in question has a tip gap height of 2.1 percent of the blade height. The Reynolds number of the flow is approximately 3x10(exp 6) per meter. Unsteadiness was observed at the tip surface that results in intermittent "hot spots". It is demonstrated that unsteadiness in the tip gap is governed by inviscid effects due to high speed flow and is not strongly dependent on pressure ratio across the tip gap contrary to published observations that have primarily dealt with subsonic tip flows. The high relative Mach numbers in the tip gap lead to a choking of the leakage flow that translates to a relative attenuation of losses at higher loading. The efficacy of new tip geometry is discussed to minimize heat flux at the tip while maintaining choked conditions. In addition, an explanation is provided that shows the mechanism behind the rise in stagnation temperature on the casing to values above the absolute total temperature at the inlet. It is concluded that even in steady mode, work transfer to the near tip fluid occurs due to relative shearing by the casing. This is believed to be the first such explanation of the work transfer phenomenon in the open literature. The difference in pattern between steady and time-averaged heat flux at the hub is also explained.

  12. Reactions to Thirdhand Smoke are Associated with Openness to Smoking in Young Never Smoking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian Jiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the associations between reactions to thirdhand smoke (THS) and openness to smoking in young children. In a school-based survey in Hong Kong, 4762 Chinese primary school students reported their reactions to THS (one or more of 'pleasant/happy', 'nausea', 'excited', 'heart beat faster', 'relaxed', 'dislike the smell', 'like the smell', 'dizzy', 'coughing/choking', 'eye uncomfortable' and 'none of the above'), smoking status and openness to smoking (lack of a firm intention not to smoke). Factor structure of reactions to THS was investigated with factor scores calculated and categorised. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of openness to smoking for reactions to THS. Factor analysis yielded two factors including 5 and 4 reactions, which were generally deemed negative and positive, respectively. The proportions of students with factor scores ≥1 for negative and positive reactions were 51.3 and 6.3 %, respectively. In never smokers, openness to smoking was negatively associated with 'dislike the smell' (AOR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.39-0.68), 'coughing/choking' (0.53, 0.38-0.75), 'eye uncomfortable' (0.62, 0.40-0.95) and negative reaction factor score of 2-5 (vs. 0) (0.59, 0.40-0.88), and was positively associated with 'pleasant/happy' (2.80, 1.54-5.09), 'excited' (2.83, 1.17-6.87), 'like the smell' (3.06, 1.49-6.26) and positive reaction factor score of 1-4 (vs. 0) (2.86, 1.83-4.48). In experimental or former smokers, fewer associations reached statistical significance. Negative and positive reactions to THS were negatively and positively associated with openness to smoking, respectively, in young never smoking children.

  13. Combustion Instabilities Modeled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch is investigating active control strategies to mitigate or eliminate the combustion instabilities prevalent in lean-burning, low-emission combustors. These instabilities result from coupling between the heat-release mechanisms of the burning process and the acoustic flow field of the combustor. Control design and implementation require a simulation capability that is both fast and accurate. It must capture the essential physics of the system, yet be as simple as possible. A quasi-one-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation has been developed which may meet these requirements. The Euler equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been used, along with a single reactive species transport equation to simulate coupled thermoacoustic oscillations. A very simple numerical integration scheme was chosen to reduce computing time. Robust boundary condition procedures were incorporated to simulate various flow conditions (e.g., valves, open ends, and choked inflow) as well as to accommodate flow reversals that may arise during large flow-field oscillations. The accompanying figure shows a sample simulation result. A combustor with an open inlet, a choked outlet, and a large constriction approximately two thirds of the way down the length is shown. The middle plot shows normalized, time-averaged distributions of the relevant flow quantities, and the bottom plot illustrates the acoustic mode shape of the resulting thermoacoustic oscillation. For this simulation, the limit cycle peak-to-peak pressure fluctuations were 13 percent of the mean. The simulation used 100 numerical cells. The total normalized simulation time was 50 units (approximately 15 oscillations), which took 26 sec on a Sun Ultra2.

  14. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke

  15. Analysis and Resolution of A Receiver Electromagnetic Interference%某型接收机电磁干扰故障的分析和解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾超英; 赵国栋

    2014-01-01

    With the miniaturization of electronic devices, electromagnetic interference is a difficult problem in improving receiver sensitivity, particularly in the L-band radio receiver. Based on the electromagnetic interference problem in a new produced receiver, analyze the Generation and hazards of electromagnetic interference, Take the circuit segmentation method and component movement method, find that the receiver power supply partial nudity common mode choke produce radiation interference. Applied electromagnetic shielding technology to the common mode choke coil based on its characteristics. Solve the electromagnetic interference problem of the receiver.%电子设备特别是中长波段无线电接收机电磁干扰问题,一直是困扰接收机灵敏度提高的难点,当前电子设备的小型化使干扰源与敏感单元距离越来越小。针对新研制接收机生产过程中的一起电磁干扰问题,分析了电磁干扰的产生和危害,采取电路分割排除法和组件移动法,查找到了产生电磁干扰的源头,为接收机电源部分裸露的共模扼流圈产生辐射干扰。针对电磁辐射干扰源特点,对共模扼流圈采用电磁屏蔽技术,解决了接收机电磁干扰问题。

  16. CT findings in three cases of cystic meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumoto, Kazuhiro; Nishizawa, Teruhiko; Kasamo, Shizuya; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Mihara, Tadahiro (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    The authors have encountered three cases of cystic meningioma among a total of 46 cases. Case 1. This 16-year-old boy complained of headache, nausea, and vomiting for about 5 months. He also felt double vision. On admission, the subjective complaints were headache, nausea, and vomiting, but there was no objective symptom. In CT scans a well-circumscribed low-density area with a nodule-like iso-density mass at the anterolaterally portion was shown in the left temporal rogion. This iso-density mass was homogenously enhanced in the contrast study. In an operation, approximately 60 ml of xanthochromic fluid was aspirated, and the nodule-like mass was totally removed. The histological diagnosis was meningothelial meningioma with a large cyst. Case 2. This 49-year-old woman had complained of blurred vision for 4 months before her admission. An ophthalmologist discovered a choked disc and referred her to our department. On admission a neurological examination disclosed a bilateral choked disc and disturbed visual acuity in her left eye. In CT scans, the mass, which was located in the right frontotemporal region, was markedly enhanced, and a small low-density lesion was recognized in it. Angiographically, a tumor stain fed by the middle meningeal artery was shown. The pathologic al diagnosis was angioblastic meningioma. Case 3. This 68-year-old woman, who had had several attacks of loss of consciousness within the 3 years before admission, had now complained of nausea and vomiting for one month. On admission, neurological examination disclosed paraparesis and paresthesia of the lt. lower limb. In CT scans an irregular mass contiguous to the falx was enhanced; it was surrounded by a low-density lesion which was considered to continue to the ependymal layer of the lateral ventricle. Multilobular cysts were found, and about 10 ml of xanthochromic fluid was aspirated . The histological diagnosis was angioblastic meningioma.

  17. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo

    2015-03-20

    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  18. Freshwater Sustainability under Climate Change in the Nueces River Basin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, D. A.; Sinha, T.; Ji, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater sustainability in arid and semi-arid regions is threatened due to climate change as well as competing water demands for agriculture, urban development, industrial use and ecosystem needs. Such changes have forced the local water supply systems to update their water supply plans once in five years. Developments of such water supply plans not only require reliable assessment of water availability and demands but also incorporate uncertainties due to regional climate change projections. In this study, we focus our analysis on one of the basins in the South Texas - Nueces River Basin (NRB) which provide inflows to the Choke Canyon - Lake Corpus Christi reservoir system. This reservoir system is the major freshwater source for the coastal communities in the basin and the Nueces Bay, which serve as a habitat for several key fish species such as blue crab, brown shrimp, and southern flounder. Freshwater inflows in the NRB have decreased in the past decades, resulting in increased salinity of the Nueces Bay, thus impacting the natural habitat for several fish species. Therefore, estimating the impacts of climate change in the NRB is critical to develop sustainable water resources management in the region. We will implement a physically based hydrologic model under historical climate change scenarios from multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) over the past 30 years to understand how well we could have used large scale climate change projections in improving water resources management over the overlapping observations. A water management model will be developed for the Choke Canyon - Lake Corpus Christi Reservoir System, which will be ingested with inflow projections under multiple GCM scenarios over the past 30 years to incorporate uncertainty in water resources management. Finally, water management scenarios will be developed to minimize deficits between water availability and demands in the region.

  19. A Study of Critical Flowrate in the Integral Effect Test Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeongsik; Ryu, Sunguk; Cho, Seok; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In earlier studies, most of the information available in the literature was either for a saturated two-phase flow or a sub-cooled water flow at medium pressure conditions, e. g., up to about 7.0 MPa. The choking is regarded as a condition of maximum possible discharge through a given orifice and/or nozzle exit area. A critical flow rate can be achieved at a choking under the given thermo-hydraulic conditions. The critical flow phenomena were studied extensively in both single-phase and two-phase systems because of its importance in the LOCA analyses of light water reactors and in the design of other engineering areas. Park suggested a modified correlation for predicting the critical flow for sub-cooled water through a nozzle. Recently, Park et al. performed an experimental study on a two-phase critical flow with a noncondensable gas at high pressure conditions. Various experiments of critical flow using sub-cooled water were performed for a modeling of break simulators in thermohydraulic integral effect test facilities for light water reactors, e. g., an advanced power reactor 1400MWe (APR1400) and a system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART). For the design of break simulators of SBLOCA scenarios, the aspect ratio (L/D) is considered to be a key parameter to determine the shape of a break simulator. In this paper, an investigation of critical flow phenomena was performed especially on break simulators for LOCA scenarios in the integral effect test facilities of KAERI, such as ATLAS and FESTA. In this study, various studies on the critical flow models for sub-cooled and/or saturated water were reviewed. For a comparison among the models for the selected test data, discussions of the comparisons on the effect of the diameters, predictions of critical flow models, and break simulators for SBLOCA in the integral effect test facilities were presented.

  20. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  1. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science

    2004-05-01

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  2. Hybrid LC filter for power electronic drives. Theory and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhankhotov, V.

    2009-07-01

    Power electronic converter drives use, for the sake of high efficiency, pulse-width modulation that results in sequences of high-voltage high-frequency steep-edged pulses. Such a signal contains a set of high harmonics not required for control purposes. Harmonics cause reflections in the cable between the motor and the inverter leading to faster winding insulation ageing. Bearing failures and problems with electromagnetic compatibility may also result. Electrical du/dt filters provide an effective solution to problems caused by pulse-width modulation, thereby increasing the performance and service life of the electrical machines. It is shown that RLC filters effectively decrease the reflection phenomena in the cable. Improved (simple, but effective) solutions are found for both differential- and common-mode signals; these solutions use a galvanic connection between the RLC filter star point and the converter DC link. Foil chokes and film capacitors are among the most widely used components in high-power applications. In actual applications they can be placed in different parts of the cabinet. This fact complicates the arrangement of the cabinet and decreases the reliability of the system. In addition, the inductances of connection wires may prevent filtration at high frequencies. This thesis introduces a new hybrid LC filter that uses a natural capacitance between the turns of the foil choke based on integration of an auxiliary layer into it. The main idea of the hybrid LC filter results from the fact that both the foil choke and the film capacitors have the same roll structure. Moreover, the capacitance between the turns ('intra capacitance') of the foil inductors is the reason for the deterioration of their properties at high frequencies. It is shown that the proposed filter has a natural cancellation of the intra capacitance. A hybrid LC filter may contain two or more foil layers isolated from each other and coiled on a core. The core material can be

  3. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  4. A theoretical and experimental study of high-temperature compressive gas heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, David Iosifovich

    The temperature rise due to compression, although considered as undesirable in most pumping applications, can be utilized to produce an uncontaminated, high-temperature (>1500K), uniformly heated stream of gas. Based on the Roots principle, Multi-Recompression Heater (MRH) is being designed to provide such capabilities. The potential applications include pyrolitic synthesis of chemical compounds, waste and chemical munitions decomposition, optical fiber production and high temperature experimental studies. Future heater design strategies are dependent on thorough understanding of the physical mechanisms and improved modeling capabilities of the compression processes in Roots compressors. In this study, a multi-control volume model is presented. Three control volumes are employed. The well-filling process is modeled via expansion of the compressed gas from the high-pressure reservoir into the well through a "nozzle" formed by the rotor tip and the blower casing. The nozzle has a time-varying geometry and is modeled to allow transition from choked to non-choked flow. When the pressures equalize, the gas in the well is assumed to be fully-mixed and the two control volumes are subsequently considered as one. Numerical computations of the time required for the expansion-mixing process, and the time histories of the pressures and temperatures in the control volumes are performed. Two series of experiments are conducted using a Dresser-Roots Whispair RAM 404 blower at speeds of 2280 and 3430 rpm. The data is collected via ten channels: four for pressure and six for temperature measurements. The experiment control and data recording are made with LabView. The maximum temperature allowed by the unmodified compressor before it would seize up was about 700K. Measured heat transfer and leakage rates are used in calculations. Their representation may be improved by introducing more detailed models. The model presented contains dimensionless compression and thermal transport

  5. Numerical Research on Detonation Wave Characteristic in High Temperature Supersonic Flow%高温超声速流中爆震波特性数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思源; 桂业伟; 白菡尘

    2012-01-01

    通过对高温超声速流中爆震波性质的研究,评估其在高超声速冲压发动机燃烧室的燃烧组织中应用的可行性,并通过数值模拟对分析结论进行了验证。提出了一种新的爆震波起爆机制,注入高温超声速流中的燃料混气可通过自身缓慢的释热使流动进入局域热壅塞状态,进而借助局域热壅塞产生的激波实现爆震波的起爆。计算结果表明在适宜的温度与马赫数条件下,注入高温超声速流中的燃料可通过新的起爆机制在超声速流中形成一道稳定的驻定爆震波。表明在高超声速冲压发动机燃烧室中存在着通过驻定爆震波实现火焰稳定的可能性。%To evaluate the feasibility for utilizing the detonation wave to stabilize flame in scramjet combustor,the detona- tion wave characteristic in high temperature environment was studied by numerical simulations. A new initiation mechanism of detonation was presented. The premixed gas injected into high temperature supersonic flow can reach local thermal choking state through the heat released by slow reaction of premixed fuel gas and then a detonation wave can be initiated by shock pro- duced in thermal choking state. The numerical results show that the fuel injected into high temperature supersonic flow can form a standing detonation wave by the new mechanism in some special temperature and Mach number flow conditions. The re- search shows that it is possible utilizing the standing detonation wave to stabilize flame in scramjet combustor.

