WorldWideScience

Sample records for choice behavior

  1. Understanding cognition, choice, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K J

    1995-09-01

    Bandura (1995) suggests that a "crusade against the causal efficacy of human thought" exists. The present paper disputes that claim, suggesting that the quest which does exist involves an understanding of self-efficacy. Examined are Bandura's shifting definitions of self-efficacy, his misunderstandings of others' work, and implications of some of his attempts to defend the construct. In the remainder of the paper Rotter's Social Learning Theory is discussed as a model of human choice behavior which recognizes the contributions of both cognitive and behavioral traditions within psychology, and has proven to be of great heuristic value. PMID:8576399

  2. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)

    2003-01-01

    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  3. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  4. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... proposing and estimating a hybrid model that integrates latent variable and route choice models. Data contain information about latent variable indicators and chosen routes of travelers driving regularly from home to work in an urban network. Choice sets include alternative routes generated with a branch....... Estimation results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  5. Rats exhibit reference-dependent choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Mehwish; Jang, Hyeran; Kralik, Jerald D; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2014-07-01

    Human preferences depend on whether a chosen outcome appears to be a loss or a gain compared with what had been expected, i.e., in comparison to a reference point. Because reference dependence has such a strong influence on human decision-making, it is important to uncover its origins, which will in turn help delineate the underlying mechanisms. It remains unknown whether rats use reference points in decision-making, and yet, the study of rats could help address the question of whether reference dependence is evolutionarily conserved among mammals and could provide a nonhuman animal model to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this important cognitive process. The aim of the current study was to determine whether rats show reference-dependent choice behavior. We developed a novel paradigm by modifying the "T" maze by installing "pockets" to the left and right of the "T" stem that held reward pellets so rats would potentially develop reference values for each option prior to choice. We found that the rats were indeed sensitive to the way alternatives were presented. That is, they exhibited reference-dependent choice behavior by avoiding the choice option framed as a loss (e.g., having four reward pellets in the pocket, but receiving only one), at least under conditions with certain outcomes and clear differences between the reference and outcome quantities. Despite the small number of rats in this study, this species-level capacity suggests that reference dependence in general and loss aversion in particular may be conserved traits that evolved at or before the emergence of mammals. PMID:24657593

  6. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van, J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice for fresh foods have been formulated and empirically tested

  7. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  8. Identity and educational choice: a behavioral approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Yuemei

    2008-01-01

    It is puzzling that socioeconomic background greatly affects educational choice. Distinguished from the explanations based on expected utility theory, this paper attempts to explore the psychological mechanisms of generating educational identity1 and schooling choice. It offers a self-signaling model where (1) it incorporates self-esteem concerns into the agent’s payoff function, (2) the investment in schooling not only signals her cognitive ability but also brings the agent into cognitive di...

  9. Behavioral modification in choice process ofDrosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunpeng; Tang, Shiming; Li, Yan; Guo, Aike

    2003-08-01

    In visual operant conditioning ofDrosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies-yaw torque-is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution ofDrosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works([10]) showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior inDrosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning ofDrosophila. PMID:21072612

  10. Dynamic Choice Behavior in a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    linked to current choices. We have four major findings. First, we show that popular utility functions that assume constant relative or absolute risk aversion and expected utility theory defined over the prizes cannot characterize these choices, which exhibit increasing relative risk aversion over prizes...... ranging from a penny to nearly half a million U.S. dollars. Second, the argument of the utility function under expected utility theory reflects the integration of game show prizes with regular income. These decision makers do not segregate the income from the lotteries they face on the game show from the...... evidence of some probability weighting, but no loss aversion. We also find evidence that contestants make decisions as if using more than one latent criteria, mixing traditional utility evaluations, probability weighting, and aspiration levels. Fourth, we design and implement laboratory experiments...

  11. Similarities in Choice Behavior Across Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ainslie; Peter E. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Differences between consumers in sensitivity to marketing mix variables have been extensively documented in the scanner panel data. All studies of consumer heterogeneity focus on a specific category of products and ignore the fact that the purchase behavior of panel households is often observed simultaneously in multiple categories. If sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a common consumer trait, then one should expect to see similarities in sensitivity across multiple categories. The go...

  12. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  13. Research and Simulation on Drivers Route Choice Behavior Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the behavior-cognitive model of drivers during their travel based on the current research on driver behavior. Firstly, a route choice behavior-cognitive model was proposed for describing the decision-making mechanism of drivers during his travel; then, simulation experiments were carried out on the co-simulation VBc-vissim platform. From the experimental results, dynamic behavior features of drivers during their travel can be properly explained by the behavior-cognitive model, thus optimal path can be obtained from this model.

  14. Modeling Inertia and Variety Seeking Tendencies in Brand Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Bawa

    1990-01-01

    Theories of exploratory behavior suggest that inertia and variety-seeking tendencies may coexist within the individual, implying that the same individual may exhibit inertia and variety-seeking at different times depending on his/her choice history. Past research has not allowed for such -consumer variability in these tendencies. The purpose of this study is to present a choice model that allows us to identify such “hybrid” behavior (i.e., a mixture of inertia and variety-seeking), and to dis...

  15. Portfolio choice, behavioral preferences and equity home bias

    OpenAIRE

    Magi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    We provide a plausible explanation of aggregate portfolio behavior, in a framework where economic agents have behavioral (narrow framing) preferences. The representative agent derives utility not only from consumption (standard models) but also from risky financial wealth fluctuations. Moreover, the investor frames the stock market risk narrowly and has loss averse preferences. We numerically solve, for the foreign equity share, a simple model of international portfolio choice, providing a po...

  16. Consumer behavior and payment choice: 2006 conference summary

    OpenAIRE

    Carten, Margaret; Littman, Dan; Schuh, Scott; Stavins, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of the second Consumer Behavior and Payment Choice conference, held at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on July 25–27, 2006. These conferences are unique in featuring the collaboration of two groups of payments experts — the private-sector payments industry on the one hand, and the academic, research, and policymaking communities on the other — to stimulate more research and understanding of consumer payment behavior. The central focus of this second co...

  17. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  18. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated. PMID:27582715

  19. Revenue management under general discrete choice model of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Talluri, Kalyan; van Ryzin, Garrett

    2000-01-01

    Customer choice behavior, such as 'buy-up' and 'buy-down', is an important phe-nomenon in a wide range of industries. Yet there are few models or methodologies available to exploit this phenomenon within yield management systems. We make some progress on filling this void. Specifically, we develop a model of yield management in which the buyers' behavior is modeled explicitly using a multi-nomial logit model of demand. The control problem is to decide which subset of fare cl...

  20. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  1. Consumer behavior and payment choice: a conference summary

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Marianne; Schuh, Scott; Stavins, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Payments Research Group (EPRG) at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston sponsored a new conference, “Consumer Behavior and Payment Choice: How and Why Do Consumers Choose Their Payment Methods?” on October 27–28, 2005, at the Boston Fed. The conference brought together a diverse set of participants from the academic, private, and public sectors. This paper provides a summary and overview of the conference. Key conclusions are that the consumer’s decision-making process concerning pa...

  2. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  3. On the Recoverability of Choice Behaviors with Random Coefficients Choice Models in the Context of Limited Data and Unobserved Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rick L. Andrews; Andrew Ainslie; Imran S. Currim

    2008-01-01

    Random coefficients choice models are seeing widespread adoption in marketing research, partly because of their ability to generate household-level parameter estimates with limited data. However, the power of such models may tempt researchers to trust that they continue to produce reasonable estimates, when in fact either model misspecification or insufficient data limits the models' ability to recover household-level parameters successfully. If household-level choice behaviors are not recove...

  4. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the “rewarding” impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in effort-related choice behavior....

  5. Study on Decision Process and Strategy Choice Behavior under Multimode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmei Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Display Board is used to design an experimental survey and dynamic decision process data are retrieved under a multimode choice scenario with car, bus and subway, and park and ride. It is concluded that car travelers who will switch to choosing park and ride need more decision time to compare it with the existing modes (car, bus and subway and tend to mainly use compensatory decision strategies in the decision process. The most commonly used decision strategy for travelers is the combined strategy under the multimode choice scenario. Correlation analysis shows that the influencing factors of age, whether the travelers have ever used park and ride, and decision time highly correlate with decision strategy choice. These conclusions have a certain reference value for theory research of decision process under multimode choice.

  6. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  7. Affective Decision Making: A Behavioral Theory of Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Brown, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a strategic model of choice under risk and uncertainty where we posit two cognitive processes — the "rational" and the "emotional" process. Observed choice is the result of equilibirum in this intrapersonal game. As an example, we present applications of affective decision-making in insurance markets, where the risk perceptions of consumers are endogenous. We then derive the axiomatic foundation of affective decision making, and show that, although beliefs are end...

  8. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...

  9. Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was…

  10. Behavioral implications of providing real incentives in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential impacts of introducing real economic incentives in choice experiments (CE). While many others have investigated such impacts before, the majority of the literature has focused solely on mitigation of hypothetical bias. We contribute to this literature by widening...

  11. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools accountable…

  12. A discrete choice model with social interactions: an analysis of high school teen behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kooreman, Peter; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2002-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice model that explicitly allows for endogenous social interactions. We analyze the issues of multiple equilibria, statistical coherency, and estimation of the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze a data set containing information on the individual behavior of some 8000 high school teenagers from almost 500 different school classes. We estimate the model for five types of teen discrete choice behavior: smoking, truan...

  13. Joint Residence-Workplace Location Choice Model Based on Household Decision Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residence location and workplace are the two most important urban land-use types, and there exist strong interdependences between them. Existing researches often assume that one choice dimension is correlated to the other. Using the mixed logit framework, three groups of choice models are developed to illustrate such choice dependencies. First, for all households, this paper presents a basic methodology of the residence location and workplace choice without decision sequence based on the assumption that the two choice behaviors are independent of each other. Second, the paper clusters all households into two groups, choosing residence or workplace first, and formulates the residence location and workplace choice models under the constraint of decision sequence. Third, this paper combines the residence location and workplace together as the choice alternative and puts forward the joint choice model. A questionnaire survey is implemented in Beijing city to collect the data of 1994 households. Estimation results indicate that the joint choice model fits the data significantly better, and the elasticity effects analyses show that the joint choice model reflects the influences of relevant factors to the choice probability well and leads to the job-housing balance.

  14. Better Choices: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Behavior Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Miguel T.

    2011-01-01

    Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…

  15. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Trijp, van, J.M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach specifically focuses on temporal variety-seeking behavior and addresses some of the key issues that have received inadequate attention in previous work on temporal variety-seeking behavior. The main ...

  16. The Perceived Informational Value and Affective Consequences of Choice Behavior and Intermediate Difficulty Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wulf-Uwe; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Four experiments are presented that examine the affective and the informational explanations of risk-preference behavior. Experiments I and II provide a phenomenological analysis of the affective and informational determinants of choice behavior while Experiments III and IV investigates at what level of difficulty individuals most desire…

  17. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach sp

  18. Habit, information acquisition, and the prediction of travel mode choice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verplanken, B.

    1996-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of habit in travel mode choices. Habit was measured by using mental representations of activities that may include the target behavior. Using behavioral process-tracing paradigms, it was found that habit attenuates not only the elaborateness of information acquisition

  19. Aging impairs deliberation and behavioral flexibility in inter-temporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick-Andre eBreton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal choice depends on multiple, interacting systems, some of which may be compromised with age. Some of these systems may be responsible for ongoing trial-by-trial choice strategies. Some may represent the consequences of action. Some may be necessary for the coupling between anticipated consequences and strategies currently in use, flexibly guiding behavior. When faced with a difficult decision, rats will orient back and forth, a behavior termed ``vicarious trial and error'' (VTE. Recent experiments have linked the occurrence of VTE to hippocampal search processes and behavioral flexibility. We tested 5 month (n=6, 9 month (n=8 and over-27 month-old (n=10 rats on a Spatial Adjusting Delay Discounting task to examine how aging impacted lap-by-lap strategies and VTE during inter-temporal choice. Rats chose between spatially separated food goals that provided a smaller-sooner or larger-later reward. On each lap, the delay to the larger-later reward was adjusted as a function of the rat's decisions, increasing by 1 second after delayed-side choices and decreasing by 1 second after non-delayed side choices. The strategies that aged rats used differed from those used in young and adult rats. Moreover, aged rats produced reliably more VTE behaviors, for protracted periods of time, uncoupled from behavioral flexibility.

  20. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  1. Behavioral scripts of urban park offenders : a rational choice perspective on influences of the park setting

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Sean Edward

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Iocational factors on offender behavior in four serious and common park offenses: auto burglary, drug sales, indecent exposure by homosexual males, and robbery. Specifically, the study sought 1) to develop prototypical script(s) for each of the four study crimes, and 2) to support or contradict the influence of effort, risk and reward on offender behavior. Using the theoretical bases of opportunity, rational choice, and scripts, behavior of ...

  2. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Justin W Martin; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show...

  3. A Structural Model with Discrete-Choice Variables for Predicting Enroute Behavior under ATIS

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jeffrey L.; Golob, Thomas F.; McNally, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing efforts in Advanced Traveler Information Systems has emphasized the need to develop more robust models of enroute driver behavior. The complexity in modeling driver behavior stems from the need to capture the day-to-day dynamics of choice, model diversion and active information acquisition, and account for individual preferences and needs. Previous papers by the authors discussed a conflict arousal methodology for modeling driver behavior in the presence of real-time information. I...

  4. A Study of Driver's Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yanjie Ji; Muqing Du; Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolution...

  5. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Drug Preference Using Multiple Choice Procedure Data

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    The Multiple Choice Procedure has been used to evaluate preference for psychoactive drugs, relative to money amounts (price), in human subjects. The present re-analysis shows that MCP data are compatible with behavioral economic analysis of drug choices. Demand curves were constructed from studies with intravenous fentanyl, intramuscular hydromorphone and oral methadone in opioid-dependent individuals; oral d-amphetamine, oral MDMA alone and during fluoxetine treatment, and smoked marijuana a...

  6. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  7. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Martin

    Full Text Available When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice. Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  8. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  9. Choices, choices, choices ...

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Taking the right decision can be a very challenging and daunting process. Designing a mobile phone, a make up case or even a pipe needs engineering teams to continuously make important choices frequently. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/choices-choices-choices/

  10. Modeling of Intercity Travel Mode Choice Behavior for Non-Business Trips within Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Manssour A. Abdulsalam Bin Miskeen; Ahmed Mohamed Alhodairi; Riza Atiq Abdullah Bin O.K. Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    This study is pioneer in investigating mode-choice behavior of inter-city traveler for non-business trips in Libya, for this we have successfully developed and validated disaggregate behavioral inter-city non-business travel mode choice model, based on a binary logit structure. Four major inter-city corridors in Libya were the source of the data required for the development of the model. Data was collected based on interviews with 576 respondents. Majority of these data (nearly two-thirds) we...

  11. The Boston Fed study of consumer behavior and payment choice: a survey of Federal Reserve System employees

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Marques; Blair, Krista; Crowe, Marianne; Schuh, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The way people pay for goods and services is changing dramatically, but little data and research on consumer behavior and payment choice are publicly available. This paper describes the results of a survey of payment behavior and attitudes taken by Federal Reserve employees in 2004. Major contributions of the survey are that it asks: 1) why payment choices are made; 2) why individual payment behavior has changed; and 3) why individual-specific payment characteristics matter for payment choice...

  12. EXPLORING THE CHOICE BEHAVIOR ON THE RETAILING DELIVERY PROVIDER FOR ONLINE AUCTION CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shang Fan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of e-commerce is an efficient business model that enables new relationships between consumers and suppliers. In particular, the online auction market is growing between 50% and 60% and, obviously, becoming a noticeable market. However, how to deliver goods to customers has become one of the challenges for sellers. In Taiwan, convenience stores have integrated e-commerce with the logistics system of convenience stores to a new retail delivery model: “Online shopping in an electronic store and pick-up goods in a convenience store”. In this article, we combine CFA with binary logit model to incorporate logistics service quality into the choice model to understand the choice behavior of the online auction consumers and the factors that will affect the choices for retailer delivery providers. The empirical results demonstrated that information quality and convenience are key factors that impact consumers’ choice of RD providers.

  13. Housing markets, government behaviors, and housing choice: a case study of three cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Youqin Huang

    2004-01-01

    Housing reform in urban China has introduced market mechanisms into a previously welfare-oriented housing system. Although microlevel factors such as household characteristics begin to shape housing behavior in urban China as is the case in the West, macrolevel constraints and opportunities defined by not only housing stocks and housing markets but also local government behaviors continue to be crucial. By studying housing choice in Beijing, Chongqing, and Jiangyin, I find that local governme...

  14. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention

    OpenAIRE

    Weafer, Jessica; Matthew J. Baggott; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (the stop ...

  15. Interaction Between Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatment Strategies to Decrease Cocaine Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L.; Blough, Bruce E.; S. Stevens Negus

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic approaches constitute two prominent strategies for treating cocaine dependence. This study investigated interactions between behavioral and pharmacological strategies in a preclinical model of cocaine vs food choice. Six rhesus monkeys, implanted with a chronic indwelling double-lumen venous catheter, initially responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0–0.1 mg/kg/injection, FR...

  16. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  17. Impulsive action and impulsive choice across substance and behavioral addictions: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2014-11-01

    Substance use disorders are prevalent and debilitating. Certain behavioral syndromes ('behavioral addictions') characterized by repetitive habits, such as gambling disorder, stealing, shopping, and compulsive internet use, may share clinical, co-morbid, and neurobiological parallels with substance addictions. This review considers overlap between substance and behavioral addictions with a particular focus on impulsive action (inability to inhibit motor responses), and impulsive choice (preference for immediate smaller rewards to the detriment of long-term outcomes). We find that acute consumption of drugs with abuse potential is capable of modulating impulsive choice and action, although magnitude and direction of effect appear contingent on baseline function. Many lines of evidence, including findings from meta-analyses, show an association between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice and action. In some instances, elevated impulsive choice and action have been found to predate the development of substance use disorders, perhaps signifying their candidacy as objective vulnerability markers. Research in behavioral addictions is preliminary, and has mostly focused on impulsive action, finding this to be elevated versus controls, similar to that seen in chronic substance use disorders. Only a handful of imaging studies has explored the neural correlates of impulsive action and choice across these disorders. Key areas for future research are highlighted along with potential implications in terms of neurobiological models and treatment. In particular, future work should further explore whether the cognitive deficits identified are state or trait in nature: i.e. are evident before addiction perhaps signaling risk; or are a consequence of repetitive engagement in habitual behavior; and effects of novel agents known to modulate these cognitive abilities on various addictive disorders. PMID:24864028

  18. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  19. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. PMID:26899746

  20. A Personal Value-Based Model of College Students' Aptitudes and Expected Choice Behavior Regarding Retailing Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soyeon; Warrington, Patti; Goldsberry, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    A study of 754 retail management students developed a value-based model of career attitude and expected choice behavior. Findings indicate that personal values had an influence on all aspects of retail career attitudes, which then had a direct effect on expected choice behavior. (Contains 55 references.) (Author/JOW)

  1. Modeling of Intercity Travel Mode Choice Behavior for Non-Business Trips within Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour A. Abdulsalam Bin Miskeen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is pioneer in investigating mode-choice behavior of inter-city traveler for non-business trips in Libya, for this we have successfully developed and validated disaggregate behavioral inter-city non-business travel mode choice model, based on a binary logit structure. Four major inter-city corridors in Libya were the source of the data required for the development of the model. Data was collected based on interviews with 576 respondents. Majority of these data (nearly two-thirds were used for calibrating the model, whereas, the remaining data were used for validating the model. This study, which is the first of its kind in Libya, investigates the intercity traveler’s mode-choice behavior for non-business trips. The proposed model elucidates car/air transport users’ behavior and investigates their responses to the scenario of enhancing intercity transport. We have also investigated the prospect of car drivers shifting to air transport, based on a case of a diminution in airplane out-of-vehicle travel time (access time to airport, waiting time at airport and egress time from airport. We deem that the findings of this study will facilitate all the levels of decision-makers to sensibly allocate resources for the enhancement of air transportation

  2. Visual choice behavior by bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) confirms unsupervised neural network's predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Plowright, Catherine M S; Chartier, Sylvain; Thompson, Emma; Xu, Vicki

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral experiment herein tests the computational load hypothesis generated by an unsupervised neural network to examine bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) behavior at 2 visual properties: spatial frequency and symmetry. Untrained "flower-naïve" bumblebees were hypothesized to prefer symmetry only when the spatial frequency of artificial flowers is high and therefore places great information-processing demands on the bumblebees' visual system. Bumblebee choice behavior was recorded using high-definition motion-sensitive camcorders. The results support the computational model's prediction: 1-axis symmetry influenced bumblebees' preference behavior at low and high spatial frequency patterns. Additionally, increasing the level of symmetry from 1 axis to 4 axes amplified preference toward the symmetric patterns of both low and high spatial frequency patterns. The results are discussed in the context of the artificial neural network model and other hypotheses generated from the behavioral literature. PMID:25984936

  3. Slutsky Equation and Negative Elasticity of Labor Supply: Behavioral Bias or Optimal Consumption-Leisure Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey MALAKHOV

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of the prospect theory is the behavioral phenomenon of the negative elasticity of the individual labor supply. This paper argues that the negative elasticity of labor supply can be understood better with the help of the interpretation of the Slutsky equation with regard to the common consumption-leisure choice. The interpretation of the Slutsky equation corresponds to the empirical evidence that leisure is a net complement for an important part of consumption.

  4. Dopamine enhances model-based over model-free choice behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Wunderlich, K; Smittenaar, P.; Dolan, R J

    2012-01-01

    Summary Decision making is often considered to arise out of contributions from a model-free habitual system and a model-based goal-directed system. Here, we investigated the effect of a dopamine manipulation on the degree to which either system contributes to instrumental behavior in a two-stage Markov decision task, which has been shown to discriminate model-free from model-based control. We found increased dopamine levels promote model-based over model-free choice.

  5. A dynamic choice model of hybrid behavior in the attribute-space

    OpenAIRE

    Ladr??n de Guevara, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic choice model in the attribute space considering rational consumers that discount the future. In light of the evidence of several state-dependence patterns, the model is further extended by considering a utility function that allows for the different types of behavior described in the literature: pure inertia, pure variety seeking and hybrid. The model presents a stationary consumption pattern that can be inertial, where the consumer only buys ...

  6. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent; Kooreman, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between the interaction strength, the number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze the individual behavior of some 8000 high school teenagers from almost 500 different school classes. We find endogenous social interaction ...

  7. Attitudes and Acceptability of Behavior Change Techniques to Promote Healthy Food Choices Among Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... it to be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....

  8. Attitudes and Acceptability of Behavior Change Techniques to Promote Healthy Food Choices Among Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....

  9. Choices between positive and negative reinforcement during treatment for escape-maintained behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    DeLeon, I G; Neidert, P L; Anders, B M; Rodriguez-Catter, V

    2001-01-01

    Positive reinforcement was more effective than negative reinforcement in promoting compliance and reducing escape-maintained problem behavior for a child with autism. Escape extinction was then added while the child was given a choice between positive or negative reinforcement for compliance and the reinforcement schedule was thinned. When the reinforcement requirement reached 10 consecutive tasks, the treatment effects became inconsistent and reinforcer selection shifted from a strong prefer...

  10. Behavior of broiler chickens in four different substrates: a choice test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Villagrá

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the selection of bedding material by broiler chickens during the rearing period and whether the choice was determinant to their performing a specific behavior. To achieve this objective, a choice test was designed. A choice pen was constructed where birds could move freely around the four selected materials (straw, wood shavings, rice hulls and sand. Chickens were introduced in this pen in four groups of eight birds, three days a week for one hour per day and group, for four weeks. The location and the activity performed by each broiler were recorded every five minutes. Results showed a preference for sand compared with the other three substrates. However, differences between the behaviors performed in each bedding material were shown mainly for resting (preferably performed on wood shavings and straw, dust bathing (on sand, pecking and scratching (on rice hulls. Other factors, such as the time of day, were also found to have effects on fighting and drinking, and changes in behavioral patterns (resting, preening, eating, standing and pecking were also detected as broilers grew older.

  11. Girls' and boys' choices of peer behavioral characteristics at age five

    OpenAIRE

    Braza, Francisco; Sánchez-Martín, José R.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, María R.; Muñoz, José M.; Azurmendi, Aitziber

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed age differences in the behavioral profiles of the girls and boys chosen as play partners by same- and cross-sex peers at age 5 and the influence of these choices on subsequent behavior at 9 in a sample of 107 Spanish children. Girls chose girls who had an interest in resources and affective leadership, whereas boys chose boys interested in sport and rejected those preferring role-taking play. Both girls and boys who were preferred by boys at 5 showed low levels of maladaptive beha...

  12. Improving behavioral realism in hybrid energy-economy models using discrete choice studies of personal transportation decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid energy-economy models combine top-down and bottom-up approaches to explore behaviorally realistic responses to technology-focused policies. This research uses empirically derived discrete choice models to inform key behavioral parameters in CIMS, a hybrid model. The discrete choice models are estimated for vehicle and commuting decisions from a survey of 1150 Canadians. With the choice models integrated into CIMS, we simulate carbon taxes, gasoline vehicle disincentives, and single occupancy vehicle disincentives to show how different policy levers can motivate technological change. We also use the empirical basis for the choice models to portray uncertainty in technological change, costs, and emissions. (author)

  13. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  14. Choice Overload, Satisficing Behavior, and Price Distribution in a Time Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychological research indicates that consumers that search exhaustively for the best option of a market product—known as maximizers—eventually feel worse than consumers who just look for something good enough—called satisficers. We formulate a time allocation model to explore the relationship between different distributions of prices of the product and the satisficing behavior and the related welfare of the consumer. We show numerically that, as the number of options becomes large, the maximizing behavior produces less and less welfare and eventually leads to choice paralysis—these are effects of choice overload—whereas satisficing conducts entail higher levels of satisfaction and do not end up in paralysis. For different price distributions, we provide consistent evidence that maximizers are better off for a low number of options, whereas satisficers are better off for a sufficiently large number of options. We also show how the optimal satisficing behavior is affected when the underlying price distribution varies. We provide evidence that the mean and the dispersion of a symmetric distribution of prices—but not the shape of the distribution—condition the satisficing behavior of consumers. We also show that this need not be the case for asymmetric distributions.

  15. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  16. Decision making by humans in a behavioral task: do humans, like pigeons, show suboptimal choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Mikael; Miller, Holly C; Laude, Jennifer R; Kirk, Chelsea; Manning, Brandon; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    Consistent with human gambling behavior but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons show a strong preference for an alternative with low probability and high payoff (a gambling-like alternative) over an alternative with a greater net payoff (Zentall & Stagner, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1203-1208, 2011). In the present research, we asked whether humans would show suboptimal choice on a task involving choices with probabilities similar to those for pigeons. In Experiment 1, when we selected participants on the basis of their self-reported gambling activities, we found a significantly greater choice of the alternative involving low probability and high payoff (gambling-like alternative) than for a group that reported an absence of gambling activity. In Experiment 2, we found that when the inhibiting abilities of typical humans were impaired by a self-regulatory depletion manipulation, they were more likely to choose the gambling-like alternative. Taken together, the results suggest that this task is suitable for the comparative study of suboptimal decision-making behavior and the mechanisms that underlie it. PMID:22328280

  17. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender. PMID:25943024

  18. Effects of decreasing sedentary behaviors on activity choice in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L H; Saelens, B E; Myers, M D; Vito, D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, methods of decreasing highly preferred sedentary behaviors were compared and the consequent effects on activity choice were examined. Following free choice of sedentary and physical activities, 34 obese children either were positively reinforced for decreases in high-preference sedentary activity, were punished for high-preference sedentary activity, had access to high-preference sedentary activity restricted, or had no contingencies on activity (control group). Children randomized to reinforcement and punishment were more physically active on intervention days than the control group. Liking for targeted sedentary activity decreased in the reinforcement group, but increased in the restriction and control groups. Results suggest that reinforcing decreases in high-preference sedentary activity can increase physical activity and decrease liking for targeted sedentary activities. PMID:9269880

  19. Analysis of the traffic running cost under random route choice behavior in a network with two routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Kai

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is used to study each driver's three running costs in a network with two routes under the random route choice behavior. The numerical results indicate that each driver's three running costs and the corresponding total cost are relevant to the gap of the time the driver enters the network. The results can help us to further explore each driver's trip cost in a more complex network under other route choice behavior.

  20. Residence and Job Location Change Choice Behavior under Flooding and Cyclone Impacts in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change enters significantly into and is shown to be a direct determinant of residence and job location change decisions. Understanding of how people’s residence and job location change choice behavior is affected and thus responds to the impacts of climate change is essential for transportation planners and adaptation decision makers. As an addition to the current literature, the main purposes of this paper are to investigate people’s residence and job location change choice behavior affected by factors at origin and look into the behavioral differences between coastal and inland people under flooding and cyclone scenarios in Bangladesh. Questionnaire data were surveyed in 14 coastal and inland cities of Bangladesh with an orthogonal design of three flooding/cyclone scenarios. The multinomial Logit model and cross-nested Logit model are proposed to address the above purposes. Results of this study indicate that flooding/cyclone factors and income, land owned, and number of family members significantly affects people’s location change choice. In addition, coastal people are also significantly affected by previous experience factors. Furthermore, road connection plays an important role when people choose to change residence locations in coastal areas. It is also found that if there are changes in flooding impacts, the inland people will first consider to change their job locations, while the coastal people would consider both job and residence location changes. Results of this work provide policy suggestions on transportation infrastructure investment, shelter planning and construction, and population migration under flood and cyclone impacts as a result of climate change.

  1. Glucocorticoid regulation of food-choice behavior in humans: Evidence from Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Moeller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing’s syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing’s syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with ‘explicit’ task contingencies and one with ‘probabilistic’ task contingencies, during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images versus standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-hour urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task, participants with active Cushing’s syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing’s syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing’s patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing’s patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing’s, these results

  2. Kid's Choice Program improves weight management behaviors and weight status in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Williams, Keith E; Camise, Thomas S

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the Kid's Choice Program (KCP) for increasing children's weight management behaviors, and decreasing body mass index percentile (BMI%) for overweight and average-weight children. It also evaluated KCP characteristics relevant to long-term application in schools. Participants included 382 children assigned to two groups: a KCP group that received token rewards for three "Good Health Behaviors" including eating fruits or vegetables first at meals (FVFIRST), choosing low-fat and low-sugar healthy drinks (HDRINK), and showing 5000 exercise steps recorded on pedometers (EXERCISE), or a control group that received token rewards for three "Good Citizenship Behaviors." School lunch observations and pedometer records were completed for one month under baseline and three months under reward conditions. The school nurse calculated children's BMI% one year before baseline, at baseline, at the end of KCP application, and six months later. The KCP increased FVFIRST, HDRINK, and EXERCISE from baseline through reward conditions, with ANCOVAs demonstrating that these increases were associated with both the offer of reward and nearby peer models. Overweight (n=112) and average-weight (n=200) children showed drops in BMI% after the three-month KCP, but overweight children re-gained weight six months later, suggesting the need for more ongoing KCP application. HDRINK choice was the behavior most associated with BMI% drops for overweight children. Small teams of parent volunteers effectively delivered the KCP, and school staff endorsed parent volunteers as the best personnel to deliver the KCP, which costs approximately two U.S. dollars per child per month of application. PMID:21277924

  3. Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

    2011-04-27

    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards. PMID:21525269

  4. Importance of grass-legume choices on cattle grazing behavior, performance, and meat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, B; Provenza, F D; Tansawat, R; Maughan, C; Martini, S; Ward, R; Clemensen, A; Song, X; Cornforth, D; Villalba, J J

    2014-05-01

    We determined if tall fescue in a mixture with either tannin-containing sainfoin or saponin-containing alfalfa affected cattle foraging behavior, performance, meat quality, and consumer acceptance of meat. Foraging behavior, BW, and pasture biomass before and after grazing were monitored when cattle strip-grazed 3 replications of 2 treatments from May through September 2010 (12 calves/replication) and from June through September 2012 (8 calves/replication). Animals were allowed a choice between tall fescue and sainfoin (SAN) or tall fescue and alfalfa (ALF) growing in strips (fescue, legume, and fescue-legume mixture). Incidence of use (scan samples) of legumes increased from the beginning to the end of the trials (P 0.05). No incidences of bloat were detected. When cattle (3 calves/treatment in 2010 and 8 calves/treatment in 2012) were slaughtered in September to assess meat quality and consumer acceptance, carcasses were lean (4% to 6% fat content of the longissimus muscle), but compared with ALF, SAN had higher marbling scores, quality grades (Select versus Standard), and back fat thicknesses (P 0.05). Thus, cattle incorporated a lower-quality grass into their diets even when legumes were available ad libitum during most grazing trials. Choices between tall fescue and legumes differing in the type of secondary compound (tannins vs. saponins) and bloating potential influenced patterns of forage use by cattle and led to differences in meat quality. PMID:24671584

  5. Pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians' choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao-Sheng, Chen; Yu-Ti, Shih

    2008-09-01

    This research presents an analysis of Taiwan's health care market with the focus on the pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians' choice behavior. Since the advent of Taiwan's national health insurance, with the competent authority being Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI), hospitals are allowed to sell prescription drugs to patients at prices above the purchasing prices, so each prescription drug has two prices: one at which drugs are sold to hospitals; the other which BNHI reimbursement to hospitals. The margin between the different prices is the sales discount that pharmaceutical companies offer to the hospitals. We find that sales discount has a great impact on physicians' choice behavior: i.e., physicians are price-sensitive to prescription drugs. In addition, it is found that too high a sales discount of a prescription drug would result in a too low weighted average price of that drug sold; thus BNHI would be more likely to adjust downward the rate it reimbursement to the hospital. This presents a sales strategy problem to pharmaceutical companies. To solve this, we use the distribution of physicians' evaluations of prescription drugs to establish a profit maximization model in hopes of helping companies to price drugs and find the optimal promotion expending. Ten popular prescription drugs are used in this research as examples. PMID:18826006

  6. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  7. Choice Set” for health behavior in choice-constrained settings to frame research and inform policy: examples of food consumption, obesity and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Robert V. H. Dover; Lambert, Estelle V

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using the nexus between food consumption, food security and obesity, this paper addresses the complexity of health behavior decision-making moments that reflect relational social dynamics in context-specific dialogues, often in choice-constrained conditions. Methods A pragmatic review of literature regarding social determinants of health in relation to food consumption, food security and obesity was used to advance this theoretical model. Results and discussion We suggest that heal...

  8. A circuit motif in the zebrafish hindbrain for a two alternative behavioral choice to turn left or right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Minoru; Minale, Francesca; Shum, Jennifer; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Fetcho, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Animals collect sensory information from the world and make adaptive choices about how to respond to it. Here, we reveal a network motif in the brain for one of the most fundamental behavioral choices made by bilaterally symmetric animals: whether to respond to a sensory stimulus by moving to the left or to the right. We define network connectivity in the hindbrain important for the lateralized escape behavior of zebrafish and then test the role of neurons by using laser ablations and behavioral studies. Key inhibitory neurons in the circuit lie in a column of morphologically similar cells that is one of a series of such columns that form a developmental and functional ground plan for building hindbrain networks. Repetition within the columns of the network motif we defined may therefore lie at the foundation of other lateralized behavioral choices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16808.001 PMID:27502742

  9. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable. PMID:25460097

  10. The behavioral economics of consumer brand choice: patterns of reinforcement and utility maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2004-06-30

    Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers maximize. PMID:15157975

  11. Location-type choice for face-to-face social activities and its effect on travel behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline van den Berg; Theo Arentze; Harry Timmermans

    2010-01-01

    Face-to-face social activities, such as joint activities with friends or visiting relatives, involve meeting with other persons at a certain time and location. This (social) spatial-choice behavior is critical for successful urban planning. Recently there has been a rapid emergence of research into social interactions in the field of urban planning and transport. This study contributes to our understanding of the relationships between face-to-face social interaction, location-type choice, and...

  12. Consumer Behavior: evaluation of alternatives and search for information in the choice of higher education courses in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Fernanda Silva Kalil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer Science is basis of many web systems, and is also responsible for a growing number of jobs and wealth creation. The aim of this study was to understand the consumer behavior (undergraduate students decision making of Higher Education Institutions at the stages of information search and evaluation of alternatives. The sample consisted of 208 questionnaires collected through quantitative research. The Internet was the most used tool for the process of information search. In the evaluation of alternatives, the choice of course is related to professional factors, social elements, and personal convenience, and that the choice of Faculty is decided thought the evaluation of the value of the diploma in the market, brand reputation, quality of education, teachers and infrastructure. The article provides empirical evidence of consumer behavior, proposing an explanatory model about the choice of Higher Education Institutions and a hypothetical model the impact of student satisfaction in their behavioral intentions.

  13. Dissociable contribution of nucleus accumbens and dorsolateral striatum to the acquisition of risk choice behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Hau; Liao, Ruey-Ming

    2015-12-01

    While a growing body of research has suggested that the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems play a key role in decision making under risk, how the nucleus accumbens (NAC) is involved in the acquisition of risk choice behavior remains unclear. This study used a T-maze task to assess risk-based decision making in which the rat was required to assess the risk by choosing to enter either a small and certain reward arm or a large but uncertain reward arm of the maze. The latter option, when chosen, resulted in provision of 2, 4, or 8 sweeten pellets with a probability (p) of 0.5, 0.25, or 0.125, respectively. Thus the latter arm provided three different conditions of reward ratio, compared to the choice of former arm, which always provided 1 pellet with p=1. This risk choice task was then run with the expected value being equality between the binary choice options. The experimental rats first received an excitoneurotoxic lesion affecting either the NAC or the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and this was followed by post-lesion behavioral examination. The sham lesion control rats acquired a stable risk choice with regard to each reward ratio over a 10-day test. The pattern of choice behavior appeared in risk-seeking when p=0.5 to obtain 2 pellets, and was risk-averse when larger reward resulted in lower p. The NAC lesion significantly disrupted the acquisition of the aforementioned risk choice behavior and apparently shifted the choice into a risk-averse style for all three reward ratios. No such effect was observed in the rats with DLS lesions. Neither the gross motor action nor the discrimination of different reward magnitudes was impaired by the lesions affecting either the NAC or DLS as assessed by an additional experiment. These findings suggest that firstly there is heterogeneity between NAC and DLS with respect to risk-based decision making, and that secondly the NAC is involved and critical to the acquisition of behavioral choice under risk, specially when the

  14. Does Eye Tracking Reveal More About the Effects of Buying Impulsiveness on the Green Industry Consumer Choice Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, Hayk; Behe, Bridget K.; Campbell, Benjamin L.; Hall, Charles R.; Dennis, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Although consumer behavior research has investigated impulsive buying behavior since the early 1950s, no studies explored the relationship between eye gaze metrics, buying impulsiveness scores and purchase decisions. The present study is a preliminary approach to setting consumer purchase decisions as a function of not only product attributes, but also individuals’ buying impulsiveness and eye gaze measures, which were collected using an eye tracking device during choice experiments. Specific...

  15. Willingness-to-pay estimation with choice-based conjoint analysis : Addressing extreme response behavior with individually adapted designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Hinz, O.; Skiera, B.; Theysohn, S.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing consideration of behavioral aspects in operations management models has prompted greater use of choice-based conjoint (CBC) studies in operations research. Such studies can elicit consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), a core input for many optimization models. However, optimization mod

  16. A Comparison of within- and across-Activity Choices for Reducing Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Neely, Leslie; Camargo, Siglia; Hutchins, Nancy; Davenport, Katy; Goodwyn, Fara

    2013-01-01

    Offering children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) choices between activities (e.g., working on math or English), instructional materials (e.g., using a pen or pencil), or environmental arrangements (e.g., where to sit) has been shown to reduce challenging behavior maintained by escape from task demands. However, the majority of research…

  17. Behavioral contexts, food-choice coping strategies, and dietary quality of a multiethnic sample of employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A; Devine, Carol M

    2011-03-01

    Employed parents' work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents' food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward's method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner's employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents' work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  18. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    individuals' environmental attitudes and values. Consumer involvement and environmental attitudes contribute significantly toward explaining sustainable choices, suggesting that greater consumer involvement may be targeted by policy makers and firms to more effectively nudge consumers toward green consumerism......To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based on...

  19. The Effect of Consumer Decision Making Style on Retail Format ChoiceBehavior: A Study from Sukkur, Pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Saleh Memon; Ahmed Ali Mangrio; Amjad Ali Jatoi

    2014-01-01

    Research on exploring effects of Consumer Decision Making Style on Retail Format Choice Behavior and to study the effect of demographic factors on each factor of decision making style was conducted. The usable data of 116 respondents’ was taken from the city of Sukkur in Pakistan. The multiple regression technique was used to explain the role of afore mentioned factors. Results conclude that only 7.9% is explained by Decision Making Styles on Retail Format Choice. And maximum of 18.7% is expl...

  20. The Effect of Consumer Decision Making Style on Retail Format ChoiceBehavior: A Study from Sukkur, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saleh Memon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on exploring effects of Consumer Decision Making Style on Retail Format Choice Behavior and to study the effect of demographic factors on each factor of decision making style was conducted. The usable data of 116 respondents’ was taken from the city of Sukkur in Pakistan. The multiple regression technique was used to explain the role of afore mentioned factors. Results conclude that only 7.9% is explained by Decision Making Styles on Retail Format Choice. And maximum of 18.7% is explained by four demographic factors on a Consumer Decision Making Style.

  1. Predictors of the consistency between healthy snack choice intention and actual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors that affect the intention¿behaviour consistency of healthy snack choices. Intended snack choice was assessed by asking participants (N = 538) to choose a snack on paper, out of 8 snacks (4 healthy, e.g. melon and gingerbread, and 4 unhealthy, e.g. crisps an

  2. A REVIEW OF ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYSIS IN EPRI EA-3409,"HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCE CHOICE: REVISION OF REEPS BEHAVIORAL MODELS"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, D.J.; Ruderman, H.; McMahon, J. E.

    1989-05-01

    This paper revises and extends EPRI report EA-3409, ''Household Appliance Choice: Revision of REEPS Behavioral Models.'' That paper reported the results of an econometric study of major appliance choice in new residential construction. Errors appeared in two tables of that report. We offer revised versions of those tables, and a brief analysis of the consequences and significance of the errors. The present paper also proposes several possible extensions and re-specifications of the models examined by EPRI. Some of these are judged to be highly successful; they both satisfy economic intuition more completely than the original specification and produce a better quality fit to the dependent variable. We feel that inclusion of these modifications produces a more useful set of coefficients for economic modeling than the original specification. This paper focuses on EPRI's models of residential space heating technology choice. That choice was modeled as a nested logit structure, with consumers choosing whether to have central air conditioning or not, and, given that choice, what kind of space heating system to have. The model included five space heating alternatives with central cooling (gas, oil, and electric forced-air; heat pumps; and electric baseboard) and eight alternatives without it (gas, oil, and electric forced-air; gas and oil boilers and non-central systems; and electric baseboard heat). The structure of the nested logit model is shown in Figure 1.

  3. How urban environment affects travel behavior? Integrated Choice and Latent Variable Model for Travel Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Paix, Lissy; Bierlaire, Michel; Cherchi, Elisabetta;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between urban environment and travel behaviour is not a new problem. Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mobility of dwellers in different ways, such as frequency of trips, mode used, structure of the tours, and so on. At the same time, qualitative issues related to the...... individual attitude towards specific behaviour have recently become important in transport modelling contributing to a better understanding of travel demand. Following this research line, in this paper we study the effect of neighbourhood characteristics in the choice of the type of tours performed, but we...... assume that neighbourhood characteristics can also affect the individual propensity to travel and hence the choice of the tours throughout the propensity to travel. Since the propensity to travel is not observed, we employ hybrid choice models to estimate jointly the discrete choice of tours and the...

  4. Risk-taking path choice behaviors under ATIS in transportation networks with demand uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new travel time reliability-based traffic assignment model is proposed to investigate the effects of an advanced transportation information system (ATIS) on drivers' risk-taking path choice behaviours in transportation networks with demand uncertainty. In the model, drivers are divided into two classes. The first class is not equipped with ATIS, while the second class is equipped with ATIS. Different risk-taking path choice behaviours of the two classes are studied, respectively. A corresponding mixed equ...

  5. Human Aspects of Route Choice Behavior: Incorporating Perceptions, Learning Trends, Latent Classes, and Personality Traits in the Modeling of Driver Heterogeneity in Route Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Aly M.; Rakha, Hesham A.

    2012-01-01

    Driver heterogeneity in travel behavior has repeatedly been cited in the literature as a limitation that needs to be addressed. In this work, driver heterogeneity is addressed from four different perspectives. First, driver heterogeneity is addressed by models of driver perceptions of travel conditions: travel distance, time, and speed. Second, it is addressed from the perspective of driver learning trends and models of driver-types. Driver type is not commonly used in the vernacular of trans...

  6. Response Inhibition of Cigarette-related Cues in Male Smokers: Behavioral Evidence from a Two-choice Oddball Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eXin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/No-Go and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers, who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC and reaction time (RT for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues.

  7. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X; Yi, Zan X; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers' response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers' impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  8. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  9. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  10. Impulsive choice and response in dopamine agonist-related impulse control behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Reynolds, Brady; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Skaljic, Meliha; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Potenza, Marc N; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Dopaminergic medication-related Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) such as pathological gambling and compulsive shopping have been reported in Parkinson disease (PD). Hypothesis We hypothesized that dopamine agonists (DAs) would be associated with greater impulsive choice, or greater discounting of delayed rewards, in PD patients with ICDs (PDI). Methods Fourteen PDI patients, 14 PD controls without ICDs and 16 medication-free matched normal controls were tested on (i) the Experiential Discounting Task (EDT), a feedback-based intertemporal choice task, (ii) spatial working memory and (iii) attentional set shifting. The EDT was used to assess impulsivity choice (hyperbolic K-value), reaction time (RT) and decision conflict RT (the RT difference between high conflict and low conflict choices). PDI patients and PD controls were tested on and off DA. Results On the EDT, there was a group by medication interaction effect [F(1,26)=5.62; p=0.03] with pairwise analyses demonstrating that DA status was associated with increased impulsive choice in PDI patients (p=0.02) but not in PD controls (p=0.37). PDI patients also had faster RT compared to PD controls F(1,26)=7.51 p=0.01]. DA status was associated with shorter RT [F(3,24)=8.39, p=0.001] and decision conflict RT [F(1,26)=6.16, p=0.02] in PDI patients but not in PD controls. There were no correlations between different measures of impulsivity. PDI patients on DA had greater spatial working memory impairments compared to PD controls on DA (t=2.13, df=26, p=0.04). Conclusion Greater impulsive choice, faster RT, faster decision conflict RT and executive dysfunction may contribute to ICDs in PD. PMID:19838863

  11. Rational and Boundedly Rational Behavior in a Binary Choice Sender-Receiver Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Massimiliano; Colucci, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate the strategic rationale behind the message sent by Osama bin Laden on the eve of the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections. They model this situation as a signaling game in which a population of receivers takes a binary choice, the outcome is decided by majority rule, sender and receivers have conflicting interests, and there is…

  12. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Soetevent; P. Kooreman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete-choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between interaction strength, number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation

  13. A discrete choice model with social interactions : an analysis of high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, Peter; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2002-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice model that explicitly allows for endogenous social interactions. We analyze the issues of multiple equilibria, statistical coherency, and estimation of the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze a data set containing info

  14. Adenylyl cyclase-5 in the dorsal striatum function as a molecular switch for the generation of behavioral preferences for cue-directed food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; KIM, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral choices in habits and innate behaviors occur automatically in the absence of conscious selection. These behaviors are not easily modified by learning. Similar types of behaviors also occur in various mental illnesses including drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating unconditioned preferred behaviors in food...

  15. Intra-accumbens injections of the adenosine A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 affect effort-related choice behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Stopper, Colin M.; WORDEN, LILA T.; Mingote, Susana; Port, Russell G.; Salamone, John D.; Font Hurtado, Laura; Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired accumbens DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-reinforced activities that have high response requirements, and instead select less-effortful types of food-seeking behavior. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating eff...

  16. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  17. Calorie labeling and fast food choices in surveys and actual markets: some new behavioral results

    OpenAIRE

    Maria L Loureiro; Rahmani, Djamal

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey and a randomized natural experiment with the same subjects to investigate the effect of information about calorie intake on fast food choices. This combined approach allows us to maximize both internal and external research validity and test consistency of findings. We find that providing information about calories in a survey context for fast food menus has a moderate effect on calorie consumption, decreasing on average by 2.96 percent the amount of calories of the sele...

  18. Human Dorsal Striatal Activity during Choice Discriminates Reinforcement Learning Behavior from the Gambler’s Fallacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, Ryan K.; O'Doherty, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor–critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum—as predicted by an actor–critic instantiation—is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in acc...

  19. Effect of Sex-Roles and Type A Behavior on Children's Friendship Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.

    This cross-sectional study attempted to (1) demonstrate that children's sex role orientation is related to their tendency for Type A behavior and (2) ascertain whether children expressing Type A behavior would experience difficulty in making and keeping friends. Participants were 286 kindergarten children and elementary school students in the…

  20. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. PMID:23428940

  1. Effects of Peer Models' Food Choices and Eating Behaviors on Preschoolers' Food Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps

    1980-01-01

    The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)

  2. Ongoing behavioral state information signaled in the lateral habenula guides choice flexibility in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip M; Oh, Sujean E; Kidder, Kevan S; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2015-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors ranging from maternal care, to sleep, to various forms of cognition. One prominent theory with ample supporting evidence is that the LHb serves to relay basal ganglia and limbic signals about negative outcomes to midbrain monoaminergic systems. This makes it likely that the LHb is critically involved in behavioral flexibility as all of these systems have been shown to contribute when flexible behavior is required. Behavioral flexibility is commonly examined across species and is impaired in various neuropsychiatric conditions including autism, depression, addiction, and schizophrenia; conditions in which the LHb is thought to play a role. Therefore, a thorough examination of the role of the LHb in behavioral flexibility serves multiple functions including understanding possible connections with neuropsychiatric illnesses and additional insight into its role in cognition in general. Here, we assess the LHb's role in behavioral flexibility through comparisons of the roles its afferent and efferent pathways are known to play. Additionally, we provide new evidence supporting the LHb contributions to behavioral flexibility through organization of specific goal directed actions under cognitively demanding conditions. Specifically, in the first experiment, a majority of neurons recorded from the LHb were found to correlate with velocity on a spatial navigation task and did not change significantly when reward outcomes were manipulated. Additionally, measurements of local field potential (LFP) in the theta band revealed significant changes in power relative to velocity and reward location. In a second set of experiments, inactivation of the LHb with the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists baclofen and muscimol led to an impairment in a spatial/response based repeated probabilistic reversal learning task. Control experiments revealed that this impairment was likely due to the demands of repeated

  3. Ongoing behavioral state information signaled in the lateral habenula guides choice flexibility in freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Michael Baker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors ranging from maternal care, to sleep, to various forms of cognition. One prominent theory with ample supporting evidence is that the LHb serves to relay basal ganglia and limbic signals about negative outcomes to midbrain monoaminergic systems. This makes it likely that the LHb is critically involved in behavioral flexibility as all of these systems have been shown to contribute when flexible behavior is required. Behavioral flexibility is commonly examined across species and is impaired in various neuropsychiatric conditions including autism, depression, addiction, and schizophrenia; conditions in which the LHb is thought to play a role. Therefore, a thorough examination of the role of the LHb in behavioral flexibility serves multiple functions including understanding possible connections with neuropsychiatric illnesses and additional insight into its role in cognition in general. Here we assess the LHb’s role in behavioral flexibility through comparisons of the roles its afferent and efferent pathways are known to play. Additionally, we provide new evidence supporting the LHb contributions to behavioral flexibility through organization of specific goal directed actions under cognitively demanding conditions. Specifically, in the first experiment, a majority of neurons recorded from the LHb were found to correlate with velocity on a spatial navigation task and did not change significantly when reward outcomes were manipulated. Additionally, measurements of local field potential in the theta band revealed significant changes in power relative to velocity and reward location. In a second set of experiments, inactivation of the LHb with the GABA agonists baclofen and muscimol led to an impairment in a spatial/response based repeated probabilistic reversal learning task. Control experiments revealed that this impairment was likely due to the demands of repeated switching

  4. Feeding State Modulates Behavioral Choice and Processing of Prey Stimuli in the Zebrafish Tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosa, Alessandro; Barker, Alison J; Dal Maschio, Marco; Baier, Herwig

    2016-05-01

    Animals use the sense of vision to scan their environment, respond to threats, and locate food sources. The neural computations underlying the selection of a particular behavior, such as escape or approach, require flexibility to balance potential costs and benefits for survival. For example, avoiding novel visual objects reduces predation risk but negatively affects foraging success. Zebrafish larvae approach small, moving objects ("prey") and avoid large, looming objects ("predators"). We found that this binary classification of objects by size is strongly influenced by feeding state. Hunger shifts behavioral decisions from avoidance to approach and recruits additional prey-responsive neurons in the tectum, the main visual processing center. Both behavior and tectal function are modulated by signals from the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and the serotonergic system. Our study has revealed a neuroendocrine mechanism that modulates the perception of food and the willingness to take risks in foraging decisions. PMID:27146269

  5. Not All Antidepressants Are Created Equal: Differential Effects of Monoamine Uptake Inhibitors on Effort-Related Choice Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E; Collins, Samantha L; Contreras-Mora, Hector M; Errante, Emily L; Rowland, Margaret A; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D

    2016-02-01

    Motivated behavior can be characterized by behavioral activation and high work output. Moreover, people with depression and other disorders show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, psychomotor retardation, and fatigue. Effort-based decision making is studied using tasks offering choices between high effort options leading to highly valued reinforcers vs low effort/low reward options, and such tasks could be useful as animal models of motivational symptoms. In the present studies the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine (TBZ) were investigated. TBZ blocks vesicular storage and also produces depressive symptoms in humans. Moreover, TBZ alters effort-based choice in rats, biasing animals toward low effort alternatives. The present studies investigated the ability of acute administration of various monoamine uptake inhibitors to reverse the effects of TBZ. Effort-related effects of TBZ were attenuated by the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion, and this effect of bupropion was reversed by either D1 or D2 family antagonism. The effort-related effects of TBZ were also attenuated by the selective dopamine uptake blocker GBR12909. The 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the norepinephrine uptake inhibitor desipramine failed to reverse the effects of TBZ, and higher doses of these drugs, given alone or in combination with TBZ, led to further behavioral impairments. These results indicate that drugs acting on dopamine transmission are relatively effective at reversing the effort-related effects of TBZ, and are consistent with the hypothesis that drugs that enhance dopamine transmission may be effective at treating effort-related psychiatric symptoms in humans. PMID:26105139

  6. Estimating Value of Congestion and of Reliability from Observation of Route Choice Behavior of Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a consensus has been reached about the relevance of calculating the value of congestion and the value of reliability for better understanding and therefore better prediction of travel behavior. The current study proposed a revealed preference approach that used a large amount of ...

  7. The Evolution of the American Family and Its Effects on Health Behavior Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.

    The evolution of the family concerns health educators because family environment has been consistently linked to development of various addictions and negative behaviors, such as drug and alcohol abuse, eating disorders, workaholism, excessive exercise, sexual promiscuity, vandalism, youth crime, and violence and abuse. It is recognized that a…

  8. Stress Impairs Optimal Behavior in a Water Foraging Choice Task in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lauren K.; Yoon, Taejib; Kim, Jeansok J.

    2010-01-01

    Stress is a biologically significant social-environmental factor that plays a pervasive role in influencing human and animal behaviors. While stress effects on various types of memory are well characterized, its effects on other cognitive functions are relatively unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of acute, uncontrollable stress on…

  9. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  10. Assessing the Impact of Parking Pricing on Transportation Mode Choice and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wei-Shiuen

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of parking pricing on travel demand and behavior, using the University of California (UC), Berkeley campus as a study site. Parking pricing is often implemented to recover costs or to serve as a source of revenue for cities or private parking operators. However, parking pricing can also be an effective transportation demand management tool. Parking price can be set at market rates or can be set to meet other objectives, such as reducing emissions or tr...

  11. The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior: Experimental Evidence from Children's Intertemporal Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Matthias; Angerer, Silvia; Rützler, Daniela; Lergetporer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    According to Chen's (2013) linguistic-savings hypothesis, languages which grammatically separate the future and the present (like English or Italian) induce less future-oriented behavior than languages in which speakers can refer to the future by using present tense (like German). We complement Chen's approach with experimentally elicited time preference data from a bilingual city in Northern Italy. We find that German-speaking primary school children are about 46% more likely than Italian-sp...

  12. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  13. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  14. Intertemporal choice behavior in emerging adults and adults: effects of age interact with alcohol use and family history status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Boettiger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs show marked immediate reward selection (or “Now” bias in intertemporal choice tasks. This Now bias persists long into abstinence, suggesting an irreversible consequence of chronic alcohol abuse or a pre-existing AUD intermediate phenotype. However, some data show substantial Now bias among emerging adults (18-25, regardless of drinking behavior, suggesting age-dependent effects on Now bias. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1 whether Now bias is greater among emerging adults relative to adults, 2 whether any such age effect on Now bias is diminished in sub-clinical heavy alcohol users, and 3 whether having a problem drinking first degree relative is independently associated with elevated Now bias. To achieve these objectives, we used an intertemporal choice task to quantify Now bias in n=237 healthy participants (ages 18-40; 50% female, and a wide range of non-zero alcohol use, based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT. We found that among non-heavy drinkers, Now bias inversely correlated with age; this relationship was not present among heavy drinkers. We found no significant relationship between AUDIT score and Now bias among emerging adults, but AUDIT scores and Now bias were positively correlated among 26-40 year olds.

  15. Deciding not to decide: computational and neural evidence for hidden behavior in sequential choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gluth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cognitive and neural processes that underlie human decision making requires the successful prediction of how, but also of when, people choose. Sequential sampling models (SSMs have greatly advanced the decision sciences by assuming decisions to emerge from a bounded evidence accumulation process so that response times (RTs become predictable. Here, we demonstrate a difficulty of SSMs that occurs when people are not forced to respond at once but are allowed to sample information sequentially: The decision maker might decide to delay the choice and terminate the accumulation process temporarily, a scenario not accounted for by the standard SSM approach. We developed several SSMs for predicting RTs from two independent samples of an electroencephalography (EEG and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. In these studies, participants bought or rejected fictitious stocks based on sequentially presented cues and were free to respond at any time. Standard SSM implementations did not describe RT distributions adequately. However, by adding a mechanism for postponing decisions to the model we obtained an accurate fit to the data. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data revealed alternating states of de- and increasing oscillatory power in beta-band frequencies (14-30 Hz, indicating that responses were repeatedly prepared and inhibited and thus lending further support for the existence of a decision not to decide. Finally, the extended model accounted for the results of an adapted version of our paradigm in which participants had to press a button for sampling more information. Our results show how computational modeling of decisions and RTs support a deeper understanding of the hidden dynamics in cognition.

  16. Closing the gap between behavior and models in route choice: The role of spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in choice set formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    not account for individual-related spatiotemporal constraints. This paper reduces the gap by proposing a route choice model incorporating spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits. The proposed approach combines stochastic route generation with a latent variable semi-compensatory model representing...

  17. Peer relationships of young children: affiliative choices and the shaping of aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J; Horsch, E; Childs, J

    1997-06-01

    Examined the occurrence of selective peer affiliation, and its impact on the development of aggressive behavior in four classrooms serving 72 preschool-age, high-risk boys and girls. Children classified as aggressive and nonaggressive were both highly selective in their peer affiliations, spending the majority of their time with a few same-sex classmates. Children generally established strong, stable, mutual affiliations with peers similar to themselves in aggression, but aggressive children had more difficulty establishing such affiliations. The interaction of peer dyads containing at least one aggressive child were characterized by more frequent, lengthy, and intense conflicts regardless of the affiliative relationship characterizing the dyad. The amount of time children spent interacting with aggressive peers predicted changes in observed and teacher-rated aggressiveness 3 months later. PMID:9169375

  18. Caste and Choice: The Influence of Developmental Idealism on Marriage Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera; Thornton, Arland

    2015-07-01

    Is the marriage behavior of young people determined by their socioeconomic characteristics or their endorsement of developmental idealism? This article addresses this question using a unique longitudinal data set from Nepal and provides the first individual-level test of developmental idealism theory. The authors find that unmarried individuals with greater endorsement of developmental idealism in 2008 were more likely by 2012 to choose their own spouse, including a spouse of a different caste, rather than have an arranged marriage. Those with salaried work experience were also less likely to have arranged marriages, but urban proximity and education were not significant. The authors conclude that both developmental idealism and socioeconomic characteristics influence marriage and that their influences are largely independent. PMID:26430712

  19. PREDICTING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY LOGIT REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma KARABAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

  20. Influence of cation choice on magnetic behavior of III-N dilute magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Rachel Marian

    With the increasing interest in spintronics, many attempts have been made at incorporating spin-based functionality into existing semiconductor technology. One approach, utilizing dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) formed via introduction of transition metal ions into III-Nitride hosts, would allow for integration of spin based phenomena into current wide bandgap device technology. To accomplish such device structures, it is necessary to achieve single phase transition metal doped GaN and AlN which exhibit room temperature magnetic behavior. Ion implantation is an effective survey method for introduction of various transition metals into AlN. In ion implanted AlN, the Co and Cr doped films showed hysteresis at 300K while the Mn doped material did not. However, it is not a technique which will allow for the development of advanced spin based devices. Such devices will require epitaxial methods of the sort currently used for synthesis of III-Nitride optoelectronics. One such technique, Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy (GSMBE), has been used to synthesize AlN films doped with Cr and Mn. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed for AlMnN and AlCrN grown by GSMBE. In both cases, the magnetic signal was found to depend on the flux of the dopant. The magnetization of the AlCrN was found to be an order of magnitude greater than in the AlMnN. The temperature dependent magnetic behavior of AlCrN was also superior to AlMnN; however, the AlCrN was not resistant to thermal degradation. An all-semiconductor tunneling magnetoresistive device (TMR) was grown with GaMnN as a spin injector and AlMnN as a spin filter. The resistance of the device should change with applied magnetic field depending on the magnetization of the injector and filter. However, due to the impurity bands found in the AlMnN, the resistance was found to change very little with magnetic field. To overcome such obstacles as found in the transition metal doped AlN, another dopant must be used. One

  1. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  2. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  3. Make Better Choices (MBC): Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Malaina; Kozak Andrea T; Vaughn Jocelyn; McFadden HG; Schneider Kristin; Spring Bonnie; Moller Arlen C; Epstein Leonard; Russell Stephanie W; DeMott Andrew; Hedeker Donald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to deter...

  4. On Freedom and Responsibility in Moral Behavior Choice%论道德行为选择中的自由与责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅

    2015-01-01

    Under the impact of economic integration and diversified values in the contemporary world ,a variety of moral values permeate all aspects of social life .This paper focuses on freedom and responsibility in ethical behavior choice and analyzes subjective factors that affect moral subject’s free choice and reality factors that affect moral subject’s objective choice .We should strengthen institutional guarantee for ethical behavior and practice the socialist core values ,improve people's ability to choose ethical behavior ,and further defuse conflict between freedom and responsibility in moral behavior choice .%在当代世界经济一体化,价值多元化的冲击下,各种各样的道德观念渗透到社会生活的各个层面。本文以道德行为选择中的自由与责任为重点,浅析影响道德主体进行自由选择的主体因素及客观选择的现实因素,加强道德行为选择的制度保障和在道德实践中践行社会主义核心价值观,提高人们的道德行为选择能力,进一步化解道德行为选择中自由与责任的冲突。

  5. Offshoring in the service sector : An empirical investigation on the offshoring behavior of service firms and its influence on their foreign entry mode choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, van D.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the offshoring behavior of service firms. It provides a decision-making model for service firms regarding their choice for captive offshoring or offshore outsourcing when relocating their activities to foreign locations. Service firms are taken as the focus of this study bec

  6. Using a computational model to quantify the potential impact of changing the placement of healthy beverages in stores as an intervention to “Nudge” adolescent behavior choice

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Michelle S.; Nau, Claudia; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Vedovato, Gabriela Milhassi; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Product placement influences consumer choices in retail stores. While sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) manufacturers expend considerable effort and resources to determine how product placement may increase SSB purchases, the information is proprietary and not available to the public health and research community. This study aims to quantify the effect of non-SSB product placement in corner stores on adolescent beverage purchasing behavior. Corner stores are small privately owned reta...

  7. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a rat gambling task (rGT), in which subjects chose between four options that differed in the magnitude and probability of rewards and penalties. In order to address the roles of the RAIC and CGIC in established choice behavior, pharmacological inactivations of these two subregions via local infusions of GABA receptor agonists were performed following 30 rGT training sessions. The contribution made by the RAIC or CGIC to the acquisition of choice behavior was also determined by lesioning these areas before behavioral training. Inactivation of the RAIC, but not of the CGIC, shifted rats' preference toward options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment. Before rGT acquisition, lesions of the RAIC, but not the CGIC, likewise resulted in a higher preference for options with greater reward frequency and lower punishment, and this persisted throughout the 30 training sessions. Our results provide confirmation of the involvement of the RAIC in rGT choice behavior and suggest that the RAIC may mediate detrimental risky decision-making behavior, such as that associated with addiction and gambling disorder. PMID:25953358

  8. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  9. Relation of Contextual Supports and Barriers to Choice Behavior in Engineering Majors: Test of Alternative Social Cognitive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Brown, Steven D.; Schmidt, Janet; Brenner, Bradley; Lyons, Heather; Treistman, Dana

    2003-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory (SCCT; R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, and G. Hackett, 1994) and general social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1999, 2000) posit somewhat different relations between contextual variables and choice actions. The authors tested the predictions of these 2 model variations. Participants (328 students in an introductory engineering…

  10. The Decimal Effect: Behavioral and Neural Bases for a Novel Influence on Intertemporal Choice in Healthy Individuals and in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Fassbender, C; Houde, S.; Silver-Balbus, S.; Ballard, K.; Kim, B.; Rutledge, K.J.; Dixon, J F; Iosif, A.M.; Schweitzer, J B; McClure, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    We identify a novel contextual variable that alters the evaluation of delayed rewards in healthy subjects and those diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When intertemporal choices are constructed of monetary outcomes with rounded values (e.g., $25.00), discount rates are greater than when the rewards have nonzero decimal values (e.g., $25.12). This finding is well explained within a dual system framework for temporal discounting in which preferences are constructed ...

  11. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  12. A discrete choice modeling framework for pedestrian walking behavior with application to human tracking in video sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have triggered important research activities in the context of behavioral dynamics. Several new models and simulators for driving and travel behaviors, along with new integrated systems to manage various elements of ITS, have been proposed in the past decades. In this context, less attention has been given to pedestrian modeling and simulation. In 2001, the first international conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics took place in Duisburg, Ger...

  13. Adolescents Who Visit the Emergency Department Are More Likely to Make Unhealthy Dietary Choices: An Opportunity for Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Iris; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-08-01

    To identify health behaviors that may be amenable to brief screening and intervention among children in the emergency department (ED), we described the prevalence of health behaviors known to contribute to childhood obesity among middle school students who used the ED recently. Participants included 1590 5th, 7th, and 8th grade students who completed health surveys in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between health behaviors and ED use. Children who used the ED reported more unhealthy dietary behaviors, including greater consumption of energy-dense foods such as fried chicken, french fries, and ice cream (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.37), fast food (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35). There was no association with fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, or screen time. Unhealthy dietary behaviors are associated with ED use in a low-resource urban population of middle school students. PMID:26320906

  14. A Probit Model of Choice Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Purushottam Papatla; Lakshman Krishnamurthi

    1992-01-01

    There are many products which are repeatedly purchased by consumers. In such cases it is likely that choice history, that is the sequence of choices made in the past, as well as marketing variables affect subsequent choice decisions. Attempts to model the effects of choice history have been generally based on the inclusion of variables that represent brand loyalty and/or variety seeking behavior. In this paper we present a model of dynamic choice behavior which is more general and incorporate...

  15. A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…

  16. Incorporating Perceptions, Learning Trends, Latent Classes, and Personality Traits in the Modeling of Driver Heterogeneity in Route Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Aly M.

    2012-01-01

    Driver heterogeneity in travel behavior has repeatedly been cited in the literature as a limitation that needs to be addressed. In this work, driver heterogeneity is addressed from four different perspectives. First, driver heterogeneity is addressed by models of driver perceptions of travel conditions: travel distance, time, and speed. Second, it is addressed from the perspective of driver learning trends and models of driver-types. Driver type is not commonly used in the vernacular of trans...

  17. The procrastinators want it now: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence of the procrastination of intertemporal choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Gui, Danyang; Lin, Wenzheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhu, Xiangru; Liu, Xun

    2016-08-01

    Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing. The participants were assigned to a high procrastination group and a low procrastination group according to their scores on self-report measures. We found that high procrastination participants preferred immediate rewards compared to future ones whereas low procrastination participants did not. High procrastinators also exhibited a larger and delayed P2 component, indicating delay time processing and abnormal reward processing. No significant effect associated with procrastination was found on the P300 component. Taken together, these findings suggest that high procrastinators are more impulsive and encode the information of delay time more slowly but with a higher level of motivation-driven attention. The current study substantiates higher impulsivity in procrastination and verifies that a difference exists in the sensitivity to time delay between high and low procrastinators. PMID:27363005

  18. Comparative effectiveness research as choice architecture: the behavioral law and economics solution to the health care cost crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-02-01

    With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") set to dramatically increase access to medical care, the problem of rising costs will move center stage in health law and policy discussions. "Consumer directed health care" proposals, which provide patients with financial incentives to equate marginal costs and benefits of care at the point of treatment, demand more decisionmaking ability from consumers than is plausible due to bounded rationality. Proposals that seek to change the incentives of health care providers threaten to create conflicts of interest between doctors and patients. New approaches are desperately needed. This Article proposes a government-facilitated but market-based approach to improving efficiency in the private market for medical care that I call "relative value health insurance." This approach focuses on the "choice architecture" necessary to enable even boundedly rational patients to contract for an efficient level of health care services through their health insurance purchase decisions. It uses comparative effectiveness research, which the ACA funds at a significant level for the first time, to rate medical treatments on a scale of one to ten based on their relative value, taking into account expected costs and benefits. These relative value ratings would enable consumers to contract with insurers for different levels of medical care at different prices, reflecting different cost-quality trade-offs. The Article describes both the benefits of relative value health insurance and the impediments to its implementation. It concludes with a brief discussion of how relative value ratings could also help to rationalize expenditures on public health insurance programs. PMID:24446572

  19. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  20. Decreased activation of lateral orbitofrontal cortex during risky choices under uncertainty is associated with disadvantageous decision-making and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollant, Fabrice; Lawrence, Natalia S; Olie, Emilie; O'Daly, Owen; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe; Phillips, Mary L

    2010-07-01

    Decision-making impairment has been linked to orbitofrontal cortex lesions and to different disorders including substance abuse, aggression and suicidal behavior. Understanding the neurocognitive mechanisms of these impairments could facilitate the development of effective treatments. In the current study, we aimed to explore the neural and cognitive basis of poor decision-making ability associated with the vulnerability to suicidal behavior, a public health issue in most western countries. Twenty-five not currently depressed male patients, 13 of whom had a history of suicidal acts (suicide attempters) and 12 of whom had none (affective controls), performed an adapted version of the Iowa Gambling Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Task-related functional Regions-of-Interest were independently defined in 15 male healthy controls performing the same task (Lawrence et al., 2009). In comparison to affective controls, suicide attempters showed 1) poorer performance on the gambling task 2) decreased activation during risky relative to safe choices in left lateral orbitofrontal and occipital cortices 3) no difference for the contrast between wins and losses. Altered processing of risk under conditions of uncertainty, associated with left lateral orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction, could explain the decision-making deficits observed in suicide attempters. These impaired cognitive and neural processes may represent future predictive markers and therapeutic targets in a field where identification of those at risk is poor and specific treatments are lacking. These results also add to our growing understanding of the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in decision-making and psychopathology. PMID:20302946

  1. Departure Time Choice Behavior Based on Bounded Rationality%有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾琨; 傅忠宁; 隽志才

    2016-01-01

    Subject to such limitations as cognitive ability and logical reasoning ability, it is difficult for individual to be perfectly rational in the travel decision-making process. Taking departure time choice as an example, key behavior factors such as spatial knowledge acquisition, learning, cognition update and solution search are introduced. The theoretical framework of travel decision-making process is built based on bounded rationality. Departure time behavioral intention survey program is designed by integration of RP and SP survey methods. Individual’s knowledge representation is studied, and cognitive update is completed by using Bayesian learning theory. Functions of search cost and search gain are defined. By using survey data, departure time heuristic search rules and decision rules are derived based on PART and RIPPER algorithm separately. The results show that there exist perception threshold in individual’s departure time choice behavior under bounded rationality, rather than seeking global optimal solution.%个体受限于认知能力和逻辑推理能力的限制,在出行决策过程中很难做到完全理性。本文以出发时间选择为例,在有限理性行为假设基础上,引入空间知识获取、学习及认知更新和方案搜索等关键行为要素,构建有限理性下的出行决策过程理论框架。融合RP和SP调查方法,设计出发时间选择行为意向调查方案。研究个体知识的表达方式,应用贝叶斯学习理论完成认知更新。定义搜索成本和收益函数,利用调查数据分别提取基于PART和RIPPER算法的出发时间启发式搜索规则和决策规则。结果表明,有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为存在感知阈值,而并非寻求全局最优解。

  2. Supply Chains Competition under Uncertainty Concerning Player’s Strategies and Customer Choice Behavior: A Generalized Nash Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hafezalkotob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers in a supply chain confront two main sources of uncertainty in market environment including uncertainty about customers purchasing behaviors and rival chains strategies. Focusing on competition between two supply chains, it is considered that each customer as an independent player selects products of these chains based on random utility model. Similar to quantal response equilibrium approach, we take account of customer rationality as an exogenous parameter. Moreover, it is assumed that decision makers in a supply chain can perceive an estimation of rival strategies about price and service level formulated in the model by fuzzy strategies. In the competition model, chain’s decision makers consider a subjective probability for wining each customer which is formulated by coupled constraints. These constraints connect chains strategies regarding to each customer and yield a generalized Nash equilibrium problem. Since price cutting and increasing service level are main responses to rival supply chain, after calculating optimal strategies, we show that more efficient responses depend on customer preferences.

  3. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  4. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews......In recent years the nudge approach to behavior change has emerged from the behavioral sciences to challenge the traditional use of regulation in public health strategies for dealing with modifiable individual level behaviors related to the rise of noncommunicable diseases and their treatment...

  5. Expanding the Nudge: Designing Choice Contexts and Choice Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Grill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To nudge is to design choice contexts in order to improve choice outcomes. Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein emphatically endorse nudging but reject more restrictive means. In contrast, I argue that the behavioral psychology that motivates nudging also motivates what may be called jolting-i.e. the design of choice content. I defend nudging and jolting by distinguishing them from the sometimes oppressive means with which they can be implemented, by responding to some common arguments against nudging, and by showing how respect for preferences over option sets and their aggregate properties may require the trimming of option sets, as well as helpful choice contexts.

  6. Hard Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The international community is still faced with the difficult choice of how to finally solve the North Korean nuclear crisis after the new UN resolution After intensive consultations, members of the UN Security Council finally worked out a multilateral response to North Korea's recent nuclear test with the adoption of Resolution 1718 on October 14. Despite the strict economic sanctions it imposes on North Korea under ChapterⅦof the Charter of the

  7. 文理科学生信息选择行为差异分析%Analysis on Differences of Information Choice Behavior Between Arts Students and Science Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙迟; 杨瑜

    2015-01-01

    通过对学生在信息检索过程中信息选择行为的调查,探索文理科学生在信息选择行为上的差异。实证揭示了文科学生与理科学生在信息选择行为上存在差异,在经过检索课培训后有些差异会缩小甚至消失,但有些差异如在检索系统的选择、检索字段的选择和检索结果过多时的选择方面仍然显著。%The paper investigates students’ information choice behavior in information retrieval process, to analyze the differences of information choice behaviors between arts students and science student. Empirical study reveals that there are differences of informa-tion choice behaviors between arts students and science students, and after retrieval training, some differences will be narrowed and even disappear, but others remain notable, such as in aspects of choices of retrieval system, retrieval filed and excessive search results.

  8. Pragmatic choice in conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W; Van Orden, Guy

    2012-01-01

    How do people decide what to say in context? Many theories of pragmatics assume that people have specialized knowledge that drives them to utter certain words in different situations. But these theories are mostly unable to explain both the regularity and variability in people's speech behaviors. Our purpose in this article is to advance a view of pragmatics based on complexity theory, which specifically explains the pragmatic choices speakers make in conversations. The concept of self-organized criticality sheds light on how a history of utterances and subtle details of a situation surrounding a conversation may directly specify language behavior. Under this view, pragmatic choice in discourse does not reflect the output of any dedicated pragmatic module but arises from a complex coordination or coupling between speakers and their varying communicative tasks. PMID:22253174

  9. Influencing Factors of Consumers’ Choice Intention and Behavior toward Online Stores%消费者对网络商店选择意向和行为的影响因素研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2015-01-01

    近年来加入网购的消费者规模不断增长,他们如何选择下单网店是网络商店关心的主要问题。由回归分析可知,感知信息质量、感知服务质量和感知系统质量均正向影响消费者对网店的选择意向,而选择意向又会影响他们实际的选择行为。当消费者具有较高的感知安全和感知便利时,网店质量对选择意向的影响会增强。感知安全和感知便利对选择意向和实际选择行为有调节作用。%In recent years, with an increasing number of consumers shopping online, how they choose an online store to place an order is the main concern of online store owners. By regression analysis, the per-ceived information quality, perceived service quality and perceived system quality had a positive effect on consumers’ choice intention toward online store, and the choice intention also influenced their actual choice behavior. When the consumers perceived higher safety and convenience, the influence of online store quality on choice intention could be enhanced. The perceived safety and perceived convenience had the moderating effect on choice intention and actual choice behavior.

  10. Hard choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedi, A

    1999-01-01

    The cultural discourse that frames the abortion debate has changed and become more complex over the years. To date, concerns about the need to defend the choice have shifted to moral and ethical issues surrounding abortion. The right of women to abortion can be situated in the context of ethical principles, which are basic to what we hold valuable in the modern society. The ethical principle of "procreative autonomy", the right of humans to control their own role in procreation has an unusually significant place in modern political culture in which human dignity was an important feature. Central to human dignity was the principle that "people possess the moral right and responsibility to answer the basic questions about the value and meaning of their own lives." Another crucial issue is the need to defend the "bodily autonomy" of women. Forcing women to support the fetus against her will flies against such principles as the need for voluntary consent to medical treatment. These arguments do not suggest for a moral indifference towards abortion choices, but as Ronald Dworkin argues, "tolerance is a cost we must pay for our adventure in liberty." PMID:12178906

  11. 关系营销中客户回报计划对客户品牌选择行为的影响研究%The Effect of Retail Reward Programs on Customer Brand Choice Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝龙; 李飞; 李金林

    2009-01-01

    In consideration of the customer heterogeneity, we present a customer discrete choice model to analyze the effect of reward programs on customer brand choice behavior; we also validate the model using longitudinal panel data from retail customers. The results show that the discrete choice model is an effec-tive tool to analyze the customer choice behavior, In addition, it is evidenced that reward programs can be viewed as an effective relationship marketing strategy to positively influence customer choice behavior and increase customer choice probability. On the other hand, in a highly competitive market, supermarket bus-iness should adopt reward programs as an important marketing strategy. At the same time, the business must strive to attract more customers to join its reward program. Moreover, heterogeneous behavior be-tween customer segments is validated by a latent class method. The analysis indicates that reward pro-grams only can impact on a special customer segment significantly. The managerial implications are also discussed.%本研究在考虑客户间异质偏好性的基础上,利用一组客户的纵贯交易数据建立消费者离散选择模型研究了回报计划对客户个体层面品牌选择行为的影响,并利用策略实验及潜分层模型对相关问题进行了系统深入的分析.结果表明,回报计划可以有效提升客户的品牌选择购买概率,是一种有效的关系营销策略;策略实验分析得到,竞争的环境下,对零售超市而言其最优决策策略不仅是实施回报计划,而且要努力争取客户成为自己回报计划的会员;此外,通过潜分层模型评估发现客户回报计划仅会对一类特定客户具有明显的刺激作用.最后讨论了结论对企业营销管理实践的意义.

  12. Destination choice behavior modeling based on space-time prism method%基于时空棱柱方法的目的地选择行为建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文静; 隽志才; 孙宝凤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the space-time prism method,the traveller activity space was limited in a definite space-time prism,the accessibility of activity zone in space was defined under time constraints according to the activity plan of the traveller.A 2-step modeling strategy was proposed for the destination choice behavior.An attracting ratio of the zone was introduced,and a destination choice behavior model with a non-liner utility function was built,and the quantification process,the parameter calibration and the result check of the zone attracting ratio were discussed.The results showed that the destination choice set can be defined by the time-space constraints of the travel in combination with the GPS technology.The non-linear utility function with the zone attracting ratio can predict the destination choice behavior more accurately.The conbination of the theory and the real behavior of the traveller provides a new idea for modeling of the destination choice behavior.%基于时空棱柱方法,将人的活动区域限制在一定的时空棱柱体内,根据出行者的活动计划,确定在一定时间限制下活动场所在空间上的可达性。提出了目的地选择行为分层的建模策略。引入小区吸引力因子,构建了非线性效用函数的目的地选择行为模型,探讨了小区吸引力因子的量化过程、参数标定及结果检验。结果表明:结合出行的时空约束和地理信息系统(Geographic information system,GIS)分析能够确定出行者的目的地选择集合。具有小区吸引力因子的非线性效用函数能够更准确地预测目的地选择行为。本文研究将出行理论与出行者的实际行为相结合,为目的地选择行为的建模提供了一种新思路。

  13. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    To move toward environmental sustainability, we propose that a computational approach may be needed due to the complexity of resource production and consumption. While digital sensors and predictive simulation has the potential to help us to minimize resource consumption, the indirect relation be...... principles of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying...

  14. An experimental decision-making paradigm to distinguish guilt and regret and their self-regulating function via loss-averse choice behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UllrichWagner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Both guilt and regret typically result from counterfactual evaluations of personal choices that caused a negative outcome and are thought to regulate human decisions by people’s motivation to avoid these emotions. Despite these similarities, studies asking people to describe typical situations of guilt and regret identified the social dimension as a fundamental distinguishing factor, showing that guilt but not regret specifically occurs for choices in interpersonal (social contexts. However, an experimental paradigm to investigate this distinction systematically by inducing emotions of guilt and regret online is still missing. Here, extending existing procedures, we introduce such a paradigm, in which participants choose in each trial between two lotteries, with the outcome of the chosen lottery (gain or loss being either assigned to themselves (intrapersonal trials or to another person (interpersonal trials. After results of both the chosen and the unchosen lottery were shown, subjects rated how they felt about the outcome, including ratings of guilt and regret. Trait Guilt (TG was determined for all participants in order to take their general inclination to experience guilt into account. Results confirmed that guilt but not regret specifically occurred in an interpersonal context. Percentages of loss averse choices (choosing the lottery with the lower possible monetary loss were determined as indicators of regulation via guilt and regret avoidance. High TG scorers generally made more loss averse choices than low TG scorers, while trial-by-trial analyses showed that low TG scorers used their feelings of guilt more specifically to avoid the same emotional experience in subsequent choices. Our results confirm the social dimension as the critical factor distinguishing guilt from regret and identify TG as an important moderator determining the way in which guilt vs. regret can regulate their own occurrence by influencing choice strategies.

  15. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  16. Spatio -temporal Choice of Individuals' Shopping Behavior and Their Differences between Weekday and Weekend%休息日与工作日居民购物时空间决策因素及差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 柴彦威

    2011-01-01

    居民购物时空间决策及其影响机制的研究往往将时间与空间分裂开来单独进行考虑,忽略时间与空间自身的内在联系.利用2007年北京市居民活动口志调查获取的第一手数据,通过构建影响居民购物时空间决策的9个选项,利用多项Logit模型,探讨北京市居民购物行为的时空间决策因素,并对休息日与工作日之间的差异进行比较.结果表明,休息日居民购物时空间决策属于单因素主导影响模式,购物持续时间的影响最为显著;工作日居民购物时空间决策属于多因素综合影响模式,是否多日的购物和巡回次数的影响显著提升.说明工作日由于受到工作等生存性活动的影响.购物等非生存性活动的时空间选择受到较大制约.%Since the 1980s, more researches have been carried out to study the spatio-temporal choices of individuals' shopping behavior, which is one of the most important topics in behavioural geography. However, these researches only considered shopping spatial choice or temporal choice separately, while ignoring their relationship or interaction. This paper puts forword a research framework which studies the shopping spatial choice and temporal choice at the same time. First of all, according to the shopping distance it defines spatial choice as three options, such as near, middle or far. Similarly, according to the shopping time it also defines temporal choice as three options, like morning, afternoon or evening. Then, multiplying the spatial choice and temporal choice it will get nine spatio-temporal options of individuals' shopping behavior. Based on an activity-travel daily survey conducted in Beijing in 2007, this paper takes multinomial logit model to analyze the influencing factors of spatio-temporal choice of individuals' shopping behavior, while it also explores their differences between weekday and weekend. The model results show that, first,the shopping spatio-temporal choice on

  17. 基于旅游动机的旅游目的地选择行为分析%An Analysis on Choice Behavior of Tourist Destination Based on Tourist Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕; 关宏志; 王昊

    2014-01-01

    The choice of travel destinations is the key issue of traveling decision-making of tourists. This paper studies tourist’s destination choice behavior. Tourists travel behavior survey conducted in eight parks which located in Beijing area. In order to analyze travel behavior of tourists, the authors investigated 633 tourists using questionnaire survey in Beijing. Four motivation factors were extracted form 22 items and four categories of tourists were classified according to the four motivation dimensions. This paper proves that tourist motivation significantly affects their behavior of travel destination choice by building a two-step model which includes variables of motivation types. In addition, it is revealed that the impact of distance is significantly varied in the two different stages. The model has high accuracy, and this study provides a theoretical basis for further study on destination choice behavior.%旅游目的地选择是游客出行决策的核心问题,本文对游客的目的地选择行为进行了研究。本课题组选取北京市区8个景点,以在京旅游的游客作为研究对象,组织进行了游客出行行为调查。问卷设计22项旅游动机,通过对游客旅游动机项提取因子,并对旅游动机的因子得分进行聚类分析把游客分为4类。在构建游客旅游目的地选择行为模型时,对首个目的地和非首个目的地分别建模。模型中引入了旅游动机类型变量,证明旅游动机对游客目的地选择行为影响显著。另外出行距离在不同阶段对游客目的地选择的影响存在显著的差异。该模型精度较高,为进一步研究旅游目的地选择行为提供了理论依据。

  18. Transportation Mode Choice Analysis Based on Classification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zeņina, N; Borisovs, A

    2011-01-01

    Mode choice analysis has received the most attention among discrete choice problems in travel behavior literature. Most traditional mode choice models are based on the principle of random utility maximization derived from econometric theory. This paper investigates performance of mode choice analysis with classification methods - decision trees, discriminant analysis and multinomial logit. Experimental results have demonstrated satisfactory quality of classification.

  19. Analysis and Modeling of Park and Ride Choice Behavior in Commuting Travel%通勤出行中停车换乘选择行为分析与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云美萍; 刘贤玮; 陈震寰; 杨晓光

    2012-01-01

    针对通勤出行研究驾车者的停车换乘选择行为,选取上海市典型停车换乘站对驾车通勤者与公共交通通勤者进行了RP(revealed preference)调查与SP(stated preference)调查,基于调查数据分析了选择停车换乘与否的影响因素,并针对道路交通通畅、堵塞2种状态分别建立了是否停车换乘的二项Logit模型.模型结果显示低收入的年轻人更倾向于选择停车换乘;交通状态堵塞时是否有老人或小孩等家庭特征显著影响停车换乘选择行为;模型还揭示了通畅时通勤者更关注出行费用,而堵塞时通勤者更关注出行时耗和舒适性,并分析了时间和费用敏感度对停车换乘选择概率的影响及其差异.%This paper focuses on travelers' choice behavior of park and ride or driving alone in commuting trips. Revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) surveys of car drivers' and public passengers' mode choice behaviors are performed in typical park of ride (PR) transfer station in Shanghai. Based on survey data, influencing factors of PR choice are analyzed. Two individual binary logit models are established under smooth traffic state and congested state respectively on whether car drivers will park and transfer to metro. Model results show that young commuters with lower income are more likely to choose PR. Whether a household has elders or children influences PR choice significantly under congested traffic. The results also indicate that commuters put more attention on travel cost when traffic is fluent. However, they care more about time consumption and comfortableness when traffic is congested. Furthermore, the influence of time and cost sensitivity on PR choice behavior is presented.

  20. Research on Online Shopping Choice Behavior Based on Nested Logit Model%基于巢式Logit模型的网上购物选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 商滔

    2015-01-01

    基于Gumbel分布和多项Logit模型,提出建立顾客网上购物选择行为的巢式Logit模型,在SERVQUAL五维量表的基础上,设计了影响顾客购物选择行为的18个相关因素,同时将顾客购买行为分成共性部分和差异部分,采用极大似然法求解模型参数. 相比传统模型而言,巢式Logit模型具有更好的解释能力和稳定性,通过实例分析演示了模型的应用方法,为网上店铺优化服务质量提供了具体参考.%The nested Logit model of online shopping choice behavior is proposed based on Gumbel distribution and multinomial Logit model,and 18 related factors which affect customer's choice behavior are designed on the basis of five dimensional SERVQUAL scale.The shopping behavior is divided into common part and different part,maximum likelihood is used to solve the model parameters.Comparing to the traditional model,nested Logit model has better explanatory power and stability,through case study,the application of this model is demonstrated,which provide specific reference to optimize the quality of service for online stores.

  1. 品牌拓展新市场过程中消费者选择行为研究%Study on Consumer Choice Behavior in Brand Expansion of New Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧丽; 袁颖慧; 刘善智; 张耀东

    2013-01-01

    研究消费者品牌选择行为是进行品牌拓展新市场的前提。本文基于消费者决策理论,利用元胞自动机分析了品牌文化、广告宣传、邻居关系及数量、竞争者、市场的经济环境等对消费者进行品牌选择时的影响,研究结果表明该模型能较好地模拟出品牌进行拓展新市场过程中的消费者选择行为。通过对品牌拓展新市场过程中的消费者选择行为的分析,找出更适合进行品牌扩张的区域。%Study on consumers′brand choice is the premise of brand expansion of new markets .Based on con-sumer decision theory ,we use cellular automata to analyze some factors affecting the consumers′behavior like brand culture ,advertisement ,number of neighbors and relationship with them ,competitors and economic en-vironment .T he result of simulation and analysis show s that the model can simulate the consumer choice be-havior in brand expansion of new markets .Study on consumer choice behavior in brand expansion of new markets can help companies to find better places to expand the brand .

  2. Informational geometry of social choice

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, Donald G.

    1997-01-01

    Elementary geometry is used to understand, extend and resolve basic informational difficulties in choice theory. This includes axiomatic conclusions such as Arrow's Theorem, Chichilnisky's dictator, and the Gibbard-Satterthwaite result. In this manner new results about positional voting methods are outlined, and difficulties with axiomatic approach are discussed. A topological result about "dictatorial" behavior is offered.

  3. Regulating High Frequency Trading : A Micro-Level Analysis of Spatial Behavior, Optimal Choices, and Pareto-Efficiency in High Speed Markets

    OpenAIRE

    von Müller, Camillo

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers the issue of High Frequency Trading (HFT) regulation. Rather than discussing macro-level effects of HFT that are still under debate (Sornette & Von der Becke, 2011) its analysis focuses on the issue of regulation from the perspective of HFT firms. Assuming that HFT generates benefits to firms by allowing them to trade at lower latencies than their competitors, binary choices of HFT investments yield Pareto-inefficient allocations if physical limits to latency reduc...

  4. Passenger Choice Behavior of High-speed Rail and Airline between Beijing and Shanghai%京沪线高铁与民航旅客出行选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 马瑜; 赵冰茹; 栾维新

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid construction of high-speed railway, it has constituted the main body of the high-speed passenger transportation with airline in China. It is causing the supply structure of the transportation mode changes greatly. Through the SP and RP survey on the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail and the civil aviation passenger, this paper analyzes the composition of passenger flow and their characteristics of travel mode choice behavior. Based on the disaggregate theory, a Binary Logit model for Beijing-Shanghai passenger choice behavior is developed. The impact of each factor on passenger choice behavior is quantified. The accuracy rate of the model is 88%. Based on the survey result and parameters calibrated in the model, the influence of gender, age, monthly income, ticket price, companion number, ingress time and departure time on the passenger choice behavior is analyzed thoroughly. The result is beneficial for grasping the condition of actual travel demand and designing the integrated transport passenger transportation product reasonably between Beijing and Shanghai.%随着高速铁路的快速建设,其已与民航构成了我国高速客运的主体,使交通运输方式的供给结构发生了巨大变化。本文通过对京沪线高铁与民航旅客进行SP和RP调查,分析京沪线客流的构成和旅客出行方式选择行为特征,并基于非集计理论,构建京沪线旅客出行选择的Binary Logit模型,量化各因素对旅客选择的影响程度,该模型准确率为88%。本文根据调查结果和模型标定参数,对旅客的性别、年龄、月收入、票价、同行人数、程前时间和出发时间对旅客出行选择行为的影响进行深入分析,结论对了解京沪线旅客实际出行需求状况,合理设计高铁与民航综合客运产品具有重要意义。

  5. 当代青年价值取向与行为选择的脱节及应对策略%Disjunction between Value Orientation and Behavior Choice of Modern Youngsters and Coping Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春红

    2011-01-01

    In the clash and collide of multiple social values and concepts and realistic factors, the rational cognition and behavior choices are disjoined. There are several causes under the appearance of this phenomenon. It is urgent to change the present social situation of disjunction between value orientation and behavior choice. We should seek a way to balance the value orientation and behavior choice of modern youngsters from the following as- pects, including the construction of spiritual support, reinforcement of sense of social responsibility and historical mission, reformation of school education, the balance between the value orientation and behavior choice, encouragement of youngsters to be involved in social practice, the effective dialogue between self and society, keeping the lines of expression of interests open and reinforcement of social status of youngsters.%在社会多元价值观念以及诸多现实因素的冲击和碰撞下,当代青年的理性认知与行为选择出现脱节。这种现象的产生有其深刻的原因,调适当代青年价值取向与行为脱节的现状,是亟待解决的社会问题。我们应当主要从以下几个方面来寻找青年价值取向与行为选择的平衡路径:构筑精神支柱,强化青年的社会责任感和历史使命感;改革学校教育,引导青年价值取向和行为选择平衡;鼓励青年投身社会实践,实现自我与社会的有效对话;畅通青年利益表达的渠道,强化青年的社会地位。

  6. Information processing in children's choices among bets

    OpenAIRE

    Hommers, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    Children's information processing of risky choice alternatives was investigated in two studies without using verbal reports. In Study 1, the ability to integrate the probabilities and the payoffs of simple bets was examined using the rating scale methodology. Children's choices among three of those simple bets were recorded also. By cross-classifying the children's choice and rating behavior it was shown that a three-stage developmental hypothesis of decision making is not sufficient. A four-...

  7. Supplier choice and WTP for electricity attributes in an emerging market: The role of perceived past experience, environmental concern and energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes customers' preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for certain service attributes in an electricity supplier choice context. Specifically, a stated preference choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market where limited competition exists. Preferences for different electricity suppliers and three level-of-service attributes are investigated, namely, supply reliability, share of renewable energies and availability of a complementary energy audit service. The results might be interpreted as an indication of different aspects new firms need to consider if they plan to enter in the market. There is an opportunity for new companies to establish in the market, though evidence of brand loyalty to the current company and/or significant switching costs are also found, especially in the case of older people. Regarding the estimated WTP, several results should be highlighted. First, customers who have experienced more serious outages in the past tend to show a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. Second, highly-educated respondents, those who state a great concern for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and those who carry out energy saving actions in their homes exhibit a larger WTP for renewable energies. This empirical evidence provides useful information for authorities responsible for energy policy design. - Highlights: • A stated choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market. • Serious outages in the past lead to a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. • A higher education level explains a greater WTP for renewables. • People concerned for emissions and energy savers show greater WTP for renewables. • These findings provide useful information for energy policy design

  8. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors is to a...

  9. Accounting choices of controllers: An insight into controller deliberations

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Therèse

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral thesis provides insights into the accounting choice process of business controllers. The main contribution is a new approach in analyzing financial accounting choices, using an interpretive methodology. Moreover, the overall framework of analysis developed in this thesis can help organizations to understand accounting choice behavior of controllers. It provides insights into the complexity of the accounting choice process, the factors influencing the accounting choices, the diff...

  10. Accounting choices of controllers : An insight into controller deliberations

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Therèse

    2015-01-01

    This doctoral thesis provides insights into the accounting choice process of business controllers. The main contribution is a new approach in analyzing financial accounting choices, using an interpretive methodology. Moreover, the overall framework of analysis developed in this thesis can help organizations to understand accounting choice behavior of controllers. It provides insights into the complexity of the accounting choice process, the factors influencing the accounting choices, the diff...

  11. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Gemina; Titiek Tjahya Andari; Indra Cahya Kusuma

    2013-01-01

    Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1) formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2) formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3) formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on...

  12. Social Defaults: Observed Choices Become Choice Defaults

    OpenAIRE

    Young Eun Huh; Joachim Vosgerau; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Defaults effects can be created by social contexts. The observed choices of others can become social defaults, increasing their choice share. Social default effects are a novel form of social influence not due to normative or informational influence: participants were more likely to mimic observed choices when choosing in private than in public (experiment 1) and when stakes were low rather than high (experiment 2). Like other default effects, social default effects were greater for uncertain...

  13. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior. PMID:21300414

  14. Capital theory and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Nataša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost from the very beginning of economic science the notion of capital has been the subject of numerous controversies. The main reason for the concept's controversial nature is that it explains interest and profit. In Marxian theory, where 'manner of production' determines forms of activities, mutual relationships and life of individuals, capital appears as a social phenomenon i.e. social relation. Goods and money are not capital by themselves but become capital in the capitalist way of production. Economics mainstream is based on methodological individualism upon which explanation of social phenomena and processes must be derived from individual behavior and motivation. Capital, therefore, is not a product of capitalism as a socially and historically specific form of economic organization, but is rather perceived as connected to the individual and his or her rational behavior. Rational choice is the basic and sometimes the only explanatory factor in the neoclassic theories of capital. Although theories of human and cultural capital point out the interdependence between individual activity and choice on the one hand, and social position on the other hand in the process of capitalization, the connection remains in the background and somehow unclear. A more explicit indication of the interdependence between social structure and choice can be found in the theory of social capital. The goal of this paper is to explore the role of rational choice theory in explaining the nature of capital.

  15. The Impact of Perceived Choice Freedom on Salespersons' Behavioral Intention of Gray Marketing%选择自由度对销售人员灰色营销行为倾向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭茜; 庄贵军; 郭艳霞

    2012-01-01

    基于营销道德理论和计划行为理论,以中国企业间购销关系为研究平台,以卖方为视角,检验了销售人员的道德判断、企业默许和销售人员的选择自由度对销售人员灰色营销行为倾向的影响,选择自由度对销售人员道德判断和灰色营销行为倾向之间,以及对企业默许和销售人员灰色营销行为倾向之间相关关系的调节作用.结果表明:①销售人员的不道德性评价会降低销售人员的灰色营销行为倾向;②企业默许会提高销售人员的灰色营销行为倾向;③销售人员感知的选择自由度不但会直接降低其灰色营销行为倾向,还会调节或强化销售人员对灰色营销的不道德性评价与灰色营销行为倾向之间以及企业默许与灰色营销行为倾向之间的相关关系.最后,讨论了研究结果的应用.%Based on the theory of marketing ethics and theory of planned behavior, this paper empirically tests the direct effects of salespersons' judgment, organizational connivance and perceived choice freedom on their behavioral intention of gray marketing, and the moderator effects of perceived choice freedom from the seller's standpoint. This study comes to the following conclusions: ①salespersons' judgment on un-ethicalness of gray marketing has negative impact on salespersons' intention to adopt gray marketing; ② organizational connivance increases salespersons' intention of gray marketing practice; ③ salespersons' perceived choice freedom not only has direct and positive impact on salespersons' intention to adopt gray marketing, but also moderator or enhance the relationship between salespersons' judgment on un-ethicalness of gray marketing and their intention to adopt gray marketing and the relationship between organization's connivance and salespersons' behavioral intention of gray marketing. Finally, the implications of the findings are suggested.

  16. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdmundHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  17. Differential Involvement of the Agranular vs Granular Insular Cortex in the Acquisition and Performance of Choice Behavior in a Rodent Gambling Task

    OpenAIRE

    Pushparaj, Abhiram; Kim, Aaron S; Musiol, Martin; Zangen, Abraham; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Zack, Martin; Winstanley, Catharine A.; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders, in particular gambling disorder, are known to be associated with risky decision-making behavior. Several neuroimaging studies have identified the involvement of the insular cortex in decision-making under risk. However, the extent of this involvement remains unclear and the specific contributions of two distinct insular subregions, the rostral agranular (RAIC) and the caudal granular (CGIC), have yet to be examined. Animals were trained to perform a ...

  18. Consumer Behavior on The Choice of Typical Regional Food Products Based on External and Internal Factors, Perception, Attitude and Consumer Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Gemina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behavior will determine their decision making in the buying process. The approach to the decision making process that gives a specific description on the reason why consumers behave in certain ways was conducted by: 1 formulating structural variables that affect external and internal factors towards perception; 2 formulating structural variables of perception towards attitude and preference; 3 formulating structural variables of attitude and preference towards consumer behavior on typical food products of Bandung and Cianjur. The survey research method and form of research were verification, while the sampling method conducted was the simple random sampling by distributing questionnaires to 100 respondents. The data quality testing performed were the validity test and the reliability test. For the path analysis research model, data transformation from ordinal to interval was previously conducted using the method of successive interval. Results of the study revealed that consumer external and internal environmental factors together have a positive effect towards consumer perception. The effect of consumer external environmental factors are greater than the consumer internal environmental factors towards consumer perception. The more mature consumers are, either from the aspect of their way of thinking or educative factors obtained from education and insight, the more developed are their perception towards food products. Consumer perception has a positive effect towards consumer attitude and preference. The variable of consumer attitude and preference has a positive effect towards consumer behavior in consuming typical regional food products.

  19. CEO Power and Auditor Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ouyang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of CEO power on auditor choice. We are motivated by the competing financial reporting incentives arising from CEO power. Our empirical finding suggests that powerful CEOs are more likely to hire high-quality auditors as a signal of superior financial reporting quality. We contribute to the literature of auditor switch and extend the research on the links between CEO power and firm behaviors.

  20. A Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yoon-Ho; R. Yu; Kulik, S. P.; Shih, Y. H.; Scully, Marlan O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports a "delayed choice quantum eraser" experiment proposed by Scully and Dr\\"{u}hl in 1982. The experimental results demonstrated the possibility of simultaneously observing both particle-like and wave-like behavior of a quantum via quantum entanglement. The which-path or both-path information of a quantum can be erased or marked by its entangled twin even after the registration of the quantum.

  1. 基于顾客选择行为的客房分配模型研究%Research on room allocation of hotel based on consumer choice behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃朝勇; 李阳; 刘婷婷; 李相勇

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, allocation of rooms in hotel revenue management was studied based on customer satisfication. A utility function is constructed based on consumer behavior theory. A consumer discrete choice model is then established. A survey is conducted to collect customer preference information. Variable precision rough set method is employed to reduct the factors that influence consumer choice and to calculate the weights of remaining factors. A model of room allocation is established thereafter. Finally, the model is validated by an example, and the results show that the model is effective.%针对酒店收益管理中的客房分配问题,研究顾客满意度对客房资源分配和收益的影响,基于消费者行为理论,构造顾客客房效用函数,建立了消费者离散选择模型,通过调查问卷方式收集顾客偏好信息,利用变精度粗糙集方法对影响消费者选择的因素进行约简并计算权值,在此基础上建立了酒店客房分配模型.最后通过实例对该模型进行验证,计算结果表明了该模型的有效性.

  2. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Making Smart Food Choices Regular physical activity and a healthy ... through physical activity. Download the Tip Sheet Making Smart Food Choices (PDF, 488.99 KB) You Might ...

  3. State dependent choice

    OpenAIRE

    Manzini, Paola; Mariotti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We propose a theory of choices that are influenced by the psychological state of the agent. The central hypothesis is that the psychological state controls the urgency of the attributes sought by the decision maker in the available alternatives. While state dependent choice is less restricted than rational choice, our model does have empirical content, expressed by simple ‘revealed preference’ type of constraints on observable choice data. We demonstrate the applicability of simple versions o...

  4. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  5. Savage Misunderstandings about Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Although Jonathan Kozol is well-informed about choice program imperfections, schools of choice are superior to traditional schools. In places like East Harlem, school choice is helping transform youngsters from captive, disenfranchised malcontents to true students involved in their education. The challenge is to make every district school worthy…

  6. Trip chain pattern choice behavior of commuters based on traffic information%基于交通信息的通勤出行链模式选择行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华歆; 张丽杰

    2015-01-01

    为探索通过智能手机等通信工具随时随地获得的交通信息对居民通勤出行链模式选择行为的影响,采用RP(Revealed Preference)调查获取出行者的社会经济属性、交通信息使用属性以及通勤出行链模式选择行为数据,用信息查询频率度量出行者的交通信息使用属性,建立估计通勤出行链模式的二项Logit模型。研究发现:(1)交通信息在促进复杂链的生成上发挥着较大的作用;(2)在交通信息的作用下,停车换乘(Park and Ride,P&R)方式比公共交通和小汽车都更能促进复杂链的生成;(3)出行者的性别、婚姻状态、家中是否有12周岁以下儿童等对出行链模式选择不会有显著影响。%To discuss the impact of traffic information that can be obtained anywhere at any time through smart phones on commuters’trip chain pattern choice behavior,RP (Revealed Preference)survey is a-dopted to collect the commuters ’ socio-demographic attributes,traffic information attributes and trip chain pattern choice data. The traffic information attributes are measured by the information query fre-quency. A binary Logit model is built to quantify the commuters’trip chain pattern choice. It shows that:(1 )the traffic information plays a great role in promoting the generation of complex chain;(2 )the travel mode of Park & Ride(P&R)is more likely to promote the generation of complex chain under the traffic information than the public and private transport modes;(3)the commuters’gender,marital sta-tus and whether there are children under the age of 12 in their family don’t have a significant impact on their trip chain pattern choice.

  7. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to...

  8. Hybrid Compensatory-Noncompensatory Choice Sets in Semicompensatory Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Shlomo; Shiftan, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    multinomial criteria that involve trade-offs between attributes at the choice set formation stage. This study proposes a novel behavioral paradigm consisting of a hybrid compensatory-noncompensatory choice set formation process, followed by compensatory choice. The behavioral paradigm is represented by a...... mathematical model that combines multinomial-response and ordered-response thresholds with a utility-based choice. The proposed model is applied to a stated preference experiment of off-campus rental apartment choices by students. Results demonstrate the applicability and feasibility of incorporating...... multinomial-response thresholds into semicompensatory models....

  9. A quantum delayed-choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Shadbolt, Peter; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-11-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle- or wavelike behavior depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics. Its paradoxical nature is best captured in the delayed-choice thought experiment, in which a photon is forced to choose a behavior before the observer decides what to measure. Here, we report on a quantum delayed-choice experiment in which both particle and wave behaviors are investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behavior is certified via nonlocality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer in the original experiment. We observed strong nonlocal correlations, which show that the photon must simultaneously behave both as a particle and as a wave. PMID:23118183

  10. Limitations of modern microeconomic theory of consumer choice: Sociological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2008-01-01

    Neoclassical theory of consumer choice needs to be reformed. Assumption that consumer choice is not influenced by the choice of others is in collision with reality. New and better theory of consumer choice is unimaginable without incorporation of intersubjective factors into the model of derivation of individual and aggregate (market) demand functions. Goal of this study is to underline widely neglected sociological factors that have significant influence on motivation and behavior of consume...

  11. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  12. Modeling Health Insurance Choice Using the Heterogeneous Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in "simulation based inference" have made it feasible to estimate discrete choice models with several alternatives and rich patterns of consumer taste heterogeneity. These new methods have important potential application in health economics. One important application is the analysis of consumer choice behavior in insurance markets characterized by competition among several alternative insurance plans. Analysis of consumer choice behavior in insurance markets is of great intere...

  13. CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Gehrman, Philip; Barg, Frances K; Xie, Sharon X; Mao, Jun J

    2016-03-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. Here we describe the design of a clinical trial that begins to determine how best to personalize the treatment of insomnia for cancer survivors. This project is a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial with a nested qualitative study comparing acupuncture and CBT for insomnia and co-morbid symptoms in a heterogeneous sample of 160 cancer survivors. The primary aim is to determine which treatment is associated with the largest reduction in insomnia severity. The secondary aim is to examine the demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics that predict and/or moderate treatment effect. Patients will receive ten treatments of acupuncture or 7 sessions of CBT over eight weeks and complete validated patient-reported outcome measures of sleep and co-morbid symptoms at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at three-months to assess durability of effect. The results of the proposed study have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes by helping cancer survivors and their caregivers make informed and evidence-based decisions, leading to patient-centered and personalized care for cancer survivors with insomnia. PMID:26956541

  14. Effects of mental accounting on intertemporal choices

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson Niklas; Gärling, Tommy; Selart, Marcus

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments with undergraduates as subjects were carried out with the aim of replicating and extending previous results showing that the implication of the behavioral life-cycle hypothesis (H. M. Shefrin & R. H. Thaler, 1988) that people classify assets in different mental accounts (current income, current assets, and future income) may explain how consumption choices are influenced by temporary income changes. In both experiments subjects made fictitious choices between paying for a goo...

  15. Social Networks and the Choices People Make

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Social marketing is becoming increasingly important in contemporary business. Central to social marketing is quantifying how consumers choose between alternatives and how they influence each other. This work considers a new but simple multinomial choice model for multiple agents connected in a recommendation network based on the explicit modeling of choice adoption behavior. Efficiently computable closed-form solutions, absent from analyses of threshold/cascade models, are obtained together w...

  16. Confidence in value-based choice

    OpenAIRE

    De Martino, Benedetto; Stephen M. Fleming; Garrett, Neil; Dolan, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Decisions are never perfect, with confidence in one's choices fluctuating over time. How subjective confidence and valuation of choice options interact at the level of brain and behavior is unknown. Using a dynamic model of the decision process, we show that confidence reflects the evolution of a decision variable over time, explaining the observed relation between confidence, value, accuracy and reaction time. As predicted by our dynamic model, we show that a functional magnetic resonance im...

  17. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    . The extended choice framework includes more behavioral richness through the explicit representation of the planning process preceding an action and its dynamics and the effects of context (family, friends, and market) on the process leading to a choice, as well as the inclusion of new types of subjective data...... in choice models. We discuss the key issues involved in applying the extended framework, focusing on richer data requirements, theories, and models, and present three partial demonstrations of the proposed framework. Future research challenges include the development of more comprehensive empirical tests...

  18. Consumer rationality in choice

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and demonstrated empirically to be incompatible with actual consumer choices. In particular the complexity of the choice situation, and its various components, are found to be major determinants of the ch...

  19. Passengers’ Airport Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Gelhausen, Marc Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Modelling airport choice of passengers has been a subject of interest for air transport scientists and airport managers already for a while. Wilken, Berster and Gelhausen have reported of a market segment specific model approach to airport choice in Germany in a paper entitled "Airport Choice in Germany - New Empirical Evidence of the German Air Traveller Survey 2003" presented at the Air Transport Research Society World Conference 2005 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In continuation of the analys...

  20. Computational Social Choice (Tutorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been a lively exchange of ideas between computer science, in particular theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence, on the one hand and economics, in particular game theory and social choice, on the other. This exchange goes in both directions and has produced active research areas such as algorithmic game theory and computational social choice. Social choice theory concerns the formal analysis and design of methods for aggregating po...

  1. Essays on occupational choice

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Eva Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Occupational choices have far-reaching consequences for young adults. Occupations do not only influence career opportunities and earnings. They also have an impact on status and reputation in society. The importance of occupational choice is reinforced because occupational choice is hardly reversible and, therefore, creates path dependencies in one's life. This issue is especially crucial if job mobility is low, as it is the case in Germany. Changes in occupations are less common in Germany i...

  2. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  3. The Impact of Choice Expression Modalities on Choice Rationality and Choice Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation comprises two empirical studies that investigate the impact of manual versus oral choice expression modalities on the objective rationality of choice (Study 1) and the impact of oral versus manual choice expression modalities on choice satisfaction (Study 2).

  4. The Choice Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.

    Issues in school choice--constitutionality, feasibility, equity, and educational productivity--are examined in this book. The controversy requires an ongoing analysis of the origins of the school-choice movement, the kinds of plans proposed and implemented, their educational and social consequences, and the philosophical assumptions underlying the…

  5. Latinos and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…

  6. Career Choice Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behymer, Jo; Cockriel, Irvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The study attempted to determine the effect of availability of scholarships and loans on the career choice of high school juniors and seniors. A survey of 911 college-bound students revealed that 89 percent considered availability of scholarships important to career choice, and 84 percent considered loan availability important. (CH)

  7. Children's Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

  8. Children's Choices for 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)

  9. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  10. The downside of choice: Having a choice benefits enjoyment, but at a cost to efficiency and time in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Ariyabandu, Surani; Jami, Zaffran

    2016-04-01

    The efficiency of how people search for an item in visual search has, traditionally, been thought to depend on bottom-up or top-down guidance cues. However, recent research has shown that the rate at which people visually search through a display is also affected by cognitive strategies. In this study, we investigated the role of choice in visual search, by asking whether giving people a choice alters both preference for a cognitively neutral task and search behavior. Two visual search conditions were examined: one in which participants were given a choice of visual search task (the choice condition), and one in which participants did not have a choice (the no-choice condition). The results showed that the participants in the choice condition rated the task as both more enjoyable and likeable than did the participants in the no-choice condition. However, despite their preferences, actual search performance was slower and less efficient in the choice condition than in the no-choice condition (Exp. 1). Experiment 2 showed that the difference in search performance between the choice and no-choice conditions disappeared when central executive processes became occupied with a task-switching task. These data concur with a choice-impaired hypothesis of search, in which having a choice leads to more motivated, active search involving executive processes. PMID:26892010

  11. Model for understanding consumer textural food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored. PMID:25987995

  12. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-...

  13. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications...

  14. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  15. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  16. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  17. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alexandria R.; Chow, Jonathan J.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior. PMID:27441394

  18. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea of inf......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  19. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  20. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  1. Dynamics with choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamics with choice is a generalization of discrete-time dynamics where instead of the same evolution operator at every time step there is a choice of operators to transform the current state of the system. Many real-life processes studied in chemical physics, engineering, biology and medicine, from autocatalytic reaction systems to switched systems to cellular biochemical processes to malaria transmission in urban environments, exhibit the properties described by dynamics with choice. We study the long-term behaviour in dynamics with choice. We prove very general results on the existence and properties of global compact attractors in dynamics with choice. In addition, we study the dynamics with restricted choice when the allowed sequences of operators correspond to subshifts of the full shift. One of the practical consequences of our results is that when the parameters of a discrete-time system are not known exactly and/or are subject to change due to internal instability or a strategy or Nature's intervention, the long-term behaviour of the system may not be correctly described by a system with 'averaged' values for the parameters. There may be a Gestalt effect

  2. How Do Consumers Make Choices? A Summary of Evidence from Marketing and Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Babutsidze, Zakaria

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I review the evidence from marketing and psychology literature about the purchase behavior of consumers. I concentrate on the characteristics of the choice process, choice of the external information source and nature of the information obtained from these sources. The impact of important systematic differences among consumers and products on choice behavior is also discussed.

  3. Educational "Choice" (Vouchers) and Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    Uses a model of student and school behavior to simulate effects of differing voucher amounts on students in different income categories, drawing on two major assumptions concerning service delivery and competition. Poor youngsters would not be better off under voucher system. Even under highly favorable conditions, a systemic choice system would…

  4. Choice-Induced Preference Change in the Free-Choice Paradigm: A Critical Methodological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KeiseIzuma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Choices not only reflect our preference, but they also affect our behavior. The phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been of interest to cognitive dissonance researchers in social psychology, and more recently, it has attracted the attention of researchers in economics and neuroscience. Preference modulation after the mere act of making a choice has been repeatedly demonstrated over the last 50 years by an experimental paradigm called the “free-choice paradigm.” However, in 2010, Chen and Risen pointed out a serious methodological flaw in this paradigm, arguing that evidence for choice-induced preference change is still insufficient. Despite the flaw, studies using the traditional free-choice paradigm continue to be published without addressing the criticism. Here, aiming to draw more attention to this issue, we briefly explain the methodological problem, and then describe simple simulation studies that illustrate how the free-choice paradigm produces a systematic pattern of preference change consistent with cognitive dissonance, even without any change in true preference. Our stimulation also shows how a different level of noise in each phase of the free-choice paradigm independently contributes to the magnitude of artificial preference change. Furthermore, we review ways of addressing the critique and provide a meta-analysis to show the effect size of choice-induced preference change after addressing the critique. Finally, we review and discuss, based on the results of the stimulation studies, how the criticism affects our interpretation of past findings generated from the free-choice paradigm. We conclude that the use of the conventional free-choice paradigm should be avoided in future research and the validity of past findings from studies using this paradigm should be empirically re-established.

  5. Can A Rational Choice Framework Make Sense of Anorexia Nervosa?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldfarb, Robert S.; Thomas C. Leonard; Sara Markowitz; Steven Suranovic

    2009-01-01

    Can a rational choice modeling framework help broaden our understanding of anorexia nervosa? This question is interesting because anorexia nervosa is a serious health concern, and because of the following issue: could a rational choice approach shed useful light on a condition which appears to involve "choosing" to be ill? We present a model of weight choice and dieting applicable to anorexia nervosa, and the sometimes-associated purging behavior. We also present empirical evidence about fact...

  6. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter; Vlagsma-Brangule, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norms, environmental variables (environmental concern, green behavior, and perceived consumer effectiveness) as main antecedents of the choice and share of categoryrequirements of bio-meat. We also con...

  7. Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Laan, Laura N.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.; Max A Viergever; Paul A.M. Smeets

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several ...

  8. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  9. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Leon Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  10. Measuring improved patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, M; Rovner, D R

    2000-08-01

    Patient decision support (PDS) tools or decision aids have been developed as adjuncts to the clinical encounter. Their aim is to support evidence-based patient choice. Clinical trials of PDS tools have used an array of outcome measures to determine efficacy, including knowledge, satisfaction, health status and consistency between patient choice and values. This paper proposes that the correlation between 'subjective expected utility' (SEU) and decision may be the best primary endpoint for trials. SEU is a measure usually used in behavioural decision theory. The paper first describes how decision support tools may use decision analysis to structure the presentation of evidence and guide patient decision-making. Uses of expected utility (EU) are suggested for evaluating PDS tools when improving population health status is the objective. SEU is the theoretically better measure when internal consistency of patient choices is the objective. PMID:11083037

  11. Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Stauffer, William R.; Lak, Armin; Bossaerts, Peter; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Economic choices are largely determined by two principal elements, reward value (utility) and probability. Although nonlinear utility functions have been acknowledged for centuries, nonlinear probability weighting (probability distortion) was only recently recognized as a ubiquitous aspect of real-world choice behavior. Even when outcome probabilities are known and acknowledged, human decision makers often overweight low probability outcomes and underweight high probability outcomes. Whereas ...

  12. Response latencies in the analysis of conjoint choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaijer, R; Kamakura, W; Wedel, M

    2000-01-01

    Response latencies provide information about consumers' choice behavior in a conjoint choice experiment. The authors use filtered response latencies to scale the covariance matrix of a multinomial probit model and show that this leads to better model fit and holdout predictions, even if the response

  13. The Effect of Conditioned Reinforcement Rate on Choice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Edmund; Romanowich, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We review the nature of conditioned reinforcement, including evidence that conditioned reinforcers maintain choice behavior in concurrent schedules and that they elevate responding in the terminal links of concurrent-chains schedules. A question has resurfaced recently: Do theories of choice in concurrent-chains schedules need to include a term…

  14. Making Healthy Choices Easier: Regulation versus Nudging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-03-18

    In recent years, the nudge approach to behavior change has emerged from the behavioral sciences to challenge the traditional use of regulation in public health strategies to address modifiable individual-level behaviors related to the rise of noncommunicable diseases and their treatment. However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier are being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, its relationship with regulation, and its ethical implications. This article reviews this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers' understanding and give guidance to those who have considered working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthful choices easier. PMID:26735430

  15. Salience and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Bordalo, Pedro; Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present a theory of context-dependent choice in which a consumer's attention is drawn to salient attributes of goods, such as quality or price. An attribute is salient for a good when it stands out among the good's characteristics, in the precise sense of being furthest away in that good from its average level in the choice set (or more generally, an evoked set). A local thinker chooses among goods by attaching disproportionately high weights to their salient attributes. When goods are cha...

  16. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  17. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The year 2012 was the 30th anniversary of William H. Riker’s modern classic Liberalism against populism (1982) and is marked by the present special issue. In this introduction, we seek to identify some core elements and evaluate the current status of the Rikerian research program and its empirical...... applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms of...

  18. On the choice of coarse variables for dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Two ideas for the choice of an adequate set of coarse variables allowing approximate autonomous dynamics for practical applications are presented. The coarse variables are meant to represent averaged behavior of a fine-scale autonomous dynamics.

  19. Understanding Predisposition in College Choice: Toward an Integrated Model of College Choice and Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Paul E.; Johnson, Todd E.; Pitre, Charisse Cowan

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to improve traditional models of college choice that draw from recruitment and enrollment management paradigms. In adopting a consumer approach to college choice, this article seeks to build upon consumer-related research, which centers on behavior and reasoning. More specifically, this article seeks to move inquiry beyond the…

  20. Learning from School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E., Ed.; Hassel, Bryan C., Ed.

    This volume contains revised versions of 16 essays presented at a conference, "Rethinking School Governance," hosted by Harvard's Program on Education Policy and Governance in June 1997. Part 1, "Introduction," contains two chapters: (1) "School Choice: A Report Card" (Paul E. Peterson); and (2) "The Case for Charter Schools" (Bryan C. Hassel).…

  1. Supporting Family Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mary M.; Christensen, Kimberly A.; Umbarger, Gardner T.; Rade, Karin C.; Aldridge, Kathryn; Niemeyer, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic/rehabilitative, and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message…

  2. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  3. Children's Choice for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)

  4. Children's Choices for 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents 103 titles for the 2003 Children's Choice grouped by reading levels: beginning, young, intermediate, and advanced readers. Provides the title, author, illustrator, publisher, ISBN, and price for each title as well as a brief annotation prepared by a review team. (SG)

  5. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, J.S.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which they occur. Here, we report on the results of a 2-choice experiment designed to examine the influence of dietary salt content and freshwater availability in food discrimination behaviors in red knot...

  6. 家庭成员活动-出行选择行为的相互影响%Research on Activity-Travel Choice Behavior Interactions between Household Heads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜于建川; 隽志才

    2012-01-01

    基于活动的方法对研究家庭成员活动-出行选择之间的相互影响关系提供了新的思路.针对已有研究多围绕发达国家展开的现状,以国内某直辖市2005年居民出行调查数据为来源,从基于活动方法的协作性限制出发,研究了主要家庭成员活动-出行选择之间的相互影响模式,利用结构方程模型,分析了活动和出行需求在家庭成员之间的分配情况,讨论了存在于同一成员和不同成员各次活动和出行中的替代、补充、陪同等影响关系对个体活动-出行选择行为的影响.研究得到了在行为学上具有较强解释力并达到各项统计学评价指标的模型,对出行行为分析有重要意义.%Activity-based method is becoming more sophisticated in the representation of intra-household interactions and constraints that influence individual activity-travel choices. However, most of the studies focus on residents of developed countries. Using the travel survey data of a municipality collected in 2005, this study examines inter-person interactions between heads of households. Daily work and non-work activity and related travel allocations between the two household members are analyzed using a structural equations model. Substitution, companion, and complementary relationships involving both activities and the associated travel between the heads of household arc also examined. The model estimation results offer significant coefficients and reasonable interpretations consistent within Chinese context. This study captures strong interactions and task allocation among household members and their significant effects on members' work and non-work activity and travel time allocation decisions. Results from this research are of significance for travel behavior analysis.

  7. Limitations of modern microeconomic theory of consumer choice: Sociological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radonjić Ognjen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoclassical theory of consumer choice needs to be reformed. Assumption that consumer choice is not influenced by the choice of others is in collision with reality. New and better theory of consumer choice is unimaginable without incorporation of intersubjective factors into the model of derivation of individual and aggregate (market demand functions. Goal of this study is to underline widely neglected sociological factors that have significant influence on motivation and behavior of consumers. Inclusion of these factors into modern microeconomic theory is of essential importance if we are about to construct theoretical model aimed to describe reality in which we daily exist better than its predecessor did.

  8. A Common Mechanism Underlying Food Choice and Social Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Krajbich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others' benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making.

  9. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value to...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers and...... students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business and...

  10. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process.......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and...... regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...

  11. The Composition of Consideration and Choice Sets in Undergraduate University Choice: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Philip L.; Brown, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We examine university choice as a case of consumer decision making and adopt a brand elimination framework. This approach is predicated on the grounds that a large amount of research in consumer behavior has shown that in markets where there are many alternative brands, consumers use phased-decision strategies. In these research studies, the…

  12. Exchange Rate Regime Choice

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronised effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. ...

  13. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  14. Experimentation and Job Choice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine optimal job choices when jobs differ in the rate at which they reveal information about workers' skills. We then analyze how the optimal level of experimentation changes over a worker's career and characterize job transitions and wage growth over the life cycle. Using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles merged with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we then construct an index of how much information different occupations reveal about workers' skills ...

  15. Advertising and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cronqvist, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the role that advertising plays in the mutual fund industry and whether advertising affects investors’ fund and portfolio choices. Content analysis shows that only a small fraction of fund advertising is directly informative about characteristics relevant for rational investors, such as fund fees. Higher quantities of advertising do not signal ex ante higher unobservable fund manager ability, because funds that advertise more are not associated with higher post-advertising...

  16. Choice under Partial Uncertainty.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey, David

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes problems of choice under uncertainty where a decisionmaker does not use subjective probabilities. The decisionmaker has a set of beliefs about which states are more likely than others, but his beliefs cannot be represented as subjective probabilities. Three main kinds of decision rules are possible in this framework. These are maximin-type, maximax-type, and choosing that action that gives the highest payoff in the state, which the decisionmaker believes to be most likely....

  17. Choice and conditioned reinforcement.

    OpenAIRE

    Fantino, E; Freed, D; Preston, R. A.; Williams, W A

    1991-01-01

    A potential weakness of one formulation of delay-reduction theory is its failure to include a term for rate of conditioned reinforcement, that is, the rate at which the terminal-link stimuli occur in concurrent-chains schedules. The present studies assessed whether or not rate of conditioned reinforcement has an independent effect upon choice. Pigeons responded on either modified concurrent-chains schedules or on comparable concurrent-tandem schedules. The initial link was shortened on only o...

  18. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.;

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compare...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate that in the...... absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  19. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  20. The Effects of Land Use Patterns on Tour Type Choice. The Application of a Hybrid Choice Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Abreu e Silva, João; Sottile, Eleonora; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The relations between travel behavior and land use patterns have been the object of intensive research in the last two decades. Due to their immediate policy implications, mode choice and vehicle miles of travel (VMT) have been the main focus of attention. Other relevant dimensions, like trip...... chaining, tour type choice, and number of tours have received less attention. This work aims to contribute to the research dealing with the role of land use patterns on tour type choice. To pursue this objective, a tour type choice is modeled using a hybrid choice model that allows simulating the effect of...... the latent propensity to travel in the discrete choice among types of tours. This model is applied to a travel diary of workers collected in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area in 2009. Different model specifications were built, testing the inclusion of purportedly built land use factors, which have the...

  1. Choice Task Complexity and Decision Strategy Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Swait, Joffre; Adamowicz, Wiktor L.

    1997-01-01

    The psychology, the marketing consumer behavior and, to a much smaller extent, the economics literature have long reported evidence that decision makers utilize different decision strategies depending upon many factors (person-specific, task-specific, etc.). Such observations have generally failed to affect the specification of choice models in commercial practice and academic research, both of which still tend to assume an utility maximizing, full information, indefatigable decision maker. T...

  2. Sustainable Products and Consumers’ Brand Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Meixner, Oliver; Knoll, Viktoria

    2012-01-01

    Within this study selected empirical results out of a 3 year project concerning the analysis of Austrian panel data are presented. Raw data coming from the most important Austrian consumer tracking panel was analyzed with respect to consumers’ variety seeking and brand choice behavior. It is analyzed if consumers tend to switch to “sustainable” (here: organic) products and brands more frequently compared to brand switches between conventional products and brands (significant interrelation bet...

  3. Its All about Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. Michael; Arsenault, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Because of the variability exhibited by individual animals' responses to their environment, studying animal behavior can be a wonderful way to engage students in self-directed, open-inquiry investigations. Individual animals react in ways that are a combination of instinct and learned behavior, but collectively they exhibit broader tendencies that…

  4. The Malleability of Intertemporal Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Intertemporal choices are ubiquitous: people often have to choose between outcomes realized at different times. Although it is generally believed that people have stable tendencies toward being impulsive or patient, an emerging body of evidence indicates that intertemporal choice is malleable and can be profoundly influenced by context. How the choice is framed, or the state of the decision-maker at the time of choice, can induce a shift in preference. Framing effects are underpinned by allocation of attention to choice attributes, reference dependence, and time construal. Incidental affective states and prospection also influence intertemporal choice. We advocate that intertemporal choice models account for these context effects, and encourage the use of this knowledge to nudge people toward making more advantageous choices. PMID:26483153

  5. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  6. Choice of Law: New Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This Article develops a new approach to choice of law. Founded on economic principles rather than the notions of sovereignty that are typically used by choice of law scholars, it seeks to build new foundations for choice of law scholarship. The analysis in the Article makes it possible to discuss alternative choice of law rules in terms of their impact on the well-being of individuals. In other words, it makes it possible to consider questions of efficie...

  7. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  8. Choice and Procrastination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    JEL#: A12, B49, C70, D11, D60, D74, D91, E21 Keywords: choice, naivete, partial naivete, present-biased preferences, procrastination, self control, sophistication, time inconsistency Recent models of procrastination due to self-control problems assume that a procrastinator considers just one option and is unaware of her self-control problems. We develop a model where a person chooses from a menu of options and is partially aware of her self-control problems. This menu model replicates earlier...

  9. Privacy, Publicity, and Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F. Daughety; Jennifer F. Reinganum

    2008-01-01

    We develop and explore a new model of the economics of privacy. Previous work has focused on "privacy of type," wherein an agent privately knows an immutable characteristic. We consider "privacy of action," wherein privacy means that an agent's choice of action is unobservable to others. To show how a policy of privacy can be socially optimal, we assume that an agent derives utility from an action he takes, from the aggregate of all agents' actions, and from other agents' perceptions of the a...

  10. College Students' Choice Modeling of Taking On-Line International Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    To understand students' choice behavior of taking on-line international business courses, a survey study is conducted to collect information regarding students' actual choices of taking on-line courses and potential factors that may have impacts on students' choices of online learning. Potential factors such as enrollment status, demographic…

  11. Strategic Choice and Collective Action: Organizational Determinants of Teachers Militancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    Conceptualizing militant behavior as a strategic choice involving collective action and occurring within a specific organizational context, this paper examines the impact of various organizational factors on elementary and secondary school teachers' willingness to engage in militant behavior. Teachers in 83 New York districts were surveyed as to…

  12. Melioration as Rational Choice: Sequential Decision Making in Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R.; Neth, Hansjorg; Jacobs, Robert A.; Gray, Wayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Melioration--defined as choosing a lesser, local gain over a greater longer term gain--is a behavioral tendency that people and pigeons share. As such, the empirical occurrence of meliorating behavior has frequently been interpreted as evidence that the mechanisms of human choice violate the norms of economic rationality. In some environments, the…

  13. Time, Self & Intertemporal Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CintiaRetz Lucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting. Consequently, time perception is fundamental to IC and it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying time processing in different situations; to investigate when human time perception differs from time as represented by the calendar metric system; and to study how time perception predicts choices. This paper surveys the recent literature on time perception in order to discuss the measuring of IC through time-perception specificities. The notion of self is also discussed within this temporal perspective. If time perception modulates discounting, and time perception is related to self, the relationship between self and time perception becomes a new path to be explored in the IC studies.

  14. Determinants of choice, and vulnerability and recovery in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, R J; Maguire, David R; Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; France, Charles P

    2016-06-01

    Addiction may be viewed as choice governed by competing contingencies. One factor impacting choice, particularly as it relates to addiction, is sensitivity to delayed rewards. Discounting of delayed rewards influences addiction vulnerability because of competition between relatively immediate gains of drug use, e.g. intoxication, versus relatively remote gains of abstinence, e.g. family stability. Factors modifying delay sensitivity can be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, increased delay sensitivity can be similarly observed in adolescent humans and non-human animals. Similarly, genetic factors influence delay sensitivity in humans and animals. Recovery from addiction may also be viewed as choice behavior. Thus, reinforcing alternative behavior facilitates recovery because reinforcing alternative behavior decreases the frequency of using drugs. How reinforcing alternative behavior influences recovery can also be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, relapse risk decreases as abstinence duration increases, and this decreasing risk can be modeled in animals using choice procedures. In summary, addiction in many respects can be conceptualized as a problem of choice. Animal models of choice disorders stand to increase our understanding of the core processes that establish and maintain addiction and serve as a proving ground for development of novel treatments. PMID:27083500

  15. Motherhood as a choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-06-01

    The choice of motherhood for women and women's rights have been forbidden in law by men, in religious doctrines by men, and within the medical system by men. Women in poverty have little say in determining whether to have children or not. When choice is exercised for abortion, poor women have unsafe and illegal abortions, which can be life-threatening. Rich women have safer options. Women historically have allowed their rights to be eroded by gender inequality and patriarchal manipulation. The religious right and the Roman Catholic church have been allowed to speak and decide for women. Abortion rights are not about western influences, but about maternal mortality. The right to make choices about one's life is the fundamental premise of the universal rights of all human beings. African governments have signed the UN Convention on elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, but the practice of human rights has not been implemented at the local and family level. Motherhood needs to be demystified. Motherhood is linked with the absence of personhood and bodily integrity. The rhetoric of moral obligations and the rights of the unborn child take precedence over the rights of women. The right of an African woman not to have children is not recognized in most Africa societies. The issue of AIDS creates an even more difficult milieu for women. The interests of the family and the interests of men overwhelm the interests of women to protect themselves. Motherhood is essential to validating one's heterosexuality and gaining stature, and females without a child are marginalized and unrecognized. Women whose babies do not survive are marginalized further than barren women. Men derive power from women's birthing. The terminology of male power is replete with expressions such as "pregnant with promise" and "miscarriage of justice's", no one says "uterus envy." Male psychologists only recognize "penis envy." Men need children for purposes of property, lineage, and

  16. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  17. Consumer Choice of Hotel Experiences: The Effects of Cognitive, Affective, and Sensory Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohee

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the choice behavior of customers is crucial for effective service management and marketing in the hospitality industry. The first purpose of this dissertation is to examine the differential effects that cognitive, affective, and sensory attributes have on consumer hotel choice. The second purpose is to examine the moderating effects of consumer choice context on the relationship between the cognitive, affective, and sensory attributes and hotel choice. To achieve these two ...

  18. On utilitarianism vs virtue ethics as foundations of economic choice theory

    OpenAIRE

    Petur O. Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Economic choice theory is built on utilitarian foundations. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether a foundation of virtue ethics might be more consistent with human nature. Design/methodology/approach – The paper focuses on utilitarianism vs virtue ethics as foundations of economic choice theory. Findings – Economic choice theory describes consumer choice in terms that are inconsistent with findings from recent research in behavioral economics, neuroeconomics, and psycholog...

  19. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  20. Environment and fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of environmental regulation as a determinant of fossil fuel choice is examined, with a focus on coal and natural gas in the United States market. It is thought that with the current concern over greenhouse gas emissions, gas would become the fuel of choice and would benefit from measures such as emission trading and carbon taxes. In the USA, in spite of environmental regulations set forth in the Clean Air Act, coal consumption has not decreased with respect to gas because coal is successfully competing on an economic and environmental level. Coal mine productivity has increased over the past 15 years and significant progress has been made in both reducing the emission forming materials in coal through better processing and reducing stack emissions via pollution control devices. An economic analysis of the premium that should attach to natural gas as compared to coal for power generation shows that an emissions trading premium on gas is not sufficient to compensate for the lower cost of coal. The advantages of natural gas for power generation lie in the lower capital and operating costs for combined cycle generation technology and the good prospects for a low, long-term equilibrium price for natural gas. Lower wellhead prices and combined cycle technology will cause gas to have a larger share of the electric utility market than coal in areas where transport economics are favorable. However, the economics of existing coal-fired plants favor continued use of coal, and the increase in gas use will depend on the rate at which new plants are built. 4 figs

  1. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  2. Dopaminergic function and intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, J; Voon, V; Johansson, J; Niemelä, S; Bergman, J; Kaasinen, V

    2015-01-01

    The discounting of delayed rewards, also known as temporal or delay discounting, is intrinsic to everyday decisions and can be impaired in pathological states such as addiction disorders. Preclinical and human studies suggest a role for dopaminergic function in temporal discounting but this relationship has not yet been verified using molecular imaging of the living human brain. Here, we evaluated dopaminergic function in temporal discounting using positron emission tomography (PET) with two different dopaminergic ligands assessing three populations in whom temporal discounting has been shown to be impaired. First, we show using [11C]raclopride PET that in pathological gamblers, greater temporal discounting correlates with decreased ventral striatal binding potential, convergent with translational findings of lower nucleus accumbens D2/D3 receptor density in high-impulsive rodents. Temporal discounting also correlates with lower ventral striatal dopamine release in response to high-reward magnitude suggesting that dopamine-mediated devaluation of larger delayed rewards may drive choice preferences. Second, we show using [18F]fluorodopa PET that in Parkinson's disease, temporal discounting correlates with greater left caudate dopaminergic terminal function. Finally, in subjects with Parkinson's disease and dopamine medication-induced behavioral addictions, temporal discounting is further correlated with greater dopaminergic terminal function in the anterior putamen. These findings provide insights into the relationship between striatal dopamine function and temporal discounting, and its potential role in pathological disorders and mechanisms underlying treatment interventions. PMID:25562841

  3. Variety Seeking, Purchase Timing, and the "Lightning Bolt" Brand Choice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep K. Chintagunta

    1999-01-01

    The "Lightning Bolt" (LB) model provides a comprehensive framework for accommodating the effects of habit persistence, unobserved heterogeneity, and state dependence on household brand choice behavior. This paper presents a discrete, dynamic brand-choice model that belongs to the LB class of models. We propose a method for incorporating the effects of variety seeking into the LB model formulation. The proposed formulation explicitly links brand choice and purchase timing behavior via the effe...

  4. Are ADHD Symptoms Associated with Delay Aversion or Choice Impulsivity? A General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with choice impulsivity is examined. Findings were found to indicate that primary constitutional processes that underlie choice impulsivity and their potential role in behavioral inattention are important. It was also found that behavioral and brain processes that underlie choice…

  5. Factor analysis of sexual behavior in migratory adolescent and choice of contraceptive measures%流动青少年性行为及避孕措施选择的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利娜; 余小鸣; 高素红

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解流动青少年性行为现况及避孕措施选择的影响因素,为开展流动人口性与生殖健康教育提供科学依据.方法:采用自编结构式匿名问卷对北京、广州、济南4389名流动青少年进行自填式问卷调查.结果:33.4%(1453/4354)的流动青少年报告有性行为,未婚者性行为发生率为27.5%(1066/3880),其中男性37.8%(579/1533),女性20.7% (487/2347);避孕措施使用率为44.8% (642/1432),安全套为首选的避孕措施;未婚者中有31.1%(322/1034)报告有妊娠史,29.7%( 307/1034)报告有流产史.文化程度(OR=1.555)、婚姻状况(OR =0.432)、性伴侣数(OR =0.683)和性病预防知识得分(OR=1.758)是流动青少年是否使用避孕措施的影响因素.结论:流动青少年性行为发生率较高,避孕措施使用率较低,并引发生殖健康问题,应加强对其进行生殖健康教育,提高有效避孕措施的选择.,女性20.7% (487/2347);避孕措施使用率为44.8% (642/1432),安全套为首选的避孕措施;未婚者中有31.1%(322/1034)报告有妊娠史,2.7%( 307/1034)报告有流产史.文化程度(OR=1.555)、婚姻状况(OR =0.432)、性伴侣数(OR =0.683)和性病预防知识得分(OR=1.758)是流动青少年是否使用避孕措施的影响因素.结论:流动青少年性行为发生率较高,避孕措施使用率较低,并引发生殖健康问题,应加强对其进行生殖健康教育,提高有效避孕措施的选择.%Objective: To comprehend the young migrants' sexual behavior and contraceptive status, and to provide the scientific basis for the health education regarding sex and reproduction for the young migrants in cities. Methods; An anonymous self-designed structured questionnaire was used to survey 4 389 young migrants in Beijing,Guangzhou and Ji'nan. Results.- In the study, 33.4% (1 453/4 354) of the migrant adolescents reported had sexual activity, with the unmarried sex rate of 27. 5% (1 066/ 3880), and the males

  6. A proposed resolution of the delayed-choice paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a resolution of the delayed-choice paradox of the Conventional Theory of quantum mechanics, where a particle seems to know what will happen in the future, and changes its present behavior accordingly. A comparison of the Conventional Theory with an Advanced Theory and a Symmetrical Theory of the same delayed-choice experiment suggests that the apparent paradox is caused by an incorrect assumption about the interaction of a wavefunction with a beam-splitter. Once this assum...

  7. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Grabenhorst, F.; Hernadi, I.; Schultz, W.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain’s reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons...

  8. A common mechanism underlying food choice and social decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Krajbich, Ian; Hare, Todd; Bartling, Björn; Morishima, Yosuke; Fehr, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others’ benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brai...

  9. CHOICE, PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION OF DRUGS: SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachenko Olga Victorovna

    2013-01-01

    The results of pharmaceutical market’s sociological research are representing in the paper. Determinate the basic agents influenced on pharmaceuticals choice and purchase such as a doctor, experience of individual, information from advertisement. Physician competency is of secondary importance to advertisement messages. Experience of individual prepotency of the pharmaceuticals choice raises a point of a level attention of pharmaceuticals consumer behavior. We can describe it in a low level b...

  10. Decision making and brand choice by older consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Older adults constitute a rapidly growing demographic segment, but stereotypes persist about their consumer behavior. Thus, a more considered understanding of age-associated changes in decision making and choices is required. The authors's underlying theoretical model suggests that age-associated changes in cognition, affect, and goals interact to differentiate older consumers’ decision-making processes, brand choices, and habits from those of younger adults. They first review literature on s...

  11. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... addressed in these studies which preference models are actually being tested, and the connection between the statistical tests performed and the relevant underlying models of respondent behavior has not been explored further. This paper tries to fill that gap. We specifically analyze the meaning and role of...... the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  12. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Swetlana Gutjar; ter Horst, Gert J.; Kees de Graaf; Renken, Remco J.; Gerry Jager

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  13. Study on Inventory Control for Rental Cars Based on Customer Choice Behavior%基于顾客选择行为的租赁车辆存量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚璪; 李鹏飞; 陈坚; 郝小妮

    2016-01-01

    Taking revenue management theory and Logit model as starting points, the vehicle inventory level of car rental sites was studied. Customers’ preference and utility on consumption was obtained by a survey. Vari-able precision rough set method was used to simplify the factors that influence the choice of consumers on vehi-cle, then judgment matrix was established to calculate the weights of the remaining factors. Finally the probabili-ty of customer choice of rental cars was calculated, and protection level of car rental in leasing sites was then gained. This study showed that there were similar protection level results compared with the expected marginal revenue, which proved the efficiency of the proposed model, for it only needs to use the data sets of customer choice of rental cars to calibrate parameters without other prior information and probability distribution of cus-tomer choice. It finds the model can improve inventory control accuracy of car rental companies and realize flex-ible control.%以收益管理和Logit模型为出发点,研究汽车租赁站点多车型的库存保护水平。通过调查获得顾客消费行为的偏好和效用,运用变精度粗糙集方法对影响顾客选择行为的因素进行简约并构造判断矩阵计算权重,从而计算出顾客对租赁车辆选择的概率和租赁车辆存量的保护水平。计算结果与期望边际收益为控制策略确定的保护水平基本相近,验证了模型的有效性。模型只需利用顾客对租赁车辆选择数据集合来标定参数,而不需要其他的先验信息和顾客选择的概率分布表达式,同时可以提高汽车租赁公司存量控制精度,实现柔性控制。

  14. Teen Choice of Inwood House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Teen Choice Program in New York City was described and the outcome of the program evaluation was reported. Teen Choice is a school based sex education and pregnancy prevention program run by trained social workers. The aim is to provide information, counseling, and referrals on a range of issues relating to sexuality. The program is elective and meets during a regularly scheduled gym period for one or two semesters from the 7th to the 12th grades. There are single sex and coeducational classes. The program aim is to change attitudes toward birth control, to change risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected coitus, to offer accurate knowledge about contraception, and to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Abstinence is encouraged, but for those sexually experienced, there is attention to responsible and reliable use of contraception. Program methods include small group discussion, individual counseling, and classroom discussion. Topics of discussion range from sexuality issues and birth control to values clarification and peer pressure. Small groups may discuss human sexual growth, relationship formation, family life, responsibility to self and others, consequences of teenage pregnancy, and social and cultural peer pressures. Girls are encouraged to assume more assertive and less reactive roles. Communication skills are reinforced in respectful exchanges of personal views and questions. Differentiating facts and issues is a primary focus. A question about when an individual first had sex would be redirected to asking about the appropriate age to first have sex. Respect for privacy helps to build students confidence in the program. A longitudinal evaluation conducted between 1984 and 1987 found that the program was effective in reaching and recruiting high risk adolescents. Students left the program with increased knowledge about contraception, more mature and responsible attitudes about the use of birth control, and reduced frequency of unprotected coitus. Boys were

  15. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem, ask for help. Poor choices can become habits. Kids who have behavior problems are at higher risk for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or family therapy ...

  16. Rational Choice Theory and Addiction Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Krstić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the construct of student satisfaction and analyze its relationship with student loyalty in the context of state and private universities. The rational choice theory assumes that, when deciding whether to consume some goods or not, consumers use analysis in order to estimate the values of individual preference indicators. From this point of view, there are risk and time preferences. The former show aversion to a risk and are expressed through the risk aversion coefficient, while the latter measure the degree of preference for present satisfaction in relation to the same satisfaction in the future. The degree of preference for present satisfaction regarding the same satisfaction in the future is expressed by the time preference rate. Smokers with a low time preference rate and high risk aversion coefficient level can be expected to be successful in cessation. The aim of this paper is to study smokers from the perspective of rational choice theory, in order to detect factors influencing their behavior. The study (investigation found that the significant factors for smokers’ behavior are: gender, age, education, risk aversion coefficient, and the time preference rate. Analysis of smokers’ behavior, with appropriate limits and qualifications, is a well-developed and highly effective tool for exploring and interpreting reality.

  17. The Globalisation of School Choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Martin, Ed.; Davies, Scott, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Which school should I choose for my child?" For many parents, this question is one of the most important of their lives. "School choice" is a slogan being voiced around the globe, conjuring images of a marketplace with an abundance of educational options. Those promoting educational choice also promise equality, social advantage, autonomy, and…

  18. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  19. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  20. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  1. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education are...... demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students’ choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students’ interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more...... students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense....

  2. Measuring changes in preferences and perception due to the entry of a new brand with choice data

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Lutz; Kalweit, Lea

    2008-01-01

    Context effects can have a major influence on brand choice behavior after the introduction of a new product. Based on behavioral literature, several hypotheses about the effects of a new brand on perception, preferences and choice behavior can be derived, but studies with real choice data are still lacking. We employ an internal market structure analysis to measure context effects caused by a new product in scanner panel data, and to discriminate between alternative theoretical explanations. ...

  3. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  4. CHOICE, DYNAMIC REINFORCEMENT, AND CHANGEOVER RESPONSE REQUIREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE A. BALDERRAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that choice does not require steady state performance to show sensitivity toreinforcement. This idea was further explored in a choice situation in which a changeover responserequirement was manipulated. The parameters of the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974 were usedto assess changes in preference due to an increasing fixed-ratio changeover-response requirement. Theratio of reinforcement provided by two levers (27:1, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9, 1:27 was manipulated betweensessions to prevent steady state concurrent performance. In different conditions, the changeoverrequirement took on values of 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 responses. The results showed local effects of reinforcementon choice behavior; from one reinforcer to the next, the distribution of responses favored thealternative associated with the highest probability of reinforcement. Although sensitivity to reinforcementdid not increase with increasing changeover response requirements, as the rats experienced thedynamic reinforcing environment along the experiment the value of the parameter s stabilized above 1.0.

  5. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23317835

  6. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. Recent work stimulated by the discovery of "zero-determinant" strategies has rapidly expanded our ability to analyze such interactions. This body of work has primarily focused on games in which players face a simple binary choice, to "cooperate" or "defect". Real individuals, however, often exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in finite populations. We show that, in public goods games, some two-choice strategies can nonetheless resist invasion by all possible multi-choice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. We also show that access to greater behavioral choice results in more "rugged " fitness landscapes, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment, such that choice f...

  7. No effects of psychosocial stress on intertemporal choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haushofer

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices - involving decisions which trade off instant and delayed outcomes - are often made under stress. It remains unknown, however, whether and how stress affects intertemporal choice. We subjected 142 healthy male subjects to a laboratory stress or control protocol, and asked them to make a series of intertemporal choices either directly after stress, or 20 minutes later (resulting in four experimental groups. Based on theory and evidence from behavioral economics and cellular neuroscience, we predicted a bidirectional effect of stress on intertemporal choice, with increases in impatience or present bias immediately after stress, but decreases in present bias or impatience when subjects are tested 20 minutes later. However, our results show no effects of stress on intertemporal choice at either time point, and individual differences in stress reactivity (changes in stress hormone levels over time are not related to individual differences in intertemporal choice. Together, we did not find support for the hypothesis that psychosocial laboratory stressors affect intertemporal choice.

  8. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities. PMID:19042526

  9.  “What are the main factors that influence consumers in their choice of green energy company over the conventional energy”? : “The role of green marketing in development of consumer behavior towards green energy”

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Usama; Aamer Raza, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to study the factors affecting consumers while taking decision towards electricity providing company. Theoretical Frame work This academic work starts by presenting the background information of energy market, and then presents concept of green marketing, social responsibility, green energy, and consumer behavior in literature review. In conceptual frame work authors adopt consumer decision model, and strategic model which will answer research question ...

  10. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J

    2016-08-30

    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare. PMID:27528666

  11. How do stereotypes influence choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaxel, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    In the study reported here, I tracked one process through which stereotypes affect choice. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a measurement of predecisional information distortion were used to assess the influence of the association between male gender and career on the evaluation of information related to the job performance of stereotypical targets (male) and nonstereotypical targets (female). When the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a stereotypical target, decision makers supported the leader with more proleader distortion; when the IAT revealed a strong association between male gender and career and the installed leader in the choice process was a nonstereotypical target, decision makers supported the trailer with less antitrailer distortion. A stronger association between male gender and career therefore resulted in an upward shift of the evaluation related to the stereotypical target (both as a trailer and a leader), which subsequently biased choice. PMID:25749702

  12. Auction fever: exploring informational social influences on bidder choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigations of herd behavior have identified the importance of informational social influences in consumer decision making. This research presents three studies examining herd behavior in online auctions. The three studies addressed the influence on bidder online choices of herd cues frequently found in online auctions, including bid number, feedback ratings, and number of questions and answers. This research also investigated the effect of different levels of herd cues on bidder online choices under high and low brand awareness in online auctions. The experimental results demonstrated that bidders use online herd cues when making decisions in online auctions. Additionally, different levels of herd cues influence bidder online choices in both high and low brand awareness product situations. PMID:21192763

  13. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  14. Flower choice copying in bumblebees

    OpenAIRE

    Worden, Bradley D; Papaj, Daniel R

    2005-01-01

    We tested a hypothesis originating with Darwin that bees outside the nest exhibit social learning in flower choices. Naive bumblebees, Bombus impatiens, were allowed to observe trained bees or artificial bees forage from orange or green flowers. Subsequently, observers of bees on green flowers landed more often on green flowers than non-observing controls or observers of models on orange flowers. These results demonstrate that bumblebees can change flower choice by observations of non-nest ma...

  15. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  16. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  17. Consumer choice in competitive location models: Formulations and heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Daniel (informaticien); Colom??, Rosa

    1998-01-01

    A new direction of research in Competitive Location theory incorporates theories of Consumer Choice Behavior in its models. Following this direction, this paper studies the importance of consumer behavior with respect to distance or transportation costs in the optimality of locations obtained by traditional Competitive Location models. To do this, it considers different ways of defining a key parameter in the basic Maximum Capture model (MAXCAP). This parameter will reflect ...

  18. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogeno...

  19. Unification of models for choice between delayed reinforcers.

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen, P R; Fantino, E

    1990-01-01

    Two models for choice between delayed reinforcers, Fantino's delay-reduction theory and Killeen's incentive theory, are reviewed. Incentive theory is amended to incorporate the effects of arousal on alternate types of behavior that might block the reinforcement of the target behavior. This amended version is shown to differ from the delay-reduction theory in a term that is an exponential in incentive theory and a difference in delay-reduction theory. A power series approximation to the expone...

  20. Personality and Values as Predictors of Medical Specialty Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Brian J.; Hartung, Paul J.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2011-01-01

    Research rarely considers the combined influence of personality traits and values in predicting behavioral outcomes. We aimed to advance a germinal line of inquiry that addresses this gap by separately and simultaneously examining personality traits and physician work values to predict medical specialty choice. First-year medical students (125…

  1. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling inv

  2. Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patte

  3. Free-Choice Learning at a Metropolitan Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Tofield, Sara; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contextualized within the zoo's environmental enrichment program - an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behavior for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate…

  4. Effects of web experience on consumer choice: a multicultural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Gomez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to analyze the buying behavior of internet users in two European countries with different cultural backgrounds, Spain and The Netherlands, assessing the influence of online experience factors on the choice of an internet vendor. It also aims to identify and compare the inf

  5. Determinants of labor market choices : age differentials and family circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Kutyavina, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My research explores the interactions between labor market choices, public programs, and family circumstances. In the following three chapters, I study the relationship between labor market conditions and job search behavior of workers of differing ages, the effect of children's events on parental retirement timing, as well as the impact of UI extensions on recipients' spouses

  6. Student Perceptions of Instructional Choices in Middle School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education. Methods: Participants consisted of 246…

  7. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Vegetarian choices You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods Vegetarian choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get ...

  8. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S Suter

    Full Text Available Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain

  9. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  10. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  11. How does probability impact consumers' choice? The case of online reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Fagerstrøm, A; Ghinea, G.; Sydnes, L

    2015-01-01

    Consumers are frequently in situations that include evaluating the probability of the outcome of a particular choice. It is, therefore, essential to analyze how probability influences choice in order to fully understand consumer behavior. This paper investigates how probability discounting contributes to the understanding of the impact of online reviews on consumer choice. An experiment with 25 participants was conducted. Participants were presented with an online shopping scenario in which t...

  12. A Framework for Investigating Habits, “The Hand of the Past,” and Heterogeneity in Dynamic Brand Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Rishin Roy; Pradeep K. Chintagunta; Sudeep Haldar

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general class of dynamic brand choice models, called (LB) models, which are consistent with the theory of random utility maximization of consumer choice behavior. The underlying random utility process is Markov, and the inter-temporal evolution of the (utility-maximizing) brand choice process is also Markov. The models permit parsimonious parameterizations of the random utility process in brand choices with the resulting switching probabilities being functionally re...

  13. Developing a concept of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Our adult concept of choice is not a simple idea, but rather a complex set of beliefs about the causes of actions. These beliefs are situation-, individual- and culture-dependent, and are thus likely constructed through social learning. This chapter takes a rational constructivist approach to examining the development of a concept of choice in young children. Initially, infants' combine assumptions of rational agency with their capacity for statistical inference to reason about alternative possibilities for, and constraints on, action. Preschoolers' build on this basic understanding by integrating domain-specific causal knowledge of physical, biological, and psychological possibility into their appraisal of their own and others' ability to choose. However, preschoolers continue to view both psychological and social motivations as constraints on choice--for example, stating that one cannot choose to harm another, or to act against personal desires. It is not until later that children share the adult belief that choice mediates between conflicting motivations for action. The chapter concludes by suggesting avenues for future research--to better characterize conceptual changes in beliefs about choice, and to understand how such beliefs arise from children's everyday experiences. PMID:23205412

  14. What drives customer choice in competitive power markets? Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding what drives customer choice is a crucial first step toward meeting customer needs in competitive power markets. To understand the key drivers of customer choice, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 150 customers in California, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island and with 12 energy service providers (ESPs) serving these states. Because it is a qualitative study, the number of interviews is small; however, these interviews provide a first look at actual choice behavior in the US. This study also drew on previous EPRI research on customer choice and switching intentions, the US pilot program experience, actual customer choice behavior in international markets, and lessons learned in other deregulated industries. This study identified by customer sector--residential, small and medium commercial and industrial (C/I), and large C/I--the factors customers consider when choosing an electricity supplier, customers' reasons for switching electricity supplier, and customers' reasons for not switching. One of the key findings of the study is that the key driver for switching electricity supplier is the desire to save money. In markets where energy service providers can offer significant savings, customers are switching; but, in markets where no price incentives exist, customers are reluctant to switch

  15. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Compensatory and Noncompensatory Strategies in Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Figner, Bernd; Weeda, Wouter D; Van der Molen, Maurits W; Jansen, Brenda R J; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2016-09-01

    Individuals may differ systematically in their applied decision strategies, which has critical implications for decision neuroscience but is yet scarcely studied. Our study's main focus was therefore to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying compensatory versus noncompensatory strategies in risky choice. Here, we compared people using a compensatory expected value maximization with people using a simplified noncompensatory loss-minimizing choice strategy. To this end, we used a two-choice paradigm including a set of "simple" items (e.g., simple condition), in which one option was superior on all attributes, and a set of "conflict" items, in which one option was superior on one attribute but inferior on other attributes. A binomial mixture analysis of the decisions elicited by these items differentiated between decision-makers using either a compensatory or a noncompensatory strategy. Behavioral differences were particularly pronounced in the conflict condition, and these were paralleled by neural results. That is, we expected compensatory decision-makers to use an integrated value comparison during choice in the conflict condition. Accordingly, the compensatory group tracked the difference in expected value between choice options reflected in neural activation in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, we expected noncompensatory, compared with compensatory, decision-makers to experience increased conflict when attributes provided conflicting information. Accordingly, the noncompensatory group showed greater dorsomedial PFC activation only in the conflict condition. These pronounced behavioral and neural differences indicate the need for decision neuroscience to account for individual differences in risky choice strategies and to broaden its scope to noncompensatory risky choice strategies. PMID:27167399

  16. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrunoWicker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (“Is it acceptable to…” or reporting the choice of action they would make (“Would you do…”. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  17. Does health affect portfolio choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, David A; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories. PMID:19937612

  18. The Effect of a Recessionary Economy on Food Choice: Implications for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla K.; Branscum, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. Design: A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. Setting and Participants: A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the…

  19. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective behaviors. The…

  20. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  1. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Peruzzo A.; Shadbolt P.; Brunner N.; Popescu S.; O'Brien J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a q...

  2. Multimodal route choice models of public transport passengers in the Greater Copenhagen Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Marie Karen; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding route choice behavior is crucial to explain travelers’ preferences and to predict traffic flows under different scenarios. A growing body of literature has concentrated on public transport users without, however, concentrating on multimodal public transport networks because of their...

  3. Egalitarianism in Multi-Choice Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the equal division core for arbitrary multi-choice games and the constrained egalitarian solution for con- vex multi-choice games, using a multi-choice version of the Dutta-Ray algorithm for traditional convex games. These egalitarian solutions for multi-choice games have

  4. Active Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity has become a dominant feature of most American’s lives over the past quarter century. This has spurred an entire research domain straddling several different disciplines. Although model development within the field of travel behavior as a whole continues today with more momentum than ever, the focus on active mode choice has largely been overlooked and left to a small fragment of transportation and public health researchers. Research regarding active mode choice has been...

  5. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  6. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bronner; R. de Hoog

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice op

  7. Manipulating a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Borjesson, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the design of a stated choice experiment intended to measure the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between cost and an attribute such as time using a conventional logit model. Focusing the experimental design on some target MRS will bias estimates towards that value. The pa...

  8. A Choice for the Chosen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Examines reasons for opposition to school-choice programs by the American Jewish Congress and the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai Brith. There is skepticism that more Jewish families would send their children to separate schools, and there is concern that government aid would foster a more religious tone in the country. Suggests that these…

  9. We are the logical choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At last year's discussions, the Slovak government approved the possibility of the Czech energy company CEZ building a new nuclear plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The company's merger and acquisition department head Vladimir Schmalz claims that this is a logical choice. (author)

  10. RATIONAL CUSTOMS CLEARANCE TECHNOLOGY CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Shramenko, N.; Andriets, V.

    2008-01-01

    Issues concerning cargo delivery efficiencyincrease by choice of rational customs clearance technology have been considered. Three possible variants of customs clearance andmethods which allow to define the most rational version of cargo delivery in international road communication based on main efficiency criteria for definite distance have been presented.

  11. Educational Choice and Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…

  12. Model choice versus model criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Christian P.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Chen, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The new perspectives on ABC and Bayesian model criticisms presented in Ratmann et al.(2009) are challenging standard approaches to Bayesian model choice. We discuss here some issues arising from the authors' approach, including prior influence, model assessment and criticism, and the meaning of error in ABC.

  13. Thought and Choice in Chess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Adriaan D.

    2008-01-01

    What does a chessmaster think when he prepartes his next move? How are his thoughts organized? Which methods and strategies does he use by solving his problem of choice? To answer these questions, the author did an experimental study in 1938, to which famous chessmasters participated (Alekhine, Max

  14. Modelling Choice of Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agha Faisal Habib Pathan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the significance of traveller information sources including mono-modal and multimodal websites for travel decisions. The research follows a decision paradigm developed earlier, involving an information acquisition process for travel choices, and identifies the abstract characteristics of new information sources that deserve further investigation (e.g. by incorporating these in models and studying their significance in model estimation. A Stated Preference experiment is developed and the utility functions are formulated by expanding the travellers' choice set to include different combinations of sources of information. In order to study the underlying choice mechanisms, the resulting variables are examined in models based on different behavioural strategies, including utility maximisation and minimising the regret associated with the foregone alternatives. This research confirmed that RRM (Random Regret Minimisation Theory can fruitfully be used and can provide important insights for behavioural studies. The study also analyses the properties of travel planning websites and establishes a link between travel choices and the content, provenance, design, presence of advertisements, and presentation of information. The results indicate that travellers give particular credence to governmentowned sources and put more importance on their own previous experiences than on any other single source of information. Information from multimodal websites is more influential than that on train-only websites. This in turn is more influential than information from friends, while information from coachonly websites is the least influential. A website with less search time, specific information on users' own criteria, and real time information is regarded as most attractive

  15. Moral Dimensions of Curriculum Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, C. J. B.

    This paper argues that just as subject matter is inherently value-laden, educators should not feel trepidation about morally justifying their criteria for choosing curricula to be taught in the classroom. It recommends that true "moral" choices should be made on the bases of relevance to student experiences; moral propriety of subject matter…

  16. The Effects of Gasoline Price and Tax Policy on the Micro-choice Behavior in China's Automobile Market%汽油价格、税收政策与乘用车市场的微观选择行为——基于需求侧、供给侧和节能减排效应估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立中; 李郁芳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the random coefficient discrete choice model and China's car market aggregate data, this paper analyze the demand and supply of car market, and the effect of gasoline price and purchase revenue policy on micro-choice behavior with simulation. The%本文运用中国乘用车市场的加总数据和随机系数离散选择(BLP)等模型。在对基本型乘用车(轿车)市场进行需求估计和供给分析的基础上。实证模拟测算了汽油价格和车辆购置税政策对微观个体选择行为的可能影响.并对乘用车市场节能减排效应进行了估计。结果发现:①在需求估计中,平均而言,乘用车价格上升1万元/辆(2006年10月价格),市场份额将下降0.19%;每公里费用上升1元(2006年10月价格),市场份额将下降34.16%。②供给分析表明,排量越大,价格越高的车型。价格成本标高程度相对越小,政策作用窗口越大。③节能

  17. Context-dependent stated choice experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, E.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Context-dependent stated choice experiments request participants to make choices between choice alternatives assuming that a certain context applies. This requires the construction of two experiments: a regular experiment with choice alternatives and a context experiment that varies the context variables. These are then combined by nesting the choice alternatives under the context descriptions. This extended SC experiment allows to examine how parameters estimated for attributes vary with con...

  18. Egalitarianism in Multi-Choice Games

    OpenAIRE

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the equal division core for arbitrary multi-choice games and the constrained egalitarian solution for con- vex multi-choice games, using a multi-choice version of the Dutta-Ray algorithm for traditional convex games. These egalitarian solutions for multi-choice games have similar properties as their counterparts for traditional cooperative games. On the class of convex multi-choice games, we axiomatically characterize the constrained egalitarian solu- tion.

  19. Patterns of brand and store choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The sublects of brand choice and store choice have been widely studied, but these two aspects of consumer behaviour have tended to be treated in isolation from each other. This thesis therefore provides a detailed examination of the way in which brand choice and store choice patterns compare and interact. The results are based on AGB consumer panel data, and relate to three frequently-bought grocery products. Despite the multiplicity of factors believed to influence brand and store choice, at...

  20. Is the Emotional Dog Blind to Its Choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranka, Marek A; Bahník, Štěpán

    2016-06-01

    Previous choice blindness studies showed that people sometimes fail to notice when their choice is changed. Subsequently, they are willing to provide reasons for the manipulated choice which is the opposite of the one they made just seconds ago. In the present study, participants first made binary judgments about the wrongness of described behaviors and then were shown an opposite answer during a second reading of some of the descriptions. Half of the participants saw the answer during the second presentation of the description and the other half saw it only after the presentation. Based on Haidt's Social intuitionist model, we hypothesized that participants in the latter group would be less likely to reconcile their intuition with the presented answer and thus they would be more likely to reject it. However, we found no difference between the groups. PMID:27404986

  1. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eMcClure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive choice — the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards — has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of modifying reward sizes during the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present the methods for isolating delay in detail, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between postnatal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders.

  2. The Experientiality of Sustainability: Living with Our Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.

    2015-12-01

    In an age when the escalating impact of human activity on the global environment has begun to threaten the long-term survival of humanity, increasing focus is being brought to bear on the scientific, social, economic, political, and cultural ramifications of the various courses of action open to individuals and societies across the globe. The intentional and intelligent modification of human behavior to balance environmental impact with human wellbeing is seen as the key to entering what Jeffrey Sachs has called the 'Age of Sustainable Development'. There are mechanisms, legal, socio-cultural, religious, economic, and technological that may ameliorate to varying degrees the environmental impact of human activity. These mechanisms are explored at length in the literature and assessed by their capacity to encourage or compel compliant behavior. They rely heavily on individual and collective choices based on rational self-interest, which is in turn informed by knowledge. The role of education in facilitating sustainable human activity is a key feature of many contributions to the literature. The alarming shortcoming in these discussions is the absence of an effective approach to learned sustainability that may achieve the necessary changes in human behavior and particularly adult choices with respect to daily acts of consumption. Sustainable practices and choices are most effectively produced through immersion in experientially based learning programs aimed at elementary and secondary school students. The experience of sustainable living during the critical phase of personal identity formation is the key to shaping behavior, and not just imparting knowledge. This AGU education session, ED041: Teaching Sustainability and Human Impact through Collaborative Teaching Methods, explores the principles on which such experiential immersion learning contributes to genuine sustainable behaviors and choices through targeted, intelligently designed residential programs.

  3. Street choice logit model for visitors in shopping districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people's activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that "have more shops, and are wider and lower". In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive). PMID:25379274

  4. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  5. Patterns of Reinforcement and the Essential Value of Brands: II. Evaluation of a Model of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji; Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We employ a behavioral-economic equation put forward by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) to explain human consumption behavior among substitutable food brands, applying a consumer-choice model--the behavioral perspective model (BPM; Foxall, 1990/2004, 2005). In this study, we apply the behavioral-economic equation to human economic consumption data. We…

  6. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Ihle

    Full Text Available Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability, and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing. We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs.

  7. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Malika; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs. PMID:26366558

  8. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  9. Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Miklós; Szeidl, Adam

    2003-01-01

    The present Paper investigates the effects of incorporating illiquidity in a standard dynamic portfolio choice problem. Lack of liquidity means that an asset cannot be immediately traded at any point in time. We find the portfolio share of financial wealth invested in illiquid assets given the liquidity premium. Benchmark calibrations imply a portfolio share of 2-6% in cash. These numbers are in line with survey data and also with portfolio recommendations by practitioners. We also find that ...

  10. De controller als choice architect

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Victor

    2012-01-01

    textabstractManagement accountants are choice architects: they provide information that is used in managerial decision making and they have considerable influence on the monetary and non-monetary incentives that drive managers’ decision-making processes. Over the past two decades, our know - ledge of how people make economic decisions has increased tremendously. However, this has had only very little impact on the design of management accounting and control systems in organizations. Consequen...

  11. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction ......' inventory dynamics. Finally, we provide equilibrium implications and illustrate the model's broader applicability to micro- and macro-economics, monetary policy, and political economy....

  12. Time, Self, and Intertemporal Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia eRetz Lucci

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC) have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting...

  13. Asian Tigers' Choices: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Hwee Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the choices facing the Asian tiger economies regarding growth strategies that foster trans-Pacific rebalancing. A review of historical data spanning 2000 to 2008 reveals only a slight widening of the overall current account surplus but that there is considerable variation across the countries, with Hong Kong, China exhibiting the biggest increase in the saving and investment (S-I) balance. Meanwhile, cross-correlation coefficient estimates tentatively suggest that changes...

  14. Social Preferences and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, A.M.; Smeets, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether social preferences influence portfolio choices of retail investors. We use administrative investor trading records which we link to decisions of the same investors in experiments with real money at stake. We show that social preferences rather than return expectations or risk perceptions are the main driver of investments in socially responsible (SRI) mutual funds. Social preferences are only associated with investments in SRI funds without tax benefits, but are un...

  15. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    OpenAIRE

    Tapie, Laurent; Mawussi, Kwamiwi; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining stra...

  16. Risk Choices and Compensation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Mark S.; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the impact of bad-tail risks on managerial pay functions, especially the decision to pay managers in stock or in options. In contrast to conventional wisdom, we find that options are often a superior vehicle for limiting managerial incentives to take bad-tail risks while providing incentives to exert effort. Arrangements similar to collar options are able to incent the desired project choice in wider range of circumstances than call options or stock. However, information requiremen...

  17. Experimental Economics Meets Language Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Barañano Mentxaka, Ilaski; Kovarik, Jaromir; Uriarte Ayo, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Roughly one half of World's languages are in danger of extinction. The endangered languages, spoken by minorities, typically compete with powerful languages such as En- glish or Spanish. Consequently, the speakers of minority languages have to consider that not everybody can speak their language, converting the language choice into strategic,coordination-like situation. We show experimentally that the displacement of minority languages may be partially explained by the imperfect informa...

  18. A HARD CHOICE (CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    KRAVCHENKO NATALIYA A.; KUZNETSOVA SVETLANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The case describes the problems of strategic choice: a small company successfully working in the engineering market (automation of technological processes) in the electric power industry has to make a decision on its further development in a changing external environment and increased competition. The case was carried out to be used in training programs of different levels within the courses “Strategic Management”, “Innovation Management”, “Strategic Analysis Methods”, “Change Management” whe...

  19. Business Choice of Enterprises' Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QinZheng; ZouJianjun; ChenShou

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of diversification has become an important approach to enterprise development A successful diversification strategy depends mainly on the correct business choice. Before choosing a new business, we must identify the core competeneies of the enterprise and research the attraction and criticai success factors of the target business. Then we should make sure whether the core competencies match the critical success factors or not.The new business should be useful for cuitivating sustainable competitive advantage.

  20. Quickly making the correct choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2015-08-01

    In daily life, unconscious choices guide many of our on-going actions. Such choices need to be made quickly, because the options change as the action progresses. We confirmed that people make reasonable choices when they have to quickly decide between two alternatives, and studied the basis of such decisions. The task was to tap with their finger on as many targets as possible within 2 min. A new target appeared after every tap, sometimes accompanied by a second target that was easier to hit. When there was only one target, subjects had to find the right balance between speed and accuracy. When there were two targets, they also had to choose between them. We examined to what extent subjects switched to the target that was easier to hit when it appeared some time after the original one. Subjects generally switched to the easier target whenever doing so would help them hit more targets within the 2-min session. This was so, irrespective of whether the different delays were presented in separate sessions or were interleaved within one session. Whether or not they switched did not depend on how successful they were at hitting the targets on earlier attempts, but it did depend on the position of the finger at the moment that the easy target appeared. We conclude that people have continuous access to reasonable estimates of how long various movement options would take and of how precise the endpoints are likely to be, given the instantaneous circumstances. PMID:25913027

  1. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  2. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  3. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  4. Understanding patients’ decision-making strategies in hospital choice: Literature review and a call for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insights from psychology and cognitive science have, as yet, barely entered hospital choice research. This conceptual article closes this gap by reviewing and conceptually framing the current literature on hospital choice and patient information behavior and by discussing which tools are needed to advance scientific methodology in the study of patient decision-making strategies in hospital choice. Specifically, we make a call for more experimental research in hospital choice in order to complement existing theories, methods, and tools. This article introduces computerized process-tracing tools in hospital choice research, and also outlines a hands-on example, to provide a basis for future research.

  5. Impulsive social influence increases impulsive choices on a temporal discounting task in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18-25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence.

  6. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  7. Saliency of product origin information in consumer choices

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrović, Tanja; Vida, Irena

    2015-01-01

    In light of increasing market complexities resulting from globalization of consumer products/brands in both mature and transitional markets, this study examines the saliency of information related to the national origin of products in consumer choice behavior. Specifically, effects of consumer ethnocentrism and the type of product/service category on perceived importance of product origin information are investigated. Analysis of data collected on a sample of adult consumers suggests that sal...

  8. Girls, girls, girls: gender composition and female school choice

    OpenAIRE

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Gender segregation in the labor market may be explained by women's re- luctance to choose technical occupations, although the foundations for career choices are certainly laid earlier, during education. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose those subjects if they are in single-sex classes. Possible explanations are the lack of self-confidence of girls in male-dominated subjects, the domi- nating behavior of boys in th...

  9. The Effects of Moderate Exercise on Bayesian Choices

    OpenAIRE

    David L. Dickinson; Collier, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise is known to improve health along many dimensions. Decision making is an understudied dimension of one’s (behavioral) health where exercise effects are not well-known. Because certain physiological changes are known to impact decision making, exercise may modulate decisions via its effect on physiological or psychological variables. We examine how moderate aerobic exercise affects outcomes and the decision process in an incentivized Bayesian choice task. Twenty-six adult subjects (30-...

  10. Personal Traits Underlying Environmental Preferences: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Soliño, Mario; Farizo, Begoña A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality plays a role in human behavior, and thus can influence consumer decisions on environmental goods and services. This paper analyses the influence of the big five personality dimensions (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness) in a discrete choice experiment dealing with preferences for the development of an environmental program for forest management in Spain. For this purpose, a reduced version of the Big Five Inventory survey (the BFI-10) is impl...

  11. Environmental Regulation and Choice of Innovation in Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of an environmental regulation on the innovation choice of firms in an oligopoly. Most existing studies on environmental regulations and innovations examine the optimal behavior of firms when one innovation project is feasible. In our model, firms are allowed to choose from multiple types of innovation projects. Our main contributions are that we derive the conditions under which environmentally friendly and cost reducing innovations are selected in Bertrand...

  12. Network embeddedness, specialization choices and performance in investment banking industry

    OpenAIRE

    Farina, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    The idea that network structure and embeddedness affect firms’ competitive behavior and performance is not new both in network literature and in strategic management literature. This study recognizes that the possibility to fully exploit network opportunities is depending on firm specialization choices. By analyzing network embeddedness within the European investment banking industry, I find that banks enhance performance by having a central position in their network and that specialization r...

  13. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  14. Visible minorities` educational choices in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Bolbocean, Corneliu

    2009-01-01

    Paper investigates educational choices of visible minorities in Canada, educational attainment and choices over fields of study. Using 2001 Canada Census data and multinomial logistic regression, research finds that choices over level of education and field of study significantly differ among visible minorities. The choices of visible minorities’ males and females differentiate substantially; insights into visible minorities` culture and role of education might explain those differences. Math...

  15. Probabilistic models for qualitative choice behavior : an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Dagsvik, John K.

    2000-01-01

    Preface: The econometric discipline has been criticized for being too similar to mathematical statistics and only to a limited degree linked to formalized theoretical models. This is particularly the case as regards formulation and specification of the stochastic elements in econometric models. Ragnar Frisch, who is known to be the originator of econometrics, expressed both in theory and practice an opposite ideal; namely econometrics as an almost symbiotic blend of statistical...

  16. The PXIE LEBT Design Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Typical front-ends of modern light-ion high-intensity accelerators typically consist of an ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a Radiofrequency Quadrupole and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT), which is followed by the main linac accelerating structures. Over the years, many LEBTs have been designed, constructed and operated very successfully. In this paper, we present the guiding principles and compromises that lead to the design choices of the PXIE LEBT, including the rationale for a beam line that allows un-neutralized transport over a significant portion of the LEBT whether the beam is pulsed or DC.

  17. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  18. Recommendation Sets and Choice Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viappiani, Paolo Renato; Boutilier, Craig

    the problem of generating optimal recommendation sets and the problem of generating optimal choice queries, considering both Bayesian and regret-based elicitation. Our results show that, somewhat surprisingly, under very general circumstances, the optimal recommendation set coincides with the optimal......Utility elicitation is an important component of many applications, such as decision support systems and recommender systems. Such systems query users about their preferences and offer recommendations based on the system's belief about the user's utility function. We analyze the connection between...... query....

  19. Relative gains, losses, and reference points in probabilistic choice in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Marshall

    Full Text Available Theoretical reference points have been proposed to differentiate probabilistic gains from probabilistic losses in humans, but such a phenomenon in non-human animals has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Three experiments evaluated the effect of reward magnitude on probabilistic choice in rats, seeking to determine reference point use by examining the effect of previous outcome magnitude(s on subsequent choice behavior. Rats were trained to choose between an outcome that always delivered reward (low-uncertainty choice and one that probabilistically delivered reward (high-uncertainty. The probability of high-uncertainty outcome receipt and the magnitudes of low-uncertainty and high-uncertainty outcomes were manipulated within and between experiments. Both the low- and high-uncertainty outcomes involved variable reward magnitudes, so that either a smaller or larger magnitude was probabilistically delivered, as well as reward omission following high-uncertainty choices. In Experiments 1 and 2, the between groups factor was the magnitude of the high-uncertainty-smaller (H-S and high-uncertainty-larger (H-L outcome, respectively. The H-S magnitude manipulation differentiated the groups, while the H-L magnitude manipulation did not. Experiment 3 showed that manipulating the probability of differential losses as well as the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice produced systematic effects on choice behavior. The results suggest that the reference point for probabilistic gains and losses was the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice. Current theories of probabilistic choice behavior have difficulty accounting for the present results, so an integrated theoretical framework is proposed. Overall, the present results have implications for understanding individual differences and corresponding underlying mechanisms of probabilistic choice behavior.

  20. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  1. Relative gains, losses, and reference points in probabilistic choice in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew T; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical reference points have been proposed to differentiate probabilistic gains from probabilistic losses in humans, but such a phenomenon in non-human animals has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Three experiments evaluated the effect of reward magnitude on probabilistic choice in rats, seeking to determine reference point use by examining the effect of previous outcome magnitude(s) on subsequent choice behavior. Rats were trained to choose between an outcome that always delivered reward (low-uncertainty choice) and one that probabilistically delivered reward (high-uncertainty). The probability of high-uncertainty outcome receipt and the magnitudes of low-uncertainty and high-uncertainty outcomes were manipulated within and between experiments. Both the low- and high-uncertainty outcomes involved variable reward magnitudes, so that either a smaller or larger magnitude was probabilistically delivered, as well as reward omission following high-uncertainty choices. In Experiments 1 and 2, the between groups factor was the magnitude of the high-uncertainty-smaller (H-S) and high-uncertainty-larger (H-L) outcome, respectively. The H-S magnitude manipulation differentiated the groups, while the H-L magnitude manipulation did not. Experiment 3 showed that manipulating the probability of differential losses as well as the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice produced systematic effects on choice behavior. The results suggest that the reference point for probabilistic gains and losses was the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice. Current theories of probabilistic choice behavior have difficulty accounting for the present results, so an integrated theoretical framework is proposed. Overall, the present results have implications for understanding individual differences and corresponding underlying mechanisms of probabilistic choice behavior. PMID:25658448

  2. Implications of Motivating Operations for the Functional Analysis of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Foxall, Gordon R.; Arntzen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The present article introduces the concept of Motivating Operation (MO) to the context of consumer choice and discusses the function of the concept of MO in the context of the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Including MO as part of the consumer behavior setting leads to a more comprehensive analysis and, as a result, improves our understanding…

  3. Neural Activity Reveals Preferences Without Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alec; Bernheim, B. Douglas; Camerer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inferring the choices people would make (if given the opportunity) based on their neural responses to the pertinent prospects when they are not engaged in actual decision making. The ability to make such inferences is of potential value when choice data are unavailable, or limited in ways that render standard methods of estimating choice mappings problematic. We formulate prediction models relating choices to “non-choice” neural responses and use them to predict out-of-sample choices for new items and for new groups of individuals. The predictions are sufficiently accurate to establish the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25729468

  4. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour. PMID:10817147

  5. Choice as a Global Language in Local Practice: A Mixed Model of School Choice in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chin-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses school choice policy as an example to demonstrate how local actors adopt, mediate, translate, and reformulate "choice" as neo-liberal rhetoric informing education reform. Complex processes exist between global policy about school choice and the local practice of school choice. Based on the theoretical sensibility of…

  6. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    This study analyses visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments are found to be strongly affected by stimuli presentation format. These results...

  7. Research on farmer householders’choice preference response to climate change adaptation behavior in Yutian Oasis of Xinjiang%新疆于田绿洲农户应对气候变化适应性行为选择偏好测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭灵芝; 马长发; 王国友

    2014-01-01

    基于新疆于田县15个乡镇600户农户调研数据,借用离散选择模型中的多元Logit(MNL)模型分析农户应对气候变化的适应性选择过程中,其个体特征、所处外部环境等因素对某类适应性行为偏好的影响。结果表明,农业生产经验、教育和信贷支持程度对改变种植结构有正向影响;农业生产时长和借贷能力越强的农户,以及居住在绿洲-荒漠交错带的农户增加灌溉意愿强烈;性别、家庭年均纯收入、能否获得借贷是影响地膜覆盖面积的主要因素;受教育程度和家庭年均纯收入越高的农户,越愿意通过增加农作物多样性以应对气候变化,而与亲戚朋友和邻居交往越密切的农户更易对改变播种期持怀疑和反对意见;山区和绿洲-荒漠交错带的农户对家畜圈养适应性选择偏好最低。%Based on the field survey data from 600 farmer households in 15 Townships,using the Multivariate Logit (MNL)Model of the discrete choice model,analyzed the impacts of the factors of individual characteristics and external environment to a kind of adaptive behavior preference in the procedure of the farmer householders response to the climate change adaptive choice .The results showed that:The agricultural production experiences,education level and the credit support degree had the positive effects to change the planting structure .The farmer householder with longer agricultural production time and stronger borrowing capacity,and living in oasis and desert ecotone had the strong aspiration to in-crease irrigation .The gender,annual family average net income and whether to obtain the loan were the main factors to influence the plastic film mulching areas .The framer householders with higher education level and annual average net in-come had more aspiration to increase crop diversity responding climate change .And the farmer householders more closely contacted with relative friends and

  8. Predictors and Consequences of Perceived Lack of Choice in Becoming an Informal Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Cook, Thomas B.; Martire, Lynn M.; Tomlinson, Jennifer M.; Monin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using data from a national sample of informal caregivers to older adults, we identify predictors of lack of choice and the consequences of lack of choice in taking on the caregiving role. Methods A national telephone survey with 1397 caregivers was carried out to assess whether respondents had a choice in taking on the caregiving role, their demographic characteristics, the nature and duration of their caregiving experience, and its impact on their physical and psychological well-being. We compare caregivers who felt they had no choice in taking on the caregiving role to those who did. Results Forty-four percent of caregivers reported a lack of choice in taking on the caregiving role. Highly educated, older caregivers caring for a younger care recipient with emotional or behavioral problems were most likely to report that they had no choice in taking on the caregiving role. Lack of choice is associated with higher levels of emotional stress, physical strain, and negative health impacts, after controlling for multiple confounds including level of care provided, relationship type, primary health condition of the care recipient, and demographic characteristics. Conclusion Lack of choice is an independent risk factor for the negative effects of caregiving, and clinicians should be vigilant to lack of choice as a marker of caregiver distress. PMID:22360296

  9. Behavioral aspects of development of eating behavior and nutrition status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazir, Shahnaz

    2002-05-01

    Studies on the development of eating behavior in rural India indicated that mothers of young children made food choices that fit into their budgets, and were also influenced by new information. Their choices were still immersed in traditional beliefs, some of which had positive effects on nutrition. Specific childrearing behaviors influenced positive deviance in the growth and psychosocial development of infants and preschoolers. A life-cycle approach to the development of eating behavior that deciphers needs at each stage and linkages between stages is necessary. Cost-benefit needs to be considered when devising strategies for future intervention programs. PMID:12035868

  10. A stated choice model of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, HJP Harry

    1996-01-01

    Stated preference and choice models currently used in urban planning are focused on predicting single choices. In this paper the intention is to extend these modelling approaches to the case of sequential choice behaviour. Design strategies and model specifications that allow one to predict sequential choice are discussed. The approach is illustrated in a study of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips. The research findings suggest that the proposed approach may ...

  11. Trait Impulsive Choice Predicts Resistance to Extinction and Propensity to Relapse to Cocaine Seeking: A Bidirectional Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Broos, Nienke; Diergaarde, Leontien; Schoffelmeer, Anton NM; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the strong association between impulsivity and addiction in humans, it is still a matter of debate whether impulsive choice predisposes to, or results from, drug dependence. Furthermore, it is unknown whether treating impulsivity can protect against relapse propensity. Therefore, this study explored the bidirectional relationship between impulsive choice and cocaine taking and seeking in rat behavioral models. In experiment 1, to determine whether impulsive choice predisposes to cocai...

  12. Delayed-choice gedanken experiments and their realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The wave-particle duality dates back to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect through quanta of light and de Broglie's hypothesis of matter waves. Quantum mechanics uses an abstract description for the behavior of physical systems such as photons, electrons, or atoms. Whether quantum predictions for single systems in an interferometric experiment allow an intuitive understanding in terms of the particle or wave picture depends on the specific configuration which is being used. In principle, this leaves open the possibility that quantum systems always behave either definitely as a particle or definitely as a wave in every experimental run by a priori adapting to the specific experimental situation. This is precisely what is tried to be excluded by delayed-choice experiments, in which the observer chooses to reveal the particle or wave character of a quantum system—or even a continuous transformation between the two—at a late stage of the experiment. The history of delayed-choice gedanken experiments, which can be traced back to the early days of quantum mechanics, is reviewed. Their experimental realizations, in particular, Wheeler's delayed choice in interferometric setups as well as delayed-choice quantum erasure and entanglement swapping are discussed. The latter is particularly interesting, because it elevates the wave-particle duality of a single quantum system to an entanglement-separability duality of multiple systems.

  13. Decision processes and the slowing of simple choices in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Suraev, Anna; Curley, Samuel; Gong, Qinchun; Love, Jonathon; Michie, Patricia T

    2015-11-01

    Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have slowed response times (RT). We examined the role of decision processes in the slowing of simple choice responses. We updated Schatz's (1998) meta-analysis of deficits in speed and extend it to systematically examine the effects of schizophrenia on choice accuracy. We then report an experiment requiring decisions about motion direction, which we analyzed using an evidence accumulation model of choice, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008). By simultaneously taking into account all aspects of behavior, the LBA was more sensitive to deficits than mean RT or accuracy alone. It also identified the 2 underlying causes of slowing: more cautious decisions (i.e., requiring more evidence before making a decision) and perceptual deficits. The schizophrenia group displayed strong sequential effects that were captured by the response on the previous trial affecting the relative amount of evidence required for choice in the LBA. These results illustrate that evidence accumulation models provide a sensitive tool that can be used to identify the cognitive mechanisms causing slowing in schizophrenia. PMID:26595475

  14. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  15. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  16. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  17. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  18. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  19. A quantitative theory of human color choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L Komarova

    Full Text Available The system for colorimetry adopted by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE in 1931, along with its subsequent improvements, represents a family of light mixture models that has served well for many decades for stimulus specification and reproduction when highly controlled color standards are important. Still, with regard to color appearance many perceptual and cognitive factors are known to contribute to color similarity, and, in general, to all cognitive judgments of color. Using experimentally obtained odd-one-out triad similarity judgments from 52 observers, we demonstrate that CIE-based models can explain a good portion (but not all of the color similarity data. Color difference quantified by CIELAB ΔE explained behavior at levels of 81% (across all colors, 79% (across red colors, and 66% (across blue colors. We show that the unexplained variation cannot be ascribed to inter- or intra-individual variations among the observers, and points to the presence of additional factors shared by the majority of responders. Based on this, we create a quantitative model of a lexicographic semiorder type, which shows how different perceptual and cognitive influences can trade-off when making color similarity judgments. We show that by incorporating additional influences related to categorical and lightness and saturation factors, the model explains more of the triad similarity behavior, namely, 91% (all colors, 90% (reds, and 87% (blues. We conclude that distance in a CIE model is but the first of several layers in a hierarchy of higher-order cognitive influences that shape color triad choices. We further discuss additional mitigating influences outside the scope of CIE modeling, which can be incorporated in this framework, including well-known influences from language, stimulus set effects, and color preference bias. We also discuss universal and cultural aspects of the model as well as non-uniformity of the color space with respect to

  20. Food choice in the laboratory pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Traci; Garlick, Dennis; Blaisdell, Aaron P

    2012-09-01

    Although food reward plays a large role in learning and behavioral experiments, there have been few studies examining the most motivating food reward for pigeons. Brown (1969) found that pigeons had a tendency to prefer peas, while Killeen et al. (1993) found pigeons to prefer peas and popcorn in Experiment 1A. We looked to further explore these options as well as expand upon the types of foods examined beyond mainly grains and seeds. Pigeons were presented with six novel foods (granulated peanuts, popping corn, freeze-dried mealworms, bread crumbs, split peas, and sunflower hearts) allocated into two sets of three food items. Once the most consumed food from each food set was determined, they were pooled together with sorghum seeds (a familiar food) to form a third set. Sunflower hearts were the most consumed of all the food items, followed by corn and granulated peanuts. We discuss the potential factors mediating consumption choice, including nutritional profile and food particle size. PMID:22750307

  1. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-08-01

    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles. PMID:26585634

  2. Empirical estimation of consistency parameter in intertemporal choice based on Tsallis’ statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki; Oono, Hidemi; Radford, Mark H. B.

    2007-07-01

    Impulsivity and inconsistency in intertemporal choice have been attracting attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. Although loss of self-control by substance abusers is strongly related to their inconsistency in intertemporal choice, researchers in neuroeconomics and psychopharmacology have usually studied impulsivity in intertemporal choice using a discount rate (e.g. hyperbolic k), with little effort being expended on parameterizing subject's inconsistency in intertemporal choice. Recent studies using Tsallis’ statistics-based econophysics have found a discount function (i.e. q-exponential discount function), which may continuously parameterize a subject's consistency in intertemporal choice. In order to examine the usefulness of the consistency parameter (0⩽q⩽1) in the q-exponential discounting function in behavioral studies, we experimentally estimated the consistency parameter q in Tsallis’ statistics-based discounting function by assessing the points of subjective equality (indifference points) at seven delays (1 week-25 years) in humans (N=24). We observed that most (N=19) subjects’ intertemporal choice was completely inconsistent ( q=0, i.e. hyperbolic discounting), the mean consistency (0⩽q⩽1) was smaller than 0.5, and only one subject had a completely consistent intertemporal choice ( q=1, i.e. exponential discounting). There was no significant correlation between impulsivity and inconsistency parameters. Our results indicate that individual differences in consistency in intertemporal choice can be parameterized by introducing a q-exponential discount function and most people discount delayed rewards hyperbolically, rather than exponentially (i.e. mean q is smaller than 0.5). Further, impulsivity and inconsistency in intertemporal choice can be considered as separate behavioral tendencies. The usefulness of the consistency parameter q in psychopharmacological studies of addictive behavior was demonstrated in the present study.

  3. The Effects of Computer-Administered Choice on Students with and without Characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Deborah E.; Zentall, Sydney S.; French, Brian F.; Giorgetti-Borucki, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Providing choice to individual students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has previously been demonstrated (in single-subject research) to reduce undesirable behavior but has failed to demonstrate gains that are independent of task difficulty or interests/ preferences. We examined choice of feedback type on a computerized math…

  4. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform to others. The research described in this dissertation aims to advance the understanding of the impact of one’s consumption behavior on young people’s food choice and intake. Social modeling studi...

  5. Nucleus Accumbens Mediates Relative Motivation for Rewards in the Absence of Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Clithero, John A.; Reeck, Crystal; Carter, R. McKell; Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    To dissociate a choice from its antecedent neural states, motivation associated with the expected outcome must be captured in the absence of choice. Yet, the neural mechanisms that mediate behavioral idiosyncrasies in motivation, particularly with regard to complex economic preferences, are rarely examined in situations without overt decisions. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging in a large sample of participants while they anticipated earning rewards from two different modaliti...

  6. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: A microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef A.; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Livestock of different species fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of type of animal to keep and accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households’ livestock holding to identify determinants of choice of type of animal households’ keep and accumulation of the chosen animals using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia. Dyn...

  7. Structural Workshop Paper--Discrete-Choice Models of Consumer Demand in Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep K. Chintagunta; Nair, Harikesh S.

    2011-01-01

    Marketing researchers have used models of consumer demand to forecast future sales, to describe and test theories of behavior, and to measure the response to marketing interventions. The basic framework typically starts from microfoundations of expected utility theory to obtain an econometric system that describes consumers' choices over available options, and to thus characterize product demand. The basic framework has been augmented significantly to account for quantity choices, to accommod...

  8. Does Ethnicity Matter For Food Choices? An Empirical Analysis of Asian Immigrant Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tongyang; Berning, Joshua; Colson, Greg; Smith, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    As immigrants settle and extend their stay in the U.S., they may be exposed to a food culture and lifestyle that impacts their food choice decisions and health outcomes. This paper focuses on the behavioral changes and acculturation level of different generations of Asian immigrants on food choice decisions employing the 2013 American Time Use Survey. Heckman two-step regression results indicate that the 1st generation immigrants participate or spend more time on eating and drinking, food pre...

  9. A causal role for posterior medial frontal cortex in choice-induced preference change

    OpenAIRE

    Izuma, Keise; Akula, Shyam; Murayama, Kou; Wu, Daw-An; Iacoboni, Marco; Adolphs, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    After a person chooses between two items, preference for the chosen item will increase and preference for the unchosen item will decrease because of the choice made. In other words, we tend to justify or rationalize our past behavior by changing our attitude. This phenomenon of choice-induced preference change has been traditionally explained by cognitive dissonance theory. Choosing something that is disliked or not choosing something that is liked are both cognitively inconsistent, and in or...

  10. Choice theories: What are they good for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Simonson et al. present an ambitious sketch of an integrative theory of context. Provoked by this thoughtful proposal, I discuss what is the function of theories of choice in the coming decades. Traditionally, choice models and theory have attempted to predict choices as a function of the attributes of options. I argue that to be truly useful, they need to generate specific and quantitative predictions of the effect of the choice environment upon choice probability. To do this, we need to focus on rigorously modeling and measuring the underlying processes causing these effects, and use the Simonson et al. proposal to provide some examples. I also present some examples from research in decision-making and decision neuroscience, and argue that models that fail, and fail spectacularly are particularly useful. I close with a challenge: How would consumer researcher aid the design of real world choice environments such as the health exchanges under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act? PMID:23794793

  11. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel

    2016-09-01

    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments. PMID:27037499

  12. CHOICE, PURCHASE AND CONSUMPTION OF DRUGS: SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Викторовна Ткаченко

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of pharmaceutical market’s sociological research are representing in the paper. Determinate the basic agents influenced on pharmaceuticals choice and purchase such as a doctor, experience of individual, information from advertisement. Physician competency is of secondary importance to advertisement messages. Experience of individual prepotency of the pharmaceuticals choice raises a point of a level attention of pharmaceuticals consumer behavior. We can describe it in a low level both base on respondents self-conception and in accordance with data research of drug’s advertisement and patient package inserts «content-analysis».DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-53

  13. School Choice, School Quality, and Postsecondary Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, David James; Justine S. Hastings; Thomas J. Kane; Staiger, Douglas O

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of a public school choice lottery in Charlotte- Mecklenburg schools on college enrollment and degree completion. We find a significant overall increase in college attainment among lottery winners who attend their first-choice school. Using rich administrative data on peers, teachers, course offerings, and other inputs, we show that the impacts of choice are strongly predicted by gains on several measures of school quality. Gains in attainment are ...

  14. Public School Choice: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Levon Barseghyan; Damon Clark; Stephen Coate

    2014-01-01

    Public school choice programs give households a free choice of public school and provide schools incentives to compete for students. Proponents of these programs argue that by the usual market logic, choice and competition will improve the quality of the education that schools provide. Critics counter that the usual market logic does not translate easily to schools, since households’ perceptions of school quality depend not only on the efforts of school personnel but also on the composition o...

  15. Oligopolistic Competition with Choice-Overloaded Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerasimou, Georgios; Papi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    A large body of experimental work has suggested the existence of a "choice overload" effect in consumer decision making: Faced with large menus of choice options, decision makers often defer or avoid choice. A suggested reason for the occurrence of this effect is that the agents attempt to avoid the cognitive effort that is associated with choosing from larger menus. Building on this explanation, we propose and analyse a model of duopolistic competition where firms compete in menu design in t...

  16. A study on groupware choice in companies

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Anna-Karin; Petersson, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of groupware choice in two different kinds of companies, IT- companies and industrial companies. Our main goal is to find out whether the companies? type effects the choice of groupware. We have conducted qualitative interviews as well as sent out quantitative questionnaire in order to fulfil our goals. The result indicates that there is a connection between groupware choice and company type among the companies participating in our study. IT- companies tend to u...

  17. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through t...

  18. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behaviour. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats: a verbal...... information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Presentation format was found to exert a significant bottom-up effect on visual attention and subsequent choice. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments were found to be strongly...

  19. Pemodelan Share-Of-Choice Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Dedy Juliandri

    2012-01-01

    Share-of-choice problem is to maximize the number of respondents to choose at least one product from a product line that has a high utility of each status-quo product. Model Share-of-choice with a budget price and aims to combine the price with budget constraints and minimum limits acceptable to the utility of each at- tribute selected by the share-of-choice problem. The proposed heuristics to solve models of share-of-choice problem with a budget price is a heuristic beam search.

  20. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  1. Counterfactual choice and learning in a neural network centered on human lateral frontopolar cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie D Boorman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision making and learning in a real-world context require organisms to track not only the choices they make and the outcomes that follow but also other untaken, or counterfactual, choices and their outcomes. Although the neural system responsible for tracking the value of choices actually taken is increasingly well understood, whether a neural system tracks counterfactual information is currently unclear. Using a three-alternative decision-making task, a Bayesian reinforcement-learning algorithm, and fMRI, we investigated the coding of counterfactual choices and prediction errors in the human brain. Rather than representing evidence favoring multiple counterfactual choices, lateral frontal polar cortex (lFPC, dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC, and posteromedial cortex (PMC encode the reward-based evidence favoring the best counterfactual option at future decisions. In addition to encoding counterfactual reward expectations, the network carries a signal for learning about counterfactual options when feedback is available-a counterfactual prediction error. Unlike other brain regions that have been associated with the processing of counterfactual outcomes, counterfactual prediction errors within the identified network cannot be related to regret theory. Furthermore, individual variation in counterfactual choice-related activity and prediction error-related activity, respectively, predicts variation in the propensity to switch to profitable choices in the future and the ability to learn from hypothetical feedback. Taken together, these data provide both neural and behavioral evidence to support the existence of a previously unidentified neural system responsible for tracking both counterfactual choice options and their outcomes.

  2. Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Thaler

    1985-01-01

    A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the ...

  3. Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Richard H. Thaler

    2008-01-01

    A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the ...

  4. Reappraisal of Rational Choice Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of rational choice theory (RCT for the social sciences has long been contested. Much time has been spent by economists and critics on the pervasive but elusive concept of rationality. The critiques mainly challenge the basis of the utility theorem. Several articles on the misuse of mathematics in economics have already appeared in the literature. As N. Bouleau stated, “On several occasions, however, one feels that the criticism is that the math is being misused and should be developed in some other direction (e.g. a statistical analysis of the financial tendencies that polarize wealth and income, or a study of the positive feedback mechanisms, etc.. This leaves certain dissatisfaction – on a philosophical level.” The aim of this paper is to present a decision theory, yields intention (logos and valuation (existence. Here we present a new mathematical representation of RCT, which leads to a dynamic economic theory. We discuss the philosophical or meta-economical problems, which are needed for the successful applications of mathematics.

  5. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that experienced consumers have higher but more specialized demand towards high-end products. The second essay investigates a consumer’s choice of considering a product before purchase. Because considera...

  6. Distinguishing the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes to improve prediction of food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C

    2016-09-01

    Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. PMID:26471802

  7. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  8. Testing Programming Skills with Multiple Choice Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David

    2004-01-01

    Multiple choice questions are a convenient and popular means of testing beginning students in programming courses. However, they are qualitatively different from exam questions. This paper reports on a study into which types of multiple choice programming questions discriminate well on a final exam, and how well they predict exam scores.

  9. Two Philosophical Errors Concerning School Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    1997-01-01

    Argues, in contrast to David Hargreaves, that libertarianism implies a mild presumption against school choice, and that notions of common good are significant to educational decision making only when deciding between sets of institutions that perform equally well at delivering their obligations. Links these issues to questions about school choice.…

  10. A Chronology of Parental Choice in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sister Dale

    2001-01-01

    Traces the history of parental rights in education since the landmark case Pierce vs. the Society of Sisters (1925), when the existence of private schools was validated. States that initiatives promoting parental choice include : (1) tax relief/credits; (2) vouchers or scholarships; (3) public school choice; and (4) home schooling. Provides a…

  11. Lexical Choice: Towards Writing Problematic Word Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zughoul, Muhammad Raji

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analysis of lexical choice errors made by native Arabic-speaking learners of English in written compositions indicated that first-language interference is a major variable in lexical choice. Results lend support to the development of problematic word lists to help learners adopt practical strategies for improving…

  12. A virtual substitution of Brouwer choice sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Step by step a substitution of the well known Brouwer choice sequence will be constructed. It begins with an establishing of quasi alternating prime number series followed by a construction of a virtual sequence in sense of the virtual set definition. The last step gives reasons for why this virtual sequence substitutes the choice sequence created by L. E. J. Brouwer.

  13. School Choice for Transnational Parents in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    School choice is centred on parents deciding where and how their children will be educated, and this issue is similar--to varying degrees--for parents all around the world. Parental school choice is the authority that parents exercise in making decisions about where their children will attend school, and choosing a particular educational pathway…

  14. Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutjar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract  Introduction In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choic

  15. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  16. An investigation of brand choice processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.

    1974-01-01

    Here a brief recapitulation of the study of brand choice processes is given, and the major conclusions are reported.In chapter 2 we discussed the empirical brand choice data used throughout the study. We saw that these were purchase histories of members of the Dutch Attwood Consumer Panel for the pr

  17. Instructional Innovation, School Choice, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.; Cannata, Marisa; Goldring, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    There is limited empirical research about innovation in various types of schools of choice, although viable choice policies tend to assume clear differentiation amongst schools. Innovation can be conceptualized in many ways and takes place at multiple levels of the school organization. Schools can innovate in terms of the roles and responsibility…

  18. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  19. Changes in the Legal System, Auditor Choice and Firm Value: An Empirical Study Based on the Actual Controllers' Tunneling Behavior%法律制度变迁、审计师选择与企业价值——基于实际控制人掏空行为视角的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉苗; 王宇生

    2012-01-01

    本文利用2004-2009年民营上市公司的数据,首次对2006年我国将实际控制人掏空行为列入刑法这一事件对上市公司的审计师选择和企业价值所产生的影响进行了实证研究。研究发现在加大对实际控制人掏空行为的处罚力度后,掏空风险较高的公司更倾向于聘请小型会计师事务所,而且实际控制人的掏空行为有所减少。刑法调整后,由于实际控制人与中小股东的代理问题得到了有效的缓解,存在掏空风险的公司的企业价值有了显著提升,且掏空风险高的公司企业价值提升得更为显著。进一步研究还发现:在抑制实际控制人掏空行为、提升企业价值方面,法律治理能替代独立审计治理的作用,降低企业的监督成本。%Using the data of private listed companies from 2004 to 2009, we empirically explore how the choices of auditor and firm value are impacted by the revisions of criminal law in 2006. We find that if controlling shareholders are subject to more severe punishments for opportunistic behavior, companies in higher tunneling risk will tend to hire smaller accounting firms, and controlling shareholders' illegal occupation of listed companies' capital will decrease. Following the revisions to the criminal law, the agency problem between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders has been effectively alleviated, resulting in the value of high - tunneling - risk firms increase significantly. Furthermore, our research shows that the legal governance can substitute independent auditors' governance, which will decrease the transaction cost.

  20. Rational choice in field archaelology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Pavel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present article I attempt to apply advances in the study of instrumental and epistemic rationality to field archaeology in order to gain insights into the ways archaeologists reason. The cognitive processes, particularly processes of decision making, that enable archaeologists to conduct the excavation in the trench have not been adequately studied so far. I take my cues from two different bodies of theory. I first inquire into the potential that rational choice theory (RCT may have in modeling archaeological behaviour, and I define subjective expected utility, which archaeologists attempt to maximize, in terms of knowledge acquisition and social gain. Following Elster’s criticism of RCT, I conclude that RCT’s standards for rational action do not correspond with those ostensibly used in field archaeology, but that instrumental rationality has a prominent role in the “archaeological experiment”. I further explore if models proposed as reaction to RCT may account for archaeological decision making. I focus on fast and frugal heuristics, and search for archaeological illustrations for some of the cognitive biases that are better documented in psychological literature. I document confirmation and congruence biases, the endowment effect, observer-expectancy bias, illusory correlation, clustering illusion, sunk cost bias, and anchoring, among others and I propose that some of these biases are used as cognitive tools by archaeologists at work and retain epistemic value. However, I find formal logic to be secondary in the development of archaeological reasoning, with default logic and defeasible logic being used instead. I emphasize scientific knowledge as an actively negotiated social product of human inquiry, and conclude that to describe rationality in field archaeology a bounded rationality model is the most promising avenue of investigation.

  1. Choice Making Part I: How Children with Severe Disabilities Make Choices of Preference and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tubbergen, Marie; Omichinski, Donna; Warschausky, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Communication can be difficult for children with conditions such as cerebral palsy because of speech and physical impairments. For this group of children, choice-making is often limited to choices of personal preferences; however, preferences do not reveal intellectual abilities. Therefore, choice-making should be presented to these children in…

  2. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  3. Influence of convenience on healthy food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    unclear to what degree consumer choice is affected by convenience relative to known choice drivers such as price, species and region of origin. This study contributes to filling this research gap by analyzing how consumers’ in-store choice of ready-packaged aquaculture oysters is driven by convenience...... factors (opened versus unopened presentation format, packaging format and accompaniments with or without visual serving suggestions) relative to traditionally examined demand factors of price, origin, species, health, environmental and quality claims. A total of 1,718 Australian oyster consumers...... identified. Over all respondents price, presentation format and species were the most important choice drivers, while packaging format and claims only had a minor impact on consumer choice. Origin and accompaniments were found to be important for some consumer segments. These results provide recommendations...

  4. Factors Influencing men’s choice for Eastern Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Syed Akif; Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz; Osman, Ms. Amber

    2012-01-01

    Culture is pivotal in shaping the behavior of an individual. Clothing is one way looking at the culture of one and this research in specific investigates about eastern clothing of men. The origin comes from South Asia i.e. Pakistan. The preference of eastern wear by the male segment has changed drastically as sub-cultures have evolved (inter-marriage with different caste), westernization and consumer’s choices and preference change with time and fashion. The current personality and purchase i...

  5. The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Xia eZhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An interesting phenomenon called hidden opportunity cost of time effect was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS option to the larger but later (LL option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the ‘obvious’ opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals.

  6. The hidden opportunity cost of time effect on intertemporal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui-Xia; Jiang, Cheng-Ming; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shu; Rao, Li-Lin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    An interesting phenomenon called "hidden opportunity cost of time effect" was detected in intertemporal choices. The majority of our participants preferred the smaller but sooner (SS) option to the larger but later (LL) option if opportunity cost was explicit. However, a higher proportion of participants preferred the LL to SS option if opportunity cost was hidden. This shift violates the invariance principle and opens a new way to encourage future-oriented behavior. By simply mentioning the "obvious" opportunity cost of alternatives, decision makers can be more informed in prioritizing their long-term goals rather than short-term goals. PMID:25870570

  7. ECONOMICS NOBEL: Dealing With Biases and Discrete Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seife, C

    2000-10-20

    This year's Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences, given in honor of Alfred Nobel, goes to two researchers who gave the field of microeconomics--the study of individuals' economic behavior--new tools to help draw conclusions from imperfect data. James Heckman of the University of Chicago wins half of this year's prize for coming up with ways to deal with selection biases. Daniel McFadden of the University of California, Berkeley, tackled a different conundrum: how to quantify discrete choices rather than continuous ones. PMID:17844279

  8. Are consumers influenced in their food choice by health labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Elshiewy, Ossama;

    Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labeling has received extensive political attention within the last years. The European Commission is proposing to make FOP nutrition labeling mandatory in order to guide consumers to make healthier food choices. Most of the studies of the effects on nutrition labeling...... focus on consumer attention to labels and very few studies concentrate on effects on actual purchase behavior. In this study we report the results from an analysis of scanner data provided by a large UK retailer and the conclusion is that GDA label introduction does not have the expected consequences...

  9. Influence of placement of a nutrition logo on cafeteria menu items on lunchtime food Choices at Dutch work sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Heymans, Martijn W; Roodenburg, Annet J C; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of labeling foods with the Choices nutrition logo on influencing cafeteria menu selection and the behavioral determinants of menu choices in work site cafeterias in the Netherlands. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Intervention cafeterias (n=13), where the Choices logo was used to promote healthier eating for a 3-week period, were compared with control cafeterias (n=12), which offered the same menu without the logo. Sales data were collected daily for 9 weeks, from March to May 2009. In addition, employees from one intervention and one control company completed an online questionnaire at baseline and after the intervention (n=368) in which the behavioral determinants of food choice (ie, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention) and logo use were measured. Generalized estimating equation analyses, χ² tests, t tests and linear regression analyses were performed. No nutritionally meaningful intervention effects were found in the sales of sandwiches, soups, snacks, fruit, and salads. Also, no significant differences in behavioral determinants were found. "Intention to eat healthier" and "paying attention to product information" were positively associated with self-reported consumption of foods with the Choices logo at lunch. The intervention did not have a significant effect on employees' lunchtime food choices. Labeling healthy choices might be useful for health-conscious employees in the volitional phase of behavior change. Further research should focus on the possible health benefits of menu reformulation in the catering sector. PMID:21185975

  10. Guiding the Behavior of Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Through effective discipline, children can learn to make positive choices, learn problem-solving skills, and learn values of respect and responsibility. This publication contains several common-sense strategies for effectively guiding the behavior of young children.

  11. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen ZIEGE, Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ, Frauke MUECKSCH,David BIERBACH, Ralph TIEDEMANN, Bruno STREIT, Martin PLATH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior. Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented. This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk: interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions. In line with this hypothesis, a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice, but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests. Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs, but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior. Thus, we created five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males’ mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting. Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured, while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior. The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male’s behavior. A reduction in the strength of focal males’ preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male’s preferred mate. In comparison, the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior. While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male’s motivational state is reflected but also females’ behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1: 84–94, 2012].

  12. A comparison of two methods to assess audience-induced changes in male mate choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madlen ZIEGE; Carmen HENNIGE-SCHULZ; Frauke MUECKSCH; David BIERBACH; Ralph TIEDEMANN; Bruno STREIT; Martin PLATH

    2012-01-01

    Multidirectional communicative interactions in social networks can have a profound effect on mate choice behavior.Male Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana exhibit weaker mating preferences when an audience male is presented.This could be a male strategy to reduce sperm competition risk:interacting more equally with different females may be advantageous because rivals might copy mate choice decisions.In line with this hypothesis,a previous study found males to show a strong audience effect when being observed while exercising mate choice,but not when the rival was presented only before the choice tests.Audience effects on mate choice decisions have been quantified in poeciliid fishes using association preference designs,but it remains unknown if patterns found from measuring association times translate into actual mating behavior.Thus,we createl five audience treatments simulating different forms of perceived sperm competition risk and determined focal males' mating preferences by scoring pre-mating (nipping) and mating behavior (gonopodial thrusting).Nipping did not reflect the pattern that was found when association preferences were measured,while a very similar pattern was uncovered in thrusting behavior.The strongest response was observed when the audience could eavesdrop on the focal male's behavior.A reduction in the strength of focal males' preferences was also seen after the rival male had an opportunity to mate with the focal male's preferred mate.In comparison,the reduction of mating preferences in response to an audience was greater when measuring association times than actual mating behavior.While measuring direct sexual interactions between the focal male and both stimulus females not only the male's motivational state is reflected but also females' behavior such as avoidance of male sexual harassment [Current Zoology 58 (1):84-94,2012].

  13. Information Recovery In Behavioral Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Squartini, Tiziano; Garlaschelli, Diego; Judge, George

    2015-01-01

    In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering micro behavior-related choice information from aggregate origin-destination data. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized, equilibrium-seeking behavior in a dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information theoretic, entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown parameters connecting the behavioral data. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral binary parameters analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we enlarge the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals and focus on three cases of particular interest. We then apply this information theoretic method to the analysis ...

  14. Energy Choices. The energy markets and the energy policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-functioning energy markets are in society's interests whatever the circumstances. Furthermore, supply, demand and the competitive situation in the various energy markets influence the effect of energy and climate change policy measures. There are therefore good reasons to examine and evaluate how the energy markets operate. In this report we specifically focus on the energy markets. The analysis has been carried out against the background of the overall objectives for energy and climate change policy in Sweden and the EU. However, for these goals to be attainable a number of concrete energy and climate change policy decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. Some of these are key issues that will prove decisive for the formulation of energy and climate change policy, and we therefore also discuss these. The first of these concerns which policy instruments should be chosen to influence the energy markets. The second key issue concerns the power companies' prospects for using nuclear power even in the future. We will also focus on the extent to which energy and climate change policy chooses to prioritise measures which mean that climate change policy objectives can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. We can briefly summarize our results in the following conclusions: The cost of achieving the climate change policy objectives set by Sweden and the EU will probably be very high. It is therefore important that the choices made ensure that climate change policy objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost. Focusing on keeping costs to a minimum may in actual fact be the very thing that makes it at all possible to achieve these goals. The best solution then is as far as possible to base energy and climate change policy on so-called market-based instruments, such as emission charges and tradable emission permits. Emissions of carbon dioxide are easy to measure and the siting of emission sources is irrelevant in terms of the effect of the emissions

  15. The Influence of User-Generated Content on Tourists’ Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Del Chiappa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most research on user-generated content (UGC has focused on readers of comments and reviews. However, very little research is aimed at profiling travelers based on the extent to which their decisions regarding the choice of hotels are influenced by UGC. This research was therefore carried out to profile tourists based on the extent to which their choices of hotels are influenced by different types of peer-to-peer applications, while also considering their socio-demographic characteristics, frequency of travel, and motivations for using the Internet and UGC when making their travel choices. For this purpose, latent class segmentation was applied on a sample of 607 Italian tourists, and three clusters were identified: “digitally passive tourists”, “focused tourists”, and “social tourists”. Wald and Chi-square tests revealed significant differences among the three clusters based on all the variables considered in the study. Its findings suggest that hospitality marketers should run their social media strategy by focusing their attention on Travel 2.0 applications according to the socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of their target market. Contributions to the body of knowledge and suggestions for further research are given.

  16. [Determinism and Freedom of Choice in the Brain Functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanitsky, A M

    2015-01-01

    The problem is considered whether the brain response is completely determined by the stimulus and the personal experience or in some cases the brain is free to choose its behavioral response to achieve the desired goal. The attempt is made to approach to this important philosophical problem basing on modern knowledge about the brain. The paper consists of four parts. In the first part the theoretical views about the free choice problem solving are considered, including views about the freedom of choice as a useful illusion, the hypothesis on appliance of quantum mechanics laws to the brain functioning and the theory of mentalism. In other tree parts consequently the more complicated brain functions such as choice reaction, thinking and creation are analyzed. The general conclusion is that the possibility of quite unpredictable, but sometimes very effective decisions increases when the brain functions are more and more complicated. This fact can be explained with two factors: increasing stochasticity of the brain processes and the role of top-down determinations from mental to neural levels, according to the theory of mentalism. PMID:26601509

  17. A Choice Prediction Competition for Social Preferences in Simple Extensive Form Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Ert

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two independent, but related, choice prediction competitions are organized that focus on behavior in simple two-person extensive form games (http://sites.google.com/site/extformpredcomp/: one focuses on predicting the choices of the first mover and the other on predicting the choices of the second mover. The competitions are based on an estimation experiment and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of some baseline models. The best baseline model assumes that each choice is made based on one of several rules. The rules include: rational choice, level-1 reasoning, an attempt to maximize joint payoff, and an attempt to increase fairness. The probability of using the different rules is assumed to be stable over games. The estimated parameters imply that the most popular rule is rational choice; it is used in about half the cases. To participate in the competitions, researchers are asked to email the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submission deadline is 1 December 2011, the results of the competition experiment will not be revealed until that date. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competitions will be invited to write a paper that describes their model.

  18. Food labels promote healthy choices by a decision bias in the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias

    2013-07-01

    Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices. PMID:23428568

  19. Monkeys are more patient in a foraging task than in a standard intertemporal choice task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy C Blanchard

    Full Text Available Studies of animal impulsivity generally find steep subjective devaluation, or discounting, of delayed rewards - often on the order of a 50% reduction in value in a few seconds. Because such steep discounting is highly disfavored in evolutionary models of time preference, we hypothesize that discounting tasks provide a poor measure of animals' true time preferences. One prediction of this hypothesis is that estimates of time preferences based on these tasks will lack external validity, i.e. fail to predict time preferences in other contexts. We examined choices made by four rhesus monkeys in a computerized patch-leaving foraging task interleaved with a standard intertemporal choice task. Monkeys were significantly more patient in the foraging task than in the intertemporal choice task. Patch-leaving behavior was well fit by parameter-free optimal foraging equations but poorly fit by the hyperbolic discount parameter obtained from the intertemporal choice task. Day-to-day variation in time preferences across the two tasks was uncorrelated with each other. These data are consistent with the conjecture that seemingly impulsive behavior in animals is an artifact of their difficulty understanding the structure of intertemporal choice tasks, and support the idea that animals are more efficient rate maximizers in the multi-second range than intertemporal choice tasks would suggest.

  20. Young Australian women explain their contraceptive choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigginton, Britta; Moran, Claire; Harris, Melissa L; Loxton, Deborah; Lucke, Jayne

    2016-07-01

    New developments in female contraceptives allow women increased options for preventing pregnancy, while men's options for reversible contraception have not advanced beyond the condom. There has been little discursive exploration of how neoliberal and postfeminist discourses shape women's accounts of choosing whether or not to use contraception. Our thematic discourse analysis of 760 free-text responses to a question about contraceptive choice considers the social and political climate that promotes the self-governed woman who freely chooses contraception. We examine the ways in which women formulated and defended their accounts of choice, focusing on the theme of free contraceptive choice that constructed women's choices as unconstrained by material, social and political forces. We identify two discursive strategies that underpinned this theme: a woman's body, a woman's choice and planning parenthood, and explore the ways in which choice was understood as a gendered entitlement and how contraceptive choices were shaped (and constrained) by women's plans for parenthood. We discuss the implications of these discursive strategies, and neoliberal and postfeminist discourses, in terms of the disallowance of any contextual, social and structural factors, including the absence of men in the 'contraceptive economy'. PMID:26670866