Sample records for chokes

  1. Choking (Heimlich Maneuver) (United States)

    ... A-Z Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Choking (Heimlich Maneuver) ACEP recommends that the Heimlich Maneuver be employed only when a person is choking ... death. Avoid using excessive force in employing the Heimlich Maneuver to avoid injury to the ribs or internal ...

  2. Choking (For Kids) (United States)

    ... choking such a serious emergency. What Is the Heimlich Maneuver? The Heimlich maneuver is a way to help someone who is ... do it on yourself, if necessary. The traditional Heimlich maneuver is to be used on adults and children ...

  3. Choking risk among psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamine T


    Full Text Available Takahiko Nagamine1Division of Psychiatric Internal Medicine, Seiwakai-Kitsunan Hospital, Suzenji, JapanChoking is a life-threatening and not infrequent occurrence in psychiatric hospitals. There is, however, little information available about the risk factors or methods to prevent choking. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the 8 patients who had a cardiopulmonary arrest due to choking and received resuscitation at our hospital during the 6-year period from April 2005 to March 2011. The study involved 6 males and females, all of whom were patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotics orally. They were aged from 56 to 79 (mean ± SD: 69.0 ± 7.5 years, with the duration of illness from 28 to 54 years (39.9 ± 7.9 years. In 6 of the 8 cases, choking was diagnosed immediately on the basis of the situation at the time of cardiopulmonary arrest. In the remaining 2 cases, cardiopulmonary arrest was initially unexplained, and choking was only diagnosed subsequently. Choking was caused by bread in all cases. Tracheal intubation was carried out in all cases and resulted in successful resuscitation, causing no subsequent change in functions compared with the prechoking condition. All 8 patients had been receiving multiple antipsychotics before the event (mean number of drugs used 2.5 ± 0.7, with a total dose level ranging from 600 to 1800 mg/day chlorpromazine equivalents (mean 1113 ± 341 mg/day. Seven of the 8 patients had mild to moderate involuntary movements, and 5 patients were diagnosed with antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia. During the 5-year period before the choking event, 7 of the 8 patients had at least 1 treatment interruption, and some patients had up to 4 interruptions.

  4. Choke condition and performance monitoring


    Sæther, Jørgen Hagemo


    Sand production is a common complex problem in the oil and gas industry, and choke valves is typically suffering for this in form of erosive damage. The degree of erosive damage is decided by many different factors where the flow rate velocity and the sand rate are the most important ones.Much effort has been spent on ways of reducing the choke erosion to be able to maintain the oil and gas production at an optimal level with attention to increased profit, safety and availability. Use of Comp...

  5. Choking - adult or child over 1 year (United States)

    Abdominal thrusts - adult or child over 1 year; Heimlich maneuver - adult or child over 1 year: Choking - back ... back blows, or both. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver): Stand behind the person and wrap your arms ...

  6. Choking: What to Do for an Infant (United States)

    ... Some foods that can cause choking include hot dogs, nuts, chunks of meat, grapes, hard candy, peanuts, ... Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children Childhood Seizures Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring Book Download ...

  7. Choking RECtified: embodied expertise beyond Dreyfus


    Hutto, Daniel D.; Sánchez García, Raúl


    On a Dreyfusian account performers choke when they reflect upon and interfere with established routines of purely embodied expertise. This basic explanation of choking remains popular even today and apparently enjoys empirical support. Its driving insight can be understood through the lens of diverse philosophical visions of the embodied basis of expertise. These range from accounts of embodied cognition that are ultra conservative with respect to representational theories of cognition to tho...

  8. The Choking Game on YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. Defenderfer MS


    Full Text Available The choking game (TCG is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a “high,” occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non–choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG.

  9. Deaths associated with choking in San Diego county. (United States)

    Dolkas, Laura; Stanley, Christina; Smith, Alan M; Vilke, Gary M


    Death from choking is the fourth most common cause of unintentional-injury mortality, but little data are published on causes or locations of these episodes. These deaths typically are peaked at the extremes of age, with young children and the elderly having the greatest rate of fatal choking. Our objective was to characterize the causes of fatal airway obstruction in adults. The San Diego County Medical Examiner's database was searched for deaths attributed to choking in decedents 18 years and older during the 10-year period from 1994 to 2004. Data were abstracted regarding the underlying medical conditions, items choked on, location of the choking, and treatments involved in the individual cases. We found 133 victims who died from choking, with 14% having using alcohol or other sedatives and 55% having a documented neurological deficit or anatomic difficulty with swallowing. The most common specified food objects that victims choked on were meat products, and 45% occurred at home, followed by 26% at supervised facilities, and 14% at restaurants. Of the 19 choking episodes occurring in restaurants, only one employee was documented to attempt a resuscitative effort. Most victims who choked to death had an underlying neurological deficit, and occurred at home or supervised facilities appear to have an appropriate initial-response intervention.

  10. Teatime Threats. Choking Incidents at the Evening Meal (United States)

    Guthrie, Susan; Stansfield, Jois


    Purpose: To explore caregiver perceptions of the socio-environmental issues around evening meal ("teatime") which influence choking. Methodology: A qualitative study of caregivers witnessing a choking incident was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews explored perceptions of the causes. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.…

  11. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard. (United States)

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M


    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  12. Common mode chokes and optimisation aspects (United States)

    Kut, T.; Lücken, A.; Dickmann, S.; Schulz, D.


    Due to the increasing electrification of modern aircraft, as a result of the More Electric Aircraft concept, new strategies and approaches are required to fulfil the strict EMC aircraft standards (DO-160/ED-14-Sec. 20). Common mode chokes are a key component of electromagnetic filters and often oversized because of the unknown impedance of the surrounding power electronic system. This oversizing results in an increase of weight and volume. It has to be avoided as far as possible for mobile applications. In this context, an advanced method is presented to measure these impedances under operating conditions. Furthermore, the different parameters of the inductance design is explained and an optimisation for weight and volume is introduced.

  13. Subcooled choked flow through steam generator tube cracks (United States)

    Wolf, Brian J.

    The work presented here describes an experimental investigation into the choked flow of initially subcooled water through simulated steam generator tube cracks at pressures up to 6.9 MPa. The study of such flow is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from a nuclear reactor primary side to secondary side through cracks in steam generator tubes. An experimental approach to measuring such flow is de- scribed. Experimental results from data found in literature as well as the data collected in this work are compared with predictions from presented models as well as predictions from the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5. It is found that the homogeneous equilibrium model underpredicts choked flow rates of subcooled water through slits and artificial steam generator tube cracks. Additional modeling of thermal non-equilibrium improves the predictibility of choking mass flux for homogeneous models, however they fail to account for the characteristics of the two-phase pressure drop. An integral modeling approach is enhanced using a correlation developed from the data herein. Also, an assessment of the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5 is performed and it’s applicability to predict choking flow rates through steam generator tube cracks is addressed. This assessment determined that the Henry & Fauske model, as coded in RELAP5, is best suited for modeling choked flow through steam generator tube cracks. Finally, an approach to applying choked flow data that is not at the same thermo-dynamic conditions as a prototype is developed.

  14. Deaths Due to Choking in Prader-Willli Syndrome (United States)

    Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Butler, Merlin G.; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Clericuzio, Carol L.; Scheimann, Ann O.


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known syndromic cause of life threatening obesity, yet few studies have examined the causes of death in PWS. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of choking leading to mortality in PWS. In 1999, a brief survey was made available from the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) bereavement program, which documented demographic data and causes of death. Families were subsequently offered the opportunity to fill out a detailed questionnaire and additional forms to release medical records. Demographic information was available on 178 deceased individuals with PWS, and cause of death available on 152 individuals. Fifty-four families completed questionnaires. Of the deceased individuals with completed questionnaires, 34% reported a history of choking. Choking was listed by familial report as the cause of death in 12 (7.9%) of 152 subjects with an average age of 24 years (range 3–52y; median 22.5y) at death from choking. Only two of these individuals were less than eight years of age. The data suggest that risks associated with choking are different in the PWS population compared with normal. Potential causes of increased choking in PWS include poor oral/motor coordination, poor gag reflex, hypotonia, hyperphagia, decreased mastication and voracious feeding habits. We recommend implementation of preventive measures and education for families and group home care providers for all individuals with PWS including the Heimlich maneuver, supervised meals, better food preparation and diet modification to avoid high risk choking items. PMID:17036318

  15. Detecting critical choke points for achieving Good Environmental Status in European seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavis Potts


    Full Text Available Choke points are social, cultural, political, institutional, or psychological obstructions of social-ecological systems that constrain progress toward an environmental objective. Using a soft systems methodology, different types of chokes points were identified in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, the Baltic, and the North and Mediterranean seas. The choke points were of differing types: cultural and political choke points were identified in Barra and the Mediterranean, respectively, whereas the choke points in the North Sea and Baltic Sea were dependent on differing values toward the mitigation of eutrophication. We conclude with suggestions to identify and address choke points.

  16. Choking under pressure: The case of elite figure skaters.


    Didymus, FF; Hill, DM


    Background: Choking in sport is defined as, “a process whereby the individual perceives that their resources are insufficient to meet the demands of the situation, and concludes with a significant drop in performance – a choke” (Hill, et al., 2009: European Journal of Sport Science, 9(4), 203-212, p. 206). It occurs as a result of attentional disturbances caused by heightened anxiety, yet the precise mechanism of choking remains subject to debate. The self-focus models have been presented as ...

  17. The Choking Game on YouTube: An Update. (United States)

    Defenderfer, Ellen K; Austin, Jillian E; Davies, W Hobart


    The choking game (TCG) is an adolescent activity in which asphyxiation is used to obtain a "high," occasionally resulting in seizures or death. A plethora of TCG information is available through YouTube, though this content has not been evaluated recently. The current study described TCG as portrayed in YouTube videos and compared views and ratings of TCG videos to unrelated videos. The TCG videos demonstrated diverse methods of asphyxiation, with a minority showing injury to the participants. TCG videos were less likely to be commented on or rated positively than non-choking game videos. TCG prevention videos differed significantly from actual TCG videos in the way they depicted the social context of TCG. Thus, TCG videos are accessible through YouTube, but the prevention materials available on YouTube are not accurate or representative. Accurate and educational online prevention materials should be created to decrease the occurrence of TCG.

  18. Negative pressure pulmonary edema following choking on a cookie. (United States)

    Toukan, Yazeed; Gur, Michal; Bentur, Lea


    A 12-year-old boy developed severe acute respiratory distress during a school break requiring resuscitative measures. The episode started shortly after a short choking episode with a cookie. History, physical examination, laboratory results, chest X-ray, and clinical course supported the diagnosis of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE). NPPE occurring outside a hospital setting, especially following a short episode of choking on a cookie, is rarely reported in children. Understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to pulmonary edema can help in distinguishing NPPE from other causes of fulminant respiratory distress, and especially from other causes of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:E25-E27. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acoustic propagation in partially choked converging-diverging ducts (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L. T.


    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study acoustic propagation in converging-diverging hard walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The influences of the liner admittance, boundary layer thickness, spinning mode number, and mean Mach number are considered. The numerical results indicate that the diverging portion of the duct can have a strong reflective effect for partially choked flows.

  20. Deaths Due to Choking in Prader-Willli Syndrome


    Stevenson, David A.; Heinemann, Janalee; Angulo, Moris; Merlin G. Butler; Loker, Jim; Rupe, Norma; Kendell, Patrick; Clericuzio, Carol L; Scheimann, Ann O


    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the most common known syndromic cause of life threatening obesity, yet few studies have examined the causes of death in PWS. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of choking leading to mortality in PWS. In 1999, a brief survey was made available from the Prader-Willi Syndrome Association (USA) bereavement program, which documented demographic data and causes of death. Families were subsequently offered the opportunity to fill out a detailed...

  1. 30 CFR 250.444 - What are the choke manifold requirements? (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the choke manifold requirements? 250.444 Section 250.444 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.444 What are the choke manifold requirements? (a)...

  2. [The handling of acute life-threatening choking in geriatric and nursing home patients]. (United States)

    van Poelgeest, A; Melis, R J F; Ritmeijer, C; Olde Rikkert, M G M


    It is unknown how often choking occurs in geriatric wards and in nursing homes and what the treatment and outcomes are in regular practice. A questionnaire was sent to Dutch geriatricians (N = 130), nursing home physicians (N = 130), and trainees for these disciplines (N = 215), in order to gain information about the experience, practice and competence of physicians in choking in geriatric and nursing home patients. We also analysed to what extent geriatric and nursing home wards were prepared for accurate handling of choking. The response rate was 30%. More than half of the responders had experienced an episode of food choking at least once in the past five years. The mortality rate in the reported cases was high (30%). The majority of the patients who died of choking had not received the Heimlich-manoeuvre. Physicians who had attended resuscitation training long ago felt as competent to manage a choking episode as physicians that had recently attended resuscitation training. Of all geriatric wards and nursing homes, the majority lacked a guideline on how to handle in acute food choking. Geriatric wards and nursing homes do not seem to be well prepared for acute food choking in several aspects. Despite methodological shortcomings of this study, the results underline the necessity of clarification of the terms used, and development and implementation of guidelines for this important problem.

  3. Electrothermal model of choking-coils for the analysis of dc-dc converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecki, Krzysztof, E-mail: [Gdynia Maritime University, Department of Marine Electronics, Morska 83, Gdynia (Poland); Detka, Kalina [Pomeranian Higher School in Gdynia, Opata Hackiego 8-10, Gdynia (Poland)


    The paper concerns modelling the choking-coil for the needs of the electrothermal analysis of dc-dc converters. A new electrothermal model of the choking-coil is proposed. This model is dedicated for SPICE software and it takes into account nonlinearity of the dependences of the inductance on the current, selfheating and mutual thermal interactions between the core and the winding. The structure of this model is described in detail and its correctness is experimentally verified for the choking-coils with the ferrite and powder cores. Both the characteristics of the choking-coils and the buck converter with these choking-coils were considered. The satisfying agreement between the results of calculations and measurements is obtained.

  4. Experimental study of choking flow of water at supercritical conditions (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Altan

    Future nuclear reactors will operate at a coolant pressure close to 25 MPa and at outlet temperatures ranging from 500°C to 625°C. As a result, the outlet flow enthalpy in future Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors (SCWR) will be much higher than those of actual ones which can increase overall nuclear plant efficiencies up to 48%. However, under such flow conditions, the thermal-hydraulic behavior of supercritical water is not fully known, e.g., pressure drop, forced convection and heat transfer deterioration, critical and blowdown flow rate, etc. Up to now, only a very limited number of studies have been performed under supercritical conditions. Moreover, these studies are conducted at conditions that are not representative of future SCWRs. In addition, existing choked flow data have been collected from experiments at atmospheric discharge pressure conditions and in most cases by using working fluids different than water which constrain researchers to analyze the data correctly. In particular, the knowledge of critical (choked) discharge of supercritical fluids is mandatory to perform nuclear reactor safety analyses and to design key mechanical components (e.g., control and safety relief valves, etc.). Hence, an experimental supercritical water facility has been built at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal which allows researchers to perform choking flow experiments under supercritical conditions. The facility can also be used to carry out heat transfer and pressure drop experiments under supercritical conditions. In this thesis, we present the results obtained at this facility using a test section that contains a 1 mm inside diameter, 3.17 mm long orifice plate with sharp edges. Thus, 545 choking flow of water data points are obtained under supercritical conditions for flow pressures ranging from 22.1 MPa to 32.1 MPa, flow temperatures ranging from 50°C to 502°C and for discharge pressures from 0.1 MPa to 3.6 MPa. Obtained data are compared with the data given in

  5. Choking under monitoring pressure: being watched by the experimenter reduces executive attention. (United States)

    Belletier, Clément; Davranche, Karen; Tellier, Idriss S; Dumas, Florence; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry; Huguet, Pascal


    Performing more poorly given one's skill level ("choking") is likely in situations that offer an incentive if a certain outcome is achieved (outcome pressure) or when one is being watched by others-especially when one's performance is being evaluated (monitoring pressure). According to the choking literature, outcome pressure is associated with reduced executive control of attention, whereas monitoring pressure is associated with increased, yet counterproductive, attention to skill processes. Here, we show the first evidence that monitoring pressure-being watched by the experimenter-may lead individuals with higher working memory to choke on a classic measure of executive control-just the task effect thought to result from outcome pressure. Not only does this finding help refine our understanding of the processes underlying choking under monitoring pressure, but it also leads to a new look at classic audience effects, with an important implication for experimental psychology.

  6. Meanline Analysis of Turbines with Choked Flow in the Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (United States)

    Hendricks, Eric S.


    The Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code (OTAC) is a new meanline/streamline turbomachinery modeling tool being developed at NASA GRC. During the development process, a limitation of the code was discovered in relation to the analysis of choked flow in axial turbines. This paper describes the relevant physics for choked flow as well as the changes made to OTAC to enable analysis in this flow regime.

  7. Self-consciousness and trait anxiety as predictors of choking in sport. (United States)

    Wang, J; Marchant, D; Morris, T; Gibbs, P


    The present study was designed to examine dispositional self-consciousness and trait anxiety as predictors of choking in sport. Sixty-six basketball players completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the Sport Anxiety Scale prior to completing 20 free throws in low-pressure and high-pressure conditions. A manipulation check showed that participants experienced significantly higher levels of state anxiety in the high-pressure condition. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses supported the hypothesis that self-conscious athletes were more susceptible to choking under pressure. The best predictors of choking were private self-consciousness and somatic trait anxiety that together accounted for 35% of the explained variance. We discuss a number of possible explanations regarding the discrepancy between the present results and previous studies mainly relating to task characteristics, skill level of participants and manipulations of pressure.

  8. Laryngeal choking on food and acute ethanol intoxication in adults--An autopsy study. (United States)

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Zivković, Vladimir; Dragan, Babic; Juković, Fehim


    The retrospective autopsy study included 98 adults who died because of laryngeal choking on a bolus of food: 67 men and 31 women (χ(2)=6.843, pintoxicated (z=-7.126, pintoxication in individuals without mental disorders, were the most important risk factors for bolus death.

  9. [The handling of acute life-threatening choking in geriatric and nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelgeest, A. van; Melis, R.J.F.; Ritmeijer, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.


    It is unknown how often choking occurs in geriatric wards and in nursing homes and what the treatment and outcomes are in regular practice. A questionnaire was sent to Dutch geriatricians (N = 130), nursing home physicians (N = 130), and trainees for these disciplines (N = 215), in order to gain inf

  10. More on the Fragility of Performance: Choking Under Pressure in Mathematical Problem Solving (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L.; Kulp, Catherine A.; Holt, Lauren E.; Carr, Thomas H.


    In 3 experiments, the authors examined mathematical problem solving performance under pressure. In Experiment 1, pressure harmed performance on only unpracticed problems with heavy working memory demands. In Experiment 2, such high-demand problems were practiced until their answers were directly retrieved from memory. This eliminated choking under…

  11. Higher‐order mode absorption measurement of X-band choke-mode cavities in a radial line structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Hao [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Shi, Jiaru, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); The European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva CH-1211 (Switzerland); Wu, Xiaowei; Chen, Huaibi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing CN-100086 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging, Tsinghua University, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)


    An experiment is presented to study the higher-order mode (HOM) suppression of X-band choke-mode structures with a vector network analyzer (VNA). Specific radial line disks were built to test the reflection from the corresponding damping load and different choke geometries. The mismatch between the radial lines and the VNA was calibrated through a special multi-short-load calibration method. The measured reflections of different choke geometries showed good agreement with the theoretical calculations and verified the HOM absorption feature of each geometric design.

  12. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance. (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J


    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  13. Choked Jets and Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Bursts as Hidden Neutrino Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Senno, Nicholas; Meszaros, Peter


    We consider choked gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets as possible sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics and radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production in dense environments. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays inside a high density stellar environment is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in an extended envelope, and such conditions are favorable also for the GRB jets to become stalled. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic SNe and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs. Focusing on this possibility, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in pp and pgamma interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results on the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although current uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contributi...

  14. One—Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Choking in Case of Heat Addition in Ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YoshiakiMiyazato; MasashiKashitani; 等


    The thermal choking phenomenon is of great importance in an inlet isolator in dual-mode ram jet/scramjet combustor.In some cases the choked flow creates a pseudo-shock wave including a shock train in it at the engine inlet and causes large amounts of drag and radically reduces the performance of the engine at high flight Mach numbers,The present paper describes a one-dimensional flow model taking account of the upstream boundary-layer as well as heat addition by using a mass-weighted averaging technique.The simple relationships for the flow field in a constant area duct in which the effect of the usptream boundary-layer is considered but the effect of the wall friction in the duct can be neglected are presented.The results of the calculation such as the maximum heat addition when the thermal choking occurs,the downstream Mach number and the static pressure ratio are presented and examined in detail.

  15. Choked jets and low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts as hidden neutrino sources (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter


    We consider gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets that are choked by extended material as sources of high-energy cosmic neutrinos. We take into account the jet propagation physics both inside the progenitor star and the surrounding dense medium. Radiation constraints, which are relevant for high-energy neutrino production, are considered as well. Efficient shock acceleration of cosmic rays is possible for sufficiently low-power jets and/or jets buried in a dense, extended wind or outer envelope. Such conditions also favor GRB jets to become stalled, and the necessary conditions for stalling are explicitly derived. Such choked jets may explain transrelativistic supernovae (SNe) and low-luminosity (LL) GRBs, giving a unified picture of GRBs and GRB-SNe. Focusing on this unified scenario for GRBs, we calculate the resulting neutrino spectra from choked jets, including the relevant microphysical processes such as multipion production in p p and p γ interactions, as well as the energy losses of mesons and muons. We obtain diffuse neutrino spectra using the latest results for the luminosity function of LL GRBs. Although uncertainties are large, we confirm that LL GRBs can potentially give a significant contribution to the diffuse neutrino flux. Our results are consistent with the present IceCube data and do not violate the stacking limits on classical high-luminosity GRBs. We find that high-energy neutrino production in choked jets is dominated by p γ interactions. These sources are dark in GeV-TeV gamma rays and do not contribute significantly to the Fermi diffuse gamma-ray background. Assuming stalled jets can launch a quasispherical shock in the dense medium, "precursor" TeV neutrinos emerging prior to the shock breakout gamma-ray emission can be used as smoking-gun evidence for a choked jet model for LL GRBs. Our results strengthen the relevance of wide field-of-view sky monitors with better sensitivities in the 1-100 keV range.

  16. A Case Study of Hypnosis for Phagophobia: It's No Choking Matter. (United States)

    Reid, David B


    In this case study the author reviews the benefits of hypnosis for a 13-year-old female suffering from a specific phobia involving a fear of choking and generalized fear of swallowing that resulted in an episode of Restrictive Food Intake Disorder with associated significant weight loss. At the time of the initial consultation, three weeks after her choking episode, the patient weighed 93 pounds. Standing at 5'2", her Body Mass Index (BMI) was 17 (15th percentile) indicative of healthy weight for a child her age and height. She continued to lose weight over the course of 2 months and at her worst weighed 85 pounds (BMI = 15.5, 3rd percentile, classified as underweight). Prior to the incident, she weighed 105 pounds with a BMI of 19.2 (46th percentile). Treatment initially consisted of 12 hypnosis sessions (over a 5-month period), conducted on a weekly and eventually biweekly basis. A scheduled one-month follow-up visit was conducted following the 12th session, at which time the patient was consuming solid foods without fear of choking. Her BMI at that time was 18.7 (39th percentile). Two months after terminating treatment, the patient experienced a mild relapse triggered by conflicts with some female peers. After four additional hypnosis sessions, the patient's symptoms again remitted. During her last session we shared a pizza, providing clear and convincing evidence that she had overcome her fear of swallowing. She retained therapeutic benefits for at least 3 years following treatment.

  17. Intensification and refraction of acoustical signals in partially choked converging ducts (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.


    A computer code based on the wave-envelope technique is used to perform detailed numerical calculations for the intensification and refraction of sound in converging hard walled and lined circular ducts carrying high mean Mach number flows. The results show that converging ducts produce substantial refractions toward the duct center for waves propagating against near choked flows. As expected, the magnitude of the refraction decreases as the real part of the admittance increases. The pressure wave pattern is that of interference among the different modes, and hence the variation of the magnitude of pressure refraction with frequency is not monotonic.

  18. Effect of resonant neutrino oscillation on TeV neutrino flavor ratio from choked GRBs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarira Sahu; Bing Zhang


    In the collapsar scenario of the long duration Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), multi-TeV neutrino emission is predicted as the jet makes its way through the stellar envelope. Such a neutrino signal is also expected for more general "failed" GRBs in which a putative jet is "choked" by a heavy envelope. If the Ve→ Vμneutrino oscillation parameters are in the atmospheric neutrino oscillation range, we show that the resonant oscillation of Ve ←→Vμ,t can take place within the inner high density region of the choked jet progenitor with a heavy envelope, altering the V flavor ratio on its surface to φsve:φsvμ:φsvt =5:11:2. Considering vacuum oscillations of these neutrinos on their way to Earth, the final flavor ratio detected on Earth is further modified to either 1:1.095:1.095 for the large mixing angle solution to the solar neutrino data, or 1:1.3:1.3 for maximal mixing among the muon and tau neutrinos in the vacuum.

  19. The Heimlich maneuver. Best technique for saving any choking victim's life. (United States)

    Heimlich, H J; Patrick, E A


    The American Red Cross (ARC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) advocated backslaps, chest thrusts, and abdominal thrusts for 10 years after the Heimlich maneuver was introduced in 1974. Even after the Surgeon General in 1985 declared these methods to be "hazardous, even lethal," the ARC and the AHA continue to recommend backslaps and chest thrusts for infants under 1 year of age. ARC and AHA instructional materials that advocate use of these methods have not been recalled, and the public has not been warned of the dangers. One cause of the confusion about backslaps is the flawed belief that gas pressure alone removes a foreign body. In addition, there is lack of understanding that, compared with the Heimlich maneuver, the backslap produces an insignificant amount of the energy required to expel an object from the airway. In fact, the energy produced by the backslap drives the foreign object in the wrong direction, toward the lungs, while the energy produced by the Heimlich maneuver drives the object away from the lungs, toward the mouth. Backslaps and chest thrusts should be publicly recalled as a treatment for choking infants before further deaths and injuries occur. The Heimlich maneuver is the best rescue technique for treating choking victims of all ages.

  20. Active Queue Management Algorithm:CHOKe Performance Analysis%主动队列管理算法:CHOKe性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    CHOKe is a kind of fair active queue management algorithm without state. The re is few research on the features of CHOKe. This paper analyzed the features of CHOKe using ns2 simulation platform. The result shows that CHOKe algorithm can not adapt to the dynamic changes of the flow, and the CHOKe hit probability, the effectiveness are main reason for the equity.%CHOKe是一种无状态的近似公平的主动队列管理算法,有关它性能的研究较少,本文利用ns2仿真平台分析了CHOKe性能。研究表明,CHOKe算法不能适应流量的动态变化,CHOKe击中的概率以及击中的有效性是影响其公平性的主要原因。

  1. Numerical simulation of predicting and reducing solid particle erosion of solid-liquid two-phase flow in a choke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guomei; Wang Yueshe; He Renyang; Cao Xuewen; Lin Changzhi; Meng Tao


    Chokes are one of the most important components of downhole flow-control equipment. The particle erosion mathematical model, which considers particle-particle interaction, was established and used to simulate solid particle movement as well as particle erosion characteristics of the solid-liquid two-phase flow in a choke. The corresponding erosion reduction approach by setting ribs on the inner wall of the choke was advanced. This mathematical model includes three parts: the flow field simulation of the continuous carrier fluid by an Eulerian approach, the particle interaction simulation using the discrete particle hard sphere model by a Lagrangian approach and calculation of erosion rate using semi-empirical correlations. The results show that particles accumulated in a narrow region from inlet to outlet of the choke and the dominating factor affecting particle motion is the fluid drag force. As a result, the optimization of rib geometrical parameters indicates that good anti-erosion performance can be achieved by four ribs, each of them with a height (H) of 3 mm and a width (B) of 5 mm equaling the interval between ribs (L).

  2. Determination of viscous pressure losssand resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, O.F.


      Determination of viscous pressure loss and resistance upstream from the choke point from breathing gases of different physical properties Ole F. Pedersen, Institute of Public Health, University of Aarhus, Denmark. AIM. To determine viscous pressure losses and resistances  upstream to CP...

  3. On the Existence of Subharmonic Screech in Choked Circular Jets from a Sharp-Edged Orifice (United States)

    Kandula, Max


    Experiments are performed in choked circular hot and cold nitrogen jets issuing from a 2.44 cm diameter sharp-edged orifice at a fully expanded jet Mach number of 1.85 in an effort to investigate the character of screech phenomenon. The stagnation temperature of the cold and the hot jets are 299 K and 319 K respectively. The axial distribution of the centerline Mach number was obtained with a pitot tube, while the screech data (frequency and amplitude) at different axial and radial stations were measured with the aid of microphones. The fundamental screech frequency of the hot jet is slightly increased relative to that of the cold jet. It is concluded that temperature effects on the screech amplitude are manifested with regard to the fundamental and the subharmonic even at relatively small temperature range considered.

  4. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore


    Full Text Available Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively insleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE. NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved.

  5. Combustion Dynamic Characteristics Identification in a 9-point LDI Combustor Under Choked Outlet Boundary Conditions (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.; Chang, Clarence T.


    Combustion dynamics data were collected at the NASA Glenn Research Center's CE-5 flame tube test facility under combustor outlet choked conditions. Two 9-point Swirl-Venturi Lean Direct Injection (SV-LDI) configurations were tested in a rectangular cuboid combustor geometry. Combustion dynamic data were measured at different engine operational conditions up to inlet air pressure and temperature of 24.13 bar and 828 K, respectively. In this study, the effects of acoustic cavity resonance, precessing vortex core (PVC), and non-uniform thermal expansion on the dynamic noise spectrum are identified by comparing the dynamic data that collected at various combustor inlet conditions along with combustor geometric calculations. The results show that the acoustic cavity resonance noises were seen in the counter-rotating pilot configuration but not in the co-rotating pilot configuration. Dynamic pressure noise band at around 0.9 kHz was only detected at the P'41 location (9.8 cm after fuel injector face) but not at the P'42 location (29 cm after the fuel injector face); the amplitude of this noise band depended on the thermal expansion ratio (T4/T3). The noise band at around 1.8 kHz was found to depend on the inlet air pressure or the air density inside the combustor. The PVC frequency was not observed in these two configurations.

  6. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.


    Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is

  7. Clinical Analysis of Patients with Psychosis Food Choking Nursing Countermeasures%精神病噎食患者的临床分析与护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the cause of psychiatric patients choke, and put forward nursing countermeasures. Methods Select our hospital from 2010 to 2012 successful rescue of 15 patients with psychiatric food choked as the research object, analyzed the clinical data of patients, summarized the nursing countermeasures. Results The causes of mental illness choke feed mainly extrapyramidal reactions caused by antipsychotic drugs, mental illness and disease attacks due to the decline reason without self-control. Through to the patients to take effective nursing measures, greatly reduce the happening of choke feed patients. Conclusion Analyses the reason of mental choke feed and take the corresponding nursing measures can reduce the happening of choke feed.%目的:分析精神科患者噎食的原因并提出护理对策。方法选取我院2010年至2012年成功抢救的15例精神科噎食患者作为研究对象,分析患者的临床资料,总结护理对策。结果导致精神病噎食的原因主要抗精神病药物所致的锥体外系反应,精神病患者由于智力衰退、病症发作等原因没有自控能力。通过对患者采取有效的护理措施后,大大减少患者噎食的发生。结论分析精神病噎食的原因并采取相应的护理措施可减少噎食的发生。

  8. Examining choking in basketball: effects of game outcome and situational variables during last 5 minutes and overtimes. (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Jiménez, Sergio; Navarro, Rafael M; Sampaio, Jaime


    This study examined choking in basketball by identifying the effects of game outcome and situational variables during the last 5 min. and overtimes of close games. The sample consisted of two 5 min. segments (last 5 min. of the game, n = 147, of which 97 did not go into overtime; 5 min. of overtime, n = 50) drawn from 147 games from the Spanish Professional Basketball League (2007 to 2011). The following game-related statistics were gathered: 3- and 2-point field goals and free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), offensive and defensive rebounds, assists, recovered balls, turnovers, blocks (both made and received), and fouls committed and received. The results suggested the need to account for the temporal structure and multi-skilled nature of the task when devising appropriate interventions.

  9. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi


    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scales is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing imagery of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  10. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi


    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scale is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing images of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  11. Risk Factors of Choking in Psychiatric Inpatient%精神科住院病人噎食的风险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海英; 陈建国


    目的:研究精神科住院病人发生噎食的风险因素及防范对策。方法:回顾收集2013年1月-2014年12月住院治疗期间发生噎食的病人资料并进行分析。结果:发生噎食5人次,5例均为男性住院器质性精神障碍病人,住院时间≥6个月者常见(60.0%)。最容易引起噎食的食物是大块食物,以面食和肉食为主。有不良饮食行为者易发生(60.0%)。噎食最常用的抢救方法是汉姆立克操作(80.0%)。噎食抢救成功率100%。结论:住院6个月以上,面食、大块食物及暴食者精神病人噎食问题发生率高,注意防范和及时处理可以提高抢救成功率。%Objective:To explore risk factors of food occur chokes in psychiatric inpatients .Methods:Data of patient with chocking from 2013 January to 2014 December were collected and analyzed .Results:5 males with organic mental disorders choked ,and their hospitalization time was more than or equal to six months(60.0%).The food which was easy to cause choking was large pieces of food ,the pasta and car-nivorous.People with poor diet were apt to choke (60%).Choking rescue method was the most commonly used Heimlich maneuver(80%).The success rate was 100%.Conclusion:Hospitalization for more than 6 months,pasta,large pieces of food and glutton are risk factors of choke;Paying attention to prevention and timely treatment can improve the success rate of rescue.

  12. Video-endoscopic comparison of swallowing waxy rice mochi and waxy wheat mochi: improvement of a traditional Japanese food that presents a choking hazard. (United States)

    Sanpei, Ryuichi; Tohara, Haruka; Fujita, Shuzo; Yanagimachi, Mashimi; Abe, Kimiko; Nakayama, Enri; Inoue, Motoharu; Sato, Mitsuyasu; Wada, Satoko; Ueda, Koichiro


    Mochi is highly cohesive and adhesive, and easy to choke on. Many of the fatal suffocation accidents with mochi occur in the elderly aged 65 years or older. These circumstances prompted us to investigate a special property of waxy wheat which is similar in texture to waxy rice, but is less cohesive and adhesive. We compared the differences in chewing and swallowing movements associated with eating waxy rice mochi and waxy wheat mochi between healthy adults and healthy elderly. Healthy elderly chewed mochi more and longer than healthy adults. Although there was no difference in the number of chewing cycles or total duration of chewing between the two types of mochi, waxy wheat mochi was easier to chew and left less pharyngeal residue. These findings lead us to suggest that waxy wheat mochi is promising as a food that is easy to swallow and difficult to choke on.

  13. Fluid-structure interaction analysis and lifetime estimation of a natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor under near-choke and near-surge conditions (United States)

    Ju, Yaping; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ziyun; Xing, Peng; Zhang, Chuhua


    Up to present, there have been no studies concerning the application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis to the lifetime estimation of multi-stage centrifugal compressors under dangerous unsteady aerodynamic excitations. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a three-stage natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressor are performed under near-choke and near-surge conditions, and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure acting on impeller blades are obtained. Then computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis is conducted through a one-way coupling FSI model to predict alternating stresses in impeller blades. Finally, the compressor lifetime is estimated using the nominal stress approach. The FSI results show that the impellers of latter stages suffer larger fluctuation stresses but smaller mean stresses than those at preceding stages under near-choke and near-surge conditions. The most dangerous position in the compressor is found to be located near the leading edge of the last-stage impeller blade. Compressor lifetime estimation shows that the investigated compressor can run up to 102.7 h under the near-choke condition and 200.2 h under the near-surge condition. This study is expected to provide a scientific guidance for the operation safety of natural gas pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  14. Numerical analysis of choked converging nozzle flows with surface roughness and heat flux conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Alper Ozalp


    Choked converging nozzle flow and heat transfer characteristics are numerically investigated by means of a recent computational model that integrates the axisymmetric continuity, state, momentum and energy equations. To predict the combined effects of nozzle geometry, friction and heat transfer rates, analyses are conducted with sufficiently wide ranges of covergence half angle, surface roughness and heat flux conditions. Numerical findings show that inlet Mach and Nusselt numbers decrease up to 23.1% and 15.8% with surface heat flux and by 15.13% and 4.8% due to surface roughness. Considering each convergence half angle case individually results in a linear relation between nozzle discharge coefficients and exit Reynolds numbers with similar slopes. Heat flux implementation, by decreasing the shear stress values, lowers the risks due to wear hazards at upstream sections of flow walls; however the final 10% downstream nozzle portion is determined to be quite critical, where shear stress attains the highest magnitudes. Heat transfer rates are seen to increase in the streamwise direction up to 2.7 times; however high convergence half angles, heat flux and surface roughness conditions lower inlet Nusselt numbers by 70%, 15.8% and 4.8% respectively.

  15. Analysis the related factors and nursing intervention of alzheimer patients for choking foot%老年痴呆患者噎食相关因素分析及护理干预措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蛟; 李永琼; 马建敏


    目的:探讨老年痴呆患者噎食的相关因素,制定护理干预措施.方法:对33例噎食患者的住院资料进行回顾性分析.结果:本组发生噎食的33例患者,经及时救治,抢救成功30例,死亡3例.结论:老年痴呆患者噎食与神经系统症状、抗精神病药物副作用等因素有关,须加强对噎食的护理干预,做好相应的急救措施.%Objective;To discuss the related factors of choking food for alzheimer's patients and formulate the nursing interventions. Methods;33 Alzheimer' s inpatients with choke food histories were retrospectively analyzed. Results:After timely treatment,30 choking patients improved rapidly,3 patients died. Conclusions: Choking food was related to nervous system symptoms, side effects of antipsychotics and other factors. So the works of nursing intervention for choking food were need to be strengthened and made the appropriate first aid measures.

  16. Choking: First Aid (United States)

    ... Perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver). Alternate between 5 blows and 5 thrusts until ... Both approaches are acceptable. To perform abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) on someone else: Stand behind the person. Wrap ...

  17. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)


    sediments and also that the total amount of erosion does not exceed the mean postglacial sediment thickness in the area and the water depths are deeper than 25 metres. If the water depth is less than 5 metres and the pixel is situated outside a future lake object, erosion of glacial clay is allowed with a value that corresponds to the mean thickness of glacial clay in the water depth interval 0-5 metres. Output from the module is a text-file with values for each object for time step, water volume, water area and sea level. The module steps until a time when a future lake object is isolated or a terrestrial object is completely situated on land. The time for future lake isolation is calculated using the future lake threshold level and the shoreline displacement equation. When the module ends, the DEM at the actual time writes to a file in ASCII-format that can be used as an input for the lake module. Input to the lake module is either the DEM from the future lake isolation time or a DEM calculated from depth sounding data for an existing lake. The lake module simulates the progress from a newly isolated lake to a wetland considering accumulation of fine-grained sediments and choke-up processes. The accumulation of sediments at each time step is calculated using the actual lake water volume, a relationship that is calibrated using data from eight lakes in the Forsmark area. If the lake at actual time step has pixels that have water depths exceeding two metres, all new sediments are placed evenly over that area: otherwise, they are evenly distributed over the entire lake not occupied by vegetation. The choke-up rate is calculated using the area of the newly isolated lake, a relationship calibrated by data from 84 wetlands in the Forsmark area. The lake module calculates the number of pixels that will be occupied by vegetation at each time step. This process searches for the shallowest pixel in the lake not already occupied by vegetation and marks this pixel as vegetated. The

  18. A model for landscape development in terms of shoreline displacement, sediment dynamics, lake formation, and lake choke-up processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa University, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science (Sweden)


    sediments and also that the total amount of erosion does not exceed the mean postglacial sediment thickness in the area and the water depths are deeper than 25 metres. If the water depth is less than 5 metres and the pixel is situated outside a future lake object, erosion of glacial clay is allowed with a value that corresponds to the mean thickness of glacial clay in the water depth interval 0-5 metres. Output from the module is a text-file with values for each object for time step, water volume, water area and sea level. The module steps until a time when a future lake object is isolated or a terrestrial object is completely situated on land. The time for future lake isolation is calculated using the future lake threshold level and the shoreline displacement equation. When the module ends, the DEM at the actual time writes to a file in ASCII-format that can be used as an input for the lake module. Input to the lake module is either the DEM from the future lake isolation time or a DEM calculated from depth sounding data for an existing lake. The lake module simulates the progress from a newly isolated lake to a wetland considering accumulation of fine-grained sediments and choke-up processes. The accumulation of sediments at each time step is calculated using the actual lake water volume, a relationship that is calibrated using data from eight lakes in the Forsmark area. If the lake at actual time step has pixels that have water depths exceeding two metres, all new sediments are placed evenly over that area: otherwise, they are evenly distributed over the entire lake not occupied by vegetation. The choke-up rate is calculated using the area of the newly isolated lake, a relationship calibrated by data from 84 wetlands in the Forsmark area. The lake module calculates the number of pixels that will be occupied by vegetation at each time step. This process searches for the shallowest pixel in the lake not already occupied by vegetation and marks this pixel as vegetated. The

  19. Building the model for pressure drop of choke in gas-well downhole%气井井下节流器压降模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振华; 廖新维; 袁玉金


    Downhole choke plays an important role in natural gas production. It can reduce gas hydrate which will block production line. Other advantages include avoiding pressure surge and improving lifting water from downhole, etc. So this technology can Minimize the cost but bring some disadvantages as well. Such as pressure gauge can not be able reach middle depth of reservoir, so the pressure dada for production analysis and welltest is not real BHP. This paper is based on energy conservation, assuming process of gas flowing through choke is isentropic, applying PR state equation and other formula related to build the model of choke pressure drop. The program has been developed, and the result of model calculation was accurate with example.%井下节流器在天然气生产中有着重要作用,在气田尤其是苏里格气田有着大规模应用.节流器可以减少水合物生成,避免生产管线堵塞,降低井底压力激动,能有效提高气流携液能力并简化地面设备.与其他水合物预防方法相比,井下节流器成本较低,具有很好的经济效益.但同时也给生产带来一些不便,比如无法将压力计下到节流器以下,导致获得压力数据与实际井底流压相比存在节流压差,影响生产动态分析和试井解释的结果,导致解释结果有误差甚至错误,从而影响决策的正确性.以能量守恒为基础,假设气体通过节流器为等熵绝热过程,采用Peng-Robinson状态方程描述天然气节流的相平衡过程状态方程,结合其他经验公式建立井下节流器压降计算模型,并通过编程实现,化计算压差,经过实际案例验证,结果精确度较高.

  20. 精神疾病住院患者噎食风险评估与护理对策%Assessment of choke risks in inpatients with mental disorders and nursing strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冲; 李菲菲; 许冬梅


    Objective To analyze the causes of food choking and assess its risk so as to prevent its occurrence. Methods We made choking risk evaluation scale by analyzing the food choking events, which happened to inpatients. The scale was adopted to assess the choking risks of 1364 inpatients with mental disorders, the results shown that 166 cases had the risk; thus further targeted nursing was applied in them to get rid of the risk. Results The incidence rate of choking in intervention period (from October, 2009 to February, 2010) was significantly lower that in the control period (from March, 2009 to August, 2009) (P <0. 05). Conclusions it is effective to prevent incidence of food choking by dynamically assessing food choking risks, establishing corresponding management system and performing nursing interventions on inpatients with mental disorders.%目的 分析噎食发生的原因,评估噎食风险,防范噎食发生.方法 分析我院发生的47例噎食事件,制定噎食风险评估表,对1 364例住院精神疾病患者进行噎食风险因素评估,评估出166例患者存在噎食风险,针对风险因素分别采取针对性护理对策.结果 干预期(2009年9月至2010年2月)噎食发生例数明显低于未进行噎食护理干预期(2009年3-8月),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 精神科制定噎食风险管理制度,临床动态做好噎食风险因素评估,并采取针对性护理对策,可有效地降低患者噎食的发生.

  1. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety. (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L


    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety.

  2. Choking phobia: full remission following behavior therapy Fobia de deglutição: remissão com terapia comportamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Scemes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A phobic behavior pattern is learned by classical and operant conditioning mechanisms. The present article reviews the main determinants of choking phobia etiology and describes the behavior therapy of an adult patient. METHOD: Psychoeducation, functional analysis, and graded exposure to aversive stimuli were used to treat the patient, after extensive psychiatric and psychological assessment. Ingesta and anxiety levels were measured along treatment and at follow-up. RESULTS: A multiple assessment baseline design was used to demonstrate the complete remission of symptoms after seven sessions, each of them exposing the patient to a different group of foods. CONCLUSION: Psychoeducation and exposure were critical components of a successful choking phobia treatment.OBJETIVO: O padrão comportamental da fobia é adquirido com base no condicionamento clássico e mecanismos operantes de aprendizagem. Este artigo faz uma revisão dos principais determinantes da etiologia da fobia de deglutição e descreve o tratamento da terapia comportamental em uma paciente adulta. MÉTODO: Foram usadas psicoeducação, análise funcional e gradativa exposição a estímulos aversivos no tratamento da paciente, depois de uma extensiva avaliação psiquiátrica e psicológica. Níveis de ingesta e ansiedade foram medidos ao longo de todo o tratamento e no follow-up. RESULTADOS: Para demonstrar a completa remissão dos sintomas, após sete sessões de exposição a diferentes grupos de alimentos foi usado um delineamento de linha de base de avaliações múltiplas. CONCLUSÃO: Terapia de exposição e psicoeducação foram componentes que contribuíram de modo crítico para a obtenção de resultados positivos ao tratamento.

  3. Engasgamento em bebês após busca às cegas com os dedos Infants choking following blind finger sweep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan A. Abder-Rahman


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em situações estressantes, as pessoas geralmente usam os dedos para retirar corpos estranhos de faringe da boca. Este artigo relata três casos de óbito de bebês após o uso dessa técnica. MÉTODOS: Um total de 26 casos de engasgamento causado por aspiração de corpos estranhos nas vias respiratórias superiores e inferiores envolvendo crianças menores de 11 anos submetidas a autopsia no Departamento de Medicina Forense da Universidade da Jordânia entre 1996 e 2006 foram revisados. RESULTADOS: O uso de busca às cegas com os dedos para retirar corpos estranhos de faringe foi relatado em três bebês durante o choro. Todas as crianças eram menores de 1 ano e haviam se engasgado com grãos-de-bico, uma bola de gude e um lápis curto. A diversidade, o tamanho, a forma, e a maciez da superfície são as principais características que fazem com que esses corpos estranhos sejam mais difíceis de ser removidos com os dedos e facilitam sua entrada via respiratória. CONCLUSÃO: Esses casos mostraram que a busca às cegas com os dedos na boca de bebês durante o choro não é somente uma manobra perigosa, mas também pode ser fatal.OBJECTIVE: In stressful situations, people usually use finger sweep to remove pharyngeal foreign bodies from the mouth. This article reports on three cases of death of infants following the use of this technique. METHODS: A total of 26 cases of choking caused by foreign bodies aspiration in the upper and lower respiratory passages involving children younger than 11 years of age autopsied at the Forensic Department of University of Jordânia between 1996 and 2006 were reviewed. RESULTS: Blind finger sweep to remove pharyngeal foreign bodies were reported in three crying infants. All of these cases were younger than 1 year of age and choked on a chickpea, a marble and a short pencil. Diversity, size, shape and smoothness of the surface are the main characteristics that render the foreign bodies less easily

  4. Measurement of groove features and dimensions of the vertical test cathode and the choke joint of the superconducting electron gun cavity of the Energy Recovery LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, L.; Ke, M.


    A testing program for the superconducting electron gun cavity that has been designed for the Energy Recovery LINAC is being planned. The goal of the testing program is to characterize the RF properties of the gun cavity at superconducting temperatures and, in particular, to study multipacting that is suspected to be occurring in the choke joint of the cavity where the vertical test cathode is inserted. The testing program will seek to understand the nature and cause of this multipacting and attempt to eliminate it, if possible, by supplying sufficient voltage to the cavity. These efforts are motivated by the multipacting issues that have been observed in the processing of the fine-grain niobium gun cavity. This cavity, which is being processed at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory for Brookhaven, has encountered multipacting at a gradient of approximately 3 MV/m and, to date, has resisted efforts at elimination. Because of this problem, a testing program is being established here in C-AD that will use the large-grain niobium gun cavity that currently resides at Brookhaven and has been used for room-temperature measurements. The large-grain and fine-cavities are identical in every aspect of construction and only differ in niobium grain size. Thus, it is believed that testing and conditioning of the large-grain cavity should yield important insights about the fine-grain cavity. One element of this testing program involves characterizing the physical features of the choke joint of the cavity where the multipacting is believed to be occurring and, in particular the grooves of the joint. The configuration of the cavity and the vertical test cathode is shown in Figure 1. In addition, it is important to characterize the groove of the vertical test cathode. The grooved nature of these two components was specifically designed to prevent multipacting. However, it is suspected that, because of the chemical processing that the fine-grain gun cavity underwent along with the

  5. Current Study on Choke and Kill Line Connector of Subsea BOP Stack%水下防喷器组节流压井管线插接器研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Choke and kill line connector is the key equipment of subsea blowout preventer stack, of which the core technology is mainly controlled by a few foreign BOP manufacturers. To guarantee our country's energy se-curity and protect our maritime rights and interests, and to accelerate the development of BOP stack with independ-ent intellectual property rights, the current study on common mechanical and Hydril, Radoil, AXON, Shaffer hy-draulic subsea BOP choke and kill line connector have been introduced, and their design features and advantages and disadvantages have been analyzed. Research on the product structure, sealing materials and locking mechanism should be strengthened during development of subsea BOP choke and kill line connector.%节流压井管线插接器是水下防喷器组的关键单元设备,其核心技术主要掌握在国外少数几个防喷器生产厂家.为保障我国能源安全和海洋权益,应加快开发具有自主知识产权的水下防喷器组.介绍了常用机械式和Hydril、Radoil、AXON及Shaffer液压式水下防喷器组节流压井管线插接器的研究现状,分析了它们的结构特点及优缺点.国内在开发水下防喷器组节流压井管线插接器时应在产品结构、 密封材料、 锁紧机构等方面加强研究.

  6. Do professionals choke under pressure?


    Dohmen, Thomas


    High rewards or the threat of severe punishment do not only provide incentives to exert high levels of effort but also create pressure. Such pressure can cause paradoxical performance effects, namely performance decrements despite strong incentives and high motivation. By analyzing the performance of professional football players on a well-defined task, namely to score on a penalty kick, the paper provides empirical evidence for the existence of such detrimental incentive effects. Two pressur...

  7. Choking Prevention and Rescue Tips (United States)

    ... out, would you know what to do? The Heimlich Maneuver If a person is coughing forcefully, encourage continued ... will use abdominal thrusts, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, to prevent suffocation. The procedure is not recommended ...

  8. Responding to a Choking Emergency (United States)

    ... the airway could turn into a complete one. Heimlich Maneuver However, if your youngster cannot breathe at all, ... someone call 911 for emergency services. Perform the Heimlich maneuver on your youngster. For the middle-years child, ...

  9. Choking - infant under 1 year (United States)

    ... Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx J, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... 168. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ...

  10. 国内专业网球运动员体能瓶颈突破的研究及建议%Suggestions and Study on Breaking though the Fitness Choke Point of China Career Tennis Player

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐弘; 和旭


    The emergence of fitness choke point is the threshold that the domestic tennis player forward into the professional tennis. In this paper, use the video statistics, mathematical statistics method, the literature material, for reasons of fitness injury domestic outstanding tennis players proceed recovery tracking, design training, supervi- sion and training, regular testing, the recovery and fitness training by a new concept, complete the task of physical stamina to break through the choke point.%体能瓶颈的出现是国内专业网球运动员向世界职业网坛迈进的一大门槛。本文采用录像统计法、数理统计法、文献资料,对因体能原因出现伤病的国内优秀网球运动员进行康复跟踪、设计训练、监督训练、定时测试,在进行康复的同时利用新的体能理念进行训练,完成体能突破瓶颈的任务。

  11. Propagation of spinning acoustic modes in partially choked converging ducts (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Watson, L. T.


    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study the propagation of spinning acoustic modes in converging hard-walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The results show that with increasing spinning mode number the intensification of the acoustic signal at the throat decreases for upstream propagation. The influence of the throat Mach number, frequency, boundary-layer thickness, and liner admittance on the propagation of spinning modes is considered.

  12. Vacuum Cleaner Saves Man Choking on Rice Cake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  13. Avoidance motivation and choking under pressure in soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between shot valence, avoidance behavior, and performance in soccer penalty shootouts. Video analyses were conducted with all penalty shootouts ever held ill the World Cup, the European Championships. and the UEFA Champions League (n = 36 sh

  14. Teen 'Choking Game' Played Solo Points to Suicide Risks (United States)

    ... Southern Methodist University Center for Family Counseling in Plano, Texas, stressed that parents should know that "children ... director, Southern Methodist University Center for Family Counseling, Plano, Texas; Nov. 21, 2016, Pediatrics , online HealthDay Copyright ( ...

  15. Choking of optically thin spherical accreation by dissipative heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharlemann, E.T.


    Dissipative heating can be sufficient to reduce the Mach number of supersonic spherical accretion to unity in the optically thin part of the flow: at a radius of order 10/sup 2/--10/sup 3/ Schwarzchild radii. If the flow at a larger radius is forced to be supersonic and cold, by some cooling process like collisional excitation of line radiation, the flow cannot be time-independent. The critical accretion rates below which accretion flows either are forced to be time dependent, or become optically thick before the minimum in the Mach number is reached, are determined. The implication for the time variability of quasars and active galactic nuclei is briefly discussed.

  16. Choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year (United States)

    ... Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies. In: Marx J, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... 168. Thomas SH, Goodloe JM. Foreign bodies. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ...

  17. Negative instructions and choking under pressure in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Binsch, O.; Bakker, F.C.


    Providing instructions to avoid an action may ironically increase the tendency to engage in that action, especially when attentional resources are taxed. In the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such ironic effects has rarely been investigated even though anxiety both affects a

  18. Numerical Simulation of Reacting Flow in a Thermally Choked Ram Accelerator - Model Development and Validation (United States)


    Carnahan, B., Lathet, II.A., and Wilkes, J.O., Applied Numerical Methods , John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969. 16 stream. In the streamwise direction... Numerical Methods , John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1969. 45 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. 46 List of Symbols A cross sectional area of launch tube cp specific...41st Meeting of the Aeroballistic Range Association, San Diego, CA, Oct. 22-25, 1990. 33. Carnahan, B., Luther, H.A., and Wilkes, J.O., Applied

  19. Paradigm shift or choke? The future of the Western European housing stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.


    The 20th century saw an enormous worldwide growth of the housing stock. In particular the building boom after WW-II, during which the housing stock in most countries was multifolded, focussed the attention of the housing sector primarily to the planning and realisation of new construction; the consc

  20. Choke Hold: The Attack on Japanese Oil In World War II (United States)


    the Sino-Japanese War, gaining control over Formosa and Korea. Their next major conflict, the Ruso -Japanese War, vaulted Japan into the first rank...from England, naval artillery from Krupp, and using British naval officers to start the naval academy at Etajima. In the Ruso -Japanese War, the

  1. A paradigm shift or choke? The future of Western European housing stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.


    The 20th century saw an enormous worldwide growth of the housing stock. In particular the building boom after WW-II, during which the housing stock in most countries was multifolded, focussed the attention of the housing sector primarily to the planning and realisation of new construction; the consc

  2. Size Reduction of a DC Link Choke Using Saturation Gap and Biasing with Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Zuccherato, Marco;


    This document describes the design procedure of permanent magnet biased DC inductors using the Saturation-gap technique [1]. This biasing configuration can provide a 50% reduction in either the core volume or the number of turns, while meeting its current and inductance requirements. A design exa...

  3. A new behavioural model for performance evaluation of common mode chokes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Bergsma, H.; Zhao, D.; Ferreira, B.; Leferink, F.B.J.


    A galvanically isolated three-phase AC/AC converter with a high-frequency AC-link has been analyzed from an EMC point of view. This is a special configuration because of a large number of switches, a high frequency transformer, and a fourwire output. The essential coupling paths are identified. Corr

  4. Team history and choking under pressure in major soccer penalty shootouts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordet, Geir; Hartman, Esther; Vuijk, Pieter Jelle


    This study examined the links between historical team results and individual players subsequent performances in a high-pressure real-world sport situation. Videos were obtained from all soccer penalty shootouts held in two major international tournaments (World Cup and European Championships) betwee

  5. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production systems caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.


    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design an

  6. Flow induced vibration of subsea gas production system caused by choke valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Groot, R. de; Gharaibah, E.; Slot, H.J.


    In the design of subsea flow systems the integrity and reliability is paramount. As the equipment must be designed to operate at a large variety of conditions, inherent to the many processes, evaluation of the integrity is complex. . Flow induced pulsations and vibrations can cause serious design an

  7. A new regime of the Agulhas Current Retroflection: Turbulent Choking of Indian-Atlantic leakag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Bars, D.L.B.; de Ruijter, W.P.M.; Dijkstra, H.A.


    An analysis of the Indian Ocean circulation and the Agulhas Current retroflection is carried out using a primitive equation model with simplified coastline and flat bottom. Four configurations with 0.258 and 0.18 horizontal resolution and in barotropic and baroclinic cases are considered. The wind s

  8. Is Self-Worth Protection Best Regarded as Intentional Self-Handicapping Behaviour or an Outcome of Choking under Pressure? (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.


    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform poorly when they anticipate that poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, yet perform well in situations that involve little threat to self-worth. The present study sought a further understanding of this variable pattern of achievement, assessing two possibilities: (1) that the…

  9. Enhanced high-energy neutrino emission from choked gamma-ray bursts due to meson and muon acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Koers, Hylke B J


    It has been suggested that a potentially large fraction of supernovae could be accompanied by relativistic outflows that stall below the stellar surface. In this letter we point out that internal shocks that are believed to accelerate protons to very high energies in these flows will also accelerate secondary mesons and muons. As a result the neutrino spectrum from meson and muon decay is expected to be much harder compared to previous estimates, extending as a single power law up to ~10^3 TeV. This greatly improves the detection prospects.

  10. "How to stop choking to death": Rethinking lesbian separatism as a vibrant political theory and feminist practice. (United States)

    Enszer, Julie R


    In contemporary feminist discourses, lesbian separatism is often mocked. Whether blamed as a central reason for feminism's alleged failure or seen as an unrealistic, utopian vision, lesbian separatism is a maligned social and cultural formation. This article traces the intellectual roots of lesbian feminism from the early 1970s in The Furies and Radicalesbians through the work of Julia Penelope and Sarah Lucia Hoagland in the 1980s and 1990s, then considers four feminist and lesbian organizations that offer innovative engagements with lesbian separatism. Olivia Records operated as a separatist enterprise, producing and distributing womyn's music during the 1970s and 1980s. Two book distributors, Women in Distribution, which operated in the 1970s, and Diaspora Distribution, which operated in the 1980s, offer another approach to lesbian separatism as a form of economic and entrepreneurial engagement. Finally, Sinister Wisdom, a lesbian-feminist literary and arts journal, enacts a number of different forms of lesbian separatism during its forty-year history. These four examples demonstrate economic and cultural investments of lesbian separatism and situate its investments in larger visionary feminist projects. More than a rigid ideology, lesbian separatism operates as a feminist process, a method for living in the world.

  11.   Concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aronia melanocarpa (choke berry) juice by osmotic membrane distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Horn, Vibeke G


     Membrane distillation (MD) has been tested as a low temperature replacement of traditional falling film evaporators for juice concentration. Compared to other membrane processes, MD is non-pressure driven performing a high degree of concentration in the same versatile installation[1]. Aronia...... melanocarpa is among the red fruits with the highest content of antioxidants [2] and has gained must interest due to the content of phenolic acids, procyanidins and polyphenolic compounds as anthocyanins [3]. In this study, osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) has been tested for the concentration of not only...... sugars, but in particular potentially bioactive components such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. OMD is carried out on 37 kg aronia juice at 30°C and the juice is concentrated from 12 wt% to 74 wt% dry matter. The juice is filtered to remove kernels, peel residues etc before concentration by OMD...

  12. Salinity, Temperature, and Optical Characterization of a Tidally Choked Estuary Connected to Two Contrasting Intra-Coastal Waterways (United States)


    performed better than salinity and temperature alone in distinguishing fine-scale, ocean structures in satellite imagery ( Palacios et al. 2012). By... Palacios , S. L., T. D. Peterson, and R. M. Kudela, 2012: Optical characterization of water masses within the Columbia River Plume. JGR, 117, C11020

  13. A numerical investigation of choked flow dynamics and its application to the triggering mechanism of long-period events at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska (United States)

    Morrissey, Meghan M.; Chouet, Bernard A.


    We use numerical simulations of transonic flow through a crack to study the dynamics of the formation of shock waves downstream from a nozzle-like constriction inside the crack. The model solves the full set of Navier-Stokes equations in two dimensions via an explicit multifield finite difference representation. The crack walls are assumed to be perfectly rigid, and elastic coupling to the solid is not considered. The simulations demonstrate how the behavior of unsteady shock waves near the walls can produce recurring step-like pressure transients in the flow, which in turn induce resonance of the fluid-filled crack. The motion of the shock waves is governed primarily by smooth, low-amplitude pressure fluctuations at the outlet of the crack. The force induced on the walls scales with the amplitude of the shock, which is a function of the magnitude of the inlet pressure, aperture of the constriction, and thickness of the boundary layer. The applied force also scales in proportion to the spatial extent of the shock excursion, which depends on the fluctuation rate of outlet pressure. Using the source parameters of long-period (LP) events at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska, as a guide for our simulations, we infer that coupling of the shock to the walls occurs for crack inlet to outlet pressure ratios pi/po>2.31 and that the position of the shock front becomes most sensitive to outlet pressure fluctuations for flow regimes with pi/po>2.48. For such regimes, fluctuations of outlet pressure of up to ±0.5 MPa at rates up to 3 MPa/s are sufficient to induce pressure transients with magnitudes up to 12.5 MPa over 0.1-2.5 m of the walls within ˜0.5 s. These flow parameters may be adequate for triggering the LP events in the precursory swarm to the December 14, 1989, eruption of Redoubt. According to the flow model the recurrence rate and amplitudes of L.P events are inferred to be a manifestation of the response of a shallow hydrothermal reservoir to the sustained injection of superheated steam from a magma column roofing below this reservoir.

  14. 天然气节流温降机理模型%Model of Temperature Drop Mechanism when Gas Flowing through Chokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖川; 胡顺渠; 郭春秋


    基于能量守恒原理和范德华混合规则,导出了天然气节流温降的数学模型,该模型采用Peng-Robinson方程描述天然气节流的相平衡过程.应用Brown焓熵图版数据进行实例计算,并将本模型计算结果与查焓熵图的值进行了对比分析.在天然气相对密度0.6~1.0、压力0.034 4~68.95 MPa和温度93.3~371.1℃的条件下,两种不同方法得到的计算结果十分吻合,其平均误差仅为-0.21%,平均绝对误差为0.55%,由此证明本模型的正确性且具有较宽的适用范围.应用本模型的计算机程序较查焓熵图版方法具有快捷、简便和适应性好等优点,为工程上进行采输工艺设计和生产动态分析(如天然气水合物的预测和防止等)提供了重要手段.

  15. Role of the Alboran Sea volcanic arc choking the Mediterranean to the Messinian salinity crisis and foundering biota diversification in North Africa and Southeast Iberia (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemer, Ingo


    The Mediterranean Sea desiccated ~5.96 million years ago when it became isolated from the world oceans during the Messinian salinity crisis. This event permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present rich biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The cause chocking the Mediterranean has been proposed to be tectonic uplift and dynamic topography but the driving mechanism still remains debated. We present a new wide-angle seismic profile that provides a detailed image of the thickness and seismic velocity distribution of the crust in the eastern Alboran basin. The velocity model shows a characteristic structure of a subduction-related volcanic arc with a high-velocity lower crust and a 16-18 km total-thickness igneous crust that magmatic accreted mostly between ~10-6 Ma across the eastern Alboran basin. Estimation of the isostatically corrected depth of the arc crust taking into account the original thermal structure and sediment-loading subsidence since 6 Ma places a large area of the eastern Alboran basin above sea level at the time. This estimation is supported by geophysical data showing subaereal erosional unconformities for that time. This model may explain several up-to-now-disputed features of the Messinian salinity crisis, including: the progressive isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma with the disappearance of open marine taxa, the existence of evaporites mostly to the east of the volcanic arc, the evidence that the Gibraltar straits were not a land bridge offered by continuous Messinian open marine sediments at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, the importance of southeastern Iberia and North Africa as centres of biota diversification since before the salinity crisis, and patterns of speciation irradiating from SE Iberia and the eastern Rif in some taxons.

  16. What prevents Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae (Palaeognathae from choking? A novel anatomical mechanism in ratites, the linguo-laryngeal apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction of the arytenoid cartilages. An epiglottis, however, is reportedly absent in birds. Ratites such as Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae possess a very wide glottis in comparison to other birds. The question therefore arises as to how these large birds avoid inhalation of ingesta through a wide glottis, with apparently little protection, particularly as their feeding method involves throwing the food over the glottis to land in the proximal esophagus. Results In S. camelus when the glottis was closed and the tongue body retracted, the smooth tongue root became highly folded and the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound was encased by the pocket in the base of the ∩ − shaped tongue body. In this position the lingual papillae also hooked over the most rostral laryngeal projections. However, in D. novaehollandiae, retraction of the tongue body over the closed glottis resulted in the prominent, triangular tongue root sliding over the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound. In both S. camelus and D. novaehollandiae these actions resulted in the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound and weakest point of the adducted glottis being enclosed and stabilised. Conclusions Only after conducting a comparative study between these two birds using fresh specimens did it become clear how specific morphological peculiarities were perfectly specialised to assist in the closure and protection of the wide glottis. We identify, describe and propose a unique anatomical mechanism in ratites, which may functionally replace an epiglottis; the linguo-laryngeal apparatus.

  17. Replace the Carburetor Diaphragm. Pulsa-Jet Style with Automatic Choke. Fuel System. Student Manual 2. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition. (United States)

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of replacing carburetor diaphragms. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  18. Dimensional Analysis and Neural Network Correlation of Choked Flow Rate through Adiabatic Capillary Tube%基于量纲分析的绝热毛细管壅塞流量特性关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春路; 丁国良



  19. One case of air breather choked-out arised from endotracheal in tubation for suffererwith cancer of larynx%喉癌患者气管内插管致气道完全梗阻1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛兰萍; 王警卫



  20. The Heimlich maneuver: breaking down the complications. (United States)

    Chillag, Shawn; Krieg, Jake; Bhargava, Ranjana


    The very young and the very old are vulnerable to choking, and there are over 4000 choking-related deaths annually in the United States. Complications from the Heimlich maneuver (HM), as reported in infrequent case reports, predominantly relate to the elderly. It is doubtful that the denominator, numerator, appropriateness, expertise, and problems of maneuvers applied to choking victims will ever be known. This case report and literature review suggests that the treatment for acute elderly choking victims should be applied carefully and that esophageal food impaction, which should be rapidly distinguishable from choking, can have serious complications with application of the HM.

  1. Defending Against LDoS Attacks Using Fair AQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianqin Wang


    Full Text Available According to the instant high rate and high intensity of LDoS attacks, this paper explores using fair queue management mechanism to mitigate their effect. We perform simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of fair AQM FRED and CHOKe under LDoS attacks. The simulation results show that they are able to reduce the impact of the attacks in various degrees. FRED outperforms CHOKe in throttling the attacks, but it is slightly inferior to CHOKe in time performance.

  2. Parametric Amplifiers for Microwave Kinectic Inductance Detector (MKID) Readout Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Find numerical solutions to the non-linear partial differential equations describing our amplifier transmission lines. Optimize periodic choke structure to block...

  3. Observation on clinical therapy effect of tuberculose respiratory tract choke with therapeutic procedures of tiny electronic bronchoscope cut and intervention%经电子气管镜微创介入治疗结核性气道阻塞临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探讨经电子气管镜微创介入治疗结核性气道阻塞的临床疗效.方法 对68例结核性气道阻塞的患者给予全身常规抗结核治疗的同时,加用电子气管镜微创介入治疗,镜下根据气管阻塞情况选择钳夹、刷洗、微波烧灼、激光等微创治疗后再介入抗结核药物.结果 68例中管口完全通畅44例、基本通畅22例.气道阻塞未改变2例.总有效率97%.结论 经电子气管镜微创加介入治疗可逆性结核性气道阻塞疗效肯定,并发症少,有效改善肺不张、防止进一步肺毁损.

  4. Report on Metabolizing Acidosis Resulted from Atonia Proventriculorum which Caused by Choked Indigestible Materials in Boer Goat%波尔山羊异物阻塞性前胃弛缓导致代谢性酸中毒的诊疗报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈连颐; 缪川; 周明荣; 王宗元



  5. Circuit Controls Turn-On Current (United States)

    Holmes, K. G.


    Single choke used in primary circuit with diode arrangement, maintaining dc current flow through choke and setting up a unidirectional magnetic field, limits turn-on current of transformer-rectifier power supply. Technique reduces number and weight of components and minimizes effect of initial inrush surge current on source.

  6. When Errors Count: An EEG Study on Numerical Error Monitoring under Performance Pressure (United States)

    Schillinger, Frieder L.; De Smedt, Bert; Grabner, Roland H.


    In high-stake tests, students often display lower achievements than expected based on their skill level--a phenomenon known as choking under pressure. This imposes a serious problem for many students, especially for test-anxious individuals. Among school subjects, mathematics has been shown to be particularly vulnerable to choking. To succeed in a…

  7. Engine Test Cell Aeroacoustics and Recommendations (United States)


    SCIPVIX. AIAA J. 23, 505–514. DAVIES, M.G. & OLDFIELD, D.E.S. 1962. Tones from a choked axisymmetric jet. Acustica 12, 257–277. DAVIES, M.G...OLDFIELD, D.E.S. 1962. Tones from a choked axisymmetric jet. PART 2. The self-excited loop and mode of oscillation. Acustica 12, 267–277. HAMMITT, A.G

  8. The effects of incentive framing on performance decrements for large monetary outcomes: behavioral and neural mechanisms. (United States)

    Chib, Vikram S; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O'Doherty, John P


    There is a nuanced interplay between the provision of monetary incentives and behavioral performance. Individuals' performance typically increases with increasing incentives only up to a point, after which larger incentives may result in decreases in performance, a phenomenon known as "choking." We investigated the influence of incentive framing on choking effects in humans: in one condition, participants performed a skilled motor task to obtain potential monetary gains; in another, participants performed the same task to avoid losing a monetary amount. In both the gain and loss frame, the degree of participants' behavioral loss aversion was correlated with their susceptibility to choking effects. However, the effects were markedly different in the gain and loss frames: individuals with higher loss aversion were susceptible to choking for large prospective gains and not susceptible to choking for large prospective losses, whereas individuals with low loss aversion choked for large prospective losses but not for large prospective gains. Activity in the ventral striatum was predictive of performance decrements in both the gain and loss frames. Moreover, a mediation analysis revealed that behavioral loss aversion hindered performance via the influence of ventral striatal activity on motor performance. Our findings indicate that the framing of an incentive has a profound effect on an individual's susceptibility to choking effects, which is contingent on their loss aversion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ventral striatum serves as an interface between incentive-driven motivation and instrumental action, regardless of whether incentives are framed in terms of potential losses or gains.

  9. High Velocity Jet Noise Source Location and Reduction. Task 3 - Experimental Investigation of Suppression Principles. Volume II - Parametric Testing and Source Measurements (United States)


    hardware was installed 27 ... . .. .. Chute Shallow-Chute Spoke Flow WCIS. W FS D Chute/spoke Tubo e W ut’’WiPh~ ( a)~C w ~ S ch ematict ofJt T u b o e...1.248 inch diameter choked venturi . The inner noezle air supply was metered through either a 1.1398-inch or 0.3985-inch diameter choked venturi ...diameter choked venturi meter, located as shown in Figure 4-2. The flow rate was calculated using the measured gas total temperature and pres- sure, TTVO

  10. Performance of Axial-Flow Supersonic Compressor of XJ55-FF-1 Turbojet Engine. II - Performance of Inlet Guide Vanes as Separate Component (United States)

    Graham, Robert C.; Tysl, Edward R.


    The inlet wide vanes for the supersonic compressor of the XJ55-FF-1 engine were studied as a separate component in order to determine the performance prior to installation in the compressor test rig. Turning angles approached design values, and increased approximately to through the inlet Mach number range from 0.30 to choke. A sharp break in turning angle was experienced when the choke condition was reached. The total-pressure loss through the guide vanes was approximately 1 percent for the unchoked conditions and from 5 to 6 percent when choked.

  11. Shock detachment from curved wedges (United States)

    Mölder, S.


    Curved shock theory is used to show that the flow behind attached shocks on doubly curved wedges can have either positive or negative post-shock pressure gradients depending on the freestream Mach number, the wedge angle and the two wedge curvatures. Given enough wedge length, the flow near the leading edge can choke to force the shock to detach from the wedge. This local choking can preempt both the maximum deflection and the sonic criteria for shock detachment. Analytical predictions for detachment by local choking are supported by CFD results.

  12. Whooping Cough (United States)

    Whooping cough is an infectious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable coughing. The name comes from the noise you make when you take a breath after you cough. You may have choking spells or may cough ...

  13. 30 CFR 250.615 - Blowout prevention equipment. (United States)


    ... secondary source of pneumatic supply, must be equipped with manual overrides, or alternately, other devices... first full-opening valve on the choke line and the kill line. (f) The minimum BOP-system components...

  14. Glipizide (United States)

    ... as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, ... vision, mental confusion, sweating, choking, breathing difficulty, and anxiety.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to ...

  15. Tolbutamide (United States)

    ... as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, ... vision, mental confusion, sweating, choking, breathing difficulty, and anxiety.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to ...

  16. Glyburide (United States)

    ... as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, ... vision, mental confusion, sweating, choking, breathing difficulty, and anxiety.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to ...

  17. Glimepiride (United States)

    ... as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, ... vision, mental confusion, sweating, choking, breathing difficulty, and anxiety.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to ...

  18. Tolazamide (United States)

    ... as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); beta blockers such as atenolol (Tenormin), labetalol (Normodyne), metoprolol (Lopressor, ... vision, mental confusion, sweating, choking, breathing difficulty, and anxiety.plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to ...

  19. 75 FR 56113 - Notice of Meetings (United States)


    ..., Sugarloaf and Seneca Conference Rooms, Rockville, Maryland 20857. Open: September 28, 2010, 8:30 a.m.-4 p.m...(s): September 27, 2010 Place: SAMHSA, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Seneca Conference Room,...

  20. 40 CFR 86.094-25 - Maintenance. (United States)


    ...-25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., timing, adjustment of air pump drive belt tension, lubrication of the exhaust manifold heat control valve, lubrication of carburetor choke linkage, retorqueing carburetor mounting bolts, etc.) may be performed...

  1. Variation with Mach Number of Static and Total Pressures Through Various Screens (United States)

    Adler, Alfred A


    Tests were conducted in the Langley 24-inch highspeed tunnel to ascertain the static-pressure and total-pressure losses through screens ranging in mesh from 3 to 12 wires per inch and in wire diameter from 0.023 to 0.041 inch. Data were obtained from a Mach number of approximately 0.20 up to the maximum (choking) Mach number obtainable for each screen. The results of this investigation indicate that the pressure losses increase with increasing Mach number until the choking Mach number, which can be computed, is reached. Since choking imposes a restriction on the mass rate of flow and maximum losses are incurred at this condition, great care must be taken in selecting the screen mesh and wire dimmeter for an installation so that the choking Mach number is

  2. Heimlich maneuver on self (United States)

    ... this page: // Heimlich maneuver on self To use the sharing features on ... are choking on something, you can perform the Heimlich maneuver on yourself. Follow these steps: Make a fist ...

  3. 75 FR 21977 - Earth Day, 2010 (United States)


    ... Nation watched in horror as the polluted and debris-choked Cuyahoga River in Cleveland, Ohio, caught fire... from today, when our children and grandchildren look back on what we did at this moment, let them...

  4. Ambassador Stephen Krasner’s Orienting Principle for Foreign Policy (and Military Management) - Responsible Sovereignty (United States)


    or denial to raw materials, markets , lines of communication, choke points, and/ or national territory. As a corollary, strategy was gen- erally the...Alsina, Seguranca Internacional : Perspec- tivas Brasileliras (International Security: Brazilian Perspectives), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Editora FGV

  5. Myths and Facts about SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep (United States)

    ... Myths and Facts About SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Page Content Myth: Babies can “catch” SIDS. Fact: ... sleep environment for your baby. Myth: Babies who sleep on their backs will choke if they spit ...

  6. Emergency airway puncture (United States)

    ... inserted into the throat, just below the Adam's apple (cricoid cartilage), into the airway. In a hospital, ... Choking Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  7. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  8. Dementia - daily care (United States)

    ... this page: // Dementia - daily care To use the sharing features on ... prevent choking. Tips for Talking With Someone With Dementia Keep distractions and noise down: Turn off the ...

  9. Build 3 of an Accelerated Mission Test of a TF41 with Block 76 Hardware. (United States)


    pressure turbine inlet nozzle remains choked over the region of interest. The TF41 production engine simulation (ref 7 ) predicts that the low turbine inlet...with the choked flow assumption and the low turbine flow function from the TF41 simulation, yields the lo% pressure turbine inlet pressure. 95 -.. P43...P43 P5 (57) The low pressure turbine efficiency can be calculated knowing the pressure ratio, low turbine inlet temperature, and untrimmed turbine

  10. The role of the thoracic compression reflex in the Heimlich Maneuver. (United States)

    Crawford, L M; Emmett, J W


    Using the dog as an experimental model, the relationship of the Thoracic Compression Reflex (TCR) to the Heimlich Maneuver (HM) was examined. TCR was equally effective as lateral chest compression in relieving artificially induced choke. Destruction of the TCR by vagotomy rendered relief of choke by HM ineffectual in 5 of 8 dogs. It was concluded TCR may be a factor in HM, but that mechanical compression of the lungs is also involved.

  11. Investigations of Internal Flow Fields of Constant-Area Mixing-Tubes under Starting-Limit Conditions (United States)

    Kitamura, Eijiro; Tomioka, Sadatake; Sakuranaka, Noboru; Watanabe, Syuichi; Masuya, Goro

    Flow fields in the constant-area mixing tubes of ejector jets were investigated under the starting-limit conditions of an aerodynamic choking mode by performing numerical simulations and cold flow experiments. Pressure recovery was almost completed in the shock-train region. The length of the shock-train region (Lst) was measured under various conditions. Lst was proportional to the mass flow rate ratio of the secondary flow to the primary flow when this ratio was less than 0.15. On the other hand, Lst became almost constant when the mass flow rate ratio exceeded 0.15. Numerical studies showed that this change was caused by the difference in the mechanism of the flow fields. In the cases with low air mass flow rates, the primary and secondary flows almost mixed in a region between the inlets of the mixing tubes and the choking points. The pressure was recovered by a pseudo-shock-wave generated downstream of the choking point. On the other hand, when the mass flow rate ratio was higher than 0.15, the primary and secondary flows were clearly separated at the choking point. The pressure recovery was achieved by the mixing between the primary and secondary flows downstream of the choking point.

  12. Effects of respiratory rate and tidal volume on gas exchange in total liquid ventilation. (United States)

    Bull, Joseph L; Tredici, Stefano; Fujioka, Hideki; Komori, Eisaku; Grotberg, James B; Hirschl, Ronald B


    Using a rabbit model of total liquid ventilation (TLV), and in a corresponding theoretical model, we compared nine tidal volume-respiratory rate combinations to identify a ventilator strategy to maximize gas exchange, while avoiding choked flow, during TLV. Nine different ventilation strategies were tested in each animal (n = 12): low [LR = 2.5 breath/min (bpm)], medium (MR = 5 bpm), or high (HR = 7.5 bpm) respiratory rates were combined with a low (LV = 10 ml/kg), medium (MV = 15 ml/kg), or high (HV = 20 ml/kg) tidal volumes. Blood gases and partial pressures, perfluorocarbon gas content, and airway pressures were measured for each combination. Choked flow occurred in all high respiratory rate-high volume animals, 71% of high respiratory rate-medium volume (HRMV) animals, and 50% of medium respiratory rate-high volume (MRHV) animals but in no other combinations. Medium respiratory rate-medium volume (MRMV) resulted in the highest gas exchange of the combinations that did not induce choke. The HRMV and MRHV animals that did not choke had similar or higher gas exchange than MRMV. The theory predicted this behavior, along with spatial and temporal variations in alveolar gas partial pressures. Of the combinations that did not induce choked flow, MRMV provided the highest gas exchange. Alveolar gas transport is diffusion dominated and rapid during gas ventilation but is convection dominated and slow during TLV. Consequently, the usual alveolar gas equation is not applicable for TLV.

  13. Modified 3½-Cell SC Cavity Made of Large Grain Niobium for the FZD SRF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Murcek, P; Michel, P; Moeller, K; Arnold, A; Teichert, J; Xiang, R; Freitag, M; Kneisel, P


    An SRF photoinjector has been successfully tested in FZD under the collaboration of BESSY, DESY, FZD, and MBI. In order to improve the gun cavity quality and thus reach a higher gradient, a new 3+1/2 superconducting cavity is being fabricated in cooperation with JLab. The modified cavity is made of large grain niobium, composed of one filter choke, one special designed half-cell (gun-cell) and three TESLA cavities. In this paper, the main updates of the new cavity design will be explained in detail. The deformation of the filter choke and the gun-cell, which is caused by pressure fluctuation in the He-line and also by the effect of the Lorentz force, will be minimized by stiffening between the filter choke and the gun-cell. Meanwhile, the cathode hole in the choke and gun-cell is enlarged for better rinsing. To simplify assembly, the NbTi pick-up will be welded directly on the wall of filter choke.

  14. Multipacting simulation and test results of BNL 704 MHz SRF gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu W.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Cullen, C. et al


    The BNL 704MHz SRF gun has a grooved choke joint to support the photo-cathode. Due to the distortion of grooves at the choke joint during the BCP for the choke joint, several multipacting barriers showed up when it was tested with Nb cathode stalk at JLab. We built a setup to use the spare large grain SRF cavity to test and condition the multipacting at BNL with various power sources up to 50kW. The test is carried out in three stages: testing the cavity performance without cathode, testing the cavity with the Nb cathode stalk that was used at Jlab, and testing the cavity with a copper cathode stalk that is based on the design for the SRF gun. This paper summarizes the results of multipacting simulation, and presents the large grain cavity test setup and the test results.

  15. Terminal-shock and restart control of a Mach 2.5, axisymmetric, mixed compression inlet with 40 percent internal contraction. [wind tunnel tests (United States)

    Baumbick, R. J.


    Results of experimental tests conducted on a supersonic, mixed-compression, axisymmetric inlet are presented. The inlet is designed for operation at Mach 2.5 with a turbofan engine (TF-30). The inlet was coupled to either a choked orifice plate or a long duct which had a variable-area choked exit plug. Closed-loop frequency responses of selected diffuser static pressures used in the terminal-shock control system are presented. Results are shown for Mach 2.5 conditions with the inlet coupled to either the choked orifice plate or the long duct. Inlet unstart-restart traces are also presented. High-response inlet bypass doors were used to generate an internal disturbance and also to achieve terminal-shock control.

  16. Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System Resource Constraints (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Marien, Ty V.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Kwa, Tech-Seng; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hinze, Nicolas K.


    This analysis is the deliverable for the Airspace Systems Program, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project Milestone for the Systems and Portfolio Analysis (SPA) focus area SPA.4.06 Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System (NAS) Resource Constraints and Mitigation Strategies. "Identify choke points in the current and future NAS. Choke points refer to any areas in the en route, terminal, oceanic, airport, and surface operations that constrain actual demand in current and projected future operations. Use the Common Scenarios based on Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) projections of future demand developed under SPA.4.04 Tools, Methods and Scenarios Development. Analyze causes, including operational and physical constraints." The NASA analysis is complementary to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) "Development of Tools and Analysis to Evaluate Choke Points in the National Airspace System" Contract # NNA3AB95C awarded to Logistics Management Institute, Sept 2013.

  17. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries. (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D


    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia.

  18. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe


    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  19. Effects of inlet passage width contraction of low-solidity cascade diffusers on performance of transonic centrifugal compressor; Sen`onsoku enshin asshukuki no seino ni oyobosu shogensetsuhi yokuretsu diffuser joryu tsurohaba shibori no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayami, H.; Kawaguchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Institute of Advanced Material Study; Umemoto, A. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)


    Low-solidity circular cascades have been applied successfully as a part of the diffuser system of a transonic centrifugal compressor. Three types of diffusers with and without an inlet passage width contraction or a pinch upstream of a cascade were tested. An appropriately contracted diffuser realized high compressor efficiency at high rotor speed due to the decrement in input power. Effects of a pinch on surge and choke were also discussed. Choke occurred at the throat of cascades of a pinched-type diffuser at lower flow rate than the inducer choke flow in spite of a low-solidity cascade. A pinched diffuser had a stabilizing effect on the diffuser characteristics but only a small amount of gain in the surge margin was obtained owing to the change in impeller characteristics. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Formation mechanism of cracks in saturated sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lu; Zhemin Zheng; Yongren Wu


    The formation mechanism of "water film" (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed theoretically and numerically.The theoretical analysis shows that there will be no stable "water film" in the saturated sand if the strength of the skeleton is zero and no positions are choked.It is shown by numerical simulation that stable water films initiate and grow if the choking state keeps unchanged once the fluid velocities decrease to zero in the liquefied sand column.The developments of "water film" based on the model presented in this paper are compared with experimental results.

  1. Investigation of turbines for driving supersonic compressors II : performance of first configuration with 2.2 percent reduction in nozzle flow area / Warner L. Stewart, Harold J. Schum, Robert Y. Wong (United States)

    Stewart, Warner L; Schum, Harold J; Wong, Robert Y


    The experimental performance of a modified turbine for driving a supersonic compressor is presented and compared with the performance of the original configuration to illustrate the effect of small changes in the ratio of nozzle-throat area to rotor-throat area. Performance is based on the performance of turbines designed to operate with both blade rows close to choking. On the basis of the results of this investigation, the ratio of areas is concluded to become especially critical in the design of turbines such as those designed to drive high-speed, high-specific weight-flow compressors where the turbine nozzles and rotor are both very close to choking.

  2. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy


    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  3. Weapon System Integration for the AFIT Virtual Cockpit (United States)


    1988). 3. Alighieri , Dante . The Inferno. New York: The New American Library of World Literature, 1954. 4. Blau, Brian, et al. "Networked Virtual...and my voice choked up with fear. I cannot write it: this is a terror that cannot be told. - Dante (3:283) For a simulation to be truly useful and

  4. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes (United States)

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.


    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  5. The LDBC Social Network Benchmark: Interactive Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erling, O.; Averbuch, A.; Larriba-Pey, J.; Chafi, H.; Gubichev, A.; Prat, A.; Pham, M.D.; Boncz, P.A.


    The Linked Data Benchmark Council (LDBC) is now two years underway and has gathered strong industrial participation for its mission to establish benchmarks, and benchmarking practices for evaluating graph data management systems. The LDBC introduced a new choke-point driven methodology for developin

  6. 78 FR 45543 - Center for Mental Health Services; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Advisory Council Designated Federal Official, Ms. Deborah DeMasse-Snell (see contact information below... Building, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Great Falls Room, Rockville, Maryland 20857. Contact: Deborah . Cathy J. Friedman, Public Health Analyst, SAMHSA. BILLING CODE...

  7. How a clogged canal affects ecological and human health in a tropical urban wetland ecosystem (United States)

    The coastal city of San Juan, Puerto Rico is a tropical urban ecosystem woven among a series of interconnected bays, lagoons, drains, canals, and mangroves. As the city has expanded, infilling and urban development by the region’s poorest residents has choked an important c...

  8. Biofilm development on new and cleaned membrane surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bereschenko, L.A.


    This thesis presents a comprehensive research report on microbiological aspects of biofouling occurrence in full-scale reverse osmosis (RO) systems. Biofouling is a process in which microorganisms attach to membranes and develop into a thick film that can choke the entire RO system. Management of th

  9. Chinese-English Rocketry Dictionary. Volume 3 (United States)


    characteristic 29 zuli zhizhu ) 73 drag strut 30 zutI zhiphiqi • 7 f j • resistance indicator 31 1.987 zuli zuixiaod xingzhuang 4, • minim=m foredrag shape 01...choking coil 07 zuni I damping; damp; dp’:ped; 08 attenuation; resistance; antihumt; weakening; amortization Zuti citie damping magnet 09 zunt daoshu

  10. When favourites fail: Tournament trophies as reward cues in tennis finals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, E.H.; Custers, R.; Aarts, H.A.G.


    In tournaments in various sports that feature one-on-one competition, the trophy is sometimes prominently displayed near the athletes during the final. Based on recent research on subtle reward cues, we propose that such trophies have the potential to induce choking under pressure in the match favou

  11. The Ion Rocket (United States)


    discharge velocity w and the speci- fic impulse lap respectively cannot be increased. At this limit condition the thermal rocket oecouos "choked up...structural quality is 900 t, 3) In the case of an atomic-driven thermal rocket ’,;lth specific Ipipulse ISjy«8C0 sec and thrust to weight ratio « 1, the

  12. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia


    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  13. 29 CFR 1910.272 - Grain handling facilities. (United States)


    ... and bucket movement. A bucket elevator is not considered choked that has the up-leg partially or fully... handling system, of such size as will pass through a U.S. Standard 40 mesh sieve (425 microns or less... maintenance. The types of work clothing should also be considered in the program at least to caution...

  14. New materials for Inductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, A.; Iannarelli, R.; Leferink, F.B.J.


    Traditional materials for coils and common mode chokes are iron and ferrites. Iron has a high saturation level but low permeability, and ferrite has low saturation and high permeability. Nanocrystalline materials are a rather new material with a high saturation and a high permeability. The advantage

  15. Loss of Arctic sea ice causing punctuated change in sightings of killer whales (Orcinus orca) over the past century. (United States)

    Higdon, Jeff W; Ferguson, Steven H


    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are major predators that may reshape marine ecosystems via top-down forcing. Climate change models predict major reductions in sea ice with the subsequent expectation for readjustments of species' distribution and abundance. Here, we measure changes in killer whale distribution in the Hudson Bay region with decreasing sea ice as an example of global readjustments occurring with climate change. We summarize records of killer whales in Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, and Foxe Basin in the eastern Canadian Arctic and relate them to an historical sea ice data set while accounting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation in the data. We find evidence for "choke points," where sea ice inhibits killer whale movement, thereby creating restrictions to their Arctic distribution. We hypothesize that a threshold exists in seasonal sea ice concentration within these choke points that results in pulses in advancements in distribution of an ice-avoiding predator. Hudson Strait appears to have been a significant sea ice choke point that opened up .approximately 50 years ago allowing for an initial punctuated appearance of killer whales followed by a gradual advancing distribution within the entire Hudson Bay region. Killer whale sightings have increased exponentially and are now reported in the Hudson Bay region every summer. We predict that other choke points will soon open up with continued sea ice melt producing punctuated predator-prey trophic cascades across the Arctic.

  16. 78 FR 18360 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 Funding Opportunity (United States)


    .... Contact: Cathy Friedman, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 8-1097, Rockville, MD 20857; telephone: (240) 276-2316; email: . Cathy Friedman, SAMHSA Public Health Analyst. BILLING CODE 4162-20-P...

  17. 77 FR 28615 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Funding Opportunity (United States)


    .... Contact: Cathy Friedman, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 8-1097, Rockville, MD 20857; telephone: (240) 276-2316; Email: . Cathy Friedman, SAMHSA Public Health Analyst. BILLING CODE 4162-20-P...

  18. 78 FR 68857 - Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 Funding Opportunity (United States)


    ... announcement. Contact: Cathy Friedman, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 1 Choke Cherry Road, Room 8-1097, Rockville, MD 20857; telephone: (240) 276-2316; email: . Cathy J. Friedman, SAMHSA Public Health Analyst. BILLING CODE 4162-20-P...

  19. 16 CFR 1501.2 - Scope. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 1501.2 Section 1501.2 Commercial... IDENTIFYING TOYS AND OTHER ARTICLES INTENDED FOR USE BY CHILDREN UNDER 3 YEARS OF AGE WHICH PRESENT CHOKING... by children under 3 years (36 months) of age that are introduced into interstate commerce after...

  20. Multi-Service Doctrine for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations (United States)


    primarily causing pulmonary edema ), cause irritation to the eyes, and damage the respiratory tract. Also identified as priority toxic industrial...membranes swell, lungs become filled with liquid ( pulmonary edema ), and death results from the lack of oxygen, thus choking an unprotected person...strategy through strengthened alliances, the establishment of new partnerships, the innovative use of military forces, modern technologies, and

  1. Risk of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Both Self-Asphyxial Risk-Taking Behavior and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Decker, Kristina M.; Hadley, Andrea G.


    This study examined adolescent participation in self-asphyxial risk-taking behaviors (SAB), sometimes known as the "choking game," and its relationship with other adolescent risk behaviors, including non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Researchers proposed that participation in SAB and NSSI would be associated with suicidal behavior, disordered…

  2. Loves Park Creek, Loves Park, Illinois Local Flood Protection. General Design Memorandum with Environmental Assessment. Revision (United States)


    Comute by Choke by Sheef C t oft K§.(tarII22ks7 -~~ i I A,-. 4 44 ~ W~ -~~~ - 0 ff (, 1rt _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _12 5p5~~~_ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~< -- 2\\0.()%’ c.L1O3

  3. 40 CFR 86.1834-01 - Allowable maintenance. (United States)


    ... Section 86.1834-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... bolt torque, valve lash, injector lash, timing, adjustment of air pump drive belt tension, lubrication of the exhaust manifold heat control valve, lubrication of carburetor choke linkage,...

  4. AGARD Manual on Aeroelasticity in Axial-Flow Turbomachines. Volume 2. Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity, (United States)


    for choke flutter are Carter nents of turbomachinery. Effective appli- (1953, 1957), Schneider (1980), and Jutras cation of the design steps for both...October 1978. ADA)Q ZYK, J., STEVENS, W., and JUTRAS , R. 1981 Supersonic Stall Flutter of High Speed Fans. ASME 81-GM-184. AFOLABI, H.D. 1982


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Laryngeal foreign bodies in adults are rare. The foreign bodies accidentally entering the larynx are symptomatic in the form of choking , stridor or even death. We are presenting a rare case of foreign body in the larynx in a 42 year old male who was symptom free except for dysphonia. The foreign body was removed successfully under local anesthesia.

  6. Kudzu--Wonder Weed. (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen

    Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) is a high climbing, exceedingly vigorous vine with twining stems (no tendrils or aerial holdfasts). The plant, introduced from the Orient and currently found in southeastern United States, has been known to choke valuable strands of trees, short electrical wires, and even creep up the sides of high rise buildings. Although…


    Acrolein is a colorless to yellowish flammable liquid with a disagreeable, choking odor. The principal use of acrolein is as an intermediate in the synthesis of acrylic acid, which is used to make acrylates, and of DL-methionine, an essential amino acid used as an animal feed su...

  8. Perforated stomach following the Heimlich maneuver. (United States)

    Cowan, M; Bardole, J; Dlesk, A


    The use of infradiaphragmatic abdominal pressure for relief of airway obstruction caused by food was first described by Henry Heimlich in 1974. Since that time, several complications have been reported. We report a case of gastric perforation occurring in a choking victim following the application of the Heimlich maneuver.

  9. Root cause analysis of the fatigue failures of the pulsation dampers of a large underground gas storage (UGS) system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, D. de; Maljaars, J.; Tenbrock-Ingenhorst, A.; Gottmer, A.


    Two large identical 6-cylinder Ariel JGB/6 reciprocating compressors each of 7.5 MW, are used for an underground gas storage system (UGS) plant of RWE Gasspeicher GmbH located in Epe, Germany. The system is in operation since 2005. In 2011 several internals parts (baffle plates and baffle choke tube

  10. The September 2004 stench off the southern Malabar coast - A consequence of holococcolithophore bloom

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Paul, J.T.; Fernandes, V.; Raveendran, T.V.; Raveendran, O.; Sundar, D.; Revichandran, C.; Shenoy, D.M.; Gauns, M.; Kurian, S.; Gerson, V.J.; Shoji, D.T.; Madhu, N.V.; SreeKumar, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Shetye, S.R.

    and in the water. The report linked the fish death to oxygen depletion and choking of fish gills. Both were reported to be possibly due to proliferation and eventual putrefaction of a fish-toxic alga Cochlodinium polykreikoides. Information was put up on the web...

