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Sample records for chlorite minerals

  1. Geochemistry of sericite and chlorite in well 14-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system and in mineralized hydrothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1980-06-01

    Chemical compositions of chlorite and sericite from one production well in the Roosevelt geothermal system have been determined by electron probe methods and compared with compositions of chlorite and sericite from porphyry copper deposits. Modern system sericite and chlorite occur over a depth interval of 2 km and a temperature interval of 250/sup 0/C.

  2. Diagenetic Chlorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Hansen, Jens Peter Vind

    2013-01-01

    hydrocarbon seal, and our study demonstrates the influence of early diagenetic quartz on the formation of the chlorite seal. Early opal and microquartz are precipitated close to shale contacts and prevent the interaction between abundant detrital glaucony and pore-fluid and thus the formation of grain...

  3. Character of Chlorite and Its Relationship to Uranium Mineralization in Uranium Deposit No.302%302铀矿床绿泥石特征及其与铀成矿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭国林; 刘晓东; 潘家永; 张展适; 李兴斌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the EPMA analysis and mineralogy study, the chlorites in uranium deposit No. 302 are classified into 4 types which have 4 occurrences respectively. The forming condition and tempretures of chlorites were discussed and used to deduce the forming condition of uranium forming environment. The forming process of uranium mineralization was believed to experience different tempreture at different stage. In pro-mineralization stage, the hydrothermal solution was of high tempreture and first resulted in the chlorization of biotite, and then the metasomatism of feldspar to form chlorite of feldspar alteration type and fissure filling type. In mineralization stage, the hydrothermal solution was of low tempreture and form disseminated chlorite.%通过对302铀矿床的蚀变矿物绿泥石进行电子探针成分分析和矿物学研究,提出该矿床的绿泥石分属4种成因类型,具有4种产出形态;探讨了绿泥石的形成环境和温度,并以此对铀成矿环境进行推断.302铀矿床的成矿过程可表述为矿前期在相对较高温度的热液流体作用下,黑云母发生绿泥石化蚀变,随后热液继续交代长石,形成长石蚀变型、裂隙充填型绿泥石,进而在成矿期热液温度相对较低的条件下形成浸染型绿泥石.

  4. Experimental determination of chlorite dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current concepts of the geological disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the UK envisage the construction of a mined facility (incorporating cementitious engineered barriers) in chlorite-bearing rocks. To model accurately the fluid-rock reactions within the disturbed zone surrounding a repository requires functions that describe mineral dissolution kinetics under pH conditions that vary from near neutral to highly alkaline. Therefore, an experimental study to determine the dissolution rates of Fe-rich chlorite has been undertaken as part of the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Program. Four experiments have been carried out at 25 C and four at 70 C, both sets using a range of NaCl/NaOH solutions of differing pH (of nominal pH 9.0, 10.3, 11.6 and 13.0 [at 25 C]). Dissolution rates have been calculated and were found to increase with increasing pH and temperature. However, increased pH resulted in non-stoichiometric dissolution possibly due to preferential dissolution of part of the chlorite structure relative to another, or reprecipitation of some elements as thin hydroxide or oxyhydroxide surface coatings on the chlorite. These results also show that chlorite dissolution is appreciably slower than that of albite and quartz at both 25 and 70 C, but slightly faster than that of muscovite at 70 C

  5. Approaches to the Low Grade Metamorphic History of the Karakaya Complex by Chlorite Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Tetiker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorite is used to investigate the diagenetic-metamorphic evolution and accurate geological history of the different units belonging to the Karakaya complex, Turkey. Primary and secondary chlorite minerals in the very low-grade metamorphic rocks display interference colors of blue and brown and an appearance of optical isotropy. Chlorites are present in the matrix, pores, and/or rocks units as platy/flaky and partly radial forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD data indicate that Mg-Fe chlorites with entirely IIb polytype (trioctahedral exhibit a variety of compositions, such as brunsvigite-diabantite-chamosite. The major element contents and structural formulas of chlorite also suggest these were derived from both felsic and metabasic source rocks. Trace and rare earth element (REE concentrations of chlorites increase with increasing grade of metamorphism, and these geochemical changes can be related to the tectonic structures, formational mechanics, and environments present during their generation.

  6. Low-temperature magnetic anisotropy in micas and chlorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, Andrea R.; Bender Koch, Christian; Lorenz, Wolfram E A;

    2014-01-01

    of magnetic susceptibility. Because diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibility are both linearly dependent on field, separation of the anisotropic contributions requires understanding how the degree of anisotropy of the paramagnetic susceptibility changes as a function of temperature. Note that diamagnetic...... of approximately 6.3-8.7 for individual samples of muscovite, phlogopite and chlorite on cooling from RT to 77 K and between 11.2 and 12.4 for biotite. A decrease in temperature enhances the paramagnetic anisotropy in a mineral. Biotite exhibits a relatively stronger enhancement due to the onset of magnetic......Phyllosilicates, such as micas and chlorite, are common rock-forming minerals and often show preferred orientation in deformed rocks. In combination with single-crystal anisotropy, this leads to anisotropy of physical properties in the rock, such as magnetic susceptibility. In order to effectively...

  7. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes at the origin of chlorites formation inside silico-clastic reservoirs; Processus sedimentaires et diagenetiques a l'origine de la formation des chlorites dans les reservoirs silicoclastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinseau, E.

    2002-06-01

    Diagenetic chlorite in deeply buried petroleum reservoirs give to the formations relatively good reservoir properties. The purpose of this study is, by a multidisciplinary approach, to better understand how chlorites form and to put into evidence the factors which influence their formation. Four case studies have been chosen: the silici-clastic Mulichinco (Valanginian) and Tordillo (Kimmeridgian) formations of the Neuquen basin, Argentina, the Springhill Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Austral basin, Argentina, and the Mashirah Bay formation (Precambrian) from the Huqf-Haushi area, Oman. Sedimentological analyses have been combined to petrographical observations (optical microscope, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Cathodoluminescence), to chemical analyses, to chlorite polytypicism study, and by fluid inclusions micro-thermometry in silicifications. These studies have allowed to precise the diagenetic sequence for each of these formations and to approach the conditions for the formation of diagenetic chlorites for each case, and to conclude the following points: (1) ferro-magnesian chlorites require precursor material such as volcano-clasts. Their presence is associated with continental environments. Their destabilization into chlorite, via smectite, is favoured at the water/sediment interface during marine transgression. (2) ferriferous chlorites formation can happen from glauconitic minerals which contain a 7 angstroms phase like berthierite, and 10-12 angstroms phase as smectite phase, under anoxic conditions. (3) polytypicism variations traduce two different mechanisms for the chlorite formation: ferro-magnesian chlorites form by dissolution-recrystallization process and re-equilibrate with burial, whereas ferriferous chlorite form from berthierite. (author)

  8. Approaches to the Low Grade Metamorphic History of the Karakaya Complex by Chlorite Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Tetiker; Hüseyin Yalçın; Ömer Bozkaya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, chlorite is used to investigate the diagenetic-metamorphic evolution and accurate geological history of the different units belonging to the Karakaya complex, Turkey. Primary and secondary chlorite minerals in the very low-grade metamorphic rocks display interference colors of blue and brown and an appearance of optical isotropy. Chlorites are present in the matrix, pores, and/or rocks units as platy/flaky and partly radial forms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data indicate that Mg-F...

  9. Chloritization and associated alteration at the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Constance J.

    1989-01-01

    Jabiluka is the largest of four known uncomformity-type uranium deposits that are hosted by brecciated and altered metasedimentary rocks in the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. The alteration zone at Jabiluka is dominated by chlorite, but also contains white mica, tourmaline and apatite; hematite is present, but only in minor amounts. Added quartz is mainly restricted to fractures and breccias. Chlorite, which formed during episodic fluid movement, partly to totally replaced all pre-existing minerals. Chloritized rocks are enriched in Mg, and depleted in K, Ca, Na and Si. Five types of chlorite are optically and chemically distinguishable in the rocks at Jabiluka. Chloritization is proposed as a mechanism that lowered the pH of the circulating fluid, and also caused significant loss of silica from the altered rocks. The proposed constraints on alteration, and presumably on at least part of the uranium mineralization, neither require nor preclude the existence of the unconformity as necessary for the formation of ore.

  10. Dehydration of chlorite explains anomalously high electrical conductivity in the mantle wedges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthilake, Geeth; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Novella, Davide; Mookherjee, Mainak; Andrault, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Mantle wedge regions in subduction zone settings show anomalously high electrical conductivity (~1 S/m) that has often been attributed to the presence of aqueous fluids released by slab dehydration. Laboratory-based measurements of the electrical conductivity of hydrous phases and aqueous fluids are significantly lower and cannot readily explain the geophysically observed anomalously high electrical conductivity. The released aqueous fluid also rehydrates the mantle wedge and stabilizes a suite of hydrous phases, including serpentine and chlorite. In this present study, we have measured the electrical conductivity of a natural chlorite at pressures and temperatures relevant for the subduction zone setting. In our experiment, we observe two distinct conductivity enhancements when chlorite is heated to temperatures beyond its thermodynamic stability field. The initial increase in electrical conductivity to ~3 × 10(-3) S/m can be attributed to chlorite dehydration and the release of aqueous fluids. This is followed by a unique, subsequent enhancement of electrical conductivity of up to 7 × 10(-1) S/m. This is related to the growth of an interconnected network of a highly conductive and chemically impure magnetite mineral phase. Thus, the dehydration of chlorite and associated processes are likely to be crucial in explaining the anomalously high electrical conductivity observed in mantle wedges. Chlorite dehydration in the mantle wedge provides an additional source of aqueous fluid above the slab and could also be responsible for the fixed depth (120 ± 40 km) of melting at the top of the subducting slab beneath the subduction-related volcanic arc front.

  11. Methane oxidation linked to chlorite dismutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Carlström, Charlotte I.; Coates, John D.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential for CH4 oxidation to be coupled with oxygen derived from the dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate, chlorate, or via chlorite (ClO−2) dismutation. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO−4 and ClO−3 could be inferred from the accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in soil slurries prepared from exposed freshwater lake sediment, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soil enriched in methanotrophs. In contrast, ClO−2 amendment elicited such activity. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the headspace of cell suspensions of Dechloromonas agitata CKB incubated with either Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8 in the presence of 5 mM ClO−2. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing soil enriched in methanotrophs when co-incubated with D. agitata CKB and 10 mM ClO−2. However, to be effective these experiments required physical separation of soil from D. agitata CKB to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although a link between ClO−2 and CH4 consumption was established in soils and cultures, no upstream connection with either ClO−4 or ClO−3 was discerned. This result suggests that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was negligible, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs.

  12. Methane oxidation linked to chlorite dismutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence G. Miller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the potential for CH4 oxidation to be coupled with oxygen derived from the dissimilatory reduction of perchlorate, chlorate or via chlorite (ClO2- dismutation. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO4- and ClO3- could be inferred from the accumulation of chloride ions either in spent media or in soil slurries prepared from exposed freshwater lake sediment, neither of these oxyanions evoked methane oxidation when added to either anaerobic mixed cultures or soil enriched in methanotrophs. In contrast, ClO2- amendment elicited such activity. Methane (0.2 kPa was completely removed within several days from the headspace of cell suspensions of Dechloromonas agitata CKB incubated with either Methylococcus capsulatus Bath or Methylomicrobium album BG8 in the presence of 5 mM ClO2-. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing soil enriched in methanotrophs when co-incubated with D. agitata CKB and 10 mM ClO2-. However, to be effective these experiments required physical separation of soil from D. agitata CKB to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although a link between ClO2- and CH4 consumption was established in soils and cultures, no upstream connection with either ClO4- or ClO3- was discerned. This result suggests that the release of O2 during enzymatic perchlorate reduction was negligible, and that the oxygen produced was unavailable to the aerobic methanotrophs.

  13. Sensitivity of antioxidant-deficient yeast to hypochlorite and chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek-Mirek, Magdalena; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Spickett, Corinne M

    2011-08-01

    Sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite are commonly used as disinfectants, and understanding the mechanisms of microbial resistance to these compounds is of considerable importance. In this study, the role of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes in the sensitivity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hypochlorite and chlorite was studied. Yeast mutants lacking Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, but not mutants deficient in cytoplasmic and peroxisomal catalase, were hypersensitive to the action of both hypochlorite and chlorite. Both compounds depleted cellular glutathione, induced the production of reactive oxygen species and decreased the viability of the cells. The toxicity of hypochlorite and chlorite was abolished by hypoxic and anoxic conditions and ameliorated by thiol antioxidants and ascorbate. The results demonstrated that the action of hypochlorite and chlorite involves the formation of superoxide and peroxide and that SOD1 is protective, probably by limiting the formation of hydroxyl radicals and damage to proteins. PMID:21761455

  14. Removal of chlorite by reaction with ferrous iron

    OpenAIRE

    Iatrou, Angela

    1991-01-01

    The use of chlorine dioxide as an oxidant and/or disinfectant for drinking water treatment has been an alternative considered when utilities seek to control trihalomethane concentrations. However, concern regarding residual concentrations of chlorite and chlorate have resulted in limitations on applied chlorine dioxide dosages. This study describes the use of ferrous iron as a possible reducing agent for the elimination of residual chlorite from drinking water.

  15. Paragenesis of Cr-rich muscovite and chlorite in green-mica quartzites of Saigaon–Palasgaon area, Western Bastar Craton, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Randive; M M Korakoppa; S V Muley; A M Varade; H W Khandare; S G Lanjewar; R R Tiwari; K K Aradhi

    2015-02-01

    Green mica (fuchsite or chromian-muscovite) is reported worldwide in the Archaean metasedimentary rocks, especially quartzites. They are generally associated with a suite of heavy minerals and a range of phyllosilicates. We report the occurrence of green-mica quartzites in the Saigaon–Palasgaon area within Bastar Craton in central India. Mineralogical study has shown that there are two types of muscovites; the chromium-containing muscovite (Cr2O3 0.84–1.84%) and muscovite (Cr2O3 0.00–0.22%). Chlorites are chromium-containing chlorites (Cr2O3 3.66–5.39%) and low-chromium-containing chlorites (Cr2O3 0.56–2.62%), and as such represent ripidolite–brunsvigite varieties. Back scattered electron images and EPMA data has revealed that chlorite occurs in two forms, viz., parallel to subparallel stacks in the form of intergrowth with muscovite and independent crystals within the matrix. The present study indicates that the replacement of chromium-containing chlorite by chromium-containing muscovite is found to be due to increasing grade of metamorphism of chromium-rich sediments. However, the absence of significant compositional gap between aforementioned varieties indicates disparate substitution of cations, especially chromium, within matrix chlorites. The chromium-containing muscovite and muscovite are two separate varieties having distinct paragenesis.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of laterites developed on chlorite schists in Tchollire region, North Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banakeng, L. A.; Zame, P. Zo'o.; Tchameni, R.; Mamdem, L.; Bitom, D.

    2016-07-01

    Laterites developed from the weathering of chlorite schists have been studied in Tchollire region, North Cameroon. They include two profiles: a 5.5 m depth profile in Doudja site and a 12.3 m profile in Fimbe site. The chlorite schists have a lepidoblastic to lepidogranoblastic texture and are mainly composed of chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars and quartz but that of Fimbe is marked by the presence of amphibole. It is felsic with a high SiO2 content (67%) and low Fe2O3 (5.8%) and MgO (2.4%) contents in Doudja site but has a lower content of SiO2 (46%) in the Fimbe site where it is mafic with higher contents in Fe2O3 (12.4%) and MgO (6.3%). The chlorite schists of Doudja show high contents in Zr, Sr, Ta, with moderate contents in Cr, V, U and Zn. That of Fimbe is particularly rich in Cr, V, Ni, Sr and Zn with a moderate Zr content. All chlorite schists have high barium contents (270-393 ppm) with LREE-enrichment. The soils are yellowish and, from bottom to top, are composed of a coarse saprolite, fine saprolite, loose clayey horizon and an organo mineral horizon. The main minerals are chlorite, muscovite, biotite, feldspars, quartz, smectites, vermiculite, kaolinite, hematite and goethite. In Doudja, SiO2 mainly decreases from the bottom to the top of the profile while, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 generally increase; in Fimbe, SiO2 and Al2O3 increase up the profile but Fe2O3 decreases; the general high Fe and corresponding decrease in Mg contents in the soils show that the smectite formed is nontronite. Chromium, V, Cu, Ba and Sr show high contents in the two studied profiles but Zr, U and Ta is higher in Doudja than in Fimbe. Copper generally has high contents in the loose clayey and organo mineral horizons. Nickel is higher in the Fimbe profile and probably issued from the Ni-rich mafic protolith. SiO2 has positive correlations with K2O, Zr, Li and Rb. Correlations of SiO2 with CaO, TiO2 and Cr are negative. Al2O3 and Fe2O3 have a positive correlation with Pb. Doudja

  17. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  18. Scales of equilibrium and disequilibrium during cleavage formation in chlorite and biotite-grade phyllites, SE Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, C.K.; Wintsch, R.P.; Kunk, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed electron microprobe analyses of phyllosilicates in crenulated phyllites from south-eastern Vermont show that grain-scale zoning is common, and sympathetic zoning in adjacent minerals is nearly universal. We interpret this to reflect a pressure-solution mechanism for cleavage development, where precipitation from a very small fluid reservoir fractionated that fluid. Multiple analyses along single muscovite, biotite and chlorite grains (30-200 ??m in length) show zoning patterns indicating Tschermakitic substitutions in muscovite and both Tschermakitic and di/trioctahedral substitutions in biotite and chlorite. Using cross-cutting relationships and mineral chemistry it is shown that these patterns persist in cleavages produced at metamorphic conditions of chlorite-grade, chlorite-grade overprinted by biotite-grade and biotite-grade. Zoning patterns are comparable in all three settings, requiring a similar cleavage-forming mechanism independent of metamorphic grade. Moreover, the use of 40Ar/ 39Ar geochronology demonstrates this is true regardless of age. Furthermore, samples with chlorite-grade cleavages overprinted by biotite porphyroblasts suggest the closure temperatures for the diffusion of Al, Si, Mg and Fe ions are greater than the temperature of the biotite isograd (>???400 ??C). Parallel and smoothly fanning tie lines produced by coexisting muscovite-chlorite, and muscovite-biotite pairs on compositional diagrams demonstrate effectively instantaneous chemical equilibrium and probably indicate simultaneous crystallization. These results do not support theories suggesting cleavages form in fluid-dominated systems. If crenulation cleavages formed in systems in which the chemical potentials of all major components are fixed by an external reservoir, then the compositions of individual grains defining these cleavages would be uniform. On the contrary, the fine-scale chemical zoning observed probably reflects a grain-scale process consistent with a

  19. Uranium deposits of the Grants, New Mexico mineral belt (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a study of the genesis of the U deposits of the Grants mineral belt. Enrichment of Mg in ore zones is frequently observed, with chlorite being a common product. Clay mineralogic studies argue for chlorite-illite-montmorillonite associations with ores. The methods include scanning electron microscopy, Eh-pH diagrams, activation analysis, and rare earth element studies

  20. Fe-SAPONITE and Chlorite Growth on Stainless Steel in Hydrothermal Engineered Barrier Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, M. C.; Caporuscio, F. A.; McCarney, M.

    2012-12-01

    The United States recently has initiated the Used Fuel Disposition campaign to evaluate various generic geological repositories for the disposal of high-level, spent nuclear fuel within environments ranging from hard-rock, salt/clay, to deep borehole settings. Previous work describing Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) for repositories focused on low temperature and pressure conditions. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize the stability and alteration of a bentonite-based EBS with different waste container materials in brine at higher heat loads and pressures. All experiments were run at ~150 bar and 125 to 300 C for ~1 month. Unprocessed bentonite from Colony, Wyoming was used in the experiments as the clay buffer material. The redox conditions for each system were buffered along the magnetite-iron oxygen fugacity univariant curve using Fe3O4 and Feo filings. A K-Na-Ca-Cl-based salt solution was chosen to replicate deep groundwater compositions. The experimental mixtures were 1) salt solution-clay; 2) salt solution -clay-304 stainless steel; and 3) salt solution -clay-316 stainless steel with a water/bentonite ratio of ~9. Mineralogy and aqueous geochemistry of each experiment was evaluated to monitor the reactions that took place. No smectite illitization was observed in these reactions. However, it appears that K-smectite was produced, possibly providing a precursor to illitization. It is unclear whether reaction times were sufficient for bentonite illitization at 212 and 300 C or whether conditions conducive to illite formation were obtained. The more notable clay mineral reactions occurred at the stainless steel surfaces. Authigenic chlorite and Fe-saponite grew with their basal planes near perpendicular to the steel plate, forming a 10 - 40 μm thick 'corrosion' layer. Partial dissolution of the steel plates was the likely iron source for chlorite/saponite formation; however, dissolution of the Feo/Fe3O4 may also have acted as an iron source

  1. Multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events in the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit, Timmins, Ontario: evidence from tourmalines and chlorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, J.F.; Coad, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The tourmalines and chlorites record a series of multiple hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Paragenetic studies suggest that tourmaline was deposited during several discrete stages of mineralization, as evidence by brecciation and cross-cutting relationships. Most of the tourmalines have two concentric growth zones defined by different colours (green, brown, blue, yellow). Some tourmalines also display pale discordant rims that cross-cut and embay the inner growth zones and polycrystalline, multiple-extinction domains. Late sulphide veinlets (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) transect the inner growth zones and pale discordant rims of many crystals. The concentric growth zones are interpreted as primary features developed by the main ore-forming hydrothermal system, whereas the discordant rims, polycrystalline domains, and cross-cutting sulphide veinlets reflect post-ore metamorphic processes. Variations in mineral proportions and mineral chemistry within the deposit mainly depend on fluctuations in temperature, pH, water/rock ratios, and amounts of entrained seawater. -from Authors

  2. Ligand Binding to Chlorite Dismutase from Magnetospirillum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schutter, Amy; Correia, Hugo D; Freire, Diana M; Rivas, María G; Rizzi, Alberto; Santos-Silva, Teresa; González, Pablo J; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2015-10-29

    Chlorite dismutase (Cld) catalyzes the reduction of chlorite to chloride and dioxygen. Here, the ligand binding to Cld of Magnetospirillum sp. (MaCld) is investigated with X-ray crystallography and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). EPR reveals a large heterogeneity in the structure of wild-type MaCld, showing a variety of low- and high-spin ferric heme forms. Addition of an axial ligand, such as azide or imidazole, removes this heterogeneity almost entirely. This is in line with the two high resolution crystal structures of MaCld obtained in the presence of azide and thiocyanate that show the coordination of the ligands to the heme iron. The crystal structure of the MaCld-azide complex reveals a single well-defined orientation of the azide molecule in the heme pocket. EPR shows, however, a pH-dependent heme structure, probably due to acid-base transitions of the surrounding amino-acid residues stabilizing azide. For the azide and imidazole complex of MaCld, the hyperfine and nuclear quadrupole interactions with the close-by (14)N and (1)H nuclei are determined using pulsed EPR. These values are compared to the corresponding data for the low-spin forms observed in the ferric wild-type MaCld and to existing EPR data on azide and imidazole complexes of other heme proteins. PMID:26287794

  3. Kinetics of chlorite dismutase in a perchlorate degrading reactor sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaraja, Anupama Vijaya; Veetil, Prajeesh Gangadharan Puthiya; Vidyadharan, Athira; Bhaskaran, Krishnakumar

    2013-01-01

    Kinetics of chlorite dismutase (CD), the terminal enzyme involved in the perchlorate (ClO4(-)) reduction pathway, in a ClO4(-)-degrading bioreactor are reported in this study. Enzyme activity was determined from dissolved oxygen released during disproportionation of chlorite (ClO2(-)). CD activity was in the range 29.8-36.4 U/mg dry weight sludge, and kinetic constants Vmax and K(m) of the enzyme were 37.83 U/mg dry weight and 0.28 mM, respectively. Among reactor operational conditions, enzyme activity was observed at pH 4.0-9.0, with an optimum at pH 6.0. Redox potential in the range -50 to +120mV and NaCl up to 3.5 g/L had no significant effect on CD activity. However, co-occurring pollutants such as ammonium at 10 ppm, nitrite at 50 ppm and EDTA at 100 microM reduced CD activity substantially. The present study highlights ideal bioreactor conditions to avoid ClO2(-) toxicity, while indicating the buffering potential of a mixed microbial system against inhibiting factors to maintain stable CD activity in bioreactors.

  4. Diagenetic alteration process of chlorite in Tyr Member sandstone, Siri Canyon, Danish North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazerouni, Afsoon Moatari; Friis, Henrik; Hansen, Jens Peter Vind

    quartz overgrowths, calcite and chlorite and also minor amount of diagenetic K-feldspar. The investigated materials were core samples of Palaeocene sands referred to the Ty Member from the well Rau 1A. Chlorite was formed as pervasive grain-coating cement, but much porosity was still present. In the oil...... zone and deeper, porous samples were later cemented by macro quartz, with larger amounts in the water zone. Chlorite is found in varying amounts in Rau 1A samples. It can be recognized in SEM as a platy or bladed precipitate, which is mostly rich in iron. Chlorite is present in most samples, although...... only in traceable amounts in the samples which are dominated by microquartz cement. There seem to be two chlorite phases: The first phase occurs as rosettes in a grain coating growth pattern. It is partially intergrown with microquartz or forms a dense mixture of small chlorite rosettes and scattered...

  5. Uranium deposits of the Grants, New Mexico mineral belt (II). [Genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1979-07-01

    This is part of a study of the genesis of the U deposits of the Grants mineral belt. Enrichment of Mg in ore zones is frequently observed, with chlorite being a common product. Clay mineralogic studies argue for chlorite-illite-montmorillonite associations with ores. The methods include scanning electron microscopy, Eh-pH diagrams, activation analysis, and rare earth element studies. (DLC)

  6. Mineral resource of the month: vermiculite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Arnold O.

    2014-01-01

    Vermiculite comprises a group of hydrated, laminar magnesium-aluminum-iron silicate minerals resembling mica. They are secondary minerals, typically altered biotite, iron-rich phlogopite or other micas or clay-like minerals that are themselves sometimes alteration products of amphibole, chlorite, olivine and pyroxene. Vermiculite deposits are associated with volcanic ultramafic rocks rich in magnesium silicate minerals, and flakes of the mineral range in color from black to shades of brown and yellow. The crystal structure of vermiculite contains water molecules, a property that is critical to its processing for common uses.

  7. Characteristics of chlorites in seismogenic fault zones: the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hashimoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The iron content and the asymmetry of iron and magnesium ions in chlorites are examined for the Chelungpu Fault in Taiwan, which is a seismogenic fault. The samples are collected from the cores drilled for the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP. Three fault zones are recognized as candidates for the source of seismogenic materials. The fault zones are composed of fractured-damaged rocks, breccia, gray gouge, black gouge, and black material. Chlorite from each type of rock was analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD. The iron content and asymmetry of the iron and magnesium ions in the chlorites were estimated from the XRD peak ratios. The hydroxide and silicate layers in the black gouge and black material have low iron contents. Many studies have suggested that a temperature rise occurred at the fault zones. In addition, the temperature rise can result in the production of iron oxides such as magnetite or maghemite, as reported by other studies. However, the temperature rise cannot explain the low value of iron content in the chlorites. Another reason for the low value of iron content is the variation in the pH of the fluid, which can be controlled by radical reactions. Therefore, the reactions at the seismogenic fault are due to not only the thermal decomposition resulting from the temperature rise and but also rock-fluid interactions based on the chlorite characteristics.

  8. Modeling of Turing Structures in the Chlorite-Iodide-Malonic Acid-Starch Reaction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Istivan; Epstein, Irving R.

    1991-02-01

    Recent experiments on the chlorite-iodide-malonic acid-starch reaction in a gel reactor give the first evidence of the existence of the symmetry breaking, reaction-diffusion structures predicted by Turing in 1952. A five-variable model that describes the temporal behavior of the system is reduced to a two-variable model, and its spatial behavior is analyzed. Structures have been found with wavelengths that are in good agreement with those observed experimentally. The gel plays a key role by binding key iodine species, thereby creating the necessary difference in the effective diffusion coefficients of the activator and inhibitor species, iodide and chlorite ions, respectively.

  9. Coupled Petrological and Geodynamic Models of Mantle Flow in Subduction Zones; the Importance of Chlorite in the Emergence of a Low-Viscosity Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. M.; Baker, L. J.; Asimow, P. D.; Gurnis, