Sample records for choice behavior

  1. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons. (United States)

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R


    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  2. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina


    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  3. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)


    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  4. Saving Behavior and Portfolio Choice After Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; Alessie, Rob; Kalwij, Adriaan


    This paper reviews the literature on saving behavior and portfolio choice after retirement and provides a descriptive analysis of this behavior by Dutch elderly households. Studying saving behavior in the Netherlands is informative because of the very different institutional background compared to t

  5. Dynamic Choice Behavior in a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    We examine dynamic choice behavior in a natural experiment with large stakes and a demographically divers sample. The television game show Deal Or No Deal offers a rich paradigm to examine the latent decision processes that people use to make choices under uncertainty when they face future options...... ranging from a penny to nearly half a million U.S. dollars. Second, the argument of the utility function under expected utility theory reflects the integration of game show prizes with regular income. These decision makers do not segregate the income from the lotteries they face on the game show from...... patterned after the natural experiment, to gauge how qualitatively reliable the lab inferences are in the same type of dynamic choice task. We find that choices in the lab are dramatically different in one respect – subjects in those tasks do segregate the income from their prizes from their extra...

  6. Prospects of Brand Choice Behavior Research from Cognitive Perspective (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Lin, Lin

    The article reviews relevant literature at home and abroad on consumer brand choice behavior and summarizes the study evolution of consumer brand choice behavior, and puts forward view on relevant research prospects from cognitive perspective in this field.

  7. Academic Choice for Included Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders (United States)

    Skerbetz, Mandi Davis; Kostewicz, Douglas E.


    Students with emotional disturbances present with behavioral and academic deficits that often limit their participation in general education settings. As an antecedent intervention, academic choice provides multiple choices surrounding academic work promoting academic and behavioral gains. The authors examined the effects of assignment choice with…

  8. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.


    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  9. AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements. Revised Version (United States)


    Advertising -Self-Regulatory-Program.pdf (October 2010, retrieved February 2011) 12 Better Business Bureau, Major marketing / media trade groups launch...AdChoices? Compliance with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements Saranga Komanduri, Richard Shay, Greg...with Online Behavioral Advertising Notice and Choice Requirements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  10. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.


    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  11. Choice-making treatment of young children's severe behavior problems.


    Peck, S M; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; K. A. Brown; Richman, D; McComas, J J; Frischmeyer, P; Millard, T


    The choice-making behavior of 5 young children with developmental disabilities who engaged in aberrant behavior was studied within a concurrent operants framework. Experimental analyses were conducted to identify reinforcers that maintained aberrant behavior, and functional communication training packages were implemented to teach the participants to gain reinforcement using mands. Next, a choice-making analysis, in which the participants chose one of two responses (either a mand or an altern...

  12. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty


    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu


    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that m...

  13. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty


    Ching-Hung Lin; Yu-Kai Lin; Tzu-Jiun Song; Jong-Tsun Huang; Yao-Chu Chiu


    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the pr...

  14. Generalized behavioral framework for choice models of social influence: Behavioral and data concerns in travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maness, M.; Cirillo, C.; Dugundji, E.R.


    Over the past two decades, transportation has begun a shift from an individual focus to a social focus. Accordingly, discrete choice models have begun to integrate social context into its framework. Social influence, the process of having one’s behavior be affected by others, has been one approach t

  15. Fund choice behavior and estimation of switching models: an experiment*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anufriev, M.; Bao, T.; Tuinstra, J.


    We run a laboratory experiment that contributes to the finance literature on "return chasing behavior" studying how investors switch between mutual funds driven by past performance of the funds. The subjects in this experiment make discrete choices between several (2, 3 or 4) experimental funds in m

  16. CRYPTOCHROME mediates behavioral executive choice in response to UV light (United States)

    Baik, Lisa S.; Fogle, Keri J.; Roberts, Logan; Galschiodt, Alexis M.; Chevez, Joshua A.; Recinos, Yocelyn; Nguy, Vinh; Holmes, Todd C.


    Drosophila melanogaster CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) mediates behavioral and electrophysiological responses to blue light coded by circadian and arousal neurons. However, spectroscopic and biochemical assays of heterologously expressed CRY suggest that CRY may mediate functional responses to UV-A (ultraviolet A) light as well. To determine the relative contributions of distinct phototransduction systems, we tested mutants lacking CRY and mutants with disrupted opsin-based phototransduction for behavioral and electrophysiological responses to UV light. CRY and opsin-based external photoreceptor systems cooperate for UV light-evoked acute responses. CRY mediates behavioral avoidance responses related to executive choice, consistent with its expression in central brain neurons. PMID:28062690

  17. Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation. (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Lachlan, Robert F; Servedio, Maria R


    Many models have investigated how the process of speciation may occur in sympatry. In these models, individuals are either asexual or mate choice is determined by very simple rules. Females, for example, may be assumed either to compare their phenotype to that of a potential mate, preferring to mate with similar males (phenotype matching), or to possess preference genes that determine which male phenotype they prefer. These rules often do not reflect the mate-choice rules found in empirical studies. In this paper, we compare these two modes of female choice with various types of sexual imprinting. We examine the efficacy of different mate-choice behavior in causing divergence in male traits under simple deterministic one-locus population genetic models as well as under polygenic, individual-based simulations based on the models of Dieckmann and Doebeli (1999). We find that the inheritance mechanism of mate choice can have a large effect on the ease of sympatric speciation. When females imprint on their mothers, the result of the model is similar to phenotype matching, where speciation can occur fairly easily. When females imprint on their fathers or imprint obliquely, speciation becomes considerably less likely. Finally, when females rely on preference genes, male trait evolution occurs easily, but the correlation between trait and preference can be weak, and interpreting these results as speciation may be suspect.

  18. Behavioral implications of providing real incentives in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny


    This paper explores the potential impacts of introducing real economic incentives in choice experiments (CE). While many others have investigated such impacts before, the majority of the literature has focused solely on mitigation of hypothetical bias. We contribute to this literature by widening...... incentive, we find marked benefits in relation to a number of behavioral aspects that together would favor the use of an economic incentive regardless of hypothetical bias being present or not....

  19. A simplified model of choice behavior under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin


    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007. Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002 to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated the prospect utility (PU models (Ahn et al., 2008 to be more effective than the EU models in the IGT. Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests, we propose that Ahn et al. (2008 PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results between our behavioral and modeling data. This study aims to modify Ahn et al. (2008 PU model to a simplified model and collected 145 subjects’ IGT performance as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly while α approaching zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ , and A in the PU model. Notably, the power of influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical order in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay-loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there still have other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated.

  20. Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li


    Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.

  1. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver


    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors.

  2. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  3. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language]. (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M


    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  4. Closing the gap between behavior and models in route choice: The role of spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in choice set formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    A considerable gap exists between the behavioral paradigm of choice set formation in route choice and its representation in route choice modeling. While travelers form their viable choice set by retaining routes that satisfy spatiotemporal constraints, existing route generation techniques do...... constraint-based choice set formation followed by compensatory choice. The model is applied to data focusing on habitual commuting route choice behavior in morning peak hours. Results show (i) the possibility of inferring spatiotemporal constraints from considered routes, (ii) the importance of incorporating...... spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in route choice models, and (iii) the linkage between spatiotemporal constraints and time saving, spatial and mnemonic abilities....

  5. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.


    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507





    This paper looks at the mediating effect of entrepreneurs' actual behavioral controls on the relationship between psychic distance stimuli and export mode choice of SMEs. Based on a dataset of 84 Vietnamese exporters, we find that: (i) entrepreneurs' actual behavioral controls and organizational factors are determinants of Vietnamese SMEs' export mode choice; (ii) psychic distance (geographic distance and psychic distance stimuli) does not influence Vietnamese SMEs' export mode choice; (iii) ...

  7. Behavioral Variability of Choices versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.


    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker's binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a "strict weak order". Likewise, the very concept of a "utility function" over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak…

  8. Nonlinear Socio-Ecological Dynamics and First Principles ofCollective Choice Behavior of ``Homo Socialis" (United States)

    Sonis, M.

    Socio-ecological dynamics emerged from the field of Mathematical SocialSciences and opened up avenues for re-examination of classical problems of collective behavior in Social and Spatial sciences. The ``engine" of this collective behavior is the subjective mental evaluation of level of utilities in the future, presenting sets of composite socio-economic-temporal-locational advantages. These dynamics present new laws of collective multi-population behavior which are the meso-level counterparts of the utility optimization individual behavior. The central core of the socio-ecological choice dynamics includes the following first principle of the collective choice behavior of ``Homo Socialis" based on the existence of ``collective consciousness": the choice behavior of ``Homo Socialis" is a collective meso-level choice behavior such that the relative changes in choice frequencies depend on the distribution of innovation alternatives between adopters of innovations. The mathematical basis of the Socio-Ecological Dynamics includes two complementary analytical approaches both based on the use of computer modeling as a theoretical and simulation tool. First approach is the ``continuous approach" --- the systems of ordinary and partial differential equations reflecting the continuous time Volterra ecological formalism in a form of antagonistic and/or cooperative collective hyper-games between different sub-sets of choice alternatives. Second approach is the ``discrete approach" --- systems of difference equations presenting a new branch of the non-linear discrete dynamics --- the Discrete Relative m-population/n-innovations Socio-Spatial Dynamics (Dendrinos and Sonis, 1990). The generalization of the Volterra formalism leads further to the meso-level variational principle of collective choice behavior determining the balance between the resulting cumulative social spatio-temporal interactions among the population of adopters susceptible to the choice alternatives and the

  9. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies


    Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara


    Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...

  10. Does habitual behavior affect the choice of alternative fuel vehicles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valeri, Eva; Cherchi, Elisabetta


    significant latent habitual effect on choices of type of car engine. This effect is important only for some of the car alternatives considered in the study. In particular, habitual car users prefer to buy a new car with liquefied petroleum gas and compressed natural gas types of engine technology instead...... of liquefied petroleum gas car....

  11. Day-to-day route choice modeling incorporating inertial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essen, van M.A.; Rakha, H.; Vreeswijk, J.D.; Wismans, L.J.J.; Berkum, van E.C.


    Accurate route choice modeling is one of the most important aspects when predicting the effects of transport policy and dynamic traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of intervention measures to a large extent depends on travelers’ response to the changes these measures cause. As a compleme

  12. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew


    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools…

  13. Joint Residence-Workplace Location Choice Model Based on Household Decision Behavior

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    Pengpeng Jiao


    Full Text Available Residence location and workplace are the two most important urban land-use types, and there exist strong interdependences between them. Existing researches often assume that one choice dimension is correlated to the other. Using the mixed logit framework, three groups of choice models are developed to illustrate such choice dependencies. First, for all households, this paper presents a basic methodology of the residence location and workplace choice without decision sequence based on the assumption that the two choice behaviors are independent of each other. Second, the paper clusters all households into two groups, choosing residence or workplace first, and formulates the residence location and workplace choice models under the constraint of decision sequence. Third, this paper combines the residence location and workplace together as the choice alternative and puts forward the joint choice model. A questionnaire survey is implemented in Beijing city to collect the data of 1994 households. Estimation results indicate that the joint choice model fits the data significantly better, and the elasticity effects analyses show that the joint choice model reflects the influences of relevant factors to the choice probability well and leads to the job-housing balance.

  14. Freedom of choice and bounded rationality: a brief appraisal of behavioral economists' plea for light paternalism

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    Roberta Muramatsu


    Full Text Available Behavioral economics has addressed interesting positive and normative questions underlying the standard rational choice theory. More recently, it suggests that, in a real world of boundedly rational agents, economists could help people to improve the quality of their choices without any harm to autonomy and freedom of choice. This paper aims to scrutinize available arguments for and against current proposals of light paternalistic interventions mainly in the domain of intertemporal choice. It argues that incorporating the notion of bounded rationality in economic analysis and empirical findings of cognitive biases and self-control problems cannot make an indisputable case for paternalism.

  15. Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Leisure Choice. (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek; Driver, B. L.


    Reports on a study involving college students who completed a questionnaire measuring involvement, moods, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and intentions concerning specific leisure activities. Reports one year later showed that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicted leisure intentions;…

  16. Prospect theory based estimation of drivers' risk attitudes in route choice behaviors. (United States)

    Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning


    This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow.

  17. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.


    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach sp

  18. Choice, Communication, and Conflict. A System's Approach to the Study of Human Behavior. (United States)

    Ackoff, Russell L.

    This book presents a teleological analysis of the concepts of human behavior. Through distinctions and definitions, a model or system is developed, upon which all aspects of behavior are interrelated. The model of choice or purposeful state is discussed with its underlying concepts. Human communication and feeling, and cooperation and conflict…

  19. Behavioral Exploration of Career and Specialty Choice in Medical Students (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.


    Understanding the process by which students naturally construct and internalize their educational experiences relating to career development is important to career counseling. The author investigated how exploratory behaviors during a community-based field experience course contributed to the vocational development of 1st-year medical students.…

  20. Aging impairs deliberation and behavioral flexibility in inter-temporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick-Andre eBreton


    Full Text Available Inter-temporal choice depends on multiple, interacting systems, some of which may be compromised with age. Some of these systems may be responsible for ongoing trial-by-trial choice strategies. Some may represent the consequences of action. Some may be necessary for the coupling between anticipated consequences and strategies currently in use, flexibly guiding behavior. When faced with a difficult decision, rats will orient back and forth, a behavior termed ``vicarious trial and error'' (VTE. Recent experiments have linked the occurrence of VTE to hippocampal search processes and behavioral flexibility. We tested 5 month (n=6, 9 month (n=8 and over-27 month-old (n=10 rats on a Spatial Adjusting Delay Discounting task to examine how aging impacted lap-by-lap strategies and VTE during inter-temporal choice. Rats chose between spatially separated food goals that provided a smaller-sooner or larger-later reward. On each lap, the delay to the larger-later reward was adjusted as a function of the rat's decisions, increasing by 1 second after delayed-side choices and decreasing by 1 second after non-delayed side choices. The strategies that aged rats used differed from those used in young and adult rats. Moreover, aged rats produced reliably more VTE behaviors, for protracted periods of time, uncoupled from behavioral flexibility.

  1. C. elegans behavior of preference choice on bacterial food. (United States)

    Abada, Emad Abd-elmoniem; Sung, Hyun; Dwivedi, Meenakshi; Park, Byung-Jae; Lee, Sun-Kyung; Ahnn, Joohong


    Caenorhabditis elegans is a free living soil nematode and thus in its natural habitat, C. elegans encounters many different species of soil bacteria. Although some soil bacteria may be excellent sources of nutrition for the worm, others may be pathogenic. Thus, we undertook a study to understand how C. elegans can identify their preferred food using a simple behavioral assay. We found that there are various species of soil bacteria that C. elegans prefers in comparison to the standard laboratory E. coli strain OP50. In particular, two bacterial strains, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus soli, were preferred strains. Interestingly, the sole feeding of these bacteria to wild type animals results in extended lifespan through the activation of the autophagic process. Further studies will be required to understand the precise mechanism controlling the behavior of identification and selection of food in C. elegans.

  2. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis


    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver


    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  3. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  4. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors. (United States)

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery


    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  5. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei


    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  6. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Martin

    Full Text Available When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice. Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  7. Alterations in the functional neural circuitry supporting flexible choice behavior in autism spectrum disorders (United States)

    D'Cruz, A-M; Mosconi, M W; Ragozzino, M E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A


    Restricted and repetitive behaviors, and a pronounced preference for behavioral and environmental consistency, are distinctive characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Alterations in frontostriatal circuitry that supports flexible behavior might underlie this behavioral impairment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 17 individuals with ASD, and 23 age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing control participants, reversal learning tasks were used to assess behavioral flexibility as participants switched from one learned response choice to a different response choice when task contingencies changed. When choice outcome after reversal was uncertain, the ASD group demonstrated reduced activation in both frontal cortex and ventral striatum, in the absence of task performance differences. When the outcomes of novel responses were certain, there was no difference in brain activation between groups. Reduced activation in frontal cortex and ventral striatum suggest problems in decision-making and response planning, and in processing reinforcement cues, respectively. These processes, and their integration, are essential for flexible behavior. Alterations in these systems may therefore contribute to a rigid adherence to preferred behavioral patterns in individuals with an ASD. These findings provide an additional impetus for the use of reversal learning paradigms as a translational model for treatment development targeting the domain of restricted and repetitive behaviors in ASD. PMID:27727243

  8. Using a Telepresence System to Investigate Route Choice Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Tobias; Arias, Antonia Pérez; Friedberger, Simon; Hanebeck, Uwe D


    A combination of a telepresence system and a microscopic traffic simulator is introduced. It is evaluated using a hotel evacuation scenario. Four different kinds of supporting information are compared, standard exit signs, floor plans with indicated exit routes, guiding lines on the floor and simulated agents leading the way. The results indicate that guiding lines are the most efficient way to support an evacuation but the natural behavior of following others comes very close. On another level the results are consistent with previously performed real and virtual experiments and validate the use of a telepresence system in evacuation studies. It is shown that using a microscopic traffic simulator extends the possibilities for evaluation, e.g. by adding simulated humans to the environment.

  9. Prosocial Choice in Rats Depends on Food-Seeking Behavior Displayed by Recipients. (United States)

    Márquez, Cristina; Rennie, Scott M; Costa, Diana F; Moita, Marta A


    Animals often are prosocial, displaying behaviors that result in a benefit to one another [1-15] even in the absence of self-benefit [16-21] (but see [22-25]). Several factors have been proposed to modulate these behaviors, namely familiarity [6, 13, 18, 20] or display of seeking behavior [16, 21]. Rats have been recently shown to be prosocial under distress [17, 18] (but see [26-29]); however, what drives prosociality in these animals remains unclear. To address this issue, we developed a two-choice task in which prosocial behavior did not yield a benefit or a cost to the focal rat. We used a double T-maze in which only the focal rat controlled access to the food-baited arms of its own and the recipient rat's maze. In this task, the focal rat could choose between one side of the maze, which yielded food only to itself (selfish choice), and the opposite side, which yielded food to itself and the recipient rat (prosocial choice). Rats showed a high proportion of prosocial choices. By manipulating reward delivery to the recipient and its ability to display a preference for the baited arm, we found that the display of food-seeking behavior leading to reward was necessary to drive prosocial choices. In addition, we found that there was more social investigation between rats in selfish trials than in prosocial trials, which may have influenced the focals' choices. This study shows that rats provide access to food to others in the absence of added direct self-benefit, bringing new insights into the factors that drive prosociality.

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Severe Behavior Problems Using Choice-Making Procedures. (United States)

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Barretto, Anjali; Rankin, Barbara


    Choice-making produces were used to identify response-reinforcer relations during assessment and treatment phases with two children (ages 4-6) with pervasive development disorders who displayed severe behavioral problems. Results were used to develop preliminary treatment packages in which access to positive reinforcement was contingent on…

  11. Improving Measures via Examining the Behavior of Distractors in Multiple-Choice Tests: Assessment and Remediation (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Tsaousis, Ioannis; Al Harbi, Khaleel


    The purpose of the present article was to illustrate, using an example from a national assessment, the value from analyzing the behavior of distractors in measures that engage the multiple-choice format. A secondary purpose of the present article was to illustrate four remedial actions that can potentially improve the measurement of the…

  12. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai


    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  13. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences. (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa


    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders.

  14. Central complex and mushroom bodies mediate novelty choice behavior in Drosophila. (United States)

    Solanki, Narendra; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin


    Novelty choice, a visual paired-comparison task, for the fly Drosophila melanogaster is studied with severely restrained single animals in a flight simulator. The virtual environment simulates free flight for rotation in the horizontal plane. The behavior has three functional components: visual azimuth orientation, working memory, and pattern discrimination (perception). Here we study novelty choice in relation to its neural substrate in the brain and show that it requires the central complex and, in particular, the ring neurons of the ellipsoid body. Surprisingly, it also involves the mushroom bodies which are needed specifically in the comparison of patterns of different sizes.

  15. Pedestrian choice behavior analysis and simulation of vertical walking facilities in transfer station (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xing; Jia, Hong-Fei; Li, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Yuan, Zhi-Lu; Li, Yan-Zhong


    Considering the interlayer height, luggage, the difference between queuing pedestrians, and walking speed, the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities is established based on a support vector machine. This model is verified with the pedestrian flow data of Changchun light-rail transfer station and Beijing Xizhimen transfer station. Adding the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities into the pedestrian simulation model which is based on cellular automata, the pedestrian choice behavior is simulated. In the simulation, the effects of the dynamic influence factors are analyzed. To reduce the conflicts between pedestrians in opposite directions, the layout of vertical walking facilities is improved. The simulations indicate that the improved layout of vertical walking facilities can improve the efficiency of pedestrians passing. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278221 and 51378076) and the Science Technology Development Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20140204027SF).

  16. Choices between positive and negative reinforcement during treatment for escape-maintained behavior. (United States)

    DeLeon, I G; Neidert, P L; Anders, B M; Rodriguez-Catter, V


    Positive reinforcement was more effective than negative reinforcement in promoting compliance and reducing escape-maintained problem behavior for a child with autism. Escape extinction was then added while the child was given a choice between positive or negative reinforcement for compliance and the reinforcement schedule was thinned. When the reinforcement requirement reached 10 consecutive tasks, the treatment effects became inconsistent and reinforcer selection shifted from a strong preference for positive reinforcement to an unstable selection pattern.

  17. Choices between positive and negative reinforcement during treatment for escape-maintained behavior.


    DeLeon, I G; Neidert, P L; Anders, B M; Rodriguez-Catter, V


    Positive reinforcement was more effective than negative reinforcement in promoting compliance and reducing escape-maintained problem behavior for a child with autism. Escape extinction was then added while the child was given a choice between positive or negative reinforcement for compliance and the reinforcement schedule was thinned. When the reinforcement requirement reached 10 consecutive tasks, the treatment effects became inconsistent and reinforcer selection shifted from a strong prefer...

  18. Analysis of Emotion, Habit,and Rational Choice: A Study on Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Whidya Utami


    Full Text Available Along with the process of globalization, the retail industry has been growing into a business that is very influential in the world economy, including Indonesian economy. The growth of modern retailers dominates the retail business in Indonesia, supported by the widespread presence of foreign retailers bringing modern retail concepts. The trend choice of shopping places of the Indonesian people in the future are shopping malls and modern markets. This will drive changes in customer behavior in making purchase decisions. The development model used to describe the behavior of consumer spending, which is rarely used, especially in Indonesia, is a Model of Goal-Directed Behavior (MGB. MGB has factors of the model builders from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. They are past behavior and emotional factors. Therefore, it is possible to further examine the distinction between expectations and interests as variables that can motivate a person in making purchasing decisions. The purpose of this study is to investigate and analyze: 1 the influence of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and emotion on the desire in the form of modern retail consumer behavior patterns 2 the influence of desire and perceived behavioral control on the intention in forming the patterns of modern retail consumer behavior. 202 modern retail consumers in Surabaya region (North, South, East, West and Central were used as respondents. Stratified judgment sampling was applied and the SEM (Structural Equation Modeling was used to test the hypotheses. The first finding of the study is that attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and emotion have a significant effect on desire. The second finding is that desire and perceived behavioral control significantly influence the intention in forming the modern retail consumer behavior patterns. It was also found a good fit model that builds the influence of attitude, subjective norm, anticipated positive

  19. Behavior of broiler chickens in four different substrates: a choice test

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    A Villagrá


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the selection of bedding material by broiler chickens during the rearing period and whether the choice was determinant to their performing a specific behavior. To achieve this objective, a choice test was designed. A choice pen was constructed where birds could move freely around the four selected materials (straw, wood shavings, rice hulls and sand. Chickens were introduced in this pen in four groups of eight birds, three days a week for one hour per day and group, for four weeks. The location and the activity performed by each broiler were recorded every five minutes. Results showed a preference for sand compared with the other three substrates. However, differences between the behaviors performed in each bedding material were shown mainly for resting (preferably performed on wood shavings and straw, dust bathing (on sand, pecking and scratching (on rice hulls. Other factors, such as the time of day, were also found to have effects on fighting and drinking, and changes in behavioral patterns (resting, preening, eating, standing and pecking were also detected as broilers grew older.

  20. A Hardwired Circuit Supplemented with Endocannabinoids Encodes Behavioral Choice in Zebrafish. (United States)

    Song, Jianren; Ampatzis, Konstantinos; Ausborn, Jessica; El Manira, Abdeljabbar


    Animals constantly make behavioral choices to facilitate moving efficiently through their environment. When faced with a threat, animals make decisions in the midst of other ongoing behaviors through a context-dependent integration of sensory stimuli. In vertebrates, the mechanisms underlying behavioral selection are poorly understood. Here, we show that ongoing swimming in zebrafish is suppressed by escape. The selection of escape over swimming is mediated by switching between two distinct motoneuron pools. A hardwired circuit mediates this switch by acting as a clutch-like mechanism to disengage the swimming motoneuron pool and engage the escape motoneuron pool. Threshold for escape initiation is lowered and swimming suppression is prolonged by endocannabinoid neuromodulation. Thus, our results reveal a novel cellular mechanism involving a hardwired circuit supplemented with endocannabinoids acting as a clutch-like mechanism to engage/disengage distinct motor pools to ensure behavioral selection and a smooth execution of motor action sequences in a vertebrate system.

  1. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome. (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B


    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  2. Making Choices: A Proactive Way to Improve Behaviors for Young Children with Challenging Behaviors (United States)

    Green, Katherine B.; Mays, Nicole M.; Jolivette, Kristine


    Preschool teachers and caregivers today are faced with an increasing number of children as young as 2 years old who exhibit challenging behavior. Unfortunately, these challenging behaviors may continue into adolescence and adulthood if not remediated early. Recently, there has been an increase in research showing promising evidence that when…

  3. Choice Overload, Satisficing Behavior, and Price Distribution in a Time Allocation Model

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    Francisco Álvarez


    Full Text Available Recent psychological research indicates that consumers that search exhaustively for the best option of a market product—known as maximizers—eventually feel worse than consumers who just look for something good enough—called satisficers. We formulate a time allocation model to explore the relationship between different distributions of prices of the product and the satisficing behavior and the related welfare of the consumer. We show numerically that, as the number of options becomes large, the maximizing behavior produces less and less welfare and eventually leads to choice paralysis—these are effects of choice overload—whereas satisficing conducts entail higher levels of satisfaction and do not end up in paralysis. For different price distributions, we provide consistent evidence that maximizers are better off for a low number of options, whereas satisficers are better off for a sufficiently large number of options. We also show how the optimal satisficing behavior is affected when the underlying price distribution varies. We provide evidence that the mean and the dispersion of a symmetric distribution of prices—but not the shape of the distribution—condition the satisficing behavior of consumers. We also show that this need not be the case for asymmetric distributions.

  4. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda


    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  5. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices. (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D


    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.

  6. Cryptic choice of conspecific sperm controlled by the impact of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior. (United States)

    Yeates, Sarah E; Diamond, Sian E; Einum, Sigurd; Emerson, Brent C; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew J G


    Despite evidence that variation in male-female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, if either species' ova were presented with equivalent numbers of both sperm types, conspecific sperm gained fertilization precedence. Surprisingly, the species' identity of the eggs did not explain this cryptic female choice, which instead was primarily controlled by conspecific ovarian fluid, a semiviscous, protein-rich solution that bathes the eggs and is released at spawning. Video analyses revealed that ovarian fluid doubled sperm motile life span and straightened swimming trajectory, behaviors allowing chemoattraction up a concentration gradient. To confirm chemoattraction, cell migration tests through membranes containing pores that approximated to the egg micropyle showed that conspecific ovarian fluid attracted many more spermatozoa through the membrane, compared with heterospecific fluid or water. These combined findings together identify how cryptic female choice can evolve at the gamete level and promote reproductive isolation, mediated by a specific chemoattractive influence of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior.

  7. Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy. (United States)

    Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P


    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards.

  8. The behavioralist as nutritionist: leveraging behavioral economics to improve child food choice and consumption. (United States)

    List, John A; Samek, Anya Savikhin


    We leverage behavioral economics to explore new approaches to tackling child food choice and consumption. Using a field experiment with >1500 children, we report several key insights. We find that incentives have large influences: in the control, 17% of children prefer the healthy snack, whereas introduction of small incentives increases take-up of the healthy snack to ∼75%. There is some evidence that the effects continue post-treatment, consistent with a model of habit formation. We find little evidence that the framing of incentives (loss vs. gain) matters. Educational messaging alone has little effect, but we observe a combined effect of messaging and incentives: together they provide an important influence on food choice.

  9. Survival or Mortality : Does Risk Attribute Framing Influence Decision-Making Behavior in a Discrete Choice Experiment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Essers, Brigitte A B; Lambooij, Mattijs S; Dirksen, Carmen D; Smit, Henriette A; de Wit, G Ardine


    OBJECTIVE: To test how attribute framing in a discrete choice experiment (DCE) affects respondents' decision-making behavior and their preferences. METHODS: Two versions of a DCE questionnaire containing nine choice tasks were distributed among a representative sample of the Dutch population aged 55

  10. Selective theta-synchronization of choice-relevant information subserves goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eWomelsdorf


    Full Text Available Theta activity reflects a state of rhythmic modulation of excitability at the level of single neuron membranes, within local neuronal groups and between distant nodes of a neuronal network. A wealth of evidence has shown that during theta states distant neuronal groups synchronize, forming networks of spatially confined neuronal clusters at specific time periods during task performance. Here, we show that a functional commonality of networks engaging in theta rhythmic states is that they emerge around decision points, reflecting rhythmic synchronization of choice-relevant information. Decision points characterize a point in time shortly before a subject chooses to select one action over another, i.e. when automatic behavior is terminated and the organism reactivates multiple sources of information to evaluate the evidence for available choices. As such, decision processes require the coordinated retrieval of choice-relevant information including (i the retrieval of stimulus evaluations (stim.-reward associations and reward expectancies about future outcomes, (ii the retrieval of past and prospective memories (e.g. stim.-stim. associations, (iii the reactivation of contextual task rule representations (e.g. stim.-response mappings, along with (iv an ongoing assessment of sensory evidence. An increasing number of studies reveal that retrieval of these multiple types of information proceeds within few theta cycles through synchronized spiking activity across limbic, striatal and cortical processing nodes. The outlined evidence suggests that evolving spatially and temporally specific theta synchronization could serve as the critical correlate underlying the selection of a choice during goal-directed behavior.