  11. Jaw - broken or dislocated (United States)

    ... If the jaw is wired, you can only drink liquids or eat very soft foods. Have blunt scissors readily available to cut the elastics in the event of vomiting or choking. If the wires must be cut, call your health care provider right away so they can be ...

  12. Transformation of Epichloë typhina by electroporation of conidia (United States)

    Choke, caused by the endophytic fungus Epichloë typhina is an important disease of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) grown for seed. Very little is known concerning the conditions necessary for successful infection of orchardgrass by E. typhina. Detection of E. typhina early in the disease cycle ...

  13. High frequency statistical energy analysis applied to fluid filled pipe systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Smeulers, J.P.M.


    In pipe systems, carrying gas with high velocities, broadband turbulent pulsations can be generated causing strong vibrations and fatigue failure, called Acoustic Fatigue. This occurs at valves with high pressure differences (i.e. chokes), relief valves and obstructions in the flow, such as sharp be

  14. Weed-suppressive bacteria to reduce annual grass weeds (United States)

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica L.) are exotic, annual grasses that negatively affect cereal production in cropland; reduce protein-rich forage for cattle; choke out native plants in the shrub-steppe habi...

  15. Electric tubing heater improves well production in CO[sub 2] flood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baud, W. (Shell Western E and P, Houston, TX (United States)); Eastlund, B. (Production Technologies International Inc., Houston, TX (United States))


    Installation of a downhole heater in a well eliminated production interruption caused by downhole paraffin and hydrate buildup, exacerbated by cooling effects of CO[sub 2]. The well is one of 20 operated by Shell Western E and P Inc. in the CO[sub 2]-flooded portion of the South Crossett Devonian Unit (SCDU) in the Permian basin of West Texas. Prior to heater installation, the well's production routinely choked off in 2 days unless the downhole impairment was mechanically removed. Mechanical cutting established that the paraffin and hydrate buildup was in the upper 2,000 ft of the 5,300-ft well. The fluid exit temperature, depending on the choke setting, fluctuated between 14 and 30 F. The paper describes the unsuccessful results from conventional treatments, and the new method.

  16. Experimental study of critical flow of water at supercritical pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhou CHEN; Chunsheng YANG; Shuming ZHANG; Minfu ZHAO; Kaiwen DU; Xu CHENG


    Experimental studies of the critical flow of water were conducted under steady-state conditions with a nozzle 1.41mm in diameter and 4.35 mm in length, covering the inlet pressure range of 22.1-26.8 MPa and inlet temperature range of 38^74°C. The parametric trend of the flow rate was investigated, and the experimental data were compared with the predictions of the homogeneous equilibrium model, the Bernoulli correlation, and the models used in the reactor safety analysis code RELAP5/ MOD3.3. It is concluded that in the near or beyond pseudo-critical region, thermal-dynamic equilibrium is dominant, and at a lower temperature, choking does not occur. The onset of the choking condition is not predicted reasonably by the RELAP5 code.

  17. Food and biomass production in small oil expression facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H.; Kanai, G.; Yakushido, K. [National Agricultural Research Center, Tsukuba (Japan). Biomass Production and Processing Research Team


    This paper reported on a study in which rapeseeds were separated into high quality seed for food oil and low quality seed for biofuels. A laboratory-scale oilseed screw press was then used to examine the effects of choke opening and seed preheating on the rapeseed pressing performance and the quality of food oil and biofuels oil. Oil recovery and chlorophyll content was found to increase as maximum pressure increased. In terms of pressing performance, the rapeseed heated by microwaves yielded more oil and chlorophyll than without heating. The NEB ratio of microwave heating press with an 8.0 mm choke opening was advantageous. Rapeseed oil extracted from low quality seeds was found to have a high acid value. The quality of oil extracted by oilseed screw press was found to be good and met the requirements of the Codex Alimentarius for edible oils.

  18. Hanging on the line – on the need to assess the risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure – an example of the Hawaiian "bottleneck" and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dominey-Howes


    Full Text Available National economies are becoming increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system – and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. We note that a variety of natural hazard processes are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure, both in deep water and at the coast. Some places within the global telecommunications system are already known to be bottlenecks or "choke points". Hawaii is just such a choke point and interestingly, Hawaii is also affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazard processes. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia. We propose that proper risk assessments be undertaken at all bottlenecks in the global telecommunications system affected by natural hazards (such as tsunami. We use Hawaii as an example of the sort of research that should be undertaken.

  19. Fatal splenic rupture following Heimlich maneuver: case report and literature review. (United States)

    Cecchetto, Giovanni; Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Attilio; Kusstatscher, Stefano; Montisci, Massimo


    The most effective resuscitative procedure in choking by foreign bodies is the Heimlich maneuver, described for the first time by Henry Heimlich (1974) and recognized by the US Surgeon General (1985) as the "only method that should be used for the treatment of choking from foreign body airway obstruction." If performed correctly, this lifesaving maneuver is associated with rare complications, of which the most frequent are rib fractures and gastric or esophagus perforations. Other rare traumatic injuries such as pneumomediastinum, aortic valve cusp rupture, diaphragmatic herniation, jejunum perforation, hepatic rupture, or mesenteric laceration have been described.However, we are unaware of previous reports of splenic rupture after Heimlich maneuver. We present an interesting case of fatal hemoperitoneum due to a hilar laceration of the spleen following a correctly performed Heimlich maneuver.

  20. Effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable-speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zare, Firuz;


    speed drives with and/or without motor current imbalance. The investigation is done at different motor operating frequencies and load torque values. It shows that selecting the small filter components (ac choke, dc choke and dc-link capacitor) results in different performances in respect to those......Current and voltage source Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) exert distortion current into the grid, which may produce some interharmonic components other than the characteristic harmonic components. This paper studies the effects of passive components on the input current interharmonics of adjustable...... interharmincs issued by motor current imbalance and other non-characteristic interharmonics. The results are helpful for engineers investigating the effects of drive filters on the input current interharmonic components....

  1. Critical flow phenomena and modeling in advanced nuclear safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuzhou [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)


    The discharge could be non-choking or choking, depending on the break shape, length and conditions. This presents a challenge in the calculation of standard problems. A stable experiment of water was performed to study the break flow rate in nozzles of diameter of 1.41 and 2.0 mm with rounded-edge and sharp-edge. The pressure covered the ranges of 0.5 to 29.5 MPa, inlet quality 0 to 1.0 and subcooling up to 350 C. The results exhibited a close relation of thermal non-equilibrium with pressure. For supercritical pressure a modified equilibrium model in combination with the Bernoulli equation is presented.

  2. An analytical theory of heated duct flows in supersonic combustors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Wu


    Full Text Available One-dimensional analytical theory is developed for supersonic duct flow with variation of cross section, wall friction, heat addition, and relations between the inlet and outlet flow parameters are obtained. By introducing a selfsimilar parameter, effects of heat releasing, wall friction, and change in cross section area on the flow can be normalized and a self-similar solution of the flow equations can be found. Based on the result of self-similar solution, the sufficient and necessary condition for the occurrence of thermal choking is derived. A relation of the maximum heat addition leading to thermal choking of the duct flow is derived as functions of area ratio, wall friction, and mass addition, which is an extension of the classic Rayleigh flow theory, where the effects of wall friction and mass addition are not considered. The present work is expected to provide fundamentals for developing an integral analytical theory for ramjets and scramjets.

  3. Theoretical Investigation of Operation Modes of MHD Generators for Energy-bypass Engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingfeng Tang; Nan Li; Daren Yu


    A MHD generator with different arrangements of electromagnetic fields will lead the generator working in three modes.A quasi-one-dimensional approximation is used for the model of the MHD generator to analyze the inner mechanism of operation modes.For the MHD generator with a uniform constant magnetic field,a specific critical electric field Ecr is required to decelerate a supersonic entrance flow into a subsonic exit flow.Otherwise,the generator works in a steady mode with a larger electric field than Ecr in which a steady supersonic flow is provided at the exit,or the generator works in a choked mode with a smaller electric field than Ecr in which the supersonic entrance flow is choked in the channel.The detailed flow field characteristics in different operation modes are discussed,demonstrating the relationship of operation modes with electromagnetic fields.

  4. The Environmental Impacts of Fire-Fighting Foams (United States)

    Tureková, Ivana; Balog, Karol


    Extinguishing foams are commonly used for extinguishing the fire of flammable liquids, whereby their insulating, choking and quenching effects are exploited. The purpose of the paper is to consider and compare the foams currently used in fire departments, regarding mainly their high extinguishing effect (capability of faster aborted burning on the large surface at low foam consumption), but also their impact on the environment in each stage of their life cycle.

  5. Non-linear propagation in near sonic flows (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Watson, L. T.


    A nonlinear analysis is developed for sound propagation in a variable-area duct in which the mean flow approaches choking conditions. A quasi-one-dimensional model is used and the nonlinear analysis represents the acoustic disturbance as a sum of interacting harmonics. The numerical procedure is stable for cases of strong interaction and is able to integrate through the throat region without any numerical instability.

  6. The Prevention of Pediatric Obesity During Pregnancy: A Pilot Study (United States)


    a strong risk factor for the development of obesity in the child (Barlow, Bobra, Elliott, Brownson, & Haire-Joshu, 2007). Maternal and 25 paternal ...and obesity in children and adolescents : 1999-2007. Pediatrics, 123(1 ), el 53-158. Berge!, E., & Barros, A. J. (2007). Effect of maternal calcium...choking hazard (hot dogs are a good example). Parents should ensure that foods given to your infant are presented in a style and quantity that will not

  7. A Report on the Development of Rare Earth-Cobalt Permanent Magnet Technology - Japan. (United States)


    presentations that followed. He pointed out that while the initial uses around 1965 of SmCo 5 magnets were limited to replacing expensive platinum cobalt...MISCELLANEOUS APPLICATIONS 1. Magnetic Locks: Key with magnets. 2. Magnetic Jewelry : Necklaces, clasps, earrings. 3. Electronic Chokes: Steady bias field. 4...large energy-storage flywheels and high-speed rotating elec- trical machinery, turbines, compressors, etc. Such bearings reduce friction , eliminate

  8. Expertise mission at the Rance river estuary; Mission d'expertise sur l'estuaire de la rance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Rance tidal power plant was inaugurated in 1968. This report presents the environmental impacts of the dam (choking up of Rance river with marine sediments) and proposes several remedial actions for the preservation of the site: dredging and agricultural valorization of muds by spreading. This project leads to several questions which are analyzed in the document: populations reaction, salinity of muds, dimensions of the decantation pool, impact of muds on cultures, lack of alternative solutions etc.. (J.S.)

  9. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma


    Basheer Tashtoush; Jonathan Schroeder; Roya Memarpour; Eduardo Oliveira; Michael Medina; Anas Hadeh; Jose Ramirez; Laurence Smolley


    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of...

  10. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions (United States)


    concerned with choking off avenues for potential evasion schemes than they were with fostering continued cooperation and openness between the two sides...Congress, House Armed Services, Strategic Forces, President Obama’s Fiscal 2011 Budget Request for the (continued...) The New START Treaty...states that “the Secretary of Defense may only use funds authorized to be appropriated by this Act or otherwise made available for fiscal year 2014 to

  11. Opera Star Guo Lanying’s Fame Withstands Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IF there is one name that is familiar to Chinese aged 10 to 80 it is Guo Lanying. Recently a recital was held by CCTV in honor of her 60-year career. When Guo Lanying took the stage, she was met with a lengthy standing ovation. Her voice was choked with emotion. Behind her was a smiling photograph of her that was taken at the start of her opera career. Guo Lanying was born in 1930 into

  12. H type tracheoesophageal fistula detected by radionuclide salivagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yun; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Congenital H type tracheoesophageal fistula is a rare anomaly in infants and the early diagnosis of this disorder is still a challenge to pediatricians due to scarcity, non specific symptoms and lack of a single diagnostic examination. We report the case of a 3 month old baby with choking and recurrent aspiration which finally turned out to be a tracheoesophageal fistula without esophageal atresia (H type)by radionuclide salivagram.

  13. No Sandstorm in a Teacup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The sand was everywhere, covering the city like dirty talcum powder. It choked, clogged and floated its way into the lives of Beijing residents in a day of madness. Well it had actually been four days of madness. You felt it in your eyes, hair, teeth and worst of all you had to breathe this wind bom menace that lingered painfully like unwanted relatives at Christmas time. On the way to work April 17, even people used to pollution and poor weather were

  14. Steady and Transient Performance Prediction of Gas Turbine Engines Held in Cambridge, Massachusetts on 27-28 May 1992; in Neubiberg, Germany on 9-10 June 1992; and in Chatillon/Bagneux, France on 11-12 June 1992 (Prediction des Performances des Moteurs a Turbine a Gaz en Regimes Etabli et Transitoire) (United States)


    pp. 455-469. 20. Day, IJ., 1991, "Active Suppression of Rotating Stall and Surge in Axial Compresors ," ASME 8. Greitzr, E.M., 1981, "he Stability of...increased deviations as conditions change from the design point. in regions of blade stalling , both at positive and negative incidence, there will be...increasing losses. Reducing 4 results in increased positive incidence and stall at 0),; increasing 4 eventually results in choking of the stage and a severe 4

  15. Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines. Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Cascade Results. (United States)


    time: T = t/T o To period of a cycle s t time s v velocity m/s Vre f reference velocity for reduced frequency m/s Vref Y for compresor cascade Vref...or quasi- three-dimensional cascades. Such interesting phenomena as rotor-stator interactions, stalled flutter and fully three-dimensional effects... stall , choke, shockwaves, coupling effects between the steady and unsteady flow fields...). The distribution of the blade surface pressure difference

  16. The Westford Water Vapor Experiment: Use of GPS to Determine Total Precipitable Water Vapor. (United States)


    Radar Pole on Roof Westford, MA AOA Turbo Rogue Dome-Margolin with choke ring WES2 * Westford Antenna 10m Tower Westford, MA AOA Turbo Rogue...calculated using a raytrace program [10] which computes the zenith wet delay from the pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. What is clearly...meter steel tower. The tower is surrounded by trees. The MHR0 antenna is mounted on the roof of the main Millstone Radar building, surrounded by a

  17. Critical flow and pressure ratio data for LOX flowing through nozzles (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Barrows, R. F.


    LOX and LN2 data for two-phase critical flow through nozzles have been acquired with precision control. The principal measured parameters were inlet conditions, critical flow rate and critical flow pressure ratio. The data conclusively demonstrate that the principle of corresponding states can be applied to two-phase choked flow through nozzles. These data also demonstrate that the proper normalizing parameters have been developed and current theories can provide an adequate means for extrapolating to other fluids.

  18. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, an underestimated disorder in pediatrics


    Esther Vaquero-Sosa; Laura Francisco-González; Andrés Bodas-Pinedo; Cristina Urbasos-Garzón; Antonio Ruiz-de-León-San-Juan


    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a rather frequent clinical entity in patients with neurological problems that can lead to serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia and other disorders like dehydration or malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. It should be suspected in children with splitting of food intake or prolonged feeding, coughing or choking during feeding, continuous drooling or repeated respiratory symptoms. For the diagnosis, apart from the examination of swallowing, additiona...

  19. What consistency of food is best for children with cerebral palsy who cannot chew?


    Croft, R D


    Video recordings were made of 67 children with cerebral palsy and 64 able bodied children eating soft boiled ('non-mashed') and mashed potato. Those children with cerebral palsy who had no speech, presumed to have poor oral motor function, took significantly longer to eat non-mashed than mashed potato. Children with cerebral palsy, especially those with no speech, were more likely to cough or choke while eating non-mashed than mashed potato. It is recommended that children with cerebral palsy...

  20. Anticipation of distress after discontinuation of mechanical ventilation in the ICU at the end of life


    Kompanje, Erwin; van der Hoven, Ben; Bakker, Jan


    textabstractBackground: A considerable number of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) die following withdrawal of mechanical ventilation. After discontinuation of ventilation without proper preparation, excessive respiratory secretion is common, resulting in a 'death rattle'. Post-extubation stridor can give rise to the relatives' perception that the patient is choking and suffering. Existing protocols lack adequate anticipatory preparation to respond to all distressing symptoms...

  1. Making Twenty-First-Century Strategy. An Introduction to Modern National Security Processes and Problems (United States)


    as the Golden Hordes of the Mongols and forward through the Polish princes and Napoléon to Hitler . In the twentieth cen- tury alone, there were four...vital maritime choke points such as the Strait of Malacca, Strait of Gibraltar , the Dardanelles, and the like. Because of all these factors, the...south from RAF Lakenheath in Great Britain then east over the Strait of Gibraltar into the Mediterranean and on to Libya. After their bombing runs, they

  2. RF feedback for KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezura, Eizi; Yoshimoto, Shin-ichi; Akai, Kazunori [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    This paper describes the present status of the RF feedback development for the KEK B-Factory (KEKB). A preliminary experiment concerning the RF feedback using a parallel comb-filter was performed through a choke-mode cavity and a klystron. The RF feedback has been tested using the beam of the TRISTAN Main Ring, and has proved to be effective in damping the beam instability. (author)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Stabilizing the Housing Market Guo Guoqing: deputy to the 11th NPC and Director of the China Marketing Research Center at Renmin University of China The country is now faced with the ur-gent task of curbing surges in house prices in major cities that is choking consumption and widening the rich-poor gap. To achieve this, it will be necessary to clamp down on speculators hoarding empty houses and property developers sitting on unused land.

  4. Gastric rupture after Heimlich maneuver and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (United States)

    Tung, P H; Law, S; Chu, K M; Law, W L; Wong, J


    Choking is a common emergency problem. The Heimlich maneuver is unquestionably effective in relieving airway obstruction. Serious and life-threatening complications may arise, however, if the maneuver is applied incorrectly. Two cases of gastric rupture after Heimlich maneuver are reported. Lay public, paramedics and the medical professionals should be educated with the correct technique of Heimlich maneuver and its potential complications. All patients receiving Heimlich maneuver should be examined by an experienced physician.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Remedial Reading Workbook for Navy Training. (United States)


    in this case. 116 .4?ii ..........:~: ALii{!!iiii{iii2 HOW TO SAVE SOMEONE FROM CHOKING TO DEATH: THE HEIMLICH MANEUVER * Wouldn’t you like to feel...foreign objects from the windpipe - the Heimlich Maneuver . Dr. Henry J. Heimlich, a physician specializing in throat surgery, and the inventor of the...F . , i... ... The Heimlich Maneuver requires no equipment, is very effective and is easily learned. A few minute’s practice on your part could save

  6. East Europe Report. (United States)


    Nicolae Ceausescu, and Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko, founding chairman of the Movement Populaire de la Revolution, president of the Republic of Zaire...regardless what grounds. In order to achieve that goal, they marshaled all their strength to create and strengthen their own armed forces so as to choke...sociologists, McLuhan , for ex- ample, the entire world is a village or network. [Answer] I do not agree with them. They have even gone so far as to equate a

  7. Perspectives on Defense Futures: National Developments in Europe (United States)


    command placed directly under the French Chief of Staff. The Hades will replace the Pluton . It has a longer range and a larger warhead than the Pluton ...command, control, and communications facilities or geographical choke points with this weapon. Unlike the Pluton , the Hades is able to strike military...FRENCH NUCLEAR SYSTEMS Weapons system SLBMs: M-20 M-4 M-5 IRBMs: S-2 S-3 SX Strategic bombers: Mirage IVA Tactical ground systems: Pluton

  8. Early Recognition of H-Type Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Riazulhaq


    Full Text Available Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF without associated esophageal atresia (EA is a rare congenital anomaly. Diagnosis in neonatal period is usually not made and most of the patients are treated as cases of pneumonia. A case of H-type of tracheoesophageal fistula, diagnosed within 24 hours of delivery based upon choking and cyanosis on first trial of feed, is being reported. Diagnosis was confirmed with contrast esophagram. Through cervical approach fistula was repaired and baby had uneventful post operative outcome.

  9. Laryngeal Spasm Mimicking Asthma and Vitamin D Deficiency


    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio LM; Rolla, Giovanni; Bucca, Caterina


    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respi...

  10. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon


    Megan Stolen; Judy St Leger; Wendy Noke Durden; Teresa Mazza; Erika Nilson


    Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of deat...

  11. Understanding and Predicting Gun Barrel Erosion (United States)


    spallation [52] driven by choked high pressure gas [34] (see Section 2.3). Underwood and coworkers have experimentally observed that deep, open cracks are the...Coating spallation and delamination. • Surface-projectile engagement. A complete, automated simulation, accurately covering all of these phenomena has yet...IWTCs in blind holes drilled into the exterior of a 120 mm barrel. Using ultrasound to determine the barrel thickness, the thermocouples were lo- cated

  12. Inductively Shorted Bicone Fed Tapered Dipole Antenna (United States)


    Switching from a balun feed to a coaxial cable feed showed expected similar impedances for the shorted antenna with number 14 wire shorts. Switching ...possibility is to add broadband ferrite core chokes placed about the shorts 70 near their ends 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60 ,62, 64 to prevent antenna...currents from flowing onto the shorts. Some problems with this method are that ferrites have loss and limited bandwidth, and the resulting floating

  13. Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: skill-focus or performance worries? (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R D; Kuijpers, Wilma; Kooijman, Chris C; Bakker, Frank C


    Choking under pressure in sport has been explained by either explicit attention to skill execution (self-focus theories), or attention to performance worries (distraction theories). The aim of the present study was to find out which focus of attention occurs most often when expert athletes perform under pressure. Two retrospective methods were employed, namely, verbal reports and concept mapping. In the verbal reports, 70 expert athletes indicated their main focus of attention when performing under high pressure in competition. For concept mapping seven expert athletes generated statements about their focus of attention in such high-pressure situations. These statements were clustered and rated on how often they occurred and how important they were for choking. Both methods revealed that under pressure attention of expert athletes was often focused on worries and hardly ever on movement execution. Furthermore, the athletes reported that they focused attention on external factors and that they reverted to positive monitoring in an attempt to maintain performance. These results are more in line with distraction theories than self-focus theories, suggesting that attention to performance worries rather than to skill execution generally explains choking.

  14. Recirculation pump discharge line break tests at ROSA-III for a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Anoda, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Nakamura, H.; Shiba, M.; Tasaka, K.


    Three loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests were conducted at the Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA)-III test facility, which simulates boiling water reactor (BWR)/6-251 with a volumetric scaling factor of 1/424. The fundamental features of the recirculation pump discharge line break LOCA and the effects of break areas on the features are investigated. It has been confirmed experimentally that the LOCA phenomena in the discharge line break are analogous to those in the suction line break with the same effective choking flow area, which is a sum of the least choking flow areas along the break flow paths and controls the system pressure responses. In general, the maximum effective choking flow area is (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB p/ ) for discharge line breaks and (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB o/ ) for suction line breaks, where A /SUB j/ , A /SUB p/ , and A /SUB o/ are the flow areas of the jet pump drive nozzles, the main recirculation pump discharge nozzle, and the break, respectively. The similarity between the ROSA-III test and a BWR LOCA has been confirmed in the key phenomena by the analyses using the RELAP5/MOD1 code. An atypical behavior is observed in the fuel rod surface temperature transient in the early phase of blowdown due to the limitation of the ROSA-III initial core power.

  15. Test facility and the available inlet flow condition to transonic radial diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayami, Hiroshi; Senoo, Yasutoshi; Nakashima, Koji; Kawaguchi, Nobumasa


    In order to stabilize the characteristics combined with diffuser(DF) and expand the flow rate range, a transonic centrifugal impeller(B rotor) with backward blade angle of 40deg was made trially. Single characteristic was tested for five rotating speed equal to or less than 19,000 rpm with freon R12. The flow rate range from choke to inducer(ID) stalling for B rotor is 17% of choke flow rate which is comaratively wider than 11% of conventional impeller(R rotor) with forward blade angle. When the flow field of impeller exit, that is, DF inlet is considered, the maximum value of inlet flow angle in a constant rotating speed corresponds to choke condition or maximum flow rate and minimum value corresponds to operating condition of critical flow rate resulting ID spalling speed. Inflow Mach number to DF changes mainly for the impeller rotating speed. It is possible to pursue the experimental work on diffusers in the range of 21deg(max) to 11.6deg(min) inflow angle and up to 1.31 Mach number using the present facility. (9 figs, 4 refs)

  16. Appropriate Separator Sizing: A Modified Stewart and Arnold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boukadi


    Full Text Available Oil and gas separators were one of the first pieces of production equipment to be used in the petroleum industry. The different stages of separation are completed using the following three principles: gravity, centrifugal force, and impingement. The sizes of the oil droplets, in the production water, are based mainly on the choke valve pressure drop. The choke valve pressure drop creates a shearing effect; this reduces the ability of the droplets to combine. One of the goals of oil separation is to reduce the shearing effect of the choke. Separators are conventionally designed based on initial flow rates; as a result, the separator is no longer able to accommodate totality of produced fluids. Changing fluid flow rates as well as emulsion viscosity effect separator design. The reduction in vessel performance results in recorded measurements that do not match actual production levels inducing doubt into any history matching process and distorting reservoir management programs. In this paper, the new model takes into account flow rates and emulsion viscosity. The generated vessel length, vessel diameter, and slenderness ratio monographs are used to select appropriate separator size based on required retention time. Model results are compared to API 12J standards.

  17. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon. (United States)

    Stolen, Megan; St Leger, Judy; Durden, Wendy Noke; Mazza, Teresa; Nilson, Erika


    Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%). Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations.

  18. Fatal Asphyxiation in Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Indian River Lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Stolen

    Full Text Available Multiple single case reports of asphyxiation in dolphins caused by fish lodged in the esophagus exist. However, the significance of this cause of mortality in a single population has not been documented. We performed a retrospective evaluation of pathology records from stranded bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus from the Indian River Lagoon to evaluate the impact of this cause of death on this population. From 1997 to 2011, asphyxiation due to choking was identified as the cause of death in 14 of 350 cases (4%. Sampling of an unrelated but adjacent population over this same period yielded 186 necropsy cases of bottlenose dolphins with no cases of asphyxiation. Asphyxiated animals presented with a fish lodged in the cranial esophagus associated with a dislocated and obstructed or compressed larynx. There was no clear sex predilection. Affected animals included 12 adults and two juveniles. The fish species involved included sheepshead, black chin tilapia and striped mojarra. In five cases, recreational fishing gear was also present. Cetacean choking is related to selection of prey fish species with strong dorsal spines and may be secondarily associated with fish attached to fishing gear. Prey abundance and dolphin behavior may influence these selections. Environmental alterations leading to changes in prey availability or increased interactions with fishing gear may change the significance of fatal choking in dolphin populations.

  19. The Social Capital of the Silver Ornaments in Northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warit Witsrutwait


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The silver ornaments is the well known handicraft for Chum Chon Ban Choke, Tambon Khawao Sinrin, Amphoe Khawao Sinrin and Surin province. The study of social capital concerning silver ornaments at Ban Choke community, the Khmer ethnic focused on the low quality of the making the silver ornaments. The silver craftsmen earned less income because the capital productions were higher. Some craftsmen stopped making the silver ornaments to find new jobs for getting more income. That was the problem for the remaining of a silver ornaments handicraft. The purpose of the study was to study the management of social capital of silver ornament making at Chum Chon Ban Choke. Approach: It was qualitative and carried out using documentary studies, surveys, observations, and interviews and focused group discussions, 47 research informants were community and silver market leaders, silver craftsmen, shop owners, buyers, government and private personnel over looking promotion and development of silver ornaments in Surin Province. The analysis of data was done descriptively. Results: The social capital was divided into 2 categories internal and external. The internal social capital included the traditional skills of making silver ornaments and social and cultural coherence of the people. The second one came from capitalism and economic development, such as, roads, vehicles, electricity, mass media and markets. To some extent, Chum Chon Ban Choke changed. People picked up a new habit of buying goods from outside, Spending more with limited income made people go into debt. What made things even worse were low prices of their farm produce and severe droughts. The people who were in the business of silver ornaments came up with a plan bringing government and private entrepreneurs to revitalize social capital by running workshop trainings and using appropriate technology, such as, setting up a village fund, farm machinery and establish community

  20. Geodetic antenna calibration test in the Antarctic environment (United States)

    Grejner-Brzezinska, A.; Vazquez, E.; Hothem, L.


    TransAntarctic Mountain DEFormation (TAMDEF) Monitoring Network is the NSF-sponsored OSU and USGS project, aimed at measuring crustal motion in the Transantarctic Mountains of Victoria Land using GPS carrier phase measurements. Station monumentation, antenna mounts, antenna types, and data processing strategies were optimized to achieve mm-level estimates for the rates of motion. These data contributes also to regional Antarctic frame definition. Significant amount of data collected over several years allow the investigation of unique aspects of GPS geodesy in Antarctica, to determine how the error spectrum compares to the mid-latitude regions, and to identify the optimum measurement and data processing schemes for Antarctic conditions, in order to test the predicted rates of motion (mm-level w.r.t. time). The data collection for the TAMDEF project was initiated in 1996. The primary antenna used has been the Ashtech L1/L2 Dorne Margolin (D/M) choke ring. A few occupations involved the use of a Trimble D/M choke ring. The data were processed using the antenna calibration data available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). The recent developments in new antenna designs that are lighter in weight and lower in cost are being considered as a possible alternative to the bulkier and more expensive D/M choke ring design. In November 2003, in situ testing of three alternative models of L1/L2 antennas was conducted at a site located in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica (S77.87, E166.56). The antenna models used in this test were: Ashtech D/M choke ring, Trimble D/M choke ring, Trimble Zephyr, and the NovAtel GPS-702. Two stations, spaced within 30 meters, were used in the test. Both had the characteristics similar to the stations of the TAMDEF network, i.e., the UNAVCO fixed-height, force-centered level mounts with a constant antenna offset were used, ensuring extreme stability of the antenna/ mount/pin set up. During each of the four 3-day test data collection

  1. Simplified geometric model for the calculation of neutron yield in an accelerator of 18 MV for radiotherapy; Modelo geometrico simplificado para el calculo del rendimiento de neutrones en un acelerador de 18 MV para radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C.; Balcazar G, M. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Francois L, J.L. [FI-UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    The results of the neutrons yield in different components of the bolster of an accelerator Varian Clinac 2100C of 18 MV for radiotherapy are presented, which contribute to the radiation of flight of neutrons in the patient and bolster planes. For the calculation of the neutrons yield, a simplified geometric model of spherical cell for the armor-plating of the bolster with Pb and W was used. Its were considered different materials for the Bremsstrahlung production and of neutrons produced through the photonuclear reactions and of electro disintegration, in function of the initial energy of the electron. The theoretical result of the total yield of neutrons is of 1.17x10{sup -3} n/e, considering to the choke in position of closed, in the patient plane with a distance source-surface of 100 cm; of which 15.73% corresponds to the target, 58.72% to the primary collimator, 4.53% to the levelled filter of Fe, 4.87% to the levelled filter of Ta and 16.15% to the closed choke. For an initial energy of the electrons of 18 MeV, a half energy of the neutrons of 2 MeV was obtained. The calculated values for radiation of experimental neutrons flight are inferior to the maxima limit specified in the NCRP-102 and IEC-60601-201.Ed.2.0 reports. The absorbed dose of neutrons determined through the measurements with TLD dosemeters in the isocenter to 100 cm of the target when the choke is closed one, is approximately 3 times greater that the calculated for armor-plating of W and 1.9 times greater than an armor-plating of Pb. (Author)

  2. Comparison of Standard and Novel Signal Analysis Approaches to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife eRoebuck


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a disorder characterised by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep, which leads to deoxygenation and voiced chokes at the end of each episode. OSA is associated by daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of serious conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Between 2-7% of the adult population globally has OSA, but it is estimated that up to 90% of those are undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis of OSA requires expensive and cumbersome screening. Audio offers a potential non-contact alternative, particularly with the ubiquity of excellent signal processing on every phone.Previous studies have focused on the classification of snoring and apnoeic chokes. However, such approaches require accurate identification of events. This leads to limited accuracy and small study populations. In this work we propose an alternative approach which uses multiscale entropy (MSE coefficients presented to a classifier to identify disorder in vocal patterns indicative of sleep apnoea. A database of 858 patients was used, the largest reported in this domain. Apnoeic choke, snore, and noise events encoded with speech analysis features were input into a linear classifier. Coefficients of MSE derived from the first 4 hours of each recording were used to train and test a random forest to classify patients as apnoeic or not.Standard speech analysis approaches for event classification achieved an out of sample accuracy (Ac of 76.9% with a sensitivity (Se of 29.2% and a specificity (Sp of 88.7% but high variance. For OSA severity classification, MSE provided an out of sample Ac of 79.9%, Se of 66.0% and Sp = 88.8%. Including demographic information improved the MSE-based classification performance to Ac = 80.5%, Se = 69.2%, Sp = 87.9%. These results indicate that audio recordings could be used in screening for OSA, but are generally under-sensitive.

  3. Study of a superconducting spoke-type cavity and of its associated power coupler; Etude d'une cavite acceleratrice supraconductrice de type spoke et de son coupleur de puissance associe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielot, Ch


    This work deals with the study of a spoke-type cavity and its associated power coupler. The results of this study are used in the framework of the high power proton linear accelerator of the experimental accelerator-driven system project (XADS). The cavity (F=352 MHz, {beta}=0.35) was tested at 4 K and 2 K. The results at 4 K gave good margins toward XADS requirements that increase the reliability of a spoke based driver. At 2 K the accelerating field reached is the highest in the world for spoke cavities: 16 MV/M. The position and diameter of the coupling have been optimized in order to decrease the HF losses and avoid multi-factor risk. In order to decrease HF losses (taking into account the 20 kW power fed into the cavity) the electric coupling mode has been chosen. Different types of ceramic windows have been studied in order to make this critical point of the coupler reliable: coaxial disk with or without chokes or empty coaxial cylinder. The optimization process focused on the reflected power, the losses in the ceramic and the surface electric field. The risk with chokes has been modeled and studied with the propagation lines theory. A systematic study of the different windows has been done regarding the geometrical parameters. The disk without chokes seems to be a good solution for our application. The power source will be a solid state amplifier (for reliability and modularity reasons). An all over coaxial coupler can be designed and will be fabricated and tested soon. (author)

  4. Flow Characteristics of a Pipe Diffuser for Centrifugal Compressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Sun


    Full Text Available The pipe diffuser, an efficient kind of radial bladed diffuser, is widely used in centrifugal compressors for gas turbine engines. This paper investigates flow characteristics of a pipe diffuser for centrifugal compressors by solving three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that the pipe diffuser is adaptable to high Mach number incoming flows, and its unique leading edge could uniform the flow distortion. Numerical analysis indicates that the choke in pipe diffuser occurs suddenly, which leads to the dramatically steep performance curves near choke condition. Besides, it is found that the first half flow passage is particularly important to the pipe diffuser performance as it influences the choking behavior, the static pressure distribution, and the matching, so more attention should be paid to this region when designing or optimizing a pipe diffuser. Two counter-rotating vortices generated in the diffuser inlet region are captured by numerical simulation, and they can exist in the downstream of the diffuser passage. More detailed analysis show that these two vortices dominate the flow structure in the whole diffuser passage by shifting flow to certain positions and forming high-momentum flow cells and wake flow cells. The leading edge formed by the intersection of adjacent diffuser passages significantly affects this pair of vortices. In addition, these two vortices also affect the flow separation in pipe diffuser flow passages, they suppress separation near the front wall and back wall while facilitate separation at center locations. Therefore, it is recommended to design the leading edge of the pipe diffuser carefully to control the vortices and obtain a better flow field.

  5. Three-step cylindrical seal for high-performance turbomachines (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.


    A three-step cylindrical seal configuration representing the seal for a high performance turbopump (e.g., the space shuttle main engine fuel pump) was tested under static (nonrotating) conditions. The test data included critical mass flux and pressure profiles over a wide range of inlet temperatures and pressures for fluid nitrogen and fluid hydrogen with the seal in concentric and fully eccentric positions. The critical mass flux (leakage rate) was 70% that of an equivalent straight cylindrical seal with a correspondingly higher pressure drop based on the same flow areas of 0.3569 sq cm but 85% that of the straight seal based on the third-step flow area of 0.3044 sq cm. The mass flow rates for the three step cylindrical seal in the fully eccentric and concentric positions were essentially the same, and the trends in flow coefficient followed those of a simple axisymmetric inlet configuration. However, for inlet stagnation temperatures less than the thermodynamic critical temperature the pressure profiles exhibited a flat region throughout the third step of the seal, with the pressure magnitude dependent on the inlet stagnation temperature. Such profiles represent an extreme positive direct stiffness. These conditions engendered a crossover in the pressure profile upstream of the postulated choke that resulted in a local negative stiffness. Flat and crossover profiles resulting from choking within the seal are practically unknown to the seal designer. However, they are of critical importance to turbomachine stability and must be integrated into any dynamic analysis of a seal of this configuration. In addition, choking is highly dependent on geometry, inlet-to-backpressure ratio, and inlet temperature and can occur within the seal even though the backpressure is above the critical pressure.

  6. Simulations of flashing experiments in TOPFLOW facility with TRACE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuž, Blaž, E-mail: [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tiselj, Iztok [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Engineering Division, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)


    Highlights: • Two decompression experiments performed at TOPFLOW are simulated with a TRACE code. • The depressurization triggers flashing of the slightly undersaturated liquid water. • Pressure, temperature and void fractions are compared with measurements. • Prediction of the choked flow is the most critical parameter of simulations. • Good agreement with measurements at high initial pressure (i.e. 65 and 40 bars). - Abstract: The decompression experiments performed at TOPFLOW facility in 2010 have been reproduced using the latest best-estimate thermohydraulic system code TRACE (V 5.0 Patch 3). The main component of TOPFLOW facility was about 8 m long vertical tube with an inner diameter of 195.3 mm. The evaporation of liquid water to steam caused by depressurization was simulated using two different procedures: from stagnant water and during circulating of water in tubes. The liquid water was almost saturated at initial pressure values of 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.5 MPa. Our approach applies one-dimensional code to simulate all the important parts of the facility not just the vertical test section, where the measurements were taken. The obtained simulated pressure, temperature and void fractions are compared with measured values. The simulations of the first procedure (stagnant water at beginning) are in a good agreement with measurements, especially for the cases with longer transients and higher initial pressure, however, choked flow model through the blow-off valve had to be adjusted. There is a short transient (about 2 s) after the fast opening valve opens, which was not reproduced correctly with TRACE. The simulations of the second procedure (circulating water in a loop) correctly predict pressure and temperature decrease, but underpredict void fraction. No modification of the default TRACE choked flow model was needed for procedure B.

  7. Antenna design for microwave hepatic ablation using an axisymmetric electromagnetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Converse Mark C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An axisymmetric finite element method (FEM model was employed to demonstrate important techniques used in the design of antennas for hepatic microwave ablation (MWA. To effectively treat deep-seated hepatic tumors, these antennas should produce a highly localized specific absorption rate (SAR pattern and be efficient radiators at approved generator frequencies. Methods and results As an example, a double slot choked antenna for hepatic MWA was designed and implemented using FEMLAB™ 3.0. Discussion This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include boundary conditions, the dielectric properties of liver tissue, and mesh resolution.

  8. Analysis of ventilation systems subjected to explosive transients: far-field analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, P.K.; Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Duerre, K.H.; Gregory, W.S.


    Progress in developing a far-field explosion simulation computer code is outlined. The term far-field implies that this computer code is suitable for modeling explosive transients in ventilation systems that are far removed from the explosive event and are rather insensitive to the particular characteristics of the explosive event. This type of analysis is useful when little detailed information is available and the explosive event is described parametrically. The code retains all the features of the TVENT code and allows completely compressible flow with inertia and choking effects. Problems that illustrate the capabilities and limitations of the code are described.

  9. Miedo a la evaluación negativa, autoestima y presión psicológica:Efectos sobre el rendimiento deportivo en adolescentes


    Molina, José; Chorot, Paloma; Valiente, Rosa M.; Sandín, Bonifacio


    El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en examinar el miedo a la evaluación negativa y la autoestima como posibles factores moduladores del choking (caída del rendimiento deportivo asociado a la presión psicológica). Participaron 100 estudiantes de secundaria (el 56% eran mujeres), los cuales cumplimentaron la Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) y la Self-Esteem Scale (SES) antes de participar en un set de bádminton en condiciones de baja y alta presión. Los datos b...

  10. Threats and Violence in the Lead-up to Psychiatric Mechanical Restraint – a Danish Case Law Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkeland, Søren

    ’s view and could collide with bioethical patient autonomy principles as well as health law informed consent obligations this is problematic. A reduction in usage is considered warranted and addressing illegitimate MR would be an obvious point of departure. In so far as one important reason...... on case contents like threatening behavior, violence, patient characteristics, MR type, and case decision. Findings: Among 163 cases, 28 cases (17%) revealed physical violence towards staff or other patients (for example in one case the patient restrained a staff contact person with a choke hold thereby...

  11. Congenital bronchoesophageal fistula in an adult: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Su; Xiu-Qin Wei; Xiu-Yi Zhi; Qing-Sheng Xu; Ting Ma


    Bronchoesophageal fistulas are usually diagnosed in the neonatal period. As such, the condition is rare in adults.We present a case of a congenital bronchoesophageal fistula in a 62-year-old man with the complaint of severe bouts of cough and choking after swallowing liquid. His workup included a barium esophagogram that revealed a fistula between the esophagus and a right lower lobe bronchus. The diagnosis should be considered in certain individuals with suggestive symptomatology and unexplained respiratory pathology. The fistula was divided and resected, The patient had an uneventful recovery.

  12. The Role of the Craniocervical Junction in Craniospinal Hydrodynamics and Neurodegenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Flanagan


    Full Text Available The craniocervical junction (CCJ is a potential choke point for craniospinal hydrodynamics and may play a causative or contributory role in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, MS, and ALS, as well as many other neurological conditions including hydrocephalus, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, migraines, seizures, silent-strokes, affective disorders, schizophrenia, and psychosis. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the critical role of the CCJ in craniospinal hydrodynamics and to stimulate further research that may lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of the above neurodegenerative and neurological conditions.

  13. Valveless Thermally-Driven Phase-Change Micropump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沫然; 李志信


    A dynamic model with moving heat sources was developed to analyze the pumping mechanism of a valveless thermally-driven phase-change micropump. The coupled equations were solved to determine the pumping characteristics. The numerical results agree with experimental data from micropumps with different diameter microtubes. The maximum flow rate reached 33 μL / min and the maximum pump pressure was over 20 kPa for a 200-μm diameter microtube. Analysis of the pumping mechanism shows that the main factors affecting the flow come from the large density difference between the liquid and vapor phases and the choking effect of the vapor region.

  14. Two-Dimensional and Quasi Three-Dimensional Experimental Standard Configurations for Aeroelastic Investigations in Turbomachine-Cascades, (United States)


    cycle S0 t time s V velocity m/s 7i 7 Vre f reference velocity for reduced frequency and m/sStrouhal number: Vref V for compresor cascade Vref V2 for...dimensional cascades. Such interesting phenomena as rotor-stator interact ions, stalled flutter and fully three-dimensional effects will thus be excluded...aeroelastic phenomena under in~est gation instabili- ties due to stall , choke, shockwa\\es, coupling effects between the stead’ and unstead> flow fields...). The

  15. Aspirating probes for measurement of mean concentration and fluctuating quantities in supersonic air/helium shear layer


    Ninnemann, Todd A.


    Two aspirating hot-film probes are developed to make measurements in supersonic air/helium shear layers. The first probe is designed to measure local mean gas composition and is referred to as the mean concentration probe. This probe consists of a constant temperature hot-film sensor operating in a channel with a choked exit. The flow over the hot-fifm is influenced only by total temperature, total pressure, and gas composition. The mean probe is easily calibrated and shows acc...

  16. Changes in assimilation of C3 marsh plants by resident fishes in estuarine systems with distinct hydrogeomorphology features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Ferreira Garcia


    Full Text Available Although saltmarshes are widely recognized as important habitats providing shelter for estuarine organisms and protection against predators, there is still no consensus on the trophic value of marsh plants for estuarine food webs. We employed stable isotopes to evaluate differences in assimilation of nutrients derived from marsh plants with C3 (Juncus acutus, Scirpus maritimus, Scirpus olneyi and C4 (Spartina densiflora photosynthetic pathways by resident fishes in three estuaries with contrasting hydrogeomorphology characteristics. Carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotope ratios of basal food sources (C3 and C4 marsh plants, macroalgae, seagrass and seston and estuarine resident fishes (Achirus garmani, Atherinella brasiliensis, Genidens genidens, Ctenogobius shufeldti, Jenynsia multidentata, Odonthestes argentinensis were analyzed in two choked lagoons (Tramandai-29°S, Patos-30°S and a coastal river (Chui-33°S. Average δ13C values of consumers were statistically significant higher in the two choked-type estuaries (Tramandaí: -16.11; Patos: -15.82 than in the coastal river (Chui: -24.32 (p0.292. SIAR mixing models revealed that the most assimilated basal food sources by consumers in the choked-type lagoon estuaries were a pool of 13C enriched food sources (macroalgae, C4 marsh and seagrass and seston (95% credibility interval: 0.38 to 0.80 and 0.00 to 0.54, respectively. In contrast, nutrients derived from C3-marsh plants were the main basal food source assimilated by estuarine resident fishes at the coastal river (0.33 to 0.87. These findings could be explained by the absence of extensive shallow embayments and a steeper slope at the coastal river that could promote higher transport of C3-marsh detritus and, consequently, higher assimilation by estuarine fishes. In contrast, detritus derived from C3 marsh plants could be trapped in the upper intertidal zone of choked-typed estuaries and, consequently, be less available for aquatic

  17. Electric Voltage Control as an Implementation of Neural Network Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al-Rababah


    Full Text Available Present study was proposed the monitoring of mathematical model of electric voltage source with using neural network for application in control systems as sensor and command signal. The monitoring system, consist of toroidal choke or transformer with high saturated ferromagnetic cores. The input information we receive from current periodic curves. The current was distributed into Fourier or walsh series. The combination of these harmonics and their amplitude values determine monitoring voltage value directly. For increase of this system precision, the mathematical model was constructed on basis of partial differential quasi-stationary electromagnetic field equations and ordi-nary differential electromagnetic circuit equations combination.

  18. Practices And Opinions On In-Center Food Consumption Across 1,223 Facilities In The United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Benner


    The top reasons for facility practices that allowed eating during dialysis were: prevention of hypoglycemia on dialysis, improved kcal intake on dialysis days, and the opportunity to provide counseling on food products currently chosen by the patient. The top reasons for facility practices not permitting eating during dialysis included: potential adverse events associated with hypotension, GI symptoms, choking, infection, pest control, and spills. Further analyses are warranted to determine whether there is a correlation between allowing patients to eat during dialysis treatment and an improvement in the nutritional status of the patients.

  19. CBRN Decontamination: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Decontamination (United States)


    artillery attacks. a. CW Agents and Delivery Means. Typically classified by their effects on the body, CW agents consist of choking, nerve , blood...chemical agents, especially nerve agents, kill within minutes. a. Chemical. (1) Use the SDK within 1 minute of contamination of the exposed skin...shoulder, and reattaches them to the hook-and-pile fasteners. He loosens the draw cord on Buddy 2’s hood. The M40 voice amplifier (M7) and the M42A2

  20. Experimental study on influence of coal structural anisotropy to gas permeation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yan-zhen


    Based on "true triaxial coal rock permeability of coal sample test system",the permeability under different gaspressure to coal specimen in bedding plane and the vertical bedding directions are tested.The results show that coal structuralanisotropy has a greater impact on gas permeability properties,differences in experimental coal permeability are roughly oneorder of magnitude.In view of the differences of the gas flow characteristics in the coal bedding plane and vertical bedding,established series and parallel choked flow model of coal sample gas seepage,and made a theoretical analysis to the influencesof the bedding structure to gas permeability properties.

  1. Deleading of gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Choudhuri


    Full Text Available : Gasoline as normally supplied for running internal combustion engines contain added twtraethy lead for improving anti-knock properties. Due to the presence of lead, burning of the gasoline (for heating and illuminating purposes results in complete choking of the orifice at which it is burnt by thedeposition of lead in a short time and secondly fouls the environment with poisonous lead vapour. Two new methods based on chemical reaction and absorption to remove lead from gasoline have been discussed. The methods are simple, rapid and adaptable universally for running burner stoves, mantle lanterns and similar equipments.

  2. Energy Security: Reducing Vulnerabilities to Global Energy Networks (United States)


    markets since the late 1970s. Figure 2: China’s Past and Nowhere is China’s quest for dominance in the world energy markets more evident than in the next 10 years.20 Simply put, the hegemonic position in the world energy markets the United States had enjoyed over the past 50 years is...choke points. Tanker ships transport over half of the world’s oil and gas on fixed maritime routes. The world energy markets are dependent upon these

  3. Traumatic rupture of the stomach secondary to Heimlich maneuver. (United States)

    Dupre, M W; Silva, E; Brotman, S


    The case of a 93-year-old man who received a Heimlich maneuver while choking is reported. After the procedure, the patient presented with abdominal pain and ultimately was found to have developed a gastric rupture. He was hospitalized for 66 days. Review of the literature showed that only four gastric perforations related to the Heimlich maneuver have been documented. Other complications have occurred. It is reasonable to perform the procedure as an alternative to asphyxiation, but emergency physicians must be aware of the fact that life-threatening complications may ensue.

  4. Fluid seals technology at BHR Group Ltd. (United States)

    Leefe, Simon


    A mathematical model was developed for ESA, which couples the rigid body dynamics in four degrees of freedom of a flexibly mounted stator (with Coulomb damping) of a turbopump face seal with the fluid film behavior. The interfacial film is assumed gaseous, and the model incorporates laminar/turbulent flow, inertia and sonic choking. Seal faces may be wavy and coned, while the rotating ring can be eccentrically mounted, misaligned with the shaft and oscillate axially at arbitrary frequency. The model is currently being coded into software. An experimental program using a high speed cryogenic/hot gas test rig is being conducted to verify the output of the computer program.

  5. 18F-FDG PET/CT diagnosis of vagus nerve neurolymphomatosis. (United States)

    Tsang, Hailey Hoi Ching; Lee, Elaine Yuen Phin; Anthony, Marina-Portia; Khong, Pek-Lan


    A 62-year-old woman was in remission from previously treated stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with cranial involvement. She presented with new-onset hoarseness of voice and choking; MRI of the brain showed disease recurrence in the left cavernous sinus. She was subsequently referred for F-FDG PET/CT with contrast for further evaluation of lymphomatous recurrence. F-FDG PET/CT not only revealed hypermetabolic activity in the left cavernous sinus correlating to the MRI findings but also showed an interesting manifestation explaining the patient's hoarseness of voice, being neurolymphomatosis along the left vagus nerve.

  6. Device for improved air and fuel distribution to a combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, Walter R.; Schilp, Reinhard


    A flow conditioning device (30, 50, 70, 100, 150) for a can annular gas turbine engine, including a plurality of flow elements (32, 34, 52, 54, 72, 74, 102) disposed in a compressed air flow path (42, 60, 80, 114, 122) leading to a combustor (12), configured such that relative adjustment of at least one flow directing element (32, 52, 72, 110) with respect to an adjacent flow directing element (34, 54, 74, 112, 120) during operation of the gas turbine engine is effective to adjust a level of choking of the compressed air flow path (42, 60, 80, 114, 122).

  7. Experimental Study on Vertical Dilute Phase Gas Conveying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景山; 王金福; 等


    An experimental study of vertical gas conveying Geldart-D powder as a dilute phase is performed in a pipe of length 22m and internal diameter 0.05m using a fluidized blow tank at gas velocity ranging from 5m ·s-1 to 13m·s-1 and loading ratio up to about 30.The characteristics of gas conveying,such as pressure drop,the choking velocity and the minimum primary velocity of the fluidized blow tank,are discussed in detail.

  8. Learning control for riser-slug elimination and production-rate optimization for an offshore oil and gas production process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic; Yang, Zhenyu


    Slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production attracts lot of attention due to it's limitation of production rate, periodic overload on processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergency shutdown. This work aims at two correlated objectives: (i) Preventing slugging flow; and meanwhile......, (ii) maximizing the production rate at the riser of an offshore production platform, by manipulating a topside choke valve through a learning switching model-free PID controller. The results show good steady-state performance, though a long settling time due to the unknown reference for no slugging...

  9. Tracheo-esophageal fistula in children: a diagnosis to keep in mind. Two case reports and review of the literature = Fístula traqueoesofágica en niños: un diagnóstico para tener en cuenta. Reporte de dos casos y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lucía Morales Múnera


    Full Text Available The tracheo-esophageal fistula without esophageal atresia is a rare type esophageal malformation. It has a multifactorial etiology including environmental and genetic factors. Common clinical manifestations are coughing and choking after meals, cyanosis and/or recurrent pneumonia. Diagnosis requires a high clinical suspicion index. Fistula confirmation is done with imaging studies including upper digestive series, video-fluoroscopy or with the use of bronchoscopy wich allows direct visualization of the fistula or methylene blue passage through the abnormal communication. Fistula closure can be done endoscopically or surgically, in both cases with good results.

  10. Study of the Process of Mixing, Temperature, and Small Signal Gain in the Active Medium of Supersonic COIL With Advanced Nozzle Bank and DC Discharge Method of O2(1 Delta) Production in a Vortex Tube (United States)


    laser”. Kvantovaya Electronica (Moscow) 537-543, (1989). 6.2. Mikheyev P.A., Shepelenko A.A., Kupryayev N.V., Voronov A.I. Exited oxygen in for powerful industrial lasers.DC glow discharge was investigated as means to produce gaseous medium with high concentration of singlet this case. It’s necessary to develop the scaleable ejector nozzle bank for real industrial COIL with small mixing space scale and to weaken “choke

  11. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Four "XIONGBI" (CHEST PAIN) SYNDROME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongying; Guo Ling; Shang Xiukui


    @@ "Xiongbi" chest (or precordial) pain with stuffiness, or chest pain syndrome is referred to choking pain in the chest due to stagnation of chest -yang, failure of qi and blood in warming and nourishing the local meridians. It is usually caused by stagnation of dampness and phlegm in the interior, or by insufficiency of qi and blood stasis, leading to impeded flow of qi and blood in the heart vessels. Its pathological characteristics are deficiency (chest-yang) in origin and excess (i. e., qi stagnation) in superficiality. The therapeutic principles are promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, getting rid of blockage and dredging the passages of yang-qi.

  12. A comparison of bibliotherapy and face-to-face group therapy for children with anxiety disorders: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Kristian Bech; Thastum, Mikael

    (James, James, Cowdrey, Soler & Choke, 2015), more studies of less intensive treatment formats are still warranted. Bibliotherapy is a low cost therapy with minimal therapist assistance, which in a few studies have been shown to result in favorable outcomes compared to waitlist and outcomes comparable...... to face-to-face treatment (e.g. Lyneham & Rapee, 2006, Cobham, 2012). The aim of the current study was to examine the efficacy of therapist supported group bibliotherapy compared to face-to-face group treatment using a randomized controlled design....

  13. Lessons Carved in Stone: Basics of Buddhism at Sichuan's Dazu Rock Carvings Part Ⅱ%大足石刻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The thing is, even with the carvings to yourself, there's still too much to appreciate in one visit. The figures choke the cliff face, telling stories on salvation via animated figures tinted in rosy ochre,plum, lapis lazuli and gold leaf. I began with Sakyamuni's Filial Piety, 68 statues which depicted the prince's devout attention to his parents and self-sacrifice through such acts as nourishing them by cutting off a slice of his own flesh and offering his eye as medicine when his father fell ill.

  14. Martial arts sports medicine: current issues and competition event coverage. (United States)

    Nishime, Robert S


    More sports medicine professionals are becoming actively involved in the care of the martial arts athlete. Although there are many different forms of martial arts practiced worldwide, certain styles have shown a potential for increased participation in competitive-type events. Further research is needed to better understand the prevalence and profiles of injuries sustained in martial arts full-contact competitive events. Breaking down the martial art techniques into basic concepts of striking, grappling, and submission maneuvers, including choking and joint locking, may facilitate better understanding and management of injuries. This article outlines this approach and reviews the commonly encountered injuries and problems during martial arts full-contact competitions.

  15. Radial forces in a centrifugal compressor; Experimental investigation by using magnetic bearings and static pressure distribution (United States)

    Reunanen, Arttu; Larjola, Jaakko


    The volute of a centrifugal compressor causes a non-uniform pressure distribution which leads to a radial force on the impeller. This force was measured using magnetic bearings. In addition, the radial force was estimated using the static pressure distribution measured at the impeller outlet. The impeller force was found to be the highest at choke, the lowest at the design flow and moderate at stall. The radial force determined from the pressure measurements was only slightly different from the force obtained from the bearing measurements. The rotational speed was seen to affect the force to some extent.

  16. Radial Forces in a Centrifugal Compressor; Experimental Investigation by Using Magnetic Bearings and Static Pressure Distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arttu REUNANEN; Jaakko LARJOLA


    The volute of a centrifugal compressor causes a non-uniform pressure distribution which leads to a radial force on the impeller. This force was measured using magnetic bearings. In addition, the radial force was estimated using the static pressure distribution measured at the impeller outlet. The impeller force was found to be the highest at choke, the lowest at the design flow and moderate at stall. The radial force determined from the pressure measurements was only slightly different from the force obtained from the bearing measurements. The rotational speed was seen to affect the force to some extent.

  17. A feeding appliance for a newborn baby with cleft lip and palate


    Agarwal, Abhay; Rana, Vivek; Shafi, Shabina


    A child born with cleft lip and palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Obtaining a good seal of the oral cavity can be difficult due to the incomplete facial and palatal structures. Nasal regurgitation and choking are common in infants with cleft palate because of inability of the palate to separate the nasal and oral cavities. The case presented here is a 3-day-old neonate born with cleft lip and palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using ...

  18. Digital-computer normal shock position and restart control of a Mach 2.5 axisymmetric mixed-compression inlet (United States)

    Neiner, G. H.; Cole, G. L.; Arpasi, D. J.


    Digital computer control of a mixed-compression inlet is discussed. The inlet was terminated with a choked orifice at the compressor face station to dynamically simulate a turbojet engine. Inlet diffuser exit airflow disturbances were used. A digital version of a previously tested analog control system was used for both normal shock and restart control. Digital computer algorithms were derived using z-transform and finite difference methods. Using a sample rate of 1000 samples per second, the digital normal shock and restart controls essentially duplicated the inlet analog computer control results. At a sample rate of 100 samples per second, the control system performed adequately but was less stable.

  19. Removing a tick: proper technique in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rueda Pérez


    Full Text Available There is medical consensus on the need to remove the tick within 24 hours the mite parasites to the human host, to avoid possible complications. The preferred way is by gently traction the mite, aided by forceps without twisting or chokes with toxic agents, because of the possibility that the mite excretes bacteria mixed with substances. The average time of extraction is estimated between one or three minutes. In children parasitized by ticks this amount of time can be excessive when it’s necessary restraint without the consent of the minor. Using this technique we reduce the time to seconds and the damage caused to the skin is minimal.

  20. High-energy Neutrino Flares from X-Ray Bright and Dark Tidal Disruption Events (United States)

    Senno, Nicholas; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter


    X-ray and γ-ray observations by the Swift satellite revealed that a fraction of tidal disruption events (TDEs) have relativistic jets. Jetted TDEs have been considered to be potential sources of very-high-energy cosmic-rays and neutrinos. In this work, using semi-analytical methods, we calculate neutrino spectra of X-ray bright TDEs with powerful jets and dark TDEs with possible choked jets, respectively. We estimate their neutrino fluxes and find that non-detection would give us an upper limit on the baryon loading of the jet luminosity contained in cosmic-rays ξ cr ≲ 20–50 for Sw J1644+57. We show that X-ray bright TDEs make a sub-dominant (≲5%–10%) contribution to IceCube’s diffuse neutrino flux, and study possible contributions of X-ray dark TDEs given that particles are accelerated in choked jets or disk winds. We discuss future prospects for multi-messenger searches of the brightest TDEs.

  1. Nonlinear Dynamics of Two Western Boundary Currents Colliding at a Gap (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Yuan, D.


    Dynamics and hysteresis of two western boundary currents of Munk thickness LM encounter near a gap is studied using a 1.5 layer reduced-gravity quasi-geostrophic ocean model. When the gap (of width 2a) is narrow, γ≤7.3 (where γ= (a/LM), neither of the flow can penetrate into the western basin due to the viscous force. When 7.39.6, there is no choke state, and multiple states and hysteresis exist between penetrating states and periodic eddy-shedding states. A Hopf bifurcation emerges when the two flows transit from steady penetrating or choke state to periodic eddy-shedding state, and is found to be sensitive to the magnitude of γ and the baroclinic deformation radius. It occurs at lower Reynolds numbers for larger γ or deformation radius. Multiple steady states and hysteresis exist between some certain range parameters. Through vorticity term analysis, we found the time-dependent relative vorticity term varies remarkably and triggers the WBCs to alternately shed eddy into the western basin. The hysteresis is derived from the difference magnitude of the nonlinear inertial between the two different initial states.

  2. Modeling and Mitigation for High Frequency Switching Transients Due to Energization in Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Xin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on high frequency (HF switching transients due to energization of vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs in offshore wind farms (OWFs. This research not only concerns the modeling of main components in collector grids of an OWF for transient analysis (including VCBs, wind turbine transformers (WTTs, submarine cables, but also compares the effectiveness between several mainstream switching overvoltage (SOV protection methods and a new mitigation method called smart choke. In order to accurately reproduce such HF switching transients considering the current chopping, dielectric strength (DS recovery capability and HF quenching capability of VCBs, three models are developed, i.e., a user–defined VCB model, a HF transformer terminal model and a three-core (TC frequency dependent model of submarine cables, which are validated through simulations and compared with measurements. Based on the above models and a real OWF configuration, a simulation model is built and several typical switching transient cases are investigated to analyze the switching transient process and phenomena. Subsequently, according to the characteristics of overvoltages, appropriate parameters of SOV mitigation methods are determined to improve their effectiveness. Simulation results indicate that the user–defined VCB model can satisfactorily simulate prestrikes and the proposed component models display HF characteristics, which are consistent with onsite measurement behaviors. Moreover, the employed protection methods can suppress induced SOVs, which have a steep front, a high oscillation frequency and a high amplitude, among which the smart choke presents a preferable HF damping effect.

  3. 西吉县淤地坝工程建设现状与分析%Status and Analysis of Engineering Construction of Silt Dams in Xiji County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    There are 26 silt dams of dilapidated silt dam reinforcement and repair engineering in Xiji County, control area of 237.05km2, total storage capacity of 35,332,900 m3, choked with silt of 12,558,100. m3 and choked with soil of 180.28hm2; The construction of silt dams dredges regional traffic to a certain degree, which solves the problem of difficulty in drinking water for local people and develops irrigated land, laying a solid foundation for the local people to become rich.%西吉县病险淤地坝加固维修工程加固维修的淤地坝有26座,控制面积237.05km2,总库容3533.29万m3,已淤库容1255.81万m3,已淤地180.28hm2;这些淤地坝的建设,在一定程度上疏通了区域内的交通,解决当地群众的吃水难问题,发展水浇地,为当地群众脱贫致富奠定了坚实的基础.

  4. The Study of Active Queue Management Algorithm Based on Cellular Genetic Method%基于元胞遗传方法的主动队列管理算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄绍川; 郑华


    In order to mitigate the network congestion problem, a novel active queue management algorithm New-SCHOKe is proposed by CHOKe. In this algorithm, the dropping policy and dropping rate are defined by sampling hit and queue hit, and the average queue length is depicted by cellular genetic. Then, a simulation was conducted to research on the performance of New-SCHOKe and SCHOKe, as well as CHOKe algorithm with actual data. The results show that New-SCHOKe has better adaptability.%为了解决网络拥塞现象,基于CHOKe方法建立了一种新的主动队列管理算法New-SCHOKe.该方法首先根据采样击中和队列击中定义了丢包策略和丢包概率,并且利用元胞遗传技术刻画了平均队列长度.同时,以实际数据进行仿真实验,对比分析了该算法与SCHOKe和CHOKe之间的性能,结果表明New-SCHOKe具有较好的适应性.

  5. Measurement and Control of Coal Pipe Temperature of Coal Mills of PF Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamoy Chatterjee


    Full Text Available Power plant boiler had no arrangement of measure the coal pipe temperature in a continuous basis, though it is an important parameter for any coal fired large boiler. As pulverized coal flows through the long coal-pipe by the help of flow of hot air as a carrier, coal pipe temperature is only the measurement of the coal flow through the pipe to boiler. Low temperature indicates improper flow of pulverized coal through the pipe. So due to no continuous measurement of these parameters we can’t know about the flow profile of coal through pulveriser outlet pipes. Sometimes the pipe got choked and we were not aware of that for a long time. That caused our equipment loss i.e. we had to stop the pulveriser for a long time for de-choking the large size coal pipe. And indirectly it caused loss of power generation and also affected the economical figure of our power house. So to overcome that kind of losses we have to measure the coal pipe temperature in regular basis.

  6. Experimental investigation of combustion mechanisms of kerosene-fueled scramjet engines with double-cavity flameholders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Pan; Jian-Guo Tan; Jian-Han Liang; Wei-Dong Liu; Zhen-Guo Wang


    A scramjet combustor with double cavitybased flameholders was experimentally studied in a directconnected test bed with the inflow conditions of M =2.64,Pt =1.84 MPa,Tt =1 300 K.Successful ignition and selfsustained combustion with room temperature kerosene was achieved using pilot hydrogen,and kerosene was vertically injected into the combustor through 4×φ0.5 mm holes mounted on the wall.For different equivalence ratios and different injection schemes with both tandem cavities and parallel cavities,flow fields were obtained and compared using a high speed camera and a Schlieren system.Results revealed that the combustor inside the flow field was greatly influenced by the cavity installation scheme,cavities in tandem easily to form a single side flame distribution,and cavities in parallel are more likely to form a joint flame,forming a choked combustion mode.The supersonic combustion flame was a kind of diffusion flame and there were two kinds of combustion modes.In the unchoked combustion mode,both subsonic and supersonic combustion regions existed.While in the choked mode,the combustion region was fully subsonic with strong shock propagating upstream.Results also showed that there was a balance point between the boundary separation and shock enhanced combustion,depending on the intensity of heat release.

  7. Influence of obstacle-produced turbulence on development of premixed flames

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Lixin(余立新); SUN; Wenchao(孙文超); WU; Chengkang(吴承康)


    An investigation into influence of obstructions on premixed flame propagation has been carried out in a semi-open tube.It is found that there exists flame acceleration and rising overpressure along the path of flame due to obstacles.According to the magnitude of flame speeds,the propagation of flame in the tube can be classified into three regimes:the quenching,the choking and the detonation regimes.In premixed flames near the flammability limits,the flame is observed first to accelerate and then to quench itself after propagating past a certain number of obstacles.In the choking regime,the maximum flame speeds are somewhat below the combustion product sound speeds,and insensitive to the blockage ratio.In the more sensitive mixtures,the transition to detonation (DDT) occurs when the equivalence ratio increases.The transition is not observed for the less sensitive mixtures.The dependence of overpressure on blockage ratio is not monotonous.Furthermore,a numerical study of flame acceleration and overpressure with the unsteady compressible flow model is performed,and the agreement between the simulation and measurements is good.``

  8. Transformation of Epichloë typhina by electroporation of conidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombrowski James E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choke, caused by the endophytic fungus Epichloë typhina, is an important disease affecting orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. seed production in the Willamette Valley. Little is known concerning the conditions necessary for successful infection of orchardgrass by E. typhina. Detection of E. typhina in plants early in the disease cycle can be difficult due to the sparse distribution of hyphae in the plant. Therefore, a sensitive method to detect fungal infection in plants would provide an invaluable tool for elucidating the conditions for establishment of infection in orchardgrass. Utilization of a marker gene, such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP, transformed into Epichloë will facilitate characterization of the initial stages of infection and establishment of the fungus in plants. Findings We have developed a rapid, efficient, and reproducible transformation method using electroporation of germinating Epichloë conidia isolated from infected plants. Conclusions The GFP labelled E. typhina provides a valuable molecular tool to researchers studying conditions and mechanisms involved in the establishment of choke disease in orchardgrass.

  9. Possibilities to improve the down grade performance of trucks by applying a decompression valve engine brake; Moeglichkeiten zur Verbesserung des Gefaellefahrverhaltens von Nutzfahrzeugen unter Verwendung einer Dekompressionsventil-Motorbremse (DVB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, T. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Holloh, K.D. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Fleckenstein, G. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Juergens, R. [Mercedes-Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)


    After Mercedes-Benz developed the constant choke engine brake and started serial production in 1989, further possibilities to increase the engine brake performance have been investigated. A considerable improvement has been achieved due to the fact that the decompression valve is not kept constantly open during the whole operating cycle (constant choke) but is only opened shortly before the upper dead centre until approx. 90.. 120 C after the upper dead centre of the crankshaft in order to release the compressed air from the combustion chamber (pulsed decompression valve). The hydraulic operating system is described, and the achieved engine brake performance is compared with other engine brake systems. The effects on the down grade performance of trucks are described and compared with other permanent braking systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nachdem bei Mercedes-Benz die Konstantdrossel-Motorbremse entwickelt und 1989 in die Serie eingefuehrt worden ist, wurde nach weiteren Moeglichkeiten zur Steigerung der Motorbremsleistung gesucht. Eine wesentliche Steigerung wurde dadurch erreicht, dass das Dekompressionsventil nicht mehr waehrend des gesamten Arbeitsspiels konstant offen gehalten wird (Konstantdrossel), sondern nur noch von kurz vor bis ca. 90... 120 C Kurbelwelle nach Komppressions-OT zum Abblasen der verdichteten Luft aus dem Brennraum geoeffnet wird (getaktetes Dekompressionsventil). Das hydraulische Betaetigungssystem wird im folgenden beschrieben. Die hiermit erreichten Motorbremsleistungen im Vergleich zu anderen Motorbremssystemen werden gezeigt. Die Auswirkungen auf das Gefaellefahrverhalten von Nutzfahrzeugen im Vergleich zu anderen Dauerbremssystemen werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  10. Information extraction approaches to unconventional data sources for "Injury Surveillance System": the case of newspapers clippings. (United States)

    Berchialla, Paola; Scarinzi, Cecilia; Snidero, Silvia; Rahim, Yousif; Gregori, Dario


    Injury Surveillance Systems based on traditional hospital records or clinical data have the advantage of being a well established, highly reliable source of information for making an active surveillance on specific injuries, like choking in children. However, they suffer the drawback of delays in making data available to the analysis, due to inefficiencies in data collection procedures. In this sense, the integration of clinical based registries with unconventional data sources like newspaper articles has the advantage of making the system more useful for early alerting. Usage of such sources is difficult since information is only available in the form of free natural-language documents rather than structured databases as required by traditional data mining techniques. Information Extraction (IE) addresses the problem of transforming a corpus of textual documents into a more structured database. In this paper, on a corpora of Italian newspapers articles related to choking in children due to ingestion/inhalation of foreign body we compared the performance of three IE algorithms- (a) a classical rule based system which requires a manual annotation of the rules; (ii) a rule based system which allows for the automatic building of rules; (b) a machine learning method based on Support Vector Machine. Although some useful indications are extracted from the newspaper clippings, this approach is at the time far from being routinely implemented for injury surveillance purposes.

  11. Design Of EMI Filter For Flash Lamp Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Bhatt


    Full Text Available Abstract Conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference in embedded and VLSI systems have become important in recent years with increase in clock frequency and reduction in physical dimensions of interconnects. It is important to understand the noise components in terms of current paths and the mitigation techniques. Although the common mode and differential mode components of conducted noise are analyzed in the context of a power electronics system the analytical and theoretical techniques hold good for other domains as well such as embedded systems and VLSI. This paper deals with modelling design and development of an EMI filter for conducted mode noise in flash lamp power supply. Also a design procedure of EMI filters sustaining to the military standard 461E is presented and it is based on practical measurement of conducted emissions. Design procedure in this paper considers common mode and differential mode separately. The paper also consists of considerations for magnetic core material integrated common mode CM common mode choke size optimization and differential mode DM choke etc. Design examples are given and are experimentally verified.

  12. Compliance of Parenting Magazines Advertisements with American Academy of Pediatrics Recommendations. (United States)

    Pitt, Michael B; Berger, Jennifer N; Sheehan, Karen M


    This study examined 3218 advertisements from the two parenting magazines with highest circulation in the United States. The authors compared each advertisement for a product for use by children, against all the published recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) on topics such as toy safety, helmet use, age-defined choking hazards, infant sleep safety, and others. Any advertisement with images or products which went against a published AAP recommendation was deemed as non-adherence and was categorized according to the statement it contradicted. Nearly one in six (15.7%) of the advertisements contained example(s) of non-adherence to AAP recommendations, with twelve categories of offense represented. Categories ranked by overall share from most to least include: non-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical treatments, age-defined choking hazards, vitamins, cold medicine, formula, oral care, screen time, toy/playground safety, infant sleep, nutrition, water safety, and fall risk. Given that repeated exposure to messages in advertisements has been associated with changes in health decision-making, and parents often turn to parenting magazines for advice and ideas regarding their children, the publishers might consider screening the content in order to prevent confusing and potentially dangerous messages from being disseminated in the media.

  13. Mathematical analysis of intermittent gas injection model in oil production (United States)

    Tasmi, Silvya, D. R.; Pudjo, S.; Leksono, M.; Edy, S.


    Intermittent gas injection is a method to help oil production process. Gas is injected through choke in surface and then gas into tubing. Gas forms three areas in tubing: gas column area, film area and slug area. Gas column is used to propel slug area until surface. A mathematical model of intermittent gas injection is developed in gas column area, film area and slug area. Model is expanding based on mass and momentum conservation. Using assume film thickness constant in tubing, model has been developed by Tasmi et. al. [14]. Model consists of 10 ordinary differential equations. In this paper, assumption of pressure in gas column is uniform. Model consist of 9 ordinary differential equations. Connection of several variables can be obtained from this model. Therefore, dynamics of all variables that affect to intermittent gas lift process can be seen from four equations. To study the behavior of variables can be analyzed numerically and mathematically. In this paper, simple mathematically analysis approach is used to study behavior of the variables. Variables that affect to intermittent gas injection are pressure in upstream valve and in gas column. Pressure in upstream valve will decrease when gas mass in valve greater than gas mass in choke. Dynamic of the pressure in the gas column will decrease and increase depending on pressure in upstream valve.

  14. Study of cavitation phenomena based on a technique for visualizing bubbles in a liquid pressurized chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, R. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)], E-mail:; Salvador, F.J.; Gimeno, J.; Morena, J. de la [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 (Spain)


    In this paper, the influence of nozzle geometry on cavitation and near-nozzle spray behavior under liquid pressurized ambient is studied. For this purpose, eight steel drilled plates, with different diameters and degrees of conicity of their holes, are analyzed. A special near-nozzle field visualization technique, using a test rig pressurized with fuel, is used. Due to the difference in refractive index between liquid and vapor phase, bubbles present at the outlet of the orifice are visualized. The pressure conditions at which bubbles start appearing at the orifice outlet are compared with those at which choked flow appears. The results showed that pressure conditions for inception of cavitation obtained in the visualization tests differs from those seen for choked flow (5-8% in terms of cavitation number). In addition to this, the images taken are analyzed to get the angle of the jet formed by fuel bubbles, showing that it increases significantly for those conditions more prone to cavitate. Furthermore, comparison of bubbles generation when increasing or decreasing backpressure indicates the presence of hysteresis in cavitation inception phenomena.

  15. 用教学仪器测试电磁炉外泄电磁辐射%Testing Electromagnetic Cooker's Leakage of Electromagnetic Radiation with Teaching Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    根据电磁感应原理,推导出电磁炉外泄电磁辐射中感生电场、磁场的幅值与测试电感线圈中产生的感生电动势有效值的关系,阐述了应用电感线圈、交流毫伏表和示波器测试电磁炉在周围空间产生的电磁场频率和周围空间中不同方位、不同距离的电磁场大小的方法和过程。同时还测试了不同工作状态下电磁炉最大外泄电磁辐射情况和使用不同大小的锅具时电磁炉最大外泄电磁辐射情况。%The paper presents the relations among induced electromotive force, magnetic amplitude and testing electromagnetic inductive choke in induction cooker's leakage of electromagnetic radiation based on electromagnetic induction principle, and elucidates electromagnetic field frequency around the cooker with electromagnetic inductive choke, AC Millivoltmeter and oscilloscope and testing methods and process for the electromagnetic field values in different directions and distances. Meanwhile, cooker's maxim electromagnetic leakages in different working states and using different sizes of cookers are tested.

  16. Aeroacoustic Simulation for NASA CC3 Centrifugal Compressor Operating at off Design Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqaradawi Mohamed


    Full Text Available This paper covers the characterization of the acoustic noise and the unsteady flow field of a high speed centrifugal compressor NASA CC3. In order to accurately predict the noise, all analyses are carried out through the use of Large Eddy Simulation and Ffowcs Williams–Hawkings model for noise prediction. The relative effect of hub cavity on flow characteristics and sound levels is investigated, for a compressor stage with a total pressure ratio equal to 4, working from surge to near choke condition. In comparison with the experimental results from literature, the predicted compressor performance and flow field are predicted well. The hub cavity flow effect on the compressor aeroacoustic generated noise is shown in the paper. The unsteady static pressure and sound pressure levels are compared not only at different location but also for design and off design operating points. The internal flow results inside the hub cavity are presented at surge, design and near choke points. The conclusion is that the cavity effect of the centrifugal compressor cannot be ignored in the numerical prediction of aerodynamic generated noise. The impeller back plate of the rotor experiences a strong pressure fluctuation, which is maxima at the impeller outer radius for all operating point, but higher pressure values at the surge point.

  17. Near-Field Coupling Communication Technology For Human-Area Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Nagai


    Full Text Available We propose a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses near-field coupling TRXs. This technology aims to achieve a "touch and connect" form of communication and a new concept of "touch the world" by using a quasi-electrostatic field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body. This paper explains the principles underlying near-field coupling communication. Special attention has been paid to common-mode noise since our communication system is strongly susceptible to this. We designed and made a common-mode choke coil and a transformer to act as common-mode noise filters to suppress common-mode noise. Moreover, we describe how we evaluated the quality of communication using a phantom model with the same electrical properties as the human body and present the experimental results for the packet error rate (PER as a function of the signal to noise ratio (SNR both with the common-mode choke coil or the transformer and without them. Finally, we found that our system achieved a PER of less than 10-2 in general office rooms using raised floors, which corresponded to the quality of communication demanded by communication services in ordinary office spaces.

  18. Depressurization and two-phase flow of water containing high levels of dissolved nitrogen gas (United States)

    Simoneau, R. J.


    Depressurization of water containing various concentrations of dissolved nitrogen gas was studied. In a nonflow depressurization experiment, water with very high nitrogen content was depressurized at rates from 0.09 to 0.50 MPa per second and a metastable behavior which was a strong function of the depressurization rate was observed. Flow experiments were performed in an axisymmetric, converging diverging nozzle, a two dimensional, converging nozzle with glass sidewalls, and a sharp edge orifice. The converging diverging nozzle exhibited choked flow behavior even at nitrogen concentration levels as low as 4 percent of the saturation level. The flow rates were independent of concentration level. Flow in the two dimensional, converging, visual nozzle appeared to have a sufficient pressure drop at the throat to cause nitrogen to come out of solution, but choking occurred further downstream. The orifice flow motion pictures showed considerable oscillation downstream of the orifice and parallel to the flow. Nitrogen bubbles appeared in the flow at back pressures as high as 3.28 MPa, and the level at which bubbles were no longer visible was a function of nitrogen concentration.

  19. A Study of Numerical Simulation of Mixer-ejector and the Method of Performance Prediction%引射混合器数值模拟及性能预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶辉; 张钰; 陈志敏; 张俭


    通过引射混合器主次流不同压比下混合管内流场的模拟计算,确定了该几何构形下发生壅塞时的主次流压比.对高压比下次流壅塞现象的研究表明,壅塞以后继续增大压比,当主流出口静压远大于混合管静压时,混合管内气流只经历一次膨胀和再压缩的过程.同时激波位置固定,不再随压比的继续增大发生变化.基于准一维控制体模型、Fabri壅塞假设模型和连续方程,提出了能有效预测引射器最高性能的饱和超音速模型,推出了此模型下引射系数与总压比和面积比之间的关系.由此得到直接反映引射器性能的特性曲线和修正曲线.最后把解析结果与数值计算的结果进行对比,验证了该模型的有效性.%The pressure ratio between the primary flow and the secondary flow is first ascertained when the choking happens under the geometrical configuration, through numerical simulation of the flow field in the mixing duct under different pressure ratios of the mixer-ejector. The analysis of the secondary flow choking under high pressure ratio shows that, the flow in the mixing duct undergoes only one cycle of expansion and recompression before the flow mixes with the ambient pressure at the exit of the mixing duct when the pressure is high enough. Meanwhile, the position of shocks and expansions stays unaltered, not changing with the pressure ratio. A saturated supersonic model is proposed which effectively predicts the maximum performance of the mixer-ejector in terms of the quasi-1 D control volume model, Fabri Choking model, as well as the continuity equation, and then derivates the relationship among the bypass ratio, total pressure ratio and area ratio. Performance curve and modifed curve that directly embodies the maximum performance are obtained based on this model. Finally, a comparison between numerical simulation and calculation effectively confirms the reliability of this model.

  20. The fate of Mediterranean lagoons under climate change (United States)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Ghezzo, Michol; Bellafiore, Debora; Bajo, Marco


    A numerical model (SHYFEM) has been applied to 10 Mediterranean lagoons and a comparison study between the lagoons has been carried out. The lagoons are the lagoons of Venice, Marano-Grado, Varano and Lesina in the Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras lagoon in Sardinia, and the lagoons of Ganzirri and Faro in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain and the Nador lagoon in Morocco. These lagoons give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. The lagoons range from a leaky type of lagoons to a choked type. The number of inlets ranges from just one in the Nador lagoon to 6 in the case of the Marano-Grado lagoons. Tidal range is from nano-tidal to micro-tidal. The depth ranges from an average depth of 1 m to up to 40 meters. The model is a finite element model, especially suited to shallow water basins with complicated geometric and morphologic variations. The model can compute the basic hydrodynamics, dispersion of tracers, temperature and salinity evolution, sediment transport and ecological parameters. Building on an earlier study that focused on the classification of Mediterranean lagoons based on hydrodynamics, exchange rates and renewal time, this study is concerned with the changes in physical parameters under climate change. Data from IPCC has been used to simulate the changes in renewal time, salinity and temperature of all lagoons, with respect to the control simulation. Whenever possible downscaled data for the Mediterranean basin have been used. Sea level rise scenarios are taken from the last IPCC report. The model has been applied in its 3D version and the chosen setup allows a comparison between results in the different lagoons. Results indicate that the differences of renewal time between all studied lagoons become smaller. This means that leaky lagoons become less leaky and choked lagoons less choked. What concerns temperature and salinity, changes occurring in the sea are amplified inside lagoons

  1. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.


    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  2. Computation of nonlinear one-dimensional waves in near-sonic flows (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kaiser, J. E.; Shaker, B. S.


    A nonlinear analysis is developed for sound propagation in a variable area duct in which the mean flow approaches choking conditions. A quasi-one-dimensional model is used; results of the standard linear theory are compared with the nonlinear results to assess the significance of the nonlinear terms. The nonlinear analysis represents the acoustic disturbance as a sum of interacting harmonics. Numerical results show that the basic signal is unaffected by the presence of higher harmonics if the throat Mach number is not too large, but as the Mach number approaches unity more harmonics are needed to describe the acoustic propagation. The strong interactions among harmonics in the numerical results occur in a region which is generally consistent with the nonlinear inner-expansion region of Callegari and Myers.

  3. Diversity and taxonomy of endophytes from Leymus chinensis in the Inner Mongolia steppe of China. (United States)

    Zhu, Min-Jie; Ren, An-Zhi; Wen, Wei; Gao, Yu-Bao


    Epichloë species and their anamorphic relatives in genus Neotyphodium are fungal symbionts of grasses ubiquitously existing in temperate regions all over the world. To date, 13 Epichloë species and 22 Neotyphodium species have been formally described, based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses. Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) is a dominant grass native to the Inner Mongolia steppe of China. Previously, it was reported to harbor endophytes, but little was known about these endophytes. To investigate their diversity and taxonomy, 96 fungal isolates were obtained from three field populations of L. chinensis. The isolates were classified into three morphotypes based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of sequences of genes for β-tubulin (tubB), translation elongation factor 1-α (tefA), and actin (actG). The dominant morphotype, morphotype I, was identified as a choke disease endophyte, Epichloë bromicola. This broadened the host range and phylogenetic definition of E. bromicola.

  4. The galaxy ancestor problem

    CERN Document Server

    Disney, Mike


    HST finds galaxies whose Tolman dimming should exceed 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies? Or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore this latter hypothesis and argue that Surface Brightness Selection Effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus the HST z=7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighborhood easily today. Conversely the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbors will have completely sunk below the sky at z>1.2 although their diffuse light could account for the missing Reionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well,including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightnesses found in deep fields, the angular size ~ inverse (1+z) law,'Downsizing' which turn...

  5. Large Eddy Simulations of Transverse Combustion Instability in a Multi-Element Injector (United States)


    release, perform, display, or disclose the work. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES For presentation at AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum; Salt Lake City, UT...H2O2 Fuel Driving JP‐8 RP‐1 CH4 CH4 Study C12H26 C2H6 CH4 CH4 Oxidizer  Inlet Driving Perforated Plate Perforated Plate Perforated  Plate Choked...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance #16346 8 Amplitude Control – TIC 1a&b F F FO O O O O F OF O O F F F FF O O F F O ‐ Fuel  & Oxidizer ‐ Oxidizer Only

  6. Sudden acceleration of flames in open channels driven by hydraulic resistance

    CERN Document Server

    Yanez, J; Bykov, V


    Hydrogen-air deflagrations with venting at the end of obstructed tubes are studied experimentally and numerically. A shockless transition to the so-called chocked regime of the flame propagation is reported. Mixtures with 13% vol. of hydrogen were ignited from the open end of the tube at the interface between fuel and the ambient air. Three venting ratios were selected, closed, 40% and 100%. In all cases the flame initially propagates without acceleration at a velocity close to the laminar flame speed. The flame configuration excludes most of conventionally acknowledged phenomena of the DDT, namely, volumetric explosions, igniting shock and shock waves interactions. However, after an induction period, of the order of 1 sec, the flame accelerates more than 100 times, within a period of 3-30 ms, until the steady-state choked regime is established. The mechanism of such rapid acceleration is investigated both numerically and analytically. A one dimensional reduced description was suggested and analyzed to model ...

  7. Aerodynamic performance of axial-flow fan stage operated at nine inlet guide vane angles. [to be used on vertical lift aircraft (United States)

    Moore, R. D.; Reid, L.


    The overall performance of a fan stage with nine inlet guide vane angle settings is presented. These data were obtained over the stable flow range at speeds from 60 to 120 percent of design for vane setting angles from -25 to 42.5 degrees. At design speed and design inlet guide vane angle, the stage has a peak efficiency of 0.892 at a pressure ratio of 1.322 and a flow of 25.31 kg/s. The stall margin based on peak efficiency and stall was 20 percent. Based on an operating line passing through the peak efficiency point at the design setting angle, the useful operating range of the stage at design speed is limited by stall at the positive setting angles and by choke at the negative angles. At design the calculated static thrust along the operating line varied from 68 to 114 percent of that obtained at design setting angle.

  8. Pressure activated stability-bypass-control valves to increase the stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5 inlet with 40 percent internal contraction (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.


    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. The inlet stable airflow range provided by various stability-bypass entrance configurations in alternate combination with several stability-bypass exit controls was determined for both steady-state conditions and internal transient pulses. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit. Instart angles of attack were determined for the various stability-bypass entrance configurations. The response of the inlet-coldpipe system to internal and external oscillating disturbances was determined. Poppet valves at the stability-bypass exit provided an inlet stable airflow range of 28 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  9. Poppet valve control of throat stability bypass to increase stable airflow range of a Mach 2.5. inlet with 60 percent internal contraction (United States)

    Mitchell, G. A.; Sanders, B. W.


    The throat of a Mach 2.5 inlet with a coldpipe termination was fitted with a stability-bypass system. System variations included several stability bypass entrance configurations. Poppet valves controlled the bypass airflow. The inlet stable airflow range achieved with each configuration was determined for both steady state conditions and internal pulse transients. Results are compared with those obtained without a stability bypass system. Transient results were also obtained for the inlet with a choke point at the diffuser exit and for the inlet with large and small stability bypass plenum volumes. Poppet valves at the stability bypass exit provided the inlet with a stable airflow range of 20 percent or greater at all static and transient conditions.

  10. HOM-Free Linear Accelerating Structure for e+ e- Linear Collider at C-Band

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, K


    HOM-free linear acceleration structure using the choke mode cavity (damped cavity) is now under design for e sup + e sup - linear collider project at C-band frequency (5712 MHz). Since this structure shows powerful damping effect on most of all HOMs, there is no multibunch problem due to long range wakefields. The structure will be equipped with the microwave absorbers in each cells and also the in-line dummy load in the last few cells. The straightness tolerance for 1.8 m long structure is closer than 30 (micro)m for 25% emittance dilution limit, which can be achieved by standard machining and braising techniques. Since it has good vacuum pumping conductance through annular gaps in each cell, instabilities due to the interaction of beam with the residual-gas and ions can be minimized.

  11. Saint Blase, patron saint of otorhinolaryngology. (United States)

    Til-Pérez, G; Tomás-Barberán, M; Magri-Ruiz, C


    Otorhinolaryngology is one of the few medical specialities which has a patron saint, Saint Blase (born 317-AD). He was a Doctor and Bishop in Sebaste, Armenia, and he suffered martyrdom under the rule of the Roman Emperor Licinio (Iliria 250 AD - Tsalonica 325 AD). He was acknowledged as having the ability to protect people against throat infections, after curing a child who had choked on a fishbone. The feast of Saint Blase is on February 3rd, and it is celebrated all over the Western world. There are many other Saints related to our speciality, who protect people against ear, nose and throat disorders. We have reviewed the world literature on this subject.

  12. Measurement of moisture in mill feed ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, A.R.; Moench, P.; Moisel, E. (Council for Mineral Technology, Randburg (South Africa))


    The control of the moisture in the feed to a mill is very important for efficient mill operation. Water is added continuously to the ore fed to a mill to maintain a suitable mix of ore and moisture in the mill. However, problems arise because of the large variation in the moisture content of the ore, which affects the efficiency of the grind. If too little moisture is present, the mill is unable to grind the ore finely enough, creating instead a thick 'porridge' that causes the mill to choke up. On the other hand, too much moisture results in inefficient grinding because the ore is flushed through the mill too quickly. Several techniques are available for measuring moisture and Mintek undertook an investigation in an attempt to develop a reliable robust moisture meter suitable for monitoring the moisture content of ore, which include the following: neutron backscattering, infrared absorption, microwaves, capacitance and moisture as a function of conductivity.

  13. Risky Behaviors and Social Networking Sites: How Is YouTube Influencing Our Youth? (United States)

    Ahern, Nancy R; Sauer, Penny; Thacker, Paige


    Choking, cutting, and setting oneself on fire are just a few of the risky behaviors that the YouTube video sharing website has allowed youth around the world to view, emulate, and comment on. Some researchers contend that the viewing of videos may normalize these behaviors for youth. Disturbing current trends are explored to illustrate the darker side of YouTube. Psychiatric-mental health nurses (PMHNs) are in key positions to help parents and youth better understand the benefits and risks of social networking sites, including YouTube, and to encourage healthy and safe use of the Internet. Nursing implications are offered for PMHNs, educators, health care providers, and parents who have contact with this population.

  14. Harmonic uniflow engine (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.


    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  15. MCHOKeM algorithm with assured bandwidth allocation in DiffServ networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Du; Yang Xiao; Kiseon Kim


    An active queue management (AQM) algorithm called MCHOKeM is presented, which is borrowed from CHOKeW that draws multi-packets at random from the buffer, the multi-packets are compared with an arriving packet and abandoned if they are from the same flow. But MCHOKeM uses multiple virtual queues for different pdodty packets and enhances the drawing function by adjusting the maximum number of draws based on the current status of virtual queue length. The number of parameters that MCHOKeM needs to maintain is determined by the number of priority levels being supported by the router, which usually has a small limited value. In order to explain the features of MCHOKeM, an analytical model is used. A series of simulation tests to evaluate the performance are given.

  16. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, an underestimated disorder in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Vaquero-Sosa


    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a rather frequent clinical entity in patients with neurological problems that can lead to serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia and other disorders like dehydration or malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. It should be suspected in children with splitting of food intake or prolonged feeding, coughing or choking during feeding, continuous drooling or repeated respiratory symptoms. For the diagnosis, apart from the examination of swallowing, additional tests can be run like the water-swallowing test, the viscosity-volume test (which determines what kind of texture and how much volume the patient is able to tolerate, a fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing or a videofluoroscopic swallow study, which is the gold standard for the study of swallowing disorders. It requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an adequate intake of fluids and nutrients with minimal risk of aspiration. If these two conditions cannot be met, a gastrostomy feeding may be necessary.

  17. Hydraulics of a multiple slit-type energy dissipater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 姚莉; 马飞; 吴伟伟


    With the constructions of high dam projects in China, the energy dissipation downstream of a dam becomes a serious concern. In this study, a multiple slit-type energy dissipater, with different reduction size slits in the outlet, is developed on the basis of conventional slit-type energy dissipaters, aiming to enhance the energy dissipation through the turbulence and the friction between the different layers of the jet flow and the air entrainment due to the increased surface of the flow to the air. The hydraulic characteristics of the energy dissipater are experimentally investigated by means of three sets of physical models in nine cases, to characterize the geometric parameters with suitable performance. The main concerns are the flow regime, the jet flow trajectory, the energy dissipation, the cavitation characteristics, and the flow choking. The results indicate that the dissipater enjoys a high energy dissipation ratio with suitable hydraulic performance comparing with the conventional slit-type energy dissipaters.

  18. First case report of anaphylaxis caused by Rajgira seed flour (Amaranthus paniculatus) from India: a clinico-immunologic evaluation. (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Niphadkar, P V; Saran, Aditya; Mathur, Chandni; Singh, A B


    The prevalence of food allergy is reported to be 3-4% in adults and about 6% in children. However food allergy across different countries accounts for 35-50 % all cases of anaphylaxis to foods. In the present study, we have reported a case of anaphylaxis to Amaranth grain (Amaranthus paniculatus) commonly known as Rajgira (Ramdana) in India. A 60 year old female suffered anaphylaxis after consuming Rajgira seed flour generally consumed during fasting. Food allergy to Amaranth seeds is not reported so far. The patient reported to hospital with complaints of itching in mouth, choking throat, redness and swelling of face and burning abdomen within 5 min of consuming Rajgira flour. Clinical and immunological investigations revealed SPT and oral challenge positivity beside high allergen specific IgE in the serum of the patient. Three IgE binding protein fractions were detected in roasted Rajgira seed flour extract which could be considered to be allergenically important for triggering anaphylaxis.

  19. Reducing discards without reducing profit: Free gear choice in a Danish result-based management trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Ulrich, Clara; Qvist Eliasen, Søren


    on the means used to obtain these catches (a move towards results-based management). To investigate the potentials and challenges that these paradigm shifts give rise to, a 6-months ‘unrestricted gear’ trial was performed in Denmark in 2015,. Twelve trawlers of different size, rigging, fishing area and target...... species were challenged to test their own solutions to reduce unwanted bycatch and/or choke species, while maintaining their profitability. Fully documented fishery (FDF) was required, including electronic monitoring, self-estimation of discards and haul-by-haul catch documentation. Fishers’ participation......, where unwanted catches could be reduced to some extent without negative effects on economic viability. Some practical implementation challenges were nevertheless encountered, which are discussed in the perspective of implementing results-based management at full scale....

  20. One watt gallium arsenide class-E power amplifier with a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator filter embedded in the output network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Holzer


    Full Text Available Integration of a class-E power amplifier (PA and a thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR filter is shown to provide high power added efficiency in addition to superior out-of-band spectrum suppression. A discrete gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor is implemented to operate as a class-E amplifier from 2496 to 2690 MHz. The ACPF7041 compact bandpass FBAR filter is incorporated to replace the resonant LC tank in a traditional class-E PA. To reduce drain voltage stress, the supply choke is replaced by a finite inductance. The fabricated PA provides up to 1 W of output power with a peak power added efficiency (PAE of 58%. The improved out-of-band spectrum filtering is compared to a traditional class-E with discrete LC resonant filtering. Such PAs can be combined with linearisation techniques to reduce out-of-band emissions.

  1. Oral trauma and dental emergency management recommendations of first-aid textbooks and manuals. (United States)

    Zadik, Yehuda


    The recommendations of oral trauma and dental emergencies management of nine first-aid textbooks and manuals from the last two decades were evaluated. Only one book includes all the relevant topics: dental anatomy, management of tooth luxations and avulsion, tooth fracture, mandible dislocation, jaw fracture, intraoral bleeding and dental pain. Two books recommend self-replantation of an avulsed tooth, but four books detail the storage media and evaluate the importance of a quick referral to a dental surgery. In three first-aid books, the only mention of oral trauma is the hazard of choking from tooth fragments, and in one other book, only mandible dislocation is mentioned as oral trauma. The insufficient information of oral trauma management in these first-aid texts partly explains the previous reports of poor and inadequate knowledge in that topic among medics, teachers and the general public.

  2. Anomalous hydrocracking of triglycerides over CoMo-catalyst-influence of reaction intermediates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Anand; M G Sibi; D Verma; A K Sinha


    Reaction intermediates have been identified and followed to understand anomalous cracking of jathropha oil triglycerides in the presence of sulphided Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. Undesirable C-C coupling reactions are favoured at temperatures between 320° and 340°C, giving waxy oligomerization products, whereas at temperatures above 340°C, direct hydrocracking of triglycerides to lighter and middle distillates were favoured. To minimize undesirable waxy oligomerization products, higher pressures (>80 bar) and higher H2/feed ratios (>1500) were necessary. Aldol condensation and ketonization reactions between the reaction intermediates are counter-productive as they result in waxy long chain oxygenated products which tend to accumulate on the catalyst surface, choke the reactor and cause rapid catalyst deactivation. Reaction conditions have to be optimized to minimize condensation reaction during this process.

  3. Regnar -- Development of a marginal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalund, K.M.; Brodersen, F.P.; Roigaard-Petersen, B. [Maersk Olie og Gas AS, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Regnar is a small marginal field located some 13 km from the main Dan F complex and is the first subsea completion in Danish waters, operated by Maersk Olie og Gas AS. A short lifetime has been predicted for the field which therefore has been developed as a low cost project, using a combination of subsea technology and minimum topside facilities. Regnar consists of a subsea x-mas tree producing through a 6 inch pipeline with a 2 1/2 inch chemical piggyback line to Dan F. The x-mas tree and the subsea choke valve are controlled from a buoy moored nearby the well. The buoy is radio linked to Dan F. The Regnar field was brought on stream on September 26, 1993.

  4. 120 MW, 800 MHz Magnicon for a Future Muon Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield


    Development of a pulsed magnicon at 800 MHz was carried out for the muon collider application, based on experience with similar amplifiers in the frequency range between 915 MHz and 34.3 GHz. Numerical simulations using proven computer codes were employed for the conceptual design, while established design technologies were incorporated into the engineering design. A cohesive design for the 800 MHz magnicon amplifier was carried out, including design of a 200 MW diode electron gun, design of the magnet system, optimization of beam dynamics including space charge effects in the transient and steady-state regimes, design of the drive, gain, and output cavities including an rf choke in the beam exit aperture, analysis of parasitic oscillations and design means to eliminate them, and design of the beam collector capable of 20 kW average power operation.

  5. Numerical Investigation & Comparison of a Tandem-Bladed Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Stage with Conventional Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Noman Danish; Shafiq Rehman Qureshi; Abdelrahman EL-Leathy; Salah Ud-Din Khan; Usama Umer; Ma Chaochen


    Extensive numerical investigations of the performance and flow structure in an unshrouded tandem-bladed centrifugal compressor are presented in comparison to a conventional compressor.Stage characteristics are explored for various tip clearance levels,axial spacings and circumferential clockings.Conventional impeller was modified to tandem-bladed design with no modifications in backsweep angle,meridional gas passage and camber distributions in order to have a true comparison with conventional design.Performance degradation is observed for both the conventional and tandem designs with increase in tip clearance.Linear-equation models for correlating stage characteristics with tip clearance are proposed.Comparing two designs,it is clearly evident that the conventional design shows better performance at moderate flow rates.However; near choke flow,tandem design gives better results primarily because of the increase in throat area.Surge point flow rate also seems to drop for tandem compressor resulting in increased range of operation.

  6. PROSE: Proactive, Selective CDN Participation for P2P Streaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hui Lv; Li-Jiang Chen; Jie Wu; Da Deng; Si-Jia Huang; Yi Huang


    Many production peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming systems use content delivery networks (CDN) to protect the user's quality of experiences.Thus,how to efficiently utilize the capacity of CDN (e.g.,which peers receive services from the CDN nodes) is a problem of practical significance.Existing solutions adopt a passive,on-demand approach,which is inefficient iu utilizing CDN resources.In this paper,we propose PROSE,a simple,novel scheme to achieve proactive,selective CDN participation for P2P streaming.PROSE introduces novel concepts such as choke point expansion nodes/super nodes and leads to efficient,light-weighted,and distributed algorithms to identify and serve these nodes using CDN.Our experimental results show that PROSE achieves at least 10%~25% performance improvement and 2~4 times overhead reduction compared with existing general CDN-P2P-hybrid schemes.

  7. Motive flow calculation through ejectors for transcritical CO2 heat pumps. Comparison between new experimental data and predictive methods (United States)

    Boccardi, G.; Lillo, G.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A. W.; Pieve, M.; Trinchieri, R.


    The revival of CO2 as refrigerant is due to new restrictions in the use of current refrigerants in developed countries, as consequence of environmental policy agreements. An optimal design of each part is necessary to overcome the possible penalty in performance, and the use of ejectors instead of throttling valves can improve the performance. Especially for applications as CO2 HPs for space heating, the use of ejectors has been little investigated. The data collected in a cooperation project between ENEA (C.R. Casaccia) and Federico II University of Naples have been used to experimentally characterize several ejectors in terms of motive mass flow rate, both in transcritical CO2 conditions and not. A statistical comparison is presented in order to assess the reliability of predictive methods available in the open literature for choked flow conditions.

  8. 基于BT协议的数据分发机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智超; 岳炎



  9. Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruy, H.J.


    Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.

  10. Case Study On Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available Electrical Power constitutes a major component of the manufacturing cost in industry. In an electrical installation, power factor may become poor because of induction motors, welding machines, powertransformers, voltage regulators, arc and induction furnaces, choke coils, neon signs etc. A poor power factor for the plant causes huge amount of losses, leading to thermal problem in switchgears. However power factor is controllable with a properly designed power factor improvement capacitors system. The power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of electrical useful power, allows a better and more rational technical-economical management of the plants. This paper describes different aspects of power factor improvement in a typical industrial plant with the help of a casestudy.

  11. Management of Panic Anxiety with Agoraphobia by Using Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aslam


    Full Text Available Panic disorder with agoraphobia is a psychological disorder. We are presenting a case report of male client, visted as out door patient in the counseling centre of National Institute of psychology. Client reported the symptoms such as palpitations, pounding heart, accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling/shaking, feeling of choking, chest pain, discomfort, nausea, abdominal distress, feeling dizzy, lightheadedness, and fear of losing control when he is in the crowd. The signs and symptoms of a panic attack develop abruptly and usually reach their peak within 10 min. Most panic attacks end within 20 to 30 min, and they rarely last more than an hour. The client was diagnosed, Panic Anxiety with Agoraphobia. Cognitive behaviour therapy was used for the treatment. After seven sessions, client′s symptoms were diminished.

  12. Acupuncture Treatment of Chest Bi Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Jinsheng; Wang Xinzhong


    @@ CASE HISTORY A male,a retired officer of 61 years old,paid his first visit on May 12,2006.The patient stated that 2 weeks before he suddenly got paroxysmal precordial choking pain,with irregular attacks.Each attack would last several seconds to several minutes.The attack was accompanied with heavy oppressed sensation in the precordial region,palpitation,lassitude,and in severe cases,sweating,which was once diagnosed by a hospital as'coronary heart disease'.Recalling the case history,the patient said that several days before he got angry with others because of some affairs in work,and he was not so used to the life pattern since he had just retired from his busy working post.At usual times,he was quick tempered and peevish.In recent days,he had poor appetite,and loose stool.

  13. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, an underestimated disorder in pediatrics. (United States)

    Vaquero-Sosa, Esther; Francisco-González, Laura; Bodas-Pinedo, Andrés; Urbasos-Garzón, Cristina; Ruiz-de-León-San-Juan, Antonio


    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a rather frequent clinical entity in patients with neurological problems that can lead to serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia and other disorders like dehydration or malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. It should be suspected in children with splitting of food intake or prolonged feeding, coughing or choking during feeding, continuous drooling or repeated respiratory symptoms. For the diagnosis, apart from the examination of swallowing, additional tests can be run like the water-swallowing test, the viscosity-volume test (which determines what kind of texture and how much volume the patient is able to tolerate), a fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing or a videofluoroscopic swallow study, which is the gold standard for the study of swallowing disorders.It requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an adequate intake of fluids and nutrients with minimal risk of aspiration. If these two conditions cannot be met, a gastrostomy feeding may be necessary.

  14. Prediction of Sound Waves Propagating Through a Nozzle Without/With a Shock Wave Using the Space-Time CE/SE Method (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.


    The benchmark problems in Category 1 (Internal Propagation) of the third Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) Work-shop sponsored by NASA Glenn Research Center are solved using the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method. The first problem addresses the propagation of sound waves through a nearly choked transonic nozzle. The second one concerns shock-sound interaction in a supersonic nozzle. A quasi one-dimension CE/SE Euler solver for a nonuniform mesh is developed and employed to solve both problems. Numerical solutions are compared with the analytical solution for both problems. It is demonstrated that the CE/SE method is capable of solving aeroacoustic problems with/without shock waves in a simple way. Furthermore, the simple nonreflecting boundary condition used in the CE/SE method which is not based on the characteristic theory works very well.

  15. Riser simulation and radial porosity distribution characterization for gas-fluidized bed of cork particles (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Ouyang, Jie; Li, Qiang


    Numerical simulations are carried out for gas-solid fluidized bed of cork particles, using discrete element method. Results exhibit the existence of a so-called anti core-annular porosity profile with lower porosity in the core and higher porosity near the wall for non-slugging fluidization. The tendency to form this unfamiliar anti core-annular porosity profile is stronger when the solid flux is higher. There exist multiple inflection points in the simulated axial solid volume fraction profile for non-slugging fluidization. Results also show that the familiar core-annular porosity profile still appears for slugging fluidization. In addition, the classical choking phenomenon can be captured at the superficial gas velocity slightly lower than the correlated transport velocity.

  16. Comments on compressible flow through butterfly valves (United States)

    Blakenship, John G.

    In the flow analysis of process piping systems, it is desirable to treat control valves in the same way as elbow, reducers, expansions, and other pressure loss elements. In a recently reported research program, the compressible flow characteristics of butterfly valves were investigated. Fisher Controls International, Inc., manufacturer of a wide range of control valves, publishes coefficients that can be used to calculate flow characteristics for the full range of valve movement. The use is described of the manufacturer's data to calculate flow parameters as reported by the researchers who investigated compressible flow through butterfly valves. The manufacturer's data produced consistent results and can be used to predict choked flow and the pressure loss for unchoked flow.

  17. Noise generated by flow through large butterfly valves (United States)

    Huff, Ronald G.


    A large butterfly valve (1.37 m diam) was acoustically tested to measure the noise generated and propagating in both the upstream and downstream directions. The experimental investigation used wall mounted pressure transducers to measure the fluctuating component of the pipe static pressure upstream and downstream of the valve. Microphones upstream of the pipe inlet and located in a plenum were used to measure the noise radiated from the valve in the upstream direction. Comparison of the wall pressure downstream of the valve to a prediction were made. Reasonable agreement was obtained with the valve operating at a choked condition. The noise upstream of the valve is 30 dB less than that measured downstream.

  18. A Theory of Unstaggered Airfoil Cascades in Compressible Flow (United States)

    Spurr, Robert A.; Allen, H. Julian


    By use of the methods of thin airfoil theory, which include effects of compressibility, rela.tio^as are developed which permit the rapid determination of the pressure distribution over an unstaggered cascade of airfoils of a given profile, and the determination of the profile shape necessary to yield a given pressure distribution for small chord gap ratios, For incompressible flow the results of the theory are compared with available examples obtained by the more exact method of conformal transformation. Although the theory is developed for small chord/gap ratios, these comparisons show that it may be extended to chord/gap ratios of order unity, at least for low speed flows. Choking of cascades, a phenomenon of particular importance in compressor design, is considered.

  19. Preliminary paleoecological reconstruction of long-term relationship between human and environment in the northern part of Danube-along Plain, Hungary (United States)

    Kustár, Rozália; Molnár, Dávid; Sümegi, Pál; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sávai, Szilvia


    The peat bog at Ócsa is located at the northern part of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves at the transitional zone of two landscapes with different morphological characters. At the boundary of the Danube-Tisa Interfluves and the Danube-along Plain a marshland sequence can be found from Hajós to Ócsa. We extended our research to the Ócsa peat bog to complete the environmental historical investigations in the examined area, as well. The bog is located in a former pool formed by the Danube River in which aeolian sand and thick lake sediment deposited from the Late Pleistocene. The initial oligotrophic lake became mesotrophic, therefore thick carbonate sediment deposited. Afterwards, as a consequence of the Neolithic human occupations, the natural development of the lake changed drastically and the lake choked up. The pollen and quartermalacological analysis of the area support the mentioned geological processes.

  20. Compact ASD Topologies for Single-Phase Integrated Motor Drives with Sinusoidal Input Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul


    -density integration of the converter caused by the large size of the passive components (electrolytic capacitors and iron chokes) and vibration of the converter enclosure. This paper analyzes the implementation aspects for obtaining a compact and cost effective single-phase ASD with sinusoidal input current......, no needfor shielded cables to reduce EM1 (Electro Magnetic Inteiference), no needfor cables for the speed transducers or for other sensorsfor industrial process control (e.g. pressure). This solution is currently available up to 7.5 kW being not used in the medium and high power range due to a low....... Topologies of single-phase converters that take advantage of the motor leakage inductance are analyzed. The installed power in silicon active devices of these topologies is compared with a standard situation, showing that this will involve higher cost. As the iron core of the inductors is not suitable...

  1. Validation of Altimeter Data in the Spanish Coasts (Gulf of Cadiz and Strait of Gibraltar): Lessons Learned in the Prospect of Sentinel-3 (United States)

    Gomez-Enri, P.; Vignudelli, S.; Coca, J.; Tejedor, B.; Aboitiz, A.; Munoz, J. J.; Alvarez, O.; Cipollini, P.; Passaro, M.; Villares, P.


    The Gulf of Cadiz (Southwestern Iberian Peninsula) and the Strait of Gibraltar (the choke point connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) are being used to validate altimeter information coming from past (Envisat RA-2) and present (Cryosat-2 SIRAL) European Space Agency (ESA) missions, among others. These regions represent a valuable opportunity to validate future (Sentinel-3 SRAL) altimeter missions too. We present some of the results obtained in the study areas in terms of validation of altimeter-derived sea level data coming from Envisat RA-2 and Cryosat-2 SIRAL against the in-situ measurements, and we discuss the extension of the developed techniques to AltiKa SARAL (ISRO-CNES) and Sentinel-3 SRAL (ESA).

  2. Unique drowning in an atypical medium: paraffin wax in the setting of a motor vehicle crash--case report and literature survey. (United States)

    Mullan, Theresa M; Vey, Eric Lee


    Among the various modes of death due to asphyxiation, drowning is unique. Unlike other types of suffocation associated with occluding airway obstructions (i.e. choking and smothering); with drowning, there is typically filling and involvement of the majority of the tracheobronchial tree and aerodigstive tract. Although the usual drowning medium is water, it can also occur in other media. Moreover, although drowning sometimes occurs in the setting of a motor vehicle accident, an element of vehicular submersion or immersion is usually operative in such instances. The case presented here is that of a motor vehicle crash which resulted in drowning where no immersion of the vehicle occurred. Moreover, the drowning medium was paraffin wax, rather than water. Other cases in the literature of drowning in atypical media and also those which are reported in the concomitant presence of a motor vehicle accident are presented.

  3. Clipper circuit of pulse modulator used for klystron-5045 power supply

    CERN Document Server

    Akimov, A V


    While the operation of modulator to the pulsed transformer of klystron-5045, current through the primary winding of the pulse transformer (PT) continues to flow even upon the end of the klystron voltage operating pulse. This is determined by an energy stored in magnetizing inductance. The prolongation of magnetizing current passing process simultaneously with the premature choking of thyratron can cause high voltage of inverse polarity at the klystron, which cause the destruction of the cathode. We have considered the possibility of shortening time of magnetizing current passage for the charge of reasonable choice of clipper circuit parameters. The behavior of clipper circuit was studied in modulators used for the VEPP-5 (BINP, Russia) preinjector klystron power supply. The optimum operation run of the circuit was selected and its design features are described.

  4. Plummer-Vinson syndrome and dilation therapy: a report of two cases. (United States)

    Demirci, Fikret; Savaş, M Cemil; Kepkep, Necip; Okan, Vahap; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Büyükberber, Mehmet; Gülşen, M Taner


    Plummer-Vinson syndrome is known as the association of postcricoid dysphagia, upper esophageal web, and iron deficiency anemia. Although correction of iron deficiency may result in resolution of dysphagia and sometimes disappearance of the webs, dilation therapy is usually necessary to remove webs and relieve dysphagia. We report two cases of Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Both patients presented with significant and longstanding dysphagia, sideropenia, glossitis and koilonychia. Our two patients had occasional choking and aspiration episodes at eating and endoscope did not pass through at the level of the upper esophagus. Patients' esophagograms revealed the presence of webs in part of the post-cricoid region. Both patients were treated with esophageal bougienage or balloon dilation, and iron supplementation. The patients were examined periodically for two years after the initial treatment and found to be in good general condition.

  5. Engineering design and fabrication of tapered damped X-Band accelerating structures

    CERN Document Server

    Solodko, A; Gudkov, D; Riddone, G; Grudiev, A; Atieh, S; Taborelli, M


    The accelerating structures (AS) are one of the main components of the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), under study at CERN. Each accelerating structure contains about 30 copper discs, which form the accelerating cavity. The requirements of different technical systems, such as vacuum and cooling, have to be considered during the engineering design. A fully featured AS is very challenging and requires several technologies. Different damping methods, waveguides, vacuum manifolds, slots and chokes, result in various design configurations. In the CLIC AS each cell is damped by means of four waveguides coupled to the cell. The vacuum manifolds combine a number of functions such as damping, vacuum pumping and cooling. A silicon carbide absorber, fixed inside of each manifold, is required for effective damping of Higher Order Modes (HOMs). This paper describes the engineering design of the X-band AS with damping material, and focuses on few technical solutions.

  6. The Eddington Limit in Cosmic Rays: An Explanation for the Observed Faintness of Starbursting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Socrates, Aristotle; Davis, Shane W.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico


    We show that the luminosity of a star forming galaxy is capped by the production and subsequent expulsion of cosmic rays from its interstellar medium. By defining an Eddington luminosity in cosmic rays, we show that the star formation rate of a given galaxy is limited by its mass content and the cosmic ray mean free path. When the cosmic ray luminosity and pressure reaches a critical value as a result of vigorous star formation, hydrostatic balance is lost, a cosmic ray-driven wind develops, and star formation is choked off. Cosmic ray pressure-driven winds are likely to produce wind velocities significantly in excess of the galactic escape velocity. It is possible that cosmic ray feedback results in the Faber-Jackson relation for a plausible set of input parameters that describe cosmic ray production and transport, which are calibrated by observations of the Milky Way's interstellar cosmic rays.

  7. Wall interference in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel, with consideration of the effect of compressibility (United States)

    Allen, H Julian; Vincenti, Walter G


    Theoretical tunnel-wall corrections are derived for an airfoil of finite thickness and camber in a two-dimensional-flow wind tunnel. The theory takes account of the effects of the wake of the airfoil and of the compressibility of the fluid, and is based upon the assumption that the chord of the airfoil is small in comparison with the height of the tunnel. Consideration is given to the phenomenon of choking at high speeds and its relation to the tunnel-wall corrections. The theoretical results are compared with the small amount of low-speed experimental data available and the agreement is seen to be satisfactory, even for relatively large values of the chord-height ratio.

  8. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.


    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  9. Australasian Conference on Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, 7th, Brisbane, Australia, August 18-22, 1980, Preprints of Papers (United States)

    A review is provided of research and developments in hydraulics in Australasia during the past decade, and aspects of prospecting for wind energy are explored. Power generation from the East Australian current by use of arrays of submerged Darrieus vertical axis turbines is considered along with normal stress measurements for viscoelastic liquids using real time holographic interferometry of the Weissenberg effect, admissibility requirements and the least squares finite element solution for potential flow, two-dimensional solid blockage in a slotted wall wind tunnel, and the dynamic behavior of propeller anemometers. Attention is given to the potential flow signature of a turbulent spot, topographic forcing in nonlinear and linear barotropic models, flow control by secondary injection, friction factors of aqueous electrolyte solutions in pipe flow, the vortex shedding process behind a circular cylinder, and the use of the method of lines for choking flow in a nozzle.

  10. Magma fracture and hybrid earthquakes in the conduit of Augustine Volcano (United States)

    Buurman, Helena; West, Michael E.


    exploit subtle but systematic shifts in seismic waveforms to examine a 2 h cluster of repeating hybrid volcanic earthquakes preceding the first magmatic explosions at Augustine Volcano in January 2006. We extract differential P wave traveltimes of <0.01 s to determine that the source locations migrated downward by approximately 35 m. Waveform characteristics, GPS observations, and visual reports of lava effusion at the summit suggest that the earthquakes were sourced by fracturing magma in the upper conduit. As the lava cooled and degassed at the surface, the conditions in the upper conduit changed causing the zone in which magma fracture could occur to move downward through the magma column. These changes may also have been the first indicators that the conduit was becoming choked, causing a buildup in pressure that resulted in the large magmatic explosions that followed 36 h later.

  11. A case study in flow assurance of a pipeline-riser system using OLGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Rafael Horschutz; Balino, Jorge Luis [Nucleo de Dinamica e Fluidos. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil)], e-mails:,; Tanaka, Rafael Loureiro; Godinho, Carlos Alberto [Prysmian Cables and Systems, Cariacica, ES (Brazil)], e-mails:,


    In this paper, a case study in flow assurance is performed considering an offshore operating system, using the software OLGA. As operating system we consider a pipeline-riser geometry with typical dimensions of offshore oil production systems, and a three-phase flow of oil, gas and water. The model developed in OLGA considers the composition and dimensions of the tubes, heat transfer parameters, process equipment and fluid sources. The fluids properties are calculated using the software PVTsim. Simulations are ran in order to determine the pipeline inner diameter and insulation required to satisfy pressure and temperature requirements. It is also possible to simulate the transient behavior of the system, which allows to evaluate if production instabilities are present. In case instabilities exist, two mitigation alternatives are evaluated: closure of a choke valve before the separator and gas lift. Considering a possible production shutdown, the tubes insulation is calculated in order to avoid hydrate formation. (author)

  12. Geological Characteristics and Exploration Potential of Dongying Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Herong


    @@ Dongying Sag is an area where the country's earlier large-scale exploration campaign was conducted in Bohai Bay Basin in 1961. An 8.1 t/d of commercial oil flow was discovered in Well Hua-8. Well blowout happened in Well Ying-2 on Sept. 23, 1962.After the drilling, the tested production was 555 t/d with a 15 mm choke, which was the highest single well daily production in China at that time. Since then, stepout exploration has been carried out in Dongying Sag. With 32years of unremitting efforts, 32 oil/gas fields with a 870-square-kilemeter of proved oil-bearing area and 1.75 billion tons of original oil in place, as well as 100-square-kilemeter of proved gas-bearing area and 13.48 billion m3 of gas in place have been discovered in Dongying Sag.

  13. Neurogenic [corrected] and oropharyngeal dysphagia. (United States)

    Rofes, Laia; Clavé, Pere; Ouyang, Ann; Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Vilardell, Natalia; Ortega, Omar


    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is a swallowing disorder caused by congenital abnormalities and structural damage and disease-associated damage of the oral cavity, pharynx, and upper esophageal sphincter. Patients with OD lack the protective mechanisms necessary for effective swallowing, exhibiting difficulty controlling food in the mouth and initiating a swallow, leading to choking, coughing, and nasal regurgitation. OD is a major risk factor for malnutrition, dehydration, and aspiration pneumonia. The following on OD includes commentaries on the application of simulation of oropharyngeal transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and maneuvers like the Shaker exercise to improve the safety and efficacy of swallow in OD patients; the prevalence of esophageal pathologies in OD patients and the need to evaluate the esophagus, esophagogastric junction, and stomach; and strategies for clinical screening to detect OD and aspiration among high-risk patients and to improve oral health care, maintain nutrition and hydration, and prevent aspiration pneumonia.

  14. Gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron


    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  15. Computational simulation of multi-strut central lobed injection of hydrogen in a scramjet combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Choubey


    Full Text Available Multi-strut injection is an approach to increase the overall performance of Scramjet while reducing the risk of thermal choking in a supersonic combustor. Hence computational simulation of Scramjet combustor at Mach 2.5 through multiple central lobed struts (three struts have been presented and discussed in the present research article. The geometry and model used here is slight modification of the DLR (German Aerospace Center scramjet model. Present results show that the presence of three struts injector improves the performance of scramjet combustor as compared to single strut injector. The combustion efficiency is also found to be highest in case of three strut fuel injection system. In order to validate the results, the numerical data for single strut injection is compared with experimental result which is taken from the literature.

  16. Technology, power and the political economy of inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guy, Frederick; Skott, Peter


    and the market power of large companies as well as the parameters that determine the earnings of different groups of workers. The institutional framework is arrived at through complex social and political processes; technology, however, may exert some influence on the course of those processes....... points but modern network technologies have similar features. There is also substantial evidence --from truckers and retail clerks to CEOs -- that power affects the determination of wages. But power relations inevitably have institutional dimensions; regulatory frameworks influence industry structures......Technology can affect the distribution of income directly via its influence on both the bargaining power of different parties and the marginal product of different factors of production. This paper focuses mainly on the first route. The role of power is transparent in the case of medieval choke...

  17. Possibilities of electronics and microelectronics for optimation of the fuel consumption of cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziwisch, G.F.; Meissner, F.


    Electronics in cars have established themselves internationally not only because the increase in safety and comfort but also where optimation of energy transformation is concerned. Those elements and functional groups have to operate in wide ranges of operational temperature, they have to have a high tolerance for shocks and vibratory stresses, they must be resistent against air humidity and against aggressive and corrosive media. Further demands are: indifference to fluctuations of the voltage, active and passive interference safety, high reliability, low price. They can be used in: engine (electronic ignition, fuel metering, speed control); power transmission (automatic gear); control equipment (indication of momentary fuel consumption, board diagnosis, speed warning system, indicator for position of choke and handbrake). Further possibilities for successful use of microlectronics and electronics are recording and processing of traffic flows for tasks of traffic planning and channeling, optimization of routing, traffic stream control and utilization of transport capacities.

  18. Study on the Effects of End-bend Cantilevered Stator in a 2-stage Axial Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songtao WANG; Xin DU; Zhongqi WANG


    Leading edge recambering is applied to the cantilevered stator vanes in a 2-stage compressor in this paper. Dif-ferent curving effects are produced when the end-bend stator vanes are stacked in different ways. Stacking on the leading edge induces a positive curving effect near the casing.When it is stacked on the centre of gravity, a nega-tive curving effect takes place. The numerical investigation shows that the flow field is redistributed when the end-bend stators with leading edge stacking are applied. The variations in the stage matching for the mainstream and near the hub have an impact on the performance of the 2-stage compressor. The isentropic efficiency and the total pressure ratio of the compressor are increased near the design condition. The compressor total pressure ratio is decreased near choke and near stall. The maximum flow rate is reduced and the stall margin is decreased.

  19. Evaluation of seals for high-performance cryogenic turbomachines (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Tam, L. T.; Braun, M. J.; Vlcek, B. L.


    An approach to computing flow and dynamic characteristics for seals or bearings is discussed. The local average velocity was strongly influenced by inlet and exit effects and fluid injection, which in turn drove zones of secondary flow. For the restricted three-dimensional model considered, the integral averaged results were in reasonable agreement with selected data. Unidirectional pressure measurements alone were insufficient to define such flow variations. However, for seal and bearing leakage correlations the principles of corresponding states were found to be useful. Also discussed are three phenomena encountered during testing of three eccentric nonrotating seal configurations for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Program. Fluid injection, choking within a seal, and pressure profile crossover are related to postulated zones of secondary flow or separation and to direct stiffness.

  20. Orally dissolving strips: A new approach to oral drug delivery system. (United States)

    Bala, Rajni; Pawar, Pravin; Khanna, Sushil; Arora, Sandeep


    Recently, fast dissolving films are gaining interest as an alternative of fast dissolving tablets. The films are designed to dissolve upon contact with a wet surface, such as the tongue, within a few seconds, meaning the consumer can take the product without need for additional liquid. This convenience provides both a marketing advantage and increased patient compliance. As the drug is directly absorbed into systemic circulation, degradation in gastrointestinal tract and first pass effect can be avoided. These points make this formulation most popular and acceptable among pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with fear of choking. Over-the-counter films for pain management and motion sickness are commercialized in the US markets. Many companies are utilizing transdermal drug delivery technology to develop thin film formats. In the present review, recent advancements regarding fast dissolving buccal film formulation and their evaluation parameters are compiled.

  1. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  2. Youth Participation and Injury Risk in Martial Arts. (United States)

    Demorest, Rebecca A; Koutures, Chris


    The martial arts can provide children and adolescents with vigorous levels of physical exercise that can improve overall physical fitness. The various types of martial arts encompass noncontact basic forms and techniques that may have a lower relative risk of injury. Contact-based sparring with competitive training and bouts have a higher risk of injury. This clinical report describes important techniques and movement patterns in several types of martial arts and reviews frequently reported injuries encountered in each discipline, with focused discussions of higher risk activities. Some of these higher risk activities include blows to the head and choking or submission movements that may cause concussions or significant head injuries. The roles of rule changes, documented benefits of protective equipment, and changes in training recommendations in attempts to reduce injury are critically assessed. This information is intended to help pediatric health care providers counsel patients and families in encouraging safe participation in martial arts.

  3. Log jams and flood sediment buildup caused channel avulsion in the Pennsylvanian of Atlantic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibling, Martin R; Bashforth, Arden Roy; Falcon-Lang, Howard J;


    Accumulations of logs and flood sediment frequently block modern channels and may trigger avulsion, but these effects are difficult to demonstrate for the ancient record. Braided-fluvial channels in the Pennsylvanian South Bar Formation of Atlantic Canada contain sandstone successions up to 6 m...... are interpreted as stable ‘‘transport log jams’’ formed during floods, although some may have been ‘‘unstable jams’’ stranded on bars during peak-flow recession. Associated with the logs are extrabasinal gravel and intraclasts of mudstone and coal, which suggest that floods in sediment-choked channels undercut...... in some modern rivers. In two instances, a radical change in paleoflow between pre- and post-abandonment channels is consistent with an interpretation that log jams and flood sediment buildup promoted channel-belt avulsion. Although large trees had evolved by Middle to Late Devonian times, it is unlikely...

  4. The coral reefs optimization algorithm: a novel metaheuristic for efficiently solving optimization problems. (United States)

    Salcedo-Sanz, S; Del Ser, J; Landa-Torres, I; Gil-López, S; Portilla-Figueras, J A


    This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems.

  5. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.


    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  6. A self-biased 3D tunable helical antenna in ferrite LTCC substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.


    A ferrite LTCC based helical antenna which also provides magneto-static bias for its frequency tuning is presented in this work. The 3D helical-cum-bias winding design avoids the use of large external electromagnets which are traditionally used with ferrite based tunable antennas. This reduces the overall size of the design while making it efficient by getting rid of demagnetization effect experienced at the air-to-ferrite interface. RF choke and DC blocking capacitor, required to isolate the RF and DC passing through a single structure, are integrated within the multi-layer Ferrite LTCC substrate. Magnetostatic and microwave simulations have been carried out for the design optimization. The prototype antenna demonstrates a tuning range of 10 % around 13 GHz. An optimized design with an air cavity is also presented which reduces the biasing power requirement by 40 %.

  7. An evaluation of 1D loss model collections for the off-design performance prediction of automotive turbocharger compressors (United States)

    Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.


    Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.

  8. Ballistic penetration of Perma-Gel (United States)

    Ryckman, Raymond Albert; Powell, David Arthur; Lew, Adrian


    In this study a number of experiments were performed by taking high-speed footage of the firing spherical steel bullets at different speeds into Perma-Gel, a new synthetic thermoplastic material touted to exhibit similar properties to ordnance ballistic gelatin. We found that the gel undergoes very large and recoverable elastic deformations, which could strongly affect the dynamics of the temporary cavity formed behind the projectile. As with ordnance ballistic gelatin, the diameter of the temporary cavity can be many times the diameter of the projectile, in contrast with that of the permanent cavity which is several times smaller.We also observed that the closure of the cavity chokes the air inside, which could affect its dynamics in noticeable ways. Finally, one of the experiments suggest that the precise model of material failure may not be important to determine the dynamics of the temporary cavity.

  9. Effects of passive control boundary layer around the throat on a transonic diffuser; Throat kinbo ni okeru kyokaiso no passive control ga sen`onsoku diffuser ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaga, M.; Nagai, M.; Haga, T. [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). College of Engineering; Miyara, T. [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Tomita, n. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The effects of a passive control boundary layer applied around the throat on a transonic diffuser were investigated experimentally by wall static pressure measurements and by schlieren optical observations. The experiments were conducted using three kinds of the diffuser walls, one was a solid wall and the other two were porous with a 30 mm or 50 mm-long cavity underneath enabling the flow around the shock wave to circulate through the porous wall. The results show that the Mach waves normal to the flow were observed when diffusers were almost choked and that the pressure fluctuations in a transonic diffuser were greatly reduced by passive control. According to the frequency analysis, the frequency range attenuated by passive control is between about 700 Hz and 1 kHz regardless of the length of the cavities. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Modeling of fluid dynamics interacting with ductile fraction propagation in high pressure pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mihaela Popescu


    This paper presents a computational model for the fluid dynamics in a fractured ductile pipe under high pressure. The pressure profile in front of the crack tip, which is the driving source of crack propagation, is computed using a nonlinear wave equation. The solution is coupled with a one dimensional choked flow analysis behind the crack. The simulation utilizes a high order optimized prefactored com-pact-finite volume method in space, and low dispersion and dissipation Runge-Kutta in time. As the pipe fractures the rapid depressurization take place inside the pipe and the prop-agation of the crack-induced waves strongly influences the outflow dynamics. Consistent with the experimental observa-tion, the model predicts the expansion wave inside the pipe, and the reflection and outflow of the wave. The model also helps characterize the propagation of the crack dynamics and fluid flows around the tip of the crack.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Supersonic Nozzle and Integration into a Variable Cycle Engine Model (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Friedlander, David; Kopasakis, George


    This paper covers the development of an integrated nonlinear dynamic simulation for a variable cycle turbofan engine and nozzle that can be integrated with an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. A previously developed variable cycle turbofan engine model is used for this study and is enhanced here to include variable guide vanes allowing for operation across the supersonic flight regime. The primary focus of this study is to improve the fidelity of the model's thrust response by replacing the simple choked flow equation convergent-divergent nozzle model with a MacCormack method based quasi-1D model. The dynamic response of the nozzle model using the MacCormack method is verified by comparing it against a model of the nozzle using the conservation element/solution element method. A methodology is also presented for the integration of the MacCormack nozzle model with the variable cycle engine.

  12. SAGD optimization under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossuin, J.; Naccache, P. [Schlumberger SIS, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Bailley, W.; Couet, B. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA, (United States)


    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but this is a costly method and ways to make it more efficient are needed. Multiple methods have been developed to optimize the SAGD process but none of them explicitly considered uncertainty. This paper presents an optimization method in the presence of reservoir uncertainty. This process was tested on an SAGD model where three equi-probable geological models are possible. Preparatory steps were first performed to identify key variables and the optimization model was then proposed. The method was shown to be successful in handling a significant number of uncertainties, optimizing the SAGD process and preventing premature steam channels that can choke production. The optimization method presented herein was successfully applied to an SAGD process and was shown to provide better strategies than sensitivity analysis while handling more complex problems.

  13. Automated Kick Control Procedure for an Influx in Managed Pressure Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou


    Full Text Available Within drilling of oil and gas wells, the Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD method with active control of wellbore pressure during drilling has partly evolved from conventional well control procedures. However, for MPD operations the instrumentation is typically more extensive compared to conventional drilling. Despite this, any influx of formation fluids (commonly known as a kick during MPD operations is typically handled by conventional well control methods, at least if the kick is estimated to be larger than a threshold value. Conventional well control procedures rely on manual control of the blow out preventer, pumps, and choke valves and do not capitalize on the benefits from the instrumentation level associated with MPD. This paper investigates two alternative well control procedures specially adapted to backpressure MPD: the dynamic shut-in (DSI procedure and the automatic kick control (AKC procedure. Both methods capitalize on improvements in Pressure While Drilling (PWD technology. A commercially available PWD tool buffers high-resolution pressure measurements, which can be used in an automated well control procedure. By using backpressure MPD, the choke valve opening is tuned automatically using a feedback-feedforward control method. The two procedures are evaluated using a high fidelity well flow model and cases from a North Sea drilling operation are simulated. The results show that using AKC procedure reduces the time needed to establish control of the well compared to DSI procedure. It also indicates that the AKC procedure reduces the total kick size compared to the DSI procedure, and thereby reduces the risk of lost circulation.

  14. CT findings in three cases of cystic meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumoto, Kazuhiro; Nishizawa, Teruhiko; Kasamo, Shizuya; Asakura, Tetsuhiko; Mihara, Tadahiro (Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    The authors have encountered three cases of cystic meningioma among a total of 46 cases. Case 1. This 16-year-old boy complained of headache, nausea, and vomiting for about 5 months. He also felt double vision. On admission, the subjective complaints were headache, nausea, and vomiting, but there was no objective symptom. In CT scans a well-circumscribed low-density area with a nodule-like iso-density mass at the anterolaterally portion was shown in the left temporal rogion. This iso-density mass was homogenously enhanced in the contrast study. In an operation, approximately 60 ml of xanthochromic fluid was aspirated, and the nodule-like mass was totally removed. The histological diagnosis was meningothelial meningioma with a large cyst. Case 2. This 49-year-old woman had complained of blurred vision for 4 months before her admission. An ophthalmologist discovered a choked disc and referred her to our department. On admission a neurological examination disclosed a bilateral choked disc and disturbed visual acuity in her left eye. In CT scans, the mass, which was located in the right frontotemporal region, was markedly enhanced, and a small low-density lesion was recognized in it. Angiographically, a tumor stain fed by the middle meningeal artery was shown. The pathologic al diagnosis was angioblastic meningioma. Case 3. This 68-year-old woman, who had had several attacks of loss of consciousness within the 3 years before admission, had now complained of nausea and vomiting for one month. On admission, neurological examination disclosed paraparesis and paresthesia of the lt. lower limb. In CT scans an irregular mass contiguous to the falx was enhanced; it was surrounded by a low-density lesion which was considered to continue to the ependymal layer of the lateral ventricle. Multilobular cysts were found, and about 10 ml of xanthochromic fluid was aspirated . The histological diagnosis was angioblastic meningioma.

  15. 婴儿型脊肌萎缩症合并肺炎患儿的护理%Nursing care of spinal muscular atrophy complicated with pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海勤; 喻筱倩; 周琴; 李承; 项慧慧; 吴轶璇


    Objective We summarized the nursing care experience of spinal muscular atrophy complicated with pneumonia.Methods The measures of nursing care to the 9 children patients were comprised of preventing sputum blockage; preventing suffocating due to milk choking; paying special attention to the time being when the sputum blockage and milk choking occurred; early detection of paralysis of respiratory muscle; and training nursing skills to the families,and so on.Results All 9 children patients were cured and discharged from hospital.Conclusions The measure of targeting nursing intervention to the children with infantile spinal muscular atrophy and pneumonia could improve therapeutic effect and reduce mortality rate.%目的 总结婴儿型脊肌萎缩症合并肺炎的护理经验.方法 对9例婴儿型脊肌萎缩症合并肺炎的患儿给予预防突发痰堵窒息、呛奶窒息,关注痰堵、呛奶高危时间段,警惕呼吸肌麻痹的发生,培训家庭救护技能等护理措施.结果 9例患儿肺炎均治愈出院.结论 对婴儿型脊肌萎缩症合并肺炎的患儿实施针对性的护理干预措施,能提高治疗效果,降低死亡率.

  16. Mathematical modeling of normal pharyngeal bolus transport: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Chang, M W; Rosendall, B; Finlayson, B A


    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a common clinical symptom associated with many diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular diseases, and cancer. Its complications include choking, aspiration, malnutrition, cachexia, and dehydration. The goal in dysphagia management is to provide adequate nutrition and hydration while minimizing the risk of choking and aspiration. It is important to advance the individual toward oral feeding in a timely manner to enhance the recovery of swallowing function and preserve the quality of life. Current clinical assessments of dysphagia are limited in providing adequate guidelines for oral feeding. Mathematical modeling of the fluid dynamics of pharyngeal bolus transport provides a unique opportunity for studying the physiology and pathophysiology of swallowing. Finite element analysis (FEA) is a special case of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In CFD, the flow of a fluid in a space is modeled by covering the space with a grid and predicting how the fluid moves from grid point to grid point. FEA is capable of solving problems with complex geometries and free surfaces. A preliminary pharyngeal model has been constructed using FEA. This model incorporates literature-reported, normal, anatomical data with time-dependent pharyngeal/upper esophageal sphincter (UES) wall motion obtained from videofluorography (VFG). This time-dependent wall motion can be implemented as a moving boundary condition in the model. Clinical kinematic data can be digitized from VFG studies to construct and test the mathematical model. The preliminary model demonstrates the feasibility of modeling pharyngeal bolus transport, which, to our knowledge, has not been attempted before. This model also addresses the need and the potential for CFD in understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Improvements of the model are underway. Combining the model with individualized clinical data should potentially

  17. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life Questionnaire" into Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Lucendo


    Full Text Available Background: The "Adult Eosinophilic Esophagitis Quality of Life (EoE-QoL-A Questionnaire" was developed in English as a valid, reliable, and disease-specific health-related QoL measure. This research aims to adapt and validate this questionnaire for Spanish-speaking patients. Patients and methods: A multicenter, observational, prospective study was conducted at 8 Spanish hospitals. The cultural adaptation of the original EoE-QoL-A questionnaire was undertaken through a standardized 3-phase procedure: 1. Translation; 2. Retrotranslation; and 3. Pilot study. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Short Form (SF-12, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ, and the adapted EoE-QoL-A, with a retest 3 months later. Statistical analysis included construct validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, and reproducibility. Results: One hundred and seventy adult EoE patients (73.5 % male; aged 33.5 ± 11.4-y were included in the study. With regard to internal validity, all Cronbach alpha values were > 0.75. A significant correlation between items assessed in the SF-12, BIPQ and EoE-QoL-A questionnaires (p < 0.001 was observed. Correlations with the HADS were stronger for anxiety than for depression levels. Anxiety related to disease diagnosis and choking were the most affected dimensions; less affected were the dimensions related to eating, social, and emotional development. Intraclass correlation coefficients between the test and retest assessments were acceptable for all questionnaires, with the highest values (0.73-0.84 calculated for the EoE-QoL-A Spanish version. Conclusion: The Spanish version of the EoE-QoL-A is a reliable, valid, and responsive questionnaire. Diagnosis and choking anxiety were the most affected dimensions in the health-related QoL in adult EoE patients.

  18. Freshwater Sustainability under Climate Change in the Nueces River Basin, TX (United States)

    Gonzalez, D. A.; Sinha, T.; Ji, J. H.


    Freshwater sustainability in arid and semi-arid regions is threatened due to climate change as well as competing water demands for agriculture, urban development, industrial use and ecosystem needs. Such changes have forced the local water supply systems to update their water supply plans once in five years. Developments of such water supply plans not only require reliable assessment of water availability and demands but also incorporate uncertainties due to regional climate change projections. In this study, we focus our analysis on one of the basins in the South Texas - Nueces River Basin (NRB) which provide inflows to the Choke Canyon - Lake Corpus Christi reservoir system. This reservoir system is the major freshwater source for the coastal communities in the basin and the Nueces Bay, which serve as a habitat for several key fish species such as blue crab, brown shrimp, and southern flounder. Freshwater inflows in the NRB have decreased in the past decades, resulting in increased salinity of the Nueces Bay, thus impacting the natural habitat for several fish species. Therefore, estimating the impacts of climate change in the NRB is critical to develop sustainable water resources management in the region. We will implement a physically based hydrologic model under historical climate change scenarios from multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) over the past 30 years to understand how well we could have used large scale climate change projections in improving water resources management over the overlapping observations. A water management model will be developed for the Choke Canyon - Lake Corpus Christi Reservoir System, which will be ingested with inflow projections under multiple GCM scenarios over the past 30 years to incorporate uncertainty in water resources management. Finally, water management scenarios will be developed to minimize deficits between water availability and demands in the region.

  19. Reactions to Thirdhand Smoke are Associated with Openness to Smoking in Young Never Smoking Children. (United States)

    Chen, Jian Jiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing


    To investigate the associations between reactions to thirdhand smoke (THS) and openness to smoking in young children. In a school-based survey in Hong Kong, 4762 Chinese primary school students reported their reactions to THS (one or more of 'pleasant/happy', 'nausea', 'excited', 'heart beat faster', 'relaxed', 'dislike the smell', 'like the smell', 'dizzy', 'coughing/choking', 'eye uncomfortable' and 'none of the above'), smoking status and openness to smoking (lack of a firm intention not to smoke). Factor structure of reactions to THS was investigated with factor scores calculated and categorised. Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of openness to smoking for reactions to THS. Factor analysis yielded two factors including 5 and 4 reactions, which were generally deemed negative and positive, respectively. The proportions of students with factor scores ≥1 for negative and positive reactions were 51.3 and 6.3 %, respectively. In never smokers, openness to smoking was negatively associated with 'dislike the smell' (AOR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.39-0.68), 'coughing/choking' (0.53, 0.38-0.75), 'eye uncomfortable' (0.62, 0.40-0.95) and negative reaction factor score of 2-5 (vs. 0) (0.59, 0.40-0.88), and was positively associated with 'pleasant/happy' (2.80, 1.54-5.09), 'excited' (2.83, 1.17-6.87), 'like the smell' (3.06, 1.49-6.26) and positive reaction factor score of 1-4 (vs. 0) (2.86, 1.83-4.48). In experimental or former smokers, fewer associations reached statistical significance. Negative and positive reactions to THS were negatively and positively associated with openness to smoking, respectively, in young never smoking children.

  20. Building Climate Resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: A Framework for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay Simane


    Full Text Available Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia’s low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia’s population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay Highlands—a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke

  1. Building climate resilience in the Blue Nile/Abay Highlands: a framework for action. (United States)

    Simane, Belay; Zaitchik, Benjamin F; Mesfin, Desalegn


    Ethiopia has become warmer over the past century and human induced climate change will bring further warming over the next century at unprecedented rates. On the average, climate models show a tendency for higher mean annual rainfall and for wetter conditions, in particular during October, November and December, but there is much uncertainty about the future amount, distribution, timing and intensity of rainfall. Ethiopia's low level of economic development, combined with its heavy dependence on agriculture and high population growth rate make the country particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of climate change. Nearly 90% of Ethiopia's population lives in the Highlands, which include the critical Blue Nile (Abay) Highlands--a region that holds special importance due to its role in domestic agricultural production and international water resources. A five year study of climate vulnerability and adaptation strategies in communities of Choke Mountain, located in the center of the Abay Highlands, has informed a proposed framework for enhancing climate resilience in communities across the region. The framework is motivated by the critical need to enhance capacity to cope with climate change and, subsequently, to advance a carbon neutral and climate resilient economy in Ethiopia. The implicit hypothesis in applying a research framework for this effort is that science-based information, generated through improved understanding of impacts and vulnerabilities of local communities, can contribute to enhanced resilience strategies. We view adaptation to climate change in a wider context of changes, including, among others, market conditions, the political-institutional framework, and population dynamics. From a livelihood perspective, culture, historical settings, the diversity of income generation strategies, knowledge, and education are important factors that contribute to adaptive capacities. This paper reviews key findings of the Choke Mountain study, describes

  2. A Study of Critical Flowrate in the Integral Effect Test Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeongsik; Ryu, Sunguk; Cho, Seok; Yi, Sungjae; Park, Hyunsik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In earlier studies, most of the information available in the literature was either for a saturated two-phase flow or a sub-cooled water flow at medium pressure conditions, e. g., up to about 7.0 MPa. The choking is regarded as a condition of maximum possible discharge through a given orifice and/or nozzle exit area. A critical flow rate can be achieved at a choking under the given thermo-hydraulic conditions. The critical flow phenomena were studied extensively in both single-phase and two-phase systems because of its importance in the LOCA analyses of light water reactors and in the design of other engineering areas. Park suggested a modified correlation for predicting the critical flow for sub-cooled water through a nozzle. Recently, Park et al. performed an experimental study on a two-phase critical flow with a noncondensable gas at high pressure conditions. Various experiments of critical flow using sub-cooled water were performed for a modeling of break simulators in thermohydraulic integral effect test facilities for light water reactors, e. g., an advanced power reactor 1400MWe (APR1400) and a system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART). For the design of break simulators of SBLOCA scenarios, the aspect ratio (L/D) is considered to be a key parameter to determine the shape of a break simulator. In this paper, an investigation of critical flow phenomena was performed especially on break simulators for LOCA scenarios in the integral effect test facilities of KAERI, such as ATLAS and FESTA. In this study, various studies on the critical flow models for sub-cooled and/or saturated water were reviewed. For a comparison among the models for the selected test data, discussions of the comparisons on the effect of the diameters, predictions of critical flow models, and break simulators for SBLOCA in the integral effect test facilities were presented.

  3. Ion mobility spectrometric analysis of vaporous chemical warfare agents by the instrument with corona discharge ionization ammonia dopant ambient temperature operation. (United States)

    Satoh, Takafumi; Kishi, Shintaro; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Tachikawa, Masumi; Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Nakagawa, Takao; Kitagawa, Nobuyoshi; Tokita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Seto, Yasuo


    The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations. VX, RVX and tabun gave both characteristic positive monomer-derived ions and degradation product ions. Nitrogen mustards gave the intense characteristic positive ion peaks, and in addition distinctive negative ion peak appeared from HN3. Mustard gas, lewisite 1, o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile and 2-mercaptoethanol gave the characteristic negative ion peaks. Methylphosphonyl difluoride, 2-chloroacetophenone and 1,4-thioxane gave the characteristic ion peaks both in the positive and negative ion mode. 2-Chloroethylethylsulfide and allylisothiocyanate gave weak ion peaks. The marker ion peaks derived from two blood agents and three choking agents were very close to the reactant ion peak in negative ion mode and the respective reduced ion mobility was fluctuated. The reduced ion mobility of the CWA monomer-derived peaks were positively correlated with molecular masses among structurally similar agents such as G-type nerve gases and organophosphorus simulants; V-type nerve gases and nitrogen mustards. The slope values of the calibration plots of the peak heights of the characteristic marker ions versus the vapor concentrations are related to the detection sensitivity, and within chemical warfare agents examined the slope values for sarin, soman

  4. Analysis of Unsteady Tip and Endwall Heat Transfer in a Highly Loaded Transonic Turbine Stage (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Ameri, Ali; Chen, Jen-Ping


    In a previous study, vane-rotor shock interactions and heat transfer on the rotor blade of a highly loaded transonic turbine stage were simulated. The geometry consists of a high pressure turbine vane and downstream rotor blade. This study focuses on the physics of flow and heat transfer in the rotor tip, casing and hub regions. The simulation was performed using the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code MSU-TURBO. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model was utilized to model turbulence. The rotor blade in question has a tip gap height of 2.1 percent of the blade height. The Reynolds number of the flow is approximately 3x10(exp 6) per meter. Unsteadiness was observed at the tip surface that results in intermittent "hot spots". It is demonstrated that unsteadiness in the tip gap is governed by inviscid effects due to high speed flow and is not strongly dependent on pressure ratio across the tip gap contrary to published observations that have primarily dealt with subsonic tip flows. The high relative Mach numbers in the tip gap lead to a choking of the leakage flow that translates to a relative attenuation of losses at higher loading. The efficacy of new tip geometry is discussed to minimize heat flux at the tip while maintaining choked conditions. In addition, an explanation is provided that shows the mechanism behind the rise in stagnation temperature on the casing to values above the absolute total temperature at the inlet. It is concluded that even in steady mode, work transfer to the near tip fluid occurs due to relative shearing by the casing. This is believed to be the first such explanation of the work transfer phenomenon in the open literature. The difference in pattern between steady and time-averaged heat flux at the hub is also explained.

  5. Novel Compressor Blade Design Study (United States)

    Srinivas, Abhay

    Jet engine efficiency goals are driving compressors to higher pressure ratios and engines to higher bypass ratios, each one driving to smaller cores. This is leading to larger tip gaps relative to the blade height. These larger relative tip clearances would negate some of the cycle improvements, and ways to mitigate this effect must be found. A novel split tip blade geometry has been created which helps improve the efficiency at large clearances while also improving operating range. Two identical blades are leaned in opposite directions starting at 85% span. They are cut at mid chord and the 2 halves then merged together so a split tip is created. The result is similar to the alula feathers on a soaring bird. The concept is that the split tip will energize the tip flow and increase range. For higher relative tip clearance, this will also improve efficiency. The 6th rotor of a highly loaded 10 stage machine was chosen as the baseline for this study. Three dimensional CFD simulations were performed using CD Adapco's Star-CCM+ at 5 clearances for the baseline and split tip geometry. The choking flow and stall margin of the split tip blade was higher than that of the baseline blade for all tip clearances. The pressure ratio of the novel blade was higher than that of the baseline blade near choke, but closer to stall it decreased. The sensitivity of peak efficiency to clearance was improved. At tight clearances of 0.62% of blade height, the maximum efficiency of the new design was less than the baseline blade, but as the tip clearance was increased above 2.5%, the maximum efficiency increased. Structural analysis was also performed to ascertain the feasibility of the design.

  6. Virtual analysis of influence of a filter on mould filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhian Xu


    Full Text Available Ceramic filters are used to avoid slag and impurities in foundry applications. When not properly applied, the presence of these filters may have a significant influence on mould filling. 3-D casting simulation has been applied to study the effects of the use of a ceramic filter on the metal flow in a gating system. Instead of using a pressure drop model to represent the behaviour of a fluid metal flow passing through a filter, a real exact filter geometry, which is created by a high resolution CT-scan and a non-destructive imaging technique, in the gating system is applied in the simulation. In this research, nodular cast iron is poured into a block casting. A depressurized gating system is used. After a choke, a filter with different orientations is placed in the system. Mould filling coupled with temperature is simulated. Geometries using different orientations of the filter, and without the filter have been researched. The simulated results show that the filter has no influence on the pouring time of the casting if the choke section is small enough compared to the effective section of the filter. Although the filter has no significant influence on the flow patterns in the block casting itself, the flow patterns in the filter zone are different. When the liquid metal passes a horizontal filter, it will be broken into many small streams and show a shower effect. After the part under the filter is full, the shower effect disappears. When the filter is located at the vertical position, due to the gravity, the shower effect is less. If no filter presents on the system, the liquid metal passes through the filter zone with a high speed and causes surface turbulence.

  7. The fungus Epichloë typhina in populations of a halophyte Puccinellia distans: salinity as a possible inhibitor of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Lembicz


    Full Text Available Puccinellia distans is a non-agricultural halophytic grass that has become another host plant for Epichloe typhina, hitherto not reported from Poland. In 1992 we noticed the first symptoms of choke disease in a single population of P. distans in central Poland. Since then we have observed choke disease in 5 populations of P. distans only in man-made habitats. These habitats are strongly anthropogenically salinated but they exhibit the pattern of species composition characteristic of natural salines. In this paper we test the hypothesis that the level of salinity affects the infection of P. distans by the fungus E. typhina. Seven plots were established in the field and each plot was divided into 25 subplots. Within each plot the level of infection in a spring generation of shoots was negatively correlated with salinity (common regression within the plots, beta = -0.674, df = 117, p < 0.001. Negative correlation was also found in an autumn generation within the plots (beta = -0.682, df = 94, p < 0.001 after excluding plot P in which the frequency of infected individuals was the lowest and equal only to 0.05. The proportion of individuals infected by the endophytic stage of the fungus in the populations was assessed using diagnostic polymerase chain reaction. The greatest percentage (98.3% of infected individuals was found in the population growing in the habitat of the lowest salinity. The high salinity reduces the chance of P. distans to become infected, but may promote the stroma formation of E. typhina twice in the season. Disease expression in autumn clearly represents a misadaptation which could be explained by the fact that the species interactions described here appeared relatively recently as a result of human activity. This hypothesis requires further experimental verification.

  8. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.


    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  9. A mathematical model for lake ontogeny in terms of filling with sediments and macrophyte vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science


    A mathematical model for simulation of lake basin filling processes in areas with positive shore displacement was constructed. The model was calibrated using sediment and catchments data from eight existing lake basins situated in the northern coastal area of the province of Uppland, Sweden. The lake basin filling processes were separated into three phases: basin filling with wave-washed material (silt, silty sand or sand), filling with fine-grained material during the shallow gulf and lake stages, respectively, and filling with vegetation during the lake stage. The basin filling rates for wave-washed material were generally low but varied considerably both between and within lakes. The mean basin filling rate of wave-washed material was 4.1%. The volume of inorganic sediments produced, and basin filling rates during the shallow gulf and lake phases were determined for all the eight lakes. The relationship between basin filling rate and parameters describing the catchments, the former postglacial basins and the lakes, respectively, was determined using multiple regression analysis. The basin filling rate with inorganic sediments was best described by parameters related to former postglacial basin morphometry and current lake morphometry, e.g. basin volume, lake volume, and lake area. The goodness of fit turned out to be 0.99 for a simple regression with basin volume as the sole independent variable. The basin filling with vegetation (Phragmites australis followed by Sphagnum spp.) was treated as a 2-dimensional process. A dataset with 84 bogs was selected from a digital soil map. The ages of the bogs were calculated using a digital elevation map and an equation for shore displacement. The choke-up rate was then calculated by dividing the area of the bogs with their age. A strong exponential relationship exists between areas of the bogs and choke-up rat, and this relationship was then used in the model. The resulting model starts by filling the former coastal basin

  10. Hybrid LC filter for power electronic drives. Theory and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzhankhotov, V.


    Power electronic converter drives use, for the sake of high efficiency, pulse-width modulation that results in sequences of high-voltage high-frequency steep-edged pulses. Such a signal contains a set of high harmonics not required for control purposes. Harmonics cause reflections in the cable between the motor and the inverter leading to faster winding insulation ageing. Bearing failures and problems with electromagnetic compatibility may also result. Electrical du/dt filters provide an effective solution to problems caused by pulse-width modulation, thereby increasing the performance and service life of the electrical machines. It is shown that RLC filters effectively decrease the reflection phenomena in the cable. Improved (simple, but effective) solutions are found for both differential- and common-mode signals; these solutions use a galvanic connection between the RLC filter star point and the converter DC link. Foil chokes and film capacitors are among the most widely used components in high-power applications. In actual applications they can be placed in different parts of the cabinet. This fact complicates the arrangement of the cabinet and decreases the reliability of the system. In addition, the inductances of connection wires may prevent filtration at high frequencies. This thesis introduces a new hybrid LC filter that uses a natural capacitance between the turns of the foil choke based on integration of an auxiliary layer into it. The main idea of the hybrid LC filter results from the fact that both the foil choke and the film capacitors have the same roll structure. Moreover, the capacitance between the turns ('intra capacitance') of the foil inductors is the reason for the deterioration of their properties at high frequencies. It is shown that the proposed filter has a natural cancellation of the intra capacitance. A hybrid LC filter may contain two or more foil layers isolated from each other and coiled on a core. The core material can be

  11. Experimental Research Progress of the VASIMR Engine (United States)

    Squire, J. P.; Díaz, F. R. Chang; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.


    The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) of NASA's Johnson Space Center is performing research on a Variable Specific Impulse MagnetoPlasma Rocket (VASIMR). The VASIMR is a high power, radio frequency (RF) driven magnetoplasma rocket, capable of very high exhaust velocities, > 100 km/s. In addition, its unique architecture allows in- flight mission-optimization of thrust and specific impulse to enhance performance and reduce trip time. A NASA-led research team involving industry, academia and government facilities is pursuing the development of this concept in the United States. The ASPL's experimental research focuses on three major areas: helicon plasma production, ion cyclotron resonant acceleration (ICRA) and plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle. The VASIMR experiment (VX-10) performs experimental research that demonstrates the thruster concept at a total RF power on the order of 10 kW. A flexible four- magnet system, with a 1.3 Tesla maximum magnetic field strength, is computer controlled to study axial magnetic field profile shape effects. Power generated at 10 - 50 MHz with about 5 kW is used to perform helicon plasma source development. A 3 MHz RF transmitter capable of 100 kW is available for ICRA experiments. The primary diagnostics are: gas mass flow controllers, RF input power, Langmuir probes, Mach probe, retarding potential analyzers (RPA), microwave interferometer, neutral pressure measurements and plasma light emission. In addition, many thermocouples are attached inside the vacuum chamber to measure heat loads around the plasma discharge. Helicon research so far has been done with hydrogen, deuterium, helium, nitrogen, argon, xenon and mixtures of these gases. Optimization studies have been performed with the magnetic field axial profile shape, gas flow rate, gas tube geometry and RF frequency. The highest performing discharges are found with a high magnetic field choke downstream of the helicon antenna. Upwards of a 40% gas utilization is

  12. Mixing and reaction processes in rocket based combined cycle and conventional rocket engines (United States)

    Lehman, Matthew Kurt

    Raman spectroscopy was used to make species measurements in two rocket engines. An airbreathing rocket, the rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) engine, and a conventional rocket were investigated. A supersonic rocket plume mixing with subsonic coflowing air characterizes the ejector mode of the RBCC engine. The mixing length required for the air and plume to become homogenous is a critical dimension. For the conventional rocket experiments, a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen single-element shear coaxial injector was used. Three chamber Mach number conditions, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, were chosen to assess the effect of Mach number on mixing. The flow within the chamber was entirely subsonic. For the RBCC experiments, vertical Raman line measurements were made at multiple axial locations downstream from the rocket nozzle plane. Species profiles assessed the mixing progress between the supersonic plume and subsonic air. For the conventional rocket, Raman line measurements were made downstream from the injector face. The goal was to evaluate the effect of increased chamber Mach number on injector mixing/reaction. For both engines, quantitative and qualitative information was collected for computational fluid dynamics (CFD development. The RBCC experiments were conducted for three distinct geometries. The primary flow path was a diffuse and afterburner design with a direct-connect air supply. A sea-level static (SLS) version and a thermally choked variant were also tested. The experimental results show that mixing length increases with additional coflow air in the DAB geometry. Operation of variable rocket mixture ratios at identical air flow rates did not significantly affect the mixing length. The thermally choked variant had a longer mixing length compared to the DAB geometry, and the SLS modification had a shorter mixing length due to a reduced air flow. The conventional rocket studies focused on the effect of chamber Mach number on primary injector mixing. Chamber Mach

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyucak, Selcuk [CanmetMATERIALS; Li, Delin [CanmetMATERIALS


    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using

  14. 右美托咪定对丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼用于脑功能区术中唤醒麻醉的影响探析%Right beauty's microphones set for complex ray fentanyl propofol used for brain functional areas of wake up the anesthesia effect analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective to study the composite rui fentanyl propofol anesthesia technique used in the right brain function cannot set the wake effect of beauty.Methods 60 regular during perioperative period in patients with brain function research, randomly divided into treatment group and control group. Two groups of anesthesia method is the same, before anesthesia induction in patients with treatment group and control group respectively intravenous injection of saline and right beauty holds the mi. Observation compared two groups of patients in mean arterial pressure of different time and wake up time, incidence of body movement, choking incidence of cough.Results the treatment group of mean arterial pressure were lower than the control group at the time of withdrawal, wake up; The body move incidence of treatment group, the incidence of choking cough is lower than the control group,P 0.05, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion line for induction of general anesthesia surgery patients with right cerebral function beauty cannot decide it is better to wake up, suitable for clinical popularization.%目的:研究丙泊酚复合瑞芬太尼麻醉脑功能区术中使用右美托咪定的唤醒效果。方法对60例行脑功能区手术患者进行研究,随机分成治疗组与对照组。两组麻醉方法相同,在麻醉诱导前对治疗组与对照组患者分别静脉注入生理盐水与右美托咪定。观察对比两组患者在不同时刻的平均动脉压和唤醒时间、体动发生率、呛咳发生率。结果治疗组的平均动脉压在停药时、唤醒时均低于对照组;治疗组的体动发生率、呛咳发生率低于对照组,P0.05,差异无统计学意义。结论对行全麻诱导的脑功能区手术患者使用右美托咪定唤醒效果较好,适合在临床推普及。

  15. 曲面形栅格翼气动特性研究%Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics on circular-arc grid-fin configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永红; 黄勇; 陈建中; 苏继川


    In order to reduce flow choking and the corresponding high drag force,an im-proved circular-arc grid-fin configuration is proposed in the present study.Compared to the con-ventional grid-fin configuration,the circular-arc layout decreases the length of the fin cell as to reduce the flow choking.Meanwhile,the circular-arc grid fins can be conveniently folded against the body so as to make them easier to store and transport.Viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed to investigate flows over single grid fin.Comparisons of drag coeffi-cients between circular-arc and sweptback grid fins indicate that both configurations have signifi-cant drag reduction under subsonic、transonic and supersonic than baseline grid fin configuration. However,when the flow velocity is above the third critical Mach number,the drag reduction of circular-arc grid fin is higher than that of sweptback grid fin.Through aerodynamic analysis of two different windward forms of circular-arc grid fins,it is clear that before the third critical Mach number,the lift coefficient of the convex plane windward model is much greater than the concave plane windward model (approximately 30%)and the baseline model,after the third criti-cal Mach number the lift coefficient of the convex plane windward model and the baseline model tend to be consistent,while the concave plane windward model has a greater lift coefficient.%与常规栅格翼布局相比,曲面形栅格翼布局减小了栅格翼翼元的等固壁通道的长度,从而有效降低了翼元内气流的壅塞,另外,这种栅格翼布局结构简单,易于折叠,减小了飞行器的轮廓尺寸,具有很好的工程应用前景。本文通过数值模拟方法,在亚、跨、超声速条件下,研究了曲面形栅格翼布局的减阻效果和减阻机理,对比了曲面形栅格翼和常规后掠形栅格翼布局的减阻效果,并对不同迎风方式的曲面形栅格翼气动特性进行了分析。

  16. 标准型定位格架对超临界水在堆芯传热和流动影响的数值研究%Numerical research on heat and mass transfer of supercritical water in reactor core with standard grid spacer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓静; 周盛; 邱庆刚; 沈胜强


    Numerical analysis is carried out for the heat and mass transfer ofsupercritical water in the sub-channels with standard grid spacer in supercritical reactor core with commercial software STARCCM+ 6.04 using unstructured polygonal mesh.The results show that the circumferential distribution of cladding temperatureis not uniform due to flow choking effects.The highest value and the lowest value appear at the narrow gap region the sub-channel center respectively.The local heat transferinside the grid spacer strapis greatly enhanceddue to the increased flow velocity.However,the standard grid spacer is negative for decreasing cladding temperature because it increases circumferential difference of cladding temperature in its downstream region and an obvious decreased heat transfer is caused by the aggravated flow choking effects. The decreased heat transfer downstream of a standard grid spacer maybe a unique feature of the tight rod bundle.%采用非结构化多面体网格,利用商业软件 STARCCM+6.04对标准型定位格架对超临界水在反应堆堆芯子通道内流动及传热特性的影响进行了数值研究。研究结果表明,由于流动阻塞效应的影响,燃料棒覆层表面温度周向分布不均,窄缝区最高、中心区最低。标准定位格架能够强化定位格架内部传热,但会造成其下游局部传热弱化,周向温度分布差异增大,不利于降低覆层温度。标准型定位格架下游的传热弱化现象或许是超临界反应堆紧凑型堆芯的特有现象,须在堆芯设计中加以重视。

  17. Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imai K


    Full Text Available Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required to take an alendronate oral tablet; insufficient water could result in digestive system diseases, such as esophageal ulceration. Elderly patients with swallowing difficulty may choke on the tablet. Taking a tablet with oral jelly is a method to prevent digestive system disease and reduce the choking hazard. Once-weekly alendronate oral jelly was approved in 2012 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan as the world's first drug for osteoporosis in a jelly formulation. It consists of a jelly portion and an air portion. The jelly formulation is smoothly discharged by pushing the air portion. Therefore, elderly patients with physical disabilities are able to easily take all of the jelly formulation from the package. In this review, this new formulation of alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly is introduced and discussed in terms of osteoporosis treatment. This new formulation provides an alternative so that patients may select a method of dosing tailored to their preferences. Management of osteoporosis involves assessing fracture risk and preventing

  18. [Relationship between weight loss and dysphagia in patients with Parkinson's disease]. (United States)

    Nozaki, S; Saito, T; Matsumura, T; Miyai, I; Kang, J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between weight loss and dysphagia in Parkinson's disease. We compared the height, body weight and the data of self-administered questionnaires concerning food intake and deglutition feelings in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease with normal controls. A structured interview was performed by nutritionists and nutrient intakes were calculated from the reported food intake over 5 days. Biochemical parameters were chosen from the chart. The subjects were 105 patients with Parkinson's disease, 34 males with a mean age of 67.7 +/- 8.6 years and 71 females with a mean age of 69.1 +/- 10.0 years (Hoehn-Yahr stage I6, II25, III51, IV20, V3). In addition, 47 family members were used as control subjects: 26 males, 70.6 +/- 7.6 years and 21 females, 64.9 +/- 7.7 years. Body mass index (BMI) in females with Parkinson's disease (20.2 +/- 3.5 kg/m2) was significantly lower (p Parkinson's disease and 22.6 +/- 3.1 kg/m2 in controls. The occurrences of symptoms such as choking, cough, sputum, food in sputum, wet voice and pharyngeal discomfort following food intake in patients with Parkinson's disease vs. those in controls were 22% vs. 6%, 16% vs. 2%, 7% vs. 4%, 2% vs. 0%, 5% vs. 2% and 11% vs. 0%, respectively. Concerning symptoms such as choking, cough and pharyngeal discomfort, the occurrence was significantly more frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease than in controls (p Parkinson's disease. BMI in the dysphagic group (19.1 +/- 3.6 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that in the non-dysphagic group (21.6 +/- 3.0 kg/m2) (p nutritional parameters were lower in the dysphagic group than those in the non-dysphagic group; 6.6 +/- 0.7 g/dl vs. 6.9 +/- 0.4 g/dl (p Parkinson's disease.

  19. Numerical Research on Detonation Wave Characteristic in High Temperature Supersonic Flow%高温超声速流中爆震波特性数值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思源; 桂业伟; 白菡尘


    通过对高温超声速流中爆震波性质的研究,评估其在高超声速冲压发动机燃烧室的燃烧组织中应用的可行性,并通过数值模拟对分析结论进行了验证。提出了一种新的爆震波起爆机制,注入高温超声速流中的燃料混气可通过自身缓慢的释热使流动进入局域热壅塞状态,进而借助局域热壅塞产生的激波实现爆震波的起爆。计算结果表明在适宜的温度与马赫数条件下,注入高温超声速流中的燃料可通过新的起爆机制在超声速流中形成一道稳定的驻定爆震波。表明在高超声速冲压发动机燃烧室中存在着通过驻定爆震波实现火焰稳定的可能性。%To evaluate the feasibility for utilizing the detonation wave to stabilize flame in scramjet combustor,the detona- tion wave characteristic in high temperature environment was studied by numerical simulations. A new initiation mechanism of detonation was presented. The premixed gas injected into high temperature supersonic flow can reach local thermal choking state through the heat released by slow reaction of premixed fuel gas and then a detonation wave can be initiated by shock pro- duced in thermal choking state. The numerical results show that the fuel injected into high temperature supersonic flow can form a standing detonation wave by the new mechanism in some special temperature and Mach number flow conditions. The re- search shows that it is possible utilizing the standing detonation wave to stabilize flame in scramjet combustor.

  20. Thrust Control Features for Aerodynamic Throat for Solid Rocket Motor%固体火箭发动机气动喉部的推力调控特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢侃; 李博; 郭常超; 王宁飞


    为了研究固体火箭发动机气动喉部推力调节的一般规律,利用氮气作为介质对气动喉部喷管进行了冷流实验研究。研究了该种喷管的扼流性能,二次流嘴的面积、个数对其扼流性能的影响以及空腔容积与喷管压强调节时间的关系。掌握了气动喉部喷管的有效喉部面积随流量比变化的一般规律。结果表明,二次流与主流流量比越大,气动喉部面积越小。小的面积比具有更高的扼流性能,而当流量比大于0.4时,面积比对扼流性能无明显影响。空腔体积越小压强调节时间越短。%Adjust:In order to study the general rules of the thrust control features for aerodynamic throat for solid rocket motor, a cold-flow test research was performed on the aerodynamic nozzle throat using the nitrogen as working gas. Firstly, the choke performance of the aerodynamic throat was studied. Then, the performance of throat modification was studied considering the influence of area and number of secondary flow injectors. Final⁃ly,the relation about the volume of cavity with adjustment time of nozzle was also studied. The general law of ef⁃fective throat area along with the flow rate change was obtained through study. The results show that the larger the flow ratio of the secondary flow and main flow is, the smaller the pneumatic throat area is. The smaller area ratio has higher choke performance,and the influence of area is not obvious when the flow rate is greater than 0.4. Be⁃sides,the smaller the cavity volume is,the shorter the accommodation time of pressure is.

  1. Bluefin 9M AUV Survey of the Hubbard Glacier Morainal Bank: Proof-of-Concept Study of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Investigations Proximal to a Tidewater Glacier (United States)

    Goff, J. A.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Lawson, D. E.; O'Halloran, W.


    Hubbard Glacier is one of the few advancing tidewater glaciers in the world, offering a premier opportunity for studying ice/sediment/seawater interactions at a tidewater glacier front that is in contact with the stabilizing submarine morainal bank. However, the seafloor and water column proximal to the ice face of a marine-terminating glacier is one of the most challenging and extreme environments imaginable for marine survey work. Frequently choked with constantly-shifting mélange ice at the sea surface and at risk from calving, surface vessels cannot operate safely proximal to the ice face. AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) technology provides an opportunity to survey in areas where surface vessels cannot. Operating well below the sea surface the AUV can operate without hindrance or danger to human operators. In addition, the AUV can be programmed to operate close to the seafloor at a constant altitude, enabling the finest-detail currently possible for acoustic seafloor mapping and consistent resolution irrespective of water depth. With these considerations in mind, we conducted a proof-of-concept survey of the Hubbard Glacier morainal bank in June, 2014. We utilized the Bluefin 9M, the smallest of their line of AUVs. Its size enabled deployment and recovery from a small charter fishing vessel well-suited to navigating through mélange-choked waters. The AUV's payload included a Klein UUV-3500 interferometric sonar (455/900 kHz), which enables acquisition of sidescan backscatter and swath bathymetry up to ~75 m to each side of the instrument from ~10 m altitude over the seabed, and sensors for measuring conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) and optical backscatter (OBS). Although our operations were shortened due to an unfortunate failure in the sonar electronics, sufficient data were collected along the morainal bank to clearly prove the viability of AUV operations in this harsh environment. The data provide centimeter-scale seafloor detail close to the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın YAŞAR


    Full Text Available As one of animals to which are approached with great sympathy by Turkishpeople, Kangal dogs are among the animals accepted sacred in Turkish folklore.Kangals as shepherd dogs were brought into Anatolia along with herds owned byOghuz clans the traditional livelihood of which depends on sheep herds. Being theoldest and most common race of natural shepherd dog, Turkish shepherd dog,Kangal, has survived with all characteristics of it mostly thanks to the matchlessprotection of local people of the town Kangal.Throughout the study, the main objective is to determine the folkloricknowledge related with Kangal raising within folklore of Sivas and to make somecontribution to Turkish world of culture.The research material has consisted of folkloric knowledge obtained between9th April-10th July, 2012 with “information review forms” applied to peopleassociated with folkloric veterinary medicine and animal husbandry in Sivas (e.g.medicine practitioners, animal owners, other resource persons, etc.In the study, it has been determined that raisers in Sivas folklore classify theKangals according to general racial characteristics, color of their pelt and tails ofthem. They are grouped as “kurtçul”, “saf”, “kırma”; and “alası-boz”, “karayaka”,“sarı yaka”, “boz yaka”, “kıllı”, “kırçıl”; and “kılıç kuyruk”, “kuyruğu eğri”, “kıvrakkuyruk”, based on racial characteristics, color of pelt and tails respectively. Also, ithas been gathered significant data on diseases and treatments on Kangals, generalracial standards (structure of the body, head and skull, etc., care and nutrition,estrus, delivery information, wolf choking incident, ear cut, stories, beliefs andidioms.Consequently, it can be suggested that one of reasons why Kangals havemanaged to keep its generation must be original stories and beliefs in Sivas, whichcover the Kangal`s wolf choke, intelligence, courage and loyalty; that lack ofknowledge

  3. Clearance gap flow: extended pneumatic measurements and simulations by discontinuous Galerkin finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hála Jindřich


    Full Text Available In the present paper, new results of measurements of the compressible viscous fluid flow in narrow channels with parallel walls under the conditions of aerodynamic choking are presented. Investigation was carried out using the improved test section with enhanced capability to accurately set the parallelism of the channel walls. The measurements were performed for the channels of the dimensions: length 100 mm, width 100 mm and for various heights in the range from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. The results in the form of distribution of the static pressure along the channel axis including the detailed study of the influence of the deviation from parallelism of the channel walls are compared with previous measurements and with numerical simulations performed using an in-house code based on Favre averaged system of Navier-Stokes equations completed with turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras and a modification of production term according to Langtry and Sjolander. The spatial discretization of the governing equations is performed using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which ensures high order spatial accuracy of the numerical solution.

  4. 1-dimensional simulation of the radial compressor of a waste gas turbocharger; 1-dimensionale Simulation des Radialverdichters eines Abgasturboladers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Gomes, Andre; Schmidt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jens [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)


    The simulation fo the thermodynamical properties of turbochargers in IC engines is mostly done with 1D gas exchange simulation tools, in which the turbocharger is represented by maps, or with 3D-CFD tools, in which a more precise geometrical detail of the charger can be considered. The present work aims for a modeling depth which lies between these 2 variants. This approach (''1D gas exchange simulation with 1D modeling of the turbocharger'') is not only motivated by enabling a better interaction, when compared to the map-based approach, between an IC engine and the turbocharger, but by distinctly reducing the modeling efforts and computing time when compared to the 3D-CFD approach. Within the study, a coarsely discretized model of a centrifugal compressor is built using only the model library of the commercial software GT-Power. For the validation regarding total pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, the results of the stationary simulations of two different compressors are compared to CFD and measurement results. Differences can be seen only close to the choking limit of the compressor. The model was further used to demonstrate its applicability in extrapolated regions of the compressor map and in the instable operating range near the surge limit. (orig.)

  5. Optimal control and performance test of solar-assisted cooling system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.


    The solar-assisted cooling system (SACH) was developed in the present study. The ejector cooling system (ECS) is driven by solar heat and connected in parallel with an inverter-type air conditioner (A/C). The cooling load can be supplied by the ECS when solar energy is available and the input power of the A/C can be reduced. In variable weather, the ECS will probably operate at off-design condition of ejector and the cooling capability of the ECS can be lost completely. In order to make the ejector operate at critical or non-critical double-choking condition to obtain a better performance, an electronic expansion valve was installed in the suction line of the ejector to regulate the opening of the expansion valve to control the evaporator temperature. This will make the SACH always produce cooling effect even at lower solar radiation periods while the ejector performs at off-design conditions. The energy saving of A/C is experimentally shown 50-70% due to the cooling performance of ECS. The long-term performance test results show that the daily energy saving is around 30-70% as compared to the energy consumption of A/C alone (without solar-driven ECS). The total energy saving of A/C is 52% over the entire test period. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Virtual autopsy using imaging: bridging radiologic and forensic sciences. A review of the Virtopsy and similar projects. (United States)

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen; Buck, Ursula; Naether, Silvio; Vock, Peter


    The transdisciplinary research project Virtopsy is dedicated to implementing modern imaging techniques into forensic medicine and pathology in order to augment current examination techniques or even to offer alternative methods. Our project relies on three pillars: three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning for the documentation of body surfaces, and both multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualise the internal body. Three-dimensional surface scanning has delivered remarkable results in the past in the 3D documentation of patterned injuries and of objects of forensic interest as well as whole crime scenes. Imaging of the interior of corpses is performed using MSCT and/or MRI. MRI, in addition, is also well suited to the examination of surviving victims of assault, especially choking, and helps visualise internal injuries not seen at external examination of the victim. Apart from the accuracy and three-dimensionality that conventional documentations lack, these techniques allow for the re-examination of the corpse and the crime scene even decades later, after burial of the corpse and liberation of the crime scene. We believe that this virtual, non-invasive or minimally invasive approach will improve forensic medicine in the near future.

  7. Explanation and Inspiration of Prominent Competitive Psychological Phenomena of Athletes at London Olympics%伦敦奥运会参赛运动员突出竞技心理现象的解析与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    At London Olympics which just ended, competitive psychological performances of athletes from different countries are worth noting. Choking at competition,dark horse, big twist, final score, defending the title of championship and so on, all these prominent competitive psychological phenomena weaved a war of Olympic psychology and they have an extraordinary charm of exploration and corresponding inspiration of competition psychology. Through explaining these prominent and classic competitive psychological phenomena, the author hopes to provide some psychological inspiration for athletes and coaches with high goals so that they can perform better at future competitions.%在刚刚结束的伦敦奥运会上,各国参赛选手的竞技心理表现可圈可点。尤其以“爆冷出局”“黑马”“大逆转”“绝杀”“卫冕”等突出竞技心理现象组成的一幕幕“奥运心理大战”,更具有非同一般的探索魅力和参赛心理应对启示。

  8. Thermo-optical characterization of a low-background infrared chamber and wideband infrared scene projector (WISP) array for hardware-in-the-loop testing (United States)

    Lippert, Jack R.; Flynn, David S.; Jones, Lawrence E.; Kircher, James R.


    The KHILS Vacuum Cold Chamber (KVACC) provides the capability of testing IR seekers with scenes involving a `cold' background, more closely simulating a high altitude/exoatmospheric engagement. During the past year, a gaseous helium refrigeration system has been installed to simplify the logistics of cooling the chamber. An antechamber has also been installed to serve as a chamber for the sensor under test. A WISP array was installed in the Source Chamber. A thermal control system was developed by connecting the array to a cold surface by way of a thermal choke, then actively controlling the temperature with heating elements. This made it possible to operate the array at user selected, stable substrate temperatures ranging from ambient temperature to below 150 K. This capability makes it possible to select the infrared background level that the array operates at, and to operate with background levels that are adequate for testing the high altitude/exoatmospheric engagements. WISP arrays were designed for room temperature operation, but predicted performance at reduced temperatures appears acceptable. Tests were performed with a Phase I prototype WISP array inside the KVACC Source Chamber. Data on this array's radiometric response at various substrate temperatures are presented. It is demonstrated that the arrays can be operated at substrate temperatures as low as 145 K. Currently two Phase 3 WISP arrays and a dichroic beam combiner are being installed in the Source Chamber for 2- color testing.

  9. Leakage predictions for Rayleigh-step, helium-purge seals (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.


    Rayleigh-step, helium purge, annular shaft seals, studied for use in liquid oxygen turbopumps, generate a hydrodynamic force that enables the seal to follow shaft perturbations. Hence, smaller clearances can be used to reduce seal leakage. FLOWCAL, a computer code developed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated, predicts gas flow rate through an annular seal with an axial pressure gradient. Analysis of a 50-mm Rayleigh-step, helium-purge, annular seal showed the flow rate increased axial pressure gradient, downstream pressure, and eccentricity ratio. Increased inlet temperature reduced leakage. Predictions made at maximum and minimum clearances (due to centrifugal and thermal growths, machining tolerances and + or - 2 percent uncertainty in the clearance measurement) placed wide boundaries on expected flow rates. The widest boundaries were set by thermal growth conditions. Predicted flow rates for a 50-mm Rayleigh-step, helium-purge, annular seal underestimated measured flow rates by three to seven times. However, the analysis did accurately predict flow rates for choked gas flow through annular seals when compared to flow rates measured in two other independent studies.

  10. An introduction to fast dissolving oral thin film drug delivery systems: a review. (United States)

    Kathpalia, Harsha; Gupte, Aasavari


    Many pharmaceutical companies are switching their products from tablets to fast dissolving oral thin films (OTFs). Films have all the advantages of tablets (precise dosage, easy administration) and those of liquid dosage forms (easy swallowing, rapid bioavailability). Statistics have shown that four out of five patients prefer orally disintegrating dosage forms over conventional solid oral dosages forms. Pediatric, geriatric, bedridden, emetic patients and those with Central Nervous System disorders, have difficulty in swallowing or chewing solid dosage forms. Many of these patients are non-compliant in administering solid dosage forms due to fear of choking. OTFs when placed on the tip or the floor of the tongue are instantly wet by saliva. As a result, OTFs rapidly hydrate and then disintegrate and/or dissolve to release the medication for local and/or systemic absorption. This technology provides a good platform for patent non- infringing product development and for increasing the patent life-cycle of the existing products. The application of fast dissolving oral thin films is not only limited to buccal fast dissolving system, but also expands to other applications like gastroretentive, sublingual delivery systems. This review highlights the composition including the details of various types of polymers both natural and synthetic, the different types of manufacturing techniques, packaging materials and evaluation tests for the OTFs.

  11. Crystallization kinetics of an amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nowosielski


    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes crystallization kinetics and changes magnetic properties involved by process of crystallization Co-Si-B amorphous alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The following experimental techniques were used: X-ray diffraction (XRD, electrical resistivity in situ measurements (four-point probe static and dynamic measurements of magnetic properties (magnetic balance, fluxmeter, Maxwell-Wien bridge.Findings: In this work has been performed influence of thermal annealing on crystallization kinetics and magnetic properties amorphous Co77Si11.5B11.5 alloy.Practical implications: The attractive properties of Co-Si-B alloy are of special interest for basic research on the materials as well as for their potential applications, like magnetic sensors. The Co soft magnetic material is used in noise filters, saturable reactors, miniature inductance elements for abating spike noise, mains transformers, choke coils, zero-phase current transformers, and magnetic heads etc., i.e., devices which are expected to exhibit high levels of permeability at high frequencies.Originality/value: It has been shown that thermal annealing at temperature close to the crystallization temperature leads to a significant increase of the initial magnetic permeability.

  12. Fabrication of SAW Sensor for Detecting Chemical Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J H Lee; B S Joo; J S Huh; D D Lee


    SAW sensors using five different types of polymer to detect of chemical agents (DMMP, CH3CN, CH2Cl2, DCP)have been fabricated and its gas response characteristics were extensively investigated. The polymers used as the sensing material are polyisobutylene (PIB), polyepichlorohydrin (PECH), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyisoprene(PIP) and polybutadiene(PBD). Their thin films were coated on quartz substrate by spin coating technique. Three types of simulants gases, dimethylmethylphosphonate(DMMP), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and dichloromethane(CH2Cl2), dichloropentane(DCP) were used as target gases, instead of the real nerve, blood, choking and vesicant agents. After spin coating of PIB and PECH, the substrates were heated to 65℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the cyclohexane and ethylacetate which was used as solvent.PDMS was heated to 75℃ with N2 flow for 2 h to remove the ethylacetate which was used as solvent. PBD and PIP on the substrate were heated to 60℃ with N2 flow for 1 h to remove the benzen which was used as solvent. The sensing characteristics of the SAW sensors were measured by using E-5061A network analyzer.

  13. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.


    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  14. Dimensionless model to determine spontaneous combustion danger zone in the longwall gob

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-hai; DENG Jun; WEN Hu


    According to spontaneous combustion propensity,the longwall gob is divided into three zones,including heat dissipation zone,self-heating zone and the choking zone.Only in the self-heating zone can temperature of coal rise due to oxidation.Studying the distribution of the “Three Zones” in gob is important for predicting and preventing spontaneous combustion in coalmine.In normal mining operations,temperature of coal is roughly constant.The process of mass transfer in the gob is considered to be steady.Based on mass conservation,gas species conservation,darcy' s law,Ficks law of diffusion and coal oxidation 1-grade reaction rule,governing equation for air leakage intensity and species concentration are deduced.With critical value of coal spontaneous combustion and the size of longwall workface as basic dimension,a dimensionless steady coupled model of air flow diffusion and chemical reaction in loose coal of Fully Mechanized Top-Coal Caving Mining Workface (FMTCCMW) is setup.By solving the model numerically,regulation of three zones' distribution and spontaneous combustion in the gob can be obtained.The results can be easily popularized to prediction of spontaneous combustion in other coalmines' longwall gob.

  15. Innovation Researchon Preventing Microwave Leakage from Household Microware Oven%家用微波炉防微波泄漏创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金友华; 杨宇澄; 王德明; 张磊; 陈瑞


    Generally, household microwave oven uses door body to prevent the microwave leakage. A door coupled to the body for opening and closing the cooking chamber, and a multi-stage choke seal formed at the door and having different resonant frequencies and different LC resonant circuits for preventing the microwave from being leaked between the body and the door. In this paper, we talk about several innovative means which can improve the safety performance to prevent the leakage of the microwave cooker.%家用微波炉用门体对微波炉进行防微波泄漏,门体用于实现打开和关闭微波炉腔体,并且通过门自身的抗流结构,采用不同的LC震荡电路来阻断从门体和腔体之间泄漏出的微波。在这里我们讨论几种创新性的方法来防止微波泄漏,提高微波炉自身的安全性能。

  16. R&D ERL: SRF Electron Gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill, A.


    When the BNL high current ERL was first envisioned the choice of injector went through several iterations before concluding that an SRF injector was the appropriate choice for the task at hand. The design requirements were quite stringent as the injector had to be designed to reach currents never before achieved in any injector. The overall goal was to design an injector capable of delivering up to 0.5 Ampere at 703.75 MHz. This criteria was set based on the need to demonstrate high average current energy recovery at the ERL so that future machines could be designed and built with confidence in the injector. For the ERL the injector needs to be capable of accelerating electrons to 2-2.5 MeV with charges ranging from 0.7 to 5 nC per bunch depending on the operational parameters being studied. These criteria led to a 1/2 cell photoinjector designed to accommodate a demountable photocathode utilizing a novel quarter wave choke joint for the cathode insertion mechanism. The cavity requires a total of 1 MW of power coupled to the beam in order to meet the high current application, necessitating two 500 kW RF power couplers. This AP note will review the overall physics design and analysis, the fabrication sequence, and the testing plan for this cavity.

  17. Pseudoaneureysm of Carotid Artery and Its Branches Caused by Local Suppuration A Report of 6 Cases%颈部感染性假性动脉瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义; 张金哲


    作者三十年间共收治了6例颈部感染性假性动脉瘤.本文就该症的病理临床表现进行了总结.提出了治疗意见.%Caused by pyogenic infection of deep cervical lymph nodes, the pseudoaneurysms of the carotid artery and its branches in the neck are rare. Six cases were handled in the past 30 years. They were three cases of aneurysm of lignual artery, one of external carotid artery, one of internal carotid artery and one of an unidentified branch of the external carotid artery. Outstanding symptoms and signs are as follows: infection in the neck; hematemesis with or without choking resulting from the ruptured aneurysm into the throat; hoarseness, dysphagia, and Horner's syndrome caused by pres sure on vagus, hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal or sympathetic nerves. Pseudoaneurysm as a complication of local suppuration usually lacks of typical findings of an aneurysm, such as expansile pulsation and systolic bruit. It might be misdiagnosed as an abscess. And if incorrectly treated with incision and drainage, blood would gush out terribly from the wound. It should be emphasized that a experimental puncture is preferable. During operation, a temporary occlusion on the proximal part of the feeding vessels must be done before the exploration and ligation of the perforated artery. Thus treated, all the six cases survired without permanent neurologic sequelae.

  18. Forced and self-excited oscillations in a natural gas fired lean premixed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daesik; Park, Sung Wook


    An experimental study of the flame response in a premixed gas turbine combustor has been conducted at room temperature and under atmospheric pressure inlet conditions using natural gas. The fuel is premixed with the air upstream of a choked inlet to avoid equivalence ratio fluctuations. Therefore the observed flame response is only the result of the imposed velocity fluctuations, which are produced using a variable-speed siren. Also, a variable length combustor is designed for investigating characteristics of self-excited instabilities. Measurements are made of the velocity fluctuation in the mixing section using hot wire anemometry and of the heat release fluctuation in the combustor using chemiluminescence emission. The results are analyzed to determine the phase and gain of the flame transfer function. The results show that the gain of flame transfer function is closely associated both with inlet flow forcing conditions such as frequency and amplitude of modulation as well as the operating conditions such as equivalence ratio. In order to predict the operating conditions where the combustor goes stable or unstable at given combustor and nozzle designs, time-lag analysis was tried using convection time delay measured from the phase information of the transfer function. The model prediction was in very good agreement with the self-excited instability measurement. However, spatial heat release distribution became more significant in long flames than in short flames and also had an important influence on the system damping procedure. (author)

  19. A fast-response aspirating probe for measurements of total temperature and pressure in transonic cryogenic wind tunnel (United States)

    Ng, W.-F.; Rosson, J. C.


    A newly developed, 3-mm-diam, dual hot-wire aspirating probe was used to measure the time-resolved stagnation temperature and pressure in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. The probe consists of two coplanar constant temperature hot wires at different overheat ratios operating in a 1.5-mm-diam channel with a choked exit. Thus, the constant Mach number flow by the wires is influenced only by free-stream stagnation temperature and pressure. Diffusion of the free-stream Mach number to a lower value in the channel reduces the dynamic drag on the hot-wire. Frequency response of the present design is dc to 20 kHz. The probe was used to measure the unsteady wake shed from an oscillating airfoil tested in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA-Langley Research Center. The hot-wire lasted for more than ten hours before breaking, proving the ruggedness of the probe and the usefulness of the technique in a high dynamic pressure, transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Typical data obtained from the experiment are presented after reduction to stagnation pressure and temperature.

  20. A RETRAN model of the Calvert Cliffs-1 pressurized water reactor for assessing the safety implications of control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renier, J P.A.; Smith, O L


    The failure mode and effects analysis of Calvert Cliffs-1 identified sequences of events judged sufficiently complex to merit further analysis in detailed dynamic simulations. This report describes the RETRAN model developed for this purpose and the results obtained. The mathematical tool was RETRAN2/Mod3, the latest version of a widely used and extensively validated thermal-hydraulics production code obtained by license agreement with the developer, Electric Power Research Institute, and installed on the ORNL BM-3033 computers. RETRAN2 is based on a first-principles methodology that treats two-phase flow with slip. Thermal equilibrium of phases is assumed except in the pressurizer, where non-equilibrium processes are important and special methodology is used. Heat transfer in solids is obtained from the conventional conduction equation. Point or 1-D kinetics is available for the reactor core. The fundamental methodology is supplemented with a broad list of process submodels that calculate heat transfer coefficients, fluid and metal state properties, choked flow, form and wall friction losses, and other parameters. Also supplied are component submodels for various types of valves and pumps, the latter of which incorporate four-quadrant characteristics for components in which two-phase or reverse flow may be expected, and head versus flow curves for others. Extensive input allows the code to be highly particularized to a specific plant. The major investment in time and manpower occurs in setting up the base case; changes are comparatively easy to implement.

  1. Fusion Power Demonstrations I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doggett, J.N. (ed.)


    In this report we present a summary of the first phase of the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. During this first phase, we investigated two configurations, performed detailed studies of major components, and identified and examined critical issues. In addition to these design specific studies, we also assembled a mirror-systems computer code to help optimize future device designs. The two configurations that we have studied are based on the MARS magnet configuration and are labeled FPD-I and FPD-II. The FPD-I configuration employs the same magnet set used in the FY83 FPD study, whereas the FPD-II magnets are a new, much smaller set chosen to help reduce the capital cost of the system. As part of the FPD study, we also identified and explored issues critical to the construction of an Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). These issues involve subsystems or components, which because of their cost or state of technology can have a significant impact on our ability to meet FPD's mission requirements on the assumed schedule. General Dynamics and Grumman Aerospace studied two of these systems, the high-field choke coil and the halo pump/direct converter, in great detail and their findings are presented in this report.

  2. Experimental Investigation of a High Pressure Ratio Aspirated Fan Stage (United States)

    Merchant, Ali; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Adamczyk, John J.; Braunscheidel, Edward


    The experimental investigation of an aspirated fan stage designed to achieve a pressure ratio of 3.4:1 at 1500 ft/sec is presented in this paper. The low-energy viscous flow is aspirated from diffusion-limiting locations on the blades and flowpath surfaces of the stage, enabling a very high pressure ratio to be achieved in a single stage. The fan stage performance was mapped at various operating speeds from choke to stall in a compressor facility at fully simulated engine conditions. The experimentally determined stage performance, in terms of pressure ratio and corresponding inlet mass flow rate, was found to be in good agreement with the three-dimensional viscous computational prediction, and in turn close to the design intent. Stage pressure ratios exceeding 3:1 were achieved at design speed, with an aspiration flow fraction of 3.5 percent of the stage inlet mass flow. The experimental performance of the stage at various operating conditions, including detailed flowfield measurements, are presented and discussed in the context of the computational analyses. The sensitivity of the stage performance and operability to reduced aspiration flow rates at design and off design conditions are also discussed.

  3. Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Yang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.

  4. A new conception on the formation of the first bend of Yangtze River: its relations with Eocene magmatic activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on field observations, the author proposes a new understanding on the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River. The relationship between the formation of the first bend of the Yangtze River and Eocene magmatic activity is expounded, suggesting that the first bend of the Yangtze River is the result from choking of the strong magmatic activity in Eocene. As a result, the upstream became a natural reservoir, whose riverside between Mt. Yulong and Mt. Haba was burst,guiding Jinshajiang River running eastward. At the same time, the drastic uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau led to the deep dissection of the river cut down the channel, resulting in the formation of the Tiger Leaping Gorge. The magnitude of uplift in the study area (located in the eastern of the Tibetan Plateau) is calculated. Taking Mt. Yulong as a base, the magnitude of lift is 3,300 m from Eocene to Pliocene, adding 700 m since Pleistocene, totaling up to 4,000 m or so.

  5. Investigation of Combustion Control in a Dump Combustor Using the Feedback Free Fluidic Oscillator (United States)

    Meier, Eric J.; Casiano, Matthew J.; Anderson, William E.; Heister, Stephen D.


    A feedback free fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into a single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. The fluidic oscillator uses internal fluid dynamics to create an unsteady outlet jet at a specific frequency. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the combustor dump plane. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide with an overall O/F ratio of 11.7. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics enabling the study of a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared against equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 67% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. Additionally, computational fluid dynamics analysis of the combustor gives insight into the flow field interaction of the fluidic oscillators. The results indicate that open loop high frequency propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate.

  6. A study of psycho-pathology and treatment of children with phagophobia. (United States)

    Okada, Ayumi; Tsukamoto, Chiaki; Hosogi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Eriko; Watanabe, Kumi; Ootyou, Keiko; Morishima, Tsuneo


    Phagophobia is a disorder characterized by a conditioned excessive fear of eating and is initiated by an event such as vomiting or choking. During childhood, vomiting often occurs as a result of infection or overeating, and painful experiences bring about maladaptive eating behavior like food refusal. There have been few reports of phagophobia, and patients have sometimes been misdiagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). The objective of this study was to elucidate the psycho-pathology and current treatment of patients with phagophobia by analyzing case studies. We describe 6 cases with phagophobia. Patients with strong obsessions were refractory to treatment, indicating that evaluation of premorbid personality is crucial to the prognosis. It is important to classify this disorder according to psycho-pathology into "post-traumatic type" and "gain-from-illness type" to make a treatment plan. A solution focused approach is also effective for patients and their family. Paying close attention to these conditions and to the diagnostic concept referred as "hagophobia" is useful in achieving these aims.

  7. Apparent life-threatening event in infancy (United States)

    Choi, Hee Joung


    An apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is defined as the combination of clinical presentations such as apnea, marked change in skin and muscle tone, gagging, or choking. It is a frightening event, and it predominantly occurs during infancy at a mean age of 1–3 months. The causes of ALTE are categorized into problems that are: gastrointestinal (50%), neurological (30%), respiratory (20%), cardiovascular (5%), metabolic and endocrine (2%–5%), or others such as child abuse. Up to 50% of ALTEs are idiopathic, where the cause cannot be diagnosed. Infants with an ALTE are often asymptomatic at hospital and there is no standard workup protocol for ALTE. Therefore, a detailed initial history and physical examination are important to determine the extent of the medical evaluation and treatment. Regardless of the cause of an ALTE, all infants with an ALTE should require hospitalization and continuous cardiorespiratory monitoring and evaluation for at least 24 hours. The natural course of ALTEs has seemed benign, and the outcome is generally associated with the affected infants' underlying disease. In conclusion, systemic diagnostic evaluation and adequate treatment increases the survival and quality of life for most affected infants.

  8. Investigation of risk cognition of 120 elderly home care givers%120名居家老人照护者护理风险认知调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    居家卧床老年患者的照护者大多未接受过系统培训,照护能力和质量有限,居家护理风险(如坠床、窒息、压疮及烫伤)的发生几率有增加之势。社区卫生服务中心可以通过对居家卧床老年患者的照护者进行针对性护理指导,从而提高其对居家护理风险的认知水平,减少患者居家护理风险的发生。%Most elderly home care givers had not received systematic training, and their nursing ability and quality were limited. The probability of occurrence of the home care risk of (such as falling out of bed, choking, pressure ulcer and scald) had an increasing trend. The community health service center can give targeted guidance of nursing the bed patients to the home care givers to reduce the occurrence of home care risk of the patients.

  9. Hyperspectral landcover classification for the Yakima Training Center, Yakima, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmaus, K.L.; Perry, E.M.; Petrie, G.M.; Irwin, D.E.; Foote, H.P.; Wurstner, S.K.; Stephen, A.J.


    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked in FY97-98 to conduct a multisensor feature extraction project for the Terrain Modeling Project Office (TMPO) of the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA). The goal of this research is the development of near-autonomous methods to remotely classify and characterize regions of military interest, in support of the TMPO of NIMA. These methods exploit remotely sensed datasets including hyperspectral (HYDICE) imagery, near-infrared and thermal infrared (Daedalus 3600), radar, and terrain datasets. The study site for this project is the US Army`s Yakima Training Center (YTC), a 326,741-acre training area located near Yakima, Washington. Two study areas at the YTC were selected to conduct and demonstrate multisensor feature extraction, the 2-km x 2-km Cantonment Area and the 3-km x 3-km Choke Point area. Classification of the Cantonment area afforded a comparison of classification results at different scales.

  10. Electric Machine with Boosted Inductance to Stabilize Current Control (United States)

    Abel, Steve


    High-powered motors typically have very low resistance and inductance (R and L) in their windings. This makes the pulse-width modulated (PWM) control of the current very difficult, especially when the bus voltage (V) is high. These R and L values are dictated by the motor size, torque (Kt), and back-emf (Kb) constants. These constants are in turn set by the voltage and the actuation torque-speed requirements. This problem is often addressed by placing inductive chokes within the controller. This approach is undesirable in that space is taken and heat is added to the controller. By keeping the same motor frame, reducing the wire size, and placing a correspondingly larger number of turns in each slot, the resistance, inductance, torque constant, and back-emf constant are all increased. The increased inductance aids the current control but ruins the Kt and Kb selections. If, however, a fraction of the turns is moved from their "correct slot" to an "incorrect slot," the increased R and L values are retained, but the Kt and Kb values are restored to the desired values. This approach assumes that increased resistance is acceptable to a degree. In effect, the heat allocated to the added inductance has been moved from the controller to the motor body, which in some cases is preferred.

  11. Development of natural gum based fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antesh Kumar Jha


    Full Text Available Dysphagia and risk of choking are leading causes of patient non-compliance in the self-administration of conventional tablets. To overcome these limitations of conventional tablets fast-disintegrating tablets were developed, using natural gums. Natural gums were evaluated for bulk swelling capacity. Powder mix containing natural gums and glipizide was evaluated for water sorption, swelling index and capillary action. For faster onset and immediate hypoglycemic action, the fast disintegrating tablets were prepared with various types of natural gums using the direct compression technique. Formulations containing guar gum disintegrated within a minute and fulfilled the official requirements for dispersible tablets. As the amount of guar gum increased, the friability increased and hardness decreased, resulting in a shorter wetting and disintegration time. Gum acacia and gum tragacanth did the opposite. The glipizide-loaded fast disintegrating tablet prepared with 18 mg of guar gum gave a friability of 0.46 ± 0.02%, content uniformity of 99.34 ± 0.82%, drug content of 99.15 ± 1.16%, wetting time of 39.0 ± 1.04 sec, hardness of 5.70 ± 1.41 Kg and disintegration time less than 30 sec, suggesting that it was a practical product with a good tablet property. In conclusion, natural gum based patient-friendly fast disintegrating tablets of glipizide can be successfully formulated.

  12. Dystrophic changes in masticatory muscles related chewing problems and malocclusions in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, L; de Groot, I J M; Sie, L T; van Bruggen, H W; de Groot, S A F; Erasmus, C E; van Alfen, N


    Dysphagia in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) worsens with age, with increasingly effortful mastication. The aims of this study were to describe mastication problems in consecutive stages in a group of patients with DMD and to determine related pathophysiological aspects of masticatory muscle structure, tongue thickness, bite force and dental characteristics. Data from 72 patients with DMD (4.3 to 28.0 years), divided into four clinical stages, were collected in a cross sectional study. Problems with mastication and the need for food adaptations, in combination with increased echogenicity of the masseter muscle, were already found in the early stages of the disease. A high percentage of open bites and cross bites were found, especially in the later stages. Tongue hypertrophy also increased over time. Increased dysfunction, reflected by increasingly abnormal echogenicity, of the masseter muscle and reduced occlusal contacts (anterior and posterior open bites) were mainly responsible for the hampered chewing. In all, this study shows the increasing involvement of various elements of the masticatory system in progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To prevent choking and also nutritional deficiency, early detection of chewing problems by asking about feeding and mastication problems, as well as asking about food adaptations made, is essential and can lead to timely intervention.

  13. Empirical Analysis on the Relations between Rural Residents’ Consumption and Economic Growth——A Case of Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Liaoning is a granary province with a large agricultural population and great market potential. Expanding rural residents’ consumption becomes a necessity for enlarging domestic demand, solving three agriculture problems and promoting sustainable and rapid economic development. The research shows that since invigorating old industrial base in Liaoning, the contribution rate of rural residents’ consumption to economic motivation is low and unstable, which has become one of the choke points for the development of economy. By using the grey correlation method, the influences of rural residents’ consumption in different periods to GDP per capita are analyzed, the results show that the consumption level of rural residents were increasing, but their contribution rate on economic growth showed the descending tend. The residential expenses stay in the major position of consumption expenses; the education and entertainment products and service consumption play an important role; the growth of transportation and telecommunication is slow; the expenses on medical care are low and its contribution rate on economic growth is relatively weak. The countermeasures on developing rural economy, increasing rural residents’ income, improving rural consumption environment, accelerating rural infrastructure construction, constructing and perfecting rural social security system and expanding rural consumption credit market are put forward to expand rural residents’ consumption demand and realize the sustainable development of economy.

  14. Traditional knowledge in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention program in northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Adyanga Akena


    Full Text Available Uganda’s health care sector is choking with various challenges, such as poor physical infrastructure, inadequate professionals to run the few existing health centers, poor culture of adherence to professional ethical standards by some health care practitioners, shortages of medicines in most government hospitals/health centers, and corruption. Most of the challenges are more endemic in rural areas. It is on the above premise that this article discusses some of the challenges that health centers face in provision of care to the increasing number of HIV/AIDS patients in hard-to-reach rural communities in northern Uganda and the implications of such challenges on the economy. Uganda’s success in the fight against HIV/AIDS in the early 1990s was globally applauded because of its aggressive grassroots behavioral change crusades aimed at reducing the number of sexual partners. The success inspired a wave of financial aid programs from the US government to fight the disease across the developing world. However, the success was short-lived as the rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Uganda is currently rising, with the health care system struggling to provide care for the ballooning number of patients. To contribute to the curtailing cases of new infections, this article discuses the integration of the traditional authority and knowledge system in the national HIV/AIDS care and prevention program along with the biomedical approach currently being used.

  15. Pseudobulbar Paralysis Treated by Acupuncture - Clinical Observation in 36 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@Pseudobulbar paralysis is a kind of common clinical syndromes of cerebral vascular diseases, which is manifested as dyslalia, dysphagia and choking. By several-year clinical observations, 36 cases were treated with satisfactory therapeutic effects as reported in the following. Clinical Data Of 36 in-patients, there were 24 males and 12 females, aged from 44 to 81 years, averaging 64.92 years. Of 36 cases, 24 were at the acute stage and 12 at the recovery stage. All the cases were diagnosed as cerebral vascular diseases by cranial CT scan and MRI, of which, 4 were cerebral infarction, 26 lacunar cerebral infarction, 5 cerebral hemorrhage and 1 mixed type. Of 36 cases, 15 were the first attack of wind-stroke, 15 the second attack, 5 the third attack and 1 the forth attack. There were 26 patients with hypertension among 36 cases, of which, 8 patients suffered from hypertension within 10 years, 6 for more than 10 years, 9 for more than 20 years and 3 for more than 30 years. All the 36 cases were associated with dysphagia and agreeable to Standard on Diagnosis and Evaluation of Therapeutic Effects of Wind-stroke issued by the State Scientific Committee 85-919-01-01, 1995.

  16. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario? (United States)

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow


    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)—social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  17. Turbulent interchange in triangular array bare rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.M.; Todreas, N.


    Bulk mixing coefficients were measured for single plane water flow in a simulated rod bundle with a pitch to diameter ratio of 1.10. A tracer technique employing Rhodamine B as the tracer and measuring fluorescence was used. Isokinetic sampling was achieved by using a pressure balance method. The results were corrected for both entrance effects and diversion crossflows. The results showed a change in Reynolds number behavior as the laminar sublayer began to ''choke'' the turbulent mixing. This, and a review of other mixing experiments, suggested that secondary flows do not compensate for laminarization and that turbulent mixing decreases as the pitch to diameter ratio decreases for values of P/D less than 1.05 in a manner similar to that predicted by Ramm et al. Concentration profiles were measured through the clearance gap and the values of the gradient were used to calculate the gap averaged circumferential eddy diffusivity for mass. A discussion of the eddy diffusivity concept and its applicability to turbulent mixing is presented.

  18. Ormen Lange subsea development strategy and execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogmoen, K. [Norsk Hydro, Oslo (Norway)


    Ormen Lange is the largest natural gas field in development on the Norwegian continental shelf. This paper discussed Norsk Hydro's Ormen Lange development strategy and execution. Several illustrations of the Ormen Lange project were presented, including the field layout and the main challenges of working in deep water. Other challenges involve environmental conditions; long distance control; and hydrate prevention. Several components of the project were presented, including the xmas tree handling system; choke module; control system; large bore tie-in system; in-line tee system; and free spans in pipeline design. Other topics that were presented and illustrated included the feasibility of pipeline design; design optimization with installation contractors; design optimization between intervention methods; positioning; dredging with spiders; excavation with jetprops; ploughing; rock installation; and trenching. The installation of thirty inch pipelines and umbilical lines in shallow and deep water were also discussed and illustrated. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned subsea. These included early definition of operational requirements; close monitoring of interface work between contractors; professional change management; and thorough testing onshore prior to installation. Securing vessel capacity and timely start-up were among the lessons learned for marine operations. figs.

  19. Biocidal effect of cathodic protection on bacterial viability in biofilm attached to carbon steel. (United States)

    Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Terashi, Ryosuke; Kawai, Hirofumi; Unno, Hajime; Tanji, Yasunori


    Biofilm formed on carbon steel by various species of bacterial cells causes serious problems such as corrosion of steel, choking of flow in the pipe, deterioration of the heat-transfer efficiency, and so on. Cathodic protection is known to be a reliable method for protecting carbon steel from corrosion. However, the initial attachment of bacteria to the surface and the effects of cathodic protection on bacterial viability in the biofilm have not been clarified. In this study, cathodic protection was applied to an artificial biofilm containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1), a biofilm constituent, on carbon steel. The aims of this study were to evaluate the inhibition effect of cathodic protection on biofilm formation and to reveal the inhibition mechanisms. The viability of PAO1 in artificial biofilm of 5 mm thickness on cathodically protected steel decreased to 1% of the initial cell concentration. Analysis of pH distribution in the artificial biofilm by pH microelectrode revealed that pH in proximity to carbon steel increased to approximately 11 after cathodic protection for 5 h. Moreover, 99% of region in the artificial biofilm was under the pH conditions of over nine. A simulation of pH profile was shown to correspond to experimental values. These results indicate cells in the artificial biofilm were killed or damaged by cathodic protection due to pH increase.

  20. Toy Age-Labeling: An Overview for Pediatricians of How Toys Receive Their Age Safety and Developmental Designations. (United States)

    Kulak, Shuli; Stein, Ruth E K


    Injuries related to toys continue to cause significant childhood morbidity and mortality, despite considerable government regulation of the toy industry. Recent controversy related to toys that contain strong magnets demonstrate the dangers they pose to children. The pediatric community is often unaware of how toys receive their developmental and safety labeling and the degree to which age-labeling on toys can be discretionary. Toy labeling has 2 basic manifestations. The first, safety labeling for hazards like small parts, balloons, or small balls that may present a choking risk, is mandatory. The second, "developmental" age-labeling, describes the age of the children for which the toy is intended, and sometimes has discretionary components. This article provides a review of the regulations governing toy age-safety standards and how they are reflected on toy packaging to help pediatric practitioners apply safety advice across settings and patient characteristics. We review the existing age-labeling regulations and processes and discuss the major areas where children remain vulnerable despite labeling. Finally, we list some recommendations for counseling parents about toy safety.

  1. Some recollections of Porton in World War 1. Commentary. (United States)

    Garner, J P


    Chemical weapons now regularly feature in news reports and the threat from them has become widely recognised by the public at large. Terrorist actions such as the Tokyo subway incident in 1995, coupled with the persistent use of agents such as sulphur mustard and Sarin by the Iraqi regime over the last 20 years in the Iran/Iraq war and against the Kurds of Northern Iraq, make it easy to think that chemical weapons are a new phenomenon. This paper reminds us that many chemical agents were developed during WWI; indeed the first use of a chemical agent was the release of chlorine gas--a choking agent--by the Germans over the battlefields of Ypres in 1915. Porton Down remains at the very heart of chemicals and biological weapons research, albeit in a purely defensive capacity; few of the old buildings remain and the idyllic lifestyle in the Officer's Mess at Idmiston Manor has long since disappeared. These recollections provide a fascinating insight into scientific research at the time of World War I.

  2. Clear well physical water treatment technology for the oil field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troncoso y Troncoso, Joao Ricardo [Weatherford Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rzeznik, Lawrence; Parker, Wiley L. [Weatherford International, Houston, TX (United States)


    Deposits of various types are common problems associated with oil and gas production. Deposits of scale, paraffin can block tubing, cause pumps to stick and clog valves and chokes. The expense and widespread occurrence of deposition problems have resulted in the development of a variety of treatment options which have been marginally successful at best. This paper discusses a new and novel approach for controlling scale, paraffin using an electronic physical water treating device and results that have been achieved. This physical water treatment technology has been applied to oil and gas production wells which incorporate all forms of product lift. Units are now also being installed in several South American locations. This paper will discuss the results obtained from the use of these physical water treatment devices and discuss the criteria which are used to ascertain whether a particular well site's problems can be eased by use of these devices. These criteria will be discussed for both land based and offshore oil wells. (author)

  3. X波段双圆极化喇叭天线的设计与仿真%Design and Simulation of X-band Double Circularly Polarized Horn Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍了一种基于波导圆极化器的新型X波段双圆极化喇叭天线,该天线由同轴波导转换器、波导隔板圆极化器和喇叭组成。为了改善天线的辐射特性,双扼流环多模喇叭馈源被用来抑制旁瓣,波导隔板圆极化器采用圆波导结构,由HFSS9.2软件进行了建模仿真计算。结果表明,这种天线带宽宽,具有良好的方向性和圆极化特性。%In this paper,a novel X-band double circularly polarized horn antenna based on waveguide circular polarizer is introduced.The antenna is composed of coaxial-waveguide converter,waveguide circular polarizer and horn.In order to improve the performance of the antenna radiation,the coaxial multimode horn of two chokes is used to suppress the sidelobe.The circular polarizer is realized by the circular waveguide.These antenna models are built and simulated in HFSS9.2 software.The results show that these antenna with broad bandwidth are capable of good directivity and desired circularly polarization.

  4. Ceramic micro-injection molded nozzles for serial femtosecond crystallography sample delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyerlein, K. R.; Heymann, M.; Kirian, R. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Adriano, L.; Bajt, S., E-mail: [Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Knoška, J. [Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Wilde, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Chapman, H. N. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)


    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray Free-Electron Lasers (XFELs) allows for room temperature protein structure determination without evidence of conventional radiation damage. In this method, a liquid suspension of protein microcrystals can be delivered to the X-ray beam in vacuum as a micro-jet, which replenishes the crystals at a rate that exceeds the current XFEL pulse repetition rate. Gas dynamic virtual nozzles produce the required micrometer-sized streams by the focusing action of a coaxial sheath gas and have been shown to be effective for SFX experiments. Here, we describe the design and characterization of such nozzles assembled from ceramic micro-injection molded outer gas-focusing capillaries. Trends of the emitted jet diameter and jet length as a function of supplied liquid and gas flow rates are measured by a fast imaging system. The observed trends are explained by derived relationships considering choked gas flow and liquid flow conservation. Finally, the performance of these nozzles in a SFX experiment is presented, including an analysis of the observed background.

  5. Haze, public health and mitigation measures in China: A review of the current evidence for further policy response. (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Xu, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Jun; Li, Jing; Cao, Lina; Liu, Xiaobo; Wu, Haixia; Liu, Qiyong


    With rapid economic development, China has been plagued by choking air pollution in recent years, and the frequent occurrence of haze episodes has caused widespread public concern. The purpose of this study is to describe the sources and formation of haze, summarize the mitigation measures in force, review the relationship between haze pollution and public health, and to discuss the challenges, potential research directions and policy options. Haze pollution has both natural and man-made causes, though it is anthropogenic sources that are the major contributors. Accumulation of air pollutants, secondary formation of aerosols, stagnant meteorological conditions, and trans-boundary transportation of pollutants are the principal causes driving the formation and evolution of haze. In China, haze includes gaseous pollutants and fine particles, of which PM2.5 is the dominant component. Short and long-term exposure to haze pollution are associated with a range of negative health outcomes, including respiratory diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, mental health problems, lung cancer and premature death. China has paid increasing attention to the improvement of air quality, and has introduced action plans and policies to tackle pollution, but many interventions have only temporary effects. There may be fierce resistance from industry groups and some government agencies, and often it is challenging to enforce relevant control measures and laws. We discuss the potential policy options for prevention, the need for wider public dialogue and the implications for scientific research.

  6. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf


    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  7. 大数据在现代战争中的价值探析%Research on the Big Data’s Value in Modern Warfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Modern warfare is information-dominated. Information penetrates the all aspects of the warfare and becomes one of the key factors which influence the success of the warfare. Effective acquisition, storage, processing and distribution of military in-formation via big data technology can promote the ability of intelligence acquisition and command decision-making, handle the choke point of information flow, advance the integration of operational system, and strengthen the information security and pro-tection.%现代战争是“信息主导”的战争,信息渗透到战争的方方面面,成为影响战争胜负的重要因素之一,利用大数据技术对军事信息进行高效获取、存储、处理和分发,能够有效提升情报获取、指挥决策能力,疏通信息流瓶颈,推进作战体系融合,增强信息安全防护能力。

  8. An emergency department-based domestic violence intervention program: findings after one year. (United States)

    Hotch, D; Grunfeld, A F; Mackay, K; Cowan, L


    This article reports findings from the first year of operation of an emergency department-based domestic violence intervention program in one of Canada's major metropolitan areas. The program has established methods for identifying, treating, and following up battered women. Information on several key variables is now available for the group of 279 individuals who were the program's first patients. Two out of three (68%) of the patients seen were assaulted by their current spouse. Nine percent (9%) were abused by former spouses from whom they were separated or divorced. Twelve percent (12%) were assaulted by someone they were dating. Women in the program who were abused by a former or current spouse experienced severe violence, with 81% being kicked, bitten, or hit; 60% being pushed, grabbed, or shoved; 55% being threatened; and 30% being choked. Follow-up connection could only be made with 140 women (50%), highlighting the need for focused interventions during the emergency department visit. The findings confirm that women are being injured, often seriously, by those with whom they have close relationships. We present a program for addressing the needs of battered women seen in emergency departments.

  9. Nissen fundoplication in children with profound neurologic disability. High risks and unmet goals. (United States)

    Smith, C D; Othersen, H B; Gogan, N J; Walker, J D


    Anti-reflux procedures have been advocated in children with profound neurologic disability referred for feeding gastrostomy when gastroesophageal reflux is present. Facilitation of care, reduction in pneumonia and vomiting, and improvement in the general health and survival of these children have been major goals of fundoplication and gastrostomy. In large pediatric series, these procedures have been reported to have low risk and negligible mortality rates. Recent reports, however, document an increased incidence of sequelae of fundoplication in children with profound neurologic disability. This paper retrospectively reviews a series of 35 nonverbal, nonambulatory pediatric patients undergoing a total of 39 fundoplications (37 Nissen, 1 Thal, and 1 Belsey) over an 11-year period. Neurologic impairment of 17 (49%) patients was acquired, 13 (37%) congenital, and 5 (14%) due to a syndrome. Perioperative complications occurred in six (17%). Three additional complications led to early postoperative death. A fourth early death was unexplained. Fourteen (40%) had recurrent pneumonia, 11 (31%) recurrent vomiting, 8 (23%) choking-gagging-retching complex, and 3 (9%) bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy. Recurrent gastroesophageal reflux was documented in seven (20%) patients. A second ARP was performed in six (17%). There were 14 (40%) late deaths. Although the major goals of anti-reflux procedure are clearly achieved in many severely impaired children with gastroesophageal reflux, the use of Nissen fundoplication to resolve the complications of swallowing disorders and improve outcome with an acceptably low risk in this complex set of patients does not appear to be established.

  10. The Throughput Flow Constraint Theorem and its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Todinov


    Full Text Available The paper states and proves an important result related to the theory of flow networks with disturbed flows:“the throughput flow constraint in any network is always equal to the throughput flow constraint in its dual network”. After the failure or congestion of several edges in the network, the throughput flow constraint theorem provides the basis of a very efficient algorithm for determining the edge flows which correspond to the optimal throughput flow from sources to destinations which is the throughput flow achieved with the smallest amount of generation shedding from the sources. In the case where a failure of an edge causes a loss of the entire flow through the edge, the throughput flow constraint theorem permits the calculation of the new maximum throughput flow to be done in time, where m is the number of edges in the network.In this case, the new maximum throughput flow is calculated by inspecting the network only locally, in the vicinity of the failed edge, without inspecting the rest of the network. The superior average running time of the presented algorithm, makes it particularly suitable for decongesting overloaded transmission links of telecommunication networks, in real time.In the paper, it is also shown that the deliberate choking of flows along overloaded edges, leading to a generation of momentary excess and deficit flow, provides a very efficient mechanism for decongesting overloaded branches.

  11. Clearance gap flow: extended pneumatic measurements and simulations by discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (United States)

    Hála, Jindřich; Luxa, Martin; Bublík, Ondřej; Prausová, Helena; Vimmr, Jan


    In the present paper, new results of measurements of the compressible viscous fluid flow in narrow channels with parallel walls under the conditions of aerodynamic choking are presented. Investigation was carried out using the improved test section with enhanced capability to accurately set the parallelism of the channel walls. The measurements were performed for the channels of the dimensions: length 100 mm, width 100 mm and for various heights in the range from 0.5 mm to 4 mm. The results in the form of distribution of the static pressure along the channel axis including the detailed study of the influence of the deviation from parallelism of the channel walls are compared with previous measurements and with numerical simulations performed using an in-house code based on Favre averaged system of Navier-Stokes equations completed with turbulence model of Spalart and Allmaras and a modification of production term according to Langtry and Sjolander. The spatial discretization of the governing equations is performed using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method which ensures high order spatial accuracy of the numerical solution.

  12. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Faye


    Full Text Available Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD, quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II. Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were “sensations of shortness of breath or smothering,” “feeling of choking,” and “fear of dying” found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1. Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability.

  13. 土工织物淤堵程度的量化方法探讨%A study on Permeability Forcast of Needle Punched Non-woovonb for Geotextile Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周蓉; 刘逸新


    The permeability coefficient of geotextiles was calculated based on 24 hours continul clogging test of different needle punched fabric samples. According to the obtained data, the thesis studied choke level and forcost permeability by using Time-Alignment analysis method. The result showed that it would provide an exact and reliable designing basis for the geotextiles in engineering pracilce%通过对不同规格针刺土工织物连续24小时的反复实验,计算土工织物渗透性能的变化,根据数据与时间密切相关性采用时间序列分析方法,进行土工织布淤堵程度的量化分析和渗透性能的预测,从而为土工织物的工程应用提供准确可靠的设计依据。

  14. Nonlinear indirect combustion noise for compact supercritical nozzle flows (United States)

    Huet, M.


    In this paper, indirect combustion noise generated by the acceleration of entropy perturbations through a supercritical nozzle is investigated in the nonlinear regime and in the low-frequency limit (quasi-static hypothesis). This work completes the study of Huet and Giauque (Journal of Fluid Mechanics 733 (2013) 268-301) for nonlinear noise generation in nozzle flows without shock and particularly focuses on shocked flow regimes. It is based on the analytical model of Marble and Candel for compact nozzles (Journal of Sound and Vibration 55 (1977) 225-243), initially developed for excitations in the linear regime and rederived here for nonlinear perturbations. Full nonlinear analytical solutions are provided in the absence of shock as well as second-order analytical expressions when a shock is present in the diffuser. An analytical evaluation of the shock displacement inside the nozzle caused by the forcing is proposed and maximum possible forcings to avoid unchoke and 'over-choke' are discussed. The accuracy of the second-order model and the nonlinear contributions to the generated waves are then addressed. This model is found to be very accurate for the generated entropy wave with negligible nonlinear contributions. Nonlinearities are more visible, but still limited, for the downstream acoustic wave for large inlet Mach numbers. Analytical developments are validated thanks to comparisons with numerical simulations.

  15. Field Epidemiology of an Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Septicemia in Dromedary Population of Greater Cholistan Desert (Pakistan

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    Fraz Munir Khan


    Full Text Available An outbreak of a respiratory disease occurred in the dromedary population of Greater Cholistan desert, which was quite foreign to the locale. The duration of outbreak was more than a month (from the mid of November 2010 to the mid of December 2010. Prevalence, cumulative mortality and case fatality of outbreak were 0.79, 0.018 and 0.023, respectively. The disease was characterized by pyrexia (up to 107.4ºF, severe dyspnea due to choking of nasal cavity with thick gummy material and abortion during late gestation. The disease ran a clinical course of 5-7 days. Febrile carcasses showed congestion of all visceral organs, petechial hemorrhages on the serosal surfaces, serosanguineous fluid in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and pneumonia. Postmortem findings indicated septicemia. Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida was isolated from representative clinical and morbid specimens. Treatment trial on clinical cases indicated ciprofloxacin, ceftiofur hydrochloride, gentamicin + tylosin and thiamphenicol + tylosin to be highly efficacious.

  16. Optimizing Ship Classification in the Arctic Ocean: A Case Study of Multi-Disciplinary Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Rahmes


    Full Text Available We describe a multi-disciplinary system model for determining decision making strategies based upon the ability to perform data mining and pattern discovery utilizing open source actionable information to prepare for specific events or situations from multiple information sources. We focus on combining detection theory with game theory for classifying ships in Arctic Ocean to verify ship reporting. More specifically, detection theory is used to determine probability of deciding if a ship or certain ship class is present or not. We use game theory to fuse information for optimal decision making on ship classification. Hierarchy game theory framework enables complex modeling of data in probabilistic modeling. However, applicability to big data is complicated by the difficulties of inference in complex probabilistic models, and by computational constraints. We provide a framework for fusing sensor inputs to help compare if the information of a ship matches its AIS reporting requirements using mixed probabilities from game theory. Our method can be further applied to optimizing other choke point scenarios where a decision is needed for classification of ground assets or signals. We model impact on decision making on accuracy by adding more parameters or sensors to the decision making process as sensitivity analysis.

  17. Technologies for Fissile Material Detection and Prevention of Fissile Material Introduction into International Shipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J


    Prevention of the introduction of fissile materials into international shipping, and hence into a given country, is a complex problem. Some pieces of the solution to the puzzle are conceptually well defined, but lack definition of a technical pathway and/or operational implementation. Other elements are a little more fuzzy, and some elements are probably undefined at this point in time. This paper reviews the status of the more well-defined elements, and suggests needed additional measures to enhance the probability that fissile materials are not illicitly introduced into distant countries. International commerce proceeds through a number of steps from point of origin to final destination. Each step offers the possibility of a well-defined choke point to monitor and interdict the illicit shipment of fissile materials. However, because there are so many potential points and venues of entry into a large country such as the United States (e.g., air cargo, shipping containers, truck and rail transport, private vehicles, boats and planes, commercial passenger travel), it behooves the world to ensure that fissile material does not illicitly leave its point of origin.

  18. Both riverine detritus and dissolved nutrients drive lagoon fisheries (United States)

    Bonthu, Subbareddy; Ganguly, Dipnarayan; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Pattnaik, Ajit K.; Wolanski, Eric


    The net ecosystem metabolism in lagoons has often been estimated from the net budget of dissolved nutrients. Such is the case of the LOICZ estuarine biogeochemistry nutrient budget model that considers riverine dissolved nutrients, but not riverine detritus. However the neglect of detritus can lead to inconsistencies; for instance, it results in an estimate of 5-10 times more seaward export of nutrients than there is import from rivers in Chilika Lagoon, India. To resolve that discrepancy the UNESCO estuarine ecohydrology model, that considers both dissolved nutrients and detritus, was used and, for Chilika Lagoon, it reproduced successfully the spatial distribution of salinity, dissolved nutrients, phytoplankton and zooplankton as well as the fish yield data. Thus the model suggests that the riverine input of both detritus and dissolved nutrients supports the pelagic food web. The model also reproduces well the observation of decreased fish yield when the mouth of the lagoon was choked in the 1990s, demonstrating the importance of the physics that determine the flushing rate of waterborne matter. Thus, both farming in the watershed by driving the nutrient and detritus inputs to the lagoon, and dredging and engineering management of the mouth by controlling the flushing rate of the lagoon, have a major influence on fish stocks in the lagoon.

  19. 澳洲银鲈鱼苗耗氧率和窒息点观测%Oxygen Consumption and Asphyxiated Point Oberservztion of

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷建军; 肖俊军; 杨琼; 王卉; 张益峰


      应用密封流水装置测定澳洲银鲈的耗氧率和窒息点.结果表明:在水温24~28℃范围内,平均体长6.7cm的澳洲银鲈鱼苗耗氧率为0.235~0.304 mg/g・h,随水温升高而升高.在26℃时,鱼苗规格大小与耗氧率呈负相关.适温范围内,同一规格鱼苗窒息点随水温升高而升高;同一水温下,窒息点随体长增加而降低.%  Application of sealing water device for determination of Bidyanus bidyanus oxygen consumption and asphyxiated point. The results show that:at the temperature of 24~28℃, the average body length of 6.7cm. Bidyanus bidyanus fry oxygen consumption of 0.235~0.304 mg/g•h, with the water rising. In 26℃, fry specifications size and rate of oxygen consumption was negatively related to. Suitable temperature range, the same specifications fry choke points with water temperature and elevated temperatures; the same, asphyxiated point decreased with body length.

  20. Experimental investigation of the transonic flow around the leading edge of an eroded fan airfoil (United States)

    Klinner, Joachim; Hergt, Alexander; Willert, Christian


    The influence of leading edge modification on the time-averaged and instantaneous flow around a fan airfoil is investigated by particle image velocimetry (PIV), schlieren imaging and high-speed shock shadowgraphs in a transonic cascade windtunnel. In addition to a global characterization of the time-averaged flow using PIV, the instantaneous passage shock position was extracted from single-shot PIV measurements by matching the tracer velocity across the normal shock with an exponential fit. The instantaneous shock positions are assigned to a probability density distribution in order to obtain the average position and the range of fluctuations of the eroded and reference leading edge. The profiles are used to estimate the response time of the particles to the normal shock which was found to be in the sub-microsecond range. Averaged PIV measurements and the probability density of shock position from both geometries are obtained at near stall and choked conditions. In order to extract the frequency range of the shock motion, the shadow of the shock wave was tracked using high-speed shadowgraphy. The paper also provides details on the experimental implementation such as a specifically designed light-sheet probe.

  1. A Study of Psycho-pathology and Treatment of Children with Phagophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Phagophobia is a disorder characterized by a conditioned excessive fear of eating and is initiated by an event such as vomiting or choking. During childhood, vomiting often occurs as a result of infection or overeating, and painful experiences bring about maladaptive eating behavior like food refusal. There have been few reports of phagophobia, and patients have sometimes been misdiagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN. The objective of this study was to elucidate the psycho-pathology and current treatment of patients with phagophobia by analyzing case studies. We describe 6 cases with phagophobia. Patients with strong obsessions were refractory to treatment, indicating that evaluation of premorbid personality is crucial to the prognosis. It is important to classify this disorder according to psycho-pathology into "post-traumatic type" and "gain-from-illness type" to make a treatment plan. A solution focused approach is also effective for patients and their family. Paying close attention to these conditions and to the diagnostic concept referred as "hagophobia" is useful in achieving these aims.

  2. Compton scattering monochromatic X-ray source based on X-band multi-bunch linac at the University of Tokyo (United States)

    Sakamoto, F.; Uesaka, M.; Taniguchi, Y.; Natsui, T.; Hashimoto, E.; Woo, L. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Urakawa, J.; Yoshida, M.; Higo, T.; Fukuda, S.; Kaneko, N.; Nose, H.; Sakae, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yamamoto, M.


    We are currently developing a compact monochromatic X-ray source based on laser-electron Compton scattering for the purpose of medical applications at the University of Tokyo. To realize remarkably compact-, high-intensity- and highly stable system, we adopt an X-band (11.424 GHz) multi-bunch linear accelerator (linac) and reliable Q-switch Nd:YAG laser. The injector of the system consists of a 3.5-cell X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun and an alpha magnet. So far, we have continued high-power experiment and beam generation on X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun. However, breakdown was frequently occurred at coaxial structure around the thermionic cathode. In order to resolve the breakdown, we adopt a choke structure around the thermionic cathode. In this paper, the details of Compton scattering X-ray source the University of Tokyo, the experimental results of the X-ray generation, and upgrade of the X-band thermionic cathode RF-gun will be presented.

  3. Formulation, development and evaluation of patient friendly dosage forms of metformin, Part-II: Oral soft gel

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    Mohapatra Ashutosh


    Full Text Available Dionvenience of administration and patient compliance are gaining significant importance in the design of dosage forms. Metformin hydrochloride is an orally administered antihyperglycemic agent, used in the management of non-insulin-dependant (type-2 diabetes mellitus. Difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia is common among all age groups, especially in elderly and pediatrics. Unfortunately, a high percentage of patients suffering from type-2 diabetes are elderly people showing dysphagia. Persons suffering from dysphagia may get choked when they consume liquid formulation, thus to alleviate such problem liquid formulation of high viscosity was prepared. Formulation of oral soft gel batches of metformin was carried out using hydrophilic polymer gellan gum at concentrations ranging from 0.2-0.4% w/v and sodium citrate at two different concentrations (0.3% and 0.5%. The prepared batches were evaluated for appearance, viscosity, pH, drug content, syneresis, in vitro drug release, and taste masking. The batch with 0.4% w/v gellan gum and 0.5% sodium citrate not only showed 85% drug release at 15 min, but all the desired organoleptic properties. The taste masking was carried out using nonnutritive sugar and flavors. The optimized batch showed substantial stability when subjected to short term stability study (0-8°C and Room temperature. The problem of dose measurement by patients was outweighed as oral medicated gels are to be packed in unit dose container.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anca PĂIUȘESCU


    Full Text Available Freedom of the press is essential to democracy and to a pluralistic culture. Most journalists are against any form of legal regulation considering the creation of a press law as an interference with freedom of the press, while state authorities considered necessary minimum set of rules to sanction those who exceed the "normality" of free speech. If in the audiovisual field the legislation tends toward European standards, for print media all draft laws proposed so far by different political parties or the government have failed. Representatives of the major newspapers saw each time in these legislative proposals an attempt to "choke" the freedom of the press. In this context, self-regulation is seen as a way in which journalists can establish their own rules in order to protect themselves from the state attempt to regulate this area, a method of protecting against political manipulation and preventing the erosion of public trust, and it is also seen as a method of education within the profession.

  5. Acute subdural empyema. With special reference to CT findings and surgical treatment; case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasahira, Masahiro; Takagi, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Kazumasa; Inou, Satoshi; Arai, Toshimoto (Dokkyo Univ., School of Medicine, Tochigi (Japan))


    The patient, a 19-year-old male, began suffering from severe headache, vomiting, and high fever. Two days later the patient was admitted in a semicomatose state and with left hemiplegia. Nuchal rigidity and choked disc were not noticed. WBC count was 12,500/mm/sup 3/. CT scan disclosed marked swelling of the right cerebral hemisphere with midline shift. Except for a small lucent space in the parafalcial region, no extracerebral collection was noted in either pre- or post-contrast scans. Plain craniograms showed clouding of the left frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. Carotid angiography revealed prolongation of the circulation time and stenosis of the supraclinoidal portion of the right carotid artery. Right fronto-parietal decompressive craniectomy was performed. Subdural empyema was found and evacuated. Curettage and drainage of the empyema in the paranasal sinuses were also done. A bone defect 4 mm in diameter was detected on the medial-upper wall of the left frontal sinus. The causative organism was confirmed as ..cap alpha..-Streptococcus. Both systemic and local antibiotics were administered and the patient recovered well and was discharged without any neurological deficit. The authors emphasized that cerebral angiography is necessary for its accurate diagnosis of subdural empyema in its acute stage and that emergency intracranial and rhino-otological operations should be concomitantly performed.

  6. Numerical study of a 3.5-stage axial compressor at on-and off-design conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Numerical investigation is conducted on a 3.5-stage axial compressor,on which numerous experimental projects were carried out at the Institute during the last years and an experimental database was established.In the current study five on- and off-design operating points are simulated using a RANS solver and the results are compared with the measurement.The result shows that the compressor performance can be qualitatively predicted by the mixing-plane method.Better agreement is obtained for the on-design operating point.However,as the flow unsteadiness is insufficiently considered,the numerical method produces end-wall low-speed flow layers accumulated with the flow passing through the passage,which is in no good agreement with the experimental data.In the numerical simulation the rotor rows receive less work and this difference from the measurement increases with the rotational speed.In contrast,the stator rows increase the pressure more efficiently than the measurement.In the simulation the flow in the last stator row tends more to separate on the pressure side of the blade.For the operating points close to the surge line,the predicted separation is more intense than the experimental observation.But for the operating points close to the choke,the separation is suppressed.

  7. Complications of Microwave Ablation for Liver Tumors: Results of a Multicenter Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livraghi, Tito, E-mail: [IRCCS Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Meloni, Franca, E-mail: [San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Radiology (Italy); Solbiati, Luigi, E-mail: [Azienda Ospedaliera di Busto Arsizio, Department of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Zanus, Giorgio, E-mail: [Azienda Universita di Padova, General Surgery and Organ Transplantation (Italy); Collaboration: For the Collaborative Italian Group using AMICA system


    Purpose: New technologies for microwave ablation (MWA) have been conceived, designed to achieve larger areas of necrosis compared with radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The purpose of this study was to report complications by using this technique in patients with focal liver cancer. Methods: Members of 14 Italian centers used a 2.45-GMHz generator delivering energy through a cooled miniature-choke MW antenna and a standardized protocol for follow-up. They completed a questionnaire regarding number and type of deaths, major and minor complications and side effects, and likelihood of their relationship to the procedure. Enrollment included 736 patients with 1.037 lesions: 522 had hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhosis, 187 had metastases predominantly from colorectal cancer, and 27 had cholangiocellular carcinoma. Tumor size ranged from 0.5 to 10 cm. In 13 centers, the approach used was percutaneous, in 4 videolaparoscopic, and in 3 laparotomic. Results: No deaths were reported. Major complications occurred in 22 cases (2.9%), and minor complications in 54 patients (7.3%). Complications of MWA do not differ from those RFA, both being based on the heat damage. Conclusion: Results of this multicenter study confirmed those of single-center experiences, indicating that MWA is a safe procedure, with no mortality and a low rate of major complications. The low rate of complications was probably due to precautions adopted, knowing in advance possible risk conditions, on the basis of prior RFA experience.

  8. Linearized Euler Equations for the Determination of Scattering Matrices for Orifice and Perforated Plate Configurations in the High Mach Number Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schulze


    Full Text Available The interaction of a plane acoustic wave and a sheared flow is numerically investigated for simple orifice and perforated plate configurations in an isolated, non-resonant environment for Mach numbers up to choked conditions in the holes. Analytical derivations found in the literature are not valid in this regime due to restrictions to low Mach numbers and incompressible conditions. To allow for a systematic and detailed parameter study, a low-cost hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamic/Computational Aeroacoustic (CFD/CAA methodology is used. For the CFD simulations, a standard k–ϵ Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model is employed, while the CAA simulations are based on frequency space transformed linearized Euler equations (LEE, which are discretized in a stabilized Finite Element method. Simulation times in the order of seconds per frequency allow for a detailed parameter study. From the application of the Multi Microphone Method together with the two-source location procedure, acoustic scattering matrices are calculated and compared to experimental findings showing very good agreement. The scattering properties are presented in the form of scattering matrices for a frequency range of 500–1500 Hz.

  9. Daughters on Hunger Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang


    Full Text Available This essay explores the embattled interactions between mothers and daughters in the stories by Edna O’Brien, Mary Lavin, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne and Mary Leland. This conflict involves an underlying distorted intimacy between women within a patriarchal Irish context. The daughter in the stories seeks to rebel against the ‘choking love’ of the tyrannical ‘patriarchal mother’ through a symbolic anorexia, in which the daughter rejects the mother’s food or the food associated with the mother. The mother is also shown to feel ambivalent and resistant towards the daughter’s attempt to break from her dependence upon the mother. The conflict and resistance between mothers and daughters in these stories can be evaluated against the framework of the patriarchal context in which women as mothers are silenced and made powerless in front of the ‘Father,’ and therefore, this resistance can be interpreted as a reaction to this patriarchal ideology and its framework in Irish society. The lost bond between older and younger women needs to be rediscovered and restored by a realisation of patriarchal ideology and furthermore, identification with female subjectivity. This identification between women seems to act as a source of redemption for women of different generations, which results in both liberating themselves from the patriarchal dogma.

  10. Soft magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Fe73B7Si16Nb3Cu1 alloy after rapid heating under tensile stress (United States)

    Nosenko, Anton; Mika, Taras; Rudenko, Olexandr; Yarmoshchuk, Yevhenii; Nosenko, Viktor


    Amorphous Fe73B7Si16Nb3Cu1 ribbon was crystallized rapidly by electric current heating under simultaneously applied tensile stress along the ribbon axis. As a result, strong transverse magnetic anisotropy was induced in the ribbon. Dynamic magnetic properties of the ribbons rapidly heated either under the tensile stress or without tensile stress were measured using toroidal cores. Optimal electric current heating regime that provides maximum improvement of the initial magnetic permeability and core loss was determined. Tensile stress increase from 0 to 180 MPa was shown to result in the decrease of the initial magnetic permeability down to 400 and core loss at frequencies from 0.4 to 200 kHz. Comparative analysis of magnetic properties of the cut core (with non-magnetic gap) and the cores heated under tensile stress was carried out. The magnetic properties of the latter cores are advantageous for manufacturing the reactors and linear chokes of switch-mode power supplies.

  11. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning. (United States)

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard


    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  12. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale


    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  13. 人工清洗储油罐HSE风险防控%HSE risk control in manual cleaning of oil tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The oil sludge such as sand deposits in oil tanks increase during the production of an oil-field, which is not good at the operation of a facility and need to be removed regularly. However, the risks such as fire, exploration, choking intoxication, pol ution of leak exist in most cleaning work. Protection measures that meet the HSE management should be established to control the risks and realize the healthy, safety, environmental friendly working. The paper presents the HSE risks and related control ing measures during manual cleaning of oil tanks.%油田生产过程中,各类储油罐底部沉积泥沙等含油淤渣会逐渐增多,不利于生产系统的平稳运行,需定期进行清污。然而,大部分清罐作业存在火灾、爆炸、人员中毒窒息、泄漏污染等风险,需要制定符合HSE管理要求的防范措施来控制作业风险,实现健康、安全、环保作业,本文介绍了人工清洗常见储油罐过程中HSE风险及管控措施。

  14. Learning Habits Status and Intervention Policy of Rural-urban Fringe Zone Middle School Students%城乡结合部初中学生学习习惯现状分析及干预策略初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The learning habits of the rural-urban fringe zone students' is the choke point of quality of academic input.This article tries to analyze the reason of the restraint factors to form good habits through blow aspects:complicated social environment in the rural-urban fringe zone,especial home education,hysteretic educational mode,etc.Also,this article offers some intervention policies which can help the students to improve their learning habits.Hope this article is helpful to the teachers of junior high schools in the rural-urban fringe zone.%城乡结合部学生的学习习惯是制约教学质量提升的瓶颈。本文试着从城乡结合部复杂的社会环境、特殊的家庭教育、较滞后教育方式等方面来分析影响学生良好学习习惯形成的制约因素,并根据自己的教学实践提出一些促进学生良好学习习惯养成的干预策略,希望能对城乡结合部初中教师有一定的启示作用。

  15. Numerical and performance analysis of one row transonic rotor with sweep and lean angle (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Reza; Boroomand, Masoud


    In this study, aerodynamic behaviors of swept and leaned blades were investigated. Axial and tangential blade curvatures impacts on compressor's operating parameters were analyzed separately. A commercial CFD program which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations was used to find out the mentioned impact and the complicated flow field of transonic compressor-rotors. The CFD method that was used for solving flow field's equation was validated by experimental data of NASA Rotor 67. The results showed that the compressor with curved rotors had higher efficiency, rotor pressure ratio and stable operating range compared to the compressor with un-curved rotors. Using curved rotors mostly had higher impact on the overall stable operating range compared to the other operating parameters. Operating range involves choking point and stall point that were changed separately by using of bended blade. For finding the detailed impact of sweep and lean angle on transonic blades, various forms of lean and sweep angles were exerted to basic rotor. It was found that sweep angles increased overall operating range up to 30%, efficiency up to 2% and pressure ratio up to 1%. Leaning the blades increased the safe operating range, the pressure ratio and efficiency by 14%, 4% and 2% respectively.

  16. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson


    Full Text Available Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope may occur in these children on mentioning about blood, needles or any injury. Vasovagal fainting with diphasic response pattern occurs in about twenty percent of children on exposure to the phobic stimulus. Other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also occur co-morbidly in children with blood-injection-injury phobia which makes the prognosis poor. Avoidance of health care due to phobia causes significant negative impact on health outcomes. Hence early diagnosis and urgent management of blood-injection-injury phobia in children is essential.

  17. Megaesophagus in Friesian horses associated with muscular hypertrophy of the caudal esophagus. (United States)

    Komine, M; Langohr, I M; Kiupel, M


    Friesian horses have a perceived high rate of congenital or hereditary diseases, including megaesophagus, that may lead to choke and death. A retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence and pathologic characteristics of esophageal disease in 852 horses, including 17 Friesians, that had been necropsied over a 6-year period at the Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health. Forty-two horses had grossly described esophageal lesions (25 muscular hypertrophy, 7 hemorrhage, 6 megaesophagus, 4 erosion/ulceration, 3 obstruction, 2 tears, 2 secondary neoplasms, 2 lymphoid patches, 1 thin wall, 1 esophagitis). Some of these lesions occurred concurrently in the same horse. Ten of these horses died or were euthanatized because of severe esophageal disease (6 megaesophagus causing tears in 2 horses, 3 esophageal obstruction with food bolus, and 1 esophagitis). All 6 horses with megaesophagus were Friesians. No cause for megaesophagus was noted in the necropsy reports; however, 5 of these 6 Friesians had marked caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy (wall thickness: 1.9 ± 0.3 cm). Microscopic review of the esophagus of these Friesians confirmed smooth muscle hypertrophy, with no obvious fibrosis, degeneration, or loss of myenteric plexi. Unlike the Friesians, the 4 non-Friesian horses with severe esophageal disease had esophageal obstruction with an intraluminal food bolus or severe esophagitis. None had caudal esophageal muscular hypertrophy. It is concluded that in comparison to other horse breeds, Friesians have a higher prevalence of severe esophageal disease, specifically megaesophagus, that is commonly associated with marked caudal muscular hypertrophy.

  18. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in welded tuffs: application to a welded-tuff dyke in the tertiary Trans-Pecos Texas volcanic province, USA (United States)

    Wolff, John A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Sachs, Scott D.


    Consideration of published anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies on welded ignimbrites suggests that AMS fabrics are controlled by groundmass microlites distributed within the existing tuff fabric, the sum result of directional fabrics imposed by primary flow lineation, welding, and (if relevant) rheomorphism. AMS is a more sensitive indicator of fabric elements within welded tuffs than conventional methods, and usually yields primary flow azimuth estimates. Detailed study of a single densely welded tuff sample demonstrates that the overall AMS fabric is insensitive to the relative abundances of fiamme, matrix and lithics within individual drilled cores. AMS determinations on a welded-tuff dyke occurring in a choked vent in the Trans-Pecos Texas volcanic field reveals a consistent fabric with a prolate element imbricated with respect to one wall of the dyke, while total magnetic susceptibility and density exhibit axially symmetric variations across the dyke width. The dyke is interpreted to have formed as a result of agglutination of the erupting mixture on a portion of the conduit wall as it failed and slid into the conduit, followed by residual squeezing between the failed block and in situ wallrock. Irrespective of the precise mechanism, widespread occurrence of both welded-tuff dykes and point-welded, aggregate pumices in pyroclastic deposits may imply that lining of conduit walls by agglutionation during explosive volcanic eruptions is a common process.

  19. Darcy permeability of hagfish slime: an ultra-soft hydrogel (United States)

    Chaudhary, Gaurav; Fudge, Douglas; Ewoldt, Randy


    When under attack from predators, hagfish produces a large amount of slime. The slime is an exceptional hydrogel, which sets-up in fraction of a second and is known to choke the predators. A small quantity of exudate, released from specialized slime glands, mixes with a large volume of sea water (99.996% w/v) and forms a mucus-like cohesive mass. The exudate has two main constituents: mucins and long intermediate filament based threads. This remarkably dilute material forms into a solid and is hypothesized to have a low hydrodynamic permeability. In this work, we present the first experimental measurements of Darcy permeability of hagfish slime. Our results explain how this ultra-soft hydrogel possesses the so-called 'gill-clogging' ability. We also investigate the roles played by individual components of slime, namely, thread cells and mucins, via a concentration-dependent permeability study. Our results provide vital insights into the roles of individual components and it is evident from our observations that mucins play a vital role in significantly reducing the permeability of the fibrous network formed by threads.

  20. Hypoplastic epiglottis in a nonsyndromic child: a rare cause of chronic cough. (United States)

    Parakh, Ankit; Singh, Varinder


    We describe a 2-year-old girl born out of a nonconsanguineous marriage who presented with dry cough since birth, which was often associated with feeding. She never had any choking or cyanotic/apneic spells. Her voice and cry were normal. She was born at term with no obvious congenital anomalies or perinatal problems. The child never had any other significant illness or respiratory distress to warrant hospital admission. On examination, she was a healthy-looking child without any abnormal syndromic facies or craniofacial or any other congenital anomaly. Flexible bronchoscopy done under sedation and local anesthesia revealed a rounded, short, stump-like hypoplastic epiglottis with a smooth contour. The rest of the laryngeal apparatus and the trachea-bronchial tree had normal appearance. The parents were advised to feed the child in a propped-up position and thickening of feeds to avoid aspirations. She remains well under follow-up. Hypoplastic epiglottis is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper airway, which can present with chronic cough. Endoscopic evaluation of the upper airway should be considered early in children presenting with cough associated with feeding problems.


    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé


    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  2. Orally disintegrating films: A modern expansion in drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan


    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, tendency toward innovative drug delivery systems has majorly increased attempts to ensure efficacy, safety and patient acceptability. As discovery and development of new chemical agents is a complex, expensive and time consuming process, so recent trends are shifting toward designing and developing innovative drug delivery systems for existing drugs. Out of those, drug delivery system being very eminent among pediatrics and geriatrics is orally disintegrating films (ODFs. These fast disintegrating films have superiority over fast disintegrating tablets as the latter are associated with the risks of choking and friability. This drug delivery system has numerous advantages over conventional fast disintegrating tablets as they can be used for dysphasic and schizophrenic patients and are taken without water due to their ability to disintegrate within a few seconds releasing medication in mouth. Various approaches are employed for formulating ODFs and among which solvent casting and spraying methods are frequently used. Generally, hydrophilic polymers along with other excipients are used for preparing ODFs which allow films to disintegrate quickly releasing incorporated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API within seconds. Orally disintegrating films have potential for business and market exploitation because of their myriad of benefits over orally disintegrating tablets. This present review attempts to focus on benefits, composition, approaches for formulation and evaluation of ODFs. Additionally, the market prospect of this innovative dosage form is also targeted.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xin; LU Chuan-jing; LI Jie; PAN Zhan-cheng


    For ventilated cavitating flows in a closed water tunnel, the wall effect may exert an important influence on cavity shape and hydrodynamics. An isotropic mixture multiphase model was established to study the wall effect based on the RANS equations,coupled with a natural cavitation model and the RaNG k-ε turbulent model. The governing equations were discrctized using the finite volume method and solved by the Gauss-Seidel linear equation solver on the basis of a segregation algorithm. The algebraic multigrid approach was carried through to accelerate the convergence of solution. The steady ventilated cavitating flows in water tunnels of different diameter were simulated for a conceptual underwater vehicle model which had a disk cavitator. It is found that the choked cavitation number derived is close to the approximate solution of natural cavitating flow for a 3-D disk. The critical ventilation rate falls with decreasing diameter of the water tunnel. However, the cavity size and drag coefficient are rising with the decrease in tunnel diameter for the same ventilation rate, and the cavity size will be much different in water tunnels of different diameter even for the same ventilated cavitation number.

  4. A Treatise on the Theory of Alternating Currents (United States)

    Russell, Alexander


    1. Introduction. Electrostatics. Magnetism. Electrodynamics; 2. Alternating current in an inductive circuit. Self inductance formulae. Rectangle concentric main. Cylindrical wires; 3. The inductance of circular and helical currents. Rayleigh's formula. Maximum inductance. Mutual inductance of coaxial coils. Lorenz's formula. Mathematical tables; 4. Effective values. Choking coil and condenser currents. Effects of wave shape. Resonance; 5. Electrostatic capacity. Maxwell's equations. Capacity formulae for parallel cylinders. The capacities of three core cables in terms of Maxwell's coefficients; 6. Capacity formulae for cables. The capacity coefficients of overhead wires; 7. High frequency currents. Complete solution for a concentric main. Parallel conductors. Mathematical tables; 8. Problems in connection with spherical electrodes. The capacity coefficients. The attractions and repulsion. The maximum value of the electric stress; 9. Current oscillations. Inductively coupled electric circuits. Forced oscillations; 10. The theory of the power factor. Phase difference; 11. The method of the complex variable. Graphical solution; 12. Vectors in space. Failure of graphical methods; 13. The measurement of power. Watt-hour meters; 14. The air core transformer. Circle diagrams; 15. The theory of three phase currents. Power measurement; 16. The theory of two phase currents. Power measurement; 17. The conversion of polyphase systems. Phase indicators; 18. Rotating magnetic fields. Guiding magnetic fields; 19. The magnetic field bound single and polyphase cables. Losses in single, two and three phase cables. Dielectric losses; 20. Eddy current losses. Metal plates. Metal cylinders; 21. The method of duality. Reciprocal theorems; Index; Symbols; Index.

  5. An UWB LNA Design with PSO Using Support Vector Microstrip Line Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Demirel


    Full Text Available A rigorous and novel design procedure is constituted for an ultra-wideband (UWB low noise amplifier (LNA by exploiting the 3D electromagnetic simulator based support vector regression machine (SVRM microstrip line model. First of all, in order to design input and output matching circuits (IMC-OMC, source ZS and load ZL termination impedance of matching circuit, which are necessary to obtain required input VSWR (Vireq, noise (Freq, and gain (GTreq, are determined using performance characterisation of employed transistor, NE3512S02, between 3 and 8 GHz frequencies. After the determination of the termination impedance, to provide this impedance with IMC and OMC, dimensions of microstrip lines are obtained with simple, derivative-free, easily implemented algorithm Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. In the optimization of matching circuits, highly accurate and fast SVRM model of microstrip line is used instead of analytical formulations. ADCH-80a is used to provide ultra-wideband RF choking in DC bias. During the design process, it is aimed that Vireq = 1.85, Freq = Fmin, and GTreq = GTmax all over operating frequency band. Measurements taken from the realized LNA demonstrate the success of this approximation over the band.

  6. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheer Tashtoush


    Full Text Available The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24 hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population.

  7. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma. (United States)

    Tashtoush, Basheer; Schroeder, Jonathan; Memarpour, Roya; Oliveira, Eduardo; Medina, Michael; Hadeh, Anas; Ramirez, Jose; Smolley, Laurence


    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24 hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population.

  8. Treatment of Foreign Body Obstruction of the Upper Airway (United States)

    Hoffman, Jerome R.


    The treatment of foreign body obstruction of the upper airway has been the subject of considerable attention and controversy. Current recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences, the American Red Cross and the American Heart Association include the use of back blows, abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver) or chest thrusts (or both) and finger probes, until definitive therapy by trained medical and paramedical personnel becomes available. Nevertheless, a number of authorities on this subject have claimed that these approaches are dangerous, and that abdominal thrusts should be the first and only first-aid technique used in this situation. There are only limited data on which to make recommendations regarding this issue. Clinical evidence is scanty and of a highly anecdotal and unscientific nature. The data that are available suggest that a combination of maneuvers is in fact preferable to any single maneuver. Experimental physiologic data on both humans and animals tend to support this concept and suggest that back blows, which generate high initial pressures, may dislodge objects from the larynx enough to allow subsequent thrust maneuvers, which generate more sustained increases in intrathoracic pressure, to move the object out of the larynx. At this time, in the absence of definitive data, it seems reasonable to teach as many lay citizens as possible to recognize upper airway obstruction due to foreign body and to perform any and all of these techniques (preferably in combination), as well as external cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where appropriate, on choking victims. PMID:7072236

  9. A distributed multichannel demand-adaptive P2P VoD system with optimized caching and neighbor-selection (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Chen, Minghua; Parekh, Abhay; Ramchandran, Kannan


    We design a distributed multi-channel P2P Video-on-Demand (VoD) system using "plug-and-play" helpers. Helpers are heterogenous "micro-servers" with limited storage, bandwidth and number of users they can serve simultaneously. Our proposed system has the following salient features: (1) it jointly optimizes over helper-user connection topology, video storage distribution and transmission bandwidth allocation; (2) it minimizes server load, and is adaptable to varying supply and demand patterns across multiple video channels irrespective of video popularity; and (3) it is fully distributed and requires little or no maintenance overhead. The combinatorial nature of the problem and the system demand for distributed algorithms makes the problem uniquely challenging. By utilizing Lagrangian decomposition and Markov chain approximation based arguments, we address this challenge by designing two distributed algorithms running in tandem: a primal-dual storage and bandwidth allocation algorithm and a "soft-worst-neighbor-choking" topology-building algorithm. Our scheme provably converges to a near-optimal solution, and is easy to implement in practice. Packet-level simulation results show that the proposed scheme achieves minimum sever load under highly heterogeneous combinations of supply and demand patterns, and is robust to system dynamics of user/helper churn, user/helper asynchrony, and random delays in the network.

  10. Does community emergency care initiative improve the knowledge and skill of healthcare workers and laypersons in basic emergency care in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhoi


    Full Text Available Background: Due to lack of training in emergency care, basic emergency care in India is still in its infancy. We designed All India Institute of Medical Sciences basic emergency care course (AIIMS BECC to address the issue. Aim: To improve the knowledge and skill of healthcare workers and laypersons in basic emergency care and to identify impact of the course. Materials and Methods: Prospective study conducted over a period of 4 years. The target groups were medical and nonmedical personnel. Provider AIIMS BECC is of 1 day duration including lectures on cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, choking, and special scenarios. Course was disseminated via lectures, audio-visual aids, and mannequin training. For analysis, the participants were categorized on the basis of their education and profession. A pre- and a post-course evaluation were done and individual scores were given out of 20 and compared among all the groups and P value was calculated. Results: A total of 1283 subjects were trained. 99.81% became providers and 2.0% were trained as instructors. There was a significant improvement in knowledge among all the participants irrespective of their education level including medicos/nonmedicos. However, participants who had higher education (graduates and postgraduates and/or belonged to medical field had better knowledge gain as compared to those who had low level of education (≤12th standard and were nonmedicos. Conclusion: BECC is an excellent community initiative to improve knowledge and skill of healthcare and laypersons in providing basic emergency care.

  11. Optimization and characterization of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) heat-resistant porous fiberous mat by electrospinning (United States)

    Shi, R.; Bin, Y. Z.; Yang, W. X.; Wang, D.; Wang, J. Y.; Jian, X. G.


    Poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) is noted for its outstanding heat-resistance property and mechanical strength. A one-step electrospinning method was conducted to produce PPEK micro-nano porous fibrous mat. We gave emphasis study on the spinnability, optimized conditions, fibers' morphology, surface science and fracture mechanism. The uniform electrospun fibrous mat resulted from PPEK/chloroform binary system indicated that PPEK would be a prospective material to be applied in electrospinning. Addition of a small amount of non-solvent (ethanol) turned out to be advantageous to the reduction of fiber diameter and the alleviation of choking during spinning process. Organic salt (benzyltrimethylammonium chloride) was employed to increase the conductivity of solution for the formation of thin fiber. After trials, PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system with salt and PPEK/NMP system were taken as two optimized systems. These two systems showed different pore fraction in N2 adsorption test, and displayed different mechanical behaviors in uniaxial tension test. The fibrous mat from PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system showed a feature of ductile fracture with relatively low fracture strength but long fracture deformation, while the fibrous mat from PPEK/NMP system showed a feature of brittle fracture with small deformation but quite large fracture strength of ca. 6 MPa. Finally thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the resultant PPEK fibrous mat did not decompose until the temperature reached 478 °C, which qualified the resultant fibrous mat as a promising material used under high-temperature condition.

  12. Comparative hydrodynamics of 10 Mediterranean lagoons by means of numerical modeling (United States)

    Umgiesser, Georg; Ferrarin, Christian; Cucco, Andrea; De Pascalis, Francesca; Bellafiore, Debora; Ghezzo, Michol; Bajo, Marco


    A comparison study between 10 Mediterranean lagoons has been carried out by means of the 3-D numerical model SHYFEM. The investigated basins are the Venice and Marano-Grado lagoons in the Northern Adriatic Sea, the Lesina and Varano lagoons in the Southern Adriatic Sea, the Taranto basin in the Ionian Sea, the Cabras Lagoon in Sardinia, the Ganzirri and Faro lagoons in Sicily, the Mar Menor in Spain, and the Nador Lagoon in Morocco. This study has been focused on hydrodynamics in terms of exchange rates, transport time scale, and mixing. Water exchange depends mainly on the inlet shape and tidal range, but also on the wind regimes in the case of multi-inlet lagoons. Water renewal time, which is mostly determined by the exchange rate, is a powerful concept that allows lagoons to be characterized with a time scale. In the case of the studied lagoons, the renewal time ranged from few days in the Marano-Grado Lagoon up to 1 year in the case of the Mar Menor. The analysis of the renewal time frequency distribution allows identifying subbasins. The numerical study proved to be a useful tool for the intercomparison and classification of the lagoons. These environments range from a leaky type to a choked type of lagoons and give a representative picture of the lagoons situated around the Mediterranean basin. Mixing efficiency turns out to be a function of the morphological complexity, but also of the forcings acting on the system.

  13. RELAP5/MOD3 assessment for calculation of safety and relief valve discharge piping hydrodynamic loads. International agreement report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbe, E.J.; VanHoenacker, L.; Otero, R. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)


    This report presents an assessment study for the use of the code RELAP 5/MOD3/5M5 in the calculation of transient hydrodynamic loads on safety and relief discharge pipes. Its predecessor, RELAP 5/MOD1, was found adequate for this kind of calculations by EPRI. The hydrodynamic loads are very important for the discharge piping design because of the fast opening of the valves and the presence of liquid in the upstream loop seals. The code results are compared to experimental load measurements performed at the Combustion Engineering Laboratory in Windsor (US). Those measurements were part of the PWR Valve Test Program undertaken by EPRI after the TMI-2 accident. This particular kind of transients challenges the applicability of the following code models: two-phase choked discharge; interphase drag in conditions with large density gradients; heat transfer to metallic structures in fast changing conditions; two-phase flow at abrupt expansions. The code applicability to this kind of transients is investigated. Some sensitivity analyses to different code and model options are performed. Finally, the suitability of the code and some modeling guidelines are discussed.

  14. PWR safety/relief valve blowdown analysis experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.Z.; Chou, L.Y.; Yang, S.H. (Gilbert/Commonwealth Engineers and Consultants, Reading, PA (USA). Speciality Engineering Dept.)


    The paper describes the difficulties encountered in analyzing a PWR primary loop pressurizer safety relief valve and power operated relief valve discharge system, as well as their resolution. The experience is based on the use of RELAP5/MOD1 and TPIPE computer programs as the tools for fluid transient analysis and piping dynamic analysis, respectively. General approaches for generating forcing functions from thermal fluid analysis solution to be used in the dynamic analysis of piping are reviewed. The paper demonstrates that the 'acceleration or wave force' method may have numerical difficulties leading to unrealistic, large amplitude, highly oscillatory forcing functions in the vicinity of severe flow area discontinuities or choking junctions when low temperature loop seal water is discharged. To avoid this problem, an alternate computational method based on the direct force method may be used. The simplicity and superiority in numerical stability of the forcing function computation method as well as its drawbacks are discussed. Additionally, RELAP modeling for piping, valve, reducer, and sparger is discussed. The effects of loop seal temperature on SRV and PORV discharge line blowdown forces, pressure and temperature distributions are examined. Finally, the effects of including support stiffness and support eccentricity in piping analysis models, method and modeling relief tank connections, minimization of tank nozzle loads, use of damping factors, and selection of solution time steps are discussed.

  15. Shotcup petal abrasions in close range .410-caliber shotgun injuries. (United States)

    Dowling, G P; Dickinson, J A; Cooke, C T


    Shotcup petal abrasions centered around a shotgun wound of entrance are generally thought to occur at a range of 30 to 90 cm. A suicidal .410-caliber shotgun injury of the right eye is described in which typical petal abrasions were noted around the entrance wound. However, significant soot deposition around the wound suggested that the range of fire was less than 30 cm and perhaps closer to 15 cm. Test-firing of the weapon and ammunition used by the decedent showed some spread of the shotcup petals at a range of 7.5 cm, progressing to maximum spread at 30 to 52.5 cm. Further testing with other .410 ammunition, containing shotcups, confirmed the spread of shotcup petals at ranges less than 30 cm, irrespective of manufacturer, shotshell length, and birdshot size. When a variety of shotguns were tested, it was found that one weapon with a very short barrel and cylinder bore did not exhibit petal spread until a range of 30 cm was reached. The remaining shotguns, with longer barrels and full choke, all demonstrated definite petal spread at a range of 12.5 cm. The long, narrow configuration of .410 shotcup petals may explain their early spread and the production of petal abrasions at ranges of less than 30 cm.

  16. Finding and Localizing FRBs in Realtime with realfast (United States)

    Law, Casey J.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Butler, Bryan J.; Paul, Demorest; Lazio, Joseph; Rupen, Michael P.


    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are mysterious millisecond radio transients that seem to originate from outside of the Milky Way. Despite having discovered roughly 20 FRBs, single-dish radio telescopes have not localized an FRB well enough to associate them confidently with multiwavelength counterparts (e.g., a host galaxy). Thus, fundamental questions about their distance, energetics, and origin remain open. Radio interferometers expand on science capabilities of single-dish radio telescopes by their ability to instantaneously localize sources. However, using interferometers at millisecond timescales ("fast imaging") generates a Terabyte of data per hour, enough to choke typical data analysis pipelines and too large to move via the internet.To open access to this novel capability of interferometers, we are building realfast, a GPU cluster at the Very Large Array (VLA) that will be dedicated to real-time, fast transient searches. Real-time processing will be used to trigger data recording for those brief moments when millisecond transients occur. Realfast will be integrated with the VLA correlator to search a fast copy of all observations, a fundamentally new capability that will be open to all VLA users. By controlling the output data rate, realfast will observe thousands of hours per year, enough to find and localize dozens of FRBs. I will present early development progress and discoveries from realfast observations.

  17. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective study. (United States)

    Maessen, Maud; Veldink, Jan H; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Hendricks, Henk T; Schelhaas, Helenius J; Grupstra, Hepke F; van der Wal, Gerrit; van den Berg, Leonard H


    The objective of this study is to determine if quality of care, symptoms of depression, disease characteristics and quality of life of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are related to requesting euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) and dying due to EAS. Therefore, 102 ALS patients filled out structured questionnaires every 3 months until death and the results were correlated with EAS. Thirty-one percent of the patients requested EAS, 69% of whom eventually died as a result of EAS (22% of all patients). Ten percent died during continuous deep sedation; only one of them had explicitly requested death to be hastened. Of the patients who requested EAS, 86% considered the health care to be good or excellent, 16% felt depressed, 45% experienced loss of dignity and 42% feared choking. These percentages do not differ from the number of patients who did not explicitly request EAS. The frequency of consultations of professional caregivers and availability of appliances was similar in both groups. Our findings do not support continuous deep sedation being used as a substitute for EAS. In this prospective study, no evidence was found for a relation between EAS and the quality and quantity of care received, quality of life and symptoms of depression in patients with ALS. Our study does not support the notion that unmet palliative care needs are related to EAS.

  18. 帕米膦酸二钠引起严重低钙血症1例%Serious hypocalcemia induced by disodium in 1 case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贞; 史美祺; 汤依群


    帕米膦酸二钠用于治疗恶性肿瘤并发的高钙血症和溶骨性癌转移引起的骨痛.1例患者予帕米膦酸二钠90 mg iv,1天后出现全身麻木,呼吸急促,并有窒息感,诊断为严重低钙血症,经对症治疗后病情渐平稳.%Pamidronate is increasingly used both in the treatment of hy-percalcemia and bone pain of osteolytic metastasis in cancer. We describe a case of severe hypocalcemia following one injection of pamidronate. One day after the administration of 90 mg pamidronate, patient felt whole - body numbness, shortness of breath, suffocation or choking. Condition got stable after symptomatic treatment Prescribers should be thoroughly familiar with this risk of pamidronate disodium, and avoid the occurrence of serious side effects.

  19. Modeling environmental bias and computing velocity field from data of Terra Nova Bay GPS network in Antarctica by means of a quasi-observation processing approach (United States)

    Casula, Giuseppe; Dubbini, Marco; Galeandro, Angelo


    A semi-permanent GPS network of about 30 vertices has been installed at Terra Nova Bay (TNB) near Ross Sea in Antarctica. A permanent GPS station TNB1 based on an Ashtech Z-XII dual frequency P-code GPS receiver with ASH700936D_M Choke Ring Antenna has been mounted on a reinforced concrete pillar built on bedrock since October 1998 and has recorded continuously up to the present. The semi-permanent network has been routinely surveyed every summer using high quality dual frequency GPS receivers with 24 hour sessions at 15 sec rate; data, metadata and solutions will be available to the scientific community at ( We present the results of a distributed session approach applied to processing GPS data of the TNB GPS network, and based on Gamit/Globk 10.2-3 GPS analysis software. The results are in good agreement with other authors' computations and with many of the theoretical models.

  20. Real-time capability of GEONET system and its application to crust monitoring (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yutsudo, Toru; Miyahara, Basara


    The GPS Earth Observation Network system (GEONET) has been playing an important role in monitoring the crustal deformation of Japan. Since its start of operation, the requirements for accuracy and timeliness have become higher and higher. On the other hand, recent broadband communication infrastructure has had capability to realize real-time crust monitoring and to aid the development of a location-based service. In early 2003, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) upgraded the GEONET system to meet new requirements. The number of stations became 1200 in total by March, 2003. The antennas were unified to the choke ring antennas of Dorne Margolin T-type and the receivers were replaced with new ones that are capable of real-time observation and data transfer. The new system uses IP-connection through IP-VPN (Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network) for data transfer, which is provided by communication companies. The Data Processing System, which manages the observation data and analyses in GEONET, has 7 units. GEONET carries out three kinds of routine analyses and an analysis of RTK-type for emergencies. The new system has shown its capability for real-time crust monitoring, for example, the precise and rapid detection of coseismic (and post-seismic) motion caused by 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake.

  1. Feasibility Study of a 6.6kV, 1MW Transformerless BTB-Based Loop Controller (United States)

    Yonetani, Shinsuke; Fujita, Hideaki; Akagi, Hirofumi; Okada, Naotaka

    This paper achieves a feasibility study of a 6.6kV, 1MW loop controller that consists of a transformerless back-to-back configuration using two 5-level diode-clamped converters. However, the loop controller requires reducing the zero-sequence current circulating between the two distribution lines below than 0.2 A in rms, in order to avoid malfunction of line-to-ground fault protection relays. Moreover, all the dc voltages across four capacitors in the dc link have to be controlled equally. This paper presents a solution to these problems. Two common-mode chokes are installed at the ac side of each converter to suppress high-frequency zero-sequence currents, while feedback control is applied to eliminate low-frequency zero-sequence currents. Two bidirectional buck-boost dc-dc converters are employed to keep the four capacitor voltages equal. Simulation results verify viability and effectiveness of the loop controller, along with the developed theoretical analysis.

  2. Coherent structures in a supersonic complex nozzle (United States)

    Magstadt, Andrew; Berry, Matthew; Glauser, Mark


    The jet flow from a complex supersonic nozzle is studied through experimental measurements. The nozzle's geometry is motivated by future engine designs for high-performance civilian and military aircraft. This rectangular jet has a single plane of symmetry, an additional shear layer (referred to as a wall jet), and an aft deck representative of airframe integration. The core flow operates at a Mach number of Mj , c = 1 . 6 , and the wall jet is choked (Mj , w = 1 . 0). This high Reynolds number jet flow is comprised of intense turbulence levels, an intricate shock structure, shear and boundary layers, and powerful corner vortices. In the present study, stereo PIV measurements are simultaneously sampled with high-speed pressure measurements, which are embedded in the aft deck, and far-field acoustics in the anechoic chamber at Syracuse University. Time-resolved schlieren measurements have indicated the existence of strong flow events at high frequencies, at a Strouhal number of St = 3 . 4 . These appear to result from von Kàrmàn vortex shedding within the nozzle and pervade the entire flow and acoustic domain. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied on the current data to identify coherent structures in the jet and study the influence of this vortex street. AFOSR Turbulence and Transition Program (Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0435) with program managers Dr. I. Leyva and Dr. R. Ponnappan.

  3. Necessary Conditions for Short Gamma-Ray Burst Production in Binary Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Murguia-Berthier, Ariadna; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Lee, William H


    The central engine of short gamma-ray bursts (sGRBs) is hidden from direct view, operating at a scale much smaller than that probed by the emitted radiation. Thus we must infer its origin not only with respect to the formation of the trigger - the actual astrophysical configuration that is capable of powering a sGRB - but also from the consequences that follow from the various evolutionary pathways that may be involved in producing it. Considering binary neutron star mergers we critically evaluate, analytically and through numerical simulations, whether the neutrino-driven wind produced by the newly formed hyper-massive neutron star can allow the collimated relativistic outflow that follows its collapse to actually produce a sGRB or not. Upon comparison with the observed sGRB duration distribution, we find that collapse cannot be significantly delayed (<= 100 ms) before the outflow is choked, thus limiting the possibility that long-lived hyper-massive remnants can account for these events. In the case of s...

  4. Blockage effect on the flow around a cylinder probe in calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-wei; WEI Jun


    Flow around a 2-D cylinder pressure probe placed in uniform flow, free jet flow, and wind tunnel flow was analyzed with potential flow theory and simulated with numerical method. Blockage effect was investigated under several typical flow Mach numbers. The result from numerical simulation shows a similar trend to the one from potential flow method while varies in quantity. Wind tunnel walls accelerate the flow near the probe and thus produce a blockage effect;Boundary of free jet flow, however, decelerates the flow and thus produces a "negative" blockage effect. A maximum incoming Mach number exists when the probe is calibrated in wind tunnel in high subsonic condition due to choking caused by shocks and shock induced separation. The critical Mach number varies with blockage ratio, which makes high Mach number impossible to achieve in large blockage ratio condition. The blockage effect itself is unavoidable for calibration or measurement although a sufficiently small blockage ratio brings minor effect. Correction can be implemented based on the numerical simulation result presented in this paper and further works.

  5. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents]. (United States)

    Seto, Yasuo


    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  6. Evaluating Performance of Water Hammer Control Equipment using Hytran Software in Hasanlu Dam Pumping Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nazari


    Full Text Available Unsteady flows start from a steady state and end the other steady state condition. In water lines unsteady flows occur mainly due to the closure of valves, sudden pumps stops or sudden pumps starts. To prevent these losses, the major ways which can be used are pressure valves, air tanks and surge tanks. All various methods of controlling water hammer pursue a common goal, and that is to balance pressure from water hammer to adjust the pressure in an acceptable range in the network. In this paper, unsteady hydraulic flow control methods include protective measures such as the use of check valve and installation of air valves, air chambers and surge tanks are investigated and compared. And so that the1400 mm existing pipe line of Hasanlu dam pump station, can be simulated using Hytran software, and then minimum and maximum pressure due to the different choking in the throat connecting the main route was evaluated. The results presented that the use of check valve with built-in soft starter in the present case study reduces the positive and negative pressure caused by the water hammer phenomenon as possible value.

  7. Application of the planar-scanning technique to the near-field dosimetry of millimeter-wave radiators. (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxun; Lu, Hongmin; Deng, Jun


    The planar-scanning technique was applied to the experimental measurement of the electric field and power flux density (PFD) in the exposure area close to the millimeter-wave (MMW) radiator. In the near-field region, the field and PFD were calculated from the plane-wave spectrum of the field sampled on a scan plane far from the radiator. The measurement resolution was improved by reducing the spatial interval between the field samples to a fraction of half the wavelength and implementing multiple iterations of the fast Fourier transform. With the reference to the results from the numerical calculation, an experimental evaluation of the planar-scanning measurement was made for a 50 GHz radiator. Placing the probe 1 to 3 wavelengths from the aperture of the radiator, the direct measurement gave the near-field data with significant differences from the numerical results. The planar-scanning measurement placed the probe 9 wavelengths away from the aperture and effectively reduced the maximum and averaged differences in the near-field data by 70.6% and 65.5%, respectively. Applied to the dosimetry of an open-ended waveguide and a choke ring antenna for 60 GHz exposure, the technique proved useful to the measurement of the PFD in the near-field exposure area of MMW radiators.

  8. A hydraulic distribution device of a powered support section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravlev, R.P.; Barinov, V.S.; Demidovich, Z.A.; Fedorov, L.I.; Kozhukhov, L.F.; Mosunov, Yu.Ya.


    The goal of this invention is to reduce the working time for manual control in the process of bracing a hydraulic prop and complete use of the working pressure of the support's hydraulic system to perform initial bracing of the hydraulic prop. To achieve this goal, the device has a reflux valve with a locking element and a choke, the latter situated between the piston and rod chambers; the floating piston is made with a stop which interacts with the motion limiter, while the rod of the floating piston has a pusher which interacts with the locking element of the reflux valve. Use of the hydraulic device of this design in powered supports during their operation under various mining conditions significantly raises the operating life of hydraulic supports and hydraulic distributors, while lowering the total complex's down time. Automatic positioning of the predetermined amount of initial spacing shortens the time in which the operator handles the support sections. The operator uses the time available to perform succeeding operations (transition to the next control panel, unloading, and transfer).

  9. Síndrome de Mendelson: relato de caso Mendelson syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Correa de Andrade


    Full Text Available Paciente admitida com quadro de engasgo seguido de dispnéia, cianose e perda de consciência, recuperada após aspiração de vias aéreas. Evoluiu com agravamento do quadro clínico até início de tratamento de suporte, quando apresentou rápido restabelecimento. Radiografia de tórax do dia da internação demonstrou infiltrado difuso bilateral e à tomografia observou-se imagem em vidro fosco difuso. Objetiva-se demonstrar alterações tomográficas nesta síndrome.A choking patient was admitted with dyspnea, cyanosis, and loss of consciousness, which initially improved after suction of the airways. The patient presented worsening of the clinical parameters until the introduction of supportive treatment, after which she rapidly recovered. Chest x-ray taken on day of hospitalization showed bilateral diffuse alveolar filling pattern, and computed tomography showed ground glass areas. The aim of this paper is to show the radiological features of this syndrome.

  10. Research on the Experiment of Overcoming Underwater Barrier in Learning Swimming%克服学游泳闷水障碍的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Underwater swimming is an inevitable link in learning swimming, but it hinders very few people's swimming learning for fear of underwater swimming, so the learners must grasp the skill of underwater swimming. Choking the water and failing to hold one's breath is the main reason resulting to underwater barrier. Through blowing balloons and using straws to suck table tennis, the writer attempts to improve the learners' nose and mouth breathing control ability, which can overcome underwater barrier.%  闷水是学游泳必须经历的一关,有很少的一部分人因为害怕闷水阻碍了学游泳的进程,或者说不能学习标准游泳动作,而闷水是求生技能的重要部分,学习求生技能必须掌握闷水。呛水和屏不住气是导致闷水障碍的主要原因,我通过吹气球、吸管吸乒乓球练习,提高他们的鼻腔和口腔的呼吸控制能力,从而克服闷水障碍。

  11. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles (United States)

    Shipps, P. R.


    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  12. Development of International Terminology and Definitions for Texture-Modified Foods and Thickened Fluids Used in Dysphagia Management: The IDDSI Framework (United States)

    Cichero, Julie A. Y.; Lam, Peter; Steele, Catriona M.; Hanson, Ben; Chen, Jianshe; Dantas, Roberto O.; Duivestein, Janice; Kayashita, Jun; Lecko, Caroline; Murray, Joseph; Pillay, Mershen; Riquelme, Luis; Stanschus, Soenke


    Dysphagia is estimated to affect ~8% of the world’s population (~590 million people). Texture-modified foods and thickened drinks are commonly used to reduce the risks of choking and aspiration. The International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) was founded with the goal of developing globally standardized terminology and definitions for texture-modified foods and liquids applicable to individuals with dysphagia of all ages, in all care settings, and all cultures. A multi-professional volunteer committee developed a dysphagia diet framework through systematic review and stakeholder consultation. First, a survey of existing national terminologies and current practice was conducted, receiving 2050 responses from 33 countries. Respondents included individuals with dysphagia; their caregivers; organizations supporting individuals with dysphagia; healthcare professionals; food service providers; researchers; and industry. The results revealed common use of 3–4 levels of food texture (54 different names) and ≥3 levels of liquid thickness (27 different names). Substantial support was expressed for international standardization. Next, a systematic review regarding the impact of food texture and liquid consistency on swallowing was completed. A meeting was then convened to review data from previous phases, and develop a draft framework. A further international stakeholder survey sought feedback to guide framework refinement; 3190 responses were received from 57 countries. The IDDSI Framework (released in November, 2015) involves a continuum of 8 levels (0–7) identified by numbers, text labels, color codes, definitions, and measurement methods. The IDDSI Framework is recommended for implementation throughout the world. PMID:27913916

  13. Accidental phosgene gas exposure: A review with background study of 10 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Vaish


    Full Text Available Here, authors present a review on clinical presentation and management of exposure of phosgene gas after reviewing the literature by searching with keywords phosgene exposure on Google, Cochrane, Embase and PubMed with a background of experience gained from 10 patients who were admitted to our institute after an accidental phosgene exposure in February 2011 nearby a city in India. Phosgene is a highly toxic gas, occupational workers may have accidental exposure. The gas can also be generated inadvertently during fire involving plastics and other chemicals and solvents containing chlorine, which is of concern to emergency responders. Phosgene inhalation may cause initially symptoms of respiratory tract irritation, patients feel fine thereafter, and then die of choking a day later because of build up of fluid in the lungs (delayed onset non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Phosgene exposure is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with a history of exposure should be admitted to the hospital for a minimum of 24 h for observation because of the potential for delayed onset respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  14. Femtosecond Laser Tagging Characterization of a Sweeping Jet Actuator Operating in the Compressible Regime (United States)

    Peters, Christopher J.; Miles, Richard B.; Burns, Ross A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Gregory S.; Danehy, Paul M.


    A sweeping jet (SWJ) actuator operating over a range of nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) was characterized with femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET), single hot-wire anemometry (HWA) and high-speed/phase-averaged schlieren. FLEET velocimetry was successfully demonstrated in a highly unsteady, oscillatory flow containing subsonic through supersonic velocities. Qualitative comparisons between FLEET and HWA (which measured mass flux since the flow was compressible) showed relatively good agreement in the external flow profiles. The spreading rate was found to vary from 0.5 to 1.2 depending on the pressure ratio. The precision of FLEET velocity measurements in the external flow field was poorer (is approximately equal to 25 m/s) than reported in a previous study due to the use of relatively low laser fluences, impacting the velocity fluctuation measurements. FLEET enabled velocity measurements inside the device and showed that choking likely occurred for NPR = 2.0, and no internal shockwaves were present. Qualitative oxygen concentration measurements using FLEET were explored in an effort to gauge the jet's mixing with the ambient. The jet was shown to mix well within roughly four throat diameters and mix fully within roughly eight throat diameters. Schlieren provided visualization of the internal and external flow fields and showed that the qualitative structure of the internal flow does not vary with pressure ratio and the sweeping mechanism observed for incompressible NPRs also probably holds for compressible NPRs.

  15. Modified SRF Photoinjector for the ELBE at HZDR

    CERN Document Server

    Murcek, P; Buettig, H; Michel, P; Teichert, J; Xiang, R; Kneisel, P


    The superconducting radio frequency photoinjector (SRF photoinjector) with Cs2Te cathode has been successfully operated under the collaboration of HZB, DESY, HZDR, and MBI.[1] In order to improve the gradient of the gun cavity and the beam quality, a new modified SRF gun (SRF-gun 2008) has been designed. The main updates of the new cavity design for the new photoinjector were publisched before. (ID THPPO022 on the SRF09 Berlin.) This cavity is being fabricated in Jefferson Lab. In this paper the new ideas of the further parts of the SRF-gun 2008 will be presented. The most important issue is the special design of half-cell and choke filter. The cathode cooler is also slightly changed, which simplifies the installation of the cathode cooler in the cavity. The next update is the separation of input and output of the liquid nitrogen supply, for the purpose of the stability of the nitrogen pressure as well as the better possibility of temperature measurement. Another key point is the implementation of the superco...

  16. 18-Pulse Converter Using 3/9 Auto-Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hoteit


    Full Text Available This paper focuses to 3/9 phase auto-transformer with multiple windings per phase is powered a 9-phase AC to DC converter this type of transformer has 40o phase shift between the output voltages, it is supplied from a three phase AC source with star or delta connection, to use this type of transformer in aerospace the operation frequency should be at 400Hz in addition to reduce the current harmonic distortion through a three phase line reactor are connected after three phase AC source in this case the current harmonic distortion decreases to value less than 5% and it can be less than 3% level by using an additional suppression devices (Chokes at the output of the converter, this autotransformer includes three sections each spaced 120o electrically apart. Each section comprises a main winding and a pair of phase shift windings, it is a main element in 18 pulse converters, the multiphase rectification can be analyzed by using orcad simulation software, and shown the comparisons between the odd phases so that the 9 phases has a lower value of the ripple factor which is 0.763 %.

  17. Recent progress in high B{sub s} Fe-based nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, M; Yoshizawa, Y, E-mail: [Hitachi Metals Ltd., 2-15-17 Egawa, Shimamoto Osaka, 961-0013 (Japan)


    High saturation magnetic flux density (high-B{sub s}) alloy has been developed in an Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy system. A nanocrystalline phase with an average grain size of about 20 nm is obtained by annealing Cu-substituted and/or Cu-and-Si-complex-substituted Fe-B amorphous alloys. The alloy exhibits low coercivity of less than 7 A m{sup -1} and a high B{sub s} of more than 1.8 T. The iron loss at 50 Hz and 1.6 T for a toroidal core made of Fe{sub 80.5}Cu{sub 1.5}Si{sub 4}B{sub 14} nanocrystalline alloy is 0.46 W kg{sup -1}, which is about 2/3 of that of grain-oriented Si steel. Moreover, the iron loss at 10 kHz and 0.2 T for a wound core made of this alloy is 7.5 W kg{sup -1}, which is about 25% of that of non-grain-oriented Si steel and about 60% of that of an Fe-based amorphous alloy. In addition, the cut cores made of the alloy show good superimposed dc-current characteristics and appear promising in applications such as power choke coils (at the high-frequency region).

  18. Fusion burn equilibria sensitive to the ratio between energy and helium transport (United States)

    Jakobs, Merlijn; Lopes Cardozo, Niek; Jaspers, Roger


    An analysis of the burn equilibria of fusion reactors of the tokamak family is presented. The global (zero-dimensional) analysis is self-consistent in that it takes into account the dependence of the energy confinement on the variables of the burning plasma, such as temperature and density. Universal burn contours are presented for a selection of commonly used scaling laws for energy confinement. It is shown that the output power of a fusion reactor is to good approximation inversely proportional to the particle confinement time, due to the choking effect of the accumulation of helium, the ash of the fusion reaction. It is further shown that, whereas a fusion reactor requires a minimum energy confinement time to ignite, the output power reaches a maximum for an energy confinement that lies about 30% above this minimum. Further improvement of confinement will lower the output, although in some cases the β limit will be the limiting factor. Given that for maximum performance density the confinement and fuel mix are best chosen to be optimal, the particle confinement is proposed as an attractive parameter for burn control.

  19. Volcanic gas (United States)

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Gerlach, Terrance M.


    In Roman mythology, Vulcan, the god of fire, was said to have made tools and weapons for the other gods in his workshop at Olympus. Throughout history, volcanoes have frequently been identified with Vulcan and other mythological figures. Scientists now know that the “smoke" from volcanoes, once attributed by poets to be from Vulcan’s forge, is actually volcanic gas naturally released from both active and many inactive volcanoes. The molten rock, or magma, that lies beneath volcanoes and fuels eruptions, contains abundant gases that are released to the surface before, during, and after eruptions. These gases range from relatively benign low-temperature steam to thick hot clouds of choking sulfurous fume jetting from the earth. Water vapor is typically the most abundant volcanic gas, followed by carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Other volcanic gases are hydrogen sulfide, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrofluoric acid, and other trace gases and volatile metals. The concentrations of these gas species can vary considerably from one volcano to the next.


    Balfour, W M; Hahn, P F; Bale, W F; Pommerenke, W T; Whipple, G H


    Radio iron is a tool which makes iron absorption studies quite accurate in dogs and reasonably satisfactory in human beings. This method is vastly superior to others previously used. Normal human pregnancy without significant anemia may show active radio iron absorption-16 to 27 per cent of iron intake. The pregnant woman as a rule shows 2 to 10 times the normal absorption of radio iron. Diseased states in which iron stores are known to be very abundant-pernicious anemia, hemochromatosis, familial icterus, and Mediterranean anemia -show very little absorption, probably less than normal. This is in spite of a severe anemia in all conditions except hemochromatosis. Chronic infections in spite of anemia show no utilization of radio iron, whether it may be absorbed or not. Leukemia shows little utilization of radio iron in red cells in spite of absorption (autopsy), probably because of white cells choking the red marrow. Polycythemia shows very low values for iron absorption as do normal persons. Two pregnant women showed only normal iron absorption. We believe that reserve stores of iron in the body, rather than anemia, control iron absorption. This control is exerted upon the gastro-intestinal mucosa which can refuse or accept iron under various conditions.