  6. TURKISH SHEPHERD DOG KANGAL IN SIVAS FOLKLORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın YAŞAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As one of animals to which are approached with great sympathy by Turkishpeople, Kangal dogs are among the animals accepted sacred in Turkish folklore.Kangals as shepherd dogs were brought into Anatolia along with herds owned byOghuz clans the traditional livelihood of which depends on sheep herds. Being theoldest and most common race of natural shepherd dog, Turkish shepherd dog,Kangal, has survived with all characteristics of it mostly thanks to the matchlessprotection of local people of the town Kangal.Throughout the study, the main objective is to determine the folkloricknowledge related with Kangal raising within folklore of Sivas and to make somecontribution to Turkish world of culture.The research material has consisted of folkloric knowledge obtained between9th April-10th July, 2012 with “information review forms” applied to peopleassociated with folkloric veterinary medicine and animal husbandry in Sivas (e.g.medicine practitioners, animal owners, other resource persons, etc.In the study, it has been determined that raisers in Sivas folklore classify theKangals according to general racial characteristics, color of their pelt and tails ofthem. They are grouped as “kurtçul”, “saf”, “kırma”; and “alası-boz”, “karayaka”,“sarı yaka”, “boz yaka”, “kıllı”, “kırçıl”; and “kılıç kuyruk”, “kuyruğu eğri”, “kıvrakkuyruk”, based on racial characteristics, color of pelt and tails respectively. Also, ithas been gathered significant data on diseases and treatments on Kangals, generalracial standards (structure of the body, head and skull, etc., care and nutrition,estrus, delivery information, wolf choking incident, ear cut, stories, beliefs andidioms.Consequently, it can be suggested that one of reasons why Kangals havemanaged to keep its generation must be original stories and beliefs in Sivas, whichcover the Kangal`s wolf choke, intelligence, courage and loyalty; that lack ofknowledge

  7. Bluefin 9M AUV Survey of the Hubbard Glacier Morainal Bank: Proof-of-Concept Study of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Investigations Proximal to a Tidewater Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Lawson, D. E.; O'Halloran, W.

    2014-12-01

    Hubbard Glacier is one of the few advancing tidewater glaciers in the world, offering a premier opportunity for studying ice/sediment/seawater interactions at a tidewater glacier front that is in contact with the stabilizing submarine morainal bank. However, the seafloor and water column proximal to the ice face of a marine-terminating glacier is one of the most challenging and extreme environments imaginable for marine survey work. Frequently choked with constantly-shifting mélange ice at the sea surface and at risk from calving, surface vessels cannot operate safely proximal to the ice face. AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) technology provides an opportunity to survey in areas where surface vessels cannot. Operating well below the sea surface the AUV can operate without hindrance or danger to human operators. In addition, the AUV can be programmed to operate close to the seafloor at a constant altitude, enabling the finest-detail currently possible for acoustic seafloor mapping and consistent resolution irrespective of water depth. With these considerations in mind, we conducted a proof-of-concept survey of the Hubbard Glacier morainal bank in June, 2014. We utilized the Bluefin 9M, the smallest of their line of AUVs. Its size enabled deployment and recovery from a small charter fishing vessel well-suited to navigating through mélange-choked waters. The AUV's payload included a Klein UUV-3500 interferometric sonar (455/900 kHz), which enables acquisition of sidescan backscatter and swath bathymetry up to ~75 m to each side of the instrument from ~10 m altitude over the seabed, and sensors for measuring conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) and optical backscatter (OBS). Although our operations were shortened due to an unfortunate failure in the sonar electronics, sufficient data were collected along the morainal bank to clearly prove the viability of AUV operations in this harsh environment. The data provide centimeter-scale seafloor detail close to the

  8. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  9. 曲面形栅格翼气动特性研究%Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics on circular-arc grid-fin configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永红; 黄勇; 陈建中; 苏继川

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce flow choking and the corresponding high drag force,an im-proved circular-arc grid-fin configuration is proposed in the present study.Compared to the con-ventional grid-fin configuration,the circular-arc layout decreases the length of the fin cell as to reduce the flow choking.Meanwhile,the circular-arc grid fins can be conveniently folded against the body so as to make them easier to store and transport.Viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed to investigate flows over single grid fin.Comparisons of drag coeffi-cients between circular-arc and sweptback grid fins indicate that both configurations have signifi-cant drag reduction under subsonic、transonic and supersonic than baseline grid fin configuration. However,when the flow velocity is above the third critical Mach number,the drag reduction of circular-arc grid fin is higher than that of sweptback grid fin.Through aerodynamic analysis of two different windward forms of circular-arc grid fins,it is clear that before the third critical Mach number,the lift coefficient of the convex plane windward model is much greater than the concave plane windward model (approximately 30%)and the baseline model,after the third criti-cal Mach number the lift coefficient of the convex plane windward model and the baseline model tend to be consistent,while the concave plane windward model has a greater lift coefficient.%与常规栅格翼布局相比,曲面形栅格翼布局减小了栅格翼翼元的等固壁通道的长度,从而有效降低了翼元内气流的壅塞,另外,这种栅格翼布局结构简单,易于折叠,减小了飞行器的轮廓尺寸,具有很好的工程应用前景。本文通过数值模拟方法,在亚、跨、超声速条件下,研究了曲面形栅格翼布局的减阻效果和减阻机理,对比了曲面形栅格翼和常规后掠形栅格翼布局的减阻效果,并对不同迎风方式的曲面形栅格翼气动特性进行了分析。

  10. Gravity currents produced by constant and time varying inflow in a circular cross-section channel: Experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, S.; Ungarish, M.; Di Federico, V.; Chiapponi, L.; Addona, F.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate high-Reynolds number gravity currents (GC) in a horizontal channel of circular cross-section. We focus on GC sustained by constant or time varying inflow (volume of injected fluid ∝ tα, with α = 1 and α > 1). The novelty of our work is in the type of the gravity currents: produced by influx/outflux boundary conditions, and propagation in circular (or semi-circular) channel. The objective is to elucidate the main propagation features and correlate them to the governing dimensionless parameters; to this end, we use experimental observations guided by shallow-water (SW) theoretical models. The system is of Boussinesq type with the denser fluid (salt water) injected into the ambient fluid (tap water) at one end section of a circular tube of 19 cm diameter and 605 cm long. The ambient fluid fills the channel of radius r* up to a given height H* = βr* (0 open to the atmosphere. This fluid is displaced by the intruding current and outflows either at the same or at the opposite end-side of the channel. The two different configurations (with return and no-return flow) allow to analyze the impact of the motion of the ambient fluid on the front speed of the intruding current. For Q larger than some threshold value, the current is expected theoretically to undergo a choking process which limits the speed/thickness of propagation. Two series of experiments were conducted with constant and time varying inflow. The choking effect was observed, qualitatively, in both series. The theory correctly predicts the qualitative behavior, but systematically overestimates the front speed of the current (consistent with previously-published data concerning rectangular and non-rectangular cross-sections), with larger discrepancies for the no-return flow case. These discrepancies are mainly due to: (i) the variations of the free-surface of the ambient fluid with respect to its nominal value (the theoretical model assumes a fixed free-slip top of the ambient fluid), and (ii

  11. Simulation of Unique Pressure Changing Steps and Situations in Psa Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Armin D.; Mehrotra, Amal; Knox, James C.; LeVan, Douglas; Ritter, James A.

    2007-01-01

    A more rigorous cyclic adsorption process simulator is being developed for use in the development and understanding of new and existing PSA processes. Unique features of this new version of the simulator that Ritter and co-workers have been developing for the past decade or so include: multiple absorbent layers in each bed, pressure drop in the column, valves for entering and exiting flows and predicting real-time pressurization and depressurization rates, ability to account for choked flow conditions, ability to pressurize and depressurize simultaneously from both ends of the columns, ability to equalize between multiple pairs of columns, ability to equalize simultaneously from both ends of pairs of columns, and ability to handle very large pressure ratios and hence velocities associated with deep vacuum systems. These changes to the simulator now provide for unique opportunities to study the effects of novel pressure changing steps and extreme process conditions on the performance of virtually any commercial or developmental PSA process. This presentation will provide an overview of the cyclic adsorption process simulator equations and algorithms used in the new adaptation. It will focus primarily on the novel pressure changing steps and their effects on the performance of a PSA system that epitomizes the extremes of PSA process design and operation. This PSA process is a sorbent-based atmosphere revitalization (SBAR) system that NASA is developing for new manned exploration vehicles. This SBAR system consists of a 2-bed 3-step 3-layer system that operates between atmospheric pressure and the vacuum of space, evacuates from both ends of the column simultaneously, experiences choked flow conditions during pressure changing steps, and experiences a continuously changing feed composition, as it removes metabolic CO2 and H20 from a closed and fixed volume, i.e., the spacecraft cabin. Important process performance indicators of this SBAR system are size, and the

  12. Forensic Identification of 50 Cases of Aspiration Asphyxia Death%50例吸入性窒息死亡的法医学鉴定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钧; 石磊; 帅群; 雷普平; 于建云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the forensic identification points of deaths caused by aspiration asphyxia, and provide the help to daily work of forensic identification. Methods We collected 50 cases died of aspiration asphyxia in Judicial Identification of Center Kunming Medical University from 1990 to 2012, and retrospectively analyzed the gender, age, inhalation causes, choking sign, and obstructive site. Results Aspiration asphyxia was the most common in infants and young children, secondly in young adults. Newborn infants always died by amniotic fluid aspiration, babies got aspiration asphyxia based on diseases like pneumonia, encephalitis, and meningitis, and more reasons caused this in young adults. Choking signs were impacted by the factors like inhalation traits, inhaled amount, obstructive site, time of asphyxia process. Conclusion With the reference to the epidemiological characteristics above-mentioned of aspiration asphyxia death, combined with case scene, comprehensive necropsy, and toxicological examination in identification work, can make a scientific and objective appraisal conclusion.%目的 探讨吸入性窒息死亡案例的法医学鉴定要点,为其法医学鉴定工作提供帮助.方法 收集昆明医科大学司法鉴定中心1990年1月至2012年1月间吸入性窒息死亡案例50例,对吸入性窒息死亡案例的性别、年龄、吸入原因、窒息征象、堵塞部位等因素回顾性分析.结果 吸入性窒息常见于婴幼儿,其次是青壮年.新生儿多为羊水吸入,婴幼儿多在肺炎、脑炎、脑膜炎等疾病的基础上引发吸入性窒息,中青年吸入性窒息的发生原因则较多.窒息征象受吸入物性状、数量、堵塞部位、窒息过程的长短等多方面因素影响.结论 参考上述吸入性窒息死亡的流行病学特征,鉴定时结合现场、案情及全面系统的尸体检验、毒化检验,才能作出科学客观的鉴定结论.

  13. Calibrating the Helium Pressurization System for the Space Shuttle Liquid-Hydrogen Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the results from the STS-114 tanking tests and subsequent launch called into question existing thermal and mass models of helium pressurization of the liquid hydrogen tank. This hydrogen tank, which makes up the bottom two-thirds of the External Tank, is pressurized prior to launch to avoid cavitation in the Shuttle Main Engine pumps. At about 2 minutes prior to launch, the main vent valve is closed, and pressurized helium flows into the tank ullage space to achieve set point pressure. As the helium gas cools, its pressure drops, calling for additional helium. Subsequent helium flows are provided in short, timed pulses. The number of pulses is taken as a rough leak indicator. An analysis of thermal models by Marshall Space Flight Center showed considerable uncertainty in the pressure-versus-time behavior of the helium ullage space and the ability to predict the number of pulses normally expected. Kennedy Space Center proposed to calibrate the dime-sized orifice, which together with valves, controls the helium flow quantity (Figure 1). Pressure and temperature sensors were installed to provide upstream and downstream measurements necessary to compute flow rate based on the orifice discharge coefficient. An assessment of flow testing with helium indicated an extremely costly use of this critical resource. In order to reduce costs, we proposed removing the orifices from each Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) and asking Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. (CEESI) to calibrate the flow. CEESI has a high-pressure air flow system with traceable flow meters capable of handling the large flow rates. However, literature research indicated that square-edged orifices of small diameters often exhibit significant hysteresis and nonrepeatability in the vicinity of choked or sonic flow. Fortunately, the MLP orifices behaved relatively well in testing (Figure 2). Using curve fitting of the air-flow data, in conjunction with ASME orifice modeling equations, a

  14. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, Selcuk [CanmetMATERIALS; Li, Delin [CanmetMATERIALS

    2013-12-31

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  15. 右美托咪定对丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼用于脑功能区术中唤醒麻醉的影响探析%Right beauty's microphones set for complex ray fentanyl propofol used for brain functional areas of wake up the anesthesia effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查木哈格

    2015-01-01

    Objective to study the composite rui fentanyl propofol anesthesia technique used in the right brain function cannot set the wake effect of beauty.Methods 60 regular during perioperative period in patients with brain function research, randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Two groups of anesthesia method is the same, before anesthesia induction in patients with treatment group and control group respectively intravenous injection of saline and right beauty holds the mi. Observation compared two groups of patients in mean arterial pressure of different time and wake up time, incidence of body movement, choking incidence of cough.Results the treatment group of mean arterial pressure were lower than the control group at the time of withdrawal, wake up; The body move incidence of treatment group, the incidence of choking cough is lower than the control group,P 0.05, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion line for induction of general anesthesia surgery patients with right cerebral function beauty cannot decide it is better to wake up, suitable for clinical popularization.%目的:研究丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼麻醉脑功能区术中使用右美托咪定的唤醒效果。方法对60例行脑功能区手术患者进行研究,随机分成治疗组与对照组。两组麻醉方法相同,在麻醉诱导前对治疗组与对照组患者分别静脉注入生理盐水与右美托咪定。观察对比两组患者在不同时刻的平均动脉压和唤醒时间、体动发生率、呛咳发生率。结果治疗组的平均动脉压在停药时、唤醒时均低于对照组;治疗组的体动发生率、呛咳发生率低于对照组,P0.05,差异无统计学意义。结论对行全麻诱导的脑功能区手术患者使用右美托咪定唤醒效果较好,适合在临床推普及。

  16. Thrust Control Features for Aerodynamic Throat for Solid Rocket Motor%固体火箭发动机气动喉部的推力调控特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢侃; 李博; 郭常超; 王宁飞

    2015-01-01

    为了研究固体火箭发动机气动喉部推力调节的一般规律,利用氮气作为介质对气动喉部喷管进行了冷流实验研究。研究了该种喷管的扼流性能,二次流嘴的面积、个数对其扼流性能的影响以及空腔容积与喷管压强调节时间的关系。掌握了气动喉部喷管的有效喉部面积随流量比变化的一般规律。结果表明,二次流与主流流量比越大,气动喉部面积越小。小的面积比具有更高的扼流性能,而当流量比大于0.4时,面积比对扼流性能无明显影响。空腔体积越小压强调节时间越短。%Adjust:In order to study the general rules of the thrust control features for aerodynamic throat for solid rocket motor, a cold-flow test research was performed on the aerodynamic nozzle throat using the nitrogen as working gas. Firstly, the choke performance of the aerodynamic throat was studied. Then, the performance of throat modification was studied considering the influence of area and number of secondary flow injectors. Final⁃ly,the relation about the volume of cavity with adjustment time of nozzle was also studied. The general law of ef⁃fective throat area along with the flow rate change was obtained through study. The results show that the larger the flow ratio of the secondary flow and main flow is, the smaller the pneumatic throat area is. The smaller area ratio has higher choke performance,and the influence of area is not obvious when the flow rate is greater than 0.4. Be⁃sides,the smaller the cavity volume is,the shorter the accommodation time of pressure is.

  17. 新型干法水泥窑硫动态循环研究%Study on Sulfur Cycle of Dynamic Equilibrium in NSP Cement Kiln System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇鹰; 杨康; 徐德龙; 周蕊; 孙毅

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur derived from fuels or raw meals will accumulate and circulate within NSP cement kiln systems; a sulfur circulation within system can result in choking of preheaters, and increased SO2 emission in the exit gases. In this paper, comparisons of the sulfur circulation between the high solid gas ratio preheating and precalcining system and the conventional preheating and precalcining system with data as measured in operating cement manufacturing plants. Discusses the dynamic balance of sulfur payments and mechanism of sulfur dynamic circulation. Proposed with sulfur cycle e degrees as system in the degree of sulfur cycle parameters. Advantage in reducing SO2 emission with an application of high solid gas ratio preheating and precalcining system was also discussed. It is concluded that an effective control in sulfur circulations would alleviate choking or coating in kiln system, and lead to reduction in SO2 emission.%新型干法水泥窑系统存在硫循环动态平衡,即部分硫始终处于系统当中参与动态循环,硫循环与系统结皮堵塞和SO2排放关系密切.本文通过工业现场测试,对比研究高固气比预热分解系统和普通预热分解系统的硫循环,探讨了硫收支动态平衡和硫动态循环机理,提出用硫循环度ε作为系统中硫参与循环程度的参数,用硫循环动态平衡理论对高固气比系统SO2减排优势进行了解释.研究结果表明通过对硫循环进行操控可以实现对结皮堵塞防止和SO2减排.

  18. Optimal control and performance test of solar-assisted cooling system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-10-01

    The solar-assisted cooling system (SACH) was developed in the present study. The ejector cooling system (ECS) is driven by solar heat and connected in parallel with an inverter-type air conditioner (A/C). The cooling load can be supplied by the ECS when solar energy is available and the input power of the A/C can be reduced. In variable weather, the ECS will probably operate at off-design condition of ejector and the cooling capability of the ECS can be lost completely. In order to make the ejector operate at critical or non-critical double-choking condition to obtain a better performance, an electronic expansion valve was installed in the suction line of the ejector to regulate the opening of the expansion valve to control the evaporator temperature. This will make the SACH always produce cooling effect even at lower solar radiation periods while the ejector performs at off-design conditions. The energy saving of A/C is experimentally shown 50-70% due to the cooling performance of ECS. The long-term performance test results show that the daily energy saving is around 30-70% as compared to the energy consumption of A/C alone (without solar-driven ECS). The total energy saving of A/C is 52% over the entire test period. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  20. Eruptions at Lone Star geyser, Yellowstone National Park, USA: 2. Constraints on subsurface dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandemeulebrouck, Jean; Sohn, Robert A.; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Manga, Michael; Johnston, Malcolm J.S.; Soule, S. Adam; McPhee, Darcy K.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Karlstrom, Leif; Murphy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    We use seismic, tilt, lidar, thermal, and gravity data from 32 consecutive eruption cycles of Lone Star geyser in Yellowstone National Park to identify key subsurface processes throughout the geyser's eruption cycle. Previously, we described measurements and analyses associated with the geyser's erupting jet dynamics. Here we show that seismicity is dominated by hydrothermal tremor (~5–40 Hz) attributed to the nucleation and/or collapse of vapor bubbles. Water discharge during eruption preplay triggers high-amplitude tremor pulses from a back azimuth aligned with the geyser cone, but during the rest of the eruption cycle it is shifted to the east-northeast. Moreover, ~4 min period ground surface displacements recur every 26 ± 8 min and are uncorrelated with the eruption cycle. Based on these observations, we conclude that (1) the dynamical behavior of the geyser is controlled by the thermo-mechanical coupling between the geyser conduit and a laterally offset reservoir periodically filled with a highly compressible two-phase mixture, (2) liquid and steam slugs periodically ascend into the shallow crust near the geyser system inducing detectable deformation, (3) eruptions occur when the pressure decrease associated with overflow from geyser conduit during preplay triggers an unstable feedback between vapor generation (cavitation) and mass discharge, and (4) flow choking at a constriction in the conduit arrests the runaway process and increases the saturated vapor pressure in the reservoir by a factor of ~10 during eruptions.

  1. Combustion waves in hydraulically resisted systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, I; Kagan, L; Sivashinsky, G

    2012-02-13

    The effects of hydraulic resistance on the burning of confined/obstacle-laden gaseous and gas-permeable solid explosives are discussed on the basis of recent research. Hydraulic resistance is found to induce a new powerful mechanism for the reaction spread (diffusion of pressure) allowing for both fast subsonic as well as supersonic propagation. Hydraulic resistance appears to be of relevance also for the multiplicity of detonation regimes as well as for the transitions from slow conductive to fast convective, choked or detonative burning. A quasi-one-dimensional Fanno-type model for premixed gas combustion in an obstructed channel open at the ignition end is discussed. It is shown that, similar to the closed-end case studied earlier, the hydraulic resistance causes a gradual precompression and preheating of the unburned gas adjacent to the advancing deflagration, which leads (after an extended induction period) to a localized autoignition that triggers an abrupt transition from deflagrative to detonative combustion. In line with the experimental observations, the ignition at the open end greatly encumbers the transition (compared with the closed-end case), and the deflagration practically does not accelerate up to the very transition point. Shchelkin's effect, that ignition at a small distance from the closed end of a tube facilitates the transition, is described. PMID:22213662

  2. 汽车轻量化用碳纤维复合材料国内外应用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万双; 魏毅; 余木火

    2016-01-01

    在节能减排、开发清洁能源汽车的背景下,车用材料轻量化是目前全球汽车工业技术研发的主要目标之一。本文对国内外主要汽车制造商在汽车轻量化用碳纤维复合材料的应用现状进行概述,指出了我国汽车轻量化技术发展存在的问题。%To meet the requirements of energy-saving, emission reduction and developing new energy vehicles, lightweighting of automotive materials is one of the most important targets for technological R&D in global auto industry. In this article, recent progress on using carbon fiber reinforced composites for automobile lightweighting has been systematically reviewed based on case study of leading auto manufacturers from home and abroad. Finally, the choke points for the development of automobile lightweihting in China are summarized.

  3. Pseudobulbar Paralysis Treated by Acupuncture - Clinical Observation in 36 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琳

    2001-01-01

    @@Pseudobulbar paralysis is a kind of common clinical syndromes of cerebral vascular diseases, which is manifested as dyslalia, dysphagia and choking. By several-year clinical observations, 36 cases were treated with satisfactory therapeutic effects as reported in the following. Clinical Data Of 36 in-patients, there were 24 males and 12 females, aged from 44 to 81 years, averaging 64.92 years. Of 36 cases, 24 were at the acute stage and 12 at the recovery stage. All the cases were diagnosed as cerebral vascular diseases by cranial CT scan and MRI, of which, 4 were cerebral infarction, 26 lacunar cerebral infarction, 5 cerebral hemorrhage and 1 mixed type. Of 36 cases, 15 were the first attack of wind-stroke, 15 the second attack, 5 the third attack and 1 the forth attack. There were 26 patients with hypertension among 36 cases, of which, 8 patients suffered from hypertension within 10 years, 6 for more than 10 years, 9 for more than 20 years and 3 for more than 30 years. All the 36 cases were associated with dysphagia and agreeable to Standard on Diagnosis and Evaluation of Therapeutic Effects of Wind-stroke issued by the State Scientific Committee 85-919-01-01, 1995.

  4. Fusion power demonstration - a baseline for the mirror engineering test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing a definition of an engineering test reactor (ETR) is a current goal of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). As a baseline for the mirror ETR, the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) concept has been pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with Grumman Aerospace, TRW, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Envisioned as an intermediate step to fusion power applications, the FPD would achieve DT ignition in the central cell, after which blankets and power conversion would be added to produce net power. To achieve ignition, a minimum central cell length of 67.5 m is needed to supply the ion and alpha particles radial drift pumping losses in the transition region. The resulting fusion power is 360 MW. Low electron-cyclotron heating power of 12 MW, ion-cyclotron heating of 2.5 MW, and a sloshing ion beam power of 1.0 MW result in a net plasma Q of 22. A primary technological challenge is the 24-T, 45-cm bore choke coil, comprising a copper hybrid insert within a 15 to 18 T superconducting coil

  5. 大数据在现代战争中的价值探析%Research on the Big Data’s Value in Modern Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新乐

    2014-01-01

    Modern warfare is information-dominated. Information penetrates the all aspects of the warfare and becomes one of the key factors which influence the success of the warfare. Effective acquisition, storage, processing and distribution of military in-formation via big data technology can promote the ability of intelligence acquisition and command decision-making, handle the choke point of information flow, advance the integration of operational system, and strengthen the information security and pro-tection.%现代战争是“信息主导”的战争,信息渗透到战争的方方面面,成为影响战争胜负的重要因素之一,利用大数据技术对军事信息进行高效获取、存储、处理和分发,能够有效提升情报获取、指挥决策能力,疏通信息流瓶颈,推进作战体系融合,增强信息安全防护能力。

  6. An introduction to fast dissolving oral thin film drug delivery systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Gupte, Aasavari

    2013-12-01

    Many pharmaceutical companies are switching their products from tablets to fast dissolving oral thin films (OTFs). Films have all the advantages of tablets (precise dosage, easy administration) and those of liquid dosage forms (easy swallowing, rapid bioavailability). Statistics have shown that four out of five patients prefer orally disintegrating dosage forms over conventional solid oral dosages forms. Pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, emetic patients and those with Central Nervous System disorders, have difficulty in swallowing or chewing solid dosage forms. Many of these patients are non-compliant in administering solid dosage forms due to fear of choking. OTFs when placed on the tip or the floor of the tongue are instantly wet by saliva. As a result, OTFs rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication for local and/or systemic absorption. This technology provides a good platform for patent non- infringing product development and for increasing the patent life-cycle of the existing products. The application of fast dissolving oral thin films is not only limited to buccal fast dissolving system, but also expands to other applications like gastroretentive, sublingual delivery systems. This review highlights the composition including the details of various types of polymers both natural and synthetic, the different types of manufacturing techniques, packaging materials and evaluation tests for the OTFs. PMID:24274635

  7. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  8. General Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Secondary Flows in Turbomachinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; Van Hoosier, Katherine P.

    1995-01-01

    The complexity and variety of turbomachinery flow circuits created a need for a general fluid system simulation program for test data anomaly resolution as well as design review. The objective of the paper is to present a computer program that has been developed to support Marshall Space Flight Center's turbomachinery internal flow analysis efforts. The computer program solves for the mass. energy and species conservation equation at each node and flow rate equation at each branch of the network by a novel numerical procedure which is a combination of both Newton-Ralphson and successive substitution method and uses a thermodynamic property program for computing real gas properties. A generalized, robust, modular, and 'user-friendly' computer program has been developed to model internal flow rates, pressures, temperatures, concentrations of gas mixtures and axial thrusts. The program can be used for any network for compressible and incompressible flows, choked flow, change of phase and gaseous mixturecs. The code has been validated by comparing the predictions with Space Shuttle Main Engine test data.

  9. Fusion Power Demonstrations I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we present a summary of the first phase of the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. During this first phase, we investigated two configurations, performed detailed studies of major components, and identified and examined critical issues. In addition to these design specific studies, we also assembled a mirror-systems computer code to help optimize future device designs. The two configurations that we have studied are based on the MARS magnet configuration and are labeled FPD-I and FPD-II. The FPD-I configuration employs the same magnet set used in the FY83 FPD study, whereas the FPD-II magnets are a new, much smaller set chosen to help reduce the capital cost of the system. As part of the FPD study, we also identified and explored issues critical to the construction of an Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). These issues involve subsystems or components, which because of their cost or state of technology can have a significant impact on our ability to meet FPD's mission requirements on the assumed schedule. General Dynamics and Grumman Aerospace studied two of these systems, the high-field choke coil and the halo pump/direct converter, in great detail and their findings are presented in this report

  10. Formulation, development and evaluation of patient friendly dosage forms of metformin, Part-II: Oral soft gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Ashutosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dionvenience of administration and patient compliance are gaining significant importance in the design of dosage forms. Metformin hydrochloride is an orally administered antihyperglycemic agent, used in the management of non-insulin-dependant (type-2 diabetes mellitus. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients suffering from type-2 diabetes are elderly people showing dysphagia. Persons suffering from dysphagia may get choked when they consume liquid formulation, thus to alleviate such problem liquid formulation of high viscosity was prepared. Formulation of oral soft gel batches of metformin was carried out using hydrophilic polymer gellan gum at concentrations ranging from 0.2-0.4% w/v and sodium citrate at two different concentrations (0.3% and 0.5%. The prepared batches were evaluated for appearance, viscosity, pH, drug content, syneresis, in vitro drug release, and taste masking. The batch with 0.4% w/v gellan gum and 0.5% sodium citrate not only showed 85% drug release at 15 min, but all the desired organoleptic properties. The taste masking was carried out using nonnutritive sugar and flavors. The optimized batch showed substantial stability when subjected to short term stability study (0-8°C and Room temperature. The problem of dose measurement by patients was outweighed as oral medicated gels are to be packed in unit dose container.

  11. Electric Machine with Boosted Inductance to Stabilize Current Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High-powered motors typically have very low resistance and inductance (R and L) in their windings. This makes the pulse-width modulated (PWM) control of the current very difficult, especially when the bus voltage (V) is high. These R and L values are dictated by the motor size, torque (Kt), and back-emf (Kb) constants. These constants are in turn set by the voltage and the actuation torque-speed requirements. This problem is often addressed by placing inductive chokes within the controller. This approach is undesirable in that space is taken and heat is added to the controller. By keeping the same motor frame, reducing the wire size, and placing a correspondingly larger number of turns in each slot, the resistance, inductance, torque constant, and back-emf constant are all increased. The increased inductance aids the current control but ruins the Kt and Kb selections. If, however, a fraction of the turns is moved from their "correct slot" to an "incorrect slot," the increased R and L values are retained, but the Kt and Kb values are restored to the desired values. This approach assumes that increased resistance is acceptable to a degree. In effect, the heat allocated to the added inductance has been moved from the controller to the motor body, which in some cases is preferred.

  12. Toy Age-Labeling: An Overview for Pediatricians of How Toys Receive Their Age Safety and Developmental Designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Shuli; Stein, Ruth E K

    2016-07-01

    Injuries related to toys continue to cause significant childhood morbidity and mortality, despite considerable government regulation of the toy industry. Recent controversy related to toys that contain strong magnets demonstrate the dangers they pose to children. The pediatric community is often unaware of how toys receive their developmental and safety labeling and the degree to which age-labeling on toys can be discretionary. Toy labeling has 2 basic manifestations. The first, safety labeling for hazards like small parts, balloons, or small balls that may present a choking risk, is mandatory. The second, "developmental" age-labeling, describes the age of the children for which the toy is intended, and sometimes has discretionary components. This article provides a review of the regulations governing toy age-safety standards and how they are reflected on toy packaging to help pediatric practitioners apply safety advice across settings and patient characteristics. We review the existing age-labeling regulations and processes and discuss the major areas where children remain vulnerable despite labeling. Finally, we list some recommendations for counseling parents about toy safety. PMID:27273747

  13. Clearance gap flow: extended pneumatic measurements and simulations by discontinuous Galerkin finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hála Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, new results of measurements of the compressible viscous fluid flow in narrow channels with parallel walls under the conditions of aerodynamic choking are presented. Investigation was carried out using the improved test section with enhanced capability to accurately set the parallelism of the channel walls. The measurements were performed for the channels of the dimensions: length 100 mm, width 100 mm and for various heights in the range from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. The results in the form of distribution of the static pressure along the channel axis including the detailed study of the influence of the deviation from parallelism of the channel walls are compared with previous measurements and with numerical simulations performed using an in-house code based on Favre averaged system of Navier-Stokes equations completed with turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras and a modification of production term according to Langtry and Sjolander. The spatial discretization of the governing equations is performed using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which ensures high order spatial accuracy of the numerical solution.

  14. Quality of life and deglutition after total laryngectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Total laryngectomy creates deglutition disorders and causes a decrease in quality of life Aim: To describe the impact of swallowing and quality of life of patients after total laryngectomy. Method: A case series study. Patients completed a Swallowing and Quality of Life questionnaire composed of 44 questions assessing 11 domains related to quality of life (burden, eating duration, eating desire, frequency of symptoms, food selection, communication, fear, mental health, social functioning, sleep, and fatigue. The analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability. Results: The sample comprised 15 patients who underwent total laryngectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Of these, 66.7% classified their health as good and 73% reported no restrictions on food consistency. The domains "communication" and "fear" represented severe impact and "eating duration" represented moderate impact on quality of life. The items with lower scores were: longer time to eat than others (domain "eating duration", cough and cough to remove the liquid or food of the mouth when they are stopped (domain "symptom frequency", difficulties in understanding (domain "communication" and fear of choking and having pneumonia (domain "fear". Conclusion: After total laryngectomy, patients report that swallowing issues have moderate to severe impact in "communication," "fear," and "eating duration" domains.

  15. A MEMS-based silicon micropump with intersecting channels and integrated hotwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of a gas-jet micropump with different cross-junctions and integrated hotwire. The device is actuated by a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm at its resonant frequency. The design focuses on a cross-junction formed by the intersection of the channels and neck of the pump chamber, which allows differences in fluidic resistance and fluidic momentum during each PZT diaphragm vibration cycle and thus enables rectification of the gas without valves. Three different designs were investigated by utilizing the ANSYS-FLUENT software. Simulations and experimental data revealed that the step nozzle structure with anti-choking space has much more advantages than the others. The device has been fabricated by the standard MEMS process, and the tiny hotwire has been realized together with the fluidic network. Experiments have been carried out. At a driven frequency of 7.9 kHz, a flow rate of 5.2 ml min−1 was obtained with an applied sinusoidal voltage of 50 Vp-p. The output voltage on the hotwire was measured to be 130 mV at a constant current of I = 0.1 mA

  16. A MEMS-based silicon micropump with intersecting channels and integrated hotwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Dau, Van; Dinh, Thien Xuan; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents the development of a gas-jet micropump with different cross-junctions and integrated hotwire. The device is actuated by a piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm at its resonant frequency. The design focuses on a cross-junction formed by the intersection of the channels and neck of the pump chamber, which allows differences in fluidic resistance and fluidic momentum during each PZT diaphragm vibration cycle and thus enables rectification of the gas without valves. Three different designs were investigated by utilizing the ANSYS-FLUENT software. Simulations and experimental data revealed that the step nozzle structure with anti-choking space has much more advantages than the others. The device has been fabricated by the standard MEMS process, and the tiny hotwire has been realized together with the fluidic network. Experiments have been carried out. At a driven frequency of 7.9 kHz, a flow rate of 5.2 ml min-1 was obtained with an applied sinusoidal voltage of 50 Vp-p. The output voltage on the hotwire was measured to be 130 mV at a constant current of I = 0.1 mA.

  17. Self-organized phenomena of pedestrian counterflow through a wide bottleneck in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Yun; Lan, Dong-Kai; Li, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    The pedestrian counterflow through a bottleneck in a channel shows a variety of flow patterns due to self-organization. In order to reveal the underlying mechanism, a cellular automaton model was proposed by incorporating the floor field and the view field which reflects the global information of the studied area and local interactions with others. The presented model can well reproduce typical collective behaviors, such as lane formation. Numerical simulations were performed in the case of a wide bottleneck and typical flow patterns at different density ranges were identified as rarefied flow, laminar flow, interrupted bidirectional flow, oscillatory flow, intermittent flow, and choked flow. The effects of several parameters, such as the size of view field and the width of opening, on the bottleneck flow are also analyzed in detail. The view field plays a vital role in reproducing self-organized phenomena of pedestrian. Numerical results showed that the presented model can capture key characteristics of bottleneck flows. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB725404) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172164 and 11572184).

  18. Adjustment of RVA-62 automatic field-current regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, A.A.; Karkazov, E.I.

    1985-08-01

    While the RVA-62 automatic field-current regulator performs adequately with small and medium-size turbogenerators, its stability margin being often sufficiently large to compensate design inaccuracies, a refinement is nevertheless recommended to ensure reliability under no-load as well as during parallel operation of generators into a common busbar group. The procedure is based on necessary adjustments of over 40 units and applies to redesign, measurements, breadboard simulation, settings, reassembly, and testing. First it is necessary to determine the correct number of primary and secondary turns in the universal controlled phase-compounding transformer, taking into account the parameters of associated equipment (autotransformer, filter choke, power rectifier, current transformer) as well as various modes of generator instability and the use of automatic field suppression. Revisions in testing circuitry and procedure are proposed, including more precise and some extra measurements, also replacement of selenium rectifiers with silicon diodes. Adjustments according to this scheme have been made in the RVA-62 regulators for 6-60 kW generators with VT exciters and 3000-12,000 kW generators, including Skoda, Siemens-Schuckert GmbH, Parsons Ltd units.

  19. Unraveling the tapestry of life. Can we mend our earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, D

    1991-12-01

    The industrial revolution has reached its most significant turning point. For the 1st time in its history the limiting factor in its growth has not been our ability to utilize resources, but rather a lack of the resources themselves. At the same time the largest problem to ever face our species, the loss of biodiversity, is threatening our own survival. Clearly we can not support our current numbers under the current consumptive system. All our food is provided by wild species that have been genetically manipulated to serve our ends. Of the 80,000 known edible plant species only about 200 are cultivated regularly and only 3 (corn, wheat, rice) function as staples. Many of our industrial resources come from natural sources. 40% of our pharmaceuticals come from wild sources. It is impossible to isolate ourselves from the Earth ecosystem. Soil microorganisms are but one example of our dependence upon nature. The rainforests also serve as our planets lungs, without them we will choke to death. Yet we continue to destroy them at an alarming rate. They account for only 7% of our land area, and they have already shrunk some 40%. In purely economic terms the wholesale destruction of the rainforests is bad business: in rubber and fruit, 2.5 acres of rainforest is worth $9000 annually compared to cow pasture ($2500) and logging ($1000). Of course with fruit and rubber the rainforest remains sustainable while cow pasture and logging mean the destruction of the rainforest. PMID:12343498

  20. CAS22 - FORTRAN program for fast design and analysis of shock-free airfoil cascades using fictitious-gas concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulikravich, D. S.; Sobieczky, H.

    1982-01-01

    A user-oriented computer program, CAS22, was developed that is applicable to aerodynamic analysis and transonic shock-free redesign of existing two-dimensional cascades of airfoils. This FORTRAN program can be used: (1) as an analysis code for full-potential, transonic, shocked or shock-free cascade flows; (2) as a design code for shock-free cascades that uses Sobieczky's fictitious-gas concept; and (3) as a shock-free design code followed automatically by the analysis in order to confirm that the newly obtained cascade shape provides for an entirely shock-free transonic flow field. A four-level boundary-conforming grid of an O type is generated. The shock-free design is performed by implementing Sobieczky's fictitious-gas concept of elliptic continuation from subsonic into supersonic flow domains. Recomputation inside each supersonic zone is performed by the method of characteristics in the rheograph plane by using isentropic gas relations. Besides converting existing cascade shapes with multiple shocked supersonic regions into shock-free cascades, CAS22 can also unchoke previously choked cascades and make them shock free.

  1. An UWB LNA Design with PSO Using Support Vector Microstrip Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Demirel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous and novel design procedure is constituted for an ultra-wideband (UWB low noise amplifier (LNA by exploiting the 3D electromagnetic simulator based support vector regression machine (SVRM microstrip line model. First of all, in order to design input and output matching circuits (IMC-OMC, source ZS and load ZL termination impedance of matching circuit, which are necessary to obtain required input VSWR (Vireq, noise (Freq, and gain (GTreq, are determined using performance characterisation of employed transistor, NE3512S02, between 3 and 8 GHz frequencies. After the determination of the termination impedance, to provide this impedance with IMC and OMC, dimensions of microstrip lines are obtained with simple, derivative-free, easily implemented algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. In the optimization of matching circuits, highly accurate and fast SVRM model of microstrip line is used instead of analytical formulations. ADCH-80a is used to provide ultra-wideband RF choking in DC bias. During the design process, it is aimed that Vireq = 1.85, Freq = Fmin, and GTreq = GTmax all over operating frequency band. Measurements taken from the realized LNA demonstrate the success of this approximation over the band.

  2. Fabrication of Multi Layer Insulation DC Break for Microwave Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To make a compact microwave ion source of 100keV for industrial applications, we are developing the three key components. The first one is a magnetic solenoid with permanent magnets instead of an electromagnet solenoid which requires a high voltage insulation between the ion source and the solenoid or a high voltage floated DC current supply. The second one is a high voltage semiconductor switch that connects or disconnects high voltage power supply for beam extractions to the ion source. With this switch we can control the beam duty to control the average beam current without any tetrode beam extraction geometry or any beam optics component to keep the same beam shape. The last one is DC break in the wave guide between a microwave source such as a magnetron and an ion source. The conventional method for DC break is a choke flange, but that is useful for high voltage less than 50kV. We are developing a multi layer insulation method to obtain the high voltage holding capability higher than 100kV

  3. Reduction and oxalate precipitation as an alternate route for uranium reconversion in thorex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium reconversion at Uranium Thorium Separation Facility (UTSF) was carried out by ammonium-diuranate (ADU) precipitation followed by calcination. The significant iron contamination levels in the uranium product solution necessitated carbonate precipitation followed by neutralization before ADU precipitation thus rendering the process cumbersome. Also accumulation of ammonium nitrate in the process lines and equipments is a cause for concern in view of both choking up of the process lines as well as its potential hazard. However, these difficulties can be mitigated by the choice of oxalate precipitation route for uranium reconversion. As uranium can be precipitated as uranous oxalate the product uranyl nitrate needs to be reduced to uranous nitrate. Earlier studies in our laboratory revealed the feasibility of quantitative reduction of uranyl ion in the range 50 to 200 g/l with hydrazine nitrate as reducing agent in presence of PtO2 catalyst. However, in power reactor thoria reprocessing uranium product solution is expected to have a uranyl nitrate of about 4 g/l. So the feasibility of reduction of uranyl nitrate in this low range of uranium with hydrazine nitrate by the catalytic method was investigated and the precipitation of the uranous ion was carried out with oxalate and the supernatant was analysed for uranium losses

  4. Numerical and performance analysis of one row transonic rotor with sweep and lean angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Reza; Boroomand, Masoud

    2014-10-01

    In this study, aerodynamic behaviors of swept and leaned blades were investigated. Axial and tangential blade curvatures impacts on compressor's operating parameters were analyzed separately. A commercial CFD program which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was used to find out the mentioned impact and the complicated flow field of transonic compressor-rotors. The CFD method that was used for solving flow field's equation was validated by experimental data of NASA Rotor 67. The results showed that the compressor with curved rotors had higher efficiency, rotor pressure ratio and stable operating range compared to the compressor with un-curved rotors. Using curved rotors mostly had higher impact on the overall stable operating range compared to the other operating parameters. Operating range involves choking point and stall point that were changed separately by using of bended blade. For finding the detailed impact of sweep and lean angle on transonic blades, various forms of lean and sweep angles were exerted to basic rotor. It was found that sweep angles increased overall operating range up to 30%, efficiency up to 2% and pressure ratio up to 1%. Leaning the blades increased the safe operating range, the pressure ratio and efficiency by 14%, 4% and 2% respectively.

  5. Study of pneumatic hydropulse filter for feed clarification in reprocessing plant head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) Filter with sintered stainless steel cartridges was tested for suitability in reprocessing plant head-end filtration. The filter was tested with simulated slurry containing between 25 and 400 ppm of calcium carbonate particulates in the size ranges 45 to 53 micron and 53 to 75 micron at varying flow rates. Procedures were developed for dislodging the layer of solids on the cartidridges and regenerating the filter remotely. Application of 5.4 kg/cm2 air to the dome of the filter during regenaration was found to be optimum for dislodging the particulate layer on the cartridges. No difficulties due to choking of the filter cartridges were experienced during operation and good regeneration by remote operation was possible. Approach velocity at the filter medium was about 6 cm/min. The efficiency of regeneration was better than 90%. Filtration efficiency was found to be better than 90%. Solid loading capacity was found to increase with increase of particle size and feed concentration. (author). 2 figs., 10 tabs

  6. An observational imprint of the Collapsar model of long Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em

    2011-01-01

    The Collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for the well known association between long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and collapsing massive stars. A bipolar relativistic jet, launched at the core of a collapsing star, drills its way through the stellar envelope and breaks out of the surface before producing the observed gamma-rays. While a wealth of observations associate GRBs with the death of massive stars, as yet there is no direct evidence for the Collapsar model itself. Here we show that a distinct signature of the Collapsar model is the appearance of a plateau in the duration distribution of the prompt GRB emission at times much shorter than the typical breakout time of the jet. This plateau is evident in the data of all three major satellites. These findings provide an evidence that directly supports the Collapsar model. Additionally, it suggests the existence of a large population of choked (failed) GRBs and that the 2 s duration commonly used to separate Collapsars and non-Collapasars is inconsis...

  7. Hot Molecular Cores and the Formation of Massive Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mayra, O; Di Paola, A; Mayra, Osorio; Susana, Lizano

    1999-01-01

    It has been proposed that some hot molecular cores (HMCs) harbor a young embedded massive star, which heats an infalling envelope and accretes mass at a rate high enough to ``choke off'' an incipient HII region. This class of HMCs would mark the youngest phase known of massive star formation. In order to test this hypothesis, we model this type of object calculating the radiative transfer through a spherically symmetric dusty envelope infalling onto a central OB star, with accretion rates from 0.0006 to 0.001 solar masses per year. The dust thermal spectrum from infrared to radio wavelengths is derived and is compared with the observed fluxes of several hot cores which may be internally heated. We find that the data are best fitted using an envelope with the density distribution resulting from the collapse of a singular logatropic sphere, instead of that of a singular isothermal sphere. We conclude that several of these sources may be undergoing an intense accretion phase and find in all the cases that the ac...

  8. Tidal disruption jets of supermassive black holes as hidden sources of cosmic rays: explaining the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions that produce high-energy neutrinos also inevitably generate high-energy gamma rays, which finally contribute to the diffuse high-energy gamma-ray background after they escape the sources. It was recently found that, the high flux of neutrinos at $\\sim30$ TeV detected by IceCube lead to a cumulative gamma-ray flux exceeding the Fermi isotropic gamma-ray background at 10-100 GeV, implying that the neutrinos are produced by hidden sources of cosmic rays, where GeV-TeV gamma-rays are not transparent. Here we suggest that relativistic jets in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of supermassive black holes are such hidden sources. We consider the jet propagation in an extended,optically thick envelope around the black hole, which is resulted from the ejected material during the disruption. While powerful jets can break free from the envelope, less powerful jets would be choked inside the envelope. The jets accelerate cosmic rays through internal shocks or reverse shocks and further produce neutri...

  9. High-energy neutrinos from reverse shocks in gamma-ray burst progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2007-01-01

    Highly relativistic jets are a key element of current gamma-ray burst models, where the jet bulk kinetic energy is converted to radiation energy at optically thin shocks. High-energy neutrinos are expected from photomeson interactions of protons accelerated in the same shocks. Here we revisit the early evolution of a relativistic jet, while the jet is still inside the star. We study propagation of mildly relativistic and ultrarelativistic jets through a type Ib progenitor, and follow reverse shocks as the jets cross the star. We show that protons can be accelerated to ~10^4 GeV at reverse shocks, and efficiently produce mesons, and the mesons experience significant cooling, suppressing subsequent neutrino emission on decay. We show, however, that the neutrino yield from the reverse shock is still reasonably large, especially for low-luminosity and long-duration bursts, where meson cooling is less severe. From a choked burst with isotropic equivalent energies of 10^{53}-10^{54} erg at 10 Mpc, we expect ~2-25 n...

  10. Reversal of profound neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in an infant after bronchial foreign body removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, Mustafa; Birbicer, Handan; Memis, Suleyman; Taşkınlar, Hakan

    2016-09-01

    Sugammadex is a selective chemical agent that can reverse neuromuscular blockade induced by vecuronium and rocuronium. The aim of this report is to discuss the effectiveness of sugammadex in the reversal of neuromuscular blockade in children younger than 2 years. A 16-month-old boy, weighing 10 kg, was admitted to the pediatric emergency department due to choking, cyanosis, and severe respiratory distress that occurred while he was eating peanuts. In the emergency department, the patient's condition deteriorated, and he went into respiratory arrest. He was immediately intubated and taken to the operating room. A rigid bronchoscopy was performed under general anesthesia, with administration of intravenous pentothal (5 mg/kg), rocuronium (0.6 mg/kg), and fentanyl (0.5 μg/kg) in the operating room. The foreign body was removed within 6 minutes, and the profound neuromuscular blockade was reversed with a dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex. He was extubated successfully after obtaining the spontaneous respiratory activity, and adequate breathing was restored. Clinical use of sugammadex in children younger than 2 years is not recommended because of the lack of clinical studies. In this case report, the profound neuromuscular blockade was successfully reversed with a dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex in a 16-month-old boy. However, more prospective clinical studies are required for the safe use of this agent in children. PMID:27555184

  11. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries; hints from light curves

    CERN Document Server

    Heinke, C O; Degenaar, N; Wijnands, R

    2014-01-01

    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities Lx of 10^34-10^36 erg/s, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King and Ritter (1998). The decay timescales and brink luminosities suggest orbital periods of order 1 hour. We review various estimates of VFXB properties, and compare these with suggested explanations of the nature of VFXBs. We suggest that: 1) VFXB outbursts showing linear decays might be explained as partial drainings of the disc of "normal" X-ray transients, and many VFXB outbursts may belong to this category; 2) VFXB outbursts showing exponential decays are best explained by old, short-period systems involving mass transfer from a low-mass white dwarf or brown dwarf; 3) persistent (or quasi-persistent) VFXBs, which maintain an Lx of 10^34-10^35 erg/s for years, may be explained by magnetospheric choking of the accr...

  12. Multiflavor and multiband observations of neutrinos from core collapse supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Taboada, Ignacio

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that the gamma ray burst - supernova connection may manifest itself in a significant fraction of core collapse supernovae possessing mildly relativistic jets that do not break out of the stellar envelope. Neutrinos would provide proof of the existence of these jets. In the present letter we calculate the event rate of ~100 GeV neutrino-induced cascades in km^3 detectors. We also calculate the event rate for ~10 GeV neutrinos of all flavors with the DeepCore low energy extension of IceCube. The added event rate significantly improves the ability of km^3 detectors to search for these gamma-ray dark bursts. For a core collapse supernova at 10 Mpc we find ~4 events expected in DeepCore and ~6 neutrino-induced cascades in IceCube/KM3Net. Observations at ~10 GeV are mostly sensitive to the pion component of the neutrino production in the choked jet, while the ~100 GeV depends on the kaon component. Finally we discuss extensions of the on-going optical follow-up programs by IceCube and Antares t...

  13. Constraining jet production scenarios by studies of Narrow-Line-Radio-Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek; Kozieł-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Madejski, Greg M; Asari, Natalia V

    2012-01-01

    We study a large sample of narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) with extended radio structures. Using 1.4 GHz radio luminosities, $L_{1.4}$, narrow optical emission line luminosities, $L_{\\oiii}$ and $L_{H_{\\alpha}}$, as well as black hole masses $M_{BH}$ derived from stellar velocity dispersions measured from the optical spectra obtained with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that: (i) NLRGs cover about 4 decades of the Eddington ratio, $\\lambda \\equiv L_{bol}/L_{Edd} \\propto L_{line}/M_{BH}$; (ii) $L_{1.4}/M_{BH}$ strongly correlates with $\\lambda$; (iii) radio-loudness, ${\\cal R} \\equiv L_{1.4}/L_{line}$, strongly anti-correlates with $\\lambda$. A very broad range of the Eddington ratio indicates that the parent population of NLRGs includes both radio-loud quasars (RLQs) and broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs). The correlations they obey and their high jet production efficiencies favor a jet production model which involves the so-called 'magnetically choked' accretion scenario. In this model, production of...

  14. Isolated Neutron Stars Accretors and Coolers

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, A; Colpi, M; Treves, Aldo; Turolla, Roberto; Colpi, Silvia Zane & Monica

    1999-01-01

    As many as $10^9$ neutron stars populate the Galaxy, but only $\\approx 10^3$ are directly observed as pulsars or as accreting sources in X-ray binaries. In principle also the accretion of the interstellar medium may make isolated neutron stars shine, and their weak luminosity could be detected in soft X-rays. Recent ROSAT observations have convincingly shown that neutron stars accreting from the interstellar medium are extremely rare, if observed at all, in contrast with earlier theoretical predictions. Until now two possible explanations for their elusiveness have been proposed: their velocity distribution may peak at $\\sim 200-400 {\\rm km s}^{-1}$, as inferred from pulsar statistics, and this would severely choke accretion; the magnetic field may decay on timescales $\\sim 10^8-10^9$ yr, preventing a large fraction of neutron stars from entering the accretor stage. The search for accreting neutron stars has produced up to now a handful of promising candidates. While little doubt is left that these objects ar...

  15. Necessary Conditions for Short Gamma-Ray Burst Production in Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Lee, William H

    2014-01-01

    The central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) is hidden from direct view, operating at a scale much smaller than that probed by the emitted radiation. Thus we must infer its origin not only with respect to the formation of the trigger - the actual astrophysical configuration that is capable of powering a sGRB - but also from the consequences that follow from the various evolutionary pathways that may be involved in producing it. Considering binary neutron star mergers we critically evaluate, analytically and through numerical simulations, whether the neutrino-driven wind produced by the newly formed hyper-massive neutron star can allow the collimated relativistic outflow that follows its collapse to actually produce a sGRB or not. Upon comparison with the observed sGRB duration distribution, we find that collapse cannot be significantly delayed (<= 100 ms) before the outflow is choked, thus limiting the possibility that long-lived hyper-massive remnants can account for these events. In the case of s...

  16. Observational Constraints on Multi-messenger Sources of Gravitational Waves and High-energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Bartos, Imre; Márka, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    It remains an open question to what extent many of the astronomical sources of intense bursts of electromagnetic radiation are also strong emitters of non-photon messengers, in particular gravitational waves (GWs) and high-energy neutrinos (HENs). Such emission would provide unique insights into the physics of the bursts; moreover some suspected classes, e.g. choked gamma-ray bursts, may in fact only be identifiable via these alternative channels. Here we explore the reach of current and planned experiments to address this question. We derive constraints on the rate of GW and HEN bursts per Milky Way equivalent (MWE) galaxy based on independent observations by the initial LIGO and Virgo GW detectors and the partially completed IceCube (40-string) HEN detector. We take into account the blue-luminosity-weighted distribution of nearby galaxies, assuming that source distribution follows the blue-luminosity distribution. We then estimate the reach of joint GW+HEN searches using advanced GW detectors and the comple...

  17. New insights on the duration distribution of long GRBs from Collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Bromberg, Omer; Piran, Tsvi; Sari, Re'em

    2011-01-01

    According the Collapsar model long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) involve relativistic jets that puncture the envelope of a collapsing star, and produced the \\gamma-rays after they break out. This model provides a theoretical framework for the well known association between LGRBs and massive stars. However although this association is supported by a wealth of observations, to this date there is no direct observational evidence for the emergence of the jet from the star. In other words there is no direct evidence for the Collapsar model. Here we show that a distinct signature of the Collapsar model is the appearance of a plateau in the duration distribution of the prompt GRB emission at times much shorter than the typical breakout time of the jet. This plateau is evident in the data of all major GRB satellites, and provides a direct evidence supporting the Collapsar model. It also enables us to place limits on the sizes and masses of LGRB progenitors; suggests the existence of a large population of choked (failed) G...

  18. Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen' s University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

  19. DESIGN OF BACKWARD SWEPT TURBINE WHEEL FOR CRYOGENIC TURBOEXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALAJI K. CHOUDHURY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With support from the Department of Atomic Energy, our institute has initiated a programme on development and study of a low capacity (20 liters/hr. turboexpander based Nitrogen liquefier. Hence a process design was carried out and a turboexpander was designed to meet the requirement of the liquefier. The turboexpander is used for lowering the temperature of the process gas (Nitrogen by the isenthalpic expansion. The efficiency of the turboexpander mainly depends on the specific speed and specific diameter of the turbine wheel. The paper explains a general methodology for the design of any type of turbine wheel (radial, backward swept and forward swept for any pressure ratio with different process gases. The design of turbine wheel includes the determination of dimensions, blade profile and velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of the turbine wheel. Generally radial turbine wheels are used but in this case to achieve the high efficiency at desired speed, backward curved blades are used to maintain the Mach number of the process gas at the nozzle exit, close to unity. If the velocity of fluid exceeds the speed of sound, the flow gets choked leading to the creation of shock waves and flow at the exit of the nozzle will be non-isentropic.

  20. Crystallization kinetics of an amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes crystallization kinetics and changes magnetic properties involved by process of crystallization Co-Si-B amorphous alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrical resistivity in situ measurements (four-point probe static and dynamic measurements of magnetic properties (magnetic balance, fluxmeter, Maxwell-Wien bridge.Findings: In this work has been performed influence of thermal annealing on crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy.Practical implications: The attractive properties of Co-Si-B alloy are of special interest for basic research on the materials as well as for their potential applications, like magnetic sensors. The Co soft magnetic material is used in noise filters, saturable reactors, miniature inductance elements for abating spike noise, mains transformers, choke coils, zero-phase current transformers, and magnetic heads etc., i.e., devices which are expected to exhibit high levels of permeability at high frequencies.Originality/value: It has been shown that thermal annealing at temperature close to the crystallization temperature leads to a significant increase of the initial magnetic permeability.

  1. R&D ERL: SRF Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill, A.

    2010-01-01

    When the BNL high current ERL was first envisioned the choice of injector went through several iterations before concluding that an SRF injector was the appropriate choice for the task at hand. The design requirements were quite stringent as the injector had to be designed to reach currents never before achieved in any injector. The overall goal was to design an injector capable of delivering up to 0.5 Ampere at 703.75 MHz. This criteria was set based on the need to demonstrate high average current energy recovery at the ERL so that future machines could be designed and built with confidence in the injector. For the ERL the injector needs to be capable of accelerating electrons to 2-2.5 MeV with charges ranging from 0.7 to 5 nC per bunch depending on the operational parameters being studied. These criteria led to a 1/2 cell photoinjector designed to accommodate a demountable photocathode utilizing a novel quarter wave choke joint for the cathode insertion mechanism. The cavity requires a total of 1 MW of power coupled to the beam in order to meet the high current application, necessitating two 500 kW RF power couplers. This AP note will review the overall physics design and analysis, the fabrication sequence, and the testing plan for this cavity.

  2. 18-Pulse Converter Using 3/9 Auto-Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hoteit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses to 3/9 phase auto-transformer with multiple windings per phase is powered a 9-phase AC to DC converter this type of transformer has 40o phase shift between the output voltages, it is supplied from a three phase AC source with star or delta connection, to use this type of transformer in aerospace the operation frequency should be at 400Hz in addition to reduce the current harmonic distortion through a three phase line reactor are connected after three phase AC source in this case the current harmonic distortion decreases to value less than 5% and it can be less than 3% level by using an additional suppression devices (Chokes at the output of the converter, this autotransformer includes three sections each spaced 120o electrically apart. Each section comprises a main winding and a pair of phase shift windings, it is a main element in 18 pulse converters, the multiphase rectification can be analyzed by using orcad simulation software, and shown the comparisons between the odd phases so that the 9 phases has a lower value of the ripple factor which is 0.763 %.

  3. Modified SRF Photoinjector for the ELBE at HZDR

    CERN Document Server

    Murcek, P; Buettig, H; Michel, P; Teichert, J; Xiang, R; Kneisel, P

    2012-01-01

    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of HZB, DESY, HZDR, and MBI.[1] In order to improve the gradient of the gun cavity and the beam quality, a new modified SRF gun (SRF-gun 2008) has been designed. The main updates of the new cavity design for the new photoinjector were publisched before. (ID THPPO022 on the SRF09 Berlin.) This cavity is being fabricated in Jefferson Lab. In this paper the new ideas of the further parts of the SRF-gun 2008 will be presented. The most important issue is the special design of half-cell and choke filter. The cathode cooler is also slightly changed, which simplifies the installation of the cathode cooler in the cavity. The next update is the separation of input and output of the liquid nitrogen supply, for the purpose of the stability of the nitrogen pressure as well as the better possibility of temperature measurement. Another key point is the implementation of the superco...

  4. [Congenital Esophageal Atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we describe the esophageal atresia in terms of current surgical management on the basis of our experience and literatures. Traditionally, infants with esophageal atresia have presented shortly after birth because of an inability to pass an orogastric tube, respiratory distress, or an inability to tolerate feeding. And also, an isolated trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF) usually cases coughing, recurrent pneumonia, or choking during feedings. To ignore these symptoms is to risk a delayed diagnosis. The condition may be associated with other major congenital anomalies such as those seen in the vertebral, anal, cardiac, tracheo-esophageal, renal/radial (VACTER) association, or it may be an isolated defect. Therapeutic strategies for esophageal atresia are a prevention of pulmonary complication by TEF closing and an early establishment of enteral alimentation. We promptly repair healthy infants without performing a gastrostomy and delay repair in infants with high-risk factors such as associated severe cardiac anomaly and respiratory insufficiency. Esophageal atresia has been classically approached through a thoracotomy. The disadvantages of such a thoracotomy have been recognized for a long time, for example winged scapula, elevation of fixation of shoulder, asymmetry of the chest wall, rib fusion, scoliosis, and breast and pectoral muscle maldevelopment. To avoid such disadvantages, thoracoscopic repair was recently reported. PMID:26197921

  5. On the use of mathematical models to build the design space for the primary drying phase of a pharmaceutical lyophilization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Anna; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show a procedure to build the design space for the primary drying of a pharmaceuticals lyophilization process. Mathematical simulation of the process is used to identify the operating conditions that allow preserving product quality and meeting operating constraints posed by the equipment. In fact, product temperature has to be maintained below a limit value throughout the operation, and the sublimation flux has to be lower than the maximum value allowed by the capacity of the condenser, besides avoiding choking flow in the duct connecting the drying chamber to the condenser. Few experimental runs are required to get the values of the parameters of the model: the dynamic parameters estimation algorithm, an advanced tool based on the pressure rise test, is used to this purpose. A simple procedure is proposed to take into account parameters uncertainty and, thus, it is possible to find the recipes that allow fulfilling the process constraints within the required uncertainty range. The same approach can be effective to take into account the heterogeneity of the batch when designing the freeze-drying recipe. PMID:20575053

  6. Application of higher-order TVD resolution for investigation of transients problems in natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheem, S.O.; Adewumi, M.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A higher-order numerical procedure is applied to simulate typical transient phenomena in natural gas transportation. Reliable modeling and prediction of transients features in transmission pipelines are desirable for optimal control of gas deliverability, design and implementation of active controls, and modeling of operational behavior of network peripheral equipment (e.g., chokes, valves, compressors, etc.). As an alternative to the Method of Characteristics (MOC) that is widely used presently, a higher-order Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) method is used to model some transient problems. This class of methods has the capability to capture fine-scale phenomena and provides a better resolution of frontal discontinuities. In this study, the TVD method is utilized in conjunction with upwind methods. Also, in order to ensure a stable time-stepping scheme over a wide range of Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) number, a special Runge-Kutta method is employed as the base solution algorithm to integrate the highly non-linear, hyperbolic equations which govern the transportation of natural gas in pipelines. The overall procedure is stable, robust and accurate when applied to solve practical problems with simulated pressure waves.

  7. Intraluminal esophageal teratoma in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Ryan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors containing one or more of the three embryonic layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. In neonates, the sacrococcygeal region is the most frequent site of origin, followed by the gonads and mediastinum. While most mediastinal teratomas are anterior, approximately 3–8% are found within the posterior mediastinum. Here we report the case of an infant who presented in the second week of life with frequent emesis followed by choking, dyspnea, and perioral cyanosis. An esophagram demonstrated a large pedunculated polypoid mass within the lumen of the esophagus. CT confirmed a 5 × 1.8 cm intraluminal mass with a stalk originating from the posterior wall of the esophagus at C6. Endoscopic retrieval was not possible due to its large size. The mass was operatively resected via a right-sided, 2 cm transverse cervical incision. An oblique esophagotomy was made; the polypoid mass was grasped and eviscerated using serial traction sutures. The mass was excised along with a rim of normal esophageal mucosa. Final pathology demonstrated a mature and solitary esophageal teratoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an intraluminal cervical esophageal teratoma, and the youngest patient in which a pedunculated esophageal polyp has been described.

  8. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesh Kumar Jha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating tablets were prepared with various types of natural gums using the direct compression technique. Formulations containing guar gum disintegrated within a minute and fulfilled the official requirements for dispersible tablets. As the amount of guar gum increased, the friability increased and hardness decreased, resulting in a shorter wetting and disintegration time. Gum acacia and gum tragacanth did the opposite. The glipizide-loaded fast disintegrating tablet prepared with 18 mg of guar gum gave a friability of 0.46 ± 0.02%, content uniformity of 99.34 ± 0.82%, drug content of 99.15 ± 1.16%, wetting time of 39.0 ± 1.04 sec, hardness of 5.70 ± 1.41 Kg and disintegration time less than 30 sec, suggesting that it was a practical product with a good tablet property. In conclusion, natural gum based patient-friendly fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide can be successfully formulated.

  9. 1-dimensional simulation of the radial compressor of a waste gas turbocharger; 1-dimensionale Simulation des Radialverdichters eines Abgasturboladers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Gomes, Andre; Schmidt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jens [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The simulation fo the thermodynamical properties of turbochargers in IC engines is mostly done with 1D gas exchange simulation tools, in which the turbocharger is represented by maps, or with 3D-CFD tools, in which a more precise geometrical detail of the charger can be considered. The present work aims for a modeling depth which lies between these 2 variants. This approach (''1D gas exchange simulation with 1D modeling of the turbocharger'') is not only motivated by enabling a better interaction, when compared to the map-based approach, between an IC engine and the turbocharger, but by distinctly reducing the modeling efforts and computing time when compared to the 3D-CFD approach. Within the study, a coarsely discretized model of a centrifugal compressor is built using only the model library of the commercial software GT-Power. For the validation regarding total pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, the results of the stationary simulations of two different compressors are compared to CFD and measurement results. Differences can be seen only close to the choking limit of the compressor. The model was further used to demonstrate its applicability in extrapolated regions of the compressor map and in the instable operating range near the surge limit. (orig.)

  10. Indigenous 6 MV medical LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear Accelerators were made for physics research all over the world; in India too the first indigenous accelerator was made for research of materials using the 3.5 MeV Linear Accelerator in the 1960s at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai. Prof. R.V.S. Sitaram was the leading scientist who contributed in the development of the first indigenous linac that served research scholars for more than two decades. The travelling wave S-band Linac using a magnetron as a source of high power microwaves was a significant development towards the indigenous accelerator. The accelerating structure had magnetic coils for beam focusing, the HV modulator, microwave system and control unit were indigenously developed by TIFR scientists. Dr. Homi Bhabha, Director, TIFR had taken keen interest in the project and an appropriate room in the basement was selected for the accelerator facility. The Iinac tube cavities, magnetic coils and pulse transformer were designed and fabricated in TIFR laboratory and only raw material was imported. The group working on Radar transmitters developed the transmission line type modulator using components such as charging choke and locally available HV transformers. However, the rectifier diodes, cores switching tubes were imported. The complete system design was done in-house and also included operation and maintenance of the facility. Over its life of two decades, a second generation of technologists were developed with a first hand knowledge of an accelerator system

  11. X波段双圆极化喇叭天线的设计与仿真%Design and Simulation of X-band Double Circularly Polarized Horn Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐健

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一种基于波导圆极化器的新型X波段双圆极化喇叭天线,该天线由同轴波导转换器、波导隔板圆极化器和喇叭组成。为了改善天线的辐射特性,双扼流环多模喇叭馈源被用来抑制旁瓣,波导隔板圆极化器采用圆波导结构,由HFSS9.2软件进行了建模仿真计算。结果表明,这种天线带宽宽,具有良好的方向性和圆极化特性。%In this paper,a novel X-band double circularly polarized horn antenna based on waveguide circular polarizer is introduced.The antenna is composed of coaxial-waveguide converter,waveguide circular polarizer and horn.In order to improve the performance of the antenna radiation,the coaxial multimode horn of two chokes is used to suppress the sidelobe.The circular polarizer is realized by the circular waveguide.These antenna models are built and simulated in HFSS9.2 software.The results show that these antenna with broad bandwidth are capable of good directivity and desired circularly polarization.

  12. Nursing role in the multidisciplinary management of motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Jane

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a debilitating and progressive neurological disorder in which degeneration of the motor neurones results in muscle weakness and wasting. Recent high-profile media coverage about assisted suicide and euthanasia has increased awareness of MND and yet still relatively little is known or understood about it, even among the healthcare profession. This article looks at the key areas in management of patients with MND, including the role of the nurse and the importance of a well-coordinated multidisciplinary team. Ways to deal with communication problems, respiratory dysfunction, feeding and nutrition, and legal and ethical issues are examined. Good management of patients with MND involves a hospital and community-based multidisciplinary team. The essence of care is good symptomatic management of respiratory failure and nutritional problems that result from difficulties in swallowing and increasing dependency. Palliative care should be introduced before the terminal stages after careful discussion with the patient and carers. Most patients with MND die from pulmonary infections or respiratory failure, but contrary to popular belief, death by choking attacks is rare and the final stages of MND are usually peaceful and dignified. PMID:15750484

  13. Numerical study of a 3.5-stage axial compressor at on-and off-design conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuoWang

    2007-01-01

    Numerical investigation is conducted on a 3.5-stage axial compressor,on which numerous experimental projects were carried out at the Institute during the last years and an experimental database was established.In the current study five on- and off-design operating points are simulated using a RANS solver and the results are compared with the measurement.The result shows that the compressor performance can be qualitatively predicted by the mixing-plane method.Better agreement is obtained for the on-design operating point.However,as the flow unsteadiness is insufficiently considered,the numerical method produces end-wall low-speed flow layers accumulated with the flow passing through the passage,which is in no good agreement with the experimental data.In the numerical simulation the rotor rows receive less work and this difference from the measurement increases with the rotational speed.In contrast,the stator rows increase the pressure more efficiently than the measurement.In the simulation the flow in the last stator row tends more to separate on the pressure side of the blade.For the operating points close to the surge line,the predicted separation is more intense than the experimental observation.But for the operating points close to the choke,the separation is suppressed.

  14. Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerlein, K. R.; Adriano, L.; Heymann, M.; Kirian, R.; Knoška, J.; Wilde, F.; Chapman, H. N.; Bajt, S.

    2015-12-01

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquid flow conservation. Finally, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background.

  15. Probing the central engine of long gamma-ray bursts and hypernovae with gravitational waves and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are the two common candidates as the viable energy source for the central engine of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and hypernovae (HNe), neutrino annihilation and magnetic fields. We investigate gravitational wave (GW) emission accompanied by these two mechanisms. Especially, we focus on GW signals produced by neutrinos from a hyper-accreting disk around a massive black hole. We show that neutrino-induced GWs are detectable for ∼1 Mpc events by LISA and ∼100 Mpc by DECIGO/BBO, if the central engine is powered by neutrinos. The GW signals depend on the viewing angle and they are anticorrelated with neutrino ones. But, simultaneous neutrino detections are also expected, and helpful for diagnosing the explosion mechanism when later electromagnetic observations enable us to identify the source. GW and neutrino observations are potentially useful for probing choked jets that do not produce prompt emission, as well as successful jets. Even in nondetection cases, observations of GWs and neutrinos could lead to profitable implications for the central engine of GRBs and HNe.

  16. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

  17. Harmonic engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  18. Nissen fundoplication in children with profound neurologic disability. High risks and unmet goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C D; Othersen, H B; Gogan, N J; Walker, J D

    1992-06-01

    Anti-reflux procedures have been advocated in children with profound neurologic disability referred for feeding gastrostomy when gastroesophageal reflux is present. Facilitation of care, reduction in pneumonia and vomiting, and improvement in the general health and survival of these children have been major goals of fundoplication and gastrostomy. In large pediatric series, these procedures have been reported to have low risk and negligible mortality rates. Recent reports, however, document an increased incidence of sequelae of fundoplication in children with profound neurologic disability. This paper retrospectively reviews a series of 35 nonverbal, nonambulatory pediatric patients undergoing a total of 39 fundoplications (37 Nissen, 1 Thal, and 1 Belsey) over an 11-year period. Neurologic impairment of 17 (49%) patients was acquired, 13 (37%) congenital, and 5 (14%) due to a syndrome. Perioperative complications occurred in six (17%). Three additional complications led to early postoperative death. A fourth early death was unexplained. Fourteen (40%) had recurrent pneumonia, 11 (31%) recurrent vomiting, 8 (23%) choking-gagging-retching complex, and 3 (9%) bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy. Recurrent gastroesophageal reflux was documented in seven (20%) patients. A second ARP was performed in six (17%). There were 14 (40%) late deaths. Although the major goals of anti-reflux procedure are clearly achieved in many severely impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux, the use of Nissen fundoplication to resolve the complications of swallowing disorders and improve outcome with an acceptably low risk in this complex set of patients does not appear to be established.

  19. Pseudoaneureysm of Carotid Artery and Its Branches Caused by Local Suppuration A Report of 6 Cases%颈部感染性假性动脉瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 张金哲

    1987-01-01

    作者三十年间共收治了6例颈部感染性假性动脉瘤.本文就该症的病理临床表现进行了总结.提出了治疗意见.%Caused by pyogenic infection of deep cervical lymph nodes, the pseudoaneurysms of the carotid artery and its branches in the neck are rare. Six cases were handled in the past 30 years. They were three cases of aneurysm of lignual artery, one of external carotid artery, one of internal carotid artery and one of an unidentified branch of the external carotid artery. Outstanding symptoms and signs are as follows: infection in the neck; hematemesis with or without choking resulting from the ruptured aneurysm into the throat; hoarseness, dysphagia, and Horner's syndrome caused by pres sure on vagus, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal or sympathetic nerves. Pseudoaneurysm as a complication of local suppuration usually lacks of typical findings of an aneurysm, such as expansile pulsation and systolic bruit. It might be misdiagnosed as an abscess. And if incorrectly treated with incision and drainage, blood would gush out terribly from the wound. It should be emphasized that a experimental puncture is preferable. During operation, a temporary occlusion on the proximal part of the feeding vessels must be done before the exploration and ligation of the perforated artery. Thus treated, all the six cases survired without permanent neurologic sequelae.

  20. FRAMEWORKING THE PRESS FREEDOM, AT THE BORDER BETWEEN LEGAL AND SELF-REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anca PĂIUȘESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freedom of the press is essential to democracy and to a pluralistic culture. Most journalists are against any form of legal regulation considering the creation of a press law as an interference with freedom of the press, while state authorities considered necessary minimum set of rules to sanction those who exceed the "normality" of free speech. If in the audiovisual field the legislation tends toward European standards, for print media all draft laws proposed so far by different political parties or the government have failed. Representatives of the major newspapers saw each time in these legislative proposals an attempt to "choke" the freedom of the press. In this context, self-regulation is seen as a way in which journalists can establish their own rules in order to protect themselves from the state attempt to regulate this area, a method of protecting against political manipulation and preventing the erosion of public trust, and it is also seen as a method of education within the profession.

  1. Prediction of the start-up characteristics of a heat pipe-cooled thermionic fuel element (TFE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, David; Witt, Tony; Lee, Celia; Miskolczy, Gabor; McVey, John

    A computer thermal model is used to predict the start-up characteristics of a heat pipe-cooled TFE. During start-up, the emitter temperature will increase, and heat will be radiated across the cesium gap to the collector/heat pipe and conducted from the top thermionic cell to the cesium-graphite reservoir through the emitter stem. A transient, finite element computer model of the top thermionic cell and the cesium-graphite reservoir was programmed to simulate the behavior of the collector heat pipe and reservoir. With the modeled cell configuration, the heat-choke coupling aids in heating the reservoir but is not extremely important. The calculation shows there is nearly enough direct heating of the collector-heat-pipe system to warm the TFE without requiring electron cooling. It is found that the thermal time constraints of the converter-reservoir system are well within 15 min and therefore will not be a limiting factor for rapid start-up of the reactor.

  2. Stall Margin Improvement in a Centrifugal Compressor through Inducer Casing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. N. K. Satish Koyyalamudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of high stage pressure ratio with increased aerodynamic loading has led to reduction in stable operating range of centrifugal compressors with stall and surge initiating at relatively higher mass flow rates. The casing treatment technique of stall control is found to be effective in axial compressors, but very limited research work is published on the application of this technique in centrifugal compressors. Present research was aimed to investigate the effect of casing treatment on the performance and stall margin of a high speed, 4 : 1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor through numerical simulations using ANSYS CFX software. Three casing treatment configurations were developed and incorporated in the shroud over the inducer of the impeller. The predicted performance of baseline compressor (without casing treatment was in good agreement with published experimental data. The compressor with different inducer casing treatment geometries showed varying levels of stall margin improvement, up to a maximum of 18%. While the peak efficiency of the compressor with casing treatment dropped by 0.8%–1% compared to the baseline compressor, the choke mass flow rate was improved by 9.5%, thus enhancing the total stable operating range. The inlet configuration of the casing treatment was found to play an important role in stall margin improvement.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Factors Influencing Operating Rotor Tip Clearance in Multistage Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid A. Berdanier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of compressor rotor tip clearance measurements using capacitance probe instrumentation is discussed for a three-stage axial compressor. Thermal variations and centrifugal effects related to rotational speed changes affect clearance heights relative to the assembled configuration. These two primary contributions to measured changes are discussed both independently and in combination. Emphasis is given to tip clearance changes due to changing loading condition and at several compressor operating speeds. Measurements show a tip clearance change approaching 0.1 mm (0.2% rotor span when comparing a near-choke operating condition to a near-stall operating condition for the third stage. Additional consideration is given to environmental contributions such as ambient temperature, for which changes in tip clearance height on the order of 0.05 mm (0.1% rotor span were noted for temperature variations of 15°C. Experimental compressor operating clearances are presented for several temperatures, operating speeds, and loading conditions, and comparisons are drawn between these measured variations and predicted changes under the same conditions.

  4. Pressure Field Study of the Tevatron Cold Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebaner, A. L.; Martinez, A.; Soyars, W. M.; Theilacker, J. C.

    2004-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, manufactured by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/sec of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/sec. Operating speeds are between 40,000 and 95,000 rpm, with a speed of 80,000 rpm at the design point. Different heat loads and magnet quench performance of each of the twenty-four satellite refrigerators dictates different process pressure and flow rates of the cold compressors. Reducing the process flow rate can cause the centrifugal cold compressor to stop pumping and subsequently surge. Tests have been conducted at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab to map the pressure field and appropriate efficiency of the IHI hydrodynamic cold compressor. The information allows tuning of each of the twenty-four Tevatron satellite refrigerators to avoid cold compressor operation near the surge and choke lines. A new impeller has also been tested. The Tevatron cold compressor pressure field and efficiency data with the new impeller are presented in this paper.

  5. Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquid flow conservation. Finally, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background

  6. Magnetic flux paradigm for radio-loudness of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Sikora, Marek

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the magnetic flux threading the black hole, rather than black hole spin or Eddington ratio, is the dominant factor in launching powerful jets and thus determining the radio loudness of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Most AGN are radio quiet because the thin accretion disks that feed them are inefficient in depositing magnetic flux close to the black hole. Flux accumulation is more likely to occur during a hot accretion (or thick disk) phase, and we argue that radio-loud quasars and strong emission-line radio galaxies occur only when a massive, cold accretion event follows an episode of hot accretion. Such an event might be triggered by the merger of a giant elliptical galaxy with a disk galaxy. This picture supports the idea that flux accumulation can lead to the formation of a so-called magnetically choked accretion flow (MCAF). The large observed range in radio loudness reflects not only the magnitude of the flux pressed against the black hole, but also the decrease in UV flux from the disk, du...