  11. Rats are the smart choice: Rationale for a renewed focus on rats in behavioral genetics. (United States)

    Parker, Clarissa C; Chen, Hao; Flagel, Shelly B; Geurts, Aron M; Richards, Jerry B; Robinson, Terry E; Solberg Woods, Leah C; Palmer, Abraham A


    Due in part to their rich behavioral repertoire rats have been widely used in behavioral studies of drug abuse-related traits for decades. However, the mouse became the model of choice for researchers exploring the genetic underpinnings of addiction after the first mouse study was published demonstrating the capability of engineering the mouse genome through embryonic stem cell technology. The sequencing of the mouse genome and more recent re-sequencing of numerous inbred mouse strains have further cemented the status of mice as the premier mammalian organism for genetic studies. As a result, many of the behavioral paradigms initially developed and optimized for rats have been adapted to mice. However, numerous complex and interesting drug abuse-related behaviors that can be studied in rats are very difficult or impossible to adapt for use in mice, impeding the genetic dissection of those traits. Now, technological advances have removed many of the historical limitations of genetic studies in rats. For instance, the rat genome has been sequenced and many inbred rat strains are now being re-sequenced and outbred rat stocks are being used to fine-map QTLs. In addition, it is now possible to create "knockout" rats using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and related techniques. Thus, rats can now be used to perform quantitative genetic studies of sophisticated behaviors that have been difficult or impossible to study in mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  12. Sensorimotor learning biases choice behavior: a learning neural field model for decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klaes

    Full Text Available According to a prominent view of sensorimotor processing in primates, selection and specification of possible actions are not sequential operations. Rather, a decision for an action emerges from competition between different movement plans, which are specified and selected in parallel. For action choices which are based on ambiguous sensory input, the frontoparietal sensorimotor areas are considered part of the common underlying neural substrate for selection and specification of action. These areas have been shown capable of encoding alternative spatial motor goals in parallel during movement planning, and show signatures of competitive value-based selection among these goals. Since the same network is also involved in learning sensorimotor associations, competitive action selection (decision making should not only be driven by the sensory evidence and expected reward in favor of either action, but also by the subject's learning history of different sensorimotor associations. Previous computational models of competitive neural decision making used predefined associations between sensory input and corresponding motor output. Such hard-wiring does not allow modeling of how decisions are influenced by sensorimotor learning or by changing reward contingencies. We present a dynamic neural field model which learns arbitrary sensorimotor associations with a reward-driven Hebbian learning algorithm. We show that the model accurately simulates the dynamics of action selection with different reward contingencies, as observed in monkey cortical recordings, and that it correctly predicted the pattern of choice errors in a control experiment. With our adaptive model we demonstrate how network plasticity, which is required for association learning and adaptation to new reward contingencies, can influence choice behavior. The field model provides an integrated and dynamic account for the operations of sensorimotor integration, working memory and action

  13. Mate choice and host discrimination behavior of the parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis. (United States)

    Wang, D; Lü, L; He, Y; Shi, Q; Tu, C; Gu, J


    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests and a widely used biological control agent. Detailed knowledge about its mate choice and host discrimination behavior is lacking. In this study, we studied the mate choice and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis in experimental arenas through video tracking. Males' mate recognition capacity was realized by perceiving the sex pheromone of females. When offered two females of different species, male could distinguish the conspecific female from Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a species that has overlapping hosts with T. chilonis. When placed with two females of different mating status, male preferred mating with the virgin female to the mated female. T. chilonis females could distinguish unparasitized host eggs from parasitized ones (parasitized by conspecific females or heterospecific females). They preferred to stay on and lay eggs in unparasitized host eggs. When T. chilonis females were only provided with parasitized host eggs (parasitized by T. chilonis and T. bactrae females), conspecific superparasitism occurred more often than heterospecific superparasitism. Furthermore, the host egg discrimination ability of T. chilonis females was mainly achieved through antennal perception.

  14. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  15. Can Food Stamps Do More to Improve Food Choices? An Economic Perspective--Making Healthy Food Choices Easier: Ideas From Behavioral Economics


    Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.


    With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...

  16. Modeling mode choice behavior incorporating household and individual sociodemographics and travel attributes based on rough sets theory. (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Chen, Xuewu; Wei, Ming; Wu, Jingxian; Hou, Xianyao


    Most traditional mode choice models are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. Alternatively, mode choice modeling can be regarded as a pattern recognition problem reflected from the explanatory variables of determining the choices between alternatives. The paper applies the knowledge discovery technique of rough sets theory to model travel mode choices incorporating household and individual sociodemographics and travel information, and to identify the significance of each attribute. The study uses the detailed travel diary survey data of Changxing county which contains information on both household and individual travel behaviors for model estimation and evaluation. The knowledge is presented in the form of easily understood IF-THEN statements or rules which reveal how each attribute influences mode choice behavior. These rules are then used to predict travel mode choices from information held about previously unseen individuals and the classification performance is assessed. The rough sets model shows high robustness and good predictive ability. The most significant condition attributes identified to determine travel mode choices are gender, distance, household annual income, and occupation. Comparative evaluation with the MNL model also proves that the rough sets model gives superior prediction accuracy and coverage on travel mode choice modeling.

  17. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.


    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks, fi

  18. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization. (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C


    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize.

  19. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model. (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam


    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable.

  20. Phantom behavioral assimilation effects: systematic biases in social comparison choice studies. (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Régner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X


    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on subsequent performance--a behavioral assimilation effect (BAE). We show (Studies 1 and 2) that this apparent BAE is due, in part, to uncontrolled measurement error in pretest achievement. However, using simulated data (Study 3), these phantom BAEs were eliminated with latent-variable models with multiple indicators. In Studies 4 and 5, latent-variable models were applied to the Blanton et al. and Huguet et al. data, resulting in substantially smaller but still significantly positive BAEs. More generally in personality research based on correlational data, failure to control measurement error in pretest/background variables will positively bias the apparent effects of personality variables of interest, but widely applicable approaches demonstrated here can correct for these biases.

  1. Impulsive choice behavior in four strains of rats: evaluation of possible models of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (United States)

    Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly


    Several studies have examined impulsive choice behavior in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as a possible pre-clinical model for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, this strain was not specifically selected for the traits of ADHD and as a result their appropriateness as a model has been questioned. The present study investigated whether SHRs would exhibit impulsive behavior in comparison to their control strain, Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. In addition, we evaluated a strain that has previously shown high levels of impulsive choice, the Lewis (LEW) rats and compared them with their source strain, Wistar (WIS) rats. In the first phase, rats could choose between a smaller-sooner (SS) reward of 1 pellet after 10 s and a larger-later (LL) reward of 2 pellets after 30 s. Subsequently, the rats were exposed to increases in LL reward magnitude and SS delay. These manipulations were designed to assess sensitivity to magnitude and delay within the choice task to parse out possible differences in using the strains as models of specific deficits associated with ADHD. The SHR and WKY strains did not differ in their choice behavior under either delay or magnitude manipulations. In comparison to WIS, LEW showed deficits in choice behavior in the delay manipulation, and to a lesser extent in the magnitude manipulation. An examination of individual differences indicated that the SHR strain may not be sufficiently homogeneous in their impulsive choice behavior to be considered as a viable model for impulse control disorders such as ADHD. The LEW strain may be worthy of further consideration for their suitability as an animal model.

  2. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices. (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson


    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country.

  3. Fertility behavior and labor force participation: a model of lexicographic choice. (United States)

    Encarnacion, J J


    Evidence exists that a smaller family size is usually associated with female employment and that fertility rises with family income and the wife's education at relatively low levels of income and education. Only at higher levels is there the generally expected relationship that fertility declines with more education or income. Due to the fact that a woman's labor force participation and her fertility are aspects of behavior of the same person (or couple), they should be explained by a model of choice. Such a model is presented, and empirical evidence is cited. In particular, the model allows for a fertility decline even before a decline in mortality during the demographic transition. The model of choice involves threshold values of education and income, such that the marginal effects of these variables on fertility and labor supply are qualitatively different below and above the threshold. The model is in conformity with cross-section regressions using Philippine data and appears to explain why various studies give positive, zero, or negative regression coefficients relating fertility to education and income when standard linear regression specifications are used. Such results would depend on the proportions of families falling below and above the thresholds in the sample of observations. The model also implies that the fertility effects of a child mortality decline on those proportions, meaning that one could have lower mortality without affecting fertility levels. From a policy perspective, the broad implications of the model are distrubing. Development that raises very low income and education levels would increase fertility and so would a more egalitarian distribution of the same low aggregate income. It is necessary to shift the underlying functions so that the thresholds become as low as possible, but general economic development may be too slow for this purpose.

  4. Modeling individual and collective opinion in online social networks: drivers of choice behavior and effects of marketing interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.E.; Langley, D.J.


    We investigate factors influencing choice behavior in online social networks. We use twitter data from a Dutch television talent show. In study one, we implement a nested conditional logit model with latent classes. We find heterogeneous effects. For two latent classes, cognitive factors most strong

  5. Willingness-to-pay estimation with choice-based conjoint analysis : Addressing extreme response behavior with individually adapted designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Hinz, O.; Skiera, B.; Theysohn, S.


    The increasing consideration of behavioral aspects in operations management models has prompted greater use of choice-based conjoint (CBC) studies in operations research. Such studies can elicit consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), a core input for many optimization models. However, optimization mod

  6. The economics of food choice behavior: why poverty and obesity are linked. (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam


    Obesity in the United States does not affect all segments of the population equally. It is more prevalent in deprived neighborhoods and among groups with lower education and incomes. Inequitable access to healthy foods is one mechanism by which socioeconomic factors can influence food choice behaviors, overall diet quality, and bodyweight. Having a supermarket in the immediate neighborhood has been linked to better diets and to lower obesity rates. However, the affordability of healthy foods may have more of an impact on food patterns than does distance to the nearest store. Grains, added sugars, and added fats are inexpensive, good-tasting, and convenient. Their consumption has been linked to lower quality diets, lower diet costs, and lower socioeconomic status. By contrast, the recommended healthier diets not only cost more but were consumed by more affluent groups. New techniques of spatial analysis are a promising approach to mapping obesity rates and linking them with measures of socioeconomic status based on diverse social and economic aspects of the built environment. Low residential property values predicted bodyweights of women better than did either education or incomes. Shopping in low-cost supermarkets was another powerful predictor of bodyweight. Bodyweight gain may be best predicted not by any one nutrient, food or beverage but by low diet cost. Higher obesity rates in poor neighborhoods may be the toxic consequence of economic insecurity. Alleviating poverty may be the best, if not the only, way to stop the obesity epidemic.

  7. Functional double dissociation within the entorhinal cortex for visual scene-dependent choice behavior (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Woo; Lee, Inah


    How visual scene memory is processed differentially by the upstream structures of the hippocampus is largely unknown. We sought to dissociate functionally the lateral and medial subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex (LEC and MEC, respectively) in visual scene-dependent tasks by temporarily inactivating the LEC and MEC in the same rat. When the rat made spatial choices in a T-maze using visual scenes displayed on LCD screens, the inactivation of the MEC but not the LEC produced severe deficits in performance. However, when the task required the animal to push a jar or to dig in the sand in the jar using the same scene stimuli, the LEC but not the MEC became important. Our findings suggest that the entorhinal cortex is critical for scene-dependent mnemonic behavior, and the response modality may interact with a sensory modality to determine the involvement of the LEC and MEC in scene-based memory tasks. DOI: PMID:28169828

  8. Parameters of rewards on choice behavior in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). (United States)

    Shapiro, Martin S; Jensen, Ashley L


    Five experiments were conducted with Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) to investigate how choices in a T-maze were affected by parameters of a social reward (aggression display to another male): presence or absence, amount, delay and distance traveled. Bettas showed a preference for the side associated with the presence of another male rather than the side associated with nothing (Exp 1), a greater length of time of the reward (Exp 2) and shorter delay (Exp 3). The animals were indifferent when one side offered a longer delay to a longer reward time compared with a shorter delay to a shorter reward time (Exp 4). What was most surprising, however, was that fish preferred to choose the side that was associated with swimming a greater distance to reach an opponent male (Exp 5). These experiments demonstrate that, while some parameters of a visual reward affect behavior in predictable ways (greater amount, shorter delay), the complex motivations underlying inter-male aggression can produce what appear to be paradoxical results.

  9. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according to spatio...... constraints are related to travellers’ socio-economic characteristics and that path choice is related to minimizing time and avoiding congestion....

  10. Neural correlates of object-associated choice behavior in the perirhinal cortex of rats. (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Rong; Lee, Inah


    The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is reportedly important for object recognition memory, with supporting physiological evidence obtained largely from primate studies. Whether neurons in the rodent PRC also exhibit similar physiological correlates of object recognition, however, remains to be determined. We recorded single units from the PRC in a PRC-dependent, object-cued spatial choice task in which, when cued by an object image, the rat chose the associated spatial target from two identical discs appearing on a touchscreen monitor. The firing rates of PRC neurons were significantly modulated by critical events in the task, such as object sampling and choice response. Neuronal firing in the PRC was correlated primarily with the conjunctive relationships between an object and its associated choice response, although some neurons also responded to the choice response alone. However, we rarely observed a PRC neuron that represented a specific object exclusively regardless of spatial response in rats, although the neurons were influenced by the perceptual ambiguity of the object at the population level. Some PRC neurons fired maximally after a choice response, and this post-choice feedback signal significantly enhanced the neuronal specificity for the choice response in the subsequent trial. Our findings suggest that neurons in the rat PRC may not participate exclusively in object recognition memory but that their activity may be more dynamically modulated in conjunction with other variables, such as choice response and its outcomes.

  11. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based...

  12. The effect of increasing autonomy through choice on young children’s physical activity behavior (United States)

    Increasing autonomy by manipulating the choice of available physical activity options in a laboratory setting can increase physical activity in older children and adults. However, the effect of manipulating the number of physically active choices has yet to be examined in young children in a gymnas...

  13. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior. (United States)

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise


    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality.

  14. Female guppies agree to differ: phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior and the consequences for sexual selection. (United States)

    Brooks, R; Endler, J A


    Variation among females in mate choice may influence evolution by sexual selection. The genetic basis of this variation is of interest because the elaboration of mating preferences requires additive genetic variation in these traits. Here we measure the repeatability and heritability of two components of female choosiness (responsiveness and discrimination) and of female preference functions for the multiple ornaments borne by male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that there is significant repeatable variation in both components of choosiness and in some preference functions but not in others. There appear to be several male ornaments that females find uniformly attractive and others for which females differ in preference. One consequence is that there is no universally attractive male phenotype. Only responsiveness shows significant additive genetic variation. Variation in responsiveness appears to mask variation in discrimination and some preference functions and may be the most biologically relevant source of phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior. To test the potential evolutionary importance of the phenotypic variation in mate choice that we report, we estimated the opportunity for and the intensity of sexual selection under models of mate choice that excluded and that incorporated individual female variation. We then compared these estimates with estimates based on measured mating success. Incorporating individual variation in mate choice generally did not predict the outcome of sexual selection any better than models that ignored such variation.

  15. Effects of Choice of Reinforcement on the On-­‐Task Behavior of Kindergarten Students with Developmental Delays


    Binette, Karen


    A high degree of external control is maintained in classrooms serving students with behavioral and developmental disabilities. However, decision making is an important developmental objective related to personal control and dignity. Choice making and discriminating preferred over less preferred outcomes is an important skill that is seldom taught to students with developmental disabilities. Previous research includes studies conducted in clinical settings or with populations with severe disab...

  16. How urban environment affects travel behavior? Integrated Choice and Latent Variable Model for Travel Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Paix, Lissy; Bierlaire, Michel; Cherchi, Elisabetta


    The relationship between urban environment and travel behaviour is not a new problem. Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mobility of dwellers in different ways, such as frequency of trips, mode used, structure of the tours, and so on. At the same time, qualitative issues related...... to the individual attitude towards specific behaviour have recently become important in transport modelling contributing to a better understanding of travel demand. Following this research line, in this paper we study the effect of neighbourhood characteristics in the choice of the type of tours performed, but we...... assume that neighbourhood characteristics can also affect the individual propensity to travel and hence the choice of the tours throughout the propensity to travel. Since the propensity to travel is not observed, we employ hybrid choice models to estimate jointly the discrete choice of tours...

  17. Risk-taking path choice behaviors under ATIS in transportation networks with demand uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new travel time reliability-based traffic assignment model is proposed to investigate the effects of an advanced transportation information system (ATIS) on drivers' risk-taking path choice behaviours in transportation networks with demand uncertainty. In the model, drivers are divided into two classes. The first class is not equipped with ATIS, while the second class is equipped with ATIS. Different risk-taking path choice behaviours of the two classes are studied, respectively. A corresponding mixed equ...

  18. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  19. Optimal behavior by rats in a choice task is associated to a persistent conditioned inhibition effect. (United States)

    Trujano, R Emmanuel; López, Paulina; Rojas-Leguizamón, Maryed; Orduña, Vladimir


    When given a choice between an alternative with a low probability of reinforcement and discriminative stimuli, and another with a higher probability of reinforcement and non-discriminative stimuli, pigeons show a clear preference for the former but rats clearly prefer the later. It has been reported that pigeon's suboptimal choice is associated to a diminishing effect of the stimulus correlated with non-reinforcement. In the present paper, we explored the possibility that rats' optimal choice is more strongly influenced than pigeons' by the stimulus associated to non-reinforcement and that the effects of it do not dissipate during training. We trained rats to choose between an alternative with 0.50 probability of reinforcement and discriminative stimuli, and an alternative with 0.75 probability of reinforcement and non-discriminative stimuli. We replicated the strong preference for the optimal alternative. Then, after several sessions of training, we presented summation trials in which both the stimulus associated to reinforcement and the stimulus associated to non-reinforcement were simultaneously presented. The results showed that the stimulus associated to non-reinforcement exerted a strong effect on choice, and, more importantly, that it did not seem to dissipate across training. These results suggest that the strong difference found between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure is potentially related to differences in the impact of conditioned inhibitors.

  20. Identifying effective factors on consumers' choice behavior toward green products: the case of Tehran, the capital of Iran. (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan


    The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately. So, the purpose of this study is to identify effective factors for the choice of consumers of green products. We used consumption values (functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value, epistemic value, and environmental value) as the effective factor for choosing green products. The original place of this research was in Tehran, capital city of Iran, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world due to environmental issues. The results from the survey questionnaires are analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results indicated that functional value-price, functional value-quality, social value, epistemic value, and environmental value had significantly positive effects on the choice of green products; also, conditional value and emotional value had no influence on it. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior regarding green products included environmental value and epistemic value. This study emphasized the proper pricing of green products by producers and sellers.

  1. Forage choice in pasturelands: influence on cattle foraging behavior and production (United States)

    We determined if trinary combinations of plants led to complementary relationships that influenced animal behavior and performance over combinations of lower diversity (monocultures). Grazing bouts, behavioral levels of activity, blood urea nitrogen, chemical composition of feces, body weight, and h...

  2. Using Choice to Increase On-Task Behavior in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    Tasky, Kim K.; Rudrud, Eric H.; Schulze, Kimberly A.; Rapp, John T.


    An ABA'B design was used to evaluate the effects of choice on task engagement for 3 adults who had been diagnosed with traumatic brain injury. A yoked-control condition, in which tasks that were selected by each participant were assigned subsequently to that participant by a trainer, was implemented to help distinguish between the effects of task…

  3. A discrete choice model with social interactions : an analysis of high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, Peter; Soetevent, Adriaan


    We develop an empirical discrete choice model that explicitly allows for endogenous social interactions. We analyze the issues of multiple equilibria, statistical coherency, and estimation of the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze a data set containing info

  4. Phantom Behavioral Assimilation Effects : Systematic Biases in Social Comparison Choice Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P.; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X.


    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on su

  5. Model of Dynamic Pricing for Two Parallels Flights with Multiple Fare Classes Based on Passenger Choice Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rusdiansyah


    Full Text Available Airline revenue management (ARM is one of emerging topics in transportation logistics areas. This paper discusses a problem in ARM which is dynamic pricing for two parallel flights owned by the same airline. We extended the existing model on Joint Pricing Model for Parallel Flights under passenger choice behavior in the literature. We generalized the model to consider multiple full-fare class instead of only single full-fare class. Consequently, we have to define the seat allocation for each fare class beforehand. We have combined the joint pricing model and the model of nested Expected Marginal Seat Revenue (EMSR model. To solve this hybrid model, we have developed a dynamic programming-based algorithm. We also have conducted numerical experiments to show the behavior of our model. Our experiment results have showed that the expected revenue of both flights significantly induced by the proportion of the time flexible passengers and the number of allocated seat in each full-fare class. As managerial insights, our model has proved that there is a closed relationship between demand management, which is represented by the price of each fare class, and total expected revenue considering the passenger choice behavior.

  6. Behavioral modeling of human choices reveals dissociable effects of physical effort and temporal delay on reward devaluation. (United States)

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam C; Kennerley, Steven W; Saraiva, Ana C; Penny, Will D; Bestmann, Sven


    There has been considerable interest from the fields of biology, economics, psychology, and ecology about how decision costs decrease the value of rewarding outcomes. For example, formal descriptions of how reward value changes with increasing temporal delays allow for quantifying individual decision preferences, as in animal species populating different habitats, or normal and clinical human populations. Strikingly, it remains largely unclear how humans evaluate rewards when these are tied to energetic costs, despite the surge of interest in the neural basis of effort-guided decision-making and the prevalence of disorders showing a diminished willingness to exert effort (e.g., depression). One common assumption is that effort discounts reward in a similar way to delay. Here we challenge this assumption by formally comparing competing hypotheses about effort and delay discounting. We used a design specifically optimized to compare discounting behavior for both effort and delay over a wide range of decision costs (Experiment 1). We then additionally characterized the profile of effort discounting free of model assumptions (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous reports, in both experiments effort costs devalued reward in a manner opposite to delay, with small devaluations for lower efforts, and progressively larger devaluations for higher effort-levels (concave shape). Bayesian model comparison confirmed that delay-choices were best predicted by a hyperbolic model, with the largest reward devaluations occurring at shorter delays. In contrast, an altogether different relationship was observed for effort-choices, which were best described by a model of inverse sigmoidal shape that is initially concave. Our results provide a novel characterization of human effort discounting behavior and its first dissociation from delay discounting. This enables accurate modelling of cost-benefit decisions, a prerequisite for the investigation of the neural underpinnings of effort

  7. Cryptic choice of conspecific sperm controlled by the impact of ovarian fluid on sperm swimming behavior


    Yeates, S E; Diamond, S. E.; Einum, S.; Emerson, B C; Holt, W.V.; Gage, M.J.G.


    Despite evidence that variation in male–female reproductive compatibility exists in many fertilization systems, identifying mechanisms of cryptic female choice at the gamete level has been a challenge. Here, under risks of genetic incompatibility through hybridization, we show how salmon and trout eggs promote fertilization by conspecific sperm. Using in vitro fertilization experiments that replicate the gametic microenvironment, we find complete interfertility between both species. However, ...

  8. Reproductive fitness and dietary choice behavior of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans under semi-natural conditions. (United States)

    Freyth, Katharina; Janowitz, Tim; Nunes, Frank; Voss, Melanie; Heinick, Alexander; Bertaux, Joanne; Scheu, Stefan; Paul, Rüdiger J


    Laboratory breeding conditions of the model organism C. elegans do not correspond with the conditions in its natural soil habitat. To assess the consequences of the differences in environmental conditions, the effects of air composition, medium and bacterial food on reproductive fitness and/or dietary-choice behavior of C. elegans were investigated. The reproductive fitness of C. elegans was maximal under oxygen deficiency and not influenced by a high fractional share of carbon dioxide. In media approximating natural soil structure, reproductive fitness was much lower than in standard laboratory media. In seminatural media, the reproductive fitness of C. elegans was low with the standard laboratory food bacterium E. coli (γ-Proteobacteria), but significantly higher with C. arvensicola (Bacteroidetes) and B. tropica (β-Proteobacteria) as food. Dietary-choice experiments in semi-natural media revealed a low preference of C. elegans for E. coli but significantly higher preferences for C. arvensicola and B. tropica (among other bacteria). Dietary-choice experiments under quasi-natural conditions, which were feasible by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacteria, showed a high preference of C. elegans for Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and β-Proteobacteria, but a low preference for γ-Proteobacteria. The results show that data on C. elegans under standard laboratory conditions have to be carefully interpreted with respect to their biological significance.

  9. Effect of Sex-Roles and Type A Behavior on Children's Friendship Choices. (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.

    This cross-sectional study attempted to (1) demonstrate that children's sex role orientation is related to their tendency for Type A behavior and (2) ascertain whether children expressing Type A behavior would experience difficulty in making and keeping friends. Participants were 286 kindergarten children and elementary school students in the…

  10. Angels and Demons: How Individual Characteristics, Behavioral Types and Choices Influence Behavior in a Real-Effort Moral Dilemma Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Daniel Bejarano


    Full Text Available In this article, we explore how independently reported measures of subjects´ cognitive capabilities, preferences, and sociodemographic characteristics relate to their behavior in a real-effort moral dilemma experiment. To do this, we use a unique dataset, the Chapman Preferences and Characteristics Instrument Set (CPCIS, which contains over 30 standardized measures of preferences and characteristics. We find that simple correlation analysis provides an incomplete picture of how individual measures relate to behavior. In contrast, clustering subjects into groups based on observed behavior in the real-effort task reveals important systematic differences in individual characteristics across groups. However, while we find more differences, these differences are not systematic and difficult to interpret. These results indicate a need for more comprehensive theory explaining how combinations of different individual characteristics impact behavior is needed.

  11. Attitudes and Acceptability of Behavior Change Techniques to Promote Healthy Food Choices Among Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise


    This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equation...... modeling. Respondents were positive toward less intrusive interventions, but they had negative attitudes toward interventions targeting their self-image. Self-reported level of vegetable intake, healthy food habits, and eco-consciousness had the strongest positive association. Respondents considered...

  12. Instrumental conditioning of choice behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). (United States)

    Craft, Baine B.; Velkey, Andrew J.; Szalda-Petree, Allen


    Despite the differences in the response of male Betta splendens toward various stimuli, no research has attempted to determine the preference for a live conspecific versus a mirror presentation. A submerged T-maze was used to present both stimuli to healthy male B. splendens (N=16). The results indicated that subjects' start box and swimway latencies decreased significantly over the 30 trials. Moreover, the analysis of choices demonstrated a modest, but statistically significant, preference for the live conspecific over the mirror presentation. The results are discussed in terms of the stimuli qualities that elicit an aggressive response in B. splendens and the implications for common experimental procedures.

  13. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women. (United States)

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery


    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research.

  14. Rigid patterns of effortful choice behavior after acute stress in rats. (United States)

    Hart, Evan E; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Conoscenti, Michael A; Minor, Thomas R; Izquierdo, Alicia


    Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala, are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here, we assessed effort-based decision making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone. In these animals, we also probed levels of polysialyted neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a marker of structural plasticity, in medial frontal cortex and amygdala. We found that animals that consistently worked for high magnitude rewards continued to do so, even after acute shock stress. We also found that PSA-NCAM was increased in both regions after effortful choice experience but not after shock stress alone. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing broad literature on cognitive effects of stress and in the context of how acute stress may bias effortful decisions to a rigid pattern of responding.

  15. Social Network Influence on Online Behavioral Choices: Exploring Group Formation on Social Network Sites


    Kwon, KH; Stefanone, MA; Barnett, GA


    Social media communication is characterized by reduced anonymity and off-to-online social interactions. These characteristics require scholars to revisit social influence mechanisms online. The current study builds on social influence literature to explore social network and gender effects on online behavior. Findings from a quasi-experiment suggest that both network-related variables and gender are significantly associated with online behavior. Perceived social environment, measured by perso...

  16. Ongoing behavioral state information signaled in the lateral habenula guides choice flexibility in freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Michael Baker


    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors ranging from maternal care, to sleep, to various forms of cognition. One prominent theory with ample supporting evidence is that the LHb serves to relay basal ganglia and limbic signals about negative outcomes to midbrain monoaminergic systems. This makes it likely that the LHb is critically involved in behavioral flexibility as all of these systems have been shown to contribute when flexible behavior is required. Behavioral flexibility is commonly examined across species and is impaired in various neuropsychiatric conditions including autism, depression, addiction, and schizophrenia; conditions in which the LHb is thought to play a role. Therefore, a thorough examination of the role of the LHb in behavioral flexibility serves multiple functions including understanding possible connections with neuropsychiatric illnesses and additional insight into its role in cognition in general. Here we assess the LHb’s role in behavioral flexibility through comparisons of the roles its afferent and efferent pathways are known to play. Additionally, we provide new evidence supporting the LHb contributions to behavioral flexibility through organization of specific goal directed actions under cognitively demanding conditions. Specifically, in the first experiment, a majority of neurons recorded from the LHb were found to correlate with velocity on a spatial navigation task and did not change significantly when reward outcomes were manipulated. Additionally, measurements of local field potential in the theta band revealed significant changes in power relative to velocity and reward location. In a second set of experiments, inactivation of the LHb with the GABA agonists baclofen and muscimol led to an impairment in a spatial/response based repeated probabilistic reversal learning task. Control experiments revealed that this impairment was likely due to the demands of repeated switching

  17. Modification by dopaminergic drugs of choice behavior under concurrent schedules of intravenous saline and food delivery in monkeys. (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Paronis, Carol A; Bergman, Jack


    The allocation of "choice" behavior provides a measure that may be useful in developing experimental models of clinical relapse. In the present experiments, indirect monoaminergic agonists [cocaine, 1-(2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR 12909), desipramine, and citalopram], and dopaminergic D1 family agonists [(+/-)-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SKF 82958), R-(+)-6-bromo-7,8-dihydroxy-3-allyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (R-(+)-6-BrAPB), and 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SKF 83959)] and D2 family agonists [quinelorane, R-(-)-10,11-dihydroxy-N-n-propylnorapomorphine (R-NPA), (+)-N-propyl-hydroxynaphoxazine [(+)-PHNO], and S-(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol (PD 128907)] were evaluated for their capacity to alter the distribution of choice behavior in cocaine-experienced monkeys. Rhesus monkeys responded on two levers (injection-lever and food-lever) under concurrent fixed ratio 30; fixed ratio 30 schedules of i.v. cocaine and food delivery. Under training conditions, the distribution of behavior was related to the unit dose of i.v. cocaine: when saline was available, responding occurred predominantly on the food-lever and when reinforcing doses of cocaine were available, responding occurred predominantly on the injection-lever. Drugs were studied by administering i.m. pretreatment doses before components in sessions of i.v. saline availability. Cocaine produced dose-related increases in injection-lever responding in all monkeys, whereas desipramine failed to alter the distribution of behavior in any monkey. The dopamine transport blocker GBR 12909 and each dopamine D1 family agonist markedly increased injection-lever responding in three of four monkeys; the serotonin transport blocker citalopram and D2 family agonists were comparably effective in only one

  18. Stress Impairs Optimal Behavior in a Water Foraging Choice Task in Rats (United States)

    Graham, Lauren K.; Yoon, Taejib; Kim, Jeansok J.


