WorldWideScience

Sample records for choice behavior

  1. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)

    2003-01-01

    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  2. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, R.; Pligt, van der, J.; Vries, de, N.

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in the context of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985, 1991). Results showed that anticipated affective reactions predicted behavioral intentions independent from general attitudes (evaluat...

  3. Saving Behavior and Portfolio Choice After Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, Raun; Alessie, Rob; Kalwij, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on saving behavior and portfolio choice after retirement and provides a descriptive analysis of this behavior by Dutch elderly households. Studying saving behavior in the Netherlands is informative because of the very different institutional background compared to t

  4. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  5. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  6. Dynamic Choice Behavior in a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten;

    the income that they bring to the game show. Allowing for this integration of income and game show prizes leads to choice behavior consistent with constant relative risk aversion. Third, we examine th e effects of allowing contestants to make choices characterized by non-standard decision models. We find...... linked to current choices. We have four major findings. First, we show that popular utility functions that assume constant relative or absolute risk aversion and expected utility theory defined over the prizes cannot characterize these choices, which exhibit increasing relative risk aversion over prizes...... ranging from a penny to nearly half a million U.S. dollars. Second, the argument of the utility function under expected utility theory reflects the integration of game show prizes with regular income. These decision makers do not segregate the income from the lotteries they face on the game show from...

  7. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    by proposing and estimating a hybrid model that integrates latent variable and route choice models. Data contain information about latent variable indicators and chosen routes of travelers driving regularly from home to work in an urban network. Choice sets include alternative routes generated with a branch...... and bound algorithm. A hybrid model consists of measurement equations, which relate latent variables to measurement indicators and utilities to choice indicators, and structural equations, which link travelers’ observable characteristics to latent variables and explanatory variables to utilities. Estimation...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  8. Prospects of Brand Choice Behavior Research from Cognitive Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Lin, Lin

    The article reviews relevant literature at home and abroad on consumer brand choice behavior and summarizes the study evolution of consumer brand choice behavior, and puts forward view on relevant research prospects from cognitive perspective in this field.

  9. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  10. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van, J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice for fresh foods have been formulated and empirically tested

  11. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  12. Effects of ratio reinforcement schedules on choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I N; Melvin, J N

    1990-01-01

    Choice behavior under a concurrent VR-FR schedule of reinforcement was investigated in two experiments to test a molar theory of maximization. Hunger-motivated albino rats pressed two bars, one on an FR10 and the other on a VR10 schedule, for a food reward. With the total number of experiences with each bar equated and interalternative switching eliminated during training, the study showed that during the choice test, the animals made significantly more responses to the VR than to the FR alternative, allocating about 75% of their responses to the VR alternative. The results suggest that, given an equal return of reward in the long run, the animals preferred a variable to a constant alternative in a choice situation. The findings are discussed in terms of a molar theory of maximization and a schedule-appropriate behavior interpretation of choice.

  13. Similarities in Choice Behavior Across Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Ainslie; Peter E. Rossi

    1998-01-01

    Differences between consumers in sensitivity to marketing mix variables have been extensively documented in the scanner panel data. All studies of consumer heterogeneity focus on a specific category of products and ignore the fact that the purchase behavior of panel households is often observed simultaneously in multiple categories. If sensitivity to marketing mix variables is a common consumer trait, then one should expect to see similarities in sensitivity across multiple categories. The go...

  14. Auditor Choice in the Belgian Nonprofit Sector: a Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    REHEUL, Anne-Mie; Van Caneghem, Tom; Verbruggen, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates auditor choice in Belgian nonprofit organizations from a behavioral perspective. We investigate whether auditor choice in favor of an auditor with a high (versus low) level of sector specialization is associated with the importance that nonprofit organizations attach to six auditor attributes: competence/integrity/deontology, working relationship with management, audit fee, practical execution of the audit, client oriented analysis and suggestions, and sector expertise...

  15. Research and Simulation on Drivers Route Choice Behavior Cognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the behavior-cognitive model of drivers during their travel based on the current research on driver behavior. Firstly, a route choice behavior-cognitive model was proposed for describing the decision-making mechanism of drivers during his travel; then, simulation experiments were carried out on the co-simulation VBc-vissim platform. From the experimental results, dynamic behavior features of drivers during their travel can be properly explained by the behavior-cognitive model, thus optimal path can be obtained from this model.

  16. Modeling Inertia and Variety Seeking Tendencies in Brand Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil Bawa

    1990-01-01

    Theories of exploratory behavior suggest that inertia and variety-seeking tendencies may coexist within the individual, implying that the same individual may exhibit inertia and variety-seeking at different times depending on his/her choice history. Past research has not allowed for such -consumer variability in these tendencies. The purpose of this study is to present a choice model that allows us to identify such “hybrid” behavior (i.e., a mixture of inertia and variety-seeking), and to dis...

  17. Consumer behavior and payment choice: 2006 conference summary

    OpenAIRE

    Carten, Margaret; Littman, Dan; Schuh, Scott; Stavins, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of the second Consumer Behavior and Payment Choice conference, held at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston on July 25–27, 2006. These conferences are unique in featuring the collaboration of two groups of payments experts — the private-sector payments industry on the one hand, and the academic, research, and policymaking communities on the other — to stimulate more research and understanding of consumer payment behavior. The central focus of this second co...

  18. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  19. Pro-environmental behavior: rational choice meets moral motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Rama Mohana R; Howarth, Richard B; Borsuk, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics. PMID:20146771

  20. Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Lachlan, Robert F; Servedio, Maria R

    2005-10-01

    Many models have investigated how the process of speciation may occur in sympatry. In these models, individuals are either asexual or mate choice is determined by very simple rules. Females, for example, may be assumed either to compare their phenotype to that of a potential mate, preferring to mate with similar males (phenotype matching), or to possess preference genes that determine which male phenotype they prefer. These rules often do not reflect the mate-choice rules found in empirical studies. In this paper, we compare these two modes of female choice with various types of sexual imprinting. We examine the efficacy of different mate-choice behavior in causing divergence in male traits under simple deterministic one-locus population genetic models as well as under polygenic, individual-based simulations based on the models of Dieckmann and Doebeli (1999). We find that the inheritance mechanism of mate choice can have a large effect on the ease of sympatric speciation. When females imprint on their mothers, the result of the model is similar to phenotype matching, where speciation can occur fairly easily. When females imprint on their fathers or imprint obliquely, speciation becomes considerably less likely. Finally, when females rely on preference genes, male trait evolution occurs easily, but the correlation between trait and preference can be weak, and interpreting these results as speciation may be suspect.

  1. A Simplified Model of Choice Behavior under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Hung; Lin, Yu-Kai; Song, Tzu-Jiun; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Chiu, Yao-Chu

    2016-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been standardized as a clinical assessment tool (Bechara, 2007). Nonetheless, numerous research groups have attempted to modify IGT models to optimize parameters for predicting the choice behavior of normal controls and patients. A decade ago, most researchers considered the expected utility (EU) model (Busemeyer and Stout, 2002) to be the optimal model for predicting choice behavior under uncertainty. However, in recent years, studies have demonstrated that models with the prospect utility (PU) function are more effective than the EU models in the IGT (Ahn et al., 2008). Nevertheless, after some preliminary tests based on our behavioral dataset and modeling, it was determined that the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model is not optimal due to some incompatible results. This study aims to modify the Ahn et al. (2008) PU model to a simplified model and used the IGT performance of 145 subjects as the benchmark data for comparison. In our simplified PU model, the best goodness-of-fit was found mostly as the value of α approached zero. More specifically, we retested the key parameters α, λ, and A in the PU model. Notably, the influence of the parameters α, λ, and A has a hierarchical power structure in terms of manipulating the goodness-of-fit in the PU model. Additionally, we found that the parameters λ and A may be ineffective when the parameter α is close to zero in the PU model. The present simplified model demonstrated that decision makers mostly adopted the strategy of gain-stay loss-shift rather than foreseeing the long-term outcome. However, there are other behavioral variables that are not well revealed under these dynamic-uncertainty situations. Therefore, the optimal behavioral models may not have been found yet. In short, the best model for predicting choice behavior under dynamic-uncertainty situations should be further evaluated. PMID:27582715

  2. Modeling Stochastic Route Choice Behaviors with Equivalent Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Logit-based route choice model is proposed to address the overlapping and scaling problems in the traditional multinomial Logit model. The nonoverlapping links are defined as a subnetwork, and its equivalent impedance is explicitly calculated in order to simply network analyzing. The overlapping links are repeatedly merged into subnetworks with Logit-based equivalent travel costs. The choice set at each intersection comprises only the virtual equivalent route without overlapping. In order to capture heterogeneity in perception errors of different sizes of networks, different scale parameters are assigned to subnetworks and they are linked to the topological relationships to avoid estimation burden. The proposed model provides an alternative method to model the stochastic route choice behaviors without the overlapping and scaling problems, and it still maintains the simple and closed-form expression from the MNL model. A link-based loading algorithm based on Dial’s algorithm is proposed to obviate route enumeration and it is suitable to be applied on large-scale networks. Finally a comparison between the proposed model and other route choice models is given by numerical examples.

  3. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gender, age, years of education, and years driving. The groups were compared on the extent to which they discounted, or devalued, delayed hypothetical monetary rewards using a delay-discounting task. In this task, students made repeated choices between $1000 available after a delay (ranging from 1 week to 10 years) and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The results show that the students who frequently text while driving discounted delayed rewards at a greater rate than the matched control students. The study supports the conclusions that texting while driving is fundamentally an impulsive choice made by drivers, and that a behavioral economic approach may be a useful research tool for investigating the decision-making processes underlying risky behaviors. PMID:26280804

  4. Consumer behavior and payment choice: a conference summary

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Marianne; Schuh, Scott; Stavins, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The Emerging Payments Research Group (EPRG) at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston sponsored a new conference, “Consumer Behavior and Payment Choice: How and Why Do Consumers Choose Their Payment Methods?” on October 27–28, 2005, at the Boston Fed. The conference brought together a diverse set of participants from the academic, private, and public sectors. This paper provides a summary and overview of the conference. Key conclusions are that the consumer’s decision-making process concerning pa...

  5. [Advances in the experimental analysis of behavior: issues of choice behavior, comparative cognition, and human language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, T; Yamamoto, J; Jitsumori, M

    1994-12-01

    As the opportunity to contact with related areas has increased, the study of of the experimental analysis of behavior has experienced revolutionary changes. Some of the most active and important areas-studies of choice, comparative cognition, and human language--are reviewed to acquaint readers. Studies of CHOICE have linked to the molar theories of behavioral economics and behavioral ecology, which promoted research of choice by animals under uncertainty conditions. Further approach has been made to integrate the molar and molecular analyses on the basis of the ideas of behavior dynamics. COMPARATIVE COGNITION is a part of a larger field including cognitive science, behavioral neuroscience, and biological science. Recent developments, aided with a comparative perspective, made significant contributions to our understanding of the phylogeny and ontogeny of cognition. Advances in analysis of human behavior provided tools to study behavioral aspects of semantics, syntax, and pragmatics of HUMAN LANGUAGE. Using the paradigm of stimulus equivalence, the emergence of stimulus relations, stimulus-stimulus networks, hierarchical structure of verbal behavior, and other language-related behaviors have been investigated.

  6. Robustness of public choice models of voting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai UNGUREANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern economics modeling practice involves highly unrealistic assumptions. Since testing such models is not always an easy enterprise, researchers face the problem of determining whether a result is dependent (or not on the unrealistic details of the model. A solution for this problem is conducting robustness analysis. In its classical form, robustness analysis is a non-empirical method of confirmation – it raises our trust in a given result by implying it with from several different models. In this paper I argue that robustness analysis could be thought as a method of post-empirical failure. This form of robustness analysis involves assigning guilt for the empirical failure to a certain part of the model. Starting from this notion of robustness, I analyze a case of empirical failure from public choice theory or the economic approach of politics. Using the fundamental methodological principles of neoclassical economics, the first model of voting behavior implied that almost no one would vote. This was clearly an empirical failure. Public choice scholars faced the problem of either restraining the domain of their discipline or giving up to some of their neoclassical methodological features. The second solution was chosen and several different models of voting behavior were built. I will treat these models as a case for performing robustness analysis and I will determine which assumption from the original model is guilty for the empirical failure.

  7. Alterations in choice behavior by manipulations of world model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Benson, C.; Kersten, D.; Schrater, P.

    2010-01-01

    How to compute initially unknown reward values makes up one of the key problems in reinforcement learning theory, with two basic approaches being used. Model-free algorithms rely on the accumulation of substantial amounts of experience to compute the value of actions, whereas in model-based learning, the agent seeks to learn the generative process for outcomes from which the value of actions can be predicted. Here we show that (i) “probability matching”—a consistent example of suboptimal choice behavior seen in humans—occurs in an optimal Bayesian model-based learner using a max decision rule that is initialized with ecologically plausible, but incorrect beliefs about the generative process for outcomes and (ii) human behavior can be strongly and predictably altered by the presence of cues suggestive of various generative processes, despite statistically identical outcome generation. These results suggest human decision making is rational and model based and not consistent with model-free learning. PMID:20805507

  8. On the Recoverability of Choice Behaviors with Random Coefficients Choice Models in the Context of Limited Data and Unobserved Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Rick L. Andrews; Andrew Ainslie; Imran S. Currim

    2008-01-01

    Random coefficients choice models are seeing widespread adoption in marketing research, partly because of their ability to generate household-level parameter estimates with limited data. However, the power of such models may tempt researchers to trust that they continue to produce reasonable estimates, when in fact either model misspecification or insufficient data limits the models' ability to recover household-level parameters successfully. If household-level choice behaviors are not recove...

  9. The Behavioral Pharmacology of Effort-related Choice Behavior: Dopamine, Adenosine and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Nunes, Eric J.; Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    For many years, it has been suggested that drugs that interfere with dopamine (DA) transmission alter the “rewarding” impact of primary reinforcers such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in effort-related choice behavior....

  10. Study on Decision Process and Strategy Choice Behavior under Multimode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanmei Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Display Board is used to design an experimental survey and dynamic decision process data are retrieved under a multimode choice scenario with car, bus and subway, and park and ride. It is concluded that car travelers who will switch to choosing park and ride need more decision time to compare it with the existing modes (car, bus and subway and tend to mainly use compensatory decision strategies in the decision process. The most commonly used decision strategy for travelers is the combined strategy under the multimode choice scenario. Correlation analysis shows that the influencing factors of age, whether the travelers have ever used park and ride, and decision time highly correlate with decision strategy choice. These conclusions have a certain reference value for theory research of decision process under multimode choice.

  11. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  12. Behavioral Variability of Choices versus Structural Inconsistency of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2012-01-01

    Theories of rational choice often make the structural consistency assumption that every decision maker's binary strict preference among choice alternatives forms a "strict weak order". Likewise, the very concept of a "utility function" over lotteries in normative, prescriptive, and descriptive theory is mathematically equivalent to strict weak…

  13. Closing the gap between behavior and models in route choice: The role of spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in choice set formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    A considerable gap exists between the behavioral paradigm of choice set formation in route choice and its representation in route choice modeling. While travelers form their viable choice set by retaining routes that satisfy spatiotemporal constraints, existing route generation techniques do not ...... spatiotemporal constraints and latent traits in route choice models, and (iii) the linkage between spatiotemporal constraints and time saving, spatial and mnemonic abilities....

  14. Affective Decision Making: A Behavioral Theory of Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Brown, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a strategic model of choice under risk and uncertainty where we posit two cognitive processes — the "rational" and the "emotional" process. Observed choice is the result of equilibirum in this intrapersonal game. As an example, we present applications of affective decision-making in insurance markets, where the risk perceptions of consumers are endogenous. We then derive the axiomatic foundation of affective decision making, and show that, although beliefs are end...

  15. Nonlinear Socio-Ecological Dynamics and First Principles ofCollective Choice Behavior of ``Homo Socialis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, M.

    Socio-ecological dynamics emerged from the field of Mathematical SocialSciences and opened up avenues for re-examination of classical problems of collective behavior in Social and Spatial sciences. The ``engine" of this collective behavior is the subjective mental evaluation of level of utilities in the future, presenting sets of composite socio-economic-temporal-locational advantages. These dynamics present new laws of collective multi-population behavior which are the meso-level counterparts of the utility optimization individual behavior. The central core of the socio-ecological choice dynamics includes the following first principle of the collective choice behavior of ``Homo Socialis" based on the existence of ``collective consciousness": the choice behavior of ``Homo Socialis" is a collective meso-level choice behavior such that the relative changes in choice frequencies depend on the distribution of innovation alternatives between adopters of innovations. The mathematical basis of the Socio-Ecological Dynamics includes two complementary analytical approaches both based on the use of computer modeling as a theoretical and simulation tool. First approach is the ``continuous approach" --- the systems of ordinary and partial differential equations reflecting the continuous time Volterra ecological formalism in a form of antagonistic and/or cooperative collective hyper-games between different sub-sets of choice alternatives. Second approach is the ``discrete approach" --- systems of difference equations presenting a new branch of the non-linear discrete dynamics --- the Discrete Relative m-population/n-innovations Socio-Spatial Dynamics (Dendrinos and Sonis, 1990). The generalization of the Volterra formalism leads further to the meso-level variational principle of collective choice behavior determining the balance between the resulting cumulative social spatio-temporal interactions among the population of adopters susceptible to the choice alternatives and the

  16. An exploratory investigation of food choice behavior of teenagers with and without food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde; MacKenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Background - Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. Objective - To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non–food-allerg...

  17. Choice Behavior in Pigeons Maintained with Probabilistic Schedules of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jay; Friedlen, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    Pigeons were trained in three experiments with a two-key, concurrent-chains choice procedure. The initial links were equal variable-interval schedules, and the terminal links were random-time schedules with equal average interreinforcement intervals. Across the three experiments, the pigeons either stayed in a terminal link until a reinforcer was…

  18. Normative and rational choice accounts of human behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, John

    1995-01-01

    Two approaches to the problem of social order are compared: the rational choice approach (as represented in Coleman's Foundations of Social Theory) and the normative or social control approach, in which rules and rule-following play the central role. Considered in therms of Coleman's own criteria fo

  19. Behavioral implications of providing real incentives in stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Campbell, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential impacts of introducing real economic incentives in choice experiments (CE). While many others have investigated such impacts before, the majority of the literature has focused solely on mitigation of hypothetical bias. We contribute to this literature by widening...

  20. Day-to-day route choice modeling incorporating inertial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essen, van M.A.; Rakha, H.; Vreeswijk, J.D.; Wismans, L.J.J.; Berkum, van E.C.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate route choice modeling is one of the most important aspects when predicting the effects of transport policy and dynamic traffic management. Moreover, the effectiveness of intervention measures to a large extent depends on travelers’ response to the changes these measures cause. As a compleme

  1. Disruptive Behavior: An Empirical Evaluation of School Misconduct and Market Accountability. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Greg; Carr, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Opponents of school choice argue that private schools are not "accountable" because they are not subject to detailed oversight by a regulatory bureaucracy. They claim private school employees can be expected to engage in abusive and criminal behavior more frequently. School choice supporters respond that parents hold private schools accountable…

  2. A discrete choice model with social interactions: an analysis of high school teen behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kooreman, Peter; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2002-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice model that explicitly allows for endogenous social interactions. We analyze the issues of multiple equilibria, statistical coherency, and estimation of the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze a data set containing information on the individual behavior of some 8000 high school teenagers from almost 500 different school classes. We estimate the model for five types of teen discrete choice behavior: smoking, truan...

  3. Joint Residence-Workplace Location Choice Model Based on Household Decision Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residence location and workplace are the two most important urban land-use types, and there exist strong interdependences between them. Existing researches often assume that one choice dimension is correlated to the other. Using the mixed logit framework, three groups of choice models are developed to illustrate such choice dependencies. First, for all households, this paper presents a basic methodology of the residence location and workplace choice without decision sequence based on the assumption that the two choice behaviors are independent of each other. Second, the paper clusters all households into two groups, choosing residence or workplace first, and formulates the residence location and workplace choice models under the constraint of decision sequence. Third, this paper combines the residence location and workplace together as the choice alternative and puts forward the joint choice model. A questionnaire survey is implemented in Beijing city to collect the data of 1994 households. Estimation results indicate that the joint choice model fits the data significantly better, and the elasticity effects analyses show that the joint choice model reflects the influences of relevant factors to the choice probability well and leads to the job-housing balance.

  4. Freedom of choice and bounded rationality: a brief appraisal of behavioral economists' plea for light paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Muramatsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economics has addressed interesting positive and normative questions underlying the standard rational choice theory. More recently, it suggests that, in a real world of boundedly rational agents, economists could help people to improve the quality of their choices without any harm to autonomy and freedom of choice. This paper aims to scrutinize available arguments for and against current proposals of light paternalistic interventions mainly in the domain of intertemporal choice. It argues that incorporating the notion of bounded rationality in economic analysis and empirical findings of cognitive biases and self-control problems cannot make an indisputable case for paternalism.

  5. Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Leisure Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzen, Icek; Driver, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study involving college students who completed a questionnaire measuring involvement, moods, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, and intentions concerning specific leisure activities. Reports one year later showed that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predicted leisure intentions;…

  6. Better Choices: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Behavior Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, Miguel T.

    2011-01-01

    Managing student behavior is often looked upon as a sidebar in teaching. The lack of formal classroom management training in teacher education programs reveals the low importance placed on this skill. As a result, teachers are often very well prepared to instruct, but in terms of effectively understanding the behavior of students--particularly…

  7. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Trijp, van, J.M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach specifically focuses on temporal variety-seeking behavior and addresses some of the key issues that have received inadequate attention in previous work on temporal variety-seeking behavior. The main ...

  8. An analysis of choice making in the assessment of young children with severe behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, J W; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Cooper, L J; Asmus, J; Mlela, K; Muller, J

    1999-01-01

    We examined how positive and negative reinforcement influenced time allocation, occurrence of problem behavior, and completion of parent instructions during a concurrent choice assessment with 2 preschool-aged children who displayed severe problem behavior in their homes. The children were given a series of concurrent choice options that varied availability of parent attention, access to preferred toys, and presentation of parent instructions. The results showed that both children consistently allocated their time to choice areas that included parent attention when no instructions were presented. When parent attention choice areas included the presentation of instructions, the children displayed differential patterns of behavior that appeared to be influenced by the presence or absence of preferred toys. The results extended previous applications of reinforcer assessment procedures by analyzing the relative influence of both positive and negative reinforcement within a concurrent-operants paradigm.

  9. Prospect theory based estimation of drivers' risk attitudes in route choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lizhen; Zhong, Shiquan; Ma, Shoufeng; Jia, Ning

    2014-12-01

    This paper applied prospect theory (PT) to describe drivers' route choice behavior under Variable Message Sign (VMS), which presented visual traffic information to assist them to make route choice decisions. A quite rich empirical data from questionnaire and field spot was used to estimate parameters of PT. In order to make the parameters more realistic with drivers' attitudes, they were classified into different types by significant factors influencing their behaviors. Based on the travel time distribution of alternative routes and route choice results from questionnaire, the parameterized value function of each category was figured out, which represented drivers' risk attitudes and choice characteristics. The empirical verification showed that the estimates were acceptable and effective. The result showed drivers' risk attitudes and route choice characteristics could be captured by PT under real-time information shown on VMS. For practical application, once drivers' route choice characteristics and parameters were identified, their route choice behavior under different road conditions could be predicted accurately, which was the basis of traffic guidance measures formulation and implementation for targeted traffic management. Moreover, the heterogeneous risk attitudes among drivers should be considered when releasing traffic information and regulating traffic flow.

  10. Habit, information acquisition, and the prediction of travel mode choice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verplanken, B.

    1996-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of habit in travel mode choices. Habit was measured by using mental representations of activities that may include the target behavior. Using behavioral process-tracing paradigms, it was found that habit attenuates not only the elaborateness of information acquisition

  11. Variety-seeking in product choice behavior. Theory with applications in the food domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present work are (1) to review the marketing and psychological literature on variety-seeking behavior, (2) to develop a formal model for variety-seeking in product choice behavior and (3) to investigate elements of the proposed model empirically. The present approach sp

  12. Choice, Communication, and Conflict. A System's Approach to the Study of Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackoff, Russell L.

    This book presents a teleological analysis of the concepts of human behavior. Through distinctions and definitions, a model or system is developed, upon which all aspects of behavior are interrelated. The model of choice or purposeful state is discussed with its underlying concepts. Human communication and feeling, and cooperation and conflict…

  13. The Perceived Informational Value and Affective Consequences of Choice Behavior and Intermediate Difficulty Task Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wulf-Uwe; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Four experiments are presented that examine the affective and the informational explanations of risk-preference behavior. Experiments I and II provide a phenomenological analysis of the affective and informational determinants of choice behavior while Experiments III and IV investigates at what level of difficulty individuals most desire…

  14. Behavioral Exploration of Career and Specialty Choice in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the process by which students naturally construct and internalize their educational experiences relating to career development is important to career counseling. The author investigated how exploratory behaviors during a community-based field experience course contributed to the vocational development of 1st-year medical students.…

  15. Aging impairs deliberation and behavioral flexibility in inter-temporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick-Andre eBreton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal choice depends on multiple, interacting systems, some of which may be compromised with age. Some of these systems may be responsible for ongoing trial-by-trial choice strategies. Some may represent the consequences of action. Some may be necessary for the coupling between anticipated consequences and strategies currently in use, flexibly guiding behavior. When faced with a difficult decision, rats will orient back and forth, a behavior termed ``vicarious trial and error'' (VTE. Recent experiments have linked the occurrence of VTE to hippocampal search processes and behavioral flexibility. We tested 5 month (n=6, 9 month (n=8 and over-27 month-old (n=10 rats on a Spatial Adjusting Delay Discounting task to examine how aging impacted lap-by-lap strategies and VTE during inter-temporal choice. Rats chose between spatially separated food goals that provided a smaller-sooner or larger-later reward. On each lap, the delay to the larger-later reward was adjusted as a function of the rat's decisions, increasing by 1 second after delayed-side choices and decreasing by 1 second after non-delayed side choices. The strategies that aged rats used differed from those used in young and adult rats. Moreover, aged rats produced reliably more VTE behaviors, for protracted periods of time, uncoupled from behavioral flexibility.

  16. Texting while driving as impulsive choice: A behavioral economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yusuke; Russo, Christopher T.; Wirth, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the utility of a behavioral economic analysis to investigate the role of delay discounting in texting while driving. A sample of 147 college students completed a survey to assess how frequently they send and read text messages while driving. Based on this information, students were assigned to one of two groups: 19 students who frequently text while driving and 19 matched-control students who infrequently text while driving but were similar in gend...

  17. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Justin W Martin; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show...

  18. A Structural Model with Discrete-Choice Variables for Predicting Enroute Behavior under ATIS

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jeffrey L.; Golob, Thomas F.; McNally, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    Increasing efforts in Advanced Traveler Information Systems has emphasized the need to develop more robust models of enroute driver behavior. The complexity in modeling driver behavior stems from the need to capture the day-to-day dynamics of choice, model diversion and active information acquisition, and account for individual preferences and needs. Previous papers by the authors discussed a conflict arousal methodology for modeling driver behavior in the presence of real-time information. I...

  19. Behavioral scripts of urban park offenders : a rational choice perspective on influences of the park setting

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Sean Edward

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the influence of Iocational factors on offender behavior in four serious and common park offenses: auto burglary, drug sales, indecent exposure by homosexual males, and robbery. Specifically, the study sought 1) to develop prototypical script(s) for each of the four study crimes, and 2) to support or contradict the influence of effort, risk and reward on offender behavior. Using the theoretical bases of opportunity, rational choice, and scripts, behavior of ...

  20. A Study of Driver's Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Jiang; Yanjie Ji; Muqing Du; Wei Deng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolution...

  1. Behavioral Economic Analysis of Drug Preference Using Multiple Choice Procedure Data

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2007-01-01

    The Multiple Choice Procedure has been used to evaluate preference for psychoactive drugs, relative to money amounts (price), in human subjects. The present re-analysis shows that MCP data are compatible with behavioral economic analysis of drug choices. Demand curves were constructed from studies with intravenous fentanyl, intramuscular hydromorphone and oral methadone in opioid-dependent individuals; oral d-amphetamine, oral MDMA alone and during fluoxetine treatment, and smoked marijuana a...

  2. Autoshaped choice in artificial neural networks: implications for behavioral economics and neuroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, José E; García-Leal, Óscar

    2015-05-01

    An existing neural network model of conditioning was used to simulate autoshaped choice. In this phenomenon, pigeons first receive an autoshaping procedure with two keylight stimuli X and Y separately paired with food in a forward-delay manner, intermittently for X and continuously for Y. Then pigeons receive unreinforced choice test trials of X and Y concurrently present. Most pigeons choose Y. This preference for a more valuable response alternative is a form of economic behavior that makes the phenomenon relevant to behavioral economics. The phenomenon also suggests a role for Pavlovian contingencies in economic behavior. The model used, in contrast to others, predicts autoshaping and automaintenance, so it is uniquely positioned to predict autoshaped choice. The model also contemplates neural substrates of economic behavior in neuroeconomics, such as dopaminergic and hippocampal systems. A feedforward neural network architecture was designed to simulate a neuroanatomical differentiation between two environment-behavior relations X-R1 and Y-R2, [corrected] where R1 and R2 denote two different emitted responses (not unconditionally elicited by the reward). Networks with this architecture received a training protocol that simulated an autoshaped-choice procedure. Most networks simulated the phenomenon. Implications for behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, limitations, and the issue of model appraisal are discussed. PMID:25662745

  3. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  4. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W Martin

    Full Text Available When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice. Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice.

  5. To punish or to leave: distinct cognitive processes underlie partner control and partner choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin W; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person's intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a "trembling hand" economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator's intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner's intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  6. A Study of Driver’s Route Choice Behavior Based on Evolutionary Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers’ route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver’s route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver’s route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  7. To Punish or to Leave: Distinct Cognitive Processes Underlie Partner Control and Partner Choice Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Justin W.; Cushman, Fiery

    2015-01-01

    When a cooperative partner defects, at least two types of response are available: Punishment, aimed at modifying behavior, and ostracism, aimed at avoiding further social interaction with the partner. These options, termed partner control and partner choice, have been distinguished at behavioral and evolutionary levels. However, little work has compared their cognitive bases. Do these disparate behaviors depend on common processes of moral evaluation? Specifically, we assess whether they show identical patterns of dependence on two key dimensions of moral evaluation: A person’s intentions, and the outcomes that they cause. We address this issue in a “trembling hand” economic game. In this game, an allocator divides a monetary stake between themselves and a responder based on a stochastic mechanism. This allows for dissociations between the allocator’s intent and the actual outcome. Responders were either given the opportunity to punish or reward the allocator (partner control) or to switch to a different partner for a subsequent round of play (partner choice). Our results suggest that partner control and partner choice behaviors are supported by distinct underlying cognitive processes: Partner control exhibits greater sensitivity to the outcomes a partner causes, while partner choice is influenced almost exclusively by a partner’s intentions. This cognitive dissociation can be understood in light of the unique adaptive functions of partner control and partner choice. PMID:25915550

  8. Modeling of Intercity Travel Mode Choice Behavior for Non-Business Trips within Libya

    OpenAIRE

    Manssour A. Abdulsalam Bin Miskeen; Ahmed Mohamed Alhodairi; Riza Atiq Abdullah Bin O.K. Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    This study is pioneer in investigating mode-choice behavior of inter-city traveler for non-business trips in Libya, for this we have successfully developed and validated disaggregate behavioral inter-city non-business travel mode choice model, based on a binary logit structure. Four major inter-city corridors in Libya were the source of the data required for the development of the model. Data was collected based on interviews with 576 respondents. Majority of these data (nearly two-thirds) we...

  9. Choices, choices, choices ...

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Taking the right decision can be a very challenging and daunting process. Designing a mobile phone, a make up case or even a pipe needs engineering teams to continuously make important choices frequently. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/choices-choices-choices/

  10. The Boston Fed study of consumer behavior and payment choice: a survey of Federal Reserve System employees

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Marques; Blair, Krista; Crowe, Marianne; Schuh, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The way people pay for goods and services is changing dramatically, but little data and research on consumer behavior and payment choice are publicly available. This paper describes the results of a survey of payment behavior and attitudes taken by Federal Reserve employees in 2004. Major contributions of the survey are that it asks: 1) why payment choices are made; 2) why individual payment behavior has changed; and 3) why individual-specific payment characteristics matter for payment choice...

  11. EXPLORING THE CHOICE BEHAVIOR ON THE RETAILING DELIVERY PROVIDER FOR ONLINE AUCTION CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shang Fan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of e-commerce is an efficient business model that enables new relationships between consumers and suppliers. In particular, the online auction market is growing between 50% and 60% and, obviously, becoming a noticeable market. However, how to deliver goods to customers has become one of the challenges for sellers. In Taiwan, convenience stores have integrated e-commerce with the logistics system of convenience stores to a new retail delivery model: “Online shopping in an electronic store and pick-up goods in a convenience store”. In this article, we combine CFA with binary logit model to incorporate logistics service quality into the choice model to understand the choice behavior of the online auction consumers and the factors that will affect the choices for retailer delivery providers. The empirical results demonstrated that information quality and convenience are key factors that impact consumers’ choice of RD providers.

  12. Housing markets, government behaviors, and housing choice: a case study of three cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Youqin Huang

    2004-01-01

    Housing reform in urban China has introduced market mechanisms into a previously welfare-oriented housing system. Although microlevel factors such as household characteristics begin to shape housing behavior in urban China as is the case in the West, macrolevel constraints and opportunities defined by not only housing stocks and housing markets but also local government behaviors continue to be crucial. By studying housing choice in Beijing, Chongqing, and Jiangyin, I find that local governme...

  13. Interaction Between Behavioral and Pharmacological Treatment Strategies to Decrease Cocaine Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L.; Blough, Bruce E.; S. Stevens Negus

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic approaches constitute two prominent strategies for treating cocaine dependence. This study investigated interactions between behavioral and pharmacological strategies in a preclinical model of cocaine vs food choice. Six rhesus monkeys, implanted with a chronic indwelling double-lumen venous catheter, initially responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0–0.1 mg/kg/injection, FR...

  14. Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: College Women's Risk Perception and Behavioral Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Emily; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Birchmeier, Zachary

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated relationships among prior victimization, risk perceptions, and behavioral choices in responding to drug-facilitated sexual assault in a college party where alcohol is available. Participants and Methods: From fall 2003 to spring 2004, over 400 female undergraduates rated risk perception following an acquaintance…

  15. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  16. The pharmacology of effort-related choice behavior: Dopamine, depression, and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yohn, Samantha; Lopez Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemi; Alatorre, Luisa

    2016-06-01

    This review paper is focused upon the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) and related brain systems in effort-based processes. Interference with DA transmission affects instrumental behavior in a manner that interacts with the response requirements of the task, such that rats with impaired DA transmission show a heightened sensitivity to ratio requirements. Impaired DA transmission also affects effort-related choice behavior, which is assessed by tasks that offer a choice between a preferred reinforcer that has a high work requirement vs. less preferred reinforcer that can be obtained with minimal effort. Rats and mice with impaired DA transmission reallocate instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response costs, and show increased selection of low reinforcement/low cost options. Tests of effort-related choice have been developed into models of pathological symptoms of motivation that are seen in disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. These models are being employed to explore the effects of conditions associated with various psychopathologies, and to assess drugs for their potential utility as treatments for effort-related symptoms. Studies of the pharmacology of effort-based choice may contribute to the development of treatments for symptoms such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia, which are seen in depression and other disorders. PMID:26899746

  17. A Personal Value-Based Model of College Students' Aptitudes and Expected Choice Behavior Regarding Retailing Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Soyeon; Warrington, Patti; Goldsberry, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    A study of 754 retail management students developed a value-based model of career attitude and expected choice behavior. Findings indicate that personal values had an influence on all aspects of retail career attitudes, which then had a direct effect on expected choice behavior. (Contains 55 references.) (Author/JOW)

  18. Pedestrian choice behavior analysis and simulation of vertical walking facilities in transfer station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Xing; Jia, Hong-Fei; Li, Jun; Zhou, Ya-Nan; Yuan, Zhi-Lu; Li, Yan-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Considering the interlayer height, luggage, the difference between queuing pedestrians, and walking speed, the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities is established based on a support vector machine. This model is verified with the pedestrian flow data of Changchun light-rail transfer station and Beijing Xizhimen transfer station. Adding the pedestrian choice model of vertical walking facilities into the pedestrian simulation model which is based on cellular automata, the pedestrian choice behavior is simulated. In the simulation, the effects of the dynamic influence factors are analyzed. To reduce the conflicts between pedestrians in opposite directions, the layout of vertical walking facilities is improved. The simulations indicate that the improved layout of vertical walking facilities can improve the efficiency of pedestrians passing. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51278221 and 51378076) and the Science Technology Development Project of Jilin Province, China (Grant No. 20140204027SF).

  19. Modeling of Intercity Travel Mode Choice Behavior for Non-Business Trips within Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manssour A. Abdulsalam Bin Miskeen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is pioneer in investigating mode-choice behavior of inter-city traveler for non-business trips in Libya, for this we have successfully developed and validated disaggregate behavioral inter-city non-business travel mode choice model, based on a binary logit structure. Four major inter-city corridors in Libya were the source of the data required for the development of the model. Data was collected based on interviews with 576 respondents. Majority of these data (nearly two-thirds were used for calibrating the model, whereas, the remaining data were used for validating the model. This study, which is the first of its kind in Libya, investigates the intercity traveler’s mode-choice behavior for non-business trips. The proposed model elucidates car/air transport users’ behavior and investigates their responses to the scenario of enhancing intercity transport. We have also investigated the prospect of car drivers shifting to air transport, based on a case of a diminution in airplane out-of-vehicle travel time (access time to airport, waiting time at airport and egress time from airport. We deem that the findings of this study will facilitate all the levels of decision-makers to sensibly allocate resources for the enhancement of air transportation

  20. Visual choice behavior by bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) confirms unsupervised neural network's predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbán, Levente L; Plowright, Catherine M S; Chartier, Sylvain; Thompson, Emma; Xu, Vicki

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral experiment herein tests the computational load hypothesis generated by an unsupervised neural network to examine bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) behavior at 2 visual properties: spatial frequency and symmetry. Untrained "flower-naïve" bumblebees were hypothesized to prefer symmetry only when the spatial frequency of artificial flowers is high and therefore places great information-processing demands on the bumblebees' visual system. Bumblebee choice behavior was recorded using high-definition motion-sensitive camcorders. The results support the computational model's prediction: 1-axis symmetry influenced bumblebees' preference behavior at low and high spatial frequency patterns. Additionally, increasing the level of symmetry from 1 axis to 4 axes amplified preference toward the symmetric patterns of both low and high spatial frequency patterns. The results are discussed in the context of the artificial neural network model and other hypotheses generated from the behavioral literature. PMID:25984936

  1. A dynamic choice model of hybrid behavior in the attribute-space

    OpenAIRE

    Ladr??n de Guevara, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic choice model in the attribute space considering rational consumers that discount the future. In light of the evidence of several state-dependence patterns, the model is further extended by considering a utility function that allows for the different types of behavior described in the literature: pure inertia, pure variety seeking and hybrid. The model presents a stationary consumption pattern that can be inertial, where the consumer only buys ...

  2. Slutsky Equation and Negative Elasticity of Labor Supply: Behavioral Bias or Optimal Consumption-Leisure Choice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey MALAKHOV

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the applications of the prospect theory is the behavioral phenomenon of the negative elasticity of the individual labor supply. This paper argues that the negative elasticity of labor supply can be understood better with the help of the interpretation of the Slutsky equation with regard to the common consumption-leisure choice. The interpretation of the Slutsky equation corresponds to the empirical evidence that leisure is a net complement for an important part of consumption.

  3. Choices between positive and negative reinforcement during treatment for escape-maintained behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    DeLeon, I G; Neidert, P L; Anders, B M; Rodriguez-Catter, V

    2001-01-01

    Positive reinforcement was more effective than negative reinforcement in promoting compliance and reducing escape-maintained problem behavior for a child with autism. Escape extinction was then added while the child was given a choice between positive or negative reinforcement for compliance and the reinforcement schedule was thinned. When the reinforcement requirement reached 10 consecutive tasks, the treatment effects became inconsistent and reinforcer selection shifted from a strong prefer...

  4. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan R. Soetevent; Kooreman, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between the interaction strength, the number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze the individual behavior of some 8000 high school teenagers from almost 500 different school classes. We find endogenous social interaction ...

  5. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  6. Constrained choices? Linking employees' and spouses' work time to health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wen; Lam, Jack; Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin; King, Rosalind; McHale, Susan

    2015-02-01

    There are extensive literatures on work conditions and health and on family contexts and health, but less research asking how a spouse or partners' work conditions may affect health behaviors. Drawing on the constrained choices framework, we theorized health behaviors as a product of one's own time and spouses' work time as well as gender expectations. We examined fast food consumption and exercise behaviors using survey data from 429 employees in an Information Technology (IT) division of a U.S. Fortune 500 firm and from their spouses. We found fast food consumption is affected by men's work hours-both male employees' own work hours and the hours worked by husbands of women respondents-in a nonlinear way. The groups most likely to eat fast food are men working 50 h/week and women whose husbands work 45-50 h/week. Second, exercise is better explained if work time is conceptualized at the couple, rather than individual, level. In particular, neo-traditional arrangements (where husbands work longer than their wives) constrain women's ability to engage in exercise but increase odds of men exercising. Women in couples where both partners are working long hours have the highest odds of exercise. In addition, women working long hours with high schedule control are more apt to exercise and men working long hours whose wives have high schedule flexibility are as well. Our findings suggest different health behaviors may have distinct antecedents but gendered work-family expectations shape time allocations in ways that promote men's and constrain women's health behaviors. They also suggest the need to expand the constrained choices framework to recognize that long hours may encourage exercise if both partners are looking to sustain long work hours and that work resources, specifically schedule control, of one partner may expand the choices of the other. PMID:25531550

  7. Choice Overload, Satisficing Behavior, and Price Distribution in a Time Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychological research indicates that consumers that search exhaustively for the best option of a market product—known as maximizers—eventually feel worse than consumers who just look for something good enough—called satisficers. We formulate a time allocation model to explore the relationship between different distributions of prices of the product and the satisficing behavior and the related welfare of the consumer. We show numerically that, as the number of options becomes large, the maximizing behavior produces less and less welfare and eventually leads to choice paralysis—these are effects of choice overload—whereas satisficing conducts entail higher levels of satisfaction and do not end up in paralysis. For different price distributions, we provide consistent evidence that maximizers are better off for a low number of options, whereas satisficers are better off for a sufficiently large number of options. We also show how the optimal satisficing behavior is affected when the underlying price distribution varies. We provide evidence that the mean and the dispersion of a symmetric distribution of prices—but not the shape of the distribution—condition the satisficing behavior of consumers. We also show that this need not be the case for asymmetric distributions.

  8. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps tasks. Change in performance on the delay discounting task was significantly associated with change in positive mood and arousal. No other behavioral measures were significantly associated with mood. In sum, the current analysis demonstrates that behavioral measures of impulsivity are reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse. PMID:24099351

  9. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. PMID:22001023

  10. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender. PMID:25943024

  11. The role of parents in the ontogeny of achievement-related motivation and behavioral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Sandra D

    2015-06-01

    Parents believe what they do matters. But, how does it matter? How do parents' beliefs about their children early on translate into the choices those children make as adolescents? The Eccles' expectancy–value model asserts that parents' beliefs about their children during childhood predict adolescents' achievement-related choices through a sequence of processes that operate in a cumulative, cascading fashion over time. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors that predict their children's motivational beliefs. Those beliefs predict children's subsequent choices. Using data from the Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723), we tested these predictions in the activity domains of sports, instrumental music, mathematics, and reading across a 12-year period. In testing these predictions, we looked closely at the idea of reciprocal influences and at the role of child gender as a moderator. The cross-lagged models generally supported the bidirectional influences described in Eccles' expectancy-value model. Furthermore, the findings demonstrated that: (a) these relations were stronger in the leisure domains than in the academic domains, (b) these relations did not consistently vary based on youth gender, (c) parents were stronger predictors of their children's beliefs than vice versa, and (d) adolescents' beliefs were stronger predictors of their behaviors than the reverse. The findings presented in this monograph extend our understanding of the complexity of families, developmental processes that unfold over time, and the extent to which these processes are universal across domains and child gender.

  12. Association between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda

    2012-02-01

    The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media.

  13. Decision making by humans in a behavioral task: do humans, like pigeons, show suboptimal choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molet, Mikael; Miller, Holly C; Laude, Jennifer R; Kirk, Chelsea; Manning, Brandon; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    Consistent with human gambling behavior but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons show a strong preference for an alternative with low probability and high payoff (a gambling-like alternative) over an alternative with a greater net payoff (Zentall & Stagner, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1203-1208, 2011). In the present research, we asked whether humans would show suboptimal choice on a task involving choices with probabilities similar to those for pigeons. In Experiment 1, when we selected participants on the basis of their self-reported gambling activities, we found a significantly greater choice of the alternative involving low probability and high payoff (gambling-like alternative) than for a group that reported an absence of gambling activity. In Experiment 2, we found that when the inhibiting abilities of typical humans were impaired by a self-regulatory depletion manipulation, they were more likely to choose the gambling-like alternative. Taken together, the results suggest that this task is suitable for the comparative study of suboptimal decision-making behavior and the mechanisms that underlie it. PMID:22328280

  14. Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

    2011-04-27

    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards.

  15. Effects of decreasing sedentary behaviors on activity choice in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, L H; Saelens, B E; Myers, M D; Vito, D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, methods of decreasing highly preferred sedentary behaviors were compared and the consequent effects on activity choice were examined. Following free choice of sedentary and physical activities, 34 obese children either were positively reinforced for decreases in high-preference sedentary activity, were punished for high-preference sedentary activity, had access to high-preference sedentary activity restricted, or had no contingencies on activity (control group). Children randomized to reinforcement and punishment were more physically active on intervention days than the control group. Liking for targeted sedentary activity decreased in the reinforcement group, but increased in the restriction and control groups. Results suggest that reinforcing decreases in high-preference sedentary activity can increase physical activity and decrease liking for targeted sedentary activities. PMID:9269880

  16. Selective theta-synchronization of choice-relevant information subserves goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo eWomelsdorf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Theta activity reflects a state of rhythmic modulation of excitability at the level of single neuron membranes, within local neuronal groups and between distant nodes of a neuronal network. A wealth of evidence has shown that during theta states distant neuronal groups synchronize, forming networks of spatially confined neuronal clusters at specific time periods during task performance. Here, we show that a functional commonality of networks engaging in theta rhythmic states is that they emerge around decision points, reflecting rhythmic synchronization of choice-relevant information. Decision points characterize a point in time shortly before a subject chooses to select one action over another, i.e. when automatic behavior is terminated and the organism reactivates multiple sources of information to evaluate the evidence for available choices. As such, decision processes require the coordinated retrieval of choice-relevant information including (i the retrieval of stimulus evaluations (stim.-reward associations and reward expectancies about future outcomes, (ii the retrieval of past and prospective memories (e.g. stim.-stim. associations, (iii the reactivation of contextual task rule representations (e.g. stim.-response mappings, along with (iv an ongoing assessment of sensory evidence. An increasing number of studies reveal that retrieval of these multiple types of information proceeds within few theta cycles through synchronized spiking activity across limbic, striatal and cortical processing nodes. The outlined evidence suggests that evolving spatially and temporally specific theta synchronization could serve as the critical correlate underlying the selection of a choice during goal-directed behavior.

  17. Residence and Job Location Change Choice Behavior under Flooding and Cyclone Impacts in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change enters significantly into and is shown to be a direct determinant of residence and job location change decisions. Understanding of how people’s residence and job location change choice behavior is affected and thus responds to the impacts of climate change is essential for transportation planners and adaptation decision makers. As an addition to the current literature, the main purposes of this paper are to investigate people’s residence and job location change choice behavior affected by factors at origin and look into the behavioral differences between coastal and inland people under flooding and cyclone scenarios in Bangladesh. Questionnaire data were surveyed in 14 coastal and inland cities of Bangladesh with an orthogonal design of three flooding/cyclone scenarios. The multinomial Logit model and cross-nested Logit model are proposed to address the above purposes. Results of this study indicate that flooding/cyclone factors and income, land owned, and number of family members significantly affects people’s location change choice. In addition, coastal people are also significantly affected by previous experience factors. Furthermore, road connection plays an important role when people choose to change residence locations in coastal areas. It is also found that if there are changes in flooding impacts, the inland people will first consider to change their job locations, while the coastal people would consider both job and residence location changes. Results of this work provide policy suggestions on transportation infrastructure investment, shelter planning and construction, and population migration under flood and cyclone impacts as a result of climate change.

  18. Glucocorticoid regulation of food-choice behavior in humans: Evidence from Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Moeller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing’s syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing’s syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with ‘explicit’ task contingencies and one with ‘probabilistic’ task contingencies, during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images versus standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-hour urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task, participants with active Cushing’s syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing’s syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing’s patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing’s patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing’s, these results

  19. Rats are the smart choice: Rationale for a renewed focus on rats in behavioral genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Clarissa C; Chen, Hao; Flagel, Shelly B; Geurts, Aron M; Richards, Jerry B; Robinson, Terry E; Solberg Woods, Leah C; Palmer, Abraham A

    2014-01-01

    Due in part to their rich behavioral repertoire rats have been widely used in behavioral studies of drug abuse-related traits for decades. However, the mouse became the model of choice for researchers exploring the genetic underpinnings of addiction after the first mouse study was published demonstrating the capability of engineering the mouse genome through embryonic stem cell technology. The sequencing of the mouse genome and more recent re-sequencing of numerous inbred mouse strains have further cemented the status of mice as the premier mammalian organism for genetic studies. As a result, many of the behavioral paradigms initially developed and optimized for rats have been adapted to mice. However, numerous complex and interesting drug abuse-related behaviors that can be studied in rats are very difficult or impossible to adapt for use in mice, impeding the genetic dissection of those traits. Now, technological advances have removed many of the historical limitations of genetic studies in rats. For instance, the rat genome has been sequenced and many inbred rat strains are now being re-sequenced and outbred rat stocks are being used to fine-map QTLs. In addition, it is now possible to create "knockout" rats using zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and related techniques. Thus, rats can now be used to perform quantitative genetic studies of sophisticated behaviors that have been difficult or impossible to study in mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  20. Sensorimotor learning biases choice behavior: a learning neural field model for decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klaes

    Full Text Available According to a prominent view of sensorimotor processing in primates, selection and specification of possible actions are not sequential operations. Rather, a decision for an action emerges from competition between different movement plans, which are specified and selected in parallel. For action choices which are based on ambiguous sensory input, the frontoparietal sensorimotor areas are considered part of the common underlying neural substrate for selection and specification of action. These areas have been shown capable of encoding alternative spatial motor goals in parallel during movement planning, and show signatures of competitive value-based selection among these goals. Since the same network is also involved in learning sensorimotor associations, competitive action selection (decision making should not only be driven by the sensory evidence and expected reward in favor of either action, but also by the subject's learning history of different sensorimotor associations. Previous computational models of competitive neural decision making used predefined associations between sensory input and corresponding motor output. Such hard-wiring does not allow modeling of how decisions are influenced by sensorimotor learning or by changing reward contingencies. We present a dynamic neural field model which learns arbitrary sensorimotor associations with a reward-driven Hebbian learning algorithm. We show that the model accurately simulates the dynamics of action selection with different reward contingencies, as observed in monkey cortical recordings, and that it correctly predicted the pattern of choice errors in a control experiment. With our adaptive model we demonstrate how network plasticity, which is required for association learning and adaptation to new reward contingencies, can influence choice behavior. The field model provides an integrated and dynamic account for the operations of sensorimotor integration, working memory and action

  1. Human dorsal striatal activity during choice discriminates reinforcement learning behavior from the gambler's fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Ryan K; O'Doherty, John P

    2011-04-27

    Reinforcement learning theory has generated substantial interest in neurobiology, particularly because of the resemblance between phasic dopamine and reward prediction errors. Actor-critic theories have been adapted to account for the functions of the striatum, with parts of the dorsal striatum equated to the actor. Here, we specifically test whether the human dorsal striatum--as predicted by an actor-critic instantiation--is used on a trial-to-trial basis at the time of choice to choose in accordance with reinforcement learning theory, as opposed to a competing strategy: the gambler's fallacy. Using a partial-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning protocol focused on the striatum and other ventral brain areas, we found that the dorsal striatum is more active when choosing consistent with reinforcement learning compared with the competing strategy. Moreover, an overlapping area of dorsal striatum along with the ventral striatum was found to be correlated with reward prediction errors at the time of outcome, as predicted by the actor-critic framework. These findings suggest that the same region of dorsal striatum involved in learning stimulus-response associations may contribute to the control of behavior during choice, thereby using those learned associations. Intriguingly, neither reinforcement learning nor the gambler's fallacy conformed to the optimal choice strategy on the specific decision-making task we used. Thus, the dorsal striatum may contribute to the control of behavior according to reinforcement learning even when the prescriptions of such an algorithm are suboptimal in terms of maximizing future rewards. PMID:21525269

  2. Mate choice and host discrimination behavior of the parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Lü, L; He, Y; Shi, Q; Tu, C; Gu, J

    2016-08-01

    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests and a widely used biological control agent. Detailed knowledge about its mate choice and host discrimination behavior is lacking. In this study, we studied the mate choice and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis in experimental arenas through video tracking. Males' mate recognition capacity was realized by perceiving the sex pheromone of females. When offered two females of different species, male could distinguish the conspecific female from Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a species that has overlapping hosts with T. chilonis. When placed with two females of different mating status, male preferred mating with the virgin female to the mated female. T. chilonis females could distinguish unparasitized host eggs from parasitized ones (parasitized by conspecific females or heterospecific females). They preferred to stay on and lay eggs in unparasitized host eggs. When T. chilonis females were only provided with parasitized host eggs (parasitized by T. chilonis and T. bactrae females), conspecific superparasitism occurred more often than heterospecific superparasitism. Furthermore, the host egg discrimination ability of T. chilonis females was mainly achieved through antennal perception.

  3. Pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians' choice behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao-Sheng, Chen; Yu-Ti, Shih

    2008-09-01

    This research presents an analysis of Taiwan's health care market with the focus on the pricing of prescription drugs and its impact on physicians' choice behavior. Since the advent of Taiwan's national health insurance, with the competent authority being Bureau of National Health Insurance (BNHI), hospitals are allowed to sell prescription drugs to patients at prices above the purchasing prices, so each prescription drug has two prices: one at which drugs are sold to hospitals; the other which BNHI reimbursement to hospitals. The margin between the different prices is the sales discount that pharmaceutical companies offer to the hospitals. We find that sales discount has a great impact on physicians' choice behavior: i.e., physicians are price-sensitive to prescription drugs. In addition, it is found that too high a sales discount of a prescription drug would result in a too low weighted average price of that drug sold; thus BNHI would be more likely to adjust downward the rate it reimbursement to the hospital. This presents a sales strategy problem to pharmaceutical companies. To solve this, we use the distribution of physicians' evaluations of prescription drugs to establish a profit maximization model in hopes of helping companies to price drugs and find the optimal promotion expending. Ten popular prescription drugs are used in this research as examples. PMID:18826006

  4. Mate choice and host discrimination behavior of the parasitoid Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Lü, L; He, Y; Shi, Q; Tu, C; Gu, J

    2016-08-01

    Trichogramma chilonis Ishii (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an important natural enemy of many species of lepidopterous pests and a widely used biological control agent. Detailed knowledge about its mate choice and host discrimination behavior is lacking. In this study, we studied the mate choice and host discrimination behavior of T. chilonis in experimental arenas through video tracking. Males' mate recognition capacity was realized by perceiving the sex pheromone of females. When offered two females of different species, male could distinguish the conspecific female from Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), a species that has overlapping hosts with T. chilonis. When placed with two females of different mating status, male preferred mating with the virgin female to the mated female. T. chilonis females could distinguish unparasitized host eggs from parasitized ones (parasitized by conspecific females or heterospecific females). They preferred to stay on and lay eggs in unparasitized host eggs. When T. chilonis females were only provided with parasitized host eggs (parasitized by T. chilonis and T. bactrae females), conspecific superparasitism occurred more often than heterospecific superparasitism. Furthermore, the host egg discrimination ability of T. chilonis females was mainly achieved through antennal perception. PMID:27161158

  5. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  6. Choice Set” for health behavior in choice-constrained settings to frame research and inform policy: examples of food consumption, obesity and food security

    OpenAIRE

    Dover, Robert V. H.; Estelle V. Lambert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Using the nexus between food consumption, food security and obesity, this paper addresses the complexity of health behavior decision-making moments that reflect relational social dynamics in context-specific dialogues, often in choice-constrained conditions. Methods A pragmatic review of literature regarding social determinants of health in relation to food consumption, food security and obesity was used to advance this theoretical model. Results and discussion We suggest that heal...

  7. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks, fi

  8. A circuit motif in the zebrafish hindbrain for a two alternative behavioral choice to turn left or right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Minoru; Minale, Francesca; Shum, Jennifer; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Fetcho, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Animals collect sensory information from the world and make adaptive choices about how to respond to it. Here, we reveal a network motif in the brain for one of the most fundamental behavioral choices made by bilaterally symmetric animals: whether to respond to a sensory stimulus by moving to the left or to the right. We define network connectivity in the hindbrain important for the lateralized escape behavior of zebrafish and then test the role of neurons by using laser ablations and behavioral studies. Key inhibitory neurons in the circuit lie in a column of morphologically similar cells that is one of a series of such columns that form a developmental and functional ground plan for building hindbrain networks. Repetition within the columns of the network motif we defined may therefore lie at the foundation of other lateralized behavioral choices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16808.001 PMID:27502742

  9. Modeling anger and aggressive driving behavior in a dynamic choice-latent variable model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaf, Mazen; Abou-Zeid, Maya; Kaysi, Isam

    2015-02-01

    This paper develops a hybrid choice-latent variable model combined with a Hidden Markov model in order to analyze the causes of aggressive driving and forecast its manifestations accordingly. The model is grounded in the state-trait anger theory; it treats trait driving anger as a latent variable that is expressed as a function of individual characteristics, or as an agent effect, and state anger as a dynamic latent variable that evolves over time and affects driving behavior, and that is expressed as a function of trait anger, frustrating events, and contextual variables (e.g., geometric roadway features, flow conditions, etc.). This model may be used in order to test measures aimed at reducing aggressive driving behavior and improving road safety, and can be incorporated into micro-simulation packages to represent aggressive driving. The paper also presents an application of this model to data obtained from a driving simulator experiment performed at the American University of Beirut. The results derived from this application indicate that state anger at a specific time period is significantly affected by the occurrence of frustrating events, trait anger, and the anger experienced at the previous time period. The proposed model exhibited a better goodness of fit compared to a similar simple joint model where driving behavior and decisions are expressed as a function of the experienced events explicitly and not the dynamic latent variable.

  10. Location-type choice for face-to-face social activities and its effect on travel behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline van den Berg; Theo Arentze; Harry Timmermans

    2010-01-01

    Face-to-face social activities, such as joint activities with friends or visiting relatives, involve meeting with other persons at a certain time and location. This (social) spatial-choice behavior is critical for successful urban planning. Recently there has been a rapid emergence of research into social interactions in the field of urban planning and transport. This study contributes to our understanding of the relationships between face-to-face social interaction, location-type choice, and...

  11. Consumer Behavior: evaluation of alternatives and search for information in the choice of higher education courses in Computer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Fernanda Silva Kalil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer Science is basis of many web systems, and is also responsible for a growing number of jobs and wealth creation. The aim of this study was to understand the consumer behavior (undergraduate students decision making of Higher Education Institutions at the stages of information search and evaluation of alternatives. The sample consisted of 208 questionnaires collected through quantitative research. The Internet was the most used tool for the process of information search. In the evaluation of alternatives, the choice of course is related to professional factors, social elements, and personal convenience, and that the choice of Faculty is decided thought the evaluation of the value of the diploma in the market, brand reputation, quality of education, teachers and infrastructure. The article provides empirical evidence of consumer behavior, proposing an explanatory model about the choice of Higher Education Institutions and a hypothetical model the impact of student satisfaction in their behavioral intentions.

  12. Dissociable contribution of nucleus accumbens and dorsolateral striatum to the acquisition of risk choice behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jen-Hau; Liao, Ruey-Ming

    2015-12-01

    While a growing body of research has suggested that the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems play a key role in decision making under risk, how the nucleus accumbens (NAC) is involved in the acquisition of risk choice behavior remains unclear. This study used a T-maze task to assess risk-based decision making in which the rat was required to assess the risk by choosing to enter either a small and certain reward arm or a large but uncertain reward arm of the maze. The latter option, when chosen, resulted in provision of 2, 4, or 8 sweeten pellets with a probability (p) of 0.5, 0.25, or 0.125, respectively. Thus the latter arm provided three different conditions of reward ratio, compared to the choice of former arm, which always provided 1 pellet with p=1. This risk choice task was then run with the expected value being equality between the binary choice options. The experimental rats first received an excitoneurotoxic lesion affecting either the NAC or the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and this was followed by post-lesion behavioral examination. The sham lesion control rats acquired a stable risk choice with regard to each reward ratio over a 10-day test. The pattern of choice behavior appeared in risk-seeking when p=0.5 to obtain 2 pellets, and was risk-averse when larger reward resulted in lower p. The NAC lesion significantly disrupted the acquisition of the aforementioned risk choice behavior and apparently shifted the choice into a risk-averse style for all three reward ratios. No such effect was observed in the rats with DLS lesions. Neither the gross motor action nor the discrimination of different reward magnitudes was impaired by the lesions affecting either the NAC or DLS as assessed by an additional experiment. These findings suggest that firstly there is heterogeneity between NAC and DLS with respect to risk-based decision making, and that secondly the NAC is involved and critical to the acquisition of behavioral choice under risk, specially when the

  13. Fertility behavior and labor force participation: a model of lexicographic choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnacion, J J

    1982-01-01

    Evidence exists that a smaller family size is usually associated with female employment and that fertility rises with family income and the wife's education at relatively low levels of income and education. Only at higher levels is there the generally expected relationship that fertility declines with more education or income. Due to the fact that a woman's labor force participation and her fertility are aspects of behavior of the same person (or couple), they should be explained by a model of choice. Such a model is presented, and empirical evidence is cited. In particular, the model allows for a fertility decline even before a decline in mortality during the demographic transition. The model of choice involves threshold values of education and income, such that the marginal effects of these variables on fertility and labor supply are qualitatively different below and above the threshold. The model is in conformity with cross-section regressions using Philippine data and appears to explain why various studies give positive, zero, or negative regression coefficients relating fertility to education and income when standard linear regression specifications are used. Such results would depend on the proportions of families falling below and above the thresholds in the sample of observations. The model also implies that the fertility effects of a child mortality decline on those proportions, meaning that one could have lower mortality without affecting fertility levels. From a policy perspective, the broad implications of the model are distrubing. Development that raises very low income and education levels would increase fertility and so would a more egalitarian distribution of the same low aggregate income. It is necessary to shift the underlying functions so that the thresholds become as low as possible, but general economic development may be too slow for this purpose.

  14. Does Eye Tracking Reveal More About the Effects of Buying Impulsiveness on the Green Industry Consumer Choice Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Khachatryan, Hayk; Behe, Bridget K.; Campbell, Benjamin L.; Hall, Charles R.; Dennis, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Although consumer behavior research has investigated impulsive buying behavior since the early 1950s, no studies explored the relationship between eye gaze metrics, buying impulsiveness scores and purchase decisions. The present study is a preliminary approach to setting consumer purchase decisions as a function of not only product attributes, but also individuals’ buying impulsiveness and eye gaze measures, which were collected using an eye tracking device during choice experiments. Specific...

  15. A Comparison of within- and across-Activity Choices for Reducing Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Neely, Leslie; Camargo, Siglia; Hutchins, Nancy; Davenport, Katy; Goodwyn, Fara

    2013-01-01

    Offering children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) choices between activities (e.g., working on math or English), instructional materials (e.g., using a pen or pencil), or environmental arrangements (e.g., where to sit) has been shown to reduce challenging behavior maintained by escape from task demands. However, the majority of research…

  16. Modeling individual and collective opinion in online social networks: drivers of choice behavior and effects of marketing interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, S.E.; Langley, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate factors influencing choice behavior in online social networks. We use twitter data from a Dutch television talent show. In study one, we implement a nested conditional logit model with latent classes. We find heterogeneous effects. For two latent classes, cognitive factors most strong

  17. Willingness-to-pay estimation with choice-based conjoint analysis : Addressing extreme response behavior with individually adapted designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Hinz, O.; Skiera, B.; Theysohn, S.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing consideration of behavioral aspects in operations management models has prompted greater use of choice-based conjoint (CBC) studies in operations research. Such studies can elicit consumers' willingness to pay (WTP), a core input for many optimization models. However, optimization mod

  18. Joint modeling of constrained path enumeration and path choice behavior: a semi-compensatory approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    A behavioural and a modelling framework are proposed for representing route choice from a path set that satisfies travellers’ spatiotemporal constraints. Within the proposed framework, travellers’ master sets are constructed by path generation, consideration sets are delimited according...... to spatiotemporal constraints, and travellers’ route choices are represented from consideration sets. A semi-compensatory model represents the constrained path enumera-tion with joint hazard-based and ordered probit models, and the path choice with a path size correction logit. Results show that spatiotemporal...... constraints are related to travellers’ socio-economic characteristics and that path choice is related to minimizing time and avoiding congestion....

  19. Predictors of the consistency between healthy snack choice intention and actual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the factors that affect the intention¿behaviour consistency of healthy snack choices. Intended snack choice was assessed by asking participants (N = 538) to choose a snack on paper, out of 8 snacks (4 healthy, e.g. melon and gingerbread, and 4 unhealthy, e.g. crisps an

  20. Neural correlates of object-associated choice behavior in the perirhinal cortex of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Rong; Lee, Inah

    2015-01-28

    The perirhinal cortex (PRC) is reportedly important for object recognition memory, with supporting physiological evidence obtained largely from primate studies. Whether neurons in the rodent PRC also exhibit similar physiological correlates of object recognition, however, remains to be determined. We recorded single units from the PRC in a PRC-dependent, object-cued spatial choice task in which, when cued by an object image, the rat chose the associated spatial target from two identical discs appearing on a touchscreen monitor. The firing rates of PRC neurons were significantly modulated by critical events in the task, such as object sampling and choice response. Neuronal firing in the PRC was correlated primarily with the conjunctive relationships between an object and its associated choice response, although some neurons also responded to the choice response alone. However, we rarely observed a PRC neuron that represented a specific object exclusively regardless of spatial response in rats, although the neurons were influenced by the perceptual ambiguity of the object at the population level. Some PRC neurons fired maximally after a choice response, and this post-choice feedback signal significantly enhanced the neuronal specificity for the choice response in the subsequent trial. Our findings suggest that neurons in the rat PRC may not participate exclusively in object recognition memory but that their activity may be more dynamically modulated in conjunction with other variables, such as choice response and its outcomes.

  1. Complexity, public reporting, and choice of doctors: a look inside the blackest box of consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Mark; Kanouse, David E; Martino, Steven C; Shaller, Dale; Rybowski, Lise

    2014-10-01

    Health care consumers often make choices that are imperfectly informed and inconsistent with their expressed preferences. Past research suggests that these shortcomings become more pronounced as choices become more complex, through either additional options or more performance metrics. But it is unclear why this is true: Consumer choice remains a "black box" that research has scarcely illuminated. In this article, we identify four pathways through which complexity may impair consumer choice. We examine these pathways using data from an experiment in which consumers (hypothetically) selected a primary care physician. Some of the loss of decision quality accompanying more complex choice sets can be explained by consumers' skills and decision-making style, but even after accounting for these factors, complexity undermines the quality of decision making in ways that cannot be fully explained. We conclude by discussing implications for report designers, sponsors, and policy makers aspiring to promote consumer empowerment and health care quality.

  2. Female guppies agree to differ: phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior and the consequences for sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Endler, J A

    2001-08-01

    Variation among females in mate choice may influence evolution by sexual selection. The genetic basis of this variation is of interest because the elaboration of mating preferences requires additive genetic variation in these traits. Here we measure the repeatability and heritability of two components of female choosiness (responsiveness and discrimination) and of female preference functions for the multiple ornaments borne by male guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We show that there is significant repeatable variation in both components of choosiness and in some preference functions but not in others. There appear to be several male ornaments that females find uniformly attractive and others for which females differ in preference. One consequence is that there is no universally attractive male phenotype. Only responsiveness shows significant additive genetic variation. Variation in responsiveness appears to mask variation in discrimination and some preference functions and may be the most biologically relevant source of phenotypic and genetic variation in mate-choice behavior. To test the potential evolutionary importance of the phenotypic variation in mate choice that we report, we estimated the opportunity for and the intensity of sexual selection under models of mate choice that excluded and that incorporated individual female variation. We then compared these estimates with estimates based on measured mating success. Incorporating individual variation in mate choice generally did not predict the outcome of sexual selection any better than models that ignored such variation.

  3. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo;

    on individuals' environmental attitudes and values. Consumer involvement and environmental attitudes contribute significantly toward explaining sustainable choices, suggesting that greater consumer involvement may be targeted by policy makers and firms to more effectively nudge consumers toward green consumerism...

  4. Risk-taking path choice behaviors under ATIS in transportation networks with demand uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new travel time reliability-based traffic assignment model is proposed to investigate the effects of an advanced transportation information system (ATIS) on drivers' risk-taking path choice behaviours in transportation networks with demand uncertainty. In the model, drivers are divided into two classes. The first class is not equipped with ATIS, while the second class is equipped with ATIS. Different risk-taking path choice behaviours of the two classes are studied, respectively. A corresponding mixed equ...

  5. Response Inhibition of Cigarette-related Cues in Male Smokers: Behavioral Evidence from a Two-choice Oddball Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao eXin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/No-Go and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether smokers’ response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male smokers’ impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers, who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC and reaction time (RT for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues.

  6. Response inhibition of cigarette-related cues in male light smokers: behavioral evidence using a two-choice oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhao; Ting, Liu X; Yi, Zan X; Li, Dai; Bao, Zhou A

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibitory control has been shown to play an important role in a variety of addictive behaviors. A number of studies involving the use of Go/NoGo and stop-signal paradigms have shown that smokers have reduced response inhibition for cigarette-related cues. However, it is not known whether male light smokers' response inhibition for cigarette-related cues is lower than that of non-smokers in the two-choice oddball paradigm. The objective of the current study was to provide further behavioral evidence of male light smokers' impaired response inhibition for cigarette-related cues, using the two-choice oddball paradigm. Sixty-two male students (31 smokers, 31 non-smokers), who were recruited via an advertisement, took part in this two-choice oddball experiment. Cigarette-related pictures (deviant stimuli) and pictures unrelated to cigarettes (standard stimuli) were used. Response inhibition for cigarette-related cues was measured by comparing accuracy (ACC) and reaction time (RT) for deviant and standard stimuli in the two groups of subjects. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that in all the participants, ACC was significantly lower for deviant stimuli than for standard stimuli. For deviant stimuli, the RTs were significantly longer for male light smokers than for male non-smokers; however, there was no significant difference in RTs for standard stimuli. Compared to male non-smokers, male light smokers seem to have a reduced ability to inhibit responses to cigarette-related cues. PMID:26528200

  7. Human Aspects of Route Choice Behavior: Incorporating Perceptions, Learning Trends, Latent Classes, and Personality Traits in the Modeling of Driver Heterogeneity in Route Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Aly M.; Rakha, Hesham A.

    2012-01-01

    Driver heterogeneity in travel behavior has repeatedly been cited in the literature as a limitation that needs to be addressed. In this work, driver heterogeneity is addressed from four different perspectives. First, driver heterogeneity is addressed by models of driver perceptions of travel conditions: travel distance, time, and speed. Second, it is addressed from the perspective of driver learning trends and models of driver-types. Driver type is not commonly used in the vernacular of trans...

  8. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  9. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  10. Impulsive choice and response in dopamine agonist-related impulse control behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Reynolds, Brady; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Skaljic, Meliha; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Fernandez, Hubert; Potenza, Marc N; Dolan, Raymond J; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Dopaminergic medication-related Impulse Control Disorders (ICDs) such as pathological gambling and compulsive shopping have been reported in Parkinson disease (PD). Hypothesis We hypothesized that dopamine agonists (DAs) would be associated with greater impulsive choice, or greater discounting of delayed rewards, in PD patients with ICDs (PDI). Methods Fourteen PDI patients, 14 PD controls without ICDs and 16 medication-free matched normal controls were tested on (i) the Experiential Discounting Task (EDT), a feedback-based intertemporal choice task, (ii) spatial working memory and (iii) attentional set shifting. The EDT was used to assess impulsivity choice (hyperbolic K-value), reaction time (RT) and decision conflict RT (the RT difference between high conflict and low conflict choices). PDI patients and PD controls were tested on and off DA. Results On the EDT, there was a group by medication interaction effect [F(1,26)=5.62; p=0.03] with pairwise analyses demonstrating that DA status was associated with increased impulsive choice in PDI patients (p=0.02) but not in PD controls (p=0.37). PDI patients also had faster RT compared to PD controls F(1,26)=7.51 p=0.01]. DA status was associated with shorter RT [F(3,24)=8.39, p=0.001] and decision conflict RT [F(1,26)=6.16, p=0.02] in PDI patients but not in PD controls. There were no correlations between different measures of impulsivity. PDI patients on DA had greater spatial working memory impairments compared to PD controls on DA (t=2.13, df=26, p=0.04). Conclusion Greater impulsive choice, faster RT, faster decision conflict RT and executive dysfunction may contribute to ICDs in PD. PMID:19838863

  11. A discrete choice model with social interactions : an analysis of high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooreman, Peter; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2002-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete choice model that explicitly allows for endogenous social interactions. We analyze the issues of multiple equilibria, statistical coherency, and estimation of the model by means of simulation methods. In an empirical application, we analyze a data set containing info

  12. Phantom Behavioral Assimilation Effects : Systematic Biases in Social Comparison Choice Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Seaton, Marjorie; Kuyper, Hans; Dumas, Florence; Huguet, Pascal; Regner, Isabelle; Buunk, Abraham P.; Monteil, Jean-Marc; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with social comparison theory (SCT), Blanton, Buunk, Gibbons, and Kuyper (1999) and Huguet, Dumas, Monteil, and Genestoux (2001) found that students tended to choose comparison targets who slightly outperformed them (i.e., upward comparison choices), and this had a beneficial effect on su

  13. A discrete choice model with social interactions; with an application to high school teen behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Soetevent; P. Kooreman

    2007-01-01

    We develop an empirical discrete-choice interaction model with a finite number of agents. We characterize its equilibrium properties - in particular the correspondence between interaction strength, number of agents, and the set of equilibria - and propose to estimate the model by means of simulation

  14. Adenylyl cyclase-5 in the dorsal striatum function as a molecular switch for the generation of behavioral preferences for cue-directed food choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; KIM, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral choices in habits and innate behaviors occur automatically in the absence of conscious selection. These behaviors are not easily modified by learning. Similar types of behaviors also occur in various mental illnesses including drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms regulating unconditioned preferred behaviors in food...

  15. Intra-accumbens injections of the adenosine A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 affect effort-related choice behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Stopper, Colin M.; WORDEN, LILA T.; Mingote, Susana; Port, Russell G.; Salamone, John D.; Font Hurtado, Laura; Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired accumbens DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-reinforced activities that have high response requirements, and instead select less-effortful types of food-seeking behavior. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating eff...

  16. Changing how I feel about the food: experimentally manipulated affective associations with fruits change fruit choice behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Erin M; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2014-04-01

    Fewer than half of Americans meet current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake. The behavioral affective associations model posits that feelings and emotions associated with a behavior are a proximal influence on decision making. Cross-sectional evidence supports the model and suggests that affective associations predict fruit and vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to test whether a causal relation exists between affective associations about fruits and future fruit consumption behavior, as measured by a snack selection task. Following a baseline assessment of cognitive and affective variables, participants' (N = 161) affective associations about fruits were experimentally manipulated with an implicit priming paradigm. Images of fruits were repeatedly paired with positive, negative, or neutral affective stimuli. The key outcome measure was a behavioral choice task in which participants chose between fruit and a granola bar. Participants in the positive prime condition were three times more likely than those in the negative condition to select a piece of fruit over the granola bar alternative in the snack selection task. They were also twice as likely as those in the neutral condition to select fruit. There were no changes in self-reported affective associations or cognitive beliefs. These findings provide further evidence of the implicit and direct influence of affective associations on behavior, suggesting the need to both incorporate the role of affect in health decision making models, as well as the potential utility of intervention strategies targeting affective associations with health-related behaviors. PMID:23299831

  17. Behavioral modeling of human choices reveals dissociable effects of physical effort and temporal delay on reward devaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam C; Kennerley, Steven W; Saraiva, Ana C; Penny, Will D; Bestmann, Sven

    2015-03-01

    There has been considerable interest from the fields of biology, economics, psychology, and ecology about how decision costs decrease the value of rewarding outcomes. For example, formal descriptions of how reward value changes with increasing temporal delays allow for quantifying individual decision preferences, as in animal species populating different habitats, or normal and clinical human populations. Strikingly, it remains largely unclear how humans evaluate rewards when these are tied to energetic costs, despite the surge of interest in the neural basis of effort-guided decision-making and the prevalence of disorders showing a diminished willingness to exert effort (e.g., depression). One common assumption is that effort discounts reward in a similar way to delay. Here we challenge this assumption by formally comparing competing hypotheses about effort and delay discounting. We used a design specifically optimized to compare discounting behavior for both effort and delay over a wide range of decision costs (Experiment 1). We then additionally characterized the profile of effort discounting free of model assumptions (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous reports, in both experiments effort costs devalued reward in a manner opposite to delay, with small devaluations for lower efforts, and progressively larger devaluations for higher effort-levels (concave shape). Bayesian model comparison confirmed that delay-choices were best predicted by a hyperbolic model, with the largest reward devaluations occurring at shorter delays. In contrast, an altogether different relationship was observed for effort-choices, which were best described by a model of inverse sigmoidal shape that is initially concave. Our results provide a novel characterization of human effort discounting behavior and its first dissociation from delay discounting. This enables accurate modelling of cost-benefit decisions, a prerequisite for the investigation of the neural underpinnings of effort

  18. Calorie labeling and fast food choices in surveys and actual markets: some new behavioral results

    OpenAIRE

    Maria L Loureiro; Rahmani, Djamal

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey and a randomized natural experiment with the same subjects to investigate the effect of information about calorie intake on fast food choices. This combined approach allows us to maximize both internal and external research validity and test consistency of findings. We find that providing information about calories in a survey context for fast food menus has a moderate effect on calorie consumption, decreasing on average by 2.96 percent the amount of calories of the sele...

  19. Effect of Sex-Roles and Type A Behavior on Children's Friendship Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.

    This cross-sectional study attempted to (1) demonstrate that children's sex role orientation is related to their tendency for Type A behavior and (2) ascertain whether children expressing Type A behavior would experience difficulty in making and keeping friends. Participants were 286 kindergarten children and elementary school students in the…

  20. Reproductive fitness and dietary choice behavior of the genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans under semi-natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyth, Katharina; Janowitz, Tim; Nunes, Frank; Voss, Melanie; Heinick, Alexander; Bertaux, Joanne; Scheu, Stefan; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2010-10-01

    Laboratory breeding conditions of the model organism C. elegans do not correspond with the conditions in its natural soil habitat. To assess the consequences of the differences in environmental conditions, the effects of air composition, medium and bacterial food on reproductive fitness and/or dietary-choice behavior of C. elegans were investigated. The reproductive fitness of C. elegans was maximal under oxygen deficiency and not influenced by a high fractional share of carbon dioxide. In media approximating natural soil structure, reproductive fitness was much lower than in standard laboratory media. In seminatural media, the reproductive fitness of C. elegans was low with the standard laboratory food bacterium E. coli (γ-Proteobacteria), but significantly higher with C. arvensicola (Bacteroidetes) and B. tropica (β-Proteobacteria) as food. Dietary-choice experiments in semi-natural media revealed a low preference of C. elegans for E. coli but significantly higher preferences for C. arvensicola and B. tropica (among other bacteria). Dietary-choice experiments under quasi-natural conditions, which were feasible by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of bacteria, showed a high preference of C. elegans for Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and β-Proteobacteria, but a low preference for γ-Proteobacteria. The results show that data on C. elegans under standard laboratory conditions have to be carefully interpreted with respect to their biological significance.

  1. Attitudes and Acceptability of Behavior Change Techniques to Promote Healthy Food Choices Among Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    modeling. Respondents were positive toward less intrusive interventions, but they had negative attitudes toward interventions targeting their self-image. Self-reported level of vegetable intake, healthy food habits, and eco-consciousness had the strongest positive association. Respondents considered......This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equation...

  2. How urban environment affects travel behavior? Integrated Choice and Latent Variable Model for Travel Schedules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Paix, Lissy; Bierlaire, Michel; Cherchi, Elisabetta;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between urban environment and travel behaviour is not a new problem. Neighbourhood characteristics may affect mobility of dwellers in different ways, such as frequency of trips, mode used, structure of the tours, and so on. At the same time, qualitative issues related...... in Madrid. A total of 943 individuals were interviewed in three different neighbourhoods. The results show that neighbourhood attributes have indeed a significant impact on the choice of the type of tours either directly and through the propensity to travel. The propensity to travel has a different impact...

  3. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. PMID:23428940

  4. Ongoing behavioral state information signaled in the lateral habenula guides choice flexibility in freely moving rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Michael Baker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays a role in a wide variety of behaviors ranging from maternal care, to sleep, to various forms of cognition. One prominent theory with ample supporting evidence is that the LHb serves to relay basal ganglia and limbic signals about negative outcomes to midbrain monoaminergic systems. This makes it likely that the LHb is critically involved in behavioral flexibility as all of these systems have been shown to contribute when flexible behavior is required. Behavioral flexibility is commonly examined across species and is impaired in various neuropsychiatric conditions including autism, depression, addiction, and schizophrenia; conditions in which the LHb is thought to play a role. Therefore, a thorough examination of the role of the LHb in behavioral flexibility serves multiple functions including understanding possible connections with neuropsychiatric illnesses and additional insight into its role in cognition in general. Here we assess the LHb’s role in behavioral flexibility through comparisons of the roles its afferent and efferent pathways are known to play. Additionally, we provide new evidence supporting the LHb contributions to behavioral flexibility through organization of specific goal directed actions under cognitively demanding conditions. Specifically, in the first experiment, a majority of neurons recorded from the LHb were found to correlate with velocity on a spatial navigation task and did not change significantly when reward outcomes were manipulated. Additionally, measurements of local field potential in the theta band revealed significant changes in power relative to velocity and reward location. In a second set of experiments, inactivation of the LHb with the GABA agonists baclofen and muscimol led to an impairment in a spatial/response based repeated probabilistic reversal learning task. Control experiments revealed that this impairment was likely due to the demands of repeated switching

  5. Feeding State Modulates Behavioral Choice and Processing of Prey Stimuli in the Zebrafish Tectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosa, Alessandro; Barker, Alison J; Dal Maschio, Marco; Baier, Herwig

    2016-05-01

    Animals use the sense of vision to scan their environment, respond to threats, and locate food sources. The neural computations underlying the selection of a particular behavior, such as escape or approach, require flexibility to balance potential costs and benefits for survival. For example, avoiding novel visual objects reduces predation risk but negatively affects foraging success. Zebrafish larvae approach small, moving objects ("prey") and avoid large, looming objects ("predators"). We found that this binary classification of objects by size is strongly influenced by feeding state. Hunger shifts behavioral decisions from avoidance to approach and recruits additional prey-responsive neurons in the tectum, the main visual processing center. Both behavior and tectal function are modulated by signals from the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis and the serotonergic system. Our study has revealed a neuroendocrine mechanism that modulates the perception of food and the willingness to take risks in foraging decisions. PMID:27146269

  6. "Gaze Leading": Initiating Simulated Joint Attention Influences Eye Movements and Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Andrew P.; Murphy, Emily; Naughtin, Claire K.; Kritikos, Ada; Schilbach, Leonhard; Becker, Stefanie I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in adults has made great use of the gaze cuing paradigm to understand the behavior of the follower in joint attention episodes. We implemented a gaze leading task to investigate the initiator--the other person in these triadic interactions. In a series of gaze-contingent eye-tracking studies, we show that fixation dwell time upon…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Parking Pricing on Transportation Mode Choice and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wei-Shiuen

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of parking pricing on travel demand and behavior, using the University of California (UC), Berkeley campus as a study site. Parking pricing is often implemented to recover costs or to serve as a source of revenue for cities or private parking operators. However, parking pricing can also be an effective transportation demand management tool. Parking price can be set at market rates or can be set to meet other objectives, such as reducing emissions or tr...

  8. The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior: Experimental Evidence from Children's Intertemporal Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, Matthias; Angerer, Silvia; Rützler, Daniela; Lergetporer, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    According to Chen's (2013) linguistic-savings hypothesis, languages which grammatically separate the future and the present (like English or Italian) induce less future-oriented behavior than languages in which speakers can refer to the future by using present tense (like German). We complement Chen's approach with experimentally elicited time preference data from a bilingual city in Northern Italy. We find that German-speaking primary school children are about 46% more likely than Italian-sp...

  9. Attitudes and Acceptability of Behavior Change Techniques to Promote Healthy Food Choices Among Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise;

    2016-01-01

    modeling. Respondents were positive toward less intrusive interventions, but they had negative attitudes toward interventions targeting their self-image. Self-reported level of vegetable intake, healthy food habits, and eco-consciousness had the strongest positive association. Respondents considered...... it to be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....

  10. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  11. Interface Psychology: Touchscreens Change Attribute Importance, Decision Criteria, and Behavior in Online Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam; Gips, James

    2015-09-01

    As the rise of tablets and smartphones move the dominant interface for digital content from mouse or trackpad to direct touchscreen interaction, work is needed to explore the role of interfaces in shaping psychological reactions to online content. This research explores the role of direct-touch interfaces in product search and choice, and isolates the touch element from other form factor changes such as screen size. Results from an experimental study using a travel recommendation Web site show that a direct-touch interface (vs. a more traditional mouse interface) increases the number of alternatives searched, and biases evaluations toward tangible attributes such as décor and furniture over intangible attributes such as WiFi and employee demeanor. Direct-touch interfaces also elevate the importance of internal and subjective satisfaction metrics such as instinct over external and objective metrics such as reviews, which in turn increases anticipated satisfaction metrics. Findings suggest that interfaces can strongly affect how online content is explored, perceived, remembered, and acted on, and further work in interface psychology could be as fruitful as research exploring the content itself. PMID:26348814

  12. Emotional effects on university choice behavior: The influence of experienced narrators and their characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. eCallejas-Albiñana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students’ ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too.

  13. Deciding not to decide: computational and neural evidence for hidden behavior in sequential choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Rieskamp, Jörg; Büchel, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the cognitive and neural processes that underlie human decision making requires the successful prediction of how, but also of when, people choose. Sequential sampling models (SSMs) have greatly advanced the decision sciences by assuming decisions to emerge from a bounded evidence accumulation process so that response times (RTs) become predictable. Here, we demonstrate a difficulty of SSMs that occurs when people are not forced to respond at once but are allowed to sample information sequentially: The decision maker might decide to delay the choice and terminate the accumulation process temporarily, a scenario not accounted for by the standard SSM approach. We developed several SSMs for predicting RTs from two independent samples of an electroencephalography (EEG) and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. In these studies, participants bought or rejected fictitious stocks based on sequentially presented cues and were free to respond at any time. Standard SSM implementations did not describe RT distributions adequately. However, by adding a mechanism for postponing decisions to the model we obtained an accurate fit to the data. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data revealed alternating states of de- and increasing oscillatory power in beta-band frequencies (14-30 Hz), indicating that responses were repeatedly prepared and inhibited and thus lending further support for the existence of a decision not to decide. Finally, the extended model accounted for the results of an adapted version of our paradigm in which participants had to press a button for sampling more information. Our results show how computational modeling of decisions and RTs support a deeper understanding of the hidden dynamics in cognition.

  14. Deciding not to decide: computational and neural evidence for hidden behavior in sequential choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gluth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cognitive and neural processes that underlie human decision making requires the successful prediction of how, but also of when, people choose. Sequential sampling models (SSMs have greatly advanced the decision sciences by assuming decisions to emerge from a bounded evidence accumulation process so that response times (RTs become predictable. Here, we demonstrate a difficulty of SSMs that occurs when people are not forced to respond at once but are allowed to sample information sequentially: The decision maker might decide to delay the choice and terminate the accumulation process temporarily, a scenario not accounted for by the standard SSM approach. We developed several SSMs for predicting RTs from two independent samples of an electroencephalography (EEG and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study. In these studies, participants bought or rejected fictitious stocks based on sequentially presented cues and were free to respond at any time. Standard SSM implementations did not describe RT distributions adequately. However, by adding a mechanism for postponing decisions to the model we obtained an accurate fit to the data. Time-frequency analysis of EEG data revealed alternating states of de- and increasing oscillatory power in beta-band frequencies (14-30 Hz, indicating that responses were repeatedly prepared and inhibited and thus lending further support for the existence of a decision not to decide. Finally, the extended model accounted for the results of an adapted version of our paradigm in which participants had to press a button for sampling more information. Our results show how computational modeling of decisions and RTs support a deeper understanding of the hidden dynamics in cognition.

  15. Mate choice and optimal search behavior: fitness returns under the fixed sample and sequential search strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Daniel D; Seubert, Steven M; Wade, Gordon A

    2010-02-21

    The behavior of a female in search of a mate determines the likelihood that she encounters a high-quality male in the search process. The fixed sample (best-of-n) search strategy and the sequential search (fixed threshold) strategy are two prominent models of search behavior. The sequential search strategy dominates the former strategy--yields an equal or higher expected net fitness return to searchers--when search costs are nontrivial and the distribution of quality among prospective mates is uniform or truncated normal. In this paper our objective is to determine whether there are any search costs or distributions of male quality for which the sequential search strategy is inferior to the fixed sample search strategy. The two search strategies are derived under general conditions in which females evaluate encountered males by inspection of an indicator character that has some functional relationship to male quality. The solutions are identical to the original models when the inspected male attribute is itself male quality. The sequential search strategy is shown to dominate the fixed sample search strategy for all search costs and distributions of male quality. Low search costs have been implicated to explain empirical observations that are consistent with the use of a fixed sample search strategy, but under conditions in which the original models were derived there is no search cost or distribution of male quality that favors the fixed sample search strategy. Plausible alternative explanations for the apparent use of this search strategy are discussed.

  16. Caste and Choice: The Influence of Developmental Idealism on Marriage Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera; Thornton, Arland

    2015-07-01

    Is the marriage behavior of young people determined by their socioeconomic characteristics or their endorsement of developmental idealism? This article addresses this question using a unique longitudinal data set from Nepal and provides the first individual-level test of developmental idealism theory. The authors find that unmarried individuals with greater endorsement of developmental idealism in 2008 were more likely by 2012 to choose their own spouse, including a spouse of a different caste, rather than have an arranged marriage. Those with salaried work experience were also less likely to have arranged marriages, but urban proximity and education were not significant. The authors conclude that both developmental idealism and socioeconomic characteristics influence marriage and that their influences are largely independent. PMID:26430712

  17. PREDICTING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR THE CHOICE OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS BY LOGIT REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma KARABAŞ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine consumer behavior towards organic products in Samsun city center and to determine the factors affacting their preferences of organic products. The study was interviewed with 478 consumers living the city center of Samsun. According of the findings, ease of accesibility of organic products, spouse’s educational level, paying extra for the organic produce, aware of food health benefits, considering the harmful effects of conventional produce, having complete knowledge of organic farming and one unit increase household number income to result increase consumption of organic produce. Consumers were not aware of the certification and control process. As a result, easy of accesibility of organic produces in the supermarkets need to be improved.

  18. Estimating Value of Congestion and of Reliability from Observation of Route Choice Behavior of Car Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a consensus has been reached about the relevance of calculating the value of congestion and the value of reliability for better understanding and therefore better prediction of travel behavior. The current study proposed a revealed preference approach that used a large amount...... both congestion and reliability terms. Results illustrated that the value of time and the value of congestion were significantly higher in the peak period because of possible higher penalties for drivers being late and consequently possible higher time pressure. Moreover, results showed...... that the marginal rate of substitution between travel time reliability and total travel time did not vary across periods and traffic conditions, with the obvious caveat that the absolute values were significantly higher for the peak period. Last, results showed the immense potential of exploiting the growing...

  19. Peer relationships of young children: affiliative choices and the shaping of aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J; Horsch, E; Childs, J

    1997-06-01

    Examined the occurrence of selective peer affiliation, and its impact on the development of aggressive behavior in four classrooms serving 72 preschool-age, high-risk boys and girls. Children classified as aggressive and nonaggressive were both highly selective in their peer affiliations, spending the majority of their time with a few same-sex classmates. Children generally established strong, stable, mutual affiliations with peers similar to themselves in aggression, but aggressive children had more difficulty establishing such affiliations. The interaction of peer dyads containing at least one aggressive child were characterized by more frequent, lengthy, and intense conflicts regardless of the affiliative relationship characterizing the dyad. The amount of time children spent interacting with aggressive peers predicted changes in observed and teacher-rated aggressiveness 3 months later. PMID:9169375

  20. Caste and Choice: The Influence of Developmental Idealism on Marriage Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera; Thornton, Arland

    2015-07-01

    Is the marriage behavior of young people determined by their socioeconomic characteristics or their endorsement of developmental idealism? This article addresses this question using a unique longitudinal data set from Nepal and provides the first individual-level test of developmental idealism theory. The authors find that unmarried individuals with greater endorsement of developmental idealism in 2008 were more likely by 2012 to choose their own spouse, including a spouse of a different caste, rather than have an arranged marriage. Those with salaried work experience were also less likely to have arranged marriages, but urban proximity and education were not significant. The authors conclude that both developmental idealism and socioeconomic characteristics influence marriage and that their influences are largely independent.

  1. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  2. Three-Year Improvements in Weight Status and Weight-Related Behaviors in Middle School Students: The Healthy Choices Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E Peterson

    Full Text Available Few dissemination evaluations exist to document the effectiveness of evidence-based childhood obesity interventions outside the research setting.Evaluate Healthy Choices (HC, a multi-component obesity prevention program, by examining school-level changes in weight-related behaviors and weight status and the association of implementation components with odds of overweight/obesity.We compared baseline and Year 3 school-level behavioral and weight status outcomes with paired t-tests adjusted for schools' socio-demographic characteristics. We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of overweight/obesity associated with program components.Consecutive sample of 45 of 51 middle schools participating in the HC program with complete baseline and follow-up survey data including a subsample of 35 schools with measured anthropomentry for 5,665 7th grade students.Schools developed a multi-disciplinary team and implemented an obesity prevention curriculum, before and after school activities, environmental and policy changes and health promotions targeting a 5-2-1 theme: eat ≥ 5 servings/day of fruits and vegetables (FV, watch ≤ 2 hours of television (TV and participate in ≥ 1 hours/day of physical activity (PA on most days.1 School-level percent of students achieving targeted behaviors and percent overweight/obese; and 2 individual odds of overweight/obesity.The percent achieving behavioral goals over three years increased significantly for FV: 16.4 to 19.4 (p = 0.001, TV: 53.4 to 58.2 (p = 0.003 and PA: 37.1 to 39.9 (p = 0.02, adjusting for school size, baseline mean age and percent female, non-Hispanic White, and eligible for free and reduced price lunch. In 35 schools with anthropometry, the percent of overweight/obese 7th grade students decreased from 42.1 to 38.4 (p = 0.016. Having a team that met the HC definition was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.83, CI: 0.71-0.98.The HC multi-component intervention

  3. Make Better Choices (MBC): Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Malaina; Kozak Andrea T; Vaughn Jocelyn; McFadden HG; Schneider Kristin; Spring Bonnie; Moller Arlen C; Epstein Leonard; Russell Stephanie W; DeMott Andrew; Hedeker Donald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to deter...

  4. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  5. On Freedom and Responsibility in Moral Behavior Choice%论道德行为选择中的自由与责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红梅

    2015-01-01

    Under the impact of economic integration and diversified values in the contemporary world ,a variety of moral values permeate all aspects of social life .This paper focuses on freedom and responsibility in ethical behavior choice and analyzes subjective factors that affect moral subject’s free choice and reality factors that affect moral subject’s objective choice .We should strengthen institutional guarantee for ethical behavior and practice the socialist core values ,improve people's ability to choose ethical behavior ,and further defuse conflict between freedom and responsibility in moral behavior choice .%在当代世界经济一体化,价值多元化的冲击下,各种各样的道德观念渗透到社会生活的各个层面。本文以道德行为选择中的自由与责任为重点,浅析影响道德主体进行自由选择的主体因素及客观选择的现实因素,加强道德行为选择的制度保障和在道德实践中践行社会主义核心价值观,提高人们的道德行为选择能力,进一步化解道德行为选择中自由与责任的冲突。

  6. Offshoring in the service sector : An empirical investigation on the offshoring behavior of service firms and its influence on their foreign entry mode choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, van D.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the offshoring behavior of service firms. It provides a decision-making model for service firms regarding their choice for captive offshoring or offshore outsourcing when relocating their activities to foreign locations. Service firms are taken as the focus of this study bec

  7. Report of an EU-US symposium on understanding nutrition-related consumer behavior: strategies to promote a lifetime of healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Karl E; Rowe, Sylvia; Bellows, Laura L; Johnson, Susan L; Hetherington, Marion M; de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle; Lammens, Veerle; Hubbard, Van S

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes an EU-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research symposium on healthy food choices and nutrition-related purchasing behaviors. This meeting was unique in its transdisciplinary approach to obesity and in bringing together scientists from academia, government, and industry. Discussion relevant to funders and researchers centered on (1) increased use of public-private partnerships, (2) the complexity of food behaviors and obesity risk and multilevel aspects that must be considered, and (3) the importance of transatlantic cooperation and collaboration that could accelerate advances in this field. A call to action stressed these points along with a commitment to enhanced communication strategies.

  8. Factors associated with choice of a low-fat or low-carbohydrate diet during a behavioral weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVay, Megan A; Voils, Corrine I; Coffman, Cynthia J; Geiselman, Paula J; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Mayer, Stephanie B; Smith, Valerie A; Gaillard, Leslie; Turner, Marsha J; Yancy, William S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals undertaking a weight loss effort have a choice among proven dietary approaches. Factors contributing to choice of either a low-fat/low-calorie diet or a low-carbohydrate diet, two of the most studied and popular dietary approaches, are unknown. The current study used data from participants randomized to the 'choice' arm of a trial examining whether being able to choose a diet regimen yields higher weight loss than being randomly assigned to a diet. At study entry, participants attended a group session during which they were provided tailored feedback indicating which diet was most consistent with their food preferences using the Geiselman Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), information about both diets, and example meals for each diet. One week later, they indicated which diet they chose to follow during the 48-week study, with the option of switching diets after 12 weeks. Of 105 choice arm participants, 44 (42%) chose the low-fat/low-calorie diet and 61 (58%) chose the low-carbohydrate diet. In bivariate analyses, diet choice was not associated with age, race, sex, education, BMI, or diabetes (all p > 0.05). Low-carbohydrate diet choice was associated with baseline higher percent fat intake (p = 0.007), lower percent carbohydrate intake (p = 0.02), and food preferences consistent with a low-carbohydrate diet according to FPQ (p diet preference was associated with diet choice (p = 0.001). Reported reasons for diet choice were generally similar for those choosing either diet; however, concerns about negative health effects of the unselected diet was rated as more influential among participants selecting the low-fat diet. Only three low-carbohydrate and two low-fat diet participants switched diets at 12 weeks. Results suggest that when provided a choice between two popular weight loss dietary approaches, an individual's selection is likely influenced by baseline dietary intake pattern, and especially by his or her dietary preferences

  9. Make Better Choices (MBC: Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Malaina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suboptimal diet and physical inactivity are prevalent, co-occurring chronic disease risk factors, yet little is known about how to maximize multiple risk behavior change. Make Better Choices, a randomized controlled trial, tests competing hypotheses about the optimal way to promote healthy change in four bundled risk behaviors: high saturated fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary leisure screen time. The study aim is to determine which combination of two behavior change goals - one dietary, one activity - yields greatest overall healthy lifestyle change. Methods/Design Adults (n = 200 with poor quality diet and sedentary lifestyle will be recruited and screened for study eligibility. Participants will be trained to record their diet and activities onto a personal data assistant, and use it to complete two weeks of baseline. Those who continue to show all four risk behaviors after baseline recording will be randomized to one of four behavior change prescriptions: 1 increase fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity, 2 decrease saturated fat and increase physical activity, 3 increase fruits and vegetable and decrease saturated fat, or 4 decrease saturated fat and decrease sedentary activity. They will use decision support feedback on the personal digital assistant and receive counseling from a coach to alter their diet and activity during a 3-week prescription period when payment is contingent upon meeting behavior change goals. They will continue recording on an intermittent schedule during a 4.5-month maintenance period when payment is not contingent upon goal attainment. The primary outcome is overall healthy lifestyle change, aggregated across all four risk behaviors. Discussion The Make Better Choices trial tests a disseminable lifestyle intervention supported by handheld technology. Findings will fill a gap in knowledge about optimal goal prescription to

  10. Making Good Choices: How Autonomy Support Influences the Behavior Change and Motivation of Troubled and Troubling Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Autonomy is a basic human need having influence on motivation. Facilitating student autonomy is an essential ingredient of effective programs for maximizing internalized change and increasing motivation in troubled and troubling youth. This article examines the theoretical concepts of autonomy and control related to choices and considers their…

  11. The Decimal Effect: Behavioral and Neural Bases for a Novel Influence on Intertemporal Choice in Healthy Individuals and in ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Fassbender, C; Houde, S.; Silver-Balbus, S.; Ballard, K.; Kim, B.; Rutledge, K.J.; Dixon, J F; Iosif, A.M.; Schweitzer, J B; McClure, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    We identify a novel contextual variable that alters the evaluation of delayed rewards in healthy subjects and those diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When intertemporal choices are constructed of monetary outcomes with rounded values (e.g., $25.00), discount rates are greater than when the rewards have nonzero decimal values (e.g., $25.12). This finding is well explained within a dual system framework for temporal discounting in which preferences are constructed ...

  12. Food Selectivity, Mealtime Behavior Problems, Spousal Stress, and Family Food Choices in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, C.; Hubbard, K.; Anderson, S. E.; Mick, E.; Must, A.; Bandini, L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mealtime behavior problems and family stress occur frequently among families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unknown whether food selectivity is an associated factor. The associations of high food selectivity with mealtime behavior problems, spousal stress, and influence on family members were assessed among 53…

  13. Effects of affective arousal on choice behavior, reward prediction errors, and feedback-related negativities in human reward-based decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Hsiang eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emotional experience has a pervasive impact on choice behavior, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Introducing facial-expression primes into a probabilistic learning task, we investigated how affective arousal regulates reward-related choice based on behavioral, model fitting, and feedback-related negativity (FRN data. Sixty-six paid subjects were randomly assigned to the Neutral-Neutral (NN, Angry-Neutral (AN, and Happy-Neutral (HN groups. A total of 960 trials were conducted. Subjects in each group were randomly exposed to half trials of the pre-determined emotional faces and another half of the neutral faces before choosing between two cards drawn from two decks with different assigned reward probabilities. Trial-by-trial data were fit with a standard reinforcement learning model using the Bayesian estimation approach. The temporal dynamics of brain activity were simultaneously recorded and analyzed using event-related potentials. Our analyses revealed that subjects in the NN group gained more reward values than those in the other two groups; they also exhibited comparatively differential estimated model-parameter values for reward prediction errors. Computing the difference wave of FRNs in reward versus non-reward trials, compared to the NN group, we found that subjects in the AN and HN groups had larger General FRNs (i.e., FRNs in no-reward trials minus FRNs in reward trials and Expected FRNs (i.e., FRNs in expected reward-omission trials minus FRNs in expected reward-delivery trials, indicating an interruption in predicting reward. Further, both AN and HN groups appeared to be more sensitive to negative outcomes than the NN group. Collectively, our study suggests that affective arousal negatively regulates reward-related choice, probably through overweighting with negative feedback.

  14. A discrete choice modeling framework for pedestrian walking behavior with application to human tracking in video sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini, Gianluca

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have triggered important research activities in the context of behavioral dynamics. Several new models and simulators for driving and travel behaviors, along with new integrated systems to manage various elements of ITS, have been proposed in the past decades. In this context, less attention has been given to pedestrian modeling and simulation. In 2001, the first international conference on Pedestrian and Evacuation Dynamics took place in Duisburg, Ger...

  15. Identifying context-specific gene profiles of social, reproductive, and mate preference behavior in a fish species with female mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Mary E; Maginnis, Tara L; Wong, Ryan Y; Brock, Chad; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-01-01

    Sensory and social inputs interact with underlying gene suites to coordinate social behavior. Here we use a naturally complex system in sexual selection studies, the swordtail, to explore how genes associated with mate preference, receptivity, and social affiliation interact in the female brain under specific social conditions. We focused on 11 genes associated with mate preference in this species (neuroserpin, neuroligin-3, NMDA receptor, tPA, stathmin-2, β-1 adrenergic receptor) or with female sociosexual behaviors in other taxa (vasotocin, isotocin, brain aromatase, α-1 adrenergic receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase). We exposed females to four social conditions, including pairings of differing mate choice complexity (large males, large/small males, small males), and a social control (two females). Female mate preference differed significantly by context. Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) of behaviors revealed a primary axis (explaining 50.2% between-group variance) highlighting differences between groups eliciting high preference behaviors (LL, LS) vs. other contexts, and a secondary axis capturing general measures distinguishing a non-favored group (SS) from other groups. Gene expression MDA revealed a major axis (68.4% between-group variance) that distinguished amongst differential male pairings and was driven by suites of "preference and receptivity genes"; whereas a second axis, distinguishing high affiliation groups (large males, females) from low (small males), was characterized by traditional affiliative-associated genes (isotocin, vasotocin). We found context-specific correlations between behavior and gene MDA, suggesting gene suites covary with behaviors in a socially relevant context. Distinct associations between "affiliative" and "preference" axes suggest mate preference may be mediated by distinct clusters from those of social affiliation. Our results highlight the need to incorporate natural complexity of mating systems into behavioral genomics.

  16. Adolescents Who Visit the Emergency Department Are More Likely to Make Unhealthy Dietary Choices: An Opportunity for Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Iris; Rosenthal, Lisa; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-08-01

    To identify health behaviors that may be amenable to brief screening and intervention among children in the emergency department (ED), we described the prevalence of health behaviors known to contribute to childhood obesity among middle school students who used the ED recently. Participants included 1590 5th, 7th, and 8th grade students who completed health surveys in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between health behaviors and ED use. Children who used the ED reported more unhealthy dietary behaviors, including greater consumption of energy-dense foods such as fried chicken, french fries, and ice cream (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.37), fast food (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35). There was no association with fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, or screen time. Unhealthy dietary behaviors are associated with ED use in a low-resource urban population of middle school students. PMID:26320906

  17. A Probit Model of Choice Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Purushottam Papatla; Lakshman Krishnamurthi

    1992-01-01

    There are many products which are repeatedly purchased by consumers. In such cases it is likely that choice history, that is the sequence of choices made in the past, as well as marketing variables affect subsequent choice decisions. Attempts to model the effects of choice history have been generally based on the inclusion of variables that represent brand loyalty and/or variety seeking behavior. In this paper we present a model of dynamic choice behavior which is more general and incorporate...

  18. A Study of Business Student Choice to Study Abroad: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Adrien; Damron-Martinez, Datha; Zhang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Study abroad experiences are becoming increasingly common with business students. In this study, we build upon previous research into the motivations of students to study abroad by using Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior as a theoretical basis for identifying the factors which might influence their intention to study abroad. A survey administered…

  19. Incorporating Perceptions, Learning Trends, Latent Classes, and Personality Traits in the Modeling of Driver Heterogeneity in Route Choice Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Aly M.

    2012-01-01

    Driver heterogeneity in travel behavior has repeatedly been cited in the literature as a limitation that needs to be addressed. In this work, driver heterogeneity is addressed from four different perspectives. First, driver heterogeneity is addressed by models of driver perceptions of travel conditions: travel distance, time, and speed. Second, it is addressed from the perspective of driver learning trends and models of driver-types. Driver type is not commonly used in the vernacular of trans...

  20. The procrastinators want it now: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence of the procrastination of intertemporal choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Gui, Danyang; Lin, Wenzheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhu, Xiangru; Liu, Xun

    2016-08-01

    Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing. The participants were assigned to a high procrastination group and a low procrastination group according to their scores on self-report measures. We found that high procrastination participants preferred immediate rewards compared to future ones whereas low procrastination participants did not. High procrastinators also exhibited a larger and delayed P2 component, indicating delay time processing and abnormal reward processing. No significant effect associated with procrastination was found on the P300 component. Taken together, these findings suggest that high procrastinators are more impulsive and encode the information of delay time more slowly but with a higher level of motivation-driven attention. The current study substantiates higher impulsivity in procrastination and verifies that a difference exists in the sensitivity to time delay between high and low procrastinators. PMID:27363005

  1. The procrastinators want it now: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence of the procrastination of intertemporal choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Gui, Danyang; Lin, Wenzheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhu, Xiangru; Liu, Xun

    2016-08-01

    Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing. The participants were assigned to a high procrastination group and a low procrastination group according to their scores on self-report measures. We found that high procrastination participants preferred immediate rewards compared to future ones whereas low procrastination participants did not. High procrastinators also exhibited a larger and delayed P2 component, indicating delay time processing and abnormal reward processing. No significant effect associated with procrastination was found on the P300 component. Taken together, these findings suggest that high procrastinators are more impulsive and encode the information of delay time more slowly but with a higher level of motivation-driven attention. The current study substantiates higher impulsivity in procrastination and verifies that a difference exists in the sensitivity to time delay between high and low procrastinators.

  2. 资产专用性对诚信行为选择的作用机理%Action Mechanism of Asset Specificity to Good Faith Behavior Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙葆春

    2015-01-01

    Through the discussion on the action mechanism of asset specificity to good faith behavior choice, we have conclusion that the asset specificity can produce certain sanction against good faith behavior choice. At the same time, if the asset specificity has different degree of sanction against economic individual, one with the lower degree has the larger initiative right and decisive power. The primary influencing factors of asset specificity playing the role are dealing frequency and information asymmetry. The measures and suggestions to construct the honesty and credit trading environment had been put forward on the base of that analysis.%对资产专用性影响诚信行为选择的作用机理进行探讨的结果显示,资产专用性的投入对经济主体的诚信行为选择具有一定的约束力,资产专用性程度投入水平较低的交易方具有较大的主动权和决定权,影响资产专用性作用发挥的主要因素包括交易频率和信息不对称。为了构建诚信交易环境,需要适度提高专用性资产投入水平、加强市场监管力度、降低信息不对称程度、培养交易主体的诚信意识等。

  3. Comparative effectiveness research as choice architecture: the behavioral law and economics solution to the health care cost crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-02-01

    With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ("ACA") set to dramatically increase access to medical care, the problem of rising costs will move center stage in health law and policy discussions. "Consumer directed health care" proposals, which provide patients with financial incentives to equate marginal costs and benefits of care at the point of treatment, demand more decisionmaking ability from consumers than is plausible due to bounded rationality. Proposals that seek to change the incentives of health care providers threaten to create conflicts of interest between doctors and patients. New approaches are desperately needed. This Article proposes a government-facilitated but market-based approach to improving efficiency in the private market for medical care that I call "relative value health insurance." This approach focuses on the "choice architecture" necessary to enable even boundedly rational patients to contract for an efficient level of health care services through their health insurance purchase decisions. It uses comparative effectiveness research, which the ACA funds at a significant level for the first time, to rate medical treatments on a scale of one to ten based on their relative value, taking into account expected costs and benefits. These relative value ratings would enable consumers to contract with insurers for different levels of medical care at different prices, reflecting different cost-quality trade-offs. The Article describes both the benefits of relative value health insurance and the impediments to its implementation. It concludes with a brief discussion of how relative value ratings could also help to rationalize expenditures on public health insurance programs. PMID:24446572

  4. Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers Bloksted, Josephine; Knudsen, Anna Althea; Boie Hvid, Amanda; Bang Christensen, Andrea; Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates the connection found between food choices, and the influences from society and the digital Media, more specifically television commercials. We have covered different aspects of social and psychological theories, aiming to explain how the individual is affected by social factors. We have drawn conclusions on how the individual is inflicted by society when concerning choice making, as well as covering the psychological aspects that are relevant in connection to this. Last...

  5. Departure Time Choice Behavior Based on Bounded Rationality%有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾琨; 傅忠宁; 隽志才

    2016-01-01

    Subject to such limitations as cognitive ability and logical reasoning ability, it is difficult for individual to be perfectly rational in the travel decision-making process. Taking departure time choice as an example, key behavior factors such as spatial knowledge acquisition, learning, cognition update and solution search are introduced. The theoretical framework of travel decision-making process is built based on bounded rationality. Departure time behavioral intention survey program is designed by integration of RP and SP survey methods. Individual’s knowledge representation is studied, and cognitive update is completed by using Bayesian learning theory. Functions of search cost and search gain are defined. By using survey data, departure time heuristic search rules and decision rules are derived based on PART and RIPPER algorithm separately. The results show that there exist perception threshold in individual’s departure time choice behavior under bounded rationality, rather than seeking global optimal solution.%个体受限于认知能力和逻辑推理能力的限制,在出行决策过程中很难做到完全理性。本文以出发时间选择为例,在有限理性行为假设基础上,引入空间知识获取、学习及认知更新和方案搜索等关键行为要素,构建有限理性下的出行决策过程理论框架。融合RP和SP调查方法,设计出发时间选择行为意向调查方案。研究个体知识的表达方式,应用贝叶斯学习理论完成认知更新。定义搜索成本和收益函数,利用调查数据分别提取基于PART和RIPPER算法的出发时间启发式搜索规则和决策规则。结果表明,有限理性下个体出发时间选择行为存在感知阈值,而并非寻求全局最优解。

  6. Supply Chains Competition under Uncertainty Concerning Player’s Strategies and Customer Choice Behavior: A Generalized Nash Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hafezalkotob

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers in a supply chain confront two main sources of uncertainty in market environment including uncertainty about customers purchasing behaviors and rival chains strategies. Focusing on competition between two supply chains, it is considered that each customer as an independent player selects products of these chains based on random utility model. Similar to quantal response equilibrium approach, we take account of customer rationality as an exogenous parameter. Moreover, it is assumed that decision makers in a supply chain can perceive an estimation of rival strategies about price and service level formulated in the model by fuzzy strategies. In the competition model, chain’s decision makers consider a subjective probability for wining each customer which is formulated by coupled constraints. These constraints connect chains strategies regarding to each customer and yield a generalized Nash equilibrium problem. Since price cutting and increasing service level are main responses to rival supply chain, after calculating optimal strategies, we show that more efficient responses depend on customer preferences.

  7. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  8. 基于活动的旅游出行链选择行为研究%Activity-Based Model for Tourist's Trip-Chain Choice Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕; 关宏志

    2012-01-01

    Based on the survey of tourists in Beijing, the tourist trip chaining behaviors were analyzed by Multinomial Logit model. Tourists travel attributes and personal attributes were considered to have a significant effect on the trip chain, and the allocation of time is also taken into consideration. The result demonstrates that six variables, including age, occupation, travel time, local tourists or not, be familiar with attraction or not, allocation of time, have significant impact on trip chain choice. The results show that the proposed model is of high accuracy, which can provide a theoretical basis for prediction of tourist travel.%通过对在京旅游的游客进行调查,以游客的个人属性和出游属性作为影响因素,将游客对不同类型活动的时间分配作为前提,对游客的出行链选择行为建立了Multinoinial Logit模型.模型分析表明:年龄、职业、出游时间、是否本地游客、对景点是否熟悉以及游客对活动时间的分配等均对出行链选择有显著影响;模型具有较高的精度,为游客出行预测提供了理论依据.

  9. 文理科学生信息选择行为差异分析%Analysis on Differences of Information Choice Behavior Between Arts Students and Science Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙迟; 杨瑜

    2015-01-01

    通过对学生在信息检索过程中信息选择行为的调查,探索文理科学生在信息选择行为上的差异。实证揭示了文科学生与理科学生在信息选择行为上存在差异,在经过检索课培训后有些差异会缩小甚至消失,但有些差异如在检索系统的选择、检索字段的选择和检索结果过多时的选择方面仍然显著。%The paper investigates students’ information choice behavior in information retrieval process, to analyze the differences of information choice behaviors between arts students and science student. Empirical study reveals that there are differences of informa-tion choice behaviors between arts students and science students, and after retrieval training, some differences will be narrowed and even disappear, but others remain notable, such as in aspects of choices of retrieval system, retrieval filed and excessive search results.

  10. Analysis on Differences of Information Choice Behavior Between Arts Students and Science Students%文理科学生信息选择行为差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙迟; 杨瑜

    2015-01-01

    通过对学生在信息检索过程中信息选择行为的调查,探索文理科学生在信息选择行为上的差异。实证揭示了文科学生与理科学生在信息选择行为上存在差异,在经过检索课培训后有些差异会缩小甚至消失,但有些差异如在检索系统的选择、检索字段的选择和检索结果过多时的选择方面仍然显著。%The paper investigates students’ information choice behavior in information retrieval process, to analyze the differences of information choice behaviors between arts students and science student. Empirical study reveals that there are differences of informa-tion choice behaviors between arts students and science students, and after retrieval training, some differences will be narrowed and even disappear, but others remain notable, such as in aspects of choices of retrieval system, retrieval filed and excessive search results.

  11. Hard Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The international community is still faced with the difficult choice of how to finally solve the North Korean nuclear crisis after the new UN resolution After intensive consultations, members of the UN Security Council finally worked out a multilateral response to North Korea's recent nuclear test with the adoption of Resolution 1718 on October 14. Despite the strict economic sanctions it imposes on North Korea under ChapterⅦof the Charter of the

  12. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  13. Route choice behavior under guidance of variable message signs%可变信息标志诱导下的路径选择行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚华艳; 黄海军; 高自友

    2009-01-01

    随着智能交通技术的发展,可变信息标志(VMS)被广泛应用于动态交通管理中.元胞传输模型(CTM)可以很好的模拟交通流激波、排队形成与消散等交通流动力学特性.应用CTM研究了无信息诱导路径选择、基于VMS的近视转换和有界理性路径选择等三种规则,数值模拟结果表明,后两种规则可以减少系统总出行时间,信息服从率越高,系统的改善程度越大.当有界理性规则的"界"参数设置在一定区间内时,该规则优于近视转换规则,否则不如近视转换规则.%The variable message signs (VMS) have been widely used in guiding and managing the dynamic traffic with development of intelligent transportation technologies. It is known that the cell transmission model (CTM) can well reproduce such traffic dynamics as shock waves and jams. The CTM is employed in this paper to study the route choice behavior under three different rules, namely the rule without information guidance, the VMS-based myopic switching rule and the VMS-based boundedly rational switching rule.Simulation results show that the latter two rules can enhance the system performance through reducing the total travel time. The enhancement increases with the compliance rate to VMS. The boundedly rational switching rule is better than the myopic switching rule when its bound associated parameter is within a certain range, not so otherwise.

  14. Influencing Factors of Consumers’ Choice Intention and Behavior toward Online Stores%消费者对网络商店选择意向和行为的影响因素研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2015-01-01

    近年来加入网购的消费者规模不断增长,他们如何选择下单网店是网络商店关心的主要问题。由回归分析可知,感知信息质量、感知服务质量和感知系统质量均正向影响消费者对网店的选择意向,而选择意向又会影响他们实际的选择行为。当消费者具有较高的感知安全和感知便利时,网店质量对选择意向的影响会增强。感知安全和感知便利对选择意向和实际选择行为有调节作用。%In recent years, with an increasing number of consumers shopping online, how they choose an online store to place an order is the main concern of online store owners. By regression analysis, the per-ceived information quality, perceived service quality and perceived system quality had a positive effect on consumers’ choice intention toward online store, and the choice intention also influenced their actual choice behavior. When the consumers perceived higher safety and convenience, the influence of online store quality on choice intention could be enhanced. The perceived safety and perceived convenience had the moderating effect on choice intention and actual choice behavior.

  15. Assortment Planning Considering Consumers' Two-stage Choice Behavior%考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the assortment planning problem considering consumers' two-stage choice behavior in the context of network revenue management. A two-stage choice model based on consumer preferences is proposed, and a dynamic programming model for assortment planning is developed. The choice deterministic linear programming method (CDLP) is used to approximate the optimal offer sets. Finally,through numerical examples,the effects of consumers' two-stage choice behavior on firm's average expected revenues are discussed.%在网络收益管理框架下,研究了考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划问题.提出了基于消费者产品偏好的两阶段选择行为模型,并建立了品类规划问题的动态规划模型.利用选择确定性线性规划方法对模型进行了近似求解,推导了最优的产品组合.最后通过数值算例讨论了消费者两阶段选择行为对厂商平均期望收益与产品组合选择的影响.

  16. 关系营销中客户回报计划对客户品牌选择行为的影响研究%The Effect of Retail Reward Programs on Customer Brand Choice Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝龙; 李飞; 李金林

    2009-01-01

    In consideration of the customer heterogeneity, we present a customer discrete choice model to analyze the effect of reward programs on customer brand choice behavior; we also validate the model using longitudinal panel data from retail customers. The results show that the discrete choice model is an effec-tive tool to analyze the customer choice behavior, In addition, it is evidenced that reward programs can be viewed as an effective relationship marketing strategy to positively influence customer choice behavior and increase customer choice probability. On the other hand, in a highly competitive market, supermarket bus-iness should adopt reward programs as an important marketing strategy. At the same time, the business must strive to attract more customers to join its reward program. Moreover, heterogeneous behavior be-tween customer segments is validated by a latent class method. The analysis indicates that reward pro-grams only can impact on a special customer segment significantly. The managerial implications are also discussed.%本研究在考虑客户间异质偏好性的基础上,利用一组客户的纵贯交易数据建立消费者离散选择模型研究了回报计划对客户个体层面品牌选择行为的影响,并利用策略实验及潜分层模型对相关问题进行了系统深入的分析.结果表明,回报计划可以有效提升客户的品牌选择购买概率,是一种有效的关系营销策略;策略实验分析得到,竞争的环境下,对零售超市而言其最优决策策略不仅是实施回报计划,而且要努力争取客户成为自己回报计划的会员;此外,通过潜分层模型评估发现客户回报计划仅会对一类特定客户具有明显的刺激作用.最后讨论了结论对企业营销管理实践的意义.

  17. Weighing Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article talks about the Academy of the Sierras, a new private school which is billed as the US' first weight-loss school for obese teenagers. Students must be at least 30 pounds overweight for two years to attend this yearlong boarding school, which offers mandatory exercise, behavioral therapy, college-prep classes, and a healthy food…

  18. Destination choice behavior modeling based on space-time prism method%基于时空棱柱方法的目的地选择行为建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文静; 隽志才; 孙宝凤

    2012-01-01

    Based on the space-time prism method,the traveller activity space was limited in a definite space-time prism,the accessibility of activity zone in space was defined under time constraints according to the activity plan of the traveller.A 2-step modeling strategy was proposed for the destination choice behavior.An attracting ratio of the zone was introduced,and a destination choice behavior model with a non-liner utility function was built,and the quantification process,the parameter calibration and the result check of the zone attracting ratio were discussed.The results showed that the destination choice set can be defined by the time-space constraints of the travel in combination with the GPS technology.The non-linear utility function with the zone attracting ratio can predict the destination choice behavior more accurately.The conbination of the theory and the real behavior of the traveller provides a new idea for modeling of the destination choice behavior.%基于时空棱柱方法,将人的活动区域限制在一定的时空棱柱体内,根据出行者的活动计划,确定在一定时间限制下活动场所在空间上的可达性。提出了目的地选择行为分层的建模策略。引入小区吸引力因子,构建了非线性效用函数的目的地选择行为模型,探讨了小区吸引力因子的量化过程、参数标定及结果检验。结果表明:结合出行的时空约束和地理信息系统(Geographic information system,GIS)分析能够确定出行者的目的地选择集合。具有小区吸引力因子的非线性效用函数能够更准确地预测目的地选择行为。本文研究将出行理论与出行者的实际行为相结合,为目的地选择行为的建模提供了一种新思路。

  19. Empirical Study and Modeling of Variable Message Signs on Route Choice Behavior%VMS对驾驶员路径选择影响的实证研究与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫卫; 赵小梅; 李新刚; 谢东繁

    2013-01-01

    Variable message signs (VMS) frequently influence driver' s route choice behavior through providing instantaneous traffic information.It is one of the most important components of intelligent transportation system (ITS),and an efficient method to release traffic congestion.To quantitatively analyze the effects of VMS on drivers' route choice,this study makes the SP survey on drivers that have more than one year driving experience.Then,the data are analyzed by SPSS20.0,and the ordinal classification Logit models are used to reflect the route choice behavior.Finally,the conclusion is presented:route choice behavior according to VMS is highly related to driving style,travel time and accuracy of VMS.%可变信息板(VMS)通过发布实时的道路交通信息引导驾驶员的路径选择行为,是智能交通系统的重要组成部分之一,也是大城市缓解交通拥堵所采取的方法之一.为了定量分析VMS对驾驶员路径选择行为所产生的影响,本文采用SP调查法针对驾龄在1年以上的驾驶员进行问卷调查,使用SPSS20.0软件对调查数据进行分析,并在此基础上建立VMS诱导条件下驾驶员改变路径频率的有序多分类Logit模型,得出结论,驾驶员根据VMS所提供信息进行路径选择的主要影响因素为驾驶风格、出行时间、VMS可信度.

  20. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  1. Spatio -temporal Choice of Individuals' Shopping Behavior and Their Differences between Weekday and Weekend%休息日与工作日居民购物时空间决策因素及差异比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 柴彦威

    2011-01-01

    居民购物时空间决策及其影响机制的研究往往将时间与空间分裂开来单独进行考虑,忽略时间与空间自身的内在联系.利用2007年北京市居民活动口志调查获取的第一手数据,通过构建影响居民购物时空间决策的9个选项,利用多项Logit模型,探讨北京市居民购物行为的时空间决策因素,并对休息日与工作日之间的差异进行比较.结果表明,休息日居民购物时空间决策属于单因素主导影响模式,购物持续时间的影响最为显著;工作日居民购物时空间决策属于多因素综合影响模式,是否多日的购物和巡回次数的影响显著提升.说明工作日由于受到工作等生存性活动的影响.购物等非生存性活动的时空间选择受到较大制约.%Since the 1980s, more researches have been carried out to study the spatio-temporal choices of individuals' shopping behavior, which is one of the most important topics in behavioural geography. However, these researches only considered shopping spatial choice or temporal choice separately, while ignoring their relationship or interaction. This paper puts forword a research framework which studies the shopping spatial choice and temporal choice at the same time. First of all, according to the shopping distance it defines spatial choice as three options, such as near, middle or far. Similarly, according to the shopping time it also defines temporal choice as three options, like morning, afternoon or evening. Then, multiplying the spatial choice and temporal choice it will get nine spatio-temporal options of individuals' shopping behavior. Based on an activity-travel daily survey conducted in Beijing in 2007, this paper takes multinomial logit model to analyze the influencing factors of spatio-temporal choice of individuals' shopping behavior, while it also explores their differences between weekday and weekend. The model results show that, first,the shopping spatio-temporal choice on

  2. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence. PMID:21227154

  3. 基于旅游动机的旅游目的地选择行为分析%An Analysis on Choice Behavior of Tourist Destination Based on Tourist Motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昕; 关宏志; 王昊

    2014-01-01

    The choice of travel destinations is the key issue of traveling decision-making of tourists. This paper studies tourist’s destination choice behavior. Tourists travel behavior survey conducted in eight parks which located in Beijing area. In order to analyze travel behavior of tourists, the authors investigated 633 tourists using questionnaire survey in Beijing. Four motivation factors were extracted form 22 items and four categories of tourists were classified according to the four motivation dimensions. This paper proves that tourist motivation significantly affects their behavior of travel destination choice by building a two-step model which includes variables of motivation types. In addition, it is revealed that the impact of distance is significantly varied in the two different stages. The model has high accuracy, and this study provides a theoretical basis for further study on destination choice behavior.%旅游目的地选择是游客出行决策的核心问题,本文对游客的目的地选择行为进行了研究。本课题组选取北京市区8个景点,以在京旅游的游客作为研究对象,组织进行了游客出行行为调查。问卷设计22项旅游动机,通过对游客旅游动机项提取因子,并对旅游动机的因子得分进行聚类分析把游客分为4类。在构建游客旅游目的地选择行为模型时,对首个目的地和非首个目的地分别建模。模型中引入了旅游动机类型变量,证明旅游动机对游客目的地选择行为影响显著。另外出行距离在不同阶段对游客目的地选择的影响存在显著的差异。该模型精度较高,为进一步研究旅游目的地选择行为提供了理论依据。

  4. Choice probabilities and response times of binary preferential choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Maarten Willem

    2001-01-01

    This PhD thesis investigates human choice behavior. We describe several experiments in which we offer the subject a referential stimulus and later two other stimuli that differ in several aspects from each other and the reference. The subject has to decide which of two alternatives resembles the ref

  5. Analysis and Modeling of Park and Ride Choice Behavior in Commuting Travel%通勤出行中停车换乘选择行为分析与建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云美萍; 刘贤玮; 陈震寰; 杨晓光

    2012-01-01

    针对通勤出行研究驾车者的停车换乘选择行为,选取上海市典型停车换乘站对驾车通勤者与公共交通通勤者进行了RP(revealed preference)调查与SP(stated preference)调查,基于调查数据分析了选择停车换乘与否的影响因素,并针对道路交通通畅、堵塞2种状态分别建立了是否停车换乘的二项Logit模型.模型结果显示低收入的年轻人更倾向于选择停车换乘;交通状态堵塞时是否有老人或小孩等家庭特征显著影响停车换乘选择行为;模型还揭示了通畅时通勤者更关注出行费用,而堵塞时通勤者更关注出行时耗和舒适性,并分析了时间和费用敏感度对停车换乘选择概率的影响及其差异.%This paper focuses on travelers' choice behavior of park and ride or driving alone in commuting trips. Revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) surveys of car drivers' and public passengers' mode choice behaviors are performed in typical park of ride (PR) transfer station in Shanghai. Based on survey data, influencing factors of PR choice are analyzed. Two individual binary logit models are established under smooth traffic state and congested state respectively on whether car drivers will park and transfer to metro. Model results show that young commuters with lower income are more likely to choose PR. Whether a household has elders or children influences PR choice significantly under congested traffic. The results also indicate that commuters put more attention on travel cost when traffic is fluent. However, they care more about time consumption and comfortableness when traffic is congested. Furthermore, the influence of time and cost sensitivity on PR choice behavior is presented.

  6. Research on Online Shopping Choice Behavior Based on Nested Logit Model%基于巢式Logit模型的网上购物选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 商滔

    2015-01-01

    基于Gumbel分布和多项Logit模型,提出建立顾客网上购物选择行为的巢式Logit模型,在SERVQUAL五维量表的基础上,设计了影响顾客购物选择行为的18个相关因素,同时将顾客购买行为分成共性部分和差异部分,采用极大似然法求解模型参数. 相比传统模型而言,巢式Logit模型具有更好的解释能力和稳定性,通过实例分析演示了模型的应用方法,为网上店铺优化服务质量提供了具体参考.%The nested Logit model of online shopping choice behavior is proposed based on Gumbel distribution and multinomial Logit model,and 18 related factors which affect customer's choice behavior are designed on the basis of five dimensional SERVQUAL scale.The shopping behavior is divided into common part and different part,maximum likelihood is used to solve the model parameters.Comparing to the traditional model,nested Logit model has better explanatory power and stability,through case study,the application of this model is demonstrated,which provide specific reference to optimize the quality of service for online stores.

  7. 品牌拓展新市场过程中消费者选择行为研究%Study on Consumer Choice Behavior in Brand Expansion of New Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚慧丽; 袁颖慧; 刘善智; 张耀东

    2013-01-01

    研究消费者品牌选择行为是进行品牌拓展新市场的前提。本文基于消费者决策理论,利用元胞自动机分析了品牌文化、广告宣传、邻居关系及数量、竞争者、市场的经济环境等对消费者进行品牌选择时的影响,研究结果表明该模型能较好地模拟出品牌进行拓展新市场过程中的消费者选择行为。通过对品牌拓展新市场过程中的消费者选择行为的分析,找出更适合进行品牌扩张的区域。%Study on consumers′brand choice is the premise of brand expansion of new markets .Based on con-sumer decision theory ,we use cellular automata to analyze some factors affecting the consumers′behavior like brand culture ,advertisement ,number of neighbors and relationship with them ,competitors and economic en-vironment .T he result of simulation and analysis show s that the model can simulate the consumer choice be-havior in brand expansion of new markets .Study on consumer choice behavior in brand expansion of new markets can help companies to find better places to expand the brand .

  8. Informational geometry of social choice

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, Donald G.

    1997-01-01

    Elementary geometry is used to understand, extend and resolve basic informational difficulties in choice theory. This includes axiomatic conclusions such as Arrow's Theorem, Chichilnisky's dictator, and the Gibbard-Satterthwaite result. In this manner new results about positional voting methods are outlined, and difficulties with axiomatic approach are discussed. A topological result about "dictatorial" behavior is offered.

  9. 当代青年价值取向与行为选择的脱节及应对策略%Disjunction between Value Orientation and Behavior Choice of Modern Youngsters and Coping Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩春红

    2011-01-01

    In the clash and collide of multiple social values and concepts and realistic factors, the rational cognition and behavior choices are disjoined. There are several causes under the appearance of this phenomenon. It is urgent to change the present social situation of disjunction between value orientation and behavior choice. We should seek a way to balance the value orientation and behavior choice of modern youngsters from the following as- pects, including the construction of spiritual support, reinforcement of sense of social responsibility and historical mission, reformation of school education, the balance between the value orientation and behavior choice, encouragement of youngsters to be involved in social practice, the effective dialogue between self and society, keeping the lines of expression of interests open and reinforcement of social status of youngsters.%在社会多元价值观念以及诸多现实因素的冲击和碰撞下,当代青年的理性认知与行为选择出现脱节。这种现象的产生有其深刻的原因,调适当代青年价值取向与行为脱节的现状,是亟待解决的社会问题。我们应当主要从以下几个方面来寻找青年价值取向与行为选择的平衡路径:构筑精神支柱,强化青年的社会责任感和历史使命感;改革学校教育,引导青年价值取向和行为选择平衡;鼓励青年投身社会实践,实现自我与社会的有效对话;畅通青年利益表达的渠道,强化青年的社会地位。

  10. Passenger Choice Behavior of High-speed Rail and Airline between Beijing and Shanghai%京沪线高铁与民航旅客出行选择行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张睿; 马瑜; 赵冰茹; 栾维新

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid construction of high-speed railway, it has constituted the main body of the high-speed passenger transportation with airline in China. It is causing the supply structure of the transportation mode changes greatly. Through the SP and RP survey on the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail and the civil aviation passenger, this paper analyzes the composition of passenger flow and their characteristics of travel mode choice behavior. Based on the disaggregate theory, a Binary Logit model for Beijing-Shanghai passenger choice behavior is developed. The impact of each factor on passenger choice behavior is quantified. The accuracy rate of the model is 88%. Based on the survey result and parameters calibrated in the model, the influence of gender, age, monthly income, ticket price, companion number, ingress time and departure time on the passenger choice behavior is analyzed thoroughly. The result is beneficial for grasping the condition of actual travel demand and designing the integrated transport passenger transportation product reasonably between Beijing and Shanghai.%随着高速铁路的快速建设,其已与民航构成了我国高速客运的主体,使交通运输方式的供给结构发生了巨大变化。本文通过对京沪线高铁与民航旅客进行SP和RP调查,分析京沪线客流的构成和旅客出行方式选择行为特征,并基于非集计理论,构建京沪线旅客出行选择的Binary Logit模型,量化各因素对旅客选择的影响程度,该模型准确率为88%。本文根据调查结果和模型标定参数,对旅客的性别、年龄、月收入、票价、同行人数、程前时间和出发时间对旅客出行选择行为的影响进行深入分析,结论对了解京沪线旅客实际出行需求状况,合理设计高铁与民航综合客运产品具有重要意义。

  11. Information processing in children's choices among bets

    OpenAIRE

    Hommers, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    Children's information processing of risky choice alternatives was investigated in two studies without using verbal reports. In Study 1, the ability to integrate the probabilities and the payoffs of simple bets was examined using the rating scale methodology. Children's choices among three of those simple bets were recorded also. By cross-classifying the children's choice and rating behavior it was shown that a three-stage developmental hypothesis of decision making is not sufficient. A four-...

  12. Supplier choice and WTP for electricity attributes in an emerging market: The role of perceived past experience, environmental concern and energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzes customers' preferences and their willingness to pay (WTP) for certain service attributes in an electricity supplier choice context. Specifically, a stated preference choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market where limited competition exists. Preferences for different electricity suppliers and three level-of-service attributes are investigated, namely, supply reliability, share of renewable energies and availability of a complementary energy audit service. The results might be interpreted as an indication of different aspects new firms need to consider if they plan to enter in the market. There is an opportunity for new companies to establish in the market, though evidence of brand loyalty to the current company and/or significant switching costs are also found, especially in the case of older people. Regarding the estimated WTP, several results should be highlighted. First, customers who have experienced more serious outages in the past tend to show a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. Second, highly-educated respondents, those who state a great concern for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and those who carry out energy saving actions in their homes exhibit a larger WTP for renewable energies. This empirical evidence provides useful information for authorities responsible for energy policy design. - Highlights: • A stated choice experiment is conducted in the Canary Islands' residential market. • Serious outages in the past lead to a higher WTP to reduce the outage frequency. • A higher education level explains a greater WTP for renewables. • People concerned for emissions and energy savers show greater WTP for renewables. • These findings provide useful information for energy policy design

  13. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...... to increasing the number of trading dates and introducing a second risky asset and a correlation structure....

  14. Social Defaults: Observed Choices Become Choice Defaults

    OpenAIRE

    Young Eun Huh; Joachim Vosgerau; Morewedge, Carey K.

    2014-01-01

    Defaults effects can be created by social contexts. The observed choices of others can become social defaults, increasing their choice share. Social default effects are a novel form of social influence not due to normative or informational influence: participants were more likely to mimic observed choices when choosing in private than in public (experiment 1) and when stakes were low rather than high (experiment 2). Like other default effects, social default effects were greater for uncertain...

  15. Consumers, health insurance and dominated choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Hirth, Richard A

    2011-03-01

    We analyze employee health plan choices when the choice set offered by their employer includes a dominated plan. During our study period, one-third of workers were enrolled in the dominated plan. Some may have selected the plan before it was dominated and then failed to switch out of it. However, a substantial number actively chose the dominated plan when they had an unambiguously better choice. These results suggest limitations in the ability of health reform based solely on consumer choice to achieve efficient outcomes and that implementation of health reform should anticipate, monitor and account for this consumer behavior. PMID:21300414

  16. Individual Differences in Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtress, Tiffany; Garcia, Ana; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in impulsive choice behavior have been linked to a variety of behavioral problems including substance abuse, smoking, gambling, and poor financial decision-making. Given the potential importance of individual differences in impulsive choice as a predictor of behavioral problems, the present study sought to measure the extent…

  17. ATIS 条件下出发时间选择对交通影响的仿真研究∗%Simulation of the Impact of Departure Time Choice Behavior on Traffic Operation under ATIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春燕; 叶晓飞; 陈峻; 孙正安

    2016-01-01

    为研究实时信息条件下驾驶人的不同出发时间选择行为对城市交通运行的影响,以描述型、定量型、预测型和指示型4种实时信息条件下驾驶人的出发时间选择行为为研究对象,采用 Vissim微观仿真法,对不同出发时间选择行为造成的交通拥堵改善情况进行分析。通过试凑法将交通流量输入实际道路网,实现调查方案中交通运行实时信息内容的定量化表达;通过模拟无信息和4种实时信息条件下驾驶人的不同出发时间选择行为,对比分析道路交通延误,判断交通运行情况。以南京市驾驶人出发时间选择行为为例进行仿真分析,结果表明提供实时信息条件下道路交通延误周期段数减少33%,交通延误时间段明显得以分散,Vissim 仿真能够很好地模拟微观出行行为带来的宏观交通影响。%To study the impacts of choice behavior of departure time on urban traffic operation under real-time pro-vision of traveler information through advanced traveler information systems (ATIS),taking drivers′choice behavior of different departure time as the target under 4 scenarios with different types of real-time information,which is descriptive, quantitative,forecasted and instructional information respectively.Vissim software is used to simulate and analyze the im-provement of traffic operation due to the choice behavior of different departure time.Using the trial and error method, traffic volume is used as an input to the simulation,in orderto ensure that the impact of different provision of real-time in-formation can be quantitatively expressed in the simulation experiments.By simulating choice behavior of different depar-ture time under the scenario without any real-time information and 4 above scenarios,the corresponding traffic delays are compared to evaluate their impact on traffic operation.Nanjing is taken as a case study for the simulation analysis.The re-sults show that the number of

  18. The Impact of Perceived Choice Freedom on Salespersons' Behavioral Intention of Gray Marketing%选择自由度对销售人员灰色营销行为倾向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭茜; 庄贵军; 郭艳霞

    2012-01-01

    基于营销道德理论和计划行为理论,以中国企业间购销关系为研究平台,以卖方为视角,检验了销售人员的道德判断、企业默许和销售人员的选择自由度对销售人员灰色营销行为倾向的影响,选择自由度对销售人员道德判断和灰色营销行为倾向之间,以及对企业默许和销售人员灰色营销行为倾向之间相关关系的调节作用.结果表明:①销售人员的不道德性评价会降低销售人员的灰色营销行为倾向;②企业默许会提高销售人员的灰色营销行为倾向;③销售人员感知的选择自由度不但会直接降低其灰色营销行为倾向,还会调节或强化销售人员对灰色营销的不道德性评价与灰色营销行为倾向之间以及企业默许与灰色营销行为倾向之间的相关关系.最后,讨论了研究结果的应用.%Based on the theory of marketing ethics and theory of planned behavior, this paper empirically tests the direct effects of salespersons' judgment, organizational connivance and perceived choice freedom on their behavioral intention of gray marketing, and the moderator effects of perceived choice freedom from the seller's standpoint. This study comes to the following conclusions: ①salespersons' judgment on un-ethicalness of gray marketing has negative impact on salespersons' intention to adopt gray marketing; ② organizational connivance increases salespersons' intention of gray marketing practice; ③ salespersons' perceived choice freedom not only has direct and positive impact on salespersons' intention to adopt gray marketing, but also moderator or enhance the relationship between salespersons' judgment on un-ethicalness of gray marketing and their intention to adopt gray marketing and the relationship between organization's connivance and salespersons' behavioral intention of gray marketing. Finally, the implications of the findings are suggested.

  19. A Behavior Analysis of Traveler's Route Choice Under Congestion Pricing%拥挤收费下基于前景理论的出行者路径选择行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 侯亚丽; 胡晓伟

    2011-01-01

    出行者(特指私家车出行者)路径选择行为的研究对于城市的交通管理和交通组织都有着重要的意义,而且随着交通出行费用的不断增加,以及道路拥挤收费政策逐步实施,仅仅考虑距离最短、时间最短来对出行者路径选择行为模型进行研究,往往实用性欠佳.针对以往的研究中考虑因素单一、模型实用性不强这一问题,运用能有效描述出行者不确定性条件下决策行为的前景理论,综合考虑出行者的出行时间、出行费用以及出行者的个人偏好、出行经验等因素,建立一个更为贴合实际的出行者路径选择行为模型.以实际算例的形式对比分析了,不同收费标准对不同出行者人群、不同性质出行的路径选择行为的影响程度.结果表明:与拥挤收费政策实施前相比,收费3元时,高收入水平出行者购物出行时的路径发生变化,而对于通勤出行,当收费大于6元时出行路径才发生变化;对于中低收入水平出行者来说,因为其较高收入者对费用更为敏感,所以拥挤收费政策实施后他们的反应也不尽相同.%The research of traveler's route choice behavior, especially that related to private car travelers, is of great interest to city traffic management organizations. As travel expenses increase, and the policy of congestion pricing is implemented gradually, using travel distance or travel time itself to study travelers' route choices is no longer valid. This paper uses the prospect theory to develop a more realistic traveler's route choice behavior model. The proposed model considers traveling time, travel cost, traveler's preference and traveler's experience. A case study is used to show the effects of congestion pricing onto traveler's route choice behavior. It is found that: compared to the scenarios without congestion pricing, high-income travelers change their routes for their shopping trips when the congestion toll increases to 3

  20. [Fertility behavior in Quebec, family allowances, and taxes: results and simulations with a discrete choice model for the years 1975-1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P; Brouillette, L; Felteau, C

    1994-12-01

    "We suppose that women (couples), who are less than 40 years old, are faced with three types of sequential decisions: the fertility decision, the decision relative to the number of children to have and the decision concerning labour force participation.... We use a nested polychotomous discrete choice model to estimate the responsiveness of the behaviour of 'married' women in Quebec to variations in the expected flow of revenue resulting from changes in the parameters of the personal income tax and in the level of public monetary transfers conditional on the number of children. The model is estimated with micro-data from 9 repeated cross-sections for the years 1975 to 1987 with a full information maximum likelihood method.... This empirical setting is used to simulate the effects of changes made to the fiscal and transfer policies in favor of families with dependent children on fertility, [women's] labor force participation and the importance of spending costs for the two levels of government." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291903

  1. CEO Power and Auditor Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ouyang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the impact of CEO power on auditor choice. We are motivated by the competing financial reporting incentives arising from CEO power. Our empirical finding suggests that powerful CEOs are more likely to hire high-quality auditors as a signal of superior financial reporting quality. We contribute to the literature of auditor switch and extend the research on the links between CEO power and firm behaviors.

  2. 基于顾客选择行为的客房分配模型研究%Research on room allocation of hotel based on consumer choice behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃朝勇; 李阳; 刘婷婷; 李相勇

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, allocation of rooms in hotel revenue management was studied based on customer satisfication. A utility function is constructed based on consumer behavior theory. A consumer discrete choice model is then established. A survey is conducted to collect customer preference information. Variable precision rough set method is employed to reduct the factors that influence consumer choice and to calculate the weights of remaining factors. A model of room allocation is established thereafter. Finally, the model is validated by an example, and the results show that the model is effective.%针对酒店收益管理中的客房分配问题,研究顾客满意度对客房资源分配和收益的影响,基于消费者行为理论,构造顾客客房效用函数,建立了消费者离散选择模型,通过调查问卷方式收集顾客偏好信息,利用变精度粗糙集方法对影响消费者选择的因素进行约简并计算权值,在此基础上建立了酒店客房分配模型.最后通过实例对该模型进行验证,计算结果表明了该模型的有效性.

  3. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications....

  4. Trip chain pattern choice behavior of commuters based on traffic information%基于交通信息的通勤出行链模式选择行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华歆; 张丽杰

    2015-01-01

    为探索通过智能手机等通信工具随时随地获得的交通信息对居民通勤出行链模式选择行为的影响,采用RP(Revealed Preference)调查获取出行者的社会经济属性、交通信息使用属性以及通勤出行链模式选择行为数据,用信息查询频率度量出行者的交通信息使用属性,建立估计通勤出行链模式的二项Logit模型。研究发现:(1)交通信息在促进复杂链的生成上发挥着较大的作用;(2)在交通信息的作用下,停车换乘(Park and Ride,P&R)方式比公共交通和小汽车都更能促进复杂链的生成;(3)出行者的性别、婚姻状态、家中是否有12周岁以下儿童等对出行链模式选择不会有显著影响。%To discuss the impact of traffic information that can be obtained anywhere at any time through smart phones on commuters’trip chain pattern choice behavior,RP (Revealed Preference)survey is a-dopted to collect the commuters ’ socio-demographic attributes,traffic information attributes and trip chain pattern choice data. The traffic information attributes are measured by the information query fre-quency. A binary Logit model is built to quantify the commuters’trip chain pattern choice. It shows that:(1 )the traffic information plays a great role in promoting the generation of complex chain;(2 )the travel mode of Park & Ride(P&R)is more likely to promote the generation of complex chain under the traffic information than the public and private transport modes;(3)the commuters’gender,marital sta-tus and whether there are children under the age of 12 in their family don’t have a significant impact on their trip chain pattern choice.

  5. Savage Misunderstandings about Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gura, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Although Jonathan Kozol is well-informed about choice program imperfections, schools of choice are superior to traditional schools. In places like East Harlem, school choice is helping transform youngsters from captive, disenfranchised malcontents to true students involved in their education. The challenge is to make every district school worthy…

  6. Online Consumptions Prediction via Modeling User Behaviors and Choices%用户在线购买预测:一种基于用户操作序列和选择模型的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪宇; 刘淇; 赵洪科; 徐童; 王怡君; 陈恩红

    2016-01-01

    电商网站的兴起与用户在线购物习惯的形成,带来了海量的在线消费行为数据。如何从这些行为数据(如点击数据)中建模用户对相似产品的比较和选择过程,进而准确预测用户的兴趣偏好和购买行为,对于提高产品的购买转化率具有重要意义。针对这一问题,提出了基于用户行为序列数据和选择模型的在线购买预测解决方案。具体而言,1)使用行为序列效用函数估计用户在购买周期(session)中的最佳替代商品,然后对购买商品和最佳替代商品建立基于潜在因子的选择模型(latent factor based choice model ,LF‐CM ),从而得到用户的购买偏好,实现对用户购买行为的预测。更进一步,为了充分地利用用户在每个购买周期的所有选择和比较信息,提高预测精度;2)提出了一种可以作用于购买周期内所有商品的排序学习模型(latent factor and sequence based choice model ,LFS‐CM ),它通过融合潜在因子和行为序列的效用函数,提高了购买预测的精度;3)使用大规模真实数据集在分布式环境下进行了实验,并与参照算法进行了对比,证实了所提出的2个方法在用户在线购买预测上的有效性。%The rise of electronic e‐commerce sites and the formation of the user’s online shopping habits ,have brought a huge amount of online consumer behavioral data .Mining users’ preferences from these behavioral logs (e .g .clicking data) and then predicting their final consumption choices are of great importance for improving the conversion rate of e‐commerce . Along this line , this paper proposes a way of combining users’ behavioral data and choice model to predict which item each user will finally consume . Specifically , we first estimate the optimum substitute in each consumption session by a utility function of users’ behavioral sequences ,and then we build a latent

  7. Evaluation and Improvement of Bicycle Travel Environment Based on the Cycling Route Choice Behavior%基于路径选择行为的自行车出行环境评价和改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晖婧; 朱玮; 王德

    2014-01-01

    提供良好的自行车出行环境是促进自行车出行的一个重要方面。本文通过研究骑行者的路径选择行为,得到人们对环境要素的偏好规律,以此为基础探讨评价和改善自行车出行环境的方法。运用叙述性偏好法(简称SP)对骑行者进行虚拟路径选择调查,应用离散选择模型量化各要素对路径评价的影响程度。结果表明,骑行者最关注的环境要素为自行车道类型、机动车车流量、机非隔离设施、机动车路边停车和街道景观。不同出行目的的人群对出行环境偏好差异显著。基于模型结果,在上海市杨浦区某地区进行规划应用,评价路段出行环境,并以出行环境效用提升最大化目标,提出出行环境改善建议。%Good travel environment for cycling is an important aspect for promoting bicycle use. By studying cyclers’ route choice behavior, this research derives people’s preferences on the environmental factors, which serves as a base for evaluating and improving bicycle travel environment. Stated preference (SP) method is used for the survey of virtual route choice behavior and a discrete choice is formulated to quantify the influence of the relevant factors on the route evaluation. The results indicate that among the relevant factors, lane type, traffic volume, separation facility, on-street parking and streetscape are the most important factors for the cyclists. Estimating the models on different cycler groups by travel purposes reveals significant preference differences. Based on the results, a study area in Yangpu District, Shanghai is chosen for application, where the status quo of the routes’ travel environments evaluated and suggestions of promoting the environment are given in the target of maximizing the travel environment utility.

  8. Vessel Route Choice Theory and Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shu, Y.; Daamen, W.; Ligteringen, H.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    A new maritime traffic model describes vessel traffic in ports and inland waterways better. In this research, vessel behavior is categorized into a tactical level (route choice) and an operational level (dynamics of vessel behavior). This new maritime traffic model comprises two parts. The route cho

  9. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...... probabilities, and every CPGF is consistent with an ARUM. We relate CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and review and extend methods for constructing CPGF for applications. The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended...

  10. The variability of male quality and female mate choice decisions: second-order stochastic dominance and the behavior of searchers under a sequential search strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, Steven M; Wade, Gordon A; Wiegmann, Daniel D

    2011-12-01

    The strategy employed by a female to sample prospective mates determines the likelihood that a high-quality male is encountered in the search process. In general, the choosiness of females is expected to depend on the variability of quality amongst the males that are sampled. The sequential search strategy is a prominent model of search behavior that involves the use of a threshold criterion to evaluate encountered individuals. In this paper, we show that the stochastic dominance of one distribution of male quality over another at the second order is necessary and sufficient for the optimal threshold criterion to differ under two distributions of male quality when the cost to sample males is held constant and the mean quality of males under each of the distributions is identical. A difference of the variance of male quality between two distributions does not imply that one distribution stochastically dominates the other at the second order and, hence, should not, in general, be used to assess the relative variability of quality amongst prospective mates. The adjustment of the threshold criterion in response to experimental manipulations of the distribution of male quality has been inferred from induced differences of the duration of search or the number of males sampled in the search process. Here we show that such inferences are unjustified. In particular, the difference of the threshold criterion imposed by second-order stochastic dominance does not determine the distribution under which females are expected to sample a larger number of males in the search process.

  11. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  12. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  13. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  14. Modeling Health Insurance Choice Using the Heterogeneous Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in "simulation based inference" have made it feasible to estimate discrete choice models with several alternatives and rich patterns of consumer taste heterogeneity. These new methods have important potential application in health economics. One important application is the analysis of consumer choice behavior in insurance markets characterized by competition among several alternative insurance plans. Analysis of consumer choice behavior in insurance markets is of great intere...

  15. Adolescents' AIDS Risk Taking: A Rational Choice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, William; Herman, Janna

    1990-01-01

    Discounts the belief in adolescents' irrational behavior, and proposes a rational choice decision-making theory of adolescent risk-taking behavior. Suggests that social ecology affects risk-taking choices. Proposals for AIDS education concern delayed initiation of sexual activity, promotion of condom use, and counseling of high-risk adolescents.…

  16. Optimal Portfolio Choice under Regime-switching and Learning Behaviors%状态变化和学习行为下的最优资产组合选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志英

    2013-01-01

    针对金融资产收益率序列的非线性动态变化和投资者参数确定的传统假设,考虑状态变化的最优资产组合选择以及参数不确定性下投资者学习行为对最优资产组合选择的影响,运用马尔科夫机制转换模型刻画市场状态变化,采用贝叶斯学习准则描述投资者的学习行为,建立状态变化和投资者学习行为下资产组合选择的离散时间模型,使用期望最大化算法和动态最优化方法给出模型的参数估计,使用蒙特卡罗方法模拟投资者的资产组合选择行为.研究结果表明,中国金融市场存在明显的结构性动态变化,可以将市场分为牛市和熊市.在短期,当市场处于熊市时,投资者将全部财富投资于债券,不投资于股票,但市场处于牛市时股票的投资比重会大大增加;在长期,牛、熊市下股票和债券的权重会稳定在某个水平.市场状态的不确定性造成投资者产生对冲不确定性风险的需求,当市场向好时,投资者学习行为导致其投资于更多的风险资产;当市场状态无法确定时,投资者对股票的投资更为谨慎.考虑市场状态变化的投资组合选择能够提高投资者的总体效用.%Aiming at the nonlinear dynamic change of the financial asset return series and the traditional assumption of investor parameter certainty, the research explores the optimal portfolio choice under regime-switching and the impact of investors' learning behaviors under parameter uncertainty on the optimal portfolio choice. We use Markov regime-switching model to depict changes of market states, adopt the Bayesian learning rule to describe investors' learning behaviors, build the discrete model of optimal portfolio choice under regime-switching and learning behaviors, utilize the expectation maximization algorithm and dynamic optimization method to estimate the model parameters and make use of the Monte Carlo method to simulate investors' portfolio choice

  17. Effects of mental accounting on intertemporal choices

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson Niklas; Gärling, Tommy; Selart, Marcus

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments with undergraduates as subjects were carried out with the aim of replicating and extending previous results showing that the implication of the behavioral life-cycle hypothesis (H. M. Shefrin & R. H. Thaler, 1988) that people classify assets in different mental accounts (current income, current assets, and future income) may explain how consumption choices are influenced by temporary income changes. In both experiments subjects made fictitious choices between paying for a goo...

  18. Sex difference in choice of concealed or exposed refuge sites by preschool children viewing a model leopard in a playground simulation of antipredator behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Coss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study of preschool children characterizes a semi-natural extension of experimental questions on how human ancestors evaded predation when encountering dangerous felids. In a pretend game on a playground, we presented full-size leopard and deer models to children (N = 39 in a repeatedmeasures experimental design. Prior to viewing the model presented 15-m away, each child was instructed by the experimenter to go where she or he would feel safe. The rationale for this study was based on the anthropological construct of “sexual dinichism,” positing that, during the Pliocene, smaller-bodied hominin females engaged in more arboreal behavior than larger-bodied males. Consistent with this construct, our previous simulation research using images of an African rock outcrop showed that, after viewing a lion, girls preferred a tree as refuge rather than a crevice or large boulder whereas boys did not differentiate these refuge sites. In this follow-up study, we predicted that, after viewing the model leopard, the preschool girls would differ from the boys by not choosing enclosed refuge sites analogous to the crevice. Analyses of a contingency table for the leopard model supported this hypothesis by yielding a significant interaction of sex and refuge location (p = .031, d = .76, the source of which was a reliably larger percentage of girls not choosing concealed refuge (p = .005, d = 2.3. The interaction of sex and refuge location for the model deer was not significant (p > .5. Our findings suggest that, in contrast to the deer, the girls selected exposed playground refuge sites rather than concealing ones to maintain visual contact with the leopard as a contingency for future action

  19. CHoosing Options for Insomnia in Cancer Effectively (CHOICE): Design of a patient centered comparative effectiveness trial of acupuncture and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Gehrman, Philip; Barg, Frances K; Xie, Sharon X; Mao, Jun J

    2016-03-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent and persistent side effect of cancer, which if left unaddressed, can be unremitting and negatively influence physical and mental well-being. Acupuncture and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) are commonly used non-pharmacological treatments that are efficacious for treating insomnia in cancer patients; however, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of these options. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine which treatments are most effective for which individuals, and patient preference for treatment is a particularly important contributor to adherence and outcomes. Here we describe the design of a clinical trial that begins to determine how best to personalize the treatment of insomnia for cancer survivors. This project is a randomized controlled comparative effectiveness trial with a nested qualitative study comparing acupuncture and CBT for insomnia and co-morbid symptoms in a heterogeneous sample of 160 cancer survivors. The primary aim is to determine which treatment is associated with the largest reduction in insomnia severity. The secondary aim is to examine the demographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics that predict and/or moderate treatment effect. Patients will receive ten treatments of acupuncture or 7 sessions of CBT over eight weeks and complete validated patient-reported outcome measures of sleep and co-morbid symptoms at baseline, mid-treatment, post-treatment, and at three-months to assess durability of effect. The results of the proposed study have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes by helping cancer survivors and their caregivers make informed and evidence-based decisions, leading to patient-centered and personalized care for cancer survivors with insomnia. PMID:26956541

  20. Process and Context in Choice Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Akiva, Moshe; Palma, André de; McFadden, Daniel;

    2012-01-01

    . The extended choice framework includes more behavioral richness through the explicit representation of the planning process preceding an action and its dynamics and the effects of context (family, friends, and market) on the process leading to a choice, as well as the inclusion of new types of subjective data...... in choice models. We discuss the key issues involved in applying the extended framework, focusing on richer data requirements, theories, and models, and present three partial demonstrations of the proposed framework. Future research challenges include the development of more comprehensive empirical tests...

  1. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  2. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  3. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  4. The Impact of Choice Expression Modalities on Choice Rationality and Choice Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation comprises two empirical studies that investigate the impact of manual versus oral choice expression modalities on the objective rationality of choice (Study 1) and the impact of oral versus manual choice expression modalities on choice satisfaction (Study 2).

  5. Latinos and School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastic, Billie; Coronado, Diana Salas

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe how Latino students are underrepresented in public schools of choice. They provide evidence to refute the claim that Latino students who choose to leave assigned public schools enroll in religious schools instead. Charter schools stand out as the type of public schools of choice where Latino students are well represented.…

  6. Children's Choices for 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

  7. Children's Choices for 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)

  8. Your Genes, Your Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Your Genes, Your Choices describes the Human Genome Project, the science behind it, and the ethical, legal, and social issues that are ... Nothing could be further from the truth. Your Genes, Your Choices points out how the progress of ...

  9. Behavior Choice and Framing Effect of“Protecting Legal Rights by Body”%试论“身体维权”的行为选择与框架效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谢慈

    2014-01-01

    In the social transformation phase,the relief system transplanted from foreign countries does not work well in the Chinese context,and its capacity to resolute social contradictions and conflicts was greatly reduced. When the effective relief through formal institutional arrangements and legal procedures could not be realized,the rational people will choose more “economical”and “efficient”methods such as committing self-mutilation or suicide,i.e.protecting legal rights by body.The choice -making process of people protecting legal rights by body can be positioned as a risk decision-making process in the limited selection of rational man model.The the-ory of framing effects of behavioral economics can help to interpret the decision-making process and behavior mo-tivation of protecting legal rights by body.%社会转型时期,我国的救济体系由于其强烈的制度移植色彩而水土不服,其对社会矛盾与冲突的化解能力大打折扣。在通过正式制度安排与法定程序无法得到有效权利救济的情境下,当事人往往选择诸如自残自杀等更加“经济”和“快捷”的维权方式进行身体维权。这些身体维权者的选择过程可以定位为一项有限理性经济人模式下的风险决策过程,行为经济学的框架效应理论有助于诠释身体维权行为的决策过程和行为动机。

  10. Drug Specificity in Drug vs. Food Choice in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tunstall, Brendan J.; Riley, Anthony L.; Kearns, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/inf) and food (a single 45-...

  11. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  12. Individual Vs Collective Choice In Corporate Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is meant to be an extension of the theories of choice, empirical analysis and theories concerning communication between macro-economic sub-systems and even between (sub systems. A new perception will be given to all these theories and a different meaning of the factors influencing finance decisions will be shown. Another factor is introduced taking into account one’s choice, which restructures somehow the perception of the function of individuals’ choice. I named it factor α (alpha which is a spirituality factor provoking exchanges of information between economic sub-systems. This leads to a rearrangement of the economic and social patterns of behavior and of choice directly influencing the finance decisions and re-equilibrating the inter-conditioning sub-systems of the world.

  13. The impact of presentation format on visual attention and choice in discrete choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    experiments across three different presentation formats. Method. Participants’ visual attention was measured by means of eye tracking during a discrete choice experiment for yoghurt products varying on six attributes with two to four levels. The study used a mixed within-between subjects design in which......Objectives. Discrete choice experiments in which participants choose between alternatives differing on attribute levels are an important research method for preference elicitation. In such experiments choice stimuli is typically presented in tables with verbally described attributes, in tables...... with visual attributes, or as product mock-ups simulating realistic products as close as possible. So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behavior. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice...

  14. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Alexandria R.; Chow, Jonathan J.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior. PMID:27441394

  15. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  16. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  17. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  18. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  19. Optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Berkelaar (Arjan); R.R.P. Kouwenberg (Roy)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractProspect theory and loss aversion play a dominant role in behavioral finance. In this paper we derive closed-form solutions for optimal portfolio choice under loss aversion. When confronted with gains a loss averse investor behaves similar to a portfolio insurer. When confronted with los

  20. Understanding Adolescent Contraceptive Choice: An Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; And Others

    Research using expectancy models has shown contraceptive choice among adults to be a rational process in that intentions and behaviors reflect an individual's beliefs, values, attitudes, and perceptions of social norms. This study examined whether such an approach could accurately represent adolescents' contraceptive decision-making. It used the…

  1. Incorporating Context Effects into a Choice Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooderkerk, Robert P.; Van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2011-01-01

    The behavioral literature provides ample evidence that consumer preferences are partly driven by the context provided by the set of alternatives. Three important context effects are the compromise, attraction, and similarity effects. Because these context effects affect choices in a systematic and p

  2. Educational "Choice" (Vouchers) and Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    Uses a model of student and school behavior to simulate effects of differing voucher amounts on students in different income categories, drawing on two major assumptions concerning service delivery and competition. Poor youngsters would not be better off under voucher system. Even under highly favorable conditions, a systemic choice system would…

  3. Intertemporal choice in lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Mühlhoff, Nelly

    2012-02-01

    Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur (black-and-white ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, red ruffed lemurs, Varecia rubra, and black lemurs, Eulemur macaco) to assess how they compare to other primate species and whether their choices are consistent with rate maximization. We offered lemurs a choice between two food items available immediately and six food items available after a delay. We found that by adjusting the delay to the larger reward, the lemurs were indifferent between the two options at a mean delay of 17 s, ranging from 9 to 25 s. These data are comparable to data collected from common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). The lemur data were not consistent with models of rate maximization. The addition of lemurs to the list of species tested in these tasks will help uncover the role of life history and socio-ecological factors influencing intertemporal choices. PMID:22024661

  4. Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Laan, Laura N.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.; Max A Viergever; Paul A.M. Smeets

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several ...

  5. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Peter; Vlagsma-Brangule, Kristine

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norms, environmental variables (environmental concern, green behavior, and perceived consumer effectiveness) as main antecedents of the choice and share of categoryrequirements of bio-meat. We also con...

  6. Factors Influencing Women's Choice of Nontraditional Careers: The Role of Family, Peers, and Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Carol J.; Auster, Donald

    1981-01-01

    Although women's choices of certain occupations may be perceived as nontraditional, these women make choices congruent with their immediate environment. Environmental factors include maternal employment, paternal achievement behavior, parent attitudes, socioeconomic status, family size, and peer influence. (RC)

  7. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  8. Using the Multiple Choice Procedure to Measure College Student Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Leon Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that gambling is similar to addictive behaviors such as substance use. In the current study, gambling was investigated from a behavioral economics perspective. The Multiple Choice Procedure (MCP) with gambling as the target behavior was used to assess for relative reinforcing value, the effect of alternative reinforcers, and…

  9. Response latencies in the analysis of conjoint choice experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaijer, R; Kamakura, W; Wedel, M

    2000-01-01

    Response latencies provide information about consumers' choice behavior in a conjoint choice experiment. The authors use filtered response latencies to scale the covariance matrix of a multinomial probit model and show that this leads to better model fit and holdout predictions, even if the response

  10. The Effect of Conditioned Reinforcement Rate on Choice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, Edmund; Romanowich, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We review the nature of conditioned reinforcement, including evidence that conditioned reinforcers maintain choice behavior in concurrent schedules and that they elevate responding in the terminal links of concurrent-chains schedules. A question has resurfaced recently: Do theories of choice in concurrent-chains schedules need to include a term…

  11. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  12. Measuring improved patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Rovner, M; Rovner, D R

    2000-08-01

    Patient decision support (PDS) tools or decision aids have been developed as adjuncts to the clinical encounter. Their aim is to support evidence-based patient choice. Clinical trials of PDS tools have used an array of outcome measures to determine efficacy, including knowledge, satisfaction, health status and consistency between patient choice and values. This paper proposes that the correlation between 'subjective expected utility' (SEU) and decision may be the best primary endpoint for trials. SEU is a measure usually used in behavioural decision theory. The paper first describes how decision support tools may use decision analysis to structure the presentation of evidence and guide patient decision-making. Uses of expected utility (EU) are suggested for evaluating PDS tools when improving population health status is the objective. SEU is the theoretically better measure when internal consistency of patient choices is the objective. PMID:11083037

  13. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  14. Salience and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Bordalo, Pedro; Gennaioli, Nicola; Shleifer, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We present a theory of context-dependent choice in which a consumer's attention is drawn to salient attributes of goods, such as quality or price. An attribute is salient for a good when it stands out among the good's characteristics, in the precise sense of being furthest away in that good from its average level in the choice set (or more generally, an evoked set). A local thinker chooses among goods by attaching disproportionately high weights to their salient attributes. When goods are cha...

  15. Pricing effects on food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A

    2003-03-01

    Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations. PMID:12612165

  16. Understanding Predisposition in College Choice: Toward an Integrated Model of College Choice and Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Paul E.; Johnson, Todd E.; Pitre, Charisse Cowan

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to improve traditional models of college choice that draw from recruitment and enrollment management paradigms. In adopting a consumer approach to college choice, this article seeks to build upon consumer-related research, which centers on behavior and reasoning. More specifically, this article seeks to move inquiry beyond the…

  17. Ecological context determines the choice between prey of different salinities

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, J.S.; Piersma, T.

    2016-01-01

    Food choice has profound implications for the relative intakes of water and salts, and thus for an animal’s physiological state. Discrimination behaviors with respect salt intake have been documented in a number of vertebrate species, but few studies have considered the ecological context in which they occur. Here, we report on the results of a 2-choice experiment designed to examine the influence of dietary salt content and freshwater availability in food discrimination behaviors in red knot...

  18. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  19. Children's Choice for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)

  20. Children's Choices for 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Presents 103 titles for the 2003 Children's Choice grouped by reading levels: beginning, young, intermediate, and advanced readers. Provides the title, author, illustrator, publisher, ISBN, and price for each title as well as a brief annotation prepared by a review team. (SG)

  1. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  2. Choices and changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    in their last year in upper-secondary school concerning their choice of tertiary education were examined using quantitative EV-MBC surveys and repeated qualitative interviews. This article presents the analyses of three cases in detail. The analytical focus was whether the factors indicated in the EV-MBC model...

  3. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl;

    2011-01-01

    sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  4. The Choice for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  5. 家庭成员活动-出行选择行为的相互影响%Research on Activity-Travel Choice Behavior Interactions between Household Heads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲜于建川; 隽志才

    2012-01-01

    基于活动的方法对研究家庭成员活动-出行选择之间的相互影响关系提供了新的思路.针对已有研究多围绕发达国家展开的现状,以国内某直辖市2005年居民出行调查数据为来源,从基于活动方法的协作性限制出发,研究了主要家庭成员活动-出行选择之间的相互影响模式,利用结构方程模型,分析了活动和出行需求在家庭成员之间的分配情况,讨论了存在于同一成员和不同成员各次活动和出行中的替代、补充、陪同等影响关系对个体活动-出行选择行为的影响.研究得到了在行为学上具有较强解释力并达到各项统计学评价指标的模型,对出行行为分析有重要意义.%Activity-based method is becoming more sophisticated in the representation of intra-household interactions and constraints that influence individual activity-travel choices. However, most of the studies focus on residents of developed countries. Using the travel survey data of a municipality collected in 2005, this study examines inter-person interactions between heads of households. Daily work and non-work activity and related travel allocations between the two household members are analyzed using a structural equations model. Substitution, companion, and complementary relationships involving both activities and the associated travel between the heads of household arc also examined. The model estimation results offer significant coefficients and reasonable interpretations consistent within Chinese context. This study captures strong interactions and task allocation among household members and their significant effects on members' work and non-work activity and travel time allocation decisions. Results from this research are of significance for travel behavior analysis.

  6. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  7. A Common Mechanism Underlying Food Choice and Social Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Krajbich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others' benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making.

  8. Direct and indirect mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saether, Stein Are; Baglo, Ragnhild; Fiske, Peder; Ekblom, Robert; Höglund, Jacob; Kålås, John Atle

    2005-08-01

    Indirect mate choice is any behavior that restricts the individual's set of potential mates without discrimination of mate attributes directly, for example, by having preferences about where to mate. We analyzed a 14-year data set from great snipe (Gallinago media) leks for evidence of indirect mate choice based on relative and absolute position of lek territories. We found little or no effect of the centrality of territories on mating and no between-year consistency in the spatial distribution of matings within leks. Instead, the probability of matings occurring at a particular site increased if the current territory owner had mated the previous year. Furthermore, individual females returned in later seasons to mate with the same male as previously rather than at the same site. Previous work found that male interactions and dominance do not control matings and that females are very choosy about which territory they mate in. Here we show that this is because of the male occupying the territory rather than its position. We therefore conclude that direct female mate choice is the main behavioral process affecting variation in mating success among great snipe males, unlike in some lekking mammals where male competition and/or indirect mate choice appears more important.

  9. Pairomics, the omics way to mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; März, Winfried; Neves, Paulo Mauricio Serrano; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2013-10-01

    The core aspects of the biology and evolution of sexual reproduction are reviewed with a focus on the diploid, sexually reproducing, outbreeding, polymorphic, unspecialized, altricial and cultural human species. Human mate choice and pair bonding are viewed as central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, and genetic assistance in reproduction is viewed as a universal human right. Pairomics is defined as an emerging branch of the omics science devoted to the study of mate choice at the genomic level and its consequences for present and future generations. In pairomics, comprehensive genetic information of individual genomes is stored in a database. Computational tools are employed to analyze the mating schemes and rules that govern mating among the members of the database. Mating models and algorithms simulate the outcomes of mating any given genome with each of a number of genomes represented in the database. The analyses and simulations may help to understand mating schemes and their outcomes, and also contribute a new cue to the multicued schemes of mate choice. The scientific, medical, evolutionary, ethical, legal and social implications of pairomics are far reaching. The use of genetic information as a search tool in mate choice may influence our health, lifestyle, behavior and culture. As knowledge on genomics, population genetics and gene-environment interactions, as well as the size of genomic databases expand, so does the ability of pairomics to investigate and predict the consequences of mate choice for the present and future generations.

  10. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The year 2012 was the 30th anniversary of William H. Riker’s modern classic Liberalism against populism (1982) and is marked by the present special issue. In this introduction, we seek to identify some core elements and evaluate the current status of the Rikerian research program and its empirical...... applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...... of manipulation of the decisions (heresthetics). These topics are then connected to the contributions to the current special issue....

  11. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  12. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...

  13. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.;

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...... how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  14. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  15. Leisure and Travel Choice

    OpenAIRE

    María José Caride; Eduardo L. Giménez

    2003-01-01

    It is commonly recognized the relevance of transportation costs for studying recre- ational demand. However, these costs are related with travel and modal choice deci- sions. This paper o ers a theoretical explanation of the new generation of the demand for recreational goods at destiny after the introduction of a new transportation mode that is not the cheapest nor the fastest among the available modes. The main feature of the model deals with the transportation mode-dependent preferences. T...

  16. Experimentation and Job Choice

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine optimal job choices when jobs differ in the rate at which they reveal information about workers' skills. We then analyze how the optimal level of experimentation changes over a worker's career and characterize job transitions and wage growth over the life cycle. Using the Dictionary of Occupational Titles merged with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we then construct an index of how much information different occupations reveal about workers' skills ...

  17. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  18. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  19. Strategy as Mutually Contingent Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Martin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Schelling’s The Strategy of Conflict carries significant behavioral implications which have been overlooked by economic readers. I argue that these implications are central to Schelling’s vision of game theory, that they fit well with recent advances in experimental psychology and behavioral economics, and provide a comprehensive framework that can inform research on strategy. In my view, Schelling develops a non-mathematical approach to strategy which anticipates on Gigerenzer and Selten’s “ecological rationality” program. This approach maps the processes involved in strategic reasoning and highlights their reliance on the particular information structure of interactive social environments. Building on this approach, I model strategy as a heuristic form of reasoning that governs the way in which individuals search for and provide cues in situations of mutually contingent choice. I conclude by examining how the reference to ecological rationality can help clarify Schelling’s contribution to game theory and outline potential avenues of research into strategic reasoning and interaction.

  20. Sustainable Products and Consumers’ Brand Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Meixner, Oliver; Knoll, Viktoria

    2012-01-01

    Within this study selected empirical results out of a 3 year project concerning the analysis of Austrian panel data are presented. Raw data coming from the most important Austrian consumer tracking panel was analyzed with respect to consumers’ variety seeking and brand choice behavior. It is analyzed if consumers tend to switch to “sustainable” (here: organic) products and brands more frequently compared to brand switches between conventional products and brands (significant interrelation bet...

  1. Its All about Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, G. Michael; Arsenault, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Because of the variability exhibited by individual animals' responses to their environment, studying animal behavior can be a wonderful way to engage students in self-directed, open-inquiry investigations. Individual animals react in ways that are a combination of instinct and learned behavior, but collectively they exhibit broader tendencies that…

  2. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  3. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  4. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  5. Sequential rationalization of multivalued choice

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanz, María Dolores; Rodríguez Alcantud, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    [EN]This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under sequential criteria. Following the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (2007) for single-valued choice functions, we characterize choice correspondences that are rational by two sequential criteria under a mild consistency axiom. Rationales ensuring the sequential rationalization are explicitly constructed and a uniquely determined, canonical solution is provided.

  6. College Students' Choice Modeling of Taking On-Line International Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    To understand students' choice behavior of taking on-line international business courses, a survey study is conducted to collect information regarding students' actual choices of taking on-line courses and potential factors that may have impacts on students' choices of online learning. Potential factors such as enrollment status, demographic…

  7. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider...

  8. Choice and Procrastination.

    OpenAIRE

    Ted O'Donoghue and Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    JEL#: A12, B49, C70, D11, D60, D74, D91, E21 Keywords: choice, naivete, partial naivete, present-biased preferences, procrastination, self control, sophistication, time inconsistency Recent models of procrastination due to self-control problems assume that a procrastinator considers just one option and is unaware of her self-control problems. We develop a model where a person chooses from a menu of options and is partially aware of her self-control problems. This menu model replicates earlier...

  9. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  10. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Skov, Katrine Lund

    2016-01-01

    this character and its ethical implication with a special emphasis on the compatibility of nudging with traditional regulation, special domains of experience, and the need for a more nuanced approach to the ethical debate. The aim is to advance readers understanding and give guidance to those who consider....... However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...

  11. Strategic Choice and Collective Action: Organizational Determinants of Teachers Militancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; And Others

    Conceptualizing militant behavior as a strategic choice involving collective action and occurring within a specific organizational context, this paper examines the impact of various organizational factors on elementary and secondary school teachers' willingness to engage in militant behavior. Teachers in 83 New York districts were surveyed as to…

  12. Melioration as Rational Choice: Sequential Decision Making in Uncertain Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Chris R.; Neth, Hansjorg; Jacobs, Robert A.; Gray, Wayne D.

    2013-01-01

    Melioration--defined as choosing a lesser, local gain over a greater longer term gain--is a behavioral tendency that people and pigeons share. As such, the empirical occurrence of meliorating behavior has frequently been interpreted as evidence that the mechanisms of human choice violate the norms of economic rationality. In some environments, the…

  13. Managerial Ethics in Educational Administration: The Rational Choice Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowson, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Study of 16 principals in Chicago, Illinois, reveals that in the investigation of ethical-choice behavior, the corporate-incentives model proves to be inadequate as an explanation of principality. What is referred to as counter-bureaucratic behavior is a survival mechanism for beleaguered principals--a balance weight to seemingly anti-educational…

  14. Time, Self & Intertemporal Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia eRetz Lucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting. Consequently, time perception is fundamental to IC and it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying time processing in different situations; to investigate when human time perception differs from time as represented by the calendar metric system; and to study how time perception predicts choices. This paper surveys the recent literature on time perception in order to discuss the measuring of IC through time-perception specificities. The notion of self is also discussed within this temporal perspective. If time perception modulates discounting, and time perception is related to self, the relationship between self and time perception becomes a new path to be explored in the IC studies.

  15. Consumer Choice of Hotel Experiences: The Effects of Cognitive, Affective, and Sensory Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dohee

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the choice behavior of customers is crucial for effective service management and marketing in the hospitality industry. The first purpose of this dissertation is to examine the differential effects that cognitive, affective, and sensory attributes have on consumer hotel choice. The second purpose is to examine the moderating effects of consumer choice context on the relationship between the cognitive, affective, and sensory attributes and hotel choice. To achieve these two ...

  16. Consumer satisfaction with primary care provider choice and associated trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkrishnan Rajesh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of managed care, characterized by limited provider choice, is believed to undermine trust. Provider choice has been identified as strongly associated with physician trust. Stakeholders in a competitive healthcare market have competing agendas related to choice. The purpose of this study is to analyze variables associated with consumer's satisfaction that they have enough choice when selecting their primary care provider (PCP, and to analyze the importance of these variables on provider trust. Methods A 1999 randomized national cross-sectional telephone survey conducted of United States residential households, who had a telephone, had seen a medical professional at least twice in the past two years, and aged ≥ 20 years was selected for secondary data analyses. Among 1,117 households interviewed, 564 were selected as the final sample. Subjects responded to a core set of questions related to provider trust, and a subset of questions related to trust in the insurer. A previously developed conceptual framework was adopted. Linear and logistic regressions were performed based on this framework. Results Results affirmed 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' was significantly (p Conclusion This study confirmed the association of 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' with provider trust. Results affirmed 'enough PCP choice' was a strong predictor of provider trust. 'Second opinion on PCP' may indicate distrust in the provider. Data such as 'trust in providers in general' and 'the role of provider performance information' in choice, though import in PCP choice, were not available for analysis and should be explored in future studies. Results have implications for rethinking the relationships among consumer choice, consumer behaviors in making trade-offs in PCP choice, and the role of healthcare experiences in 'satisfaction with amount of PCP choice' or 'provider trust.'

  17. Addiction and choice: Theory and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene M Heyman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word compulsive identifies patterns of behavior. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. Research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by age thirty, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction.

  18. Comparison of probabilistic choice models in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radford Mark HB

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probabilistic choice has been attracting attention in psychopharmacology and neuroeconomics. Several parametric models have been proposed for probabilistic choice; entropy model, Prelec's probability weight function, and hyperbola-like probability discounting functions. Methods In order to examine (i fitness of the probabilistic models to behavioral data, (ii relationships between the parameters and psychological processes, e.g., aversion to possible non-gain in each probabilistic choice and aversion to unpredictability, we estimated the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction of the probabilistic choice models by assessing the points of subjective equality at seven probability values (95%–5%. We examined both fitness of the models parametrized by utilizing AICc, and the relationships between the model parameters and equation-free parameter of aversion to possible non-gain. Results Our results have shown that (i the goodness of fitness for group data was [Entropy model>Prelec's function>General hyperbola>Simple hyperbola]; while Prelec's function best fitted individual data, (ii aversion to possible non-gain and aversion to unpredictability are distinct psychological processes. Conclusion Entropy and Prelec models can be utilized in psychopharmacological and neuroeconomic studies of risky decision-making.

  19. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  20. A Recommender System Sensitive to Intransitive Choice and Preference Reversals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Konigsberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic foundations for many recommender s ystems is the assumption of preference consistency and transitivity of choice. In this pap er we challenge this assumption and argue that it should be revised. We also provide a method by w hich recommender systems can estimate preference reversals and choice intransitivity. Our general approach is to incorporate variants of choice-behavior such that recommender systems in corporate decision-sensitive factors within choice-sets that tend to influence decision making. After establishing why recommender systems ought to consider preference reversal phenomena, we provide a high-level outline of a mechanism for automatically discovering and predict ing preference reversals. Thereafter we show how the discovered or predicted preference rev ersals can help in generating choice sets that 1 are better for the users all things conside red (by being in line with their general preferences as exhibited over time and 2 help use rs make better decisions.

  1. Biofuels: making tough choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, Sonja; Dufey, Annie; Vorley, Bill

    2008-02-15

    The jury is still out on biofuels. But one thing at least is certain: serious trade-offs are involved in the production and use of these biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuels. This has not been lost on the European Union. The year kicked off with an announcement from the EU environment commissioner that it may be better for the EU to miss its target of reaching 10 per cent biofuel content in road fuels by 2020 than to compromise the environment and human wellbeing. The 'decision tree' outlined here can guide the interdependent processes of deliberation and analysis needed for making tough choices in national biofuels development.

  2. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that these assumptions are implausible, and that more accurate assumptions could have been made based on prior attention and eye movement research. Future decision making research would benefit from greater integration with attention research....

  3. Variety Seeking, Purchase Timing, and the "Lightning Bolt" Brand Choice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep K. Chintagunta

    1999-01-01

    The "Lightning Bolt" (LB) model provides a comprehensive framework for accommodating the effects of habit persistence, unobserved heterogeneity, and state dependence on household brand choice behavior. This paper presents a discrete, dynamic brand-choice model that belongs to the LB class of models. We propose a method for incorporating the effects of variety seeking into the LB model formulation. The proposed formulation explicitly links brand choice and purchase timing behavior via the effe...

  4. Are ADHD Symptoms Associated with Delay Aversion or Choice Impulsivity? A General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyelis, Yannis; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with choice impulsivity is examined. Findings were found to indicate that primary constitutional processes that underlie choice impulsivity and their potential role in behavioral inattention are important. It was also found that behavioral and brain processes that underlie choice…

  5. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Grabenhorst, F.; Hernadi, I.; Schultz, W.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain’s reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons...

  6. Decision making and brand choice by older consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    Older adults constitute a rapidly growing demographic segment, but stereotypes persist about their consumer behavior. Thus, a more considered understanding of age-associated changes in decision making and choices is required. The authors's underlying theoretical model suggests that age-associated changes in cognition, affect, and goals interact to differentiate older consumers’ decision-making processes, brand choices, and habits from those of younger adults. They first review literature on s...

  7. Factor analysis of sexual behavior in migratory adolescent and choice of contraceptive measures%流动青少年性行为及避孕措施选择的因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭利娜; 余小鸣; 高素红

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解流动青少年性行为现况及避孕措施选择的影响因素,为开展流动人口性与生殖健康教育提供科学依据.方法:采用自编结构式匿名问卷对北京、广州、济南4389名流动青少年进行自填式问卷调查.结果:33.4%(1453/4354)的流动青少年报告有性行为,未婚者性行为发生率为27.5%(1066/3880),其中男性37.8%(579/1533),女性20.7% (487/2347);避孕措施使用率为44.8% (642/1432),安全套为首选的避孕措施;未婚者中有31.1%(322/1034)报告有妊娠史,29.7%( 307/1034)报告有流产史.文化程度(OR=1.555)、婚姻状况(OR =0.432)、性伴侣数(OR =0.683)和性病预防知识得分(OR=1.758)是流动青少年是否使用避孕措施的影响因素.结论:流动青少年性行为发生率较高,避孕措施使用率较低,并引发生殖健康问题,应加强对其进行生殖健康教育,提高有效避孕措施的选择.,女性20.7% (487/2347);避孕措施使用率为44.8% (642/1432),安全套为首选的避孕措施;未婚者中有31.1%(322/1034)报告有妊娠史,2.7%( 307/1034)报告有流产史.文化程度(OR=1.555)、婚姻状况(OR =0.432)、性伴侣数(OR =0.683)和性病预防知识得分(OR=1.758)是流动青少年是否使用避孕措施的影响因素.结论:流动青少年性行为发生率较高,避孕措施使用率较低,并引发生殖健康问题,应加强对其进行生殖健康教育,提高有效避孕措施的选择.%Objective: To comprehend the young migrants' sexual behavior and contraceptive status, and to provide the scientific basis for the health education regarding sex and reproduction for the young migrants in cities. Methods; An anonymous self-designed structured questionnaire was used to survey 4 389 young migrants in Beijing,Guangzhou and Ji'nan. Results.- In the study, 33.4% (1 453/4 354) of the migrant adolescents reported had sexual activity, with the unmarried sex rate of 27. 5% (1 066/ 3880), and the males

  8. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Swetlana Gutjar; ter Horst, Gert J.; Kees de Graaf; Renken, Remco J.; Gerry Jager

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...

  9. Study on Inventory Control for Rental Cars Based on Customer Choice Behavior%基于顾客选择行为的租赁车辆存量控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亚璪; 李鹏飞; 陈坚; 郝小妮

    2016-01-01

    Taking revenue management theory and Logit model as starting points, the vehicle inventory level of car rental sites was studied. Customers’ preference and utility on consumption was obtained by a survey. Vari-able precision rough set method was used to simplify the factors that influence the choice of consumers on vehi-cle, then judgment matrix was established to calculate the weights of the remaining factors. Finally the probabili-ty of customer choice of rental cars was calculated, and protection level of car rental in leasing sites was then gained. This study showed that there were similar protection level results compared with the expected marginal revenue, which proved the efficiency of the proposed model, for it only needs to use the data sets of customer choice of rental cars to calibrate parameters without other prior information and probability distribution of cus-tomer choice. It finds the model can improve inventory control accuracy of car rental companies and realize flex-ible control.%以收益管理和Logit模型为出发点,研究汽车租赁站点多车型的库存保护水平。通过调查获得顾客消费行为的偏好和效用,运用变精度粗糙集方法对影响顾客选择行为的因素进行简约并构造判断矩阵计算权重,从而计算出顾客对租赁车辆选择的概率和租赁车辆存量的保护水平。计算结果与期望边际收益为控制策略确定的保护水平基本相近,验证了模型的有效性。模型只需利用顾客对租赁车辆选择数据集合来标定参数,而不需要其他的先验信息和顾客选择的概率分布表达式,同时可以提高汽车租赁公司存量控制精度,实现柔性控制。

  10. Meta-analysis of choice set generation effects on route choice model estimates and predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    are applied for model estimation and results are compared to the ‘true model estimates’. Last, predictions from the simulation of models estimated with objective choice sets are compared to the ‘postulated predicted routes’. A meta-analytical approach allows synthesizing the effect of judgments...... for the implementation of path generation techniques, since a large number of models generate a large amount of results that are otherwise difficult to summarize and to process. Meta-analysis estimates suggest that transport modelers should implement stochastic path generation techniques with average variance of its......Large scale applications of behaviorally realistic transport models pose several challenges to transport modelers on both the demand and the supply sides. On the supply side, path-based solutions to the user assignment equilibrium problem help modelers in enhancing the route choice behavior...

  11. Teen Choice of Inwood House.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Teen Choice Program in New York City was described and the outcome of the program evaluation was reported. Teen Choice is a school based sex education and pregnancy prevention program run by trained social workers. The aim is to provide information, counseling, and referrals on a range of issues relating to sexuality. The program is elective and meets during a regularly scheduled gym period for one or two semesters from the 7th to the 12th grades. There are single sex and coeducational classes. The program aim is to change attitudes toward birth control, to change risky sexual behavior, such as unprotected coitus, to offer accurate knowledge about contraception, and to prevent unplanned pregnancies. Abstinence is encouraged, but for those sexually experienced, there is attention to responsible and reliable use of contraception. Program methods include small group discussion, individual counseling, and classroom discussion. Topics of discussion range from sexuality issues and birth control to values clarification and peer pressure. Small groups may discuss human sexual growth, relationship formation, family life, responsibility to self and others, consequences of teenage pregnancy, and social and cultural peer pressures. Girls are encouraged to assume more assertive and less reactive roles. Communication skills are reinforced in respectful exchanges of personal views and questions. Differentiating facts and issues is a primary focus. A question about when an individual first had sex would be redirected to asking about the appropriate age to first have sex. Respect for privacy helps to build students confidence in the program. A longitudinal evaluation conducted between 1984 and 1987 found that the program was effective in reaching and recruiting high risk adolescents. Students left the program with increased knowledge about contraception, more mature and responsible attitudes about the use of birth control, and reduced frequency of unprotected coitus. Boys were

  12. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  13. Probability and rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botting

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will discuss the rationality of reasoning about the future. There are two things that we might like to know about the future: which hypotheses are true and what will happen next. To put it in philosophical language, I aim to show that there are methods by which inferring to a generalization (selecting a hypothesis and inferring to the next instance (singular predictive inference can be shown to be normative and the method itself shown to be rational, where this is due in part to being based on evidence (although not in the same way and in part on a prior rational choice. I will also argue that these two inferences have been confused, being distinct not only conceptually (as nobody disputes but also in their results (the value given to the probability of the hypothesis being not in general that given to the next instance and that methods that are adequate for one are not by themselves adequate for the other. A number of debates over method founder on this confusion and do not show what the debaters think they show.

  14. Rational Choice Theory and Addiction Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Krstić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the construct of student satisfaction and analyze its relationship with student loyalty in the context of state and private universities. The rational choice theory assumes that, when deciding whether to consume some goods or not, consumers use analysis in order to estimate the values of individual preference indicators. From this point of view, there are risk and time preferences. The former show aversion to a risk and are expressed through the risk aversion coefficient, while the latter measure the degree of preference for present satisfaction in relation to the same satisfaction in the future. The degree of preference for present satisfaction regarding the same satisfaction in the future is expressed by the time preference rate. Smokers with a low time preference rate and high risk aversion coefficient level can be expected to be successful in cessation. The aim of this paper is to study smokers from the perspective of rational choice theory, in order to detect factors influencing their behavior. The study (investigation found that the significant factors for smokers’ behavior are: gender, age, education, risk aversion coefficient, and the time preference rate. Analysis of smokers’ behavior, with appropriate limits and qualifications, is a well-developed and highly effective tool for exploring and interpreting reality.

  15. Economic rationality in choosing between short-term bad-health choices and longer-term good-health choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, David

    2013-11-08

    Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  16. Economic Rationality in Choosing between Short-Term Bad-Health Choices and Longer-Term Good-Health Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-contagious, chronic disease has been identified as a global health risk. Poor lifestyle choices, such as smoking, alcohol, drug and solvent abuse, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet have been identified as important factors affecting the increasing incidence of chronic disease. The following focuses on the circumstance affecting the lifestyle or behavioral choices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in remote-/very remote Australia. Poor behavioral choices are the result of endogenous characteristics that are influenced by a range of stressful exogenous variables making up the psychosocial determinants including social disenfranchisement, cultural loss, insurmountable tasks, the loss of volitional control and resource constraints. It is shown that poor behavioral choices can be economically rational; especially under highly stressful conditions. Stressful circumstances erode individual capacity to commit to long-term positive health alternatives such as self-investment in education. Policies directed at removing the impediments and providing incentives to behaviors involving better health choices can lead to reductions in smoking and alcohol consumption and improved health outcomes. Multijurisdictional culturally acceptable policies directed at distal variables relating to the psychosocial determinants of health and personal mastery and control can be cost effective. While the content of this paper is focused on the conditions of colonized peoples, it has broader relevance.

  17. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  18. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  19. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  20. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  1. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  2. Choice of pesticide fate models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of a pesticide fate model at field scale is linked to the available input data. The article describes the available pesticide fate models at a field scale and the guidelines for the choice of the suitable model as function of the data input requested

  3. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... demonstrates how cultural discourses about how a proper choice is made set the scene for the students’ choices. The study raises some concerns for science education. Improving students’ interests in science alone might not lead to increased admission as several interests equally intervene. To attract more...... students to science, we must consider how to actively engage them in crafting their own education, as a way to support them in making personal sense....

  4. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  5. CHOICE, DYNAMIC REINFORCEMENT, AND CHANGEOVER RESPONSE REQUIREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE A. BALDERRAMA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that choice does not require steady state performance to show sensitivity toreinforcement. This idea was further explored in a choice situation in which a changeover responserequirement was manipulated. The parameters of the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974 were usedto assess changes in preference due to an increasing fixed-ratio changeover-response requirement. Theratio of reinforcement provided by two levers (27:1, 9:1, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 1:9, 1:27 was manipulated betweensessions to prevent steady state concurrent performance. In different conditions, the changeoverrequirement took on values of 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 responses. The results showed local effects of reinforcementon choice behavior; from one reinforcer to the next, the distribution of responses favored thealternative associated with the highest probability of reinforcement. Although sensitivity to reinforcementdid not increase with increasing changeover response requirements, as the rats experienced thedynamic reinforcing environment along the experiment the value of the parameter s stabilized above 1.0.

  6. Arbitration between controlled and impulsive choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economides, M; Guitart-Masip, M; Kurth-Nelson, Z; Dolan, R J

    2015-04-01

    The impulse to act for immediate reward often conflicts with more deliberate evaluations that support long-term benefit. The neural architecture that negotiates this conflict remains unclear. One account proposes a single neural circuit that evaluates both immediate and delayed outcomes, while another outlines separate impulsive and patient systems that compete for behavioral control. Here we designed a task in which a complex payout structure divorces the immediate value of acting from the overall long-term value, within the same outcome modality. Using model-based fMRI in humans, we demonstrate separate neural representations of immediate and long-term values, with the former tracked in the anterior caudate (AC) and the latter in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Crucially, when subjects' choices were compatible with long-run consequences, value signals in AC were down-weighted and those in vmPFC were enhanced, while the opposite occurred when choice was impulsive. Thus, our data implicate a trade-off in value representation between AC and vmPFC as underlying controlled versus impulsive choice.

  7. Evolutionary consequences of behavioral diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-01-01

    Iterated games provide a framework to describe social interactions among groups of individuals. Recent work stimulated by the discovery of "zero-determinant" strategies has rapidly expanded our ability to analyze such interactions. This body of work has primarily focused on games in which players face a simple binary choice, to "cooperate" or "defect". Real individuals, however, often exhibit behavioral diversity, varying their input to a social interaction both qualitatively and quantitatively. Here we explore how access to a greater diversity of behavioral choices impacts the evolution of social dynamics in finite populations. We show that, in public goods games, some two-choice strategies can nonetheless resist invasion by all possible multi-choice invaders, even while engaging in relatively little punishment. We also show that access to greater behavioral choice results in more "rugged " fitness landscapes, with populations able to stabilize cooperation at multiple levels of investment, such that choice f...

  8. Choice, access, information are among clients' rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R

    1993-08-01

    This general discussion of the importance of respecting client's rights and access to a choice of methods relies on the statements of researchers and family planners from a variety of international and private organizations which reiterate the features of successful programs. The emphasis on client's rights is a change for many programs. The example is given of a clinic in Niger that posts the list of client rights to accessibility, information, education, communication, and freedom of choice. Pressure from international groups focuses on promoting client's informed and voluntary choice of family planning (FP) method, because it assures continuation. Quality of care is directly related to continuation of care. The quality of care framework of Judith Bruce, from the Population Council, identifies the first and most fundamental element in assuring quality of service to be choice of method. The UN assures that contraceptive choice is a basic human right. The International Planned Parenthood (IPPF) Medical and Service Delivery Guidelines proposes 10 client rights; this list of rights has been widely distributed as a poster. IPPF's African director states that contraceptive prevalence is low because of a lack of quality care. Women's rights have been integrated into FP and promoted in the Safe Motherhood Initiative and in the focus of the International Decade for Women, 1975-85. The International Women's Health Coalition, which is an alliance of over 100 women's organizations from 50 countries, has released a "Women's Declaration on Population Policies" at UN headquarters, which calls for provision of reproductive health care, not just technology, for fertility management by women. Policy makers and planners are urged to provide access to wide contraceptive choices, pregnancy care, safe abortion, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), development of new technology for protection against STDs, and encouragement of men to take responsibility for sexual

  9. No effects of psychosocial stress on intertemporal choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Haushofer

    Full Text Available Intertemporal choices - involving decisions which trade off instant and delayed outcomes - are often made under stress. It remains unknown, however, whether and how stress affects intertemporal choice. We subjected 142 healthy male subjects to a laboratory stress or control protocol, and asked them to make a series of intertemporal choices either directly after stress, or 20 minutes later (resulting in four experimental groups. Based on theory and evidence from behavioral economics and cellular neuroscience, we predicted a bidirectional effect of stress on intertemporal choice, with increases in impatience or present bias immediately after stress, but decreases in present bias or impatience when subjects are tested 20 minutes later. However, our results show no effects of stress on intertemporal choice at either time point, and individual differences in stress reactivity (changes in stress hormone levels over time are not related to individual differences in intertemporal choice. Together, we did not find support for the hypothesis that psychosocial laboratory stressors affect intertemporal choice.

  10. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities. PMID:19042526

  11. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  12. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Shen; Li, Yue; Ruan, Lu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals' social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies toward potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  13. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J

    2016-08-30

    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare. PMID:27528666

  14. Hedonism and the choice of everyday activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquet, Maxime; Quoidbach, Jordi; de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Desseilles, Martin; Gross, James J

    2016-08-30

    Most theories of motivation have highlighted that human behavior is guided by the hedonic principle, according to which our choices of daily activities aim to minimize negative affect and maximize positive affect. However, it is not clear how to reconcile this idea with the fact that people routinely engage in unpleasant yet necessary activities. To address this issue, we monitored in real time the activities and moods of over 28,000 people across an average of 27 d using a multiplatform smartphone application. We found that people's choices of activities followed a hedonic flexibility principle. Specifically, people were more likely to engage in mood-increasing activities (e.g., play sports) when they felt bad, and to engage in useful but mood-decreasing activities (e.g., housework) when they felt good. These findings clarify how hedonic considerations shape human behavior. They may explain how humans overcome the allure of short-term gains in happiness to maximize long-term welfare.

  15. The Challenge and Path Choice of Higher Vocational Students'Professional Ethics Behavior Education%高职学生职业道德行为养成教育实施路径探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳

    2014-01-01

    Higher vocational students' professional ethics is in good condition, but there is still existing some problems of students' professional ethics with ambiguous and inaccurate understanding. The nurtu-rance education still attaches great importance to the low degree of professional moral behavior and the re-lated problems as poor teaching effect. Through setting up the ‘people-oriented’ education idea; colleges are reforming the curriculum teaching of professional ethics behavior, constructing the highly efficient workforce; Reforming the evaluation methods; Strengthening the practice teaching of professional ethics be-havior to develop harmonious campus culture, doing a good job of higher vocational students' education of professional ethics behavior, so as to improve the quality of personnel training.%高职学生总体职业道德状况良好,但仍存在部分学生对职业道德的认识模糊、重视不够及教育教学效果不佳等问题。学校应本着“以人为本”的教育理念,通过建设精干高效的工作队伍,改革职业道德行为养成教育的教学,加强职业道德行为养成教育的实践,改进评价办法,建设和谐的校园文化等途径,做好高职学生职业道德行为养成教育工作。

  16.  “What are the main factors that influence consumers in their choice of green energy company over the conventional energy”? : “The role of green marketing in development of consumer behavior towards green energy”

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Usama; Aamer Raza, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to study the factors affecting consumers while taking decision towards electricity providing company. Theoretical Frame work This academic work starts by presenting the background information of energy market, and then presents concept of green marketing, social responsibility, green energy, and consumer behavior in literature review. In conceptual frame work authors adopt consumer decision model, and strategic model which will answer research question ...

  17. Auction fever: exploring informational social influences on bidder choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Previous investigations of herd behavior have identified the importance of informational social influences in consumer decision making. This research presents three studies examining herd behavior in online auctions. The three studies addressed the influence on bidder online choices of herd cues frequently found in online auctions, including bid number, feedback ratings, and number of questions and answers. This research also investigated the effect of different levels of herd cues on bidder online choices under high and low brand awareness in online auctions. The experimental results demonstrated that bidders use online herd cues when making decisions in online auctions. Additionally, different levels of herd cues influence bidder online choices in both high and low brand awareness product situations. PMID:21192763

  18. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogeno...

  19. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle R Dalenberg

    Full Text Available In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively. After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.

  20. New paradoxes in intertemporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Lin Rao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Similar to research on risky choice, the traditional analysis of intertemporal choice takes the view that an individual behaves so as to maximize the discounted sum of all future utilities. The well-known Allais paradox contradicts the fundamental postulates of maximizing the expected value or utility of a risky option. We describe a violation of the law of diminishing marginal utility as well as an intertemporal version of the Allais paradox.

  1. Evoked emotions predict food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores. PMID:25521352

  2. Free-Choice Learning at a Metropolitan Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Tofield, Sara; Vyle, Brent; Bolstad, Rachel

    This paper reports on an inquiry into the use of zoos as a source of informal or free choice learning. The study was contextualized within the zoo's environmental enrichment program - an animal husbandry principle that seeks to develop species-typical behavior for captive animals by using naturalistic enclosures or artificial items that stimulate…

  3. Student Perceptions of Instructional Choices in Middle School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education. Methods: Participants consisted of 246…

  4. Fix and Sample with Rats in the Dynamics of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2006-01-01

    The generality of the molar view of behavior was extended to the study of choice with rats, showing the usefulness of studying order at various levels of extendedness. Rats' presses on two levers produced food according to concurrent variable-interval variable-interval schedules. Seven different reinforcer ratios were arranged within each session,…

  5. Determinants of labor market choices : age differentials and family circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Kutyavina, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My research explores the interactions between labor market choices, public programs, and family circumstances. In the following three chapters, I study the relationship between labor market conditions and job search behavior of workers of differing ages, the effect of children's events on parental retirement timing, as well as the impact of UI extensions on recipients' spouses

  6. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling inv

  7. Irrational Diversification; An Examination of Individual Portfolio Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe study individual portfolio choice in a laboratory experiment and find strong evidence for heuristic behavior. The subjects tend to focus on the marginal distribution of an asset, while largely ignoring its diversification benefits. They follow a conditional 1/n diversification heurist

  8. Personality and Values as Predictors of Medical Specialty Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Brian J.; Hartung, Paul J.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2011-01-01

    Research rarely considers the combined influence of personality traits and values in predicting behavioral outcomes. We aimed to advance a germinal line of inquiry that addresses this gap by separately and simultaneously examining personality traits and physician work values to predict medical specialty choice. First-year medical students (125…

  9. Appearance Matters: Neural Correlates of Food Choice and Packaging Aesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patte

  10. Effects of web experience on consumer choice: a multicultural approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota; Gomez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to analyze the buying behavior of internet users in two European countries with different cultural backgrounds, Spain and The Netherlands, assessing the influence of online experience factors on the choice of an internet vendor. It also aims to identify and compare the inf

  11. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  12. The neural basis of risky choice with affective outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S Suter

    Full Text Available Both normative and many descriptive theories of decision making under risk are based on the notion that outcomes are weighted by their probability, with subsequent maximization of the (subjective expected outcome. Numerous investigations from psychology, economics, and neuroscience have produced evidence consistent with this notion. However, this research has typically investigated choices involving relatively affect-poor, monetary outcomes. We compared choice in relatively affect-poor, monetary lottery problems with choice in relatively affect-rich medical decision problems. Computational modeling of behavioral data and model-based neuroimaging analyses provide converging evidence for substantial differences in the respective decision mechanisms. Relative to affect-poor choices, affect-rich choices yielded a more strongly curved probability weighting function of cumulative prospect theory, thus signaling that the psychological impact of probabilities is strongly diminished for affect-rich outcomes. Examining task-dependent brain activation, we identified a region-by-condition interaction indicating qualitative differences of activation between affect-rich and affect-poor choices. Moreover, brain activation in regions that were more active during affect-poor choices (e.g., the supramarginal gyrus correlated with individual trial-by-trial decision weights, indicating that these regions reflect processing of probabilities. Formal reverse inference Neurosynth meta-analyses suggested that whereas affect-poor choices seem to be based on brain mechanisms for calculative processes, affect-rich choices are driven by the representation of outcomes' emotional value and autobiographical memories associated with them. These results provide evidence that the traditional notion of expectation maximization may not apply in the context of outcomes laden with affective responses, and that understanding the brain mechanisms of decision making requires the domain

  13. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  14. Vegetarian Choices in the Protein Foods Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Vegetarian choices You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods Vegetarian choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get ...

  15. 基于选择方案抽样调查的城市群低频率出行行为研究%Study on Low-frequency Intercity Travel Behavior of Urban Agglomeration Based on Choice-based Sampling Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖雪; 董治; 吴兵; 刘志钢

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze low-frequency intercity travel behavior in urban agglomeration,a questionnaire survey with choice-based sampling was made on intercity travel between Shanghai and the other cities in Yangtze River delta,then multinomial Logit (MNL) model was built based on intercity travel behavior data collected.Since data from choice-based sampling were of endogenous stratification bias and avidity bias compared with data from random sampling,inverse-probability weights (IPWs) were introduced and simple modification on exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimator (ESMLE) and weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimator (WESMLE) were used to modify MNL model.The results show that the hit rate of the model without modification,with ESMLE simple modification and WESMLE modification is 57%,75% and 84% respectively; MNL model with WESMLE modification can meet the required accuracy; low-frequency intercity travel behavior is influenced by travel time,cost and personal characteristics,meantime,the behavior is of some randomness and haphazardness.%为分析城市群内低频率城际出行行为,对长三角城市群内上海与其他城市间的城际出行进行选择方案抽样调查,基于城际出行行为调查数据建立出行方式选择的多项Logit(MNL)模型;选择方案抽样调查数据与随机抽样调查数据存在方案分层结构偏差和因素重视度偏差,故引入反转因子(IPW),分别用外源性样本极大似然估计(ESMLE)简单修正法和加权外源性样本极大似然估计(WESMLE)法对MNL模型进行修正.结果表明:未修正模型及2种修正法下的模型命中率分别为57%,75%和84%;WESMLE修正后的模型能基本满足建模精度要求;城市群内低频率城际出行行为受出行时间、费用及个人属性等因素影响,同时,也表现出一定程度的随机性和随意性.

  16. The Effects of Land Use Patterns on Tour Type Choice. The Application of a Hybrid Choice Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Abreu e Silva, João; Sottile, Eleonora; Cherchi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The relations between travel behavior and land use patterns have been the object of intensive research in the last two decades. Due to their immediate policy implications, mode choice and vehicle miles of travel (VMT) have been the main focus of attention. Other relevant dimensions, like trip cha...

  17. 大学生旅游目的地选择与消费行为调查--以安徽省 J学院为例%Investigation of Tourism Destination Choice and Consumption Behavior of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋艳

    2015-01-01

    各种研究和调查显示,大学生旅游积极性相当高,市场潜力巨大。研究对大学生旅游目的地选择和消费行为进行调查,分析大学生旅游目的地选择的影响因素和消费行为特点,根据结论给出开发大学生旅游市场的策略和建议。%Various studies and surveys show that college students have a high enthusiasm for traveling and the market potential of college students is larger .The paper conducts an investigation of the tourism destination selection and the consumer behavior of undergraduate students.It analyzed the factors that influenced the college students'tourism destination selection and consumer be-havior characteristics .Some strategies and suggestions are given to develop the tourism market of university students based on the survey.

  18. What drives customer choice in competitive power markets? Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding what drives customer choice is a crucial first step toward meeting customer needs in competitive power markets. To understand the key drivers of customer choice, Research Triangle Institute (RTI) conducted in-depth telephone interviews with 150 customers in California, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island and with 12 energy service providers (ESPs) serving these states. Because it is a qualitative study, the number of interviews is small; however, these interviews provide a first look at actual choice behavior in the US. This study also drew on previous EPRI research on customer choice and switching intentions, the US pilot program experience, actual customer choice behavior in international markets, and lessons learned in other deregulated industries. This study identified by customer sector--residential, small and medium commercial and industrial (C/I), and large C/I--the factors customers consider when choosing an electricity supplier, customers' reasons for switching electricity supplier, and customers' reasons for not switching. One of the key findings of the study is that the key driver for switching electricity supplier is the desire to save money. In markets where energy service providers can offer significant savings, customers are switching; but, in markets where no price incentives exist, customers are reluctant to switch

  19. Developing a concept of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Our adult concept of choice is not a simple idea, but rather a complex set of beliefs about the causes of actions. These beliefs are situation-, individual- and culture-dependent, and are thus likely constructed through social learning. This chapter takes a rational constructivist approach to examining the development of a concept of choice in young children. Initially, infants' combine assumptions of rational agency with their capacity for statistical inference to reason about alternative possibilities for, and constraints on, action. Preschoolers' build on this basic understanding by integrating domain-specific causal knowledge of physical, biological, and psychological possibility into their appraisal of their own and others' ability to choose. However, preschoolers continue to view both psychological and social motivations as constraints on choice--for example, stating that one cannot choose to harm another, or to act against personal desires. It is not until later that children share the adult belief that choice mediates between conflicting motivations for action. The chapter concludes by suggesting avenues for future research--to better characterize conceptual changes in beliefs about choice, and to understand how such beliefs arise from children's everyday experiences. PMID:23205412

  20. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Compensatory and Noncompensatory Strategies in Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Figner, Bernd; Weeda, Wouter D; Van der Molen, Maurits W; Jansen, Brenda R J; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2016-09-01

    Individuals may differ systematically in their applied decision strategies, which has critical implications for decision neuroscience but is yet scarcely studied. Our study's main focus was therefore to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying compensatory versus noncompensatory strategies in risky choice. Here, we compared people using a compensatory expected value maximization with people using a simplified noncompensatory loss-minimizing choice strategy. To this end, we used a two-choice paradigm including a set of "simple" items (e.g., simple condition), in which one option was superior on all attributes, and a set of "conflict" items, in which one option was superior on one attribute but inferior on other attributes. A binomial mixture analysis of the decisions elicited by these items differentiated between decision-makers using either a compensatory or a noncompensatory strategy. Behavioral differences were particularly pronounced in the conflict condition, and these were paralleled by neural results. That is, we expected compensatory decision-makers to use an integrated value comparison during choice in the conflict condition. Accordingly, the compensatory group tracked the difference in expected value between choice options reflected in neural activation in the parietal cortex. Furthermore, we expected noncompensatory, compared with compensatory, decision-makers to experience increased conflict when attributes provided conflicting information. Accordingly, the noncompensatory group showed greater dorsomedial PFC activation only in the conflict condition. These pronounced behavioral and neural differences indicate the need for decision neuroscience to account for individual differences in risky choice strategies and to broaden its scope to noncompensatory risky choice strategies. PMID:27167399

  1. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  2. Appearance matters: neural correlates of food choice and packaging aesthetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N Van der Laan

    Full Text Available Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several regions, among which the bilateral striatum, were more strongly activated in response to preferred food packages. Food choices could be predicted with an accuracy of up to 61.2% by activation patterns in brain regions previously found to be involved in healthy food choices (superior frontal gyrus and visual processing (middle occipital gyrus. In conclusion, this study shows that mass-univariate analysis can detect small package-induced differences in product preference and that MVPA can successfully predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices from functional MRI data.

  3. Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Prediction of Interests and Choice Goals in the Computing Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Sheu, Hung-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). "Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]." "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45, 79-122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in…

  4. Short-Term Impact of Safer Choices: A Multicomponent, School-Based HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Kirby, Douglas; Parcel, Guy; Banspach, Stephen; Harrist, Ronald; Baumler, Elizabeth; Weil, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of the first year of "Safer Choices," a two-year, multicomponent HIV, STD, and pregnancy-prevention program for high school students based on social theory. Student self-report surveys indicated that "Safer Choices" succeeded in reducing selected risk behaviors and in enhancing selected protective behaviors. The…

  5. Scaling laws and universality in the choice of election candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Mantovani, M C; Moro, M V; Picoli, S; Mendes, R S

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is an increasing interest of physicists in finding regularities related to social phenomena. This interest is clearly motivated by applications that a statistical mechanical description of the human behavior may have in our society. By using this framework, we address this work to cover an open question related to elections: the choice of elections candidates (candidature process). Our analysis reveals that, apart from the social motivations, this system displays features of traditional out-of-equilibrium physical phenomena such as scale-free statistics and universality. Basically, we found a non-linear (power law) mean correspondence between the number of candidates and the size of the electorate (number of voters), and also that this choice has a multiplicative underlying process (lognormal behavior). The universality of our findings is supported by data from 16 elections from 5 countries. In addition, we show that aspects of network scale-free can be connected to this universal behavior.

  6. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  7. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years. PMID:21732376

  8. Cyborg pantocrator: international relations theory from decisionism to rational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhot, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International relations theory took shape in the 1950s in reaction to the behavioral social science movement, emphasizing the limits of rationality in a context of high uncertainty, weak rules, and the possibility of lethal conflict. Yet the same discipline rapidly developed "rational choice" models applied to foreign policy decision making or nuclear strategy. This paper argues that this transformation took place almost seamlessly around the concept of "decision." Initially associated with an antirationalist or "decisionist" approach to politics, the sovereign decision became the epitome of political rationality when it was redescribed as "rational choice," thus easing the cultural acceptance of political realism in the postwar years.

  9. Active Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Burbidge, Shaunna K; Goulias, Konstadinos G.

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity has become a dominant feature of most American’s lives over the past quarter century. This has spurred an entire research domain straddling several different disciplines. Although model development within the field of travel behavior as a whole continues today with more momentum than ever, the focus on active mode choice has largely been overlooked and left to a small fragment of transportation and public health researchers. Research regarding active mode choice has been...

  10. Egalitarianism in Multi-Choice Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Llorca, N.; Sánchez-Soriano, J.; Tijs, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the equal division core for arbitrary multi-choice games and the constrained egalitarian solution for con- vex multi-choice games, using a multi-choice version of the Dutta-Ray algorithm for traditional convex games. These egalitarian solutions for multi-choice games have

  11. Patients who make terrible therapeutic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.

  12. The Effects of Gasoline Price and Tax Policy on the Micro-choice Behavior in China's Automobile Market%汽油价格、税收政策与乘用车市场的微观选择行为——基于需求侧、供给侧和节能减排效应估计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立中; 李郁芳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the random coefficient discrete choice model and China's car market aggregate data, this paper analyze the demand and supply of car market, and the effect of gasoline price and purchase revenue policy on micro-choice behavior with simulation. The%本文运用中国乘用车市场的加总数据和随机系数离散选择(BLP)等模型。在对基本型乘用车(轿车)市场进行需求估计和供给分析的基础上。实证模拟测算了汽油价格和车辆购置税政策对微观个体选择行为的可能影响.并对乘用车市场节能减排效应进行了估计。结果发现:①在需求估计中,平均而言,乘用车价格上升1万元/辆(2006年10月价格),市场份额将下降0.19%;每公里费用上升1元(2006年10月价格),市场份额将下降34.16%。②供给分析表明,排量越大,价格越高的车型。价格成本标高程度相对越小,政策作用窗口越大。③节能

  13. Process algebra with partial choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Baeten, J.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to bridge the gap between ACP and TCSP. To this end, ACP is extended with two non-deterministic choice operators in a setting of bisimulation semantics. With these operators, we can express safety properties of systems without the use of silent steps, and we can verify

  14. How to make moral choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Moral choice is committing to act for what one believes is right and good. It is less about what we know than about defining who we are. Three cases typical of those used in the principles or dilemmas approach to teaching ethics are presented. But they are analyzed using an alternative approach based on seven moral choice heuristics--approaches proven to increase the likelihood of locating the best course of action. The approaches suggested for analyzing moral choice situations include: (a) identify the outcomes of available alternative courses of action; (b) rule out strategies that involve deception, coercion, reneging on promises, collusion, and contempt for others; (c) be authentic (do not deceive yourself); (d) relate to others on a human basis; (e) downplay rational justifications; (f) match the solution to the problem, not the other way around; (g) execute on the best solution, do not hold out for the perfect one; and (h) take action to improve the choice after it has been made. PMID:22416620

  15. The Multiple-Choice Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Andries van den Broek

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De meerkeuzemaatschappij. There are many areas of life where people have more choice than ever before. The leisure industry bombards consumers with a flood of goods and services; the family and the Church have lost their dominant position in the structuring of people's lives; there

  16. Home education: Constructions of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth MORTON

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Families who choose to home educate generally do so due to dissatisfaction with schoolbased education. Common perceptions of home educators oscillate between images of the 'tree-hugging hippy' and the 'religious fanatic'. Whilst attempting to go beyond suchstereotypical dichotomies, this paper will examine three very different groupings of home educators and their varying constructions of childhood and the social world, demonstratingthe spectrum between home education as an expression of human rights and of fundamentalism. The first grouping construct home education as a 'natural' choice, often presented in political opposition to existing social structures. For the second grouping home education is predominantly a 'social' choice relating to the conscious transmission of various forms of capital. Finally there are 'last resort' home educators for whom home education is not perceived as a choice. Based on qualitative research, this paper will argue that, even where home education is constructed as natural, the social aspects and impacts of home education choices cannot be ignored.

  17. Dynamic Portfolio Choice with Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    We show how portfolio choice can be modeled in continuous time with transitory and persistent transaction costs, multiple assets, multiple signals predicting returns, and general signal dynamics. The objective function is derived from the limit of discrete-time models with endogenous transaction...

  18. Differentiated Bayesian Conjoint Choice Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sándor (Zsolt); M. Wedel (Michel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPrevious conjoint choice design construction procedures have produced a single design that is administered to all subjects. This paper proposes to construct a limited set of different designs. The designs are constructed in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account prior uncertainty about

  19. Educational Choice and Educational Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Kathleen Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation entitled "Educational choice and educational space" aims to explore the confluence of constructed space and geographic space using a supply-side context for New Zealand's public school system of quasi-open enrollment. In Part I, New Zealand's state and state-integrated school system across four urban areas is analyzed…

  20. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bronner; R. de Hoog

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice op

  1. Implicit markers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive tha

  2. Model choice versus model criticism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Christian P.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Chen, Carla

    2009-01-01

    The new perspectives on ABC and Bayesian model criticisms presented in Ratmann et al.(2009) are challenging standard approaches to Bayesian model choice. We discuss here some issues arising from the authors' approach, including prior influence, model assessment and criticism, and the meaning of error in ABC.

  3. Thought and Choice in Chess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Adriaan D.

    2008-01-01

    What does a chessmaster think when he prepartes his next move? How are his thoughts organized? Which methods and strategies does he use by solving his problem of choice? To answer these questions, the author did an experimental study in 1938, to which famous chessmasters participated (Alekhine, Max

  4. Patterns of brand and store choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The sublects of brand choice and store choice have been widely studied, but these two aspects of consumer behaviour have tended to be treated in isolation from each other. This thesis therefore provides a detailed examination of the way in which brand choice and store choice patterns compare and interact. The results are based on AGB consumer panel data, and relate to three frequently-bought grocery products. Despite the multiplicity of factors believed to influence brand and store choice, at...

  5. 初始条件对驾驶员逐日路径选择行为和网络交通流演化的影响%Influence of Initial Conditions on Drivers’Day-to-Day Route Choice Behavior and Network Traffic flow Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗序; 关宏志; 严海

    2012-01-01

    从查阅到的文献可以看到,在驾驶员逐日路径选择行为及网络交通流演化的研究中,均假定驾驶员第1天对路径的理解行程时间相同,也即初始条件中没有考虑驾驶员的个体差异性.首先,对初始条件和驾驶员逐日路径选择过程建模,在2条平行路径的简单路网中,运用Agent仿真方法模拟了不同初始条件下驾驶员逐日路径选择过程.结果表明:路网达到平衡所需的时间与驾驶员对历史信息的依赖程度显著相关,而与第1天驾驶员对路径行程时间理解的相关差异性不显著;路网平衡和用户平衡的差别与两者均显著相关.虽然在不同情况下路网均能够达到近似的用户平衡状态,但是平衡时驾驶员对2条路径的理解行程时间存在较大差异.%From previous studies of drivers' day-to-day route choice behavior and network traffic flow evolution, it is assumed that the first day's perceived travel time on route is the same. In other words, the diversity of drivers is not taken into account in the initial conditions. Firstly, initial condition and drivers' day-to-day route choice process are modeled. Then, drivers' day-to-day route choice process in a simple road network with two parallel routes is simulated by Agent simulation method. The results show that the time required when network reaches equilibrium is significantly associated with drivers' reliance on the historical information but is not significantly associated with the differences of drivers' perceived travel time on routes on the first day. However, the difference between network equilibrium and user equilibrium is both significantly associated with the two factors. Moreover, although network equilibrium under different conditions is similar to user equilibrium, drivers' perceived travel time on the two routes is quite different when network reaches equilibrium.

  6. Do as we wish: Parental tactics of mate choice manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2013-08-01

    The mate choices of children do not always meet with the approval of their parents. As a consequence, the latter employ a battery of tactics that they use to manipulate the mating behavior of the former. This paper offers the first taxonomy of parental tactics of mate choice manipulation. In particular, in Study 1, 57 semi-structured interviews revealed 72 acts that parents employ to influence their children, and 27 that they employ to influence their children's partners. In Study 2, 405 parents rated how likely they were to use these acts to influence their daughters' and sons' mate choices. Factor analysis of participants' responses revealed 12 manipulation tactics that parents use on their children, and four manipulation tactics that they use on their children's partners.

  7. Is the Emotional Dog Blind to Its Choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranka, Marek A; Bahník, Štěpán

    2016-06-01

    Previous choice blindness studies showed that people sometimes fail to notice when their choice is changed. Subsequently, they are willing to provide reasons for the manipulated choice which is the opposite of the one they made just seconds ago. In the present study, participants first made binary judgments about the wrongness of described behaviors and then were shown an opposite answer during a second reading of some of the descriptions. Half of the participants saw the answer during the second presentation of the description and the other half saw it only after the presentation. Based on Haidt's Social intuitionist model, we hypothesized that participants in the latter group would be less likely to reconcile their intuition with the presented answer and thus they would be more likely to reject it. However, we found no difference between the groups. PMID:27404986

  8. The Experientiality of Sustainability: Living with Our Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, M.

    2015-12-01

    In an age when the escalating impact of human activity on the global environment has begun to threaten the long-term survival of humanity, increasing focus is being brought to bear on the scientific, social, economic, political, and cultural ramifications of the various courses of action open to individuals and societies across the globe. The intentional and intelligent modification of human behavior to balance environmental impact with human wellbeing is seen as the key to entering what Jeffrey Sachs has called the 'Age of Sustainable Development'. There are mechanisms, legal, socio-cultural, religious, economic, and technological that may ameliorate to varying degrees the environmental impact of human activity. These mechanisms are explored at length in the literature and assessed by their capacity to encourage or compel compliant behavior. They rely heavily on individual and collective choices based on rational self-interest, which is in turn informed by knowledge. The role of education in facilitating sustainable human activity is a key feature of many contributions to the literature. The alarming shortcoming in these discussions is the absence of an effective approach to learned sustainability that may achieve the necessary changes in human behavior and particularly adult choices with respect to daily acts of consumption. Sustainable practices and choices are most effectively produced through immersion in experientially based learning programs aimed at elementary and secondary school students. The experience of sustainable living during the critical phase of personal identity formation is the key to shaping behavior, and not just imparting knowledge. This AGU education session, ED041: Teaching Sustainability and Human Impact through Collaborative Teaching Methods, explores the principles on which such experiential immersion learning contributes to genuine sustainable behaviors and choices through targeted, intelligently designed residential programs.

  9. Isolating the delay component of impulsive choice in adolescent rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse eMcClure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impulsive choice — the preference for small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards — has been linked to various psychological conditions ranging from behavioral disorders to addiction. These links highlight the critical need to dissect the various components of this multifaceted behavioral trait. Delay discounting tasks allow researchers to study an important factor of this behavior: how the subjective value of a rewards changes over a delay period. However, existing methods of delay discounting include a confound of modifying reward sizes during the procedure. Here we present a new approach of using a single constant reward size to assess delay discounting. A complementary approach could hold delay constant and assess the utility of changing quantities of a reward. Isolating these behavioral components can advance our ability to explore the behavioral complexity of impulsive choice. We present the methods for isolating delay in detail, and further capitalize on this method by pairing it with a standard peak interval task to test whether individual variation in delay discounting can be explained by differences in perception of time in male and female adolescent rats. We find that rats that were more precise in discriminating time intervals were also less impulsive in their choice. Our data suggest that differences in timing and delay discounting are not causally related, but instead are more likely influenced by a common factor. Further, the mean-level change in our measure between postnatal day 28 and 42 suggests this test may be capturing a developmental change in this factor. In summary, this new method of isolating individual components of impulsive choice (delay or quantity can be efficiently applied in either adolescent or adult animal models and may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying impulsivity and its links to psychological disorders.

  10. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    This study analyses visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments are found to be strongly affected by stimuli presentation format. These results...... suggest that presentation format has strong implications for the external validity of discrete choice estimates....

  11. Neural bases of human mate choice: multiple value dimensions, sex difference, and self-assessment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Risa; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Mate choice is an example of sophisticated daily decision making supported by multiple componential processes. In mate-choice literature, different characteristics of the value dimensions, including the sex difference in the value dimensions, and the involvement of self-assessment due to the mutual nature of the choice, have been suggested. We examined whether the brain-activation pattern during virtual mate choice would be congruent with these characteristics in terms of stimulus selectivity and activated brain regions. In measuring brain activity, young men and women were shown two pictures of either faces or behaviors, and they indicated which person they would choose either as a spouse or as a friend. Activation selective to spouse choice was observed face-selectively in men's amygdala and behavior-selectively in women's motor system. During both partner-choice conditions, behavior-selective activation was observed in the temporoparietal regions. Taking the available knowledge of these regions into account, these results are congruent with the suggested characteristics of value dimensions for physical attractiveness, parenting resources, and beneficial personality traits for a long-lasting relationship, respectively. The medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices were nonselectively activated during the partner choices, suggesting the involvement of a self-assessment process. The results thus provide neuroscientific support for the multi-component mate-choice mechanism.

  12. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  13. Patterns of Reinforcement and the Essential Value of Brands: II. Evaluation of a Model of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji; Foxall, Gordon R.; Doyle, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We employ a behavioral-economic equation put forward by Hursh and Silberberg (2008) to explain human consumption behavior among substitutable food brands, applying a consumer-choice model--the behavioral perspective model (BPM; Foxall, 1990/2004, 2005). In this study, we apply the behavioral-economic equation to human economic consumption data. We…

  14. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Malika; Kempenaers, Bart; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching) primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability), and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing). We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs.

  15. Fitness Benefits of Mate Choice for Compatibility in a Socially Monogamous Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Ihle

    Full Text Available Research on mate choice has primarily focused on preferences for quality indicators, assuming that all individuals show consensus about who is the most attractive. However, in some species, mating preferences seem largely individual-specific, suggesting that they might target genetic or behavioral compatibility. Few studies have quantified the fitness consequences of allowing versus preventing such idiosyncratic mate choice. Here, we report on an experiment that controls for variation in overall partner quality and show that zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata pairs that resulted from free mate choice achieved a 37% higher reproductive success than pairs that were forced to mate. Cross-fostering of freshly laid eggs showed that embryo mortality (before hatching primarily depended on the identity of the genetic parents, whereas offspring mortality during the rearing period depended on foster-parent identity. Therefore, preventing mate choice should lead to an increase in embryo mortality if mate choice targets genetic compatibility (for embryo viability, and to an increase in offspring mortality if mate choice targets behavioral compatibility (for better rearing. We found that pairs from both treatments showed equal rates of embryo mortality, but chosen pairs were better at raising offspring. These results thus support the behavioral, but not the genetic, compatibility hypothesis. Further exploratory analyses reveal several differences in behavior and fitness components between "free-choice" and "forced" pairs.

  16. Altered functional response to risky choice in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm G Connolly

    Full Text Available Risky decision-making is commonly observed in persons at risk for and infected with HIV and is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet it is currently unknown whether HIV alters brain processing of risk-taking decision-making.This study examined the neural substrate of a risky decision-making task in 21 HIV seropositive (HIV+ and 19 seronegative (HIV- comparison participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while participants performed the risky-gains task, which involves choosing among safe (20 cents and risky (40/80 cent win or loss choices. Linear mixed effects analyses examining group and decision type were conducted. Robust regressions were performed to examine the relationship between nadir CD4 count and Kalichman sexual compulsivity and brain activation in the HIV+ group. The overlap between the task effects and robust regressions was explored.Although there were no serostatus effects in behavioral performance on the risky-gains task, HIV+ individuals exhibited greater activation for risky choices in the basal ganglia, i.e. the caudate nucleus, but also in the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and insula relative to the HIV- group. The HIV+ group also demonstrated reduced functional responses to safe choices in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to the HIV- group. HIV+ individuals with higher nadir CD4 count and greater sexual compulsivity displayed lower differential responses to safe versus risky choices in many of these regions.This study demonstrated fronto-striatal loop dysfunction associated with HIV infection during risky decision-making. Combined with similar between-group task behavior, this suggests an adaptive functional response in regions critical to reward and behavioral control in the HIV+ group. HIV-infected individuals with higher CD4 nadirs demonstrated activation patterns more similar to seronegative individuals. This suggests that the severity of

  17. Phenotype manipulation influences microhabitat choice in pygmy grasshoppers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lena WENNERSTEN; Einat KARPESTAM; Anders FORSMAN

    2012-01-01

    The matching habitat choice hypothesis posits that individuals actively choose those microhabitats that best match their specific phenotype to maximize fitness.Despite the profound implications,matching habitat choice has not been unequivocally demonstrated.We conducted two experiments to examine the impact of pigmentation pattern in the color polymorphic pygmy grasshopper Tetrix subulata on habitat choice in a laboratory thermal mosaic arena.We found no behavioral differences in the thermal mosaic among pygmy grasshoppers belonging to either pale,intermediate or dark natural color morphs.However,after manipulating the grasshoppers' phenotype,the utilization through time of warmer and colder parts of the arena was different for black-painted and white-painted individuals.White-painted individuals used warmer parts of the arena,at least during the initial stage of the experiment.We conclude that microhabitat choice represents a form of behavioural plasticity.Thus,even if the choice itself is flexible and not genetically determined,it can still lead to spatial genetic structure in the population because the phenotypes themselves may be genetically mediated.

  18. Language Choice & Global Learning Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Sayers

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available How can other languages be used in conjunction with English to further intercultural and multilingual learning when teachers and students participate in computer-based global learning networks? Two portraits are presented of multilingual activities in the Orillas and I*EARN learning networks, and are discussed as examples of the principal modalities of communication employed in networking projects between distant classes. Next, an important historical precedent --the social controversy which accompanied the introduction of telephone technology at the end of the last century-- is examined in terms of its implications for language choice in contemporary classroom telecomputing projects. Finally, recommendations are offered to guide decision making concerning the role of language choice in promoting collaborative critical inquiry.

  19. Portfolio Choice with Illiquid Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Miklós; Szeidl, Adam

    2003-01-01

    The present Paper investigates the effects of incorporating illiquidity in a standard dynamic portfolio choice problem. Lack of liquidity means that an asset cannot be immediately traded at any point in time. We find the portfolio share of financial wealth invested in illiquid assets given the liquidity premium. Benchmark calibrations imply a portfolio share of 2-6% in cash. These numbers are in line with survey data and also with portfolio recommendations by practitioners. We also find that ...

  20. Time, Self, and Intertemporal Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia eRetz Lucci

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific studies of intertemporal choice (IC) have focused mainly on the neural representation of self-control mechanisms and valuation. This reflects what has been considered as the core of the IC phenomenon. The claim of this paper is that deviations from exponential reward discounting as a function of time might be fully accounted for by the deviation of subjective time from calendar time. This claim is based on evidence that specificities of time perception can modulate discounting...

  1. Business Choice of Enterprises' Diversification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QinZheng; ZouJianjun; ChenShou

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of diversification has become an important approach to enterprise development A successful diversification strategy depends mainly on the correct business choice. Before choosing a new business, we must identify the core competeneies of the enterprise and research the attraction and criticai success factors of the target business. Then we should make sure whether the core competencies match the critical success factors or not.The new business should be useful for cuitivating sustainable competitive advantage.

  2. De controller als choice architect

    OpenAIRE

    Maas, Victor

    2012-01-01

    textabstractManagement accountants are choice architects: they provide information that is used in managerial decision making and they have considerable influence on the monetary and non-monetary incentives that drive managers’ decision-making processes. Over the past two decades, our know - ledge of how people make economic decisions has increased tremendously. However, this has had only very little impact on the design of management accounting and control systems in organizations. Consequen...

  3. Social Preferences and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Riedl, A.M.; Smeets, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores whether social preferences influence portfolio choices of retail investors. We use administrative investor trading records which we link to decisions of the same investors in experiments with real money at stake. We show that social preferences rather than return expectations or risk perceptions are the main driver of investments in socially responsible (SRI) mutual funds. Social preferences are only associated with investments in SRI funds without tax benefits, but are un...

  4. Experimental Economics Meets Language Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Barañano Mentxaka, Ilaski; Kovarik, Jaromir; Uriarte Ayo, José Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Roughly one half of World's languages are in danger of extinction. The endangered languages, spoken by minorities, typically compete with powerful languages such as En- glish or Spanish. Consequently, the speakers of minority languages have to consider that not everybody can speak their language, converting the language choice into strategic,coordination-like situation. We show experimentally that the displacement of minority languages may be partially explained by the imperfect informa...

  5. A HARD CHOICE (CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    KRAVCHENKO NATALIYA A.; KUZNETSOVA SVETLANA A.

    2014-01-01

    The case describes the problems of strategic choice: a small company successfully working in the engineering market (automation of technological processes) in the electric power industry has to make a decision on its further development in a changing external environment and increased competition. The case was carried out to be used in training programs of different levels within the courses “Strategic Management”, “Innovation Management”, “Strategic Analysis Methods”, “Change Management” whe...

  6. A quantum delayed choice experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Peruzzo, Alberto; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; O'Brien, Jeremy L

    2012-01-01

    Quantum systems exhibit particle-like or wave-like behaviour depending on the experimental apparatus they are confronted by. This wave-particle duality is at the heart of quantum mechanics, and is fully captured in Wheeler's famous delayed choice gedanken experiment. In this variant of the double slit experiment, the observer chooses to test either the particle or wave nature of a photon after it has passed through the slits. Here we report on a quantum delayed choice experiment, based on a quantum controlled beam-splitter, in which both particle and wave behaviours can be investigated simultaneously. The genuinely quantum nature of the photon's behaviour is tested via a Bell inequality, which here replaces the delayed choice of the observer. We observe strong Bell inequality violations, thus showing that no model in which the photon knows in advance what type of experiment it will be confronted by, hence behaving either as a particle or as wave, can account for the experimental data.

  7. Quickly making the correct choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2015-08-01

    In daily life, unconscious choices guide many of our on-going actions. Such choices need to be made quickly, because the options change as the action progresses. We confirmed that people make reasonable choices when they have to quickly decide between two alternatives, and studied the basis of such decisions. The task was to tap with their finger on as many targets as possible within 2 min. A new target appeared after every tap, sometimes accompanied by a second target that was easier to hit. When there was only one target, subjects had to find the right balance between speed and accuracy. When there were two targets, they also had to choose between them. We examined to what extent subjects switched to the target that was easier to hit when it appeared some time after the original one. Subjects generally switched to the easier target whenever doing so would help them hit more targets within the 2-min session. This was so, irrespective of whether the different delays were presented in separate sessions or were interleaved within one session. Whether or not they switched did not depend on how successful they were at hitting the targets on earlier attempts, but it did depend on the position of the finger at the moment that the easy target appeared. We conclude that people have continuous access to reasonable estimates of how long various movement options would take and of how precise the endpoints are likely to be, given the instantaneous circumstances. PMID:25913027

  8. Understanding patients’ decision-making strategies in hospital choice: Literature review and a call for experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Insights from psychology and cognitive science have, as yet, barely entered hospital choice research. This conceptual article closes this gap by reviewing and conceptually framing the current literature on hospital choice and patient information behavior and by discussing which tools are needed to advance scientific methodology in the study of patient decision-making strategies in hospital choice. Specifically, we make a call for more experimental research in hospital choice in order to complement existing theories, methods, and tools. This article introduces computerized process-tracing tools in hospital choice research, and also outlines a hands-on example, to provide a basis for future research.

  9. Impulsive social influence increases impulsive choices on a temporal discounting task in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M Gilman

    Full Text Available Adolescents and young adults who affiliate with friends who engage in impulsive behavior are more likely to engage in impulsive behaviors themselves, and those who associate with prosocial (i.e. more prudent, future oriented peers are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior. However, it is difficult to disentangle the contribution of peer influence vs. peer selection (i.e., whether individuals choose friends with similar traits when interpreting social behaviors. In this study, we combined a novel social manipulation with a well-validated delay discounting task assessing impulsive behavior to create a social influence delay discounting task, in which participants were exposed to both impulsive (smaller, sooner or SS payment and non-impulsive (larger, later or LL payment choices from their peers. Young adults in this sample, n = 51, aged 18-25 had a higher rate of SS choices after exposure to impulsive peer influence than after exposure to non-impulsive peer influence. Interestingly, in highly susceptible individuals, the rate of non-impulsive choices did not increase after exposure to non-impulsive influence. There was a positive correlation between self-reported suggestibility and degree of peer influence on SS choices. These results suggest that, in young adults, SS choices appear to be influenced by the choices of same-aged peers, especially for individuals who are highly susceptible to influence.

  10. 公众的政府服务渠道选择行为--基于网络渠道与传统渠道的对比分析%The Citizens'Public Service Channel Choice Behavior:Based on Comparative Analysis of the Network Channel and Traditional Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平

    2016-01-01

    According to the web channel ,the telephone channel and the field channel which are the main public service channels , the study propose four kinds of influential factors for the citizens'public service channel choice behavior .Based on citizen questionnaire and using the method of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM ) ,the result finds that some main factors that have influence on citizen choose public service channels such as matching of channel and service ,ease of use for channel ,usefulness of channel , the experience of use channel and special situation of the need .Knowledge about behavioral motives is more important for the government to plan service channel reasonably and deliver public service effectively , based that some strategies are proposed .%借鉴国外的公众公共服务渠道选择影响因素,提出四类影响因素,面向网络渠道和现场、电话为主的传统渠道,构建公众选择行为模型,并通过市民问卷调查,采用结构方程模型进行实证分析。结果表明,公众的政务服务渠道的选择行为主要受到渠道与服务的匹配性、渠道的易用性、渠道的有用性、个人的使用经历以及需求的情景特殊性的影响,据此提出有利于政府合理规划网络和传统服务渠道的建议。

  11. Choices in health care: the European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Sarah; Dixon, Anna

    2006-07-01

    This paper examines some policies to increase or restrict consumer choice in western European health systems as regards four decisions: choice between public and private insurance; choice of public insurance fund; choice of first contact care provider and choice of hospital. Choice between public and private insurance is limited and arose for historical reasons in Germany. Owing to significant constraints, few people choose the private option. Choice of public insurance fund tends to be exercised by younger and healthier people, the decision to change fund is mainly associated with price and, despite complex risk adjustment mechanisms, it has led to risk selection by funds. Choice of first contact care provider is widespread in Europe. In countries where choice has traditionally been restricted, reforms aim to make services more accessible and convenient to patients. Reforms to restrict direct access to specialists aim to reduce unnecessary and inappropriate care but have been unpopular with the public and professionals. Patients' take up of choice of hospital has been surprisingly low, given their stated willingness to travel. Only where choice is actively supported in the context of long waiting times is take up higher. The objectives, implementation and impact of policies about choice have varied across western Europe. Culture and embedded norms may be significant in determining the extent to which patients exercise choice. PMID:16824264

  12. Girls, girls, girls: gender composition and female school choice

    OpenAIRE

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Gender segregation in the labor market may be explained by women's re- luctance to choose technical occupations, although the foundations for career choices are certainly laid earlier, during education. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose those subjects if they are in single-sex classes. Possible explanations are the lack of self-confidence of girls in male-dominated subjects, the domi- nating behavior of boys in th...

  13. Saliency of product origin information in consumer choices

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitrović, Tanja; Vida, Irena

    2015-01-01

    In light of increasing market complexities resulting from globalization of consumer products/brands in both mature and transitional markets, this study examines the saliency of information related to the national origin of products in consumer choice behavior. Specifically, effects of consumer ethnocentrism and the type of product/service category on perceived importance of product origin information are investigated. Analysis of data collected on a sample of adult consumers suggests that sal...

  14. Evaluation of connected vehicle impact on mobility and mode choice

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Minelli; Pedram Izadpanah; Saiedeh Razavi

    2015-01-01

    Connected vehicle is emerging as a solution to exacerbating congestion problems in urban areas. It is important to understand the impacts of connected vehicle on network and travel behavior of road users. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the impact of connected vehicle on the mode choice and mobility of transportation networks. An iterative methodology was used in this paper where demands for various modes were modified based on the changes in travel time between each origin-de...

  15. Environmental Regulation and Choice of Innovation in Oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of an environmental regulation on the innovation choice of firms in an oligopoly. Most existing studies on environmental regulations and innovations examine the optimal behavior of firms when one innovation project is feasible. In our model, firms are allowed to choose from multiple types of innovation projects. Our main contributions are that we derive the conditions under which environmentally friendly and cost reducing innovations are selected in Bertrand...

  16. Grading School Choice: Evaluating School Choice Programs by the Friedman Gold Standard. School Choice Issues in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice published a report titled "Grading Vouchers: Ranking America's School Choice Programs." Its purpose was to measure every existing school choice program against the gold standard set by Milton and Rose Friedman: that the most effective way to improve K-12 education and thus ensure a stable…

  17. The Environment Makes a Difference: The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes as Precursors in Different Food Choice Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Laura M; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory 'one is sufficient'-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior. PMID:27621719

  18. The Environment Makes a Difference: The Impact of Explicit and Implicit Attitudes as Precursors in Different Food Choice Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Laura M.; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory ‘one is sufficient’-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior. PMID:27621719

  19. Rational choice by two sequential criteria

    OpenAIRE

    García-Sanz, María D.; Alcantud, José Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to the theory of rational choice under multiple criteria. We perform a preliminary study of the properties of decision made by the sequential application of rational choices. This is then used to obtain a characterization of set-valued choice functions that are rational by two sequential criteria, which follows the approach initiated by Manzini and Mariotti (Amer. Econ. Rev., 2007) for single-valued choice functions. Uniqueness is not guaranteed but ...

  20. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  1. Probabilistic models for qualitative choice behavior : an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Dagsvik, John K.

    2000-01-01

    Preface: The econometric discipline has been criticized for being too similar to mathematical statistics and only to a limited degree linked to formalized theoretical models. This is particularly the case as regards formulation and specification of the stochastic elements in econometric models. Ragnar Frisch, who is known to be the originator of econometrics, expressed both in theory and practice an opposite ideal; namely econometrics as an almost symbiotic blend of statistical...

  2. The PXIE LEBT Design Choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    Typical front-ends of modern light-ion high-intensity accelerators typically consist of an ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a Radiofrequency Quadrupole and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT), which is followed by the main linac accelerating structures. Over the years, many LEBTs have been designed, constructed and operated very successfully. In this paper, we present the guiding principles and compromises that lead to the design choices of the PXIE LEBT, including the rationale for a beam line that allows un-neutralized transport over a significant portion of the LEBT whether the beam is pulsed or DC.

  3. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  4. Capitalism, Socialism and Public Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines Schumpeter’s understanding of the capitalist process and develops a critical analysis of his explanation of why capitalism cannot survive. Part I deals with how Schumpeter understood capitalism. Part II studies why –- from his point of view — capitalism couldn’t survive. Part III analysis why it is actually socialism, as a socio-political alternative, that is impractical and must collapse from contradictions inherent in it. Part IV presents some final reflections, presenting the public choice and the thought of James M. Buchanan, as an alternative to the pessimist Schumpeterian view.

  5. Is there a place for psychology in the framework of rational choice theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss psychological aspect of rational choice theory. The standard version of rational choice rests on a kind of psychology, since it operates with mental states. In standard davidsonian version it is claimed that we explain rational actions by stating proper desires and beliefs that caused the action. We will explore two challenges to the standard version that might be called cultural and naturalistic versions of rational choice. Satz and Ferejohn (1994 challenged standard version by stating that we can provide rational-choice explanations without relying too much on psychological assumptions. They argued in favor of moderate externalism, which should replace thin desire-belief model with thick structuralist conception. According to their model moderate externalism is compatible with realism about psychological states, while at the same time those states need not figure in the best rational choice explanations of actions. The focus of rational choice explanations therefore shifts to non-individual and non-psychological entities, such as firms in explaining economic behavior, parties in explaining functioning of democracy, etc. Although there is a place for psychological states within a moderate externalism, those states are not causally relevant. On Pettit’s account desires and beliefs figure in rational choice explanations merely as “standby causes”. They explain resilience of certain behavior, not its actual cause. Quite contrary to standard rational choice theory, the programming model (Pettit, 2002 defines the neurophysiological level as more basic in explaining behavior. This means that higher-level psychological states are causally relevant for certain behavior only if certain lower-level neurophysiological producer obtains. In this paper standard rational choice theory will be defended against culturalist and naturalist criticism.

  6. Relative gains, losses, and reference points in probabilistic choice in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Marshall

    Full Text Available Theoretical reference points have been proposed to differentiate probabilistic gains from probabilistic losses in humans, but such a phenomenon in non-human animals has yet to be thoroughly elucidated. Three experiments evaluated the effect of reward magnitude on probabilistic choice in rats, seeking to determine reference point use by examining the effect of previous outcome magnitude(s on subsequent choice behavior. Rats were trained to choose between an outcome that always delivered reward (low-uncertainty choice and one that probabilistically delivered reward (high-uncertainty. The probability of high-uncertainty outcome receipt and the magnitudes of low-uncertainty and high-uncertainty outcomes were manipulated within and between experiments. Both the low- and high-uncertainty outcomes involved variable reward magnitudes, so that either a smaller or larger magnitude was probabilistically delivered, as well as reward omission following high-uncertainty choices. In Experiments 1 and 2, the between groups factor was the magnitude of the high-uncertainty-smaller (H-S and high-uncertainty-larger (H-L outcome, respectively. The H-S magnitude manipulation differentiated the groups, while the H-L magnitude manipulation did not. Experiment 3 showed that manipulating the probability of differential losses as well as the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice produced systematic effects on choice behavior. The results suggest that the reference point for probabilistic gains and losses was the expected value of the low-uncertainty choice. Current theories of probabilistic choice behavior have difficulty accounting for the present results, so an integrated theoretical framework is proposed. Overall, the present results have implications for understanding individual differences and corresponding underlying mechanisms of probabilistic choice behavior.

  7. Implications of Motivating Operations for the Functional Analysis of Consumer Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerstrom, Asle; Foxall, Gordon R.; Arntzen, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The present article introduces the concept of Motivating Operation (MO) to the context of consumer choice and discusses the function of the concept of MO in the context of the Behavioral Perspective Model (BPM). Including MO as part of the consumer behavior setting leads to a more comprehensive analysis and, as a result, improves our understanding…

  8. Neural Activity Reveals Preferences Without Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alec; Bernheim, B. Douglas; Camerer, Colin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of inferring the choices people would make (if given the opportunity) based on their neural responses to the pertinent prospects when they are not engaged in actual decision making. The ability to make such inferences is of potential value when choice data are unavailable, or limited in ways that render standard methods of estimating choice mappings problematic. We formulate prediction models relating choices to “non-choice” neural responses and use them to predict out-of-sample choices for new items and for new groups of individuals. The predictions are sufficiently accurate to establish the feasibility of our approach. PMID:25729468

  9. School choice in Amsterdam: which schools are chosen when school choice is free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Ruijs; H. Oosterbeek

    2014-01-01

    Advocates of increased school choice and competition assume that school choices are led by quality considerations. To test this assumption, this paper examines the determinants of secondary school choice in the city of Amsterdam. In this city there are many schools to choose from and school choice i

  10. Research on farmer householders’choice preference response to climate change adaptation behavior in Yutian Oasis of Xinjiang%新疆于田绿洲农户应对气候变化适应性行为选择偏好测量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭灵芝; 马长发; 王国友

    2014-01-01

    基于新疆于田县15个乡镇600户农户调研数据,借用离散选择模型中的多元Logit(MNL)模型分析农户应对气候变化的适应性选择过程中,其个体特征、所处外部环境等因素对某类适应性行为偏好的影响。结果表明,农业生产经验、教育和信贷支持程度对改变种植结构有正向影响;农业生产时长和借贷能力越强的农户,以及居住在绿洲-荒漠交错带的农户增加灌溉意愿强烈;性别、家庭年均纯收入、能否获得借贷是影响地膜覆盖面积的主要因素;受教育程度和家庭年均纯收入越高的农户,越愿意通过增加农作物多样性以应对气候变化,而与亲戚朋友和邻居交往越密切的农户更易对改变播种期持怀疑和反对意见;山区和绿洲-荒漠交错带的农户对家畜圈养适应性选择偏好最低。%Based on the field survey data from 600 farmer households in 15 Townships,using the Multivariate Logit (MNL)Model of the discrete choice model,analyzed the impacts of the factors of individual characteristics and external environment to a kind of adaptive behavior preference in the procedure of the farmer householders response to the climate change adaptive choice .The results showed that:The agricultural production experiences,education level and the credit support degree had the positive effects to change the planting structure .The farmer householder with longer agricultural production time and stronger borrowing capacity,and living in oasis and desert ecotone had the strong aspiration to in-crease irrigation .The gender,annual family average net income and whether to obtain the loan were the main factors to influence the plastic film mulching areas .The framer householders with higher education level and annual average net in-come had more aspiration to increase crop diversity responding climate change .And the farmer householders more closely contacted with relative friends and

  11. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour.

  12. Preservation of What? Ideological Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Lundmark

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of these thoughts lie in situations involving choices – but also limited choices. DAUM, Dialekt-, ortnamns- och folkminnesarkivet, the Archive for Dialects, Placenames and Folklore, in Umeå, Sweden, is responsible for the documentation of a huge territory, which we do not regret. Nor do we regret the fact that the archive also grasps a wide range of subjects. We have, however, very few staff, and a feeling of insufficiency is not unusual. One way to conquer this feeling is offered by the ongoing discourse that takes place at our establishment – a discourse that is immaterial yet constitutes a solid ground from which to take bearings in our work with such a vast volume of cultural heritage. My first meeting with DAUM as an employee was full of inspiring brainstorming with the former head Jan Nilsson – an open-minded discussion which still continues with Ola Wennstedt, the present director of the archive. In the 1990s a reorganisation of the establishment (at the national level has been taking place and we have had to analyse the whole organisation and DAUM’s place therein. There were policy questions and economic cutbacks, and priorities had to be established in different spheres of activity. The discourse increased in strength and below I will give some examples of the different kind of questions that I am concerned with as an archivist at DAUM.

  13. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour. PMID:10817147

  14. Predictors and Consequences of Perceived Lack of Choice in Becoming an Informal Caregiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Cook, Thomas B.; Martire, Lynn M.; Tomlinson, Jennifer M.; Monin, Joan K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using data from a national sample of informal caregivers to older adults, we identify predictors of lack of choice and the consequences of lack of choice in taking on the caregiving role. Methods A national telephone survey with 1397 caregivers was carried out to assess whether respondents had a choice in taking on the caregiving role, their demographic characteristics, the nature and duration of their caregiving experience, and its impact on their physical and psychological well-being. We compare caregivers who felt they had no choice in taking on the caregiving role to those who did. Results Forty-four percent of caregivers reported a lack of choice in taking on the caregiving role. Highly educated, older caregivers caring for a younger care recipient with emotional or behavioral problems were most likely to report that they had no choice in taking on the caregiving role. Lack of choice is associated with higher levels of emotional stress, physical strain, and negative health impacts, after controlling for multiple confounds including level of care provided, relationship type, primary health condition of the care recipient, and demographic characteristics. Conclusion Lack of choice is an independent risk factor for the negative effects of caregiving, and clinicians should be vigilant to lack of choice as a marker of caregiver distress. PMID:22360296

  15. A stated choice model of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, HJP Harry

    1996-01-01

    Stated preference and choice models currently used in urban planning are focused on predicting single choices. In this paper the intention is to extend these modelling approaches to the case of sequential choice behaviour. Design strategies and model specifications that allow one to predict sequential choice are discussed. The approach is illustrated in a study of sequential mode and destination choice behaviour for shopping trips. The research findings suggest that the proposed approach may ...

  16. Tax evasion under behavioral structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Pantoja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strategic interactions between the fiscal authority and the taxpayer regarding tax evasion and auditing. We fit this interaction into a Bayesian game and introduce the concept of behavioral consistency, which helps reducing the number of available strategies and models the stylized fact according to which the choice to evade is subject to behavioral patterns.

  17. Delayed-choice gedanken experiments and their realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-song; Kofler, Johannes; Zeilinger, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The wave-particle duality dates back to Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect through quanta of light and de Broglie's hypothesis of matter waves. Quantum mechanics uses an abstract description for the behavior of physical systems such as photons, electrons, or atoms. Whether quantum predictions for single systems in an interferometric experiment allow an intuitive understanding in terms of the particle or wave picture depends on the specific configuration which is being used. In principle, this leaves open the possibility that quantum systems always behave either definitely as a particle or definitely as a wave in every experimental run by a priori adapting to the specific experimental situation. This is precisely what is tried to be excluded by delayed-choice experiments, in which the observer chooses to reveal the particle or wave character of a quantum system—or even a continuous transformation between the two—at a late stage of the experiment. The history of delayed-choice gedanken experiments, which can be traced back to the early days of quantum mechanics, is reviewed. Their experimental realizations, in particular, Wheeler's delayed choice in interferometric setups as well as delayed-choice quantum erasure and entanglement swapping are discussed. The latter is particularly interesting, because it elevates the wave-particle duality of a single quantum system to an entanglement-separability duality of multiple systems.

  18. Sex roles and mutual mate choice matter during mate sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond

    2012-06-01

    The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.

  19. Psychophysics of time perception and intertemporal choice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki; Oono, Hidemi; Radford, Mark H. B.

    2008-03-01

    Intertemporal choice and psychophysics of time perception have been attracting attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. Several models have been proposed for intertemporal choice: exponential discounting, general hyperbolic discounting (exponential discounting with logarithmic time perception of the Weber-Fechner law, a q-exponential discount model based on Tsallis's statistics), simple hyperbolic discounting, and Stevens' power law-exponential discounting (exponential discounting with Stevens' power time perception). In order to examine the fitness of the models for behavioral data, we estimated the parameters and AICc (Akaike Information Criterion with small sample correction) of the intertemporal choice models by assessing the points of subjective equality (indifference points) at seven delays. Our results have shown that the orders of the goodness-of-fit for both group and individual data were [Weber-Fechner discounting (general hyperbola) > Stevens' power law discounting > Simple hyperbolic discounting > Exponential discounting], indicating that human time perception in intertemporal choice may follow the Weber-Fechner law. Indications of the results for neuropsychopharmacological treatments of addiction and biophysical processing underlying temporal discounting and time perception are discussed.

  20. Decision processes and the slowing of simple choices in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, Andrew; Suraev, Anna; Curley, Samuel; Gong, Qinchun; Love, Jonathon; Michie, Patricia T

    2015-11-01

    Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have slowed response times (RT). We examined the role of decision processes in the slowing of simple choice responses. We updated Schatz's (1998) meta-analysis of deficits in speed and extend it to systematically examine the effects of schizophrenia on choice accuracy. We then report an experiment requiring decisions about motion direction, which we analyzed using an evidence accumulation model of choice, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA; Brown & Heathcote, 2008). By simultaneously taking into account all aspects of behavior, the LBA was more sensitive to deficits than mean RT or accuracy alone. It also identified the 2 underlying causes of slowing: more cautious decisions (i.e., requiring more evidence before making a decision) and perceptual deficits. The schizophrenia group displayed strong sequential effects that were captured by the response on the previous trial affecting the relative amount of evidence required for choice in the LBA. These results illustrate that evidence accumulation models provide a sensitive tool that can be used to identify the cognitive mechanisms causing slowing in schizophrenia. PMID:26595475

  1. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  2. Does direct-to-consumer advertising affect patients' choice of pain medications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Doucette, William R

    2008-04-01

    In the United States, direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has grown rapidly to promote prescription medications, including analgesics. Few studies in the literature directly examine the association between DTCA and patients' choice of pain medications. This article discusses how DTCA affects such choice from a behavioral perspective, because DTCA-prompted behaviors are important indicators of DTCA's influence. After DTCA exposure, patients may request prescriptions, seek further medication information, and ask about advertised conditions. Patients who suffer from pain may seek more communication with their health care providers because they are cautious about the information quality of DTCA, mainly because of the recall of rofecoxib (Vioxx; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ). However, the availability and DTCA of over-the-counter analgesics complicate their treatment choice. Patients could use DTCA as a tool to launch health communication and make an informed treatment choice with the guidance of their health care providers. PMID:18474186

  3. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin

    2014-06-05

    The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.

  4. Lexical choice in Karo narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.

  5. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  6. Combining food type(s) and food quantity choice in a new food choice paradigm based on vice-virtue bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-08-01

    Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles. PMID:26585634

  7. Sexual display and mate choice in an energetically costly environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Wong, Bob B M; Brooks, Robert

    2010-12-09

    Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior of male and female guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We found that male guppies performed fewer sexual displays and became less choosy, with respect to female size, in the presence of a water current compared to those tested in still water. In contrast to males, female responsive to male displays did not differ between the water current treatments and females exhibited no mate preferences with respect to male size or coloration in either treatment. The results of our study underscore the importance of considering the simultaneous effects of environmental costs on the sexual behaviors of both sexes.

  8. Longitudinal Relations of Self-Efficacy to Outcome Expectations, Interests, and Major Choice Goals in Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Robert W.; Sheu, Hung-Bin; Singley, Daniel; Schmidt, Janet A.; Schmidt, Linda C.; Gloster, Clay S.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the nature of the temporal relations among the core person variables in the social cognitive model of academic and career choice [Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]. "Journal of Vocational Behavior," 45,…

  9. Empirical estimation of consistency parameter in intertemporal choice based on Tsallis’ statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki; Oono, Hidemi; Radford, Mark H. B.

    2007-07-01

    Impulsivity and inconsistency in intertemporal choice have been attracting attention in econophysics and neuroeconomics. Although loss of self-control by substance abusers is strongly related to their inconsistency in intertemporal choice, researchers in neuroeconomics and psychopharmacology have usually studied impulsivity in intertemporal choice using a discount rate (e.g. hyperbolic k), with little effort being expended on parameterizing subject's inconsistency in intertemporal choice. Recent studies using Tsallis’ statistics-based econophysics have found a discount function (i.e. q-exponential discount function), which may continuously parameterize a subject's consistency in intertemporal choice. In order to examine the usefulness of the consistency parameter (0⩽q⩽1) in the q-exponential discounting function in behavioral studies, we experimentally estimated the consistency parameter q in Tsallis’ statistics-based discounting function by assessing the points of subjective equality (indifference points) at seven delays (1 week-25 years) in humans (N=24). We observed that most (N=19) subjects’ intertemporal choice was completely inconsistent ( q=0, i.e. hyperbolic discounting), the mean consistency (0⩽q⩽1) was smaller than 0.5, and only one subject had a completely consistent intertemporal choice ( q=1, i.e. exponential discounting). There was no significant correlation between impulsivity and inconsistency parameters. Our results indicate that individual differences in consistency in intertemporal choice can be parameterized by introducing a q-exponential discount function and most people discount delayed rewards hyperbolically, rather than exponentially (i.e. mean q is smaller than 0.5). Further, impulsivity and inconsistency in intertemporal choice can be considered as separate behavioral tendencies. The usefulness of the consistency parameter q in psychopharmacological studies of addictive behavior was demonstrated in the present study.

  10. Effects of striatal lesions on components of choice: Reward discrimination, preference, and relative valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Joshua M; Kopchock, Richard J; Drown, Rachel M; Cromwell, Howard C

    2016-12-15

    The striatum is a key structure involved in reward processing and choice. Recently, we have developed a paradigm to explore how components of reward processing work together or independently during choice behavior. These components include reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation, and the goal of the present study was to determine how the striatum is involved in these dissociable components during this novel free choice paradigm. We tested choice utilizing two different outcome series with one being a more straightforward single-option discrimination anchored by a 0 reward outcome, and the other as a multi-option outcome discrimination of greater difficulty. We compared the free choice reward task to a sequential reward task and an extinction task. Striatal lesions impaired responding only in the free choice version with alterations in both appetitive and consummatory measures. Ventral striatal lesions had greater impact altering discrimination, preference and relative valuation in both the single and multi-option week studies. A major factor involved in these deficits was a significant aversion to the multi-option that contained a larger outcome option but with a longer delay to reward. Dorsal striatal lesions caused less impairment even leading to enhanced choice behavior compared to control animals during the more difficult multi-option free choice series. Overall, the results suggest that the context of action is crucial when linking striatal function to choice behavior and its diverse components. The implications include the idea that striatal involvement in decision-making is increased when responses are self-paced and diverse in a more naturalistic environment.

  11. Effects of striatal lesions on components of choice: Reward discrimination, preference, and relative valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Joshua M; Kopchock, Richard J; Drown, Rachel M; Cromwell, Howard C

    2016-12-15

    The striatum is a key structure involved in reward processing and choice. Recently, we have developed a paradigm to explore how components of reward processing work together or independently during choice behavior. These components include reward discrimination, preference and relative valuation, and the goal of the present study was to determine how the striatum is involved in these dissociable components during this novel free choice paradigm. We tested choice utilizing two different outcome series with one being a more straightforward single-option discrimination anchored by a 0 reward outcome, and the other as a multi-option outcome discrimination of greater difficulty. We compared the free choice reward task to a sequential reward task and an extinction task. Striatal lesions impaired responding only in the free choice version with alterations in both appetitive and consummatory measures. Ventral striatal lesions had greater impact altering discrimination, preference and relative valuation in both the single and multi-option week studies. A major factor involved in these deficits was a significant aversion to the multi-option that contained a larger outcome option but with a longer delay to reward. Dorsal striatal lesions caused less impairment even leading to enhanced choice behavior compared to control animals during the more difficult multi-option free choice series. Overall, the results suggest that the context of action is crucial when linking striatal function to choice behavior and its diverse components. The implications include the idea that striatal involvement in decision-making is increased when responses are self-paced and diverse in a more naturalistic environment. PMID:27544873

  12. Social recipes for appetite: Peer influence on young people's food choice and intake

    OpenAIRE

    Bevelander, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    In view of the growing obesity epidemic, it is important to investigate social factors that influence people’s eating behavior. People are believed to adjust their consumption behavior to social benchmarks in situations without pre- existing guidelines and/or when they have social motives to conform to others. The research described in this dissertation aims to advance the understanding of the impact of one’s consumption behavior on young people’s food choice and intake. Social modeling studi...

  13. Does Ethnicity Matter For Food Choices? An Empirical Analysis of Asian Immigrant Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Tongyang; Berning, Joshua; Colson, Greg; Smith, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    As immigrants settle and extend their stay in the U.S., they may be exposed to a food culture and lifestyle that impacts their food choice decisions and health outcomes. This paper focuses on the behavioral changes and acculturation level of different generations of Asian immigrants on food choice decisions employing the 2013 American Time Use Survey. Heckman two-step regression results indicate that the 1st generation immigrants participate or spend more time on eating and drinking, food pre...

  14. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: A microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef A.; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Livestock of different species fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of type of animal to keep and accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households’ livestock holding to identify determinants of choice of type of animal households’ keep and accumulation of the chosen animals using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia. Dyn...

  15. Development of a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of school food-choice architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.

  16. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel

    2016-09-01

    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments. PMID:27037499

  17. Behavioural social choice: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P; Cavagnaro, Daniel R

    2009-03-27

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research.

  18. Completed egoism and intended altruism boost healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior.

  19. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    OpenAIRE

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations ...

  20. Complex Choices: Producers Risk Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, Joost M.E.; Isengildina, Olga; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Garcia, Philip; Frank, Julieta; Kuiper, W. Erno

    2005-01-01

    Producers have a wide variety of risk management instruments available. How do producers make a choice of risk management instruments? Using the recently developed choice bracketing framework, we examine what risk management strategies producers use and identify the factors that drive their risk management decisions. Our results identify that producers use a wide variety of combinations of risk management instruments and that they bracket their choices into sets of alternative risk management...

  1. Pemodelan Share-Of-Choice Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Dedy Juliandri

    2012-01-01

    Share-of-choice problem is to maximize the number of respondents to choose at least one product from a product line that has a high utility of each status-quo product. Model Share-of-choice with a budget price and aims to combine the price with budget constraints and minimum limits acceptable to the utility of each at- tribute selected by the share-of-choice problem. The proposed heuristics to solve models of share-of-choice problem with a budget price is a heuristic beam search.

  2. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation of prefere......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...

  3. Genetic basis for MHC-dependent mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2007-01-01

    Genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), best known for their role in immune recognition and transplantation success, are also involved in modulating mate choice in mice. Early studies with inbred, congenic mouse lines showed that mate choice tended to favor nonself MHC types. A similar phenomenon was demonstrated with semi-wild mice as well. Subsequent studies showed that, rather than nonself choices, it was more accurate to say that mice chose nonparental MHC types for mates since preferences for nonself could be reversed if mice were fostered from birth on parents with nonself MHC types. Other studies have demonstrated that parent-offspring recognition is also regulated by MHC-determined signals suggesting that this system is one of general importance for mouse behavior. Many studies have now demonstrated that volatile mouse body odors are regulated by MHC genes and it is presumably these odor differences that underlie mate choice and familial recognition. Recent studies have shown that many odorants are controlled by the MHC but the mechanism by which MHC genes exert their influence has not been identified. Surprisingly, not only are volatile body odors influenced by MHC genes but so too are nonvolatile signals. Peptides bound to the MHC protein may also function in individual recognition. The extent to which this system is involved in mate choice of other species is unclear although there are some suggestive studies. Indeed, there is tentative evidence that MHC differences, presumably acting via odor changes, may influence human partner selection. Further studies should clarify both the mechanism underlying MHC influence on body odors as well as the generality of their importance in mate selection.

  4. Incorporating social impact on new product adoption in choice modeing: A case study in green vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Lin; Wang, Mingxian; Chen, Wei; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2014-10-01

    While discrete choice analysis is prevalent in capturing consumer preferences and describing their choice behaviors in product design, the traditional choice modeling approach assumes that each individual makes independent decisions, without considering the social impact. However, empirical studies show that choice is social - influenced by many factors beyond engineering performance of a product and consumer attributes. To alleviate this limitation, we propose a new choice modeling framework to capture the dynamic influence from social networks on consumer adoption of new products. By introducing social influence attributes into a choice utility function, social network simulation is integrated with the traditional discrete choice analysis in a three-stage process. Our study shows the need for considering social impact in forecasting new product adoption. Using hybrid electric vehicles as an example, our work illustrates the procedure of social network construction, social influence evaluation, and choice model estimation based on data from the National Household Travel Survey. Our study also demonstrates several interesting findings on the dynamic nature of new technology adoption and how social networks may influence hybrid electric vehicle adoption. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  5. Counterfactual choice and learning in a neural network centered on human lateral frontopolar cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erie D Boorman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision making and learning in a real-world context require organisms to track not only the choices they make and the outcomes that follow but also other untaken, or counterfactual, choices and their outcomes. Although the neural system responsible for tracking the value of choices actually taken is increasingly well understood, whether a neural system tracks counterfactual information is currently unclear. Using a three-alternative decision-making task, a Bayesian reinforcement-learning algorithm, and fMRI, we investigated the coding of counterfactual choices and prediction errors in the human brain. Rather than representing evidence favoring multiple counterfactual choices, lateral frontal polar cortex (lFPC, dorsomedial frontal cortex (DMFC, and posteromedial cortex (PMC encode the reward-based evidence favoring the best counterfactual option at future decisions. In addition to encoding counterfactual reward expectations, the network carries a signal for learning about counterfactual options when feedback is available-a counterfactual prediction error. Unlike other brain regions that have been associated with the processing of counterfactual outcomes, counterfactual prediction errors within the identified network cannot be related to regret theory. Furthermore, individual variation in counterfactual choice-related activity and prediction error-related activity, respectively, predicts variation in the propensity to switch to profitable choices in the future and the ability to learn from hypothetical feedback. Taken together, these data provide both neural and behavioral evidence to support the existence of a previously unidentified neural system responsible for tracking both counterfactual choice options and their outcomes.

  6. Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Thaler

    1985-01-01

    A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the ...

  7. Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Richard H. Thaler

    2008-01-01

    A new model of consumer behavior is developed using a hybrid of cognitive psychology and microeconomics. The development of the model starts with the mental coding of combinations of gains and losses using the prospect theory value function. Then the evaluation of purchases is modeled using the new concept of “transaction utility.” The household budgeting process is also incorporated to complete the characterization of mental accounting. Several implications to marketing, particularly in the ...

  8. How stimuli presentation format affects visual attention and choice outcomes in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Orquin, Jacob Lund

    So far little is known about how presentation formats affect visual attention patterns and choice behaviour. This study addresses the question by analysing visual attention and part-worth utilities in choice experiments across three different choice stimuli presentation formats: a verbal...... information table, a table with visual attributes levels and a realistic product mock-up presentation. Presentation format was found to exert a significant bottom-up effect on visual attention and subsequent choice. Visual attention and choice behaviour in discrete choice experiments were found to be strongly...... affected by stimuli presentation format. These results suggest that the choice of presentation format has strong implications for the external validity of discrete choice estimates and should be considered carefully by researchers....

  9. Testing Programming Skills with Multiple Choice Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David

    2004-01-01

    Multiple choice questions are a convenient and popular means of testing beginning students in programming courses. However, they are qualitatively different from exam questions. This paper reports on a study into which types of multiple choice programming questions discriminate well on a final exam, and how well they predict exam scores.

  10. School Choice for Transnational Parents in Tokyo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliaris, Donna M.; Willis, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    School choice is centred on parents deciding where and how their children will be educated, and this issue is similar--to varying degrees--for parents all around the world. Parental school choice is the authority that parents exercise in making decisions about where their children will attend school, and choosing a particular educational pathway…

  11. "Score Choice": A Tempest in a Teapot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new option that allows students to choose which of their test scores to send to colleges has generated renewed criticism of the College Board. College Board officials tout the option, called Score Choice, as a way to ease test taker anxiety. Some prominent admissions officials have publicly described Score Choice as a sales tactic that will…

  12. Effects of Delegated Choice on Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosier, Richard A.; Aplin, John C.

    1980-01-01

    There were initial positive effects from delegating choice over the selection of goals. The aspect of the task being delegated appears important. One cannot assume allowing others choice over some aspects of the task will be associated with positive outcomes. (Author)

  13. Instructional Innovation, School Choice, and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.; Cannata, Marisa; Goldring, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    There is limited empirical research about innovation in various types of schools of choice, although viable choice policies tend to assume clear differentiation amongst schools. Innovation can be conceptualized in many ways and takes place at multiple levels of the school organization. Schools can innovate in terms of the roles and responsibility…

  14. Rationality in a general model of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdeb Lahiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider choice correspondences which may be empty-valued. We study conditions under which such choice correspondences are rational, transitively rational, partially rational, partially almost transitive rational, partially almost quasi-transitive rational. This provides fresh impetus and understanding of multi-criteria decision making.

  15. Discrete Choice Models - Estimation of Passenger Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis gives an overview of what has been done in the research area of passenger transport modelling, with a focus on the model type in the core of a model complex. After a formulation of the choice problem (choice probability, the set alternatives), a method for estimation and requirements...

  16. Affective and cognitive drivers of food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutjar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract  Introduction In sensory science liking ratings are commonly used to understand and predict food intake and choice. And indeed, higher liked products are more often chosen than lower liked products. However, there is more to food choic

  17. An investigation of brand choice processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.

    1974-01-01

    Here a brief recapitulation of the study of brand choice processes is given, and the major conclusions are reported.In chapter 2 we discussed the empirical brand choice data used throughout the study. We saw that these were purchase histories of members of the Dutch Attwood Consumer Panel for the pr

  18. "What if we made the wrong choice?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    As a corollary of the Bologna process, the two-tiered study structure introduced increased freedom of choice for enrolled and prospective university students. This article investigates how Danish university students, within the two-tiered system, perform the choices determining their educational...

  19. Changes in the Legal System, Auditor Choice and Firm Value: An Empirical Study Based on the Actual Controllers' Tunneling Behavior%法律制度变迁、审计师选择与企业价值——基于实际控制人掏空行为视角的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉苗; 王宇生

    2012-01-01

    本文利用2004-2009年民营上市公司的数据,首次对2006年我国将实际控制人掏空行为列入刑法这一事件对上市公司的审计师选择和企业价值所产生的影响进行了实证研究。研究发现在加大对实际控制人掏空行为的处罚力度后,掏空风险较高的公司更倾向于聘请小型会计师事务所,而且实际控制人的掏空行为有所减少。刑法调整后,由于实际控制人与中小股东的代理问题得到了有效的缓解,存在掏空风险的公司的企业价值有了显著提升,且掏空风险高的公司企业价值提升得更为显著。进一步研究还发现:在抑制实际控制人掏空行为、提升企业价值方面,法律治理能替代独立审计治理的作用,降低企业的监督成本。%Using the data of private listed companies from 2004 to 2009, we empirically explore how the choices of auditor and firm value are impacted by the revisions of criminal law in 2006. We find that if controlling shareholders are subject to more severe punishments for opportunistic behavior, companies in higher tunneling risk will tend to hire smaller accounting firms, and controlling shareholders' illegal occupation of listed companies' capital will decrease. Following the revisions to the criminal law, the agency problem between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders has been effectively alleviated, resulting in the value of high - tunneling - risk firms increase significantly. Furthermore, our research shows that the legal governance can substitute independent auditors' governance, which will decrease the transaction cost.

  20. Choice Making Part I: How Children with Severe Disabilities Make Choices of Preference and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tubbergen, Marie; Omichinski, Donna; Warschausky, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Communication can be difficult for children with conditions such as cerebral palsy because of speech and physical impairments. For this group of children, choice-making is often limited to choices of personal preferences; however, preferences do not reveal intellectual abilities. Therefore, choice-making should be presented to these children in…