  7. Some recollections of Porton in World War 1. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J P

    2003-06-01

    Chemical weapons now regularly feature in news reports and the threat from them has become widely recognised by the public at large. Terrorist actions such as the Tokyo subway incident in 1995, coupled with the persistent use of agents such as sulphur mustard and Sarin by the Iraqi regime over the last 20 years in the Iran/Iraq war and against the Kurds of Northern Iraq, make it easy to think that chemical weapons are a new phenomenon. This paper reminds us that many chemical agents were developed during WWI; indeed the first use of a chemical agent was the release of chlorine gas--a choking agent--by the Germans over the battlefields of Ypres in 1915. Porton Down remains at the very heart of chemicals and biological weapons research, albeit in a purely defensive capacity; few of the old buildings remain and the idyllic lifestyle in the Officer's Mess at Idmiston Manor has long since disappeared. These recollections provide a fascinating insight into scientific research at the time of World War I.

  8. Effects of Staged Injection on Supersonic Mixing and Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lingyun; Bernhard WEIGAND; Marius BANICA

    2011-01-01

    The three-dimensional(3D)reacting flow in a staged supersonic combustor is examined numerically.In order to obtain the optimum stream-wise vortices,a swept ramp injector is chosen as the second-stage wall injection combined with the first-stage central strut injection.The performance of the two-staged injection is compared with that of a one-staged injection,while the strut is kept installed in both cases.The two-staged injections can make full use of the residual oxygen near the wall and release more heat.The second-stage injection further downstream avoids the strong shock waves in the isolator and results in a rising wall pressure and good burning effects after the wall injection.Therefore,it allows more fuel to be injected into the supersonic combustor without causing thermal choking,Parallel injection from the second-stage swept ramp shows low total pressure loss and the best burning efficiency,compared with the other injection angles.

  9. In-vitro study on haemodiluted blood flow in a sinusoidal microstenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M J; Ji, H-S; Lee, S J

    2010-01-01

    In-vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the haemodynamic and haemorheological behaviours of haemodiluted blood flow through a microstenosis using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. The micro-PIV system employed in this study consisted of a two-head neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, a cooled charge-coupled device camera, and a delay generator. To simulate blood flow in a stenosed vascular vessel, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel with a sinusoidal throat of 80 per cent severity was employed. The width and depth of the microchannel were 100 microm and 50 microm, respectively. To compare the flow characteristics in the microstenosis, the same experiments were repeated in a straight microchannel under the same flow conditions. Using a syringe pump, human blood with 5 per cent haematocrit was supplied into the microstenosis channel. The flow characteristics and transport of blood cells through the microstenosis were investigated with various flowrates. The mean velocity fields were nearly symmetric with respect to the channel centreline. In the contraction section, the oncoming blood flow was accelerated rapidly, and the maximum velocity at the throat was almost 4.99 times faster than that of the straight microchannel without stenosis. In the diffusion section, the blood cells show rolling, deformation, twisting, and tumbling motion due to the flow-choking characteristics at the stenotic region. The results from this study will provide useful basic data for comparison with those obtained by clinical researchers. PMID:20225454

  10. Real-time capability of GEONET system and its application to crust monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yutsudo, Toru; Miyahara, Basara

    2006-03-01

    The GPS Earth Observation Network system (GEONET) has been playing an important role in monitoring the crustal deformation of Japan. Since its start of operation, the requirements for accuracy and timeliness have become higher and higher. On the other hand, recent broadband communication infrastructure has had capability to realize real-time crust monitoring and to aid the development of a location-based service. In early 2003, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) upgraded the GEONET system to meet new requirements. The number of stations became 1200 in total by March, 2003. The antennas were unified to the choke ring antennas of Dorne Margolin T-type and the receivers were replaced with new ones that are capable of real-time observation and data transfer. The new system uses IP-connection through IP-VPN (Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network) for data transfer, which is provided by communication companies. The Data Processing System, which manages the observation data and analyses in GEONET, has 7 units. GEONET carries out three kinds of routine analyses and an analysis of RTK-type for emergencies. The new system has shown its capability for real-time crust monitoring, for example, the precise and rapid detection of coseismic (and post-seismic) motion caused by 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake.

  11. An automated system for measuring the mass flowrate of powders in transport lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard; Morgan, Morris B., III; Prapas, Demetrios K.; Rubel, Glen O.

    1990-08-01

    A new automated particle transport (APT) system has been developed for studying the dissemination of bulk powders into deagglomerated aerosols. It consists of a 1.12-inch ID transport line with a spout-fluidized bed feeder. The particles are transported from an aerated annulus into the transport line and collected in a closed can or bag filter. Two separate feed lines supply the air necessary to operate the transport line and aerate the particles in order that they flow smoothly into the transport line. An IBM PC AT computer clone equipped with a data translation DT 2806 multifunction input-output board and A to D and D to A modules (DTX 311 and 328) is used for both control and data acquisition. A fluid mechanical model of the flow has been developed and the APT system will be used to verify it. Experiments will be conducted to measure the choking velocity, drag coefficient, fluid and particle flowrates, and pressure distribution in the line.

  12. Canopy BRF simulation of forest with different crown shape and height in larger scale based on Radiosity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinling; Qu, Yonghua; Wang, Jindi; Wan, Huawei; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2007-06-01

    Radiosity method is based on the computer simulation of 3D real structures of vegetations, such as leaves, branches and stems, which are composed by many facets. Using this method we can simulate the canopy reflectance and its bidirectional distribution of the vegetation canopy in visible and NIR regions. But with vegetations are more complex, more facets to compose them, so large memory and lots of time to calculate view factors are required, which are the choke points of using Radiosity method to calculate canopy BRF of lager scale vegetation scenes. We derived a new method to solve the problem, and the main idea is to abstract vegetation crown shapes and to simplify their structures, which can lessen the number of facets. The facets are given optical properties according to the reflectance, transmission and absorption of the real structure canopy. Based on the above work, we can simulate the canopy BRF of the mix scenes with different species vegetation in the large scale. In this study, taking broadleaf trees as an example, based on their structure characteristics, we abstracted their crowns as ellipsoid shells, and simulated the canopy BRF in visible and NIR regions of the large scale scene with different crown shape and different height ellipsoids. Form this study, we can conclude: LAI, LAD the probability gap, the sunlit and shaded surfaces are more important parameter to simulate the simplified vegetation canopy BRF. And the Radiosity method can apply us canopy BRF data in any conditions for our research.

  13. Research on the Experiment of Overcoming Underwater Barrier in Learning Swimming%克服学游泳闷水障碍的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏

    2013-01-01

    Underwater swimming is an inevitable link in learning swimming, but it hinders very few people's swimming learning for fear of underwater swimming, so the learners must grasp the skill of underwater swimming. Choking the water and failing to hold one's breath is the main reason resulting to underwater barrier. Through blowing balloons and using straws to suck table tennis, the writer attempts to improve the learners' nose and mouth breathing control ability, which can overcome underwater barrier.%  闷水是学游泳必须经历的一关,有很少的一部分人因为害怕闷水阻碍了学游泳的进程,或者说不能学习标准游泳动作,而闷水是求生技能的重要部分,学习求生技能必须掌握闷水。呛水和屏不住气是导致闷水障碍的主要原因,我通过吹气球、吸管吸乒乓球练习,提高他们的鼻腔和口腔的呼吸控制能力,从而克服闷水障碍。

  14. Modelling of Ram-Accelerator Flow Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lakhumna

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic phenomena in 'ram-accelerator', a ramjet-in-tube concept for accelerating projectiles to ultra high velocities, have been investigated analytically and compared with the experimental investigations reported in open literature. The projectile resembles the centrebody of a conventional ramjet, but travels through a stationary tube filled with a mixture of gaseous fuel and oxidizer. The energy release process travels with a projectile inside the accelerator tube. The characteristics of subsonic combustion, thermally-choked mode of propulsion, which is capable of increasing the velocity up to Chapman-Jouguet (C-J detonation velocity of the propellant mixture used in ram-accelerator tube, have been studied. The ram-accelerator with a fixed diffuser area ratio operates with different initial velocities for different propellant mixtures. Propellant mixture with CO/sub 2/ as diluent is used for velocity range ~770-1150 m/S; propellant mixture with nitrogen as diluent is used for velocity range ~ 925-1450 m/s and that with helium as diluent is used for velocity range ~ 1500-2000 m/s. Mixtures of propellants with different diluents in varying degree of proportions, giving rise to different acoustic and C-J detonation speeds, have been investigated to evaluate their suitability in the ram-accelerator divided into several segments.

  15. Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.

  16. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, Maud; Veldink, Jan H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Hendricks, Henk T; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Grupstra, Hepke F; van der Wal, Gerrit; van den Berg, Leonard H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if quality of care, symptoms of depression, disease characteristics and quality of life of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are related to requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and dying due to EAS. Therefore, 102 ALS patients filled out structured questionnaires every 3 months until death and the results were correlated with EAS. Thirty-one percent of the patients requested EAS, 69% of whom eventually died as a result of EAS (22% of all patients). Ten percent died during continuous deep sedation; only one of them had explicitly requested death to be hastened. Of the patients who requested EAS, 86% considered the health care to be good or excellent, 16% felt depressed, 45% experienced loss of dignity and 42% feared choking. These percentages do not differ from the number of patients who did not explicitly request EAS. The frequency of consultations of professional caregivers and availability of appliances was similar in both groups. Our findings do not support continuous deep sedation being used as a substitute for EAS. In this prospective study, no evidence was found for a relation between EAS and the quality and quantity of care received, quality of life and symptoms of depression in patients with ALS. Our study does not support the notion that unmet palliative care needs are related to EAS.

  17. Explanation and Inspiration of Prominent Competitive Psychological Phenomena of Athletes at London Olympics%伦敦奥运会参赛运动员突出竞技心理现象的解析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张忠秋

    2012-01-01

    At London Olympics which just ended, competitive psychological performances of athletes from different countries are worth noting. Choking at competition,dark horse, big twist, final score, defending the title of championship and so on, all these prominent competitive psychological phenomena weaved a war of Olympic psychology and they have an extraordinary charm of exploration and corresponding inspiration of competition psychology. Through explaining these prominent and classic competitive psychological phenomena, the author hopes to provide some psychological inspiration for athletes and coaches with high goals so that they can perform better at future competitions.%在刚刚结束的伦敦奥运会上,各国参赛选手的竞技心理表现可圈可点。尤其以“爆冷出局”“黑马”“大逆转”“绝杀”“卫冕”等突出竞技心理现象组成的一幕幕“奥运心理大战”,更具有非同一般的探索魅力和参赛心理应对启示。

  18. Fabrication of SAW Sensor for Detecting Chemical Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J H Lee; B S Joo; J S Huh; D D Lee

    2006-01-01

    SAW sensors using five different types of polymer to detect of chemical agents (DMMP, CH3CN, CH2Cl2, DCP)have been fabricated and its gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. The polymers used as the sensing material are polyisobutylene (PIB), polyepichlorohydrin (PECH), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyisoprene(PIP) and polybutadiene(PBD). Their thin films were coated on quartz substrate by spin coating technique. Three types of simulants gases, dimethylmethylphosphonate(DMMP), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dichloromethane(CH2Cl2), dichloropentane(DCP) were used as target gases, instead of the real nerve, blood, choking and vesicant agents. After spin coating of PIB and PECH, the substrates were heated to 65℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the cyclohexane and ethylacetate which was used as solvent.PDMS was heated to 75℃ with N2 flow for 2 h to remove the ethylacetate which was used as solvent. PBD and PIP on the substrate were heated to 60℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the benzen which was used as solvent. The sensing characteristics of the SAW sensors were measured by using E-5061A network analyzer.

  19. Modeling environmental bias and computing velocity field from data of Terra Nova Bay GPS network in Antarctica by means of a quasi-observation processing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casula, Giuseppe; Dubbini, Marco; Galeandro, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    A semi-permanent GPS network of about 30 vertices has been installed at Terra Nova Bay (TNB) near Ross Sea in Antarctica. A permanent GPS station TNB1 based on an Ashtech Z-XII dual frequency P-code GPS receiver with ASH700936D_M Choke Ring Antenna has been mounted on a reinforced concrete pillar built on bedrock since October 1998 and has recorded continuously up to the present. The semi-permanent network has been routinely surveyed every summer using high quality dual frequency GPS receivers with 24 hour sessions at 15 sec rate; data, metadata and solutions will be available to the scientific community at (http://www.geodant.unimore.it). We present the results of a distributed session approach applied to processing GPS data of the TNB GPS network, and based on Gamit/Globk 10.2-3 GPS analysis software. The results are in good agreement with other authors' computations and with many of the theoretical models.

  20. Challenges and solutions for manifold gas well production in Mexilhao field; Desafios e solucoes para a producao de pocos de gas interligados por manifold no Campo de Mexilhao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzeti, Jorge Fernando Canato; Silva, Haroldo Benedito da [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the main challenges and the solutions found in the development of the Mexilhao Gas Field, located in the Santos Basin, about 145 kilometers off the Brazilian coast. Many technological innovations were devised for the subsea system, such as the use of subsea control valves in the manifold (for monoethylene glycol, MEG, injection), the use of HIPPS (High Integrity Pipeline Protection System) and the thermal insulation of the Wet Christmas Tree (WCT). It is also presented the sequence of the interlocking protection logic and the results observed during production. The cooling down of the WCT block after a stop production is showed. This is very important feature in this project for mitigating hydrate formation and allowing a higher operational flexibility during the restarting of production. The good simulation results by OLGA are also presented and they are compared to the real thermal-hydraulic profile data observed during the restart. The correct timing of this operation is essential to ensure not only that the overpressure protection logic is not triggered during the restart, but to prevent very low temperatures downstream of the choke (Joule-Thompson effect). (author)