    Stress is a biologically significant social-environmental factor that plays a pervasive role in influencing human and animal behaviors. While stress effects on various types of memory are well characterized, its effects on other cognitive functions are relatively unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of acute, uncontrollable stress on…

  19. Gender differences in behavioral inhibitory control: ERP evidence from a two-choice oddball task. (United States)

    Yuan, Jiajin; He, Yuanyuan; Qinglin, Zhang; Chen, Antao; Li, Hong


    The inhibition of inappropriate behaviors is important for adaptive living in changing environments. The present study investigated gender-related behavioral inhibitory control by recording event-related potentials for standard and deviant stimuli while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by accurately pressing different keys within 1000 ms. The results showed faster reaction times (RTs) for deviant stimuli in women than in men, although RTs for standard stimuli were similar across genders. There were significant gender and stimulus interaction effects on mean amplitudes during each of the 170-230-ms, 250-330-ms, and 350-600-ms intervals, and women exhibited shorter latencies and larger amplitudes than men at deviant-related P2, N2, and P3 components. As an accurate, fast response to the rare deviant stimuli involves behavioral inhibitory control on the prepotent response whereas the response to the standard stimuli does not, it is clear that there is a general gender difference in behavioral control for human adults. This may relate to differential inhibitory demands by each gender during evolution.

  20. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice. (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James


    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself.

  1. Effect of various discriminative stimuli on choice behavior in male siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). (United States)

    Craft, B B; Szalda-Petree, A D; Brinegar, J L; Haddad, N F


    The current experiment was an exploratory study empirically comparing three discrimination methodologies proposed for use in choice preparations with food rewards. Subjects were thirty-five, healthy, adult male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three discrimination groups: a Direction group (using left or right as discriminative stimuli), a Color group (using red or green as discriminative stimuli), and a Bubble group (using the presence or absence of air bubbles as discriminative stimuli). For all three discrimination groups, subjects chose between one or three food pellets in a submerged T-maze. The results from the experiment indicated a statistically significant preference for the three pellets of food over one pellet of food only for the Bubble group. Of particular note is the effect size and observed power obtained for the Bubble group, which was the only group which supported a reasonably powerful test for discrimination, given a sample size of 12 subjects and 0.94 effect size.

  2. Emotional effects on university choice behavior: The influence of experienced narrators and their characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. eCallejas-Albiñana


    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students’ ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too.

  3. Deciding not to decide: computational and neural evidence for hidden behavior in sequential choice. (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Rieskamp, Jörg; Büchel, Christian


    Understanding the cognitive and neural processes that underlie human decision making requires the successful prediction of how, but also of when, people choose. Sequential sampling models (SSMs) have greatly advanced the decision sciences by assuming decisions to emerge from a bounded evidence accumulation process so that response times (RTs) become predictable. Here, we demonstrate a difficulty of SSMs that occurs when people are not forced to respond at once but are allowed to sample information sequentially: The decision maker might decide to delay the choice and terminate the accumulation process temporarily, a scenario not accounted for by the standard SSM approach. We developed several SSMs for predicting RTs from two independent samples of an electroencephalography (EEG) and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. In these studies, participants bought or rejected fictitious stocks based on sequentially presented cues and were free to respond at any time. Standard SSM implementations did not describe RT distributions adequately. However, by adding a mechanism for postponing decisions to the model we obtained an accurate fit to the data. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data revealed alternating states of de- and increasing oscillatory power in beta-band frequencies (14-30 Hz), indicating that responses were repeatedly prepared and inhibited and thus lending further support for the existence of a decision not to decide. Finally, the extended model accounted for the results of an adapted version of our paradigm in which participants had to press a button for sampling more information. Our results show how computational modeling of decisions and RTs support a deeper understanding of the hidden dynamics in cognition.

  4. Deciding not to decide: computational and neural evidence for hidden behavior in sequential choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gluth


    Full Text Available Understanding the cognitive and neural processes that underlie human decision making requires the successful prediction of how, but also of when, people choose. Sequential sampling models (SSMs have greatly advanced the decision sciences by assuming decisions to emerge from a bounded evidence accumulation process so that response times (RTs become predictable. Here, we demonstrate a difficulty of SSMs that occurs when people are not forced to respond at once but are allowed to sample information sequentially: The decision maker might decide to delay the choice and terminate the accumulation process temporarily, a scenario not accounted for by the standard SSM approach. We developed several SSMs for predicting RTs from two independent samples of an electroencephalography (EEG and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. In these studies, participants bought or rejected fictitious stocks based on sequentially presented cues and were free to respond at any time. Standard SSM implementations did not describe RT distributions adequately. However, by adding a mechanism for postponing decisions to the model we obtained an accurate fit to the data. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data revealed alternating states of de- and increasing oscillatory power in beta-band frequencies (14-30 Hz, indicating that responses were repeatedly prepared and inhibited and thus lending further support for the existence of a decision not to decide. Finally, the extended model accounted for the results of an adapted version of our paradigm in which participants had to press a button for sampling more information. Our results show how computational modeling of decisions and RTs support a deeper understanding of the hidden dynamics in cognition.

  5. Mate choice and optimal search behavior: fitness returns under the fixed sample and sequential search strategies. (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Seubert, Steven M; Wade, Gordon A


    The behavior of a female in search of a mate determines the likelihood that she encounters a high-quality male in the search process. The fixed sample (best-of-n) search strategy and the sequential search (fixed threshold) strategy are two prominent models of search behavior. The sequential search strategy dominates the former strategy--yields an equal or higher expected net fitness return to searchers--when search costs are nontrivial and the distribution of quality among prospective mates is uniform or truncated normal. In this paper our objective is to determine whether there are any search costs or distributions of male quality for which the sequential search strategy is inferior to the fixed sample search strategy. The two search strategies are derived under general conditions in which females evaluate encountered males by inspection of an indicator character that has some functional relationship to male quality. The solutions are identical to the original models when the inspected male attribute is itself male quality. The sequential search strategy is shown to dominate the fixed sample search strategy for all search costs and distributions of male quality. Low search costs have been implicated to explain empirical observations that are consistent with the use of a fixed sample search strategy, but under conditions in which the original models were derived there is no search cost or distribution of male quality that favors the fixed sample search strategy. Plausible alternative explanations for the apparent use of this search strategy are discussed.

  6. Estimating Value of Congestion and of Reliability from Observation of Route Choice Behavior of Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    both congestion and reliability terms. Results illustrated that the value of time and the value of congestion were significantly higher in the peak period because of possible higher penalties for drivers being late and consequently possible higher time pressure. Moreover, results showed...... that the marginal rate of substitution between travel time reliability and total travel time did not vary across periods and traffic conditions, with the obvious caveat that the absolute values were significantly higher for the peak period. Last, results showed the immense potential of exploiting the growing...... availability of large amounts of data from cheap and enhanced technology to obtain estimates of the monetary value of different travel time components from the observation of actual behavior, with arguably potential significant impact on the realism of large-scale models....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma KARABAŞ


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

  8. Caste and Choice: The Influence of Developmental Idealism on Marriage Behavior. (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera; Thornton, Arland


    Is the marriage behavior of young people determined by their socioeconomic characteristics or their endorsement of developmental idealism? This article addresses this question using a unique longitudinal data set from Nepal and provides the first individual-level test of developmental idealism theory. The authors find that unmarried individuals with greater endorsement of developmental idealism in 2008 were more likely by 2012 to choose their own spouse, including a spouse of a different caste, rather than have an arranged marriage. Those with salaried work experience were also less likely to have arranged marriages, but urban proximity and education were not significant. The authors conclude that both developmental idealism and socioeconomic characteristics influence marriage and that their influences are largely independent.

  9. Behavioral archives link the chemistry and clonal structure of trembling aspen to the food choice of North American porcupine. (United States)

    Diner, Brandee; Berteaux, Dominique; Fyles, Jim; Lindroth, Richard L


    Understanding the links among plant genotype, plant chemistry, and food selection by vertebrate herbivores is critical to assess the role of herbivores in the evolution of plant secondary chemistry. Some specialized vertebrate herbivores have been shown to select plants differentially according to plant genotype, but examples from generalists, which constitute the vast majority of vertebrate herbivores, are few, especially in natural conditions. We examined the relationship between the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), a generalist mammalian herbivore, and clonal trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), a preferred food source of porcupines. We determined preference for certain aspen trees through visual examination of porcupine climbing scars left on tree bark, and through a controlled feeding experiment. We used genetic and biochemical analyses to link the behavioral archives (climbing scars) left by porcupines on aspen trunks to the clonal structure and chemical composition of trees. We show that two phenolic glycosides (tremulacin and salicortin), which are under a high degree of genetic control and thus vary in concentration across clones, are the chemical variables that most influence (deter) feeding choices by porcupines. Using behavioral archives left by a wild herbivore on a natural stand of plants thus allowed us to demonstrate that a generalist vertebrate herbivore can choose plants according to their clonal structure and genetically based chemical composition. Our results contribute to extending previous findings obtained with generalist herbivores studied in controlled conditions, and with specialist herbivores studied in the field.

  10. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana


    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  11. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  12. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn


    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  13. Offshoring in the service sector : An empirical investigation on the offshoring behavior of service firms and its influence on their foreign entry mode choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, van D.M.


    This study is focused on the offshoring behavior of service firms. It provides a decision-making model for service firms regarding their choice for captive offshoring or offshore outsourcing when relocating their activities to foreign locations. Service firms are taken as the focus of this study bec

  14. Mode choice model parameters estimation


    Strnad, Irena


    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  15. My owner, right or wrong: the effect of familiarity on the domestic dog's behavior in a food-choice task. (United States)

    Cook, Amy; Arter, Jennifer; Jacobs, Lucia F


    Dogs are strongly influenced by human behavior, and they readily form bonds with specific humans. Yet these lines of inquiry are not often combined. The goal of this study was to investigate whether such bonds would play a role in how dogs behave in response to human signals. Using various types of signals, we compared dogs' use of information from a familiar human (their owner) versus an unfamiliar human when choosing between two food containers. In some conditions, the owner indicated a container that gave food and a stranger indicated a container that did not; in other conditions, this was reversed. Dogs more often chose the container indicated by or nearest to their owner, even when this container never yielded a food reward. In two conditions, dogs chose at chance: a control condition in which both pointers were strangers and a condition in which the owner and stranger sat reading books and provided no social signal. This is the first study to directly compare owners to strangers in a single food-choice situation. Our results suggest that dogs make decisions by attending preferentially to social signals from humans with whom they have become familiar.

  16. Nucleus accumbens neurotransmission and effort-related choice behavior in food motivation: effects of drugs acting on dopamine, adenosine, and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (United States)

    Nunes, Eric J; Randall, Patrick A; Podurgiel, Samantha; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D


    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Although nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA depletions or antagonism leave aspects of appetite and primary food motivation intact, rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and that stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors produces behavioral effects that are similar to those induced by DA antagonism. The present review summarizes the literature on the role of NAc DA and adenosine in effort-related processes, and also presents original data on the effects of local stimulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in NAc core. Local injections of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine directly into NAc core produces shifts in effort-related choice behavior similar to those induced by DA antagonism or A2A receptor stimulation, decreasing lever pressing but increasing chow intake in rats responding on a concurrent fixed ratio/chow feeding choice task. In contrast, injections into a neostriatal control site dorsal to the NAc were ineffective. The actions of pilocarpine on this task were attenuated by co-administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine. Thus, drugs that act on DA, adenosine A2A, and muscarinic receptors regulate effort-related choice behavior, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia that can be observed in depression and other disorders.

  17. 基于SEM的城市公交方式选择行为模型%Mode Choice Behavior Model of Urban Public Transport Based on SEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坚; 杨亚璪; 李小兵; 穆礼彬


    To solve the existing mode choice behavior model of urban public transport considered only the observable variables, but do not relate to the unobserved latent variables which affect travel choices. And a structural equation model(SEM) of urban public transport mode choice behavior is built based on latent variables and observable variables. The quantitative relationship between various influencing factors and the effect to choice results are analyzed. With traveler personality traits, behavior characteristics of different groups are studied. Finally, the model is used in the Chengdu example analysis. It is pointed that the perceived value has a significant influence on choice results and can explain 62% of the travel behavioral intention. The service quality effect on perceived value is bigger than the price rationality. Choice behavior characteristics of different groups exist certain difference.%为解决现有居民公交方式选择行为模型中仅考虑可直接观测的显变量,尚未涉及对选择结果具有一定影响的不可直接观测的潜变量的问题,本文从潜变量与显变量角度,构建了公交方式选择行为结构方程模型。分析了各种影响因素之间的定量关系,以及对选择结果的影响作用大小,并依据出行者人格特质进行了分群行为特性研究。最后,将模型运用于成都公交出行实例分析中。结果表明:知觉价值对选择结果具有显著影响,可解释出行行为意向的62%信息,服务品质对知觉价值的影响高于票价合理性,且不同群体的选择行为特征存在一定差异。

  18. Analysis of Driver's Route Choice Behavior in Traffic Flow%驾驶员路线选择行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    研究驾驶员的路线选择行为有助于提高既有道路网络(特别是城市交通网络)的利用率,从而改善交通状况.本文从宏观角度分析存在实时交通信息条件下驾驶员路线选择行为的时间演化特征,认为路线选择行为具有随机不确定性,在设计交通诱导系统或交通信息系统时,必须考虑扰动因素影响,才能保证系统有效实现均衡的交通流动态分配.%This paper, from the point of macroscopic view, discusses the time evolution pattern of driver's route choice behavior with the influence of dynamic traffic information upon the pattern.The study aims to provide theoretical support for the evaluation of long-term result of traffic information system, the forecasting of driver's route choice behavior and the study of influence on route choice behavior through controlling and changing traffic information.

  19. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices. (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S


    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies.

  20. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention. (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S


    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  1. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  2. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.


    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  3. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E Ramsey


    Full Text Available Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA-receptor, tPA, stathmin-2,β-1 adrenergic receptor or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase. We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males, and a social control (two females. Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS versus other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of ‘preference and receptivity genes’; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females from low (small males, was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin. We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between ‘affiliative’ and ‘preference’ axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into

  4. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive, and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice. (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary E; Maginnis, Tara L; Wong, Ryan Y; Brock, Chad; Cummings, Molly E


    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA receptor, tPA, stathmin-2, β-1 adrenergic receptor) or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase). We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males), and a social control (two females). Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance) highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS) vs. other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS) from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance) that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of "preference and receptivity genes"; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females) from low (small males), was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin). We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between "affiliative" and "preference" axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  5. A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior (United States)

    Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin


    Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…

  6. The procrastinators want it now: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence of the procrastination of intertemporal choices. (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Gui, Danyang; Lin, Wenzheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhu, Xiangru; Liu, Xun


    Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing. The participants were assigned to a high procrastination group and a low procrastination group according to their scores on self-report measures. We found that high procrastination participants preferred immediate rewards compared to future ones whereas low procrastination participants did not. High procrastinators also exhibited a larger and delayed P2 component, indicating delay time processing and abnormal reward processing. No significant effect associated with procrastination was found on the P300 component. Taken together, these findings suggest that high procrastinators are more impulsive and encode the information of delay time more slowly but with a higher level of motivation-driven attention. The current study substantiates higher impulsivity in procrastination and verifies that a difference exists in the sensitivity to time delay between high and low procrastinators.

  7. Analysis on Micro-motivation and Macro-behavior of Farmer's Technology Choice: Concurrently Discussing Compatibility of Individual Farmer's Choice with Village Group's Choice%农户技术选择的微观动机与宏观行为分析——兼论农户个体选择与村落群体选择的相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马凤才; 郭翔宇


    利用多人集体行动博弈分析了农户技术选择行为。结果表明,分散农户的微观行为很难形成一致性的集体行动,也很难实现农村社会宏观行为的最优化。实际调查结果显示:不同群体的农户的技术选择行为不相同;种养规模越大的农户越倾向于选择正规途径获得农业新技术,种养规模越小的农户越倾向于从民间途径获得农业新技术;以政府为主导的技术供给模式并没有获得农民的完全认可。最后提出:提高农户的组织化水平、提高技术供给主体的供给实力,是突破农户自身无序选择、实现衣村社会宏观行为最优的有效手段。%This paper analyzes the technology choice behavior of farmers through using the collective action game. The result shows that it is difficult to achieve the formation of collective action with consistency and the optimization of rural social macro-behavior due to the micro-selec- tion behavior of farmers. The investigation results show as follows: different groups of farmers have different technology choice; the farmer whose farming scale is larger tend to choose formal ways to get new agricultural technology,and the farmer whose farming scale is smaller prefer to choose folk ways;the farmer dofft receive fully the technology supply model leaded by government. Finally,it suggests that raising the organi- zation level of farmers,and improving the technical supply power of supplier,are the best way to break farmer's disordered choice and achieve the optimal macro-behavior in rural area.

  8. 消费者两阶段选择行为模型研究%An overview of consumers' two-stage choice behavior model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇


    This article surveys the research works on consumer two-stage choice behavior models. It introduces the theory, and discusses the main research contents as well as methods of these models in the context of brand marketing and revenue management. It also summarizes the main contributions and limitations of current researches. Finally it proposes some promising areas for future studies.%综述了消费者两阶段选择行为模型的相关文献,介绍了消费者两阶段选择的理论,探讨了在产品品牌营销与收益管理中消费者两阶段选择行为模型的主要研究内容与方法,总结了其学术贡献与局限,提出了未来研究方向.

  9. 资产专用性对诚信行为选择的作用机理%Action Mechanism of Asset Specificity to Good Faith Behavior Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Through the discussion on the action mechanism of asset specificity to good faith behavior choice, we have conclusion that the asset specificity can produce certain sanction against good faith behavior choice. At the same time, if the asset specificity has different degree of sanction against economic individual, one with the lower degree has the larger initiative right and decisive power. The primary influencing factors of asset specificity playing the role are dealing frequency and information asymmetry. The measures and suggestions to construct the honesty and credit trading environment had been put forward on the base of that analysis.%对资产专用性影响诚信行为选择的作用机理进行探讨的结果显示,资产专用性的投入对经济主体的诚信行为选择具有一定的约束力,资产专用性程度投入水平较低的交易方具有较大的主动权和决定权,影响资产专用性作用发挥的主要因素包括交易频率和信息不对称。为了构建诚信交易环境,需要适度提高专用性资产投入水平、加强市场监管力度、降低信息不对称程度、培养交易主体的诚信意识等。

  10. Measuring Learning Styles with Questionnaires versus Direct Observation of Preferential Choice Behavior in Authentic Learning Situations: The Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale (VV-BOS). (United States)

    Leutner, Detlev; Plass, Jan L.


    Describes the development of the VV-BOS (Visualizer/Verbalizer Behavior Observation Scale), a computer-based instrument for direct observation of students' preferences for visual or verbal learning material. Results of a study with second-language learners indicated a high degree of reliability as an alternative to conventional questionnaires.…

  11. Departure Time Choice Behavior Based on Bounded Rationality%有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾琨; 傅忠宁; 隽志才


    Subject to such limitations as cognitive ability and logical reasoning ability, it is difficult for individual to be perfectly rational in the travel decision-making process. Taking departure time choice as an example, key behavior factors such as spatial knowledge acquisition, learning, cognition update and solution search are introduced. The theoretical framework of travel decision-making process is built based on bounded rationality. Departure time behavioral intention survey program is designed by integration of RP and SP survey methods. Individual’s knowledge representation is studied, and cognitive update is completed by using Bayesian learning theory. Functions of search cost and search gain are defined. By using survey data, departure time heuristic search rules and decision rules are derived based on PART and RIPPER algorithm separately. The results show that there exist perception threshold in individual’s departure time choice behavior under bounded rationality, rather than seeking global optimal solution.%个体受限于认知能力和逻辑推理能力的限制,在出行决策过程中很难做到完全理性。本文以出发时间选择为例,在有限理性行为假设基础上,引入空间知识获取、学习及认知更新和方案搜索等关键行为要素,构建有限理性下的出行决策过程理论框架。融合RP和SP调查方法,设计出发时间选择行为意向调查方案。研究个体知识的表达方式,应用贝叶斯学习理论完成认知更新。定义搜索成本和收益函数,利用调查数据分别提取基于PART和RIPPER算法的出发时间启发式搜索规则和决策规则。结果表明,有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为存在感知阈值,而并非寻求全局最优解。

  12. Behavioral response in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) offered a choice of uncontaminated and cadmium-contaminated food. (United States)

    Zidar, Primoz; Bozic, Janko; Strus, Jasna


    The objective of this study was to find out whether Porcellio scaber discriminates against Cd-contaminated food. The foraging behavior in animals offered uncontaminated and Cd-contaminated food simultaneously was quantified for 48-h employing computer-aided video tracking. To see whether the isopods' selection of less contaminated food could diminish the influence Cd on food consumption, growth, metal assimilation, moulting and mortality, Cd-dosed food (20, 45, 200 and 450 mg kg(-1) dry weight) was offered together with untreated food for 3 weeks. Data from the video tracking experiments revealed that animals visited Cd-dosed food as often as untreated food, but spent much less time near Cd-dosed food. Discrimination against Cd-contaminated food increased with previous experience with contaminated food and/or with increased Cd body burden. In 3 weeks exposure uncontaminated food preference rose with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food and reached a maximal preference ratio of 65% (untreated food): 35% (Cd-dosed food). The decreased consumption of Cd-dosed food was compensated by the increased consumption of control food. Cadmium body burden increased with time of exposure and cadmium concentration in food consumed, while the influence of Cd on food consumption, growth and moulting was diminished.

  13. Supply Chains Competition under Uncertainty Concerning Player’s Strategies and Customer Choice Behavior: A Generalized Nash Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hafezalkotob


    Full Text Available Decision makers in a supply chain confront two main sources of uncertainty in market environment including uncertainty about customers purchasing behaviors and rival chains strategies. Focusing on competition between two supply chains, it is considered that each customer as an independent player selects products of these chains based on random utility model. Similar to quantal response equilibrium approach, we take account of customer rationality as an exogenous parameter. Moreover, it is assumed that decision makers in a supply chain can perceive an estimation of rival strategies about price and service level formulated in the model by fuzzy strategies. In the competition model, chain’s decision makers consider a subjective probability for wining each customer which is formulated by coupled constraints. These constraints connect chains strategies regarding to each customer and yield a generalized Nash equilibrium problem. Since price cutting and increasing service level are main responses to rival supply chain, after calculating optimal strategies, we show that more efficient responses depend on customer preferences.

  14. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.


    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  15. 基于认知活动的驾驶员路径选择行为影响因素分析%The analysis of the factors affecting drivers′ route-choice behavior based on cognitive activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丹丹; 王晓原; 马立云; 陈绍志


    The research of the drivers′ route choice behavior has always been an important part of the urban road traffic system research.However,few studies have been done from the perspective of cognitive activity on factors impacting on drivers′ route-choice behavior at present.View of this,the factors impacting on drivers′ route-choice behavior are studied based on driver cognitive psychology,the psycho-physical integrated cognitive activity chain is studied under the stimulus of multi-resource information,which can provide a theoretical basis for the further study of modeling and simulation of the drivers′ route-choice behavior.%驾驶员路径选择行为研究是城市道路交通系统研究的重要内容.从驾驶员认知心理角度,对驾驶员路径选择行为的影响因素进行了分析,并研究了多源信息刺激下驾驶员任务集聚、心理-物理综合认知拓扑结构和认知活动链,为深入研究驾驶员路径选择问题提供了理论基础.

  16. Vocational Choice: A Decision Making Perspective (United States)

    Sauermann, Henry


    We propose a model of vocational choice that can be used for analyzing and guiding the decision processes underlying career and job choices. Our model is based on research in behavioral decision making (BDM), in particular the choice goals framework developed by Bettman, Luce, and Payne (1998). The basic model involves two major processes. First,…

  17. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  18. Route choice behavior under guidance of variable message signs%可变信息标志诱导下的路径选择行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚华艳; 黄海军; 高自友


    随着智能交通技术的发展,可变信息标志(VMS)被广泛应用于动态交通管理中.元胞传输模型(CTM)可以很好的模拟交通流激波、排队形成与消散等交通流动力学特性.应用CTM研究了无信息诱导路径选择、基于VMS的近视转换和有界理性路径选择等三种规则,数值模拟结果表明,后两种规则可以减少系统总出行时间,信息服从率越高,系统的改善程度越大.当有界理性规则的"界"参数设置在一定区间内时,该规则优于近视转换规则,否则不如近视转换规则.%The variable message signs (VMS) have been widely used in guiding and managing the dynamic traffic with development of intelligent transportation technologies. It is known that the cell transmission model (CTM) can well reproduce such traffic dynamics as shock waves and jams. The CTM is employed in this paper to study the route choice behavior under three different rules, namely the rule without information guidance, the VMS-based myopic switching rule and the VMS-based boundedly rational switching rule.Simulation results show that the latter two rules can enhance the system performance through reducing the total travel time. The enhancement increases with the compliance rate to VMS. The boundedly rational switching rule is better than the myopic switching rule when its bound associated parameter is within a certain range, not so otherwise.

  19. Influencing Factors of Consumers’ Choice Intention and Behavior toward Online Stores%消费者对网络商店选择意向和行为的影响因素研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    近年来加入网购的消费者规模不断增长,他们如何选择下单网店是网络商店关心的主要问题。由回归分析可知,感知信息质量、感知服务质量和感知系统质量均正向影响消费者对网店的选择意向,而选择意向又会影响他们实际的选择行为。当消费者具有较高的感知安全和感知便利时,网店质量对选择意向的影响会增强。感知安全和感知便利对选择意向和实际选择行为有调节作用。%In recent years, with an increasing number of consumers shopping online, how they choose an online store to place an order is the main concern of online store owners. By regression analysis, the per-ceived information quality, perceived service quality and perceived system quality had a positive effect on consumers’ choice intention toward online store, and the choice intention also influenced their actual choice behavior. When the consumers perceived higher safety and convenience, the influence of online store quality on choice intention could be enhanced. The perceived safety and perceived convenience had the moderating effect on choice intention and actual choice behavior.

  20. Assortment Planning Considering Consumers' Two-stage Choice Behavior%考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇


    This paper studies the assortment planning problem considering consumers' two-stage choice behavior in the context of network revenue management. A two-stage choice model based on consumer preferences is proposed, and a dynamic programming model for assortment planning is developed. The choice deterministic linear programming method (CDLP) is used to approximate the optimal offer sets. Finally,through numerical examples,the effects of consumers' two-stage choice behavior on firm's average expected revenues are discussed.%在网络收益管理框架下,研究了考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划问题.提出了基于消费者产品偏好的两阶段选择行为模型,并建立了品类规划问题的动态规划模型.利用选择确定性线性规划方法对模型进行了近似求解,推导了最优的产品组合.最后通过数值算例讨论了消费者两阶段选择行为对厂商平均期望收益与产品组合选择的影响.

  1. Weighing Choices (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.


    This article talks about the Academy of the Sierras, a new private school which is billed as the US' first weight-loss school for obese teenagers. Students must be at least 30 pounds overweight for two years to attend this yearlong boarding school, which offers mandatory exercise, behavioral therapy, college-prep classes, and a healthy food…

  2. 关系营销中客户回报计划对客户品牌选择行为的影响研究%The Effect of Retail Reward Programs on Customer Brand Choice Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝龙; 李飞; 李金林


    In consideration of the customer heterogeneity, we present a customer discrete choice model to analyze the effect of reward programs on customer brand choice behavior; we also validate the model using longitudinal panel data from retail customers. The results show that the discrete choice model is an effec-tive tool to analyze the customer choice behavior, In addition, it is evidenced that reward programs can be viewed as an effective relationship marketing strategy to positively influence customer choice behavior and increase customer choice probability. On the other hand, in a highly competitive market, supermarket bus-iness should adopt reward programs as an important marketing strategy. At the same time, the business must strive to attract more customers to join its reward program. Moreover, heterogeneous behavior be-tween customer segments is validated by a latent class method. The analysis indicates that reward pro-grams only can impact on a special customer segment significantly. The managerial implications are also discussed.%本研究在考虑客户间异质偏好性的基础上,利用一组客户的纵贯交易数据建立消费者离散选择模型研究了回报计划对客户个体层面品牌选择行为的影响,并利用策略实验及潜分层模型对相关问题进行了系统深入的分析.结果表明,回报计划可以有效提升客户的品牌选择购买概率,是一种有效的关系营销策略;策略实验分析得到,竞争的环境下,对零售超市而言其最优决策策略不仅是实施回报计划,而且要努力争取客户成为自己回报计划的会员;此外,通过潜分层模型评估发现客户回报计划仅会对一类特定客户具有明显的刺激作用.最后讨论了结论对企业营销管理实践的意义.

  3. Empirical Study and Modeling of Variable Message Signs on Route Choice Behavior%VMS对驾驶员路径选择影响的实证研究与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫卫; 赵小梅; 李新刚; 谢东繁


    Variable message signs (VMS) frequently influence driver' s route choice behavior through providing instantaneous traffic information.It is one of the most important components of intelligent transportation system (ITS),and an efficient method to release traffic congestion.To quantitatively analyze the effects of VMS on drivers' route choice,this study makes the SP survey on drivers that have more than one year driving experience.Then,the data are analyzed by SPSS20.0,and the ordinal classification Logit models are used to reflect the route choice behavior.Finally,the conclusion is presented:route choice behavior according to VMS is highly related to driving style,travel time and accuracy of VMS.%可变信息板(VMS)通过发布实时的道路交通信息引导驾驶员的路径选择行为,是智能交通系统的重要组成部分之一,也是大城市缓解交通拥堵所采取的方法之一.为了定量分析VMS对驾驶员路径选择行为所产生的影响,本文采用SP调查法针对驾龄在1年以上的驾驶员进行问卷调查,使用SPSS20.0软件对调查数据进行分析,并在此基础上建立VMS诱导条件下驾驶员改变路径频率的有序多分类Logit模型,得出结论,驾驶员根据VMS所提供信息进行路径选择的主要影响因素为驾驶风格、出行时间、VMS可信度.

  4. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.


    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  5. A theory of stochastic choice under uncertainty


    Karni, Edi; Safra, Zvi


    In this paper we propose a characterization of stochastic choice\\ud under risk and under uncertainty. We presume that decision makers'\\ud actual choices are governed by randomly selected states of mind, and\\ud study the representation of decision makers' perceptions of the stochastic process underlying the selection of their state of mind. The\\ud connections of this work to the literatures on random choice, choice\\ud behavior when preference are incomplete; choice of menus; and grades of inde...

  6. Breakthrough or one-hit wonder? Three attempts to replicate single-exposure musical conditioning effects on choice behavior (Gorn, 1982).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, I.E.; Batenburg, A.E.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Smits, T.


    Three studies replicated a classroom experiment on single-exposure musical conditioning of consumer choice (Gorn, 1982), testing whether simultaneous exposure to liked (vs. disliked) music and a pen image induced preferences for the shown (vs. a different) pen. Experiments 1 and 2 employed the origi

  7. Choice probabilities and response times of binary preferential choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Maarten Willem


    This PhD thesis investigates human choice behavior. We describe several experiments in which we offer the subject a referential stimulus and later two other stimuli that differ in several aspects from each other and the reference. The subject has to decide which of two alternatives resembles the ref

  8. Resurgence as Choice. (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R


    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules).

  9. Influencing Factors of Parking Choice Behavior in Central Business Area%中心商业区停车方式选择行为影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁潇; 王忠宇; 李林波; 吴兵


    In order to study the influencing factors of parking choice behavior in central business district,a survey on parking behavior was carried out and then a Logit parking choice model was developed for Taiyuan Street District in Shenyang.A set of factors including traveler's characteristics parking options were collected and their impact on parking choices was studied.Study results show that the following factors,such as traveler's gender,parking rates,walking distance,parking fee and parking time,have a significant effect on parking choice behavior.A parking-choice model for central business district was developed and then calibrated,which can be used to study the effect of above factors on the probability of choosing ground or underground parking options.Furthermore,this model can be used to forecast parking demand.%为了解中心商业区停车方式选择行为的因素影响,以沈阳市太原街片区为例,通过对停车行为的调查,应用非集计理论中的Logit模型,建立了包括出行者特征和选择方案特征的停车场选择模型,探讨了各种特征变量对停车方式选择行为的影响.分析结果表明:出行者性别、停车费率、停车后步行距离,停车费用支付者,以及停车时间对停车者的选择行为有显著影响.通过模型标定,建立了城市中心商业区地面以及地下停车场的选择概率模型.该模型可通过调节各影响因素取值来控制地面与地下停车场的选择概率.

  10. Research on Online Shopping Choice Behavior Based on Nested Logit Model%基于巢式Logit模型的网上购物选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 商滔


    基于Gumbel分布和多项Logit模型,提出建立顾客网上购物选择行为的巢式Logit模型,在SERVQUAL五维量表的基础上,设计了影响顾客购物选择行为的18个相关因素,同时将顾客购买行为分成共性部分和差异部分,采用极大似然法求解模型参数. 相比传统模型而言,巢式Logit模型具有更好的解释能力和稳定性,通过实例分析演示了模型的应用方法,为网上店铺优化服务质量提供了具体参考.%The nested Logit model of online shopping choice behavior is proposed based on Gumbel distribution and multinomial Logit model,and 18 related factors which affect customer's choice behavior are designed on the basis of five dimensional SERVQUAL scale.The shopping behavior is divided into common part and different part,maximum likelihood is used to solve the model parameters.Comparing to the traditional model,nested Logit model has better explanatory power and stability,through case study,the application of this model is demonstrated,which provide specific reference to optimize the quality of service for online stores.

  11. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark;


    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...... attention between the alternatives in a choice set reflects their stated choice certainty. Based on one of the largest samples of eye tracking data in a DCE to date, we find evidence in favor of our hypothesis. We also link eye tracking observations to model-based choice certainty through parameterization...... of the scale function in a random parameters logit model. We find that choices characterized by more frequent gaze shifting do indeed exhibit a higher degree of error variance, however, this effects is insignificant once response time is controlled for. Overall, findings suggest that eye tracking can provide...

  12. 当代青年价值取向与行为选择的脱节及应对策略%Disjunction between Value Orientation and Behavior Choice of Modern Youngsters and Coping Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the clash and collide of multiple social values and concepts and realistic factors, the rational cognition and behavior choices are disjoined. There are several causes under the appearance of this phenomenon. It is urgent to change the present social situation of disjunction between value orientation and behavior choice. We should seek a way to balance the value orientation and behavior choice of modern youngsters from the following as- pects, including the construction of spiritual support, reinforcement of sense of social responsibility and historical mission, reformation of school education, the balance between the value orientation and behavior choice, encouragement of youngsters to be involved in social practice, the effective dialogue between self and society, keeping the lines of expression of interests open and reinforcement of social status of youngsters.%在社会多元价值观念以及诸多现实因素的冲击和碰撞下,当代青年的理性认知与行为选择出现脱节。这种现象的产生有其深刻的原因,调适当代青年价值取向与行为脱节的现状,是亟待解决的社会问题。我们应当主要从以下几个方面来寻找青年价值取向与行为选择的平衡路径:构筑精神支柱,强化青年的社会责任感和历史使命感;改革学校教育,引导青年价值取向和行为选择平衡;鼓励青年投身社会实践,实现自我与社会的有效对话;畅通青年利益表达的渠道,强化青年的社会地位。

  13. Emotion regulation choice : A conceptual framework and supporting evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Radu, Peter; Blechert, Jens; Gross, James J.


    Choice behavior is considered the fundamental means by which individuals exert control over their environments. One important choice domain that remains virtually unexplored is that of emotion regulation. This is surprising given that healthy adaptation requires flexibly choosing between regulation

  14. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel


    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  15. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel


    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice prob...

  16. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  17. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices. (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A


    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior.

  18. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats (United States)

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly


    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  19. Drivers' Day-to-Day Route Choice Behavior and System Evolution Under Forecast Information%预测信息下的驾驶员逐日路径选择行为与系统演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗序; 关宏志; 严海


    运用微观仿真方法,研究预测信息作用下驾驶员逐日路径选择行为与路网交通流的演化.首先,分析了目前研究存在的不足,针对预测信息情形,设计了一种可行的行程时间预测方法,根据驾驶员逐日路径选择过程,建立了理解行程时间更新模型和路径选择模型.然后,在2条平行路径的简单路网中,仿真了预测信息条件下驾驶员逐日路径选择过程,分析了模型参数取值不同时路径流量随时间演化的波动性和路网系统的效率.结果表明:路网流量的波动性和系统效率都与驾驶员对预测信息的依赖程度和预测模型参数有关,且二者的变化规律相似.最后,以系统最优为目标,给出了预测模型参数的最佳取值范围.%Based on microscopic simulation,drivers' day-to-day route choice behavior and evolution of network flow under forecast information are investigated.First,current reports hardly research drivers' day-to-day route choice under forecast information.A feasible travel time prediction method is designed.A model updating the drivers' perceived travel time and a route choice model are developed according to the drivers' day-to-day route choice process.Then,by establishing a simple road network with two parallel routes,the drivers' day-to-day route choice is simulated under forecast information.The fluctuation of route flow and efficiency of the system are analyzed when the parameters take different values.Results show that the fluctuation of network flow and efficiency of network are both related to drivers' reliance on the information and forecast model's parameters.Moreover,their changes are similar.Finally,the parameter's optimal range is obtained.

  20. Making Healthy Behaviors the Easy Choice for Employees: A Review of the Literature on Environmental and Policy Changes in Worksite Health Promotion (United States)

    Kahn-Marshall, Jennifer L.; Gallant, Mary P.


    As employers look for ways to reduce rising health care costs, worksite health promotion interventions are increasingly being used to improve employee health behaviors. An alternative approach to traditional worksite health promotion programs is the implementation of environmental and/or policy changes to encourage employees to adopt healthier…

  1. ATIS 条件下出发时间选择对交通影响的仿真研究∗%Simulation of the Impact of Departure Time Choice Behavior on Traffic Operation under ATIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 叶晓飞; 陈峻; 孙正安


    为研究实时信息条件下驾驶人的不同出发时间选择行为对城市交通运行的影响,以描述型、定量型、预测型和指示型4种实时信息条件下驾驶人的出发时间选择行为为研究对象,采用 Vissim微观仿真法,对不同出发时间选择行为造成的交通拥堵改善情况进行分析。通过试凑法将交通流量输入实际道路网,实现调查方案中交通运行实时信息内容的定量化表达;通过模拟无信息和4种实时信息条件下驾驶人的不同出发时间选择行为,对比分析道路交通延误,判断交通运行情况。以南京市驾驶人出发时间选择行为为例进行仿真分析,结果表明提供实时信息条件下道路交通延误周期段数减少33%,交通延误时间段明显得以分散,Vissim 仿真能够很好地模拟微观出行行为带来的宏观交通影响。%To study the impacts of choice behavior of departure time on urban traffic operation under real-time pro-vision of traveler information through advanced traveler information systems (ATIS),taking drivers′choice behavior of different departure time as the target under 4 scenarios with different types of real-time information,which is descriptive, quantitative,forecasted and instructional information respectively.Vissim software is used to simulate and analyze the im-provement of traffic operation due to the choice behavior of different departure time.Using the trial and error method, traffic volume is used as an input to the simulation,in orderto ensure that the impact of different provision of real-time in-formation can be quantitatively expressed in the simulation experiments.By simulating choice behavior of different depar-ture time under the scenario without any real-time information and 4 above scenarios,the corresponding traffic delays are compared to evaluate their impact on traffic operation.Nanjing is taken as a case study for the simulation analysis.The re-sults show that the number of

  2. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden


    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  3. Data on Vietnamese patients׳ behavior in using information sources, perceived data sufficiency and (non)optimal choice of health care provider. (United States)

    Vuong, Quan Hoang


    This data article introduces a data set containing 1459 observations that can enable researchers to examine issues related to and perform statistical investigations into questions of relationships between sources of health care information, data sufficiency, trust levels between patients and healthcare experts (and the advice). The data set also records assessment of Vietnamese patients on whether their choice of health care provider is best available (optimal vs. nonoptimal). The data come from a survey in many hospitals in Hanoi and several neighboring provinces/cities in the North of Vietnam, during the last quarter of 2015. Variables that can be useful for future analysis include sources and availability of information, cost, and amount of time for seeking information. The quality of information and health professionals' credibility are critical factors in helping patients choose a health care provider. Mendeley Data, v1; and can enable the modeling after useful discrete data models such as BCL, with one example being provided in this data article.

  4. [Fertility behavior in Quebec, family allowances, and taxes: results and simulations with a discrete choice model for the years 1975-1987]. (United States)

    Lefebvre, P; Brouillette, L; Felteau, C


    "We suppose that women (couples), who are less than 40 years old, are faced with three types of sequential decisions: the fertility decision, the decision relative to the number of children to have and the decision concerning labour force participation.... We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to estimate the responsiveness of the behaviour of 'married' women in Quebec to variations in the expected flow of revenue resulting from changes in the parameters of the personal income tax and in the level of public monetary transfers conditional on the number of children. The model is estimated with micro-data from 9 repeated cross-sections for the years 1975 to 1987 with a full information maximum likelihood method.... This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal and transfer policies in favor of families with dependent children on fertility, [women's] labor force participation and the importance of spending costs for the two levels of government." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. 基于顾客选择行为的客房分配模型研究%Research on room allocation of hotel based on consumer choice behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃朝勇; 李阳; 刘婷婷; 李相勇


    In this paper, allocation of rooms in hotel revenue management was studied based on customer satisfication. A utility function is constructed based on consumer behavior theory. A consumer discrete choice model is then established. A survey is conducted to collect customer preference information. Variable precision rough set method is employed to reduct the factors that influence consumer choice and to calculate the weights of remaining factors. A model of room allocation is established thereafter. Finally, the model is validated by an example, and the results show that the model is effective.%针对酒店收益管理中的客房分配问题,研究顾客满意度对客房资源分配和收益的影响,基于消费者行为理论,构造顾客客房效用函数,建立了消费者离散选择模型,通过调查问卷方式收集顾客偏好信息,利用变精度粗糙集方法对影响消费者选择的因素进行约简并计算权值,在此基础上建立了酒店客房分配模型.最后通过实例对该模型进行验证,计算结果表明了该模型的有效性.

  6. Research on the Influence of Traffic Information on Drivers'Day-to-Day Route Choice Behavior%交通信息对驾驶员逐日路径选择行为影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗序; 关宏志; 严海


    在无信息、发布历史信息和发布预测信息3种信息条件下,分别建立了驾驶员的路径理解行程时间期望值的更新模型.通过建立一个含有2条平行路径的简单路网,对3种交通信息条件下驾驶员逐日路径选择进行了仿真,结果表明:交通信息对驾驶员的作用与驾驶员路径选择的随机程度和对信息依赖程度有关;在3种交通信息条件下,路网均不能达到用户均衡平衡状态;交通信息的预测方法不同,预测信息对驾驶员路径选择的影响有差异.%Firstly, it is assumed that drivers select routes in terms of drivers' perceived travel time on routes. Consequently, the route choice model is developed. Then, updating the drivers routes perceived travel time is modeled respectively in three kinds of traffic information conditions, which are absence of information, releasing historical information and releasing forecast information. Finally, by establishing a simple road network with two parallel paths, the drivers day-to-day route choice is simulated in the three kinds of traffic information conditions. The results show that the impacts of traffic information on drivers are related to the degree of random of driver s route choice and reliance on the information. In addition, the road network can not reach user equilibrium in three kinds of information. Moreover, the drivers' route choice behavior is affected distinctly by different predicted traffic information.

  7. Trip chain pattern choice behavior of commuters based on traffic information%基于交通信息的通勤出行链模式选择行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华歆; 张丽杰


    为探索通过智能手机等通信工具随时随地获得的交通信息对居民通勤出行链模式选择行为的影响,采用RP(Revealed Preference)调查获取出行者的社会经济属性、交通信息使用属性以及通勤出行链模式选择行为数据,用信息查询频率度量出行者的交通信息使用属性,建立估计通勤出行链模式的二项Logit模型。研究发现:(1)交通信息在促进复杂链的生成上发挥着较大的作用;(2)在交通信息的作用下,停车换乘(Park and Ride,P&R)方式比公共交通和小汽车都更能促进复杂链的生成;(3)出行者的性别、婚姻状态、家中是否有12周岁以下儿童等对出行链模式选择不会有显著影响。%To discuss the impact of traffic information that can be obtained anywhere at any time through smart phones on commuters’trip chain pattern choice behavior,RP (Revealed Preference)survey is a-dopted to collect the commuters ’ socio-demographic attributes,traffic information attributes and trip chain pattern choice data. The traffic information attributes are measured by the information query fre-quency. A binary Logit model is built to quantify the commuters’trip chain pattern choice. It shows that:(1 )the traffic information plays a great role in promoting the generation of complex chain;(2 )the travel mode of Park & Ride(P&R)is more likely to promote the generation of complex chain under the traffic information than the public and private transport modes;(3)the commuters’gender,marital sta-tus and whether there are children under the age of 12 in their family don’t have a significant impact on their trip chain pattern choice.

  8. Online Consumptions Prediction via Modeling User Behaviors and Choices%用户在线购买预测:一种基于用户操作序列和选择模型的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪宇; 刘淇; 赵洪科; 徐童; 王怡君; 陈恩红


    电商网站的兴起与用户在线购物习惯的形成,带来了海量的在线消费行为数据。如何从这些行为数据(如点击数据)中建模用户对相似产品的比较和选择过程,进而准确预测用户的兴趣偏好和购买行为,对于提高产品的购买转化率具有重要意义。针对这一问题,提出了基于用户行为序列数据和选择模型的在线购买预测解决方案。具体而言,1)使用行为序列效用函数估计用户在购买周期(session)中的最佳替代商品,然后对购买商品和最佳替代商品建立基于潜在因子的选择模型(latent factor based choice model ,LF‐CM ),从而得到用户的购买偏好,实现对用户购买行为的预测。更进一步,为了充分地利用用户在每个购买周期的所有选择和比较信息,提高预测精度;2)提出了一种可以作用于购买周期内所有商品的排序学习模型(latent factor and sequence based choice model ,LFS‐CM ),它通过融合潜在因子和行为序列的效用函数,提高了购买预测的精度;3)使用大规模真实数据集在分布式环境下进行了实验,并与参照算法进行了对比,证实了所提出的2个方法在用户在线购买预测上的有效性。%The rise of electronic e‐commerce sites and the formation of the user’s online shopping habits ,have brought a huge amount of online consumer behavioral data .Mining users’ preferences from these behavioral logs (e .g .clicking data) and then predicting their final consumption choices are of great importance for improving the conversion rate of e‐commerce . Along this line , this paper proposes a way of combining users’ behavioral data and choice model to predict which item each user will finally consume . Specifically , we first estimate the optimum substitute in each consumption session by a utility function of users’ behavioral sequences ,and then we build a latent

  9. 基于客户选择行为的网络零售配送时隙定价模型%The pricing model of time slot for internet retailing delivery based on customer choice behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淮莉; 卫亚运


    在B2C( Business to Customer)环境下,配送成本是薄利经营的网络零售商们最需要处理的关键问题。以保证网络零售商的收益,最大化利用各配送时隙的能力为目标,对B2 C环境下的在线订单配送时隙的定价进行了研究。根据客户具有在线时隙选择行为随机性的特点,引入效用函数建立基于Logit的选择概率公式。并且考虑各时隙选项的效用,剩余预订时间,以及剩余能力建立了时隙定价模型。最后通过算例验证了模型的有效性,并通过分析说明了定价对客户时隙选择行为的影响。%In B2C, a critical question that an online retailer who operates on very thin margins needs to address is the cost of home delivery. To ensure the benefits of online retailers and maximum utilization of each delivery time slot’s capacity, the pricing model of time slot for online order delivery in B2C was studied. According to the characteristics that customer online choice behavior was random, the utility function was introduced, and the choice formula based on Logit was presented. The pricing model was presented based on the utilities of time slots, booking horizon and availability of time slot. Finally, a set of examples were analyzed to verify the effectiveness of the model, and demonstrated the influence of pricing to the customer choice behavior.

  10. Evaluation and Improvement of Bicycle Travel Environment Based on the Cycling Route Choice Behavior%基于路径选择行为的自行车出行环境评价和改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晖婧; 朱玮; 王德


    提供良好的自行车出行环境是促进自行车出行的一个重要方面。本文通过研究骑行者的路径选择行为,得到人们对环境要素的偏好规律,以此为基础探讨评价和改善自行车出行环境的方法。运用叙述性偏好法(简称SP)对骑行者进行虚拟路径选择调查,应用离散选择模型量化各要素对路径评价的影响程度。结果表明,骑行者最关注的环境要素为自行车道类型、机动车车流量、机非隔离设施、机动车路边停车和街道景观。不同出行目的的人群对出行环境偏好差异显著。基于模型结果,在上海市杨浦区某地区进行规划应用,评价路段出行环境,并以出行环境效用提升最大化目标,提出出行环境改善建议。%Good travel environment for cycling is an important aspect for promoting bicycle use. By studying cyclers’ route choice behavior, this research derives people’s preferences on the environmental factors, which serves as a base for evaluating and improving bicycle travel environment. Stated preference (SP) method is used for the survey of virtual route choice behavior and a discrete choice is formulated to quantify the influence of the relevant factors on the route evaluation. The results indicate that among the relevant factors, lane type, traffic volume, separation facility, on-street parking and streetscape are the most important factors for the cyclists. Estimating the models on different cycler groups by travel purposes reveals significant preference differences. Based on the results, a study area in Yangpu District, Shanghai is chosen for application, where the status quo of the routes’ travel environments evaluated and suggestions of promoting the environment are given in the target of maximizing the travel environment utility.

  11. Behaviorism (United States)

    Moore, J.


    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  12. Sustainable food consumption. Product choice or curtailment? (United States)

    Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit


    Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ.

  13. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten


    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  14. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE


    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  15. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE


    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  16. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective. (United States)

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna


    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  17. The variability of male quality and female mate choice decisions: second-order stochastic dominance and the behavior of searchers under a sequential search strategy. (United States)

    Seubert, Steven M; Wade, Gordon A; Wiegmann, Daniel D


    The strategy employed by a female to sample prospective mates determines the likelihood that a high-quality male is encountered in the search process. In general, the choosiness of females is expected to depend on the variability of quality amongst the males that are sampled. The sequential search strategy is a prominent model of search behavior that involves the use of a threshold criterion to evaluate encountered individuals. In this paper, we show that the stochastic dominance of one distribution of male quality over another at the second order is necessary and sufficient for the optimal threshold criterion to differ under two distributions of male quality when the cost to sample males is held constant and the mean quality of males under each of the distributions is identical. A difference of the variance of male quality between two distributions does not imply that one distribution stochastically dominates the other at the second order and, hence, should not, in general, be used to assess the relative variability of quality amongst prospective mates. The adjustment of the threshold criterion in response to experimental manipulations of the distribution of male quality has been inferred from induced differences of the duration of search or the number of males sampled in the search process. Here we show that such inferences are unjustified. In particular, the difference of the threshold criterion imposed by second-order stochastic dominance does not determine the distribution under which females are expected to sample a larger number of males in the search process.

  18. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian


    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...

  19. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde


    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  20. Optimal Portfolio Choice under Regime-switching and Learning Behaviors%状态变化和学习行为下的最优资产组合选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    针对金融资产收益率序列的非线性动态变化和投资者参数确定的传统假设,考虑状态变化的最优资产组合选择以及参数不确定性下投资者学习行为对最优资产组合选择的影响,运用马尔科夫机制转换模型刻画市场状态变化,采用贝叶斯学习准则描述投资者的学习行为,建立状态变化和投资者学习行为下资产组合选择的离散时间模型,使用期望最大化算法和动态最优化方法给出模型的参数估计,使用蒙特卡罗方法模拟投资者的资产组合选择行为.研究结果表明,中国金融市场存在明显的结构性动态变化,可以将市场分为牛市和熊市.在短期,当市场处于熊市时,投资者将全部财富投资于债券,不投资于股票,但市场处于牛市时股票的投资比重会大大增加;在长期,牛、熊市下股票和债券的权重会稳定在某个水平.市场状态的不确定性造成投资者产生对冲不确定性风险的需求,当市场向好时,投资者学习行为导致其投资于更多的风险资产;当市场状态无法确定时,投资者对股票的投资更为谨慎.考虑市场状态变化的投资组合选择能够提高投资者的总体效用.%Aiming at the nonlinear dynamic change of the financial asset return series and the traditional assumption of investor parameter certainty, the research explores the optimal portfolio choice under regime-switching and the impact of investors' learning behaviors under parameter uncertainty on the optimal portfolio choice. We use Markov regime-switching model to depict changes of market states, adopt the Bayesian learning rule to describe investors' learning behaviors, build the discrete model of optimal portfolio choice under regime-switching and learning behaviors, utilize the expectation maximization algorithm and dynamic optimization method to estimate the model parameters and make use of the Monte Carlo method to simulate investors' portfolio choice

  1. CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia. (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Gehrman, Philip; Barg, Frances K; Xie, Sharon X; Mao, Jun J


    Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. Here we describe the design of a clinical trial that begins to determine how best to personalize the treatment of insomnia for cancer survivors. This project is a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial with a nested qualitative study comparing acupuncture and CBT for insomnia and co-morbid symptoms in a heterogeneous sample of 160 cancer survivors. The primary aim is to determine which treatment is associated with the largest reduction in insomnia severity. The secondary aim is to examine the demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics that predict and/or moderate treatment effect. Patients will receive ten treatments of acupuncture or 7 sessions of CBT over eight weeks and complete validated patient-reported outcome measures of sleep and co-morbid symptoms at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at three-months to assess durability of effect. The results of the proposed study have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes by helping cancer survivors and their caregivers make informed and evidence-based decisions, leading to patient-centered and personalized care for cancer survivors with insomnia.

  2. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss


    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  3. Choice Neighborhood Grantees (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  4. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  5. Making Smart Food Choices (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  6. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter


    applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...

  7. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl


    Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  8. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search. (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran


    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes.

  9. Behavior Choice and Framing Effect of“Protecting Legal Rights by Body”%试论“身体维权”的行为选择与框架效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the social transformation phase,the relief system transplanted from foreign countries does not work well in the Chinese context,and its capacity to resolute social contradictions and conflicts was greatly reduced. When the effective relief through formal institutional arrangements and legal procedures could not be realized,the rational people will choose more “economical”and “efficient”methods such as committing self-mutilation or suicide,i.e.protecting legal rights by body.The choice -making process of people protecting legal rights by body can be positioned as a risk decision-making process in the limited selection of rational man model.The the-ory of framing effects of behavioral economics can help to interpret the decision-making process and behavior mo-tivation of protecting legal rights by body.%社会转型时期,我国的救济体系由于其强烈的制度移植色彩而水土不服,其对社会矛盾与冲突的化解能力大打折扣。在通过正式制度安排与法定程序无法得到有效权利救济的情境下,当事人往往选择诸如自残自杀等更加“经济”和“快捷”的维权方式进行身体维权。这些身体维权者的选择过程可以定位为一项有限理性经济人模式下的风险决策过程,行为经济学的框架效应理论有助于诠释身体维权行为的决策过程和行为动机。

  10. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice. (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer


    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.

  11. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J


    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  12. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  13. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel


    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications...

  14. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU


    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  15. The impact of presentation format on visual attention and choice in discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    experiments across three different presentation formats. Method. Participants’ visual attention was measured by means of eye tracking during a discrete choice experiment for yoghurt products varying on six attributes with two to four levels. The study used a mixed within-between subjects design in which......Objectives. Discrete choice experiments in which participants choose between alternatives differing on attribute levels are an important research method for preference elicitation. In such experiments choice stimuli is typically presented in tables with verbally described attributes, in tables...... with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...

  16. Make Better Food Choices (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  17. Veterans Choice Program (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  18. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten


    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  19. Behavioral economics. (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F


    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  20. Incorporating Context Effects into a Choice Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; Van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.


    The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. Three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. Because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and p

  1. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)


    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with los

  2. Choice-Induced Preference Change in the Free-Choice Paradigm: A Critical Methodological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keise eIzuma


    Full Text Available Choices not only reflect our preference, but they also affect our behavior. The phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been of interest to cognitive dissonance researchers in social psychology, and more recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers in economics and neuroscience. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the free-choice paradigm. However, in 2010, Chen and Risen pointed out a serious methodological flaw in this paradigm, arguing that evidence for choice-induced preference change is still insufficient. Despite the flaw, studies using the traditional free-choice paradigm continue to be published without addressing the criticism. Here, aiming to draw more attention to this issue, we briefly explain the methodological problem, and then describe simple simulation studies that illustrate how the free-choice paradigm produces a systematic pattern of preference change consistent with cognitive dissonance, even without any change in true preference. Our stimulation also shows how a different level of noise in each phase of the free-choice paradigm independently contributes to the magnitude of artificial preference change. Furthermore, we review ways of addressing the critique and provide a meta-analysis to show the effect size of choice-induced preference change after addressing the critique. Finally, we review and discuss, based on the results of the stimulation studies, how the criticism affects our interpretation of past findings generated from the free-choice paradigm. We conclude that the use of the conventional free-choice paradigm should be avoided in future research and the validity of past findings from studies using this paradigm should be empirically re-established.

  3. Estimating hybrid choice models with the new version of Biogeme


    Bierlaire, Michel


    Hybrid choice models integrate many types of discrete choice modeling methods, including latent classes and latent variables, in order to capture concepts such as perceptions, attitudes, preferences, and motivatio (Ben-Akiva et al., 2002). Although they provide an excellent framework to capture complex behavior patterns, their use in applications remains rare in the literature due to the difficulty of estimating the models. In this talk, we provide a short introduction to hybrid choice model...

  4. Habitat Choice and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Webster


    Full Text Available The role of habitat choice in reproductive isolation and ecological speciation has often been overlooked, despite acknowledgement of its ability to facilitate local adaptation. It can form part of the speciation process through various evolutionary mechanisms, yet where habitat choice has been included in models of ecological speciation little thought has been given to these underlying mechanisms. Here, we propose and describe three independent criteria underlying ten different evolutionary scenarios in which habitat choice may promote or maintain local adaptation. The scenarios are the result of all possible combinations of the independent criteria, providing a conceptual framework in which to discuss examples which illustrate each scenario. These examples show that the different roles of habitat choice in ecological speciation have rarely been effectively distinguished. Making such distinctions is an important challenge for the future, allowing better experimental design, stronger inferences and more meaningful comparisons among systems. We show some of the practical difficulties involved by reviewing the current evidence for the role of habitat choice in local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis, a model system for the study of ecological speciation, assessing whether any of the proposed scenarios can be reliably distinguished, given current research.

  5. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay


    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  6. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.


    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...

  7. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling (United States)

    Butler, Leon Harvey


    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  8. Coping with Career Indecision: Differences between Four Career Choice Types (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Hak


    This study examined the applicability of Gianakos' [1999. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 244-258] typology of career choice--stable, conventional, multiple-trial and unstable--to emotional coping with career indecision. Three hundred-twenty (Men = 203, Women = 117) Korean undergraduates were classified into Gianakos' four career choice types.…

  9. The Effect of Conditioned Reinforcement Rate on Choice: A Review (United States)

    Fantino, Edmund; Romanowich, Paul


    We review the nature of conditioned reinforcement, including evidence that conditioned reinforcers maintain choice behavior in concurrent schedules and that they elevate responding in the terminal links of concurrent-chains schedules. A question has resurfaced recently: Do theories of choice in concurrent-chains schedules need to include a term…

  10. Choosing health, constrained choices. (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan


    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  11. I can't wait: Methods for measuring and moderating individual differences in impulsive choice. (United States)

    Peterson, Jennifer R; Hill, Catherine C; Marshall, Andrew T; Stuebing, Sarah L; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly


    Impulsive choice behavior occurs when individuals make choices without regard for future consequences. This behavior is often maladaptive and is a common symptom in many disorders, including drug abuse, compulsive gambling, and obesity. Several proposed mechanisms may influence impulsive choice behavior. These mechanisms provide a variety of pathways that may provide the basis for individual differences that are often evident when measuring choice behavior. This review provides an overview of these different pathways to impulsive choice, and the behavioral intervention strategies being developed to moderate impulsive choice. Because of the compelling link between impulsive choice behavior and the near-epidemic pervasiveness of obesity in the United States, we focus on the relationship between impulsive choice behavior and obesity as a test case for application of the multiple pathways approach. Choosing immediate gratification over healthier long term food choices is a contributing factor to the obesity crisis. Behavioral interventions can lead to more self controlled choices in a rat pre-clinical model, suggesting a possible gateway for translation to human populations. Designing and implementing effective impulsive choice interventions is crucial to improving the overall health and well-being of impulsive individuals.

  12. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija


    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  13. Pricing effects on food choices. (United States)

    French, Simone A


    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.

  14. Understanding Predisposition in College Choice: Toward an Integrated Model of College Choice and Theory of Reasoned Action (United States)

    Pitre, Paul E.; Johnson, Todd E.; Pitre, Charisse Cowan


    This article seeks to improve traditional models of college choice that draw from recruitment and enrollment management paradigms. In adopting a consumer approach to college choice, this article seeks to build upon consumer-related research, which centers on behavior and reasoning. More specifically, this article seeks to move inquiry beyond the…

  15. 松墨天牛对雪松精油及其单烯的选择行为反应%Choice Behavior of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus to Cedrus deodara Essential Oil and Monoene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔飞; 陈京元; 夏剑萍; 桂连友


    The choice behavior of Monochamus alternatus to Cedrus deodara essential oil and monoene was determined by Y olfactometry to probe the effect of host volatile on host choice of Monochamus alternatus adults and to provide the scientific basis for development and utilization of attractants. The results showed that the attracting action of 1/200 Cedrus deodara essential oil was the highest among all treatments, the essential oil of Chinese red pine, simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil (a-pinene .' βpinene: limonene .' camphene: mycrene=50: 40:10: 1: 3) and odor source A (α-pinene: β-pinene=1: 1) had the obvious attracting action to female Monochamus alternatus adults, the simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil had better attracting action to female Monochamus alternatus adults compared with odor source A, the attracting ability of odor source A was significantly higher than a-pinene and there was no significant difference in attracting action among Chinese red pine essential oil + Cedrus deodara essential oil, Cedrus deodara essential oil + simulative of Cedrus deodara essential oil and odor source A+odor source B(α-pinene: β-pinene=10:1).%为探讨寄主挥发物在成虫寄主选择中的作用,为开发和利用引诱剂提供依据,利用Y型嗅觉仪,测试了松墨天牛(Monochamus alternatus Hope)对雪松精油及其单烯的选择行为.结果表明:200倍的雪松精油有明显引诱作用,引诱效果好于50倍和1000倍;马尾松精油、雪松精油模拟物(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯:柠檬烯:莰烯:月桂烯=50:40:10:1:3)、味源物a(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯=1:1)对松墨天牛雌成虫具有明显引诱作用;雪松精油模拟物对松墨天牛雌成虫的引诱能力大于味源物a,味源物a对松墨天牛雌成虫引诱能力显著高于α-蒎烯;3组对比处理,马尾松精油-雪松精油、雪松精油-雪松精油模拟物和味源物a-味源物b(α-蒎烯:β-蒎烯=10:1)之间对松墨天牛雌成虫的引诱作用无明显差异.

  16. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons. (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernádi, István; Schultz, Wolfram


    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain's reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons while monkeys chose between saving liquid reward with interest and spending the accumulated reward. In addition to known value-related responses, we found that activity in a group of amygdala neurons predicted the monkeys' upcoming save-spend choices with an average accuracy of 78%. This choice-predictive activity occurred early in trials, even before information about specific actions associated with save-spend choices was available. For a substantial number of neurons, choice-differential activity was specific for free, internally generated economic choices and not observed in a control task involving forced imperative choices. A subgroup of choice-predictive neurons did not show relationships to value, movement direction, or visual stimulus features. Choice-predictive activity in some amygdala neurons was preceded by transient periods of value coding, suggesting value-to-choice transitions and resembling decision processes in other brain systems. These findings suggest that the amygdala might play an active role in economic decisions. Current views of amygdala function should be extended to incorporate a role in decision-making beyond valuation.

  17. The Choice for Learning (United States)

    Bennett, Scott


    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  18. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.


    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  19. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.


    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  20. Choices, Not Circumstances. (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    Following a brief account of the circumstances of migrant workers and the status of migrant education in the United States, this pamphlet describes how the National Education Association (NEA) has impacted and will continue to impact the process of providing educational choices for migrant students. The NEA has consistently testified before…

  1. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel


    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  2. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann


    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  3. A Common Mechanism Underlying Food Choice and Social Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Krajbich


    Full Text Available People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others' benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making.

  4. A Common Mechanism Underlying Food Choice and Social Decisions. (United States)

    Krajbich, Ian; Hare, Todd; Bartling, Björn; Morishima, Yosuke; Fehr, Ernst


    People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others' benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making.

  5. A Neurocomputational Model of Altruistic Choice and Its Implications. (United States)

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Bushong, Benjamin; Rangel, Antonio


    We propose a neurocomputational model of altruistic choice and test it using behavioral and fMRI data from a task in which subjects make choices between real monetary prizes for themselves and another. We show that a multi-attribute drift-diffusion model, in which choice results from accumulation of a relative value signal that linearly weights payoffs for self and other, captures key patterns of choice, reaction time, and neural response in ventral striatum, temporoparietal junction, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. The model generates several novel insights into the nature of altruism. It explains when and why generous choices are slower or faster than selfish choices, and why they produce greater response in TPJ and vmPFC, without invoking competition between automatic and deliberative processes or reward value for generosity. It also predicts that when one's own payoffs are valued more than others', some generous acts may reflect mistakes rather than genuinely pro-social preferences.

  6. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer


    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  7. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry


    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  8. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  9. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice. (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz


    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  10. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks. (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle


    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  11. How Happiness Affects Choice


    Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar D. Kamvar


    Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers' pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers' choices reflect those differences. In some cases, happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases, happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is determined by one's temporal focus, such that individuals tend to choose more exciting options when focused on ...

  12. Mate choice on leks. (United States)

    Balmford, A


    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  13. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server


    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  14. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik


    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  15. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin


    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  16. Choice Task Complexity and Decision Strategy Selection


    Swait, Joffre; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.


    The psychology, the marketing consumer behavior and, to a much smaller extent, the economics literature have long reported evidence that decision makers utilize different decision strategies depending upon many factors (person-specific, task-specific, etc.). Such observations have generally failed to affect the specification of choice models in commercial practice and academic research, both of which still tend to assume an utility maximizing, full information, indefatigable decision maker. T...

  17. Occupational Choice and Student Values (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.


    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  18. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille


    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  19. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.


    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  20. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund


    this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider....... However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...

  1. Overconfidence and Career Choice. (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian


    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  2. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine


    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider...

  3. Melioration as Rational Choice: Sequential Decision Making in Uncertain Environments (United States)

    Sims, Chris R.; Neth, Hansjorg; Jacobs, Robert A.; Gray, Wayne D.


    Melioration--defined as choosing a lesser, local gain over a greater longer term gain--is a behavioral tendency that people and pigeons share. As such, the empirical occurrence of meliorating behavior has frequently been interpreted as evidence that the mechanisms of human choice violate the norms of economic rationality. In some environments, the…

  4. Managerial Ethics in Educational Administration: The Rational Choice Approach. (United States)

    Crowson, Robert L.


    Study of 16 principals in Chicago, Illinois, reveals that in the investigation of ethical-choice behavior, the corporate-incentives model proves to be inadequate as an explanation of principality. What is referred to as counter-bureaucratic behavior is a survival mechanism for beleaguered principals--a balance weight to seemingly anti-educational…

  5. Healthy choices in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McCormick


    Full Text Available Research has shown that framing messages in terms of benefits or detriments can have a substantial influence on intended behavior. For prevention behaviors, positively framed messages have been found to elicit stronger behavioral intentions than negatively framed messages. Research also seems to indicate that certain contextual features contribute to the persuasiveness of a message. In the present research we test how message framing, contextually presented affect and the number of argument factors interact and contribute to the persuasiveness of a health related message. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that, in our prevention focused task, increasing the number of arguments increased behavioral intentions (BI for positively framed messages when subjects were cued, via negative affect, to be attentive to the message. This resulted in a significant framing effect for messages with the maximum number of arguments and a negative background picture. An account of contextual influence in persuasive health messages is discussed.

  6. Chance, choice, and the future of reproduction. (United States)

    Miller, W B


    The evolution of reproduction has been characterized by the development of complex biological and behavioral mechanisms that serve to regulate chance events. Human reproduction has been characterized by the increasing importance of individual choice. Some contemporary manifestations of this broad trend are the high incidence of contraceptive and "proceptive" behavior among couples in Western, industrialized nations. The former behavior willingly attempts to prevent conception while the latter actively attempts to induce conception (such as concentrating intercourse around the time of ovulation). Both patterns of behavior indicate that a choice is being made. A 3-year study of 1000 women revealed proceptive behavior as the most important factor predicting occurance of conception among married couples in the United States. The general strategeis people follow while making childbearing decisions: termination, sequencing, and pre-planning form a continuum following the historical trend toward greater reproductive control. In the terminating strategy, a couple makes no decision about child bearing until the number of children they have become enough or too much. In the sequencing strategy, decisions to have children are made 1 child at a time until a satisfactory limit is reached. In the pre-planning strategy, a plan is worked out ahead of time and is subsequently carried out. As new reproductive technology is introduced and as progressive change is made in society's reproductive related values and beliefs, choice will continue to dominate chance as the highly likely trend for the future of reproduction. Surrogate maternity is just 1 example of this trend. However, these new options, which culminate in the theory and practice of "progensis," (still in its infancy), as well as offering a rich opportunity, can also incur psychological burdens on a couple. Thus, as with any kind of freedom, these developments will require care, caution and responsibility.

  7. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman


    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  8. Choice in the repeated-gambles experiment. (United States)

    Silberberg, A; Murray, P; Christensen, J; Asano, T


    Humans chose 10 times between two roulette wheels projected on a monitor. During the first trial, the left wheel provided a hypothetical $100 with p = .94, and the right wheel provided $250 with p = .39. A titration procedure adjusted the probability of a $250 win across trials to permit estimation of an indifference point between alternatives. In Experiment 1, intertrial-interval duration (25 vs. 90 s) and whether sessions began with an intertrial interval or a trial were varied in a 2 x 2 design in this risky-choice procedure. Risk aversion (preference for the $100 wheel) increased with intertrial interval but was unaffected by whether sessions began with a trial or an intertrial interval. In Experiment 2, all sessions began with a trial, and subjects were informed that the experiment ended after 10 trials. Intertrial-interval duration had no effect on choice. In Experiment 3, intertrial-interval duration and whether subjects were given $10 or $10,000 before beginning were varied among four groups in a 2 x 2 design. In all other ways, the procedure was unchanged from Experiment 2. Intertrial interval had no effect on choice, but the $10,000 groups showed less risk aversion than the $10 groups. These results can be explained more readily in terms of Kahneman and Tversky's (1984) notion of "framing of the prospect" than in terms of Rachlin, Logue, Gibbon, and Frankel's (1986) behavioral account of risky choice.

  9. Consumer satisfaction with primary care provider choice and associated trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkrishnan Rajesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of managed care, characterized by limited provider choice, is believed to undermine trust. Provider choice has been identified as strongly associated with physician trust. Stakeholders in a competitive healthcare market have competing agendas related to choice. The purpose of this study is to analyze variables associated with consumer's satisfaction that they have enough choice when selecting their primary care provider (PCP, and to analyze the importance of these variables on provider trust. Methods A 1999 randomized national cross-sectional telephone survey conducted of United States residential households, who had a telephone, had seen a medical professional at least twice in the past two years, and aged ≥ 20 years was selected for secondary data analyses. Among 1,117 households interviewed, 564 were selected as the final sample. Subjects responded to a core set of questions related to provider trust, and a subset of questions related to trust in the insurer. A previously developed conceptual framework was adopted. Linear and logistic regressions were performed based on this framework. Results Results affirmed 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' was significantly (p Conclusion This study confirmed the association of 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' with provider trust. Results affirmed 'enough PCP choice' was a strong predictor of provider trust. 'Second opinion on PCP' may indicate distrust in the provider. Data such as 'trust in providers in general' and 'the role of provider performance information' in choice, though import in PCP choice, were not available for analysis and should be explored in future studies. Results have implications for rethinking the relationships among consumer choice, consumer behaviors in making trade-offs in PCP choice, and the role of healthcare experiences in 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' or 'provider trust.'

  10. Axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Herrlich, Horst


    AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom, shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that: Disasters happen without AC: Many fundamental mathematical results fail (being equivalent in ZF to AC or to some weak form of AC). Disasters happen with AC: Many undesirable mathematical monsters are being created (e.g., non measurable sets and undeterminate games). Some beautiful mathematical theorems hold only if AC is replaced by some alternative axiom, contradicting AC (e.g., by AD, the axiom of determinateness). Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.

  11. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone


    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  12. Are ADHD Symptoms Associated with Delay Aversion or Choice Impulsivity? A General Population Study (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna


    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with choice impulsivity is examined. Findings were found to indicate that primary constitutional processes that underlie choice impulsivity and their potential role in behavioral inattention are important. It was also found that behavioral and brain processes that underlie choice…

  13. The impact of mobile payment on payment choice


    Trütsch, Tobias


    This paper investigates the effect of mobile payment on the adoption and use of traditional payment instruments such as cash, checks, and credit, debit and prepaid cards at the point of sale (POS). Data are from a 2012 representative survey on consumer payment choice in the United States. Using discrete-choice random utility models to simulate consumer behavior, the estimation provides two major findings. First, mobile payment does not replace physical payment cards, but is likely to substitu...

  14. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.


    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  15. Connecting cognition and consumer choice. (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J


    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  16. Career choices of lesbian women. (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jukka


    I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.

  17. Teen Choice of Inwood House. (United States)


    The Teen Choice Program in New York City was described and the outcome of the program evaluation was reported. Teen Choice is a school based sex education and pregnancy prevention program run by trained social workers. The aim is to provide information, counseling, and referrals on a range of issues relating to sexuality. The program is elective and meets during a regularly scheduled gym period for one or two semesters from the 7th to the 12th grades. There are single sex and coeducational classes. The program aim is to change attitudes toward birth control, to change risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected coitus, to offer accurate knowledge about contraception, and to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Abstinence is encouraged, but for those sexually experienced, there is attention to responsible and reliable use of contraception. Program methods include small group discussion, individual counseling, and classroom discussion. Topics of discussion range from sexuality issues and birth control to values clarification and peer pressure. Small groups may discuss human sexual growth, relationship formation, family life, responsibility to self and others, consequences of teenage pregnancy, and social and cultural peer pressures. Girls are encouraged to assume more assertive and less reactive roles. Communication skills are reinforced in respectful exchanges of personal views and questions. Differentiating facts and issues is a primary focus. A question about when an individual first had sex would be redirected to asking about the appropriate age to first have sex. Respect for privacy helps to build students confidence in the program. A longitudinal evaluation conducted between 1984 and 1987 found that the program was effective in reaching and recruiting high risk adolescents. Students left the program with increased knowledge about contraception, more mature and responsible attitudes about the use of birth control, and reduced frequency of unprotected coitus. Boys were

  18. Meta-analysis of choice set generation effects on route choice model estimates and predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    are applied for model estimation and results are compared to the ‘true model estimates’. Last, predictions from the simulation of models estimated with objective choice sets are compared to the ‘postulated predicted routes’. A meta-analytical approach allows synthesizing the effect of judgments...... for the implementation of path generation techniques, since a large number of models generate a large amount of results that are otherwise difficult to summarize and to process. Meta-analysis estimates suggest that transport modelers should implement stochastic path generation techniques with average variance of its......Large scale applications of behaviorally realistic transport models pose several challenges to transport modelers on both the demand and the supply sides. On the supply side, path-based solutions to the user assignment equilibrium problem help modelers in enhancing the route choice behavior...

  19. Age-based differences in strategy use in choice tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell A. Worthy


    Full Text Available We incorporated behavioral and computational modeling techniques to examine age-based differences in strategy use in two four-choice decision-making tasks. Healthy older (aged 60-82 years and younger adults (aged 18-23 years performed one of two decision-making tasks that differed in the degree to which rewards for each option depended on the choices made on previous trials. In the choice-independent task rewards for each choice were not affected by the sequence of previous choices that had been made. In contrast, in the choice-dependent task rewards for each option were based on how often each option had been chosen in the past. We compared the fits of a model that assumes the use of a win-stay-lose-shift (WSLS heuristic to make decisions, to the fits of a reinforcement-learning (RL model that compared expected reward values for each option to make decisions. Younger adults were best fit by the RL model, while older adults showed significantly more evidence of being best fit by the WSLS heuristic model. This led older adults to perform worse than younger adults in the choice-independent task, but better in the choice-dependent task. These results coincide with previous work in our labs that also found better performance for older adults in choice-dependent tasks (Worthy et al., 2011, and the present results suggest that qualitative age-based differences in the strategies used in choice tasks may underlie older adults’ advantage in choice-dependent tasks. We discuss possible factors behind these differences such as neurobiological changes associated with aging, and increased use of heuristics by older adults.

  20. 基于顾客选择行为的租赁车辆存量控制研究%Study on Inventory Control for Rental Cars Based on Customer Choice Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚璪; 李鹏飞; 陈坚; 郝小妮


    Taking revenue management theory and Logit model as starting points, the vehicle inventory level of car rental sites was studied. Customers’ preference and utility on consumption was obtained by a survey. Vari-able precision rough set method was used to simplify the factors that influence the choice of consumers on vehi-cle, then judgment matrix was established to calculate the weights of the remaining factors. Finally the probabili-ty of customer choice of rental cars was calculated, and protection level of car rental in leasing sites was then gained. This study showed that there were similar protection level results compared with the expected marginal revenue, which proved the efficiency of the proposed model, for it only needs to use the data sets of customer choice of rental cars to calibrate parameters without other prior information and probability distribution of cus-tomer choice. It finds the model can improve inventory control accuracy of car rental companies and realize flex-ible control.%以收益管理和Logit模型为出发点,研究汽车租赁站点多车型的库存保护水平。通过调查获得顾客消费行为的偏好和效用,运用变精度粗糙集方法对影响顾客选择行为的因素进行简约并构造判断矩阵计算权重,从而计算出顾客对租赁车辆选择的概率和租赁车辆存量的保护水平。计算结果与期望边际收益为控制策略确定的保护水平基本相近,验证了模型的有效性。模型只需利用顾客对租赁车辆选择数据集合来标定参数,而不需要其他的先验信息和顾客选择的概率分布表达式,同时可以提高汽车租赁公司存量控制精度,实现柔性控制。

  1. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  2. Deafness, culture, and choice. (United States)

    Levy, N


    The recent controversy surrounding the choice, by a deaf lesbian couple, to have children who were themselves deaf, has focused attention on the ethics of choosing (apparent) disabilities for children. Deaf activists argue that deafness is not a disability, but instead the constitutive condition of access to a rich culture. Being deaf carries disadvantages with it, but these are a product of discrimination, not of the condition itself. It is, however, implausible to think that all the disadvantages which stem from deafness are social in origin. Moreover, though it may be true that being deaf carries with it the important compensation of access to a rich culture, no physical condition is required for such access. Cultures are simply the kind of things to which we are born, and therefore to which the children of deaf parents, hearing or deaf, normally belong. Thus these parents are making a mistake in choosing deafness for their children. Given their own experience of isolation as children, however, it is a mistake which is understandable, and our reaction to them ought to be compassion, not condemnation.

  3. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting


    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  4. Sensitivity to Measurement Errors in Studies on Prosocial Choice using a Two-Choice Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikorska Julia


    Full Text Available Research on prosocial behaviors in primates often relies on the two-choice paradigm. Motoric lateralization is a surprisingly big problem in this field of research research, as it may influence which lever will ultimately be chosen by the actor. The results of lateralization studies on primates do not form a clear picture of that phenomenon, which makes it difficult to address the problem during research. The authors discuss possible ways of managing this confounding variable.

  5. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.


    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  6. College Choice in the Philippines (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy


    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  7. Educational Choice. A Background Paper. (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  8. School Choice in South Africa (United States)

    Maile, Simeon


    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  9. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.


    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  10. Economic rationality in choosing between short-term bad-health choices and longer-term good-health choices. (United States)

    Campbell, David


    Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  11. Economic Rationality in Choosing between Short-Term Bad-Health Choices and Longer-Term Good-Health Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell


    Full Text Available Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  12. Arbitration between controlled and impulsive choices. (United States)

    Economides, M; Guitart-Masip, M; Kurth-Nelson, Z; Dolan, R J


    The impulse to act for immediate reward often conflicts with more deliberate evaluations that support long-term benefit. The neural architecture that negotiates this conflict remains unclear. One account proposes a single neural circuit that evaluates both immediate and delayed outcomes, while another outlines separate impulsive and patient systems that compete for behavioral control. Here we designed a task in which a complex payout structure divorces the immediate value of acting from the overall long-term value, within the same outcome modality. Using model-based fMRI in humans, we demonstrate separate neural representations of immediate and long-term values, with the former tracked in the anterior caudate (AC) and the latter in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Crucially, when subjects' choices were compatible with long-run consequences, value signals in AC were down-weighted and those in vmPFC were enhanced, while the opposite occurred when choice was impulsive. Thus, our data implicate a trade-off in value representation between AC and vmPFC as underlying controlled versus impulsive choice.

  13. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices. (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B


    Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees' performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain.

  14. City Women Confront New Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THE Chinese economic reform has pushed society into a period of transformation. City women—especially career women—once again are confronted with new choices. Compared to Nora’s choice to leave or stay at home, as depicted in the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, the Chinese career women’s choice is obviously more complicated. It involves social roles and the expectations society has about their gender. Several women doctoral students with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences recently talked about this issue.

  15. Choice in experiential learning: True preferences or experimental artifacts? (United States)

    Ashby, Nathaniel J S; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Yechiam, Eldad


    The rate of selecting different options in the decisions-from-feedback paradigm is commonly used to measure preferences resulting from experiential learning. While convergence to a single option increases with experience, some variance in choice remains even when options are static and offer fixed rewards. Employing a decisions-from-feedback paradigm followed by a policy-setting task, we examined whether the observed variance in choice is driven by factors related to the paradigm itself: Continued exploration (e.g., believing options are non-stationary) or exploitation of perceived outcome patterns (i.e., a belief that sequential choices are not independent). Across two studies, participants showed variance in their choices, which was related (i.e., proportional) to the policies they set. In addition, in Study 2, participants' reported under-confidence was associated with the amount of choice variance in later choices and policies. These results suggest that variance in choice is better explained by participants lacking confidence in knowing which option is better, rather than methodological artifacts (i.e., exploration or failures to recognize outcome independence). As such, the current studies provide evidence for the decisions-from-feedback paradigm's validity as a behavioral research method for assessing learned preferences.

  16. No effects of psychosocial stress on intertemporal choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haushofer

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices - involving decisions which trade off instant and delayed outcomes - are often made under stress. It remains unknown, however, whether and how stress affects intertemporal choice. We subjected 142 healthy male subjects to a laboratory stress or control protocol, and asked them to make a series of intertemporal choices either directly after stress, or 20 minutes later (resulting in four experimental groups. Based on theory and evidence from behavioral economics and cellular neuroscience, we predicted a bidirectional effect of stress on intertemporal choice, with increases in impatience or present bias immediately after stress, but decreases in present bias or impatience when subjects are tested 20 minutes later. However, our results show no effects of stress on intertemporal choice at either time point, and individual differences in stress reactivity (changes in stress hormone levels over time are not related to individual differences in intertemporal choice. Together, we did not find support for the hypothesis that psychosocial laboratory stressors affect intertemporal choice.

  17. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice. (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F


    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  18. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B


    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. Recent work stimulated by the discovery of "zero-determinant" strategies has rapidly expanded our ability to analyze such interactions. This body of work has primarily focused on games in which players face a simple binary choice, to "cooperate" or "defect". Real individuals, however, often exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in finite populations. We show that, in public goods games, some two-choice strategies can nonetheless resist invasion by all possible multi-choice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. We also show that access to greater behavioral choice results in more "rugged " fitness landscapes, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment, such that choice f...

  19. Influence of transportation policy on the multi-mode transportation choice behavior between megacity and satellite city and the system benefit estimation%交通政策对主卫城间多模式交通选择行为的影响及系统效益测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马书红; 孙言涵


    交通政策和管理措施的实施会对主卫城间多模式复合交通出行行为选择方式和系统整体效益产生影响,需要科学评估其影响程度,为城间交通模式的协调配置提供参考。在对城间交通模式及其出行行为特征进行分析的基础上,将基于随机效用理论的MNL模型和基于Logsun 差异的效益测算方法相结合,针对城间4种典型的交通模式,通过构建基准情景和多种可能情景,测算了不同交通政策实施对城间交通出行选择的影响和出行者效益。结果表明,实施公交优先(减少乘客出行时间)对城间交通出行选择行为的影响较大,并具有较明显的系统经济效益,在协调城间交通模式配置时可优先考虑。%Transport policy and management measures have an influence on muti-mode transporta-tion choice behavior between megacity and satellite city and the system’s whole benefits , which makes it necessary to make a scientific evaluation of the influence and provide a reference for the coordinated con-figuration of the intercity transportation mode .Based on the analysis of intercity transportation mode and the characteristics of travel behavior , MNL on the basis of random utility theory and benefit estimation method on the basis of Logsum differences were combined together .According to the four typical intercity traffic patterns, the influence of the different transportation policies on the intercity travel choice and travelers'benefits were estimated by constructing a baseline scenario and a variety of possible scenarios . The results show that the implementation of bus priority policy ( to reduce passenger travel time ) has a significant impact on intercity travelers'behavior choice and achieves obvious system economic benefits , which should be given priority in the coordination of intercity transportation mode .

  20. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun


    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  1. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities. (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J


    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare.

  2. How do stereotypes influence choice? (United States)

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie


    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice.

  3. Diet Choices to Prevent Cancer (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  4. The Neuroscience of Consumer Choice (United States)

    Hsu, Ming; Yoon, Carolyn


    We review progress and challenges relating to scientific and applied goals of the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. Scientifically, substantial progress has been made in understanding the neurobiology of choice processes. Further advances, however, require researchers to begin clarifying the set of developmental and cognitive processes that shape and constrain choices. First, despite the centrality of preferences in theories of consumer choice, we still know little about where preferences come from and the underlying developmental processes. Second, the role of attention and memory processes in consumer choice remains poorly understood, despite importance ascribed to them in interpreting data from the field. The applied goal of consumer neuroscience concerns our ability to translate this understanding to augment prediction at the population level. Although the use of neuroscientific data for market-level predictions remains speculative, there is growing evidence of superiority in specific cases over existing market research techniques. PMID:26665152

  5. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  6. Safer choices: reducing teen pregnancy, HIV, and STDs.


    Coyle, K; Basen-Engquist, K.; Kirby, D.; Parcel, G.; Banspach, S.; COLLINS, J.; Baumler, E.; Carvajal, S.; Harrist, R.


    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of Safer Choices, a theory-based, multi-component educational program designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase protective behaviors in preventing HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among high school students. METHODS: The study used a randomized controlled trial involving 20 high schools in California and Texas. A cohort of 3869 ninth-grade students was tracked for 31 months from fall semester 1993 (baseline) to spring seme...

  7. The Challenge and Path Choice of Higher Vocational Students'Professional Ethics Behavior Education%高职学生职业道德行为养成教育实施路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Higher vocational students' professional ethics is in good condition, but there is still existing some problems of students' professional ethics with ambiguous and inaccurate understanding. The nurtu-rance education still attaches great importance to the low degree of professional moral behavior and the re-lated problems as poor teaching effect. Through setting up the ‘people-oriented’ education idea; colleges are reforming the curriculum teaching of professional ethics behavior, constructing the highly efficient workforce; Reforming the evaluation methods; Strengthening the practice teaching of professional ethics be-havior to develop harmonious campus culture, doing a good job of higher vocational students' education of professional ethics behavior, so as to improve the quality of personnel training.%高职学生总体职业道德状况良好,但仍存在部分学生对职业道德的认识模糊、重视不够及教育教学效果不佳等问题。学校应本着“以人为本”的教育理念,通过建设精干高效的工作队伍,改革职业道德行为养成教育的教学,加强职业道德行为养成教育的实践,改进评价办法,建设和谐的校园文化等途径,做好高职学生职业道德行为养成教育工作。

  8. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.


    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling inv

  9. Personality and Values as Predictors of Medical Specialty Choice (United States)

    Taber, Brian J.; Hartung, Paul J.; Borges, Nicole J.


    Research rarely considers the combined influence of personality traits and values in predicting behavioral outcomes. We aimed to advance a germinal line of inquiry that addresses this gap by separately and simultaneously examining personality traits and physician work values to predict medical specialty choice. First-year medical students (125…

  10. Effects of web experience on consumer choice: a multicultural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Gomez, Miguel A.


    Purpose – This paper seeks to analyze the buying behavior of internet users in two European countries with different cultural backgrounds, Spain and The Netherlands, assessing the influence of online experience factors on the choice of an internet vendor. It also aims to identify and compare the inf

  11. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Piersma, Theunis


    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which t

  12. Student Perceptions of Instructional Choices in Middle School Physical Education (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia


    Purpose: Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education. Methods: Participants consisted of 246…

  13. Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.


    Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patte

  14. Free-Choice Learning at a Metropolitan Zoo. (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Tofield, Sara; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contextualized within the zoo's environmental enrichment program - an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behavior for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate…

  15. Irrational Diversification; An Examination of Individual Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    textabstractWe study individual portfolio choice in a laboratory experiment and find strong evidence for heuristic behavior. The subjects tend to focus on the marginal distribution of an asset, while largely ignoring its diversification benefits. They follow a conditional 1/n diversification heurist

  16. Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game (United States)

    Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.

  17. Safer choices: reducing teen pregnancy, HIV, and STDs. (United States)

    Coyle, K.; Basen-Engquist, K.; Kirby, D.; Parcel, G.; Banspach, S.; Collins, J.; Baumler, E.; Carvajal, S.; Harrist, R.


    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of Safer Choices, a theory-based, multi-component educational program designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors and increase protective behaviors in preventing HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among high school students. METHODS: The study used a randomized controlled trial involving 20 high schools in California and Texas. A cohort of 3869 ninth-grade students was tracked for 31 months from fall semester 1993 (baseline) to spring semester 1996 (31-month follow-up). Data were collected using self-report surveys administered by trained data collectors. Response rate at 31-month follow-up was 79%. RESULTS: Safer Choices had its greatest effect on measures involving condom use. The program reduced the frequency of intercourse without a condom during the three months prior to the survey, reduced the number of sexual partners with whom students had intercourse without a condom, and increased use of condoms and other protection against pregnancy at last intercourse. Safer Choices also improved 7 of 13 psychosocial variables, many related to condom use, but did not have a significant effect upon rates of sexual initiation. CONCLUSIONS: The Safer Choices program was effective in reducing important risk behaviors for HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy and in enhancing most psychosocial determinants of such behavior. PMID:11889277

  18. Choice in Quail Neonates: The Origins of Generalized Matching (United States)

    Schneider, Susan M.; Lickliter, Robert


    Although newborns have surprised scientists with their learning skills, proficiency on concurrent schedules of reinforcement requires (in effect) the ability to integrate and compare behavior-consequence relations over time. Can very young animals obey the quantitative relation that applies to such repeated choices, the generalized matching law?…

  19. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.


    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  20. Research of consumer behavior for food safety attributes in the view of choice experiment%基于选择实验法的消费者食品安全属性偏好行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常向阳; 胡浩


    基于选择实验法(Choice Experiment),运用随机效用参数模型(RPL)和潜在分类模型(LCM)研究消费者对食品安全属性的行为偏好.研究发现,消费者对品牌、产品安全、营养成份、口碑和距保质期时间这四个食品安全属性表现出较强的偏好,价格属性则并不显著(p值为0.582),但与消费者的偏好存在反向关系;不同消费者之间对食品安全属性的偏好存在异质性;出于“健康动机”的考虑,消费者愿意为食品安全属性及其“衍生属性”(品牌、口碑等)承担相应的支付溢价;国内频发的乳品安全事故,降低了消费者对国内奶粉企业和政府及第三方认证的信任水平,这种信任反差导致消费者在购买婴儿奶粉时更偏好于价格更高的国外品牌.

  1. 大学生旅游目的地选择与消费行为调查--以安徽省 J学院为例%Investigation of Tourism Destination Choice and Consumption Behavior of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    各种研究和调查显示,大学生旅游积极性相当高,市场潜力巨大。研究对大学生旅游目的地选择和消费行为进行调查,分析大学生旅游目的地选择的影响因素和消费行为特点,根据结论给出开发大学生旅游市场的策略和建议。%Various studies and surveys show that college students have a high enthusiasm for traveling and the market potential of college students is larger .The paper conducts an investigation of the tourism destination selection and the consumer behavior of undergraduate students.It analyzed the factors that influenced the college students'tourism destination selection and consumer be-havior characteristics .Some strategies and suggestions are given to develop the tourism market of university students based on the survey.

  2. The Attraction Effect Modulates Reward Prediction Errors and Intertemporal Choices. (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Hotaling, Jared M; Rieskamp, Jörg


    Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle. We first demonstrate that intertemporal decision making is prone to the attraction effect in humans. In an independent group of participants, we then investigated how this affects the neural and behavioral valuation of outcomes using a novel intertemporal lottery task and fMRI. Participants' behavioral responses (i.e., satisfaction ratings) were modulated systematically by the attraction effect and this modulation was correlated across participants with the respective change of the RPE signal in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, we show that, because exponential and hyperbolic discounting models are unable to account for the attraction effect, recently proposed sequential sampling models might be more appropriate to describe intertemporal choices. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the attraction effect modulates subjective valuation even in the absence of choice. The findings also challenge the prospect of using neuroscientific methods to measure utility in a context-free manner and have important implications for theories of reinforcement learning and delay discounting.

  3. Common neural correlates of intertemporal choices and intelligence in adolescents. (United States)

    Ripke, Stephan; Hübner, Thomas; Mennigen, Eva; Müller, Kathrin U; Li, Shu-Chen; Smolka, Michael N


    Converging behavioral evidence indicates that temporal discounting, measured by intertemporal choice tasks, is inversely related to intelligence. At the neural level, the parieto-frontal network is pivotal for complex, higher-order cognitive processes. Relatedly, underrecruitment of the pFC during a working memory task has been found to be associated with steeper temporal discounting. Furthermore, this network has also been shown to be related to the consistency of intertemporal choices. Here we report an fMRI study that directly investigated the association of neural correlates of intertemporal choice behavior with intelligence in an adolescent sample (n = 206; age 13.7-15.5 years). After identifying brain regions where the BOLD response during intertemporal choice was correlated with individual differences in intelligence, we further tested whether BOLD responses in these areas would mediate the associations between intelligence, the discounting rate, and choice consistency. We found positive correlations between BOLD response in a value-independent decision network (i.e., dorsolateral pFC, precuneus, and occipital areas) and intelligence. Furthermore, BOLD response in a value-dependent decision network (i.e., perigenual ACC, inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial pFC, ventral striatum) was positively correlated with intelligence. The mediation analysis revealed that BOLD responses in the value-independent network mediated the association between intelligence and choice consistency, whereas BOLD responses in the value-dependent network mediated the association between intelligence and the discounting rate. In summary, our findings provide evidence for common neural correlates of intertemporal choice and intelligence, possibly linked by valuation as well as executive functions.

  4. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy


    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  5. Appearance matters: neural correlates of food choice and packaging aesthetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Van der Laan

    Full Text Available Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several regions, among which the bilateral striatum, were more strongly activated in response to preferred food packages. Food choices could be predicted with an accuracy of up to 61.2% by activation patterns in brain regions previously found to be involved in healthy food choices (superior frontal gyrus and visual processing (middle occipital gyrus. In conclusion, this study shows that mass-univariate analysis can detect small package-induced differences in product preference and that MVPA can successfully predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices from functional MRI data.

  6. Appearance matters: neural correlates of food choice and packaging aesthetics. (United States)

    Van der Laan, Laura N; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M


    Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several regions, among which the bilateral striatum, were more strongly activated in response to preferred food packages. Food choices could be predicted with an accuracy of up to 61.2% by activation patterns in brain regions previously found to be involved in healthy food choices (superior frontal gyrus) and visual processing (middle occipital gyrus). In conclusion, this study shows that mass-univariate analysis can detect small package-induced differences in product preference and that MVPA can successfully predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices from functional MRI data.

  7. I choose, therefore I like: preference for faces induced by arbitrary choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo Nakamura

    Full Text Available Behavioral choice alters one's preference rather than simply reflecting it. This effect to fit preferences with past choice, is known as "choice-induced preference change." After making a choice between two equally attractive options, one tends to rate the chosen option better than they initially did and/or the unchosen option worse. The present study examined how behavioral choice changes subsequent preference, using facial images for the choice options as well as blind choice techniques. Participants rated their facial preference for each face, and chose between two equally preferred faces and subsequently rated their facial preference. Results from four experiments demonstrated that randomly chosen faces were more preferred only after participants were required to choose "a preferred face," (in Experiment 1 but not "an unpreferred face," (in Experiment 2 or "a rounder face" (in Experiment 3. Further, preference change was still observed after participants were informed that choices were actually random (in Experiment 4. Our findings provide new and important implications characterizing the conditions under which random choice changes preference, and show that people are tempted to make a biased evaluation even after they know that they did not make the choice for themselves.

  8. The Effect of a Recessionary Economy on Food Choice: Implications for Nutrition Education (United States)

    Miller, Carla K.; Branscum, Paul


    Objective: To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. Design: A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. Setting and Participants: A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the…

  9. Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Sheu, Hung-Bin


    We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). "Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in…

  10. Cooperation in an Infinite-Choice Continuous-Time Prisoner's Dilemma. (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas H.; Tutzauer, Frank; Young, Melissa J.; Rosenfeld, Heather L.


    The Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game demonstrates how cooperative or competitive choices influence decision making between two people or groups. A study of 48 college students tested an infinite-choice, continuous-time version of the PD. Results indicated that oscillatory cooperation was the predominant over-time behavior, that players matched…

  11. Dopamine and the Neural "Now": Essay and Review of Addiction: A Disorder of Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, M.D.


    Rather than view addiction as a disease, Heyman sees it as a choice-one that works like other choices, whereby immediate rewards outshine long-term gains. He rejects neuroscientific explanations of addictive behavior, because he believes they cast it as involuntary or disease-like. I argue that the

  12. Scaling laws and universality in the choice of election candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, M C; Moro, M V; Picoli, S; Mendes, R S


    Nowadays there is an increasing interest of physicists in finding regularities related to social phenomena. This interest is clearly motivated by applications that a statistical mechanical description of the human behavior may have in our society. By using this framework, we address this work to cover an open question related to elections: the choice of elections candidates (candidature process). Our analysis reveals that, apart from the social motivations, this system displays features of traditional out-of-equilibrium physical phenomena such as scale-free statistics and universality. Basically, we found a non-linear (power law) mean correspondence between the number of candidates and the size of the electorate (number of voters), and also that this choice has a multiplicative underlying process (lognormal behavior). The universality of our findings is supported by data from 16 elections from 5 countries. In addition, we show that aspects of network scale-free can be connected to this universal behavior.

  13. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.


    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are expec

  14. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.


    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  15. The Determinants of Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A. H.; Belot, Michele


    , we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social...... pressures, cognitive-affective factors (perceived stress, health attitude, anxiety and depression), and familial, genetic and epigenetic influences on personality characteristics. In addition, our choices are influenced by an array of physiological mechanisms, including signals to the brain from...

  16. Flooring choices for newborn ICUs. (United States)

    White, R D


    Floors are a major element of newborn intensive care unit (NICU) construction. They provide visual cues, sound control, and with certain materials, some degree of physical comfort for workers. Flooring materials may entail a significant cost for installation and upkeep and can have substantial ecological impact, both in the choice of the flooring itself, as well as the substances used to clean it. In this article the important aspects to consider for each factor are explored and recommendations are offered for appropriate choices in various NICU areas.

  17. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice. (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas


    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years.

  18. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  19. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  20. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON


    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  1. The Multiple-Choice Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek


    Original title: De meerkeuzemaatschappij. There are many areas of life where people have more choice than ever before. The leisure industry bombards consumers with a flood of goods and services; the family and the Church have lost their dominant position in the structuring of people's lives; there

  2. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction...

  3. Educational Choice and Educational Space (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia


    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…

  4. Young Adults' Choices for 2008 (United States)

    Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 2008


    This article presents annotations of 30 trade books on the 2008 list of Young Adults' Choices that are the result of voting by students in five different regions of the United States. Trade books (books other than textbooks) published in 2006 were submitted by more than 50 publishers. Each book had to have at least two positive reviews from…

  5. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria


    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value...

  6. Process algebra with partial choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.


    The objective of this paper is to bridge the gap between ACP and TCSP. To this end, ACP is extended with two non-deterministic choice operators in a setting of bisimulation semantics. With these operators, we can express safety properties of systems without the use of silent steps, and we can verify

  7. Students' Choices and Moral Growth (United States)

    Goodman, Joan F.


    Can schools encourage children to become independent moral decision-makers, maintaining controlled environments suitable to instructing large numbers of children? Two opposing responses are reviewed: one holds that the road to morality is through discipline and obedience, the other through children's experimentation and choice-making.…

  8. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.


    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive tha

  9. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.


    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice op

  10. Differentiated Bayesian Conjoint Choice Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sándor (Zsolt); M. Wedel (Michel)


    textabstractPrevious conjoint choice design construction procedures have produced a single design that is administered to all subjects. This paper proposes to construct a limited set of different designs. The designs are constructed in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account prior uncertainty about

  11. Patients who make terrible therapeutic choices. (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J


    The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.

  12. The Empirical Research on the Behavior Choice of Labor Export Subject from the Perspective of Game Theory%博弈视角的劳务输出主体行为选择实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵建平; 汪潇


    The contradictory between employment difficulty of northwest migrant workers and labor shortage of southeast enter-prises hinders the development of provincial economy and urbanization in China significantly. There are urgent social problems of being addressed in terms of labor docking,promoting rural residents for migrant workers,urbanizing migrant workers and la-bor shortage. In this paper,with investigating and analyzing labor condition of Dingxi city in Gansu province, subject behavior in labor export process is studied with the Game Theory. In order to promote the free flow and effective utilization of labor re-source, enough corporation cost is expected to be afforded. Specifically,more income is paid to worker by enterprise, greater probability for worker to be a migrant. Moreover,there may exist repeated game behavior for labor intermediary due to their relatively invariance. Nash equilibrium solution could be gotten that cooperation would be continued with intermediary integrity as well. Government need to make effort concerning docking between labor supply and demand ,guarantee of labor rights and improvement of service for the labor economy development.%“西北农民工就业难”和“东南企业招工难”的两难现象对我国地方经济的发展和城镇化的步伐产生了较大阻碍。实现劳动力对接,推动农村人口外出务工,进一步促进农民工“市民化”,解决企业用工难,是亟需解决的社会问题。本文以典型的劳务输出集中地---甘肃定西市劳动力输出为实证调查对象,利用博弈论方法实证研究了其劳务输出过程中主体的行为,认为要促进劳动力输出地劳动力资源的自由流动和有效利用:企业和劳动者本人要付出足够的合作成本,且企业支付给劳动者的收入越高,劳动者外出务工的概率越大;同时存在劳务中介时,由于中介对象的相对不变性,劳务中介在博弈中可能存在重复

  13. The Effects of Gasoline Price and Tax Policy on the Micro-choice Behavior in China's Automobile Market%汽油价格、税收政策与乘用车市场的微观选择行为——基于需求侧、供给侧和节能减排效应估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立中; 李郁芳


    Based on the random coefficient discrete choice model and China's car market aggregate data, this paper analyze the demand and supply of car market, and the effect of gasoline price and purchase revenue policy on micro-choice behavior with simulation. The%本文运用中国乘用车市场的加总数据和随机系数离散选择(BLP)等模型。在对基本型乘用车(轿车)市场进行需求估计和供给分析的基础上。实证模拟测算了汽油价格和车辆购置税政策对微观个体选择行为的可能影响.并对乘用车市场节能减排效应进行了估计。结果发现:①在需求估计中,平均而言,乘用车价格上升1万元/辆(2006年10月价格),市场份额将下降0.19%;每公里费用上升1元(2006年10月价格),市场份额将下降34.16%。②供给分析表明,排量越大,价格越高的车型。价格成本标高程度相对越小,政策作用窗口越大。③节能

  14. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo


    ,641 public transport users in the Greater Copenhagen Area.A two-stage approach consisting of choice set generation and route choice model estimation allowed uncovering the preferences of the users of this multimodal large-scale public transport network. The results illustrate the rates of substitution...... of their inherent complexity and challenges. In particular, choice set generation and modeling route choice behavior while accounting for similarity across alternatives and heterogeneity across travelers are non-trivial challenges. This paper tackles these challenges by focusing on the revealed preferences of 5...

  15. 初始条件对驾驶员逐日路径选择行为和网络交通流演化的影响%Influence of Initial Conditions on Drivers’Day-to-Day Route Choice Behavior and Network Traffic flow Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗序; 关宏志; 严海


    从查阅到的文献可以看到,在驾驶员逐日路径选择行为及网络交通流演化的研究中,均假定驾驶员第1天对路径的理解行程时间相同,也即初始条件中没有考虑驾驶员的个体差异性.首先,对初始条件和驾驶员逐日路径选择过程建模,在2条平行路径的简单路网中,运用Agent仿真方法模拟了不同初始条件下驾驶员逐日路径选择过程.结果表明:路网达到平衡所需的时间与驾驶员对历史信息的依赖程度显著相关,而与第1天驾驶员对路径行程时间理解的相关差异性不显著;路网平衡和用户平衡的差别与两者均显著相关.虽然在不同情况下路网均能够达到近似的用户平衡状态,但是平衡时驾驶员对2条路径的理解行程时间存在较大差异.%From previous studies of drivers' day-to-day route choice behavior and network traffic flow evolution, it is assumed that the first day's perceived travel time on route is the same. In other words, the diversity of drivers is not taken into account in the initial conditions. Firstly, initial condition and drivers' day-to-day route choice process are modeled. Then, drivers' day-to-day route choice process in a simple road network with two parallel routes is simulated by Agent simulation method. The results show that the time required when network reaches equilibrium is significantly associated with drivers' reliance on the historical information but is not significantly associated with the differences of drivers' perceived travel time on routes on the first day. However, the difference between network equilibrium and user equilibrium is both significantly associated with the two factors. Moreover, although network equilibrium under different conditions is similar to user equilibrium, drivers' perceived travel time on the two routes is quite different when network reaches equilibrium.

  16. Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet


    Last month I was given the opportunity to return to China, to teach in ShenZhen. For a while, I suffered the agony of indecision (优柔寡断) as I weighed upthe pros and cons. I made a list of reasons to go and reasons to stay, and askedfriends and family for their advice. Finally, I found a quiet moment and heard the

  17. Do as we wish: Parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos


    The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners.

  18. Accounting information quality, governance efficiency and capital investment choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbu Zhai


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between accounting information quality and capital investment choice from the perspective of accounting information’s governance function. Measuring capital investment choice as the correlation of growth of operating income between company and industry, this paper investigates whether and to what extent companies focus on their core business. The results show that the higher the quality of publicly listed firms’ accounting information, the stronger that correlation, particularly when the corporate governance of the listed company is poor. The findings imply that accounting information quality can thus optimize the capital investment choice, which complements and strengthens the functioning of corporate governance. Hence, regulators should pay more attention to the market’s power to supervise the behavior of listed firms, improve the governance functions of accounting information and increase the efficiency of capital allocation.

  19. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran. (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan


    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers.

  20. William Styron's Sophie's Choice : Choice, Guilt, and Fate


    田中, 久男


    Sophie's Choice (1979), William Styron's autobiographical novel, deals, like his other works, with the nature of evil in all mankind: "our proclivity toward hatred and toward massive domination," the grievous proclivity which was embodied on the largest scale in the despotic institutions of slavery and the concentration camps. This paper, though analyzing the obsessions of three main characters, as well as exploring the issue of the form of the first-person narration employed in this book, is...

  1. The Experientiality of Sustainability: Living with Our Choices (United States)

    Pritchard, M.


    In an age when the escalating impact of human activity on the global environment has begun to threaten the long-term survival of humanity, increasing focus is being brought to bear on the scientific, social, economic, political, and cultural ramifications of the various courses of action open to individuals and societies across the globe. The intentional and intelligent modification of human behavior to balance environmental impact with human wellbeing is seen as the key to entering what Jeffrey Sachs has called the 'Age of Sustainable Development'. There are mechanisms, legal, socio-cultural, religious, economic, and technological that may ameliorate to varying degrees the environmental impact of human activity. These mechanisms are explored at length in the literature and assessed by their capacity to encourage or compel compliant behavior. They rely heavily on individual and collective choices based on rational self-interest, which is in turn informed by knowledge. The role of education in facilitating sustainable human activity is a key feature of many contributions to the literature. The alarming shortcoming in these discussions is the absence of an effective approach to learned sustainability that may achieve the necessary changes in human behavior and particularly adult choices with respect to daily acts of consumption. Sustainable practices and choices are most effectively produced through immersion in experientially based learning programs aimed at elementary and secondary school students. The experience of sustainable living during the critical phase of personal identity formation is the key to shaping behavior, and not just imparting knowledge. This AGU education session, ED041: Teaching Sustainability and Human Impact through Collaborative Teaching Methods, explores the principles on which such experiential immersion learning contributes to genuine sustainable behaviors and choices through targeted, intelligently designed residential programs.

  2. Neural bases of human mate choice: multiple value dimensions, sex difference, and self-assessment system. (United States)

    Funayama, Risa; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta


    Mate choice is an example of sophisticated daily decision making supported by multiple componential processes. In mate-choice literature, different characteristics of the value dimensions, including the sex difference in the value dimensions, and the involvement of self-assessment due to the mutual nature of the choice, have been suggested. We examined whether the brain-activation pattern during virtual mate choice would be congruent with these characteristics in terms of stimulus selectivity and activated brain regions. In measuring brain activity, young men and women were shown two pictures of either faces or behaviors, and they indicated which person they would choose either as a spouse or as a friend. Activation selective to spouse choice was observed face-selectively in men's amygdala and behavior-selectively in women's motor system. During both partner-choice conditions, behavior-selective activation was observed in the temporoparietal regions. Taking the available knowledge of these regions into account, these results are congruent with the suggested characteristics of value dimensions for physical attractiveness, parenting resources, and beneficial personality traits for a long-lasting relationship, respectively. The medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices were nonselectively activated during the partner choices, suggesting the involvement of a self-assessment process. The results thus provide neuroscientific support for the multi-component mate-choice mechanism.

  3. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada


    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  4. Patterns of Reinforcement and the Essential Value of Brands: II. Evaluation of a Model of Consumer Choice (United States)

    Yan, Ji; Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.


    We employ a behavioral-economic equation put forward by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) to explain human consumption behavior among substitutable food brands, applying a consumer-choice model--the behavioral perspective model (BPM; Foxall, 1990/2004, 2005). In this study, we apply the behavioral-economic equation to human economic consumption data. We…

  5. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species. (United States)

    Ihle, Malika; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang


    Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs.

  6. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers


    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  7. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries. (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique


    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn.

  8. Business Choice of Enterprises' Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QinZheng; ZouJianjun; ChenShou


    The strategy of diversification has become an important approach to enterprise development A successful diversification strategy depends mainly on the correct business choice. Before choosing a new business, we must identify the core competeneies of the enterprise and research the attraction and criticai success factors of the target business. Then we should make sure whether the core competencies match the critical success factors or not.The new business should be useful for cuitivating sustainable competitive advantage.

  9. Emotional arousal predicts intertemporal choice. (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Johnson, Eli; Phelps, Elizabeth A


    People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it. Here the authors use an objective measure of arousal-pupil dilation-to investigate if emotional arousal mediates the influence of delayed reward concreteness on choice. They recorded pupil dilation responses while participants made choices between immediate and delayed rewards. They manipulated concreteness through time interval framing: delayed rewards were presented either with the date on which they would be received (e.g., "$30, May 3"; DATE condition, more concrete) or in terms of delay to receipt (e.g., "$30, 7 days; DAYS condition, less concrete). Contrary to prior work, participants were not overall more patient in the DATE condition. However, there was individual variability in response to time framing, and this variability was predicted by differences in pupil dilation between conditions. Emotional arousal increased as the subjective value of delayed rewards increased, and predicted choice of the delayed reward on each trial. This study advances our understanding of the role of emotion in temporal discounting. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L


    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  11. Understanding patients’ decision-making strategies in hospital choice: Literature review and a call for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Fischer


    Full Text Available Insights from psychology and cognitive science have, as yet, barely entered hospital choice research. This conceptual article closes this gap by reviewing and conceptually framing the current literature on hospital choice and patient information behavior and by discussing which tools are needed to advance scientific methodology in the study of patient decision-making strategies in hospital choice. Specifically, we make a call for more experimental research in hospital choice in order to complement existing theories, methods, and tools. This article introduces computerized process-tracing tools in hospital choice research, and also outlines a hands-on example, to provide a basis for future research.

  12. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Coyle

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  13. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.


    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  14. The Relation between Sociometric Choices and Group Cohesion (United States)


    criteria covering performance, attitudinal, and behavioral outcomes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS cohesion, sociometry , peer bonding, leader bonding, unit performance...CHOICES AND GROUP COHESION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Research Requirement: Because of the difficulties and limitations of using sociometry , previous research has...and Dissemination of Findings: Sociometry can be used as a method for estimating the quality of group dynamics in a squad or a platoon. Generally, the

  15. —Temporal Stochastic Inflation in Choice-Based Research



    We examine the specification and interpretation of discrete-choice models used in behavioral theory testing, with a focus on separating “coefficient scale” from “error scale,” particularly over time. Numerous issues raised in the thoughtful commentaries of Louviere and Swait [Louviere, J., J. Swait. 2010. Discussion of “Alleviating the constant stochastic variance assumption in decision research: Theory, measurement, and experimental test.” (1) 18–22] and Hutchinson, Zauberman, and Meyer (HZM...

  16. Accounting for choice of measurement scale in extreme value modeling


    Wadsworth, J. L.; Tawn, J. A.; Jonathan, P.


    We investigate the effect that the choice of measurement scale has upon inference and extrapolation in extreme value analysis. Separate analyses of variables from a single process on scales which are linked by a nonlinear transformation may lead to discrepant conclusions concerning the tail behavior of the process. We propose the use of a Box--Cox power transformation incorporated as part of the inference procedure to account parametrically for the uncertainty surrounding the scale of extrapo...

  17. 公众的政府服务渠道选择行为--基于网络渠道与传统渠道的对比分析%The Citizens'Public Service Channel Choice Behavior:Based on Comparative Analysis of the Network Channel and Traditional Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the web channel ,the telephone channel and the field channel which are the main public service channels , the study propose four kinds of influential factors for the citizens'public service channel choice behavior .Based on citizen questionnaire and using the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM ) ,the result finds that some main factors that have influence on citizen choose public service channels such as matching of channel and service ,ease of use for channel ,usefulness of channel , the experience of use channel and special situation of the need .Knowledge about behavioral motives is more important for the government to plan service channel reasonably and deliver public service effectively , based that some strategies are proposed .%借鉴国外的公众公共服务渠道选择影响因素,提出四类影响因素,面向网络渠道和现场、电话为主的传统渠道,构建公众选择行为模型,并通过市民问卷调查,采用结构方程模型进行实证分析。结果表明,公众的政务服务渠道的选择行为主要受到渠道与服务的匹配性、渠道的易用性、渠道的有用性、个人的使用经历以及需求的情景特殊性的影响,据此提出有利于政府合理规划网络和传统服务渠道的建议。

  18. The Environment Makes a Difference: The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes as Precursors in Different Food Choice Tasks (United States)

    König, Laura M.; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta


    Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory ‘one is sufficient’-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior. PMID:27621719

  19. Making Healthy Choices at Fast Food Restaurants (United States)

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  20. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group (United States)

    ... choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get enough protein from this group as ... selected are adequate. Protein sources from the Protein Foods Group for vegetarians include eggs (for ovo-vegetarians), beans ...

  1. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication (United States)

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin


    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  2. On Becoming an Institution of First Choice. (United States)

    Gelin, Frank; Jardine, Doug

    An overview is provided of the marketing and recruitment efforts designed to make Capilano College (CC) an "institution of first choice" in the minds of its community and prospective students. The presentation by Doug Jardine defines what CC means by and hopes to accomplish by becoming a "first choice" institution, indicating that a "first choice"…

  3. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey (United States)

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla


    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  4. Model choice in nonnested families

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Basilio de Bragança


    This book discusses the problem of model choice when the statistical models are separate, also called nonnested. Chapter 1 provides an introduction, motivating examples and a general overview of the problem. Chapter 2 presents the classical or frequentist approach to the problem as well as several alternative procedures and their properties. Chapter 3 explores the Bayesian approach, the limitations of the classical Bayes factors and the proposed alternative Bayes factors to overcome these limitations. It also discusses a significance Bayesian procedure. Lastly, Chapter 4 examines the pure likelihood approach. Various real-data examples and computer simulations are provided throughout the text.

  5. The PXIE LEBT Design Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab


    Typical front-ends of modern light-ion high-intensity accelerators typically consist of an ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a Radiofrequency Quadrupole and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT), which is followed by the main linac accelerating structures. Over the years, many LEBTs have been designed, constructed and operated very successfully. In this paper, we present the guiding principles and compromises that lead to the design choices of the PXIE LEBT, including the rationale for a beam line that allows un-neutralized transport over a significant portion of the LEBT whether the beam is pulsed or DC.

  6. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig


    Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal query....

  7. Relative gains, losses, and reference points in probabilistic choice in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Marshall

    Full Text Available Theoretical reference points have been proposed to differentiate probabilistic gains from probabilistic losses in humans, but such a phenomenon in non-human animals has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Three experiments evaluated the effect of reward magnitude on probabilistic choice in rats, seeking to determine reference point use by examining the effect of previous outcome magnitude(s on subsequent choice behavior. Rats were trained to choose between an outcome that always delivered reward (low-uncertainty choice and one that probabilistically delivered reward (high-uncertainty. The probability of high-uncertainty outcome receipt and the magnitudes of low-uncertainty and high-uncertainty outcomes were manipulated within and between experiments. Both the low- and high-uncertainty outcomes involved variable reward magnitudes, so that either a smaller or larger magnitude was probabilistically delivered, as well as reward omission following high-uncertainty choices. In Experiments 1 and 2, the between groups factor was the magnitude of the high-uncertainty-smaller (H-S and high-uncertainty-larger (H-L outcome, respectively. The H-S magnitude manipulation differentiated the groups, while the H-L magnitude manipulation did not. Experiment 3 showed that manipulating the probability of differential losses as well as the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice produced systematic effects on choice behavior. The results suggest that the reference point for probabilistic gains and losses was the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice. Current theories of probabilistic choice behavior have difficulty accounting for the present results, so an integrated theoretical framework is proposed. Overall, the present results have implications for understanding individual differences and corresponding underlying mechanisms of probabilistic choice behavior.

  8. Implications of Motivating Operations for the Functional Analysis of Consumer Choice (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Foxall, Gordon R.; Arntzen, Erik


    The present article introduces the concept of Motivating Operation (MO) to the context of consumer choice and discusses the function of the concept of MO in the context of the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Including MO as part of the consumer behavior setting leads to a more comprehensive analysis and, as a result, improves our understanding…

  9. Social determinants of food choice. (United States)

    Shepherd, R


    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour.

  10. Preservation of What? Ideological Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Lundmark


    Full Text Available The origins of these thoughts lie in situations involving choices – but also limited choices. DAUM, Dialekt-, ortnamns- och folkminnesarkivet, the Archive for Dialects, Placenames and Folklore, in Umeå, Sweden, is responsible for the documentation of a huge territory, which we do not regret. Nor do we regret the fact that the archive also grasps a wide range of subjects. We have, however, very few staff, and a feeling of insufficiency is not unusual. One way to conquer this feeling is offered by the ongoing discourse that takes place at our establishment – a discourse that is immaterial yet constitutes a solid ground from which to take bearings in our work with such a vast volume of cultural heritage. My first meeting with DAUM as an employee was full of inspiring brainstorming with the former head Jan Nilsson – an open-minded discussion which still continues with Ola Wennstedt, the present director of the archive. In the 1990s a reorganisation of the establishment (at the national level has been taking place and we have had to analyse the whole organisation and DAUM’s place therein. There were policy questions and economic cutbacks, and priorities had to be established in different spheres of activity. The discourse increased in strength and below I will give some examples of the different kind of questions that I am concerned with as an archivist at DAUM.

  11. Baseline impulsive choice predicts the effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on impulsivity in rats. (United States)

    Kayir, Hakan; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina


    Impulsive choice, a form of impulsivity, is associated with tobacco smoking in humans. Trait impulsivity may be a vulnerability factor for smoking, or smoking may lead to impulsive behaviors. We investigated the effects of 14-day nicotine exposure (6.32mg/kg/day base, subcutaneous minipumps) and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal on impulsive choice in low impulsive (LI) and high impulsive (HI) rats. Impulsive choice was measured in the delayed reward task in which rats choose between a small immediate reward and a large delayed reward. HI and LI rats were selected from the highest and lowest quartiles of the group before exposure to nicotine. In non-selected rats, nicotine or nicotine withdrawal had no effect on impulsive choice. In LI rats, chronic nicotine exposure decreased preference for the large reward with larger effects at longer delays, indicating increased impulsive choice. Impulsive choices for the smaller immediate rewards continued to increase during nicotine withdrawal in LI rats. In HI rats, nicotine exposure and nicotine withdrawal had no effect on impulsive choice, although there was a tendency for decreased preference for the large reward at short delays. These results indicate that nicotine- and nicotine withdrawal-induced increases in impulsive choice depend on trait impulsivity with more pronounced increases in impulsive choice in LI compared to HI subjects. Increased impulsivity during nicotine exposure may strengthen the addictive properties of nicotine and contribute to compulsive nicotine use.

  12. A link based network route choice model with unrestricted choice set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Frejinger, Emma; Karlstrom, Anders


    This paper considers the path choice problem, formulating and discussing an econometric random utility model for the choice of path in a network with no restriction on the choice set. Starting from a dynamic specification of link choices we show that it is equivalent to a static model...... additive. The model is applied to data recording path choices in a network with more than 3000 nodes and 7000 links....

  13. Behavioral Econometrics for Psychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    for a wide range of behavioral models of choice under uncertainty. We explain the components of this methodology, and illustrate with applications to major models from psychology. The goal is to build, and traverse, a constructive bridge between the modeling insights of psychology and the statistical tools...

  14. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling. (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond


    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  15. Delayed-choice gedanken experiments and their realizations (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Zeilinger, Anton


    The wave-particle duality dates back to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect through quanta of light and de Broglie's hypothesis of matter waves. Quantum mechanics uses an abstract description for the behavior of physical systems such as photons, electrons, or atoms. Whether quantum predictions for single systems in an interferometric experiment allow an intuitive understanding in terms of the particle or wave picture depends on the specific configuration which is being used. In principle, this leaves open the possibility that quantum systems always behave either definitely as a particle or definitely as a wave in every experimental run by a priori adapting to the specific experimental situation. This is precisely what is tried to be excluded by delayed-choice experiments, in which the observer chooses to reveal the particle or wave character of a quantum system—or even a continuous transformation between the two—at a late stage of the experiment. The history of delayed-choice gedanken experiments, which can be traced back to the early days of quantum mechanics, is reviewed. Their experimental realizations, in particular, Wheeler's delayed choice in interferometric setups as well as delayed-choice quantum erasure and entanglement swapping are discussed. The latter is particularly interesting, because it elevates the wave-particle duality of a single quantum system to an entanglement-separability duality of multiple systems.

  16. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG


    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  17. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens


    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  18. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard


    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  19. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  20. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions. (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin


    The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.

  1. Power and choice: their dynamic interplay in quenching the thirst for personal control. (United States)

    Inesi, M Ena; Botti, Simona; Dubois, David; Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D


    Power and choice represent two fundamental forces that govern human behavior. Scholars have largely treated power as an interpersonal construct involving control over other individuals, whereas choice has largely been treated as an intrapersonal construct that concerns the ability to select a preferred course of action. Although these constructs have historically been studied separately, we propose that they share a common foundation--that both are rooted in an individual's sense of personal control. Because of this common underlying basis, we hypothesized that power and choice are substitutable; that is, we predicted that the absence of one would increase the desire for the other, which, when acquired, would serve to satisfy the broader need for control. We also predicted that choice and power would exhibit a threshold effect, such that once one source of control had been provided (e.g., power), the addition of the other (e.g., choice) would yield diminishing returns. Six experiments provide evidence supporting these predictions.

  2. A quantitative theory of human color choices. (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L; Jameson, Kimberly A


    The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all) of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors), 79% (across red colors), and 66% (across blue colors). We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors), 90% (reds), and 87% (blues). We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to different

  3. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles. (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J


    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles.

  4. Sexual display and mate choice in an energetically costly environment. (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Wong, Bob B M; Brooks, Robert


    Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior of male and female guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We found that male guppies performed fewer sexual displays and became less choosy, with respect to female size, in the presence of a water current compared to those tested in still water. In contrast to males, female responsive to male displays did not differ between the water current treatments and females exhibited no mate preferences with respect to male size or coloration in either treatment. The results of our study underscore the importance of considering the simultaneous effects of environmental costs on the sexual behaviors of both sexes.

  5. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja


    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  6. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake


    Bevelander, K.E.


    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform to others. The research described in this dissertation aims to advance the understanding of the impact of one’s consumption behavior on young people’s food choice and intake. Social modeling studi...

  7. Choice modulates the neural dynamics of prediction error processing during rewarded learning. (United States)

    Peterson, David A; Lotz, Daniel T; Halgren, Eric; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Poizner, Howard


    Our ability to selectively engage with our environment enables us to guide our learning and to take advantage of its benefits. When facing multiple possible actions, our choices are a critical aspect of learning. In the case of learning from rewarding feedback, there has been substantial theoretical and empirical progress in elucidating the associated behavioral and neural processes, predominantly in terms of a reward prediction error, a measure of the discrepancy between actual versus expected reward. Nevertheless, the distinct influence of choice on prediction error processing and its neural dynamics remains relatively unexplored. In this study we used a novel paradigm to determine how choice influences prediction error processing and to examine whether there are correspondingly distinct neural dynamics. We recorded scalp electroencephalogram while healthy adults were administered a rewarded learning task in which choice trials were intermingled with control trials involving the same stimuli, motor responses, and probabilistic rewards. We used a temporal difference learning model of subjects' trial-by-trial choices to infer subjects' image valuations and corresponding prediction errors. As expected, choices were associated with lower overall prediction error magnitudes, most notably over the course of learning the stimulus-reward contingencies. Choices also induced a higher-amplitude relative positivity in the frontocentral event-related potential about 200 ms after reward signal onset that was negatively correlated with the differential effect of choice on the prediction error. Thus choice influences the neural dynamics associated with how reward signals are processed during learning. Behavioral, computational, and neurobiological models of rewarded learning should therefore accommodate a distinct influence for choice during rewarded learning.

  8. Behavioural social choice: a status report. (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R


    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  9. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture. (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J


    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  10. Is it patience or motivation? On motivational confounds in intertemporal choice tasks. (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio; Addessi, Elsa; Sbaffi, Agnese; Tasselli, Maria Isabella; Delfino, Alexia


    Intertemporal choices create a tension between amount maximization, which would favor the larger and later option (LL), and delay minimization, which would promote the smaller and sooner reward (SS). Two common interpretations of intertemporal choice behavior are discussed: looking at LL responses as indicative of self-control, and using intertemporal choices to assess delay aversion. We argue that both interpretations need to take into account motivational confounds, in order to be warranted by data. In intertemporal choices with prepotent, salient stimuli (e.g., food amounts, typically used with nonhuman primates), LL responses could also be indicative of failed inhibition of a "go for more" impulsive response-the opposite of self-control. Similarly, intertemporal choices can be used to measure delay aversion only with respect to the subject's baseline motivation to maximize the reinforcer in question, and this baseline is not always assessed in current experimental protocols. This concern is especially crucial in comparing intertemporal choices across different groups or manipulation. We focus in particular on the effects of reward types on intertemporal choices, presenting two experimental studies where the difference in behavior with monetary versus food rewards is the product of different baseline motivation, rather than variations in delay aversion. We conclude discussing the implications of these and other similar recent findings, which are far-reaching.

  11. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices. (United States)

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel


    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments.

  12. Completed egoism and intended altruism boost healthy food choices. (United States)

    Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian


    Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior.

  13. Complex Choices: Producers Risk Management Strategies


    Pennings, Joost M.E.; Isengildina, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Garcia, Philip; Frank, Julieta; Kuiper, W. Erno


    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available. How do producers make a choice of risk management instruments? Using the recently developed choice bracketing framework, we examine what risk management strategies producers use and identify the factors that drive their risk management decisions. Our results identify that producers use a wide variety of combinations of risk management instruments and that they bracket their choices into sets of alternative risk management...

  14. Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice


    Carlos Carrion; Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson


    This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from t...

  15. "What if we made the wrong choice?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten


    As a corollary of the Bologna process, the two-tiered study structure introduced increased freedom of choice for enrolled and prospective university students. This article investigates how Danish university students, within the two-tiered system, perform the choices determining their educational ...... and professional futures and focuses on rationales for decision making.......As a corollary of the Bologna process, the two-tiered study structure introduced increased freedom of choice for enrolled and prospective university students. This article investigates how Danish university students, within the two-tiered system, perform the choices determining their educational...

  16. Genetic basis for MHC-dependent mate choice. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K


    Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), best known for their role in immune recognition and transplantation success, are also involved in modulating mate choice in mice. Early studies with inbred, congenic mouse lines showed that mate choice tended to favor nonself MHC types. A similar phenomenon was demonstrated with semi-wild mice as well. Subsequent studies showed that, rather than nonself choices, it was more accurate to say that mice chose nonparental MHC types for mates since preferences for nonself could be reversed if mice were fostered from birth on parents with nonself MHC types. Other studies have demonstrated that parent-offspring recognition is also regulated by MHC-determined signals suggesting that this system is one of general importance for mouse behavior. Many studies have now demonstrated that volatile mouse body odors are regulated by MHC genes and it is presumably these odor differences that underlie mate choice and familial recognition. Recent studies have shown that many odorants are controlled by the MHC but the mechanism by which MHC genes exert their influence has not been identified. Surprisingly, not only are volatile body odors influenced by MHC genes but so too are nonvolatile signals. Peptides bound to the MHC protein may also function in individual recognition. The extent to which this system is involved in mate choice of other species is unclear although there are some suggestive studies. Indeed, there is tentative evidence that MHC differences, presumably acting via odor changes, may influence human partner selection. Further studies should clarify both the mechanism underlying MHC influence on body odors as well as the generality of their importance in mate selection.

  17. [The model of the reward choice basing on the theory of reinforcement learning]. (United States)

    Smirnitskaia, I A; Frolov, A A; Merzhanova, G Kh


    We developed the model of alimentary instrumental conditioned bar-pressing reflex for cats making a choice between either immediate small reinforcement ("impulsive behavior") or delayed more valuable reinforcement ("self-control behavior"). Our model is based on the reinforcement learning theory. We emulated dopamine contribution by discount coefficient of this theory (a subjective decrease in the value of a delayed reinforcement). The results of computer simulation showed that "cats" with large discount coefficient demonstrated "self-control behavior"; small discount coefficient was associated with "impulsive behavior". This data are in agreement with the experimental data indicating that the impulsive behavior is due to a decreased amount of dopamine in striatum.

  18. The Effects of Land Use Patterns on Tour Type Choice. The Application of a Hybrid Choice Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Abreu e Silva, João; Sottile, Eleonora; Cherchi, Elisabetta


    to travel. Workers who reside in more central, mixed and traditional urban spaces tend to have a higher propensity to travel. Workers who live in more diverse areas have a higher probability of engaging in more complex work related tours. Working in more suburban areas reduces the probability of engaging......The relations between travel behavior and land use patterns have been the object of intensive research in the last two decades. Due to their immediate policy implications, mode choice and vehicle miles of travel (VMT) have been the main focus of attention. Other relevant dimensions, like trip...... of the latent propensity to travel in the discrete choice among types of tours. This model is applied to a travel diary of workers collected in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area in 2009. Different model specifications were built, testing the inclusion of purportedly built land use factors, which have the advantage...

  19. Psychiatric nursing: an unpopular choice. (United States)

    Jansen, R; Venter I


    Research studies in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia suggest that students do not consider psychiatric nursing as a popular career option. According to this research, there is a widespread concern about the nursing shortages in psychiatry. The demand for mental health services continues to grow and there is a need for strategies to recruit nurses for this specialized field. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors preventing undergraduate nursing students in South Africa (SA) from choosing psychiatric nursing as a career. A qualitative research design that aimed to explore and describe was used. Data were collected through the Nominal Group Technique. A sample of convenience of 27 final year nursing students from the School of Nursing at the University of the Free State as well as the Free State School of Nursing, situated in Bloemfontein (SA), voluntarily participated in this research. The following categories emerged from the content analysis of the data: personal factors, working environment, unprofessional behaviour, learning environment and the unclassified category. Psychiatric nursing as a career choice is in a predicament and nursing schools need to implement practical strategies to recruit future nurses for this field.

  20. "Having choices is the key". (United States)

    Ogunleye, B


    When Chief Bisi Ogunleye was appointed Nigeria's Minister of Agriculture, the US-educated daughter of a tribal chief still believed that most Nigerian farmers were men. As she traveled throughout the country fulfilling her role, she met a group of women who wanted to start a palm oil and casaba processing plant but lacked the means to get a start-up loan. Chief Ogunleye's efforts to get officials to issue a loan were ridiculed, so she asked her husband to allow her to donate part of her salary to the women. With the $45 from the chief, the women began business and within 3 months had 6 times the original amount. This money was used to help other 6 other women's groups start businesses. By 1985, these efforts were so successful that the chief resigned her government job and founded the Country Women's Association of Nigeria, which has been successful in helping women because it realizes that the most important key to empowerment is having choices.

  1. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.


    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  2. Effects of Delegated Choice on Performance. (United States)

    Cosier, Richard A.; Aplin, John C.


    There were initial positive effects from delegating choice over the selection of goals. The aspect of the task being delegated appears important. One cannot assume allowing others choice over some aspects of the task will be associated with positive outcomes. (Author)

  3. Rationality in a general model of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdeb Lahiri


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.

  4. School Choice for Transnational Parents in Tokyo (United States)

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.


    School choice is centred on parents deciding where and how their children will be educated, and this issue is similar--to varying degrees--for parents all around the world. Parental school choice is the authority that parents exercise in making decisions about where their children will attend school, and choosing a particular educational pathway…

  5. An investigation of brand choice processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.


    Here a brief recapitulation of the study of brand choice processes is given, and the major conclusions are reported.In chapter 2 we discussed the empirical brand choice data used throughout the study. We saw that these were purchase histories of members of the Dutch Attwood Consumer Panel for the pr

  6. Religion and party choice in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Brug, W.; Hobolt, S.B.; de Vreese, C.H.


    This paper investigates religiosity in relation to party choice in European Parliament elections. Conventional wisdom tells us that as Europe has secularised, the effect of religion on party choice should also have diminished. Yet, this cross-national and cross-temporal study of religious voting in

  7. Making the Most of Multiple Choice (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.


    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  8. Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutjar, S.


    Abstract  Introduction In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choic

  9. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control. (United States)

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.


    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  10. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Presentation format was found to exert a significant bottom-up effect on visual attention and subsequent choice. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments were found to be strongly...

  11. Optimal Effort in Consumer Choice : Theory and Experimental Evidence for Binary Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.; Dellaert, B.G.C.; van Soest, A.H.O.


    This paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice.The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem.The model yields a unique optimal level of effort, which

  12. Optimal effort in consumer choice : theory and experimental analysis for binary choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Conlon; B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.H.O. van Soest (Arthur)


    textabstractThis paper develops a theoretical model of optimal effort in consumer choice. The model extends previous consumer choice models in that the consumer not only chooses a product, but also decides how much effort to apply to a given choice problem. The model yields a unique optimal level of

  13. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel


    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  14. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive]. (United States)

    Theunissen, L


    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  15. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    the possibility for positioning pupils/young adults ? What does the choice of texts mean for pupils’/young adults’ possibilities as readers and individual interpreters? How are the pupils’ potentials for envisioning and engaging in literature with certain choices of texts?......, and in the registration of texts for examinations. Genres such as poetry and short stories, periods such as avant-garde and modernism, and acknowledged and well-known authorships are often included, whereas, representations of popular fiction and such genres as fantasy, sci-fi, and biography are rare. Often, pupils......This paper charts the general implications of the choice of texts for literature teaching in the Danish school system, especially in Grades 8 and 9. It will analyze and discuss the premises of the choice of texts, and the possibilities of a certain choice of text in a concrete classroom situation...

  16. Influence of placement of a nutrition logo on cafeteria menu items on lunchtime food Choices at Dutch work sites. (United States)

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Heymans, Martijn W; Roodenburg, Annet J C; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C


    This study investigated the effectiveness of labeling foods with the Choices nutrition logo on influencing cafeteria menu selection and the behavioral determinants of menu choices in work site cafeterias in the Netherlands. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Intervention cafeterias (n=13), where the Choices logo was used to promote healthier eating for a 3-week period, were compared with control cafeterias (n=12), which offered the same menu without the logo. Sales data were collected daily for 9 weeks, from March to May 2009. In addition, employees from one intervention and one control company completed an online questionnaire at baseline and after the intervention (n=368) in which the behavioral determinants of food choice (ie, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention) and logo use were measured. Generalized estimating equation analyses, χ² tests, t tests and linear regression analyses were performed. No nutritionally meaningful intervention effects were found in the sales of sandwiches, soups, snacks, fruit, and salads. Also, no significant differences in behavioral determinants were found. "Intention to eat healthier" and "paying attention to product information" were positively associated with self-reported consumption of foods with the Choices logo at lunch. The intervention did not have a significant effect on employees' lunchtime food choices. Labeling healthy choices might be useful for health-conscious employees in the volitional phase of behavior change. Further research should focus on the possible health benefits of menu reformulation in the catering sector.

  17. Changes in the Legal System, Auditor Choice and Firm Value: An Empirical Study Based on the Actual Controllers' Tunneling Behavior%法律制度变迁、审计师选择与企业价值——基于实际控制人掏空行为视角的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉苗; 王宇生


    本文利用2004-2009年民营上市公司的数据,首次对2006年我国将实际控制人掏空行为列入刑法这一事件对上市公司的审计师选择和企业价值所产生的影响进行了实证研究。研究发现在加大对实际控制人掏空行为的处罚力度后,掏空风险较高的公司更倾向于聘请小型会计师事务所,而且实际控制人的掏空行为有所减少。刑法调整后,由于实际控制人与中小股东的代理问题得到了有效的缓解,存在掏空风险的公司的企业价值有了显著提升,且掏空风险高的公司企业价值提升得更为显著。进一步研究还发现:在抑制实际控制人掏空行为、提升企业价值方面,法律治理能替代独立审计治理的作用,降低企业的监督成本。%Using the data of private listed companies from 2004 to 2009, we empirically explore how the choices of auditor and firm value are impacted by the revisions of criminal law in 2006. We find that if controlling shareholders are subject to more severe punishments for opportunistic behavior, companies in higher tunneling risk will tend to hire smaller accounting firms, and controlling shareholders' illegal occupation of listed companies' capital will decrease. Following the revisions to the criminal law, the agency problem between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders has been effectively alleviated, resulting in the value of high - tunneling - risk firms increase significantly. Furthermore, our research shows that the legal governance can substitute independent auditors' governance, which will decrease the transaction cost.

  18. Plasticity of the mate choice mind: courtship evokes choice-like brain responses in females from a coercive mating system. (United States)

    Wang, S M T; Ramsey, M E; Cummings, M E


    Female mate choice is fundamental to sexual selection, and determining molecular underpinnings of female preference variation is important for understanding mating character evolution. Previously it was shown that whole-brain expression of a synaptic plasticity marker, neuroserpin, positively correlates with mating bias in the female choice poeciliid, Xiphophorus nigrensis, when exposed to conspecific courting males, whereas this relationship is reversed in Gambusia affinis, a mate coercive poeciliid with no courting males. Here we explore whether species-level differences in female behavioral and brain molecular responses represent 'canalized' or 'plastic' traits. We expose female G. affinis to conspecific males and females, as well as coercive and courting male Poecilia latipinna, for preference assays followed by whole-brain gene expression analyses of neuroserpin, egr-1 and early B. We find positive correlations between gene expression and female preference strength during exposure to courting heterospecific males, but a reversed pattern following exposure to coercive heterospecific males. This suggests that the neuromolecular processes associated with female preference behavior are plastic and responsive to different male phenotypes (courting or coercive) rather than a canalized response linked to mating system. Further, we propose that female behavioral plasticity may involve learning because female association patterns shifted with experience. Compared to younger females, we found larger, more experienced females spend less time near coercive males but associate more with males in the presence of courters. We thus suggest a conserved learning-based neuromolecular process underlying the diversity of female mate preference across the mate choice and coercion-driven mating systems.

  19. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  20. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior.Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented.This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk:interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions.In line with this hypothesis,a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice,but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests.Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs,but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior.Thus,we createl five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males' mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping) and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting).Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured,while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior.The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male's behavior.A reduction in the strength of focal males' preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male's preferred mate.In comparison,the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior.While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male's motivational state is reflected but also females' behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1):84-94,2012].

  1. Modal choice model for fare-free transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Goss, W.P.


    Using travel data collected at the University of Massachusetts during a research and demonstration project sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, a disaggregate behavioral-mode choice model has been developed for predicting ridership on fare-free transit systems. The calibrated model suggests that access time to the fare-free transit stop, annual automobile parking fee, auto mode bias constant reflecting the comfort and convenience associated with auto travel, and number of autos available for commuting are the most significant attributes in explaining the mode choice between auto and fare-free transit. For this specific demonstration project, some level-of-service variables, such as the difference between in-vehicle travel time using auto and fare-free transit, auto operating cost, wait time at the fare-free transit stop, and some of the socio-economic attributes of the commuter, such as sex and status, were not found to be as important in affecting the mode choice. 14 references.

  2. Binary choices in small and large groups: A unified model (United States)

    Bischi, Gian-Italo; Merlone, Ugo


    Two different ways to model the diffusion of alternative choices within a population of individuals in the presence of social externalities are known in the literature. While Galam’s model of rumors spreading considers a majority rule for interactions in several groups, Schelling considers individuals interacting in one large group, with payoff functions that describe how collective choices influence individual preferences. We incorporate these two approaches into a unified general discrete-time dynamic model for studying individual interactions in variously sized groups. We first illustrate how the two original models can be obtained as particular cases of the more general model we propose, then we show how several other situations can be analyzed. The model we propose goes beyond a theoretical exercise as it allows modeling situations which are relevant in economic and social systems. We consider also other aspects such as the propensity to switch choices and the behavioral momentum, and show how they may affect the dynamics of the whole population.

  3. [Determinism and Freedom of Choice in the Brain Functioning]. (United States)

    Ivanitsky, A M


    The problem is considered whether the brain response is completely determined by the stimulus and the personal experience or in some cases the brain is free to choose its behavioral response to achieve the desired goal. The attempt is made to approach to this important philosophical problem basing on modern knowledge about the brain. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part the theoretical views about the free choice problem solving are considered, including views about the freedom of choice as a useful illusion, the hypothesis on appliance of quantum mechanics laws to the brain functioning and the theory of mentalism. In other tree parts consequently the more complicated brain functions such as choice reaction, thinking and creation are analyzed. The general conclusion is that the possibility of quite unpredictable, but sometimes very effective decisions increases when the brain functions are more and more complicated. This fact can be explained with two factors: increasing stochasticity of the brain processes and the role of top-down determinations from mental to neural levels, according to the theory of mentalism.

  4. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala. (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias


    Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices.

  5. A lack of appetite for information and computation. Simple heuristics in food choice. (United States)

    Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Sohn, Matthias; de Bellis, Emanuel; Martin, Nathalie; Hertwig, Ralph


    The predominant, but largely untested, assumption in research on food choice is that people obey the classic commandments of rational behavior: they carefully look up every piece of relevant information, weight each piece according to subjective importance, and then combine them into a judgment or choice. In real world situations, however, the available time, motivation, and computational resources may simply not suffice to keep these commandments. Indeed, there is a large body of research suggesting that human choice is often better accommodated by heuristics-simple rules that enable decision making on the basis of a few, but important, pieces of information. We investigated the prevalence of such heuristics in a computerized experiment that engaged participants in a series of choices between two lunch dishes. Employing MouselabWeb, a process-tracing technique, we found that simple heuristics described an overwhelmingly large proportion of choices, whereas strategies traditionally deemed rational were barely apparent in our data. Replicating previous findings, we also observed that visual stimulus segments received a much larger proportion of attention than any nutritional values did. Our results suggest that, consistent with human behavior in other domains, people make their food choices on the basis of simple and informationally frugal heuristics.

  6. Neurobiology of addiction versus drug use driven by lack of choice. (United States)

    Ahmed, Serge H; Lenoir, Magalie; Guillem, Karine


    Research on the neurobiology of addiction often involves nonhuman animals that are given ready access to drugs for self-administration but without other choices. Here we argue using cocaine as an example that this standard setting may no longer be sufficient and can even lead to the formulation of unrealistic views about the neurobiology of addiction. Addiction as a psychiatric disorder is defined as resulting from brain dysfunctions that affect normal choice-making, not as an expectable response to lack of alternative choices. We encourage neurobiologists involved in addiction research to increase animals' choice during drug access, preferably by supplying alternative rewarding pursuits. Only animals that continue to take and prefer drugs despite and at the expense of other available choices may be considered as having developed an addiction-like behavior in comparison to those that remain able to stop drug use for other pursuits, even after extended drug use. The systematic comparison of these two individual behaviors should reveal new insights about the neurobiology of drug choice and addiction. More generally, this research should also shed a unique light on how the brain 'chooses' among qualitatively different kinds of pursuits.

  7. A Choice Prediction Competition for Social Preferences in Simple Extensive Form Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Ert


    Full Text Available Two independent, but related, choice prediction competitions are organized that focus on behavior in simple two-person extensive form games ( one focuses on predicting the choices of the first mover and the other on predicting the choices of the second mover. The competitions are based on an estimation experiment and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of some baseline models. The best baseline model assumes that each choice is made based on one of several rules. The rules include: rational choice, level-1 reasoning, an attempt to maximize joint payoff, and an attempt to increase fairness. The probability of using the different rules is assumed to be stable over games. The estimated parameters imply that the most popular rule is rational choice; it is used in about half the cases. To participate in the competitions, researchers are asked to email the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submission deadline is 1 December 2011, the results of the competition experiment will not be revealed until that date. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competitions will be invited to write a paper that describes their model.

  8. Propulsion System Choices and Their Implications (United States)

    Joyner, Claude R., II; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russell, E.; Robinson, John W.


    In defining a space vehicle architecture, the propulsion system and related subsystem choices will have a major influence on achieving the goals and objectives desired. There are many alternatives and the choices made must produce a system that meets the performance requirements, but at the same time also provide the greatest opportunity of reaching all of the required objectives. Recognizing the above, the SPST Functional Requirements subteam has drawn on the knowledge, expertise, and experience of its members, to develop insight that wiIJ effectively aid the architectural concept developer in making the appropriate choices consistent with the architecture goals. This data not only identifies many selected choices, but also, more importantly, presents the collective assessment of this subteam on the "pros" and the "cons" of these choices. The propulsion system choices with their pros and cons are presented in five major groups. A. System Integration Approach. Focused on the requirement for safety, reliability, dependability, maintainability, and low cost. B. Non-Chemical Propulsion. Focused on choice of propulsion type. C. Chemical Propulsion. Focused on propellant choice implications. D. Functional Integration. Focused on the degree of integration of the many propulsive and closely associated functions, and on the choice of the engine combustion power cycle. E. Thermal Management. Focused on propellant tank insulation and integration. Each of these groups is further broken down into subgroups, and at that level the consensus pros and cons are presented. The intended use of this paper is to provide a resource of focused material for architectural concept developers to use in designing new advanced systems including college design classes. It is also a possible source of input material for developing a model for designing and analyzing advanced concepts to help identify focused technology needs and their priorities.

  9. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)


    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  10. Information Recovery In Behavioral Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George


    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering micro behavior-related choice information from aggregate origin-destination data. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized, equilibrium-seeking behavior in a dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information theoretic, entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown parameters connecting the behavioral data. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral binary parameters analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we enlarge the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals and focus on three cases of particular interest. We then apply this information theoretic method to the analysis ...

  11. Mobile telecommunication networks choice among Ghanaians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boateng Henry


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the factors influencing customers choice of telecommunication network in Ghana. The survey design was employed to enable the researchers perform statistical analysis. Questionnaire consisting of Likert scale question was used to collect the primary data. Multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the factors influencing customers’ choice of telecommunication networks. The study found six factors that influence customers to choose a particular network. These factors include; brand awareness, brand image, perceived quality, price, convenience and brand loyalty. The study concludes that all the six factors contribute to the factors that drive consumer choice of telecommunications service in Ghana.

  12. School Choice, School Quality and Postsecondary Attainment (United States)

    Deming, David J.; Hastings, Justine S.; Kane, Thomas J.; Staiger, Douglas O.


    We study the impact of a public school choice lottery in Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools on college enrollment and degree completion. We find a significant overall increase in college attainment among lottery winners who attend their first choice school. Using rich administrative data on peers, teachers, course offerings and other inputs, we show that the impacts of choice are strongly predicted by gains on several measures of school quality. Gains in attainment are concentrated among girls. Girls respond to attending a better school with higher grades and increases in college-preparatory course-taking, while boys do not. PMID:27244675

  13. Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Hernadi, Istvan; Schultz, Wolfram


    The amygdala is a prime valuation structure yet its functions in advanced behaviors are poorly understood. We tested whether individual amygdala neurons encode a critical requirement for goal-directed behavior: the evaluation of progress during sequential choices. As monkeys progressed through choice sequences toward rewards, amygdala neurons showed phasic, gradually increasing responses over successive choice steps. These responses occurred in the absence of external progress cues or motor preplanning. They were often specific to self-defined sequences, typically disappearing during instructed control sequences with similar reward expectation. Their build-up rate reflected prospectively the forthcoming choice sequence, suggesting adaptation to an internal plan. Population decoding demonstrated a high-accuracy progress code. These findings indicate that amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of planned, self-defined behavioral sequences. Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit. DOI: PMID:27731795

  14. Private Transfer Choices under Uncertainty in Human Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J. Raad


    Full Text Available We develop a theoretical model for parental behavior regarding land inheritance, accounting for consumption and savings strategies. We identify two types of modeling: one with, and another without, strategic behavior. In the first model, we assume that children do not act strategically towards their parent. We find that the child with the highest return to human capital is more likely to receive a larger share of the land if the difference in offspring’s returns is large. In the second model, we allow for each child to influence parent’s optimal choice of bequest by providing services to the latter. We illustrate that the child’s strategy for service provision is sufficient to assure that the one providing more assistance will receive a larger share of the bequest in a Nash equilibrium. We conclude by illustrating our theoretical model with some empirical analysis using longitudinal data for the rural Brazilian Amazon.

  15. Instantaneous and cumulative influences of competition on impulsive choices in domestic chicks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi eAmita


    Full Text Available This study examined instantaneous and cumulative effects of competitive interactions on impulsiveness in the inter-temporal choices in domestic chicks. Chicks were trained to peck colored beads to gain delayed food rewards (1 or 6 grains of millet delivered after a delay ranging between 0–4.5 s, and were tested in binary choices between a small-short delay option (SS and a large-long delay alternative (LL. To examine whether competitive foraging instantaneously changes impulsiveness, we intraindividually compared choices between two consecutive tests in different contexts, one with competitors and another without. We found that (1 the number of the choice of LL was not influenced by competition in the tests, but (2 the operant peck latency was shortened by competition, suggesting a socially enhanced incentive for food. To further examine the lasting changes, two groups of chicks were consecutively trained and tested daily for 2 weeks according to a behavioral titration procedure, one with competitors and another without. Inter-group comparisons of the choices revealed that (3 choice impulsiveness gradually decreased along development, while (4 the chicks trained in competition maintained a higher level of impulsiveness. These results suggest that competitive foraging causes impulsive choices not by direct/contextual modification. Causal link between the instantaneous enhancement of incentive and the gradual effects on impulsivity remains to be examined. Some (yet unspecified factors may be indirectly involved.

  16. How the twain can meet: Prospect theory and models of heuristics in risky choice. (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Suter, Renata S; Hertwig, Ralph


    Two influential approaches to modeling choice between risky options are algebraic models (which focus on predicting the overt decisions) and models of heuristics (which are also concerned with capturing the underlying cognitive process). Because they rest on fundamentally different assumptions and algorithms, the two approaches are usually treated as antithetical, or even incommensurable. Drawing on cumulative prospect theory (CPT; Tversky & Kahneman, 1992) as the currently most influential instance of a descriptive algebraic model, we demonstrate how the two modeling traditions can be linked. CPT's algebraic functions characterize choices in terms of psychophysical (diminishing sensitivity to probabilities and outcomes) as well as psychological (risk aversion and loss aversion) constructs. Models of heuristics characterize choices as rooted in simple information-processing principles such as lexicographic and limited search. In computer simulations, we estimated CPT's parameters for choices produced by various heuristics. The resulting CPT parameter profiles portray each of the choice-generating heuristics in psychologically meaningful ways-capturing, for instance, differences in how the heuristics process probability information. Furthermore, CPT parameters can reflect a key property of many heuristics, lexicographic search, and track the environment-dependent behavior of heuristics. Finally, we show, both in an empirical and a model recovery study, how CPT parameter profiles can be used to detect the operation of heuristics. We also address the limits of CPT's ability to capture choices produced by heuristics. Our results highlight an untapped potential of CPT as a measurement tool to characterize the information processing underlying risky choice.

  17. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  18. Impulsive-choice patterns for food in genetically lean and obese Zucker rats. (United States)

    Boomhower, Steven R; Rasmussen, Erin B; Doherty, Tiffany S


    Behavioral-economic studies have shown that differences between lean and obese Zuckers in food consumption depend on the response requirement for food. Since a response requirement inherently increases the delay to reinforcement, differences in sensitivity to delay may also be a relevant mechanism of food consumption in the obese Zucker rat. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter system has been implicated in impulsivity, but studies that attempt to characterize the effects of cannabinoid drugs (e.g., rimonabant) on impulsive choice may be limited by floor effects. The present study aimed to characterize impulsive-choice patterns for sucrose using an adjusting-delay procedure in genetically lean and obese Zuckers. Ten lean and ten obese Zucker rats chose between one lever that resulted in one pellet after a standard delay (either 1 s or 5 s) and a second lever that resulted in two or three pellets after an adjusting delay. After behavior stabilized under baseline, rimonabant (0-10 mg/kg) was administered prior to some choice sessions in the two-pellet condition. Under baseline, obese Zuckers made more impulsive choices than leans in three of the four standard-delay/pellet conditions. Additionally, in the 2-pellet condition, rimonabant increased impulsive choice in lean rats in the 1-s standard-delay condition; however, rimonabant decreased impulsive choice in obese rats in the 1-s and 5-s standard-delay conditions. These data suggest that genetic factors that influence impulsive choice are stronger in some choice conditions than others, and that the endocannabinoid system may be a relevant neuromechanism.

  19. Irrational choice and the value of information. (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Monteiro, Tiago; Kacelnik, Alex


    Irrational decision making in humans and other species challenges the use of optimality in behavioural biology. Here we show that such observations are in fact powerful tools to understand the adaptive significance of behavioural mechanisms. We presented starlings choices between probabilistic alternatives, receiving or not information about forthcoming, delayed outcomes after their choices. Subjects could not use this information to alter the outcomes. Paradoxically, outcome information induced loss-causing preference for the lower probability option. The effect depended on time under uncertainty: information given just after each choice caused strong preference for lower probability, but information just before the outcome did not. A foraging analysis shows that these preferences would maximize gains if post-choice information were usable, as when predators abandon a chase when sure of the prey escaping. Our study illustrates how experimentally induced irrational behaviour supports rather than weakens the evolutionary optimality approach to animal behaviour.

  20. Key determinants of students’ mobile phone choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dzigbordi Dzandu


    Full Text Available As there is still only limited research on students brand choice of mobile phones, the focus of this study was to ascertain drivers of tertiary students’ mobile phone brand choice in Ghana. Using a structured questionnaire, data was collected from a random sample of 840 students from three tertiary institutions in Ghana. The study revealed that the most significant determinant of the students brand choice of mobile phones was perceived quality (p0.05. The study concludes that in spite of their economic handicaps, students brand choice was driven most by perceived quality and not price. Recommendations on how information technology manufacturers’ particularly mobile phone companies and marketers can exploit these drivers to sustain and improve their brand equity among students have been made.

  1. The Analysis of The Multiple Choice Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this article, the author analyzes in detail the advantages, disadvantages and forming of the multiple choice item in examinations. On its basis, the author also exploree some aspects the teacher should pay attention to while setting an examination paper.

  2. Influence of convenience on healthy food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    Although seafood is considered to be a healthy food choice, the recommended consumption level of two servings per week is still not reached in most countries. Previous research has identified potential barriers of seafood consumption, including purchase and consumption convenience, but it is still...... unclear to what degree consumer choice is affected by convenience relative to known choice drivers such as price, species and region of origin. This study contributes to filling this research gap by analyzing how consumers’ in-store choice of ready-packaged aquaculture oysters is driven by convenience...... for policy makers as well as seafood marketers and are in line with the presented literature in that convenience seems to be an important driver which can be manipulated in order to increase seafood consumption. Consumers strongly prefer the ‘ready to eat’ half shell open oysters over closed oysters...

  3. Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices (United States)

    ... grain barley, bulgur, brown rice, wild rice, or quinoa. J Try whole-wheat pasta instead of regular ... whole-wheat couscous (a quick- cooking grain), or quinoa instead of white rice. Making smart food choices ...

  4. Strategy application, observability, and the choice combinator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha)


    In many strategic systems, the choice combinator provides a powerful mechanism for controlling the application of rules and strategies to terms. The ability of the choice combinator to exercise control over rewriting is based on the premise that the success and failure of strategy application can be observed. In this paper we present a higher-order strategic framework with the ability to dynamically construct strategies containing the choice combinator. To this framework, a combinator called hide is introduced that prevents the successful application of a strategy from being observed by the choice combinator. We then explore the impact of this new combinator on a real-world problem involving a restricted implementation of the Java Virtual Machine.

  5. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD) (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  6. Nursing, nutrition and physiotherapy students: career choice. (United States)

    Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; Creutzberg, Marion; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo; Melo, Denizar da Silva; Corbellini, Valéria Lamb


    In the perspective of career choice, entering university encompasses meanings of self-accomplishment and social status, which are permeated by concepts and ideals people construct in their lives. This study aimed to analyze regimes of truth that permeate career choice in nursing, physiotherapy and nutrition. This qualitative-descriptive study was carried out with undergraduate freshmen. Data were collected through focus groups, evaluated by discourse analysis from a Foucaultian perspective. The following themes emerged from the analysis: career choice: crowning a process of social differentiation, reflexes of professions' history of acknowledgement; career choice beyond professional projects. Discourse highlights that scientific knowledge acquires status in relations of power between different professions and society and is essential that health professional education is linked to public policies that expand the participation of different professions so as to meet demands in favor of integral care.

  7. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik


    for data, a literature review follows. Models applied for estimation of discrete choice models are described by properties and limitations, and relations between these are established. Model types are grouped into three classes, Hybrid choice models, Tree models and Latent class models. Relations between......This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...... model, data and estimation are described, with a focus of possibilities/limitations of different techniques. Two special issues of modelling are addressed in further detail, namely data segmentation and estimation of Mixed Logit models. Both issues are concerned with whether individuals can be assumed...

  8. Irrational choice and the value of information


    Marco Vasconcelos; Tiago Monteiro; Alex Kacelnik


    Irrational decision making in humans and other species challenges the use of optimality in behavioural biology. Here we show that such observations are in fact powerful tools to understand the adaptive significance of behavioural mechanisms. We presented starlings choices between probabilistic alternatives, receiving or not information about forthcoming, delayed outcomes after their choices. Subjects could not use this information to alter the outcomes. Paradoxically, outcome information indu...

  9. A conceptual review of mate choice: stochastic demography, within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and individual flexibility. (United States)

    Ah-King, Malin; Gowaty, Patricia Adair


    Mate choice hypotheses usually focus on trait variation of chosen individuals. Recently, mate choice studies have increasingly attended to the environmental circumstances affecting variation in choosers' behavior and choosers' traits. We reviewed the literature on phenotypic plasticity in mate choice with the goal of exploring whether phenotypic plasticity can be interpreted as individual flexibility in the context of the switch point theorem, SPT (Gowaty and Hubbell 2009). We found >3000 studies; 198 were empirical studies of within-sex phenotypic plasticity, and sixteen showed no evidence of mate choice plasticity. Most studies reported changes from choosy to indiscriminate behavior of subjects. Investigators attributed changes to one or more causes including operational sex ratio, adult sex ratio, potential reproductive rate, predation risk, disease risk, chooser's mating experience, chooser's age, chooser's condition, or chooser's resources. The studies together indicate that "choosiness" of potential mates is environmentally and socially labile, that is, induced - not fixed - in "the choosy sex" with results consistent with choosers' intrinsic characteristics or their ecological circumstances mattering more to mate choice than the traits of potential mates. We show that plasticity-associated variables factor into the simpler SPT variables. We propose that it is time to complete the move from questions about within-sex plasticity in the choosy sex to between- and within-individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making of both sexes simultaneously. Currently, unanswered empirical questions are about the force of alternative constraints and opportunities as inducers of individual flexibility in reproductive decision-making, and the ecological, social, and developmental sources of similarities and differences between individuals. To make progress, we need studies (1) of simultaneous and symmetric attention to individual mate preferences and subsequent

  10. Obesity and Food Choices among Faculty and Staff at a Large Urban University (United States)

    Freedman, Marjorie R.; Rubinstein, Rebecca J.


    Objective: In order to address increasing health care costs associated with obesity, this study sought to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine eating behaviors, food choices, health beliefs, and attitudes of university employees. Participants and Methods: An online survey was distributed to greater than 3,800 faculty and…

  11. School Choice and Competitive Incentives: Mapping the Distribution of Educational Opportunities across Local Education Markets (United States)

    Lubienski, Christopher; Gulosino, Charisse; Weitzel, Peter


    Competition sparked by school choice is expected to generate greater educational opportunities, particularly for disadvantaged students. The premise is that competitive incentives will change the organizational behavior of schools (and districts, dioceses, etc.) in ways that will lead to more equitable access for students across varied and often…

  12. Contextualizing Race: African American College Choice in an Evolving Affirmative Action Era (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Briscoe, Kamilah


    Using a critical race theory framework, this study examines the ways in which race and racialized ideologies are manifested in high-stakes college admissions, the debate over affirmative action, and the college choice behavior of Black high school students. This study allows for the voices of Black high school students in California to describe…

  13. Towards an Informed Citizenry? Information- and communication technologies and electoral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Edwards (Arthur)


    textabstractWhat is the significance of ICT's for voting decisions? This chapter assesses two uses of ICT's: (1) databases of the voting records of representatives, and (2) a decision support system for party choice. It examines the information-seeking behavior of (prospective and retrospective) vot

  14. Underneath It All: Gender Role Identification and Women Chemists' Career Choices (United States)

    Grunert, Megan L.; Bodner, George M.


    This paper describes results from a study on the career choices of women earning doctorates in chemistry in the United States. Presented here are findings related to the participants' identification with traditional female gender roles and expectations for behavior in the male-dominated field of chemistry. Underlying a career decision-making model…

  15. A Public Choice Theory of Budgets: Implications for Education in Less Developed Countries. (United States)

    Gallagher, Mark


    The rate of growth in government spending (particularly, slow growth or decline) has an important impact on the effectiveness of resource allocation. Data from 47 developing nations was used to test a model, based on public choice theory, of interest-group behavior and educational budget growth/decline. Government spending trends were related to…

  16. Dual task performance in normal aging: a comparison of choice reaction time tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria Vaportzis

    Full Text Available This study examined dual task performance in 28 younger (18-30 years and 28 older (>60 years adults using two sets of choice reaction time (RT tasks paired with digit tasks. Set one paired simple choice RT with digit forward; set two paired complex choice RT with digit backward. Each task within each set had easy and hard conditions. For the simple choice RT, participants viewed single letters and pressed a specified keyboard key if the letter was X or Z or a different key for other letters (easy. For the hard condition, there were 4 target letters (X, Z, O, Y. Digit forward consisted of 4 (easy or 5 (hard digits. For the complex choice RT, participants viewed 4×4 matrices of Xs and Os, and indicated whether four Xs (easy or four Xs or four Os (hard appeared in a row. Digit backward consisted of 3 (easy or 4 (hard digits. Within each set, participants performed every possible combination of tasks. We found that in the simple choice RT tasks older adults were significantly slower than, but as accurate as younger adults. In the complex choice RT tasks, older adults were significantly less accurate, but as fast as younger adults. For both age groups and both dual task sets, RT decreased and error rates increased with greater task difficulty. Older adults had greater dual task costs for error rates in the simple choice RT, whereas in the complex choice RT, it was the younger group that had greater dual task costs. Findings suggest that younger and older adults may adopt differential behavioral strategies depending on complexity and difficulty of dual tasks.

  17. Mate choice and uncertainty in the decision process. (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Angeloni, Lisa M


    The behavior of females in search of a mate determines the likelihood that a high quality male is encountered in the search process and alternative search strategies provide different fitness returns to searchers. Models of search behavior are typically formulated on an assumption that the quality of prospective mates is revealed to searchers without error, either directly or by inspection of a perfectly informative phenotypic character. But recent theoretical developments suggest that the relative performance of a search strategy may be sensitive to any uncertainty associated with the to-be-realized fitness benefit of mate choice decisions. Indeed, uncertainty in the decision process is inevitable whenever unobserved male attributes influence the fitness of searchers. In this paper, we derive solutions to the sequential search strategy and the fixed sample search strategy for the general situation in which observed and unobserved male attributes affect the fitness consequences of female mate choice decisions and we determine how the magnitude of various parameters that are influential in the standard models alter these more general solutions. The distribution of unobserved attributes amongst prospective mates determines the uncertainty of mate choice decisions-the reliability of an observed male character as a predictor of male quality-and the realized functional relationship between an observed male character and the fitness return to searchers. The uncertainty of mate choice decisions induced by unobserved male attributes has no influence on the generalized model solutions. Thus, the results of earlier studies of these search models that rely on the use of a perfectly informative male character apply even if an observed male trait does not reveal the quality of prospective mates with certainty. But the solutions are sensitive to any changes of the distribution of unobserved male attributes that alter the realized functional relationship between an observed

  18. Parental role models, gender and educational choice. (United States)

    Dryler, H


    Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education.

  19. Referential Choice: Predictability and Its Limits (United States)

    Kibrik, Andrej A.; Khudyakova, Mariya V.; Dobrov, Grigory B.; Linnik, Anastasia; Zalmanov, Dmitrij A.


    We report a study of referential choice in discourse production, understood as the choice between various types of referential devices, such as pronouns and full noun phrases. Our goal is to predict referential choice, and to explore to what extent such prediction is possible. Our approach to referential choice includes a cognitively informed theoretical component, corpus analysis, machine learning methods and experimentation with human participants. Machine learning algorithms make use of 25 factors, including referent’s properties (such as animacy and protagonism), the distance between a referential expression and its antecedent, the antecedent’s syntactic role, and so on. Having found the predictions of our algorithm to coincide with the original almost 90% of the time, we hypothesized that fully accurate prediction is not possible because, in many situations, more than one referential option is available. This hypothesis was supported by an experimental study, in which participants answered questions about either the original text in the corpus, or about a text modified in accordance with the algorithm’s prediction. Proportions of correct answers to these questions, as well as participants’ rating of the questions’ difficulty, suggested that divergences between the algorithm’s prediction and the original referential device in the corpus occur overwhelmingly in situations where the referential choice is not categorical. PMID:27721800

  20. Relevance Of Utility Maximization In Student University Choice – A Consumption-Based Model For Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. SCHWARTZ


    Full Text Available This paper applies a model of utility-maximization to better understand the university choice process. Student decision-making for university choice is conceptualized as a purchase decision process through which students weigh the costs of colleges or universities they choose against their perceived benefits of attending these institutions. The key issues are the impact of consumer’s preferences, income, tuition, and costs in college decision-making. From this perspective, the paper describes the relationship between utility maximization and educational demand, effects of tuition increases, tuition discounting, and financial aid subsidies on university choice. A decision-making scheme for educational consumption is used in order to identify the stages of the university choice process and to predict the behavior of consumers in the higher education marketplace. The analysis points to the need to better inform students about the cost of postsecondary education which is a highly relevant aspect in the university choice process.

  1. Barriers to climate-friendly food choices among young adults in Finland. (United States)

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka


    The aim of the study was to examine how young adults in Finland perceive barriers to climate-friendly food choices and how these barriers are associated with their choices. The participants were 350 university students of the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The study found that the barriers the participants perceived as being the most relevant were different from those that were associated with the omission of climate-friendly food choices. High prices were perceived as the most relevant barrier, but were only weakly associated with the participants' food choices. Instead, habit and disbelief in the effects of food consumption on the climate were found to be the barriers that had the greatest association with climate-friendly choices. Moreover, women considered high prices and poor supply more important compared to men, whereas men considered disbelief and habit more important. In addition, vegetarians perceived fewer barriers than those who followed other diets. The findings increase our understanding of young adults' perceptions of barriers to climate-friendly food choices, as well as their effects.

  2. Using scalar products to refine the interpretative value of an orientation choice test. (United States)

    Meunier, Nicolas; Nielsen, Birte L


    Choice tests, which are often used to examine animal preferences, can be difficult to interpret when no clear choice has been made or when using very young animals which exclude test repetition. We present a new method to evaluate the behavior in a choice test based on the orientation of the animal and illustrate its use when facing those conditions. Using rat pups in an open field maze with a choice of odors, we obtained x,y coordinates of 2 markers (head and body center) using a video-tracking freeware. Two vectors were calculated: an animal orientation vector (body to head) and a perfect orientation vector (body to odor source). The angle between the 2 vectors in each frame was converted into a scalar product ranging from 1 (pup oriented directly towards the odor source) to -1 (facing the opposite direction). A mean scalar product was calculated for each odor source, with the difference between the 2 mean scalar products indicating degree of preference for an odor. The information provided by the mean scalar product difference (MSPD) could not be obtained from other measures, such as binary choice, velocity, or distance moved. The MSPD provides a single, noncategorical value for each animal to describe degree of preference in a choice test. This variable was more effective in differentiating animals, thus allowing a reduction in the number of animals or tests necessary to reach significance.

  3. Embryonic origin of mate choice in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination. (United States)

    Putz, Oliver; Crews, David


    Individual differences in the adult sexual behavior of vertebrates are rooted in the fetal environment. In the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), hatchling sex ratios differ between incubation temperatures, as does sexuality in same-sex animals. This variation can primarily be ascribed to the temperature having direct organizing actions on the brain. Here we demonstrate that embryonic temperature can affect adult mate choice in the leopard gecko. Given the simultaneous choice between two females from different incubation temperatures (30.0 and 34.0 degrees C), males from one incubation temperature (30.0 degrees C) preferred the female from 34.0 degrees C, while males from another incubation temperature (32.5 degrees C) preferred the female from 30.0 degrees C. We suggest that this difference in mate choice is due to an environmental influence on brain development leading to differential perception of opposite-sex individuals. This previously unrecognized modulator of adult mate choice lends further support to the view that mate choice is best understood in the context of an individual's entire life-history. Thus, sexual selection results from a combination of the female's as well as the male's life history. Female attractiveness and male choice therefore are complementary.

  4. Male mate choice in Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min ZHANG, Jinhua LI, Yong ZHU, Xi WANG, Su WANG


    Full Text Available Though females are generally more selective in mate choice, males may also benefit from mate choice if male reproductive success is limited by factors other than simply the number of female mates, and if females differ in short-term reproductive potential. We studied male mate choice in a free-ranging troop of Tibetan macaques Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2007 to April 2008. We employed focal animal sampling and all occurrence sampling to record sexual related behaviors. Eight adult females were divided into three female quality categories according to the females’ age, rank and parity. Using male mating effort as a proxy for male mate choice, we found that males do distinguish female quality and show time-variant mating strategies. Specifically, females with dominant rank, high fecundity, and middle age attracted significantly more males. Our results suggest that female short-term reproductive potential appears to be an important variable in determining male mating effort. Male Tibetan macaques do exercise mate choice for higher quality females as well as reduce useless reproductive cost, which is consistent with the direct benefits theory of mate choice [Current Zoology 56 (2: 213–221, 2010].

  5. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework. (United States)

    Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R


    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation.

  6. How the Measurement of Store Choice Behaviour Moderates the Relationship between Distance and Store Choice Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Cumberland, Flemming; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe


    The influence of distance on consumer store choice behaviour has been considered in many studies. In that respect, frequency and budget share are frequently used methods of measurement to determine the consumer's store choice behavour. In this study, we propose that the significance of distance i...

  7. Your menu choice: Exploring how tailored persuasive messaging influences the healthiness of menu choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelpenning, T.; Luitjens, S.B.; Kaptein, M.C.; Van Halteren, A.T.


    This report describes the use of personalized persuasive messages toinflu-ence healthiness of menu choice. The susceptibility to persuasion scale (STPS) was used to assign participants to different strategies. We hypothe-sized that persuasive messages would have a positive effect on menu choices. A

  8. Will Choice Hurt? Compared to What? A School Choice Experiment in Estonia (United States)

    Põder, Kaire; Lauri, Triin


    This article presents the empirical analysis of the effects of a school choice policy in Estonia. The article shows that relying on markets and giving autonomy to the schools over student selection will produce admission tests, even at the elementary school level. This article's contribution is to show that a school choice policy experiment with…

  9. Does Presentation Order Impact Choice After Delay? (United States)

    Berger, Jonah


    Options are often presented incidentally in a sequence, but does serial position impact choice after delay, and if so, how? We address this question in a consequential real-world choice domain. Using 25 years of citation data, and a unique identification strategy, we examine the relationship between article order (i.e., position in a journal issue) and citation count. Results indicate that mere serial position affects the prominence that research achieves: Earlier-listed articles receive more citations. Furthermore, our identification strategy allows us to cast doubt on alternative explanations (i.e., editorial placement) and instead indicate that the effect is driven by psychological processes of attention and memory. These findings deepen the understanding of how presentation order impacts choice, suggest that subtle presentation factors can bias an important scientific metric, and shed light on how psychological processes shape collective outcomes.

  10. Anxiety and Search during Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Mukherjee, Ashkesh


    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims. Design/methodology/approach – By means of qualitative study the paper investigates...... the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above. Findings – The authors show that anxiety during...... food choice increases information search in four product categories – ready dinner meals, salad dressing, biscuits, and cakes. Further, the results show that the positive effect of anxiety on information search is stronger when consumers have a less favourable attitude towards nutritional claims...

  11. Serotonergic genotypes, neuroticism, and financial choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M Kuhnen

    Full Text Available Life financial outcomes carry a significant heritable component, but the mechanisms by which genes influence financial choices remain unclear. Focusing on a polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR, we found that individuals possessing the short allele of this gene invested less in equities, were less engaged in actively making investment decisions, and had fewer credit lines. Short allele carriers also showed higher levels of the personality trait neuroticism, despite not differing from others with respect to cognitive skills, education, or wealth. Mediation analysis suggested that the presence of the 5-HTTLPR short allele decreased real life measures of financial risk taking through its influence on neuroticism. These findings show that 5-HTTLPR short allele carriers avoid risky and complex financial choices due to negative emotional reactions, and have implications for understanding and managing individual differences in financial choice.

  12. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning


    , on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...... in the interpreting task, i.e. whether it functions as the source or the target language. Drawing on the concept of processing capacity and the Effort Model of consecutive, a tentative explanation of these findings is suggested....

  13. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...

  14. Bounded rational choice behaviour: applications in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo


    Even though the theory of rational behaviour has been challenged for almost 100 years, the dominant approach within the field of transport has been based upon the assumptions of neoclassical economics that we live in a world of rational decision makers who always have perfect knowledge and aim...... to maximise some subjective measure. Where other fields, for example within the social sciences and psychology, have made serious efforts to explore alternative models derived from principles of bounded rationality, this direction has begun to take speed within transport applications only recently. Bounded...... rational choice behaviour focuses on how the latter approach can be seriously taken into account within transport applications. As the editors discuss in the introduction, a true optimal choice can only be made if an individual has full and perfect information of all relevant attributes in his/her choice...

  15. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng


    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that e

  16. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-Related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and beyond (United States)

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta


    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the "rewarding" impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding…

  17. A Comparison of Eating Patterns Across Two Obesity Treatments: Behavior Therapy vs. Behavioral Choice Treatment (United States)


    International Journal of Eating Disorders , 15...Emotion and eating in obesity: A review of the literature. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 8, 343-361. Glucksman, M.L., Rand, C.S...R.C. (1983). An analysis of body image distortions in a non-patient population. International Journal of Eating Disorders , 2, 35-41. Kern,

  18. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence. (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo


    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  19. Mate choice in Mus musculus is relative and dependent on the estrous state. (United States)

    Zinck, Léa; Lima, Susana Q


    Mate choice is a critical behavioral decision process with profound impact on evolution. However, the mechanistic basis of mate choice is poorly understood. In this study we focused on assortative mate choice, which is known to contribute to the reproductive isolation of the two European subspecies of house mouse, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To understand the decision process, we developed both full mating and limited-contact paradigms and tested musculus females' preference for musculus versus domesticus males, mimicking the natural musculus/domesticus contact zone. As hypothesized, when allowed to mate we found that sexually receptive musculus females exhibited a robust preference to mate with musculus males. In contrast, when non-receptive, females did not exhibit a preference and rather alternated between males in response to male mount attempts. Moreover in a no-choice condition, females mated readily with males from both subspecies. Finally, when no physical contact was allowed, and therefore male's behavior could not influence female's behavior, female's preference for its own subspecies was maintained independently of the estrous state. Together, our results suggest that the assortative preference is relative and based on a comparison of the options available rather than on an absolute preference. The results of the limited-contact experiments highlight the interplay between female's internal state and the nature of the interaction with prospective mates in the full mating conditions. With these experiments we believe we established an assortative mate preference assay that is appropriate for the investigation of its underlying substrates.

  20. Analytic choices in road safety evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune


    Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may....... The choice of comparison group when there is more than one candidate. It is found that the choices made with respect to these points can greatly influence the estimates of safety effects in before-and-after studies. Two second-best techniques (i.e. techniques other than the empirical Bayes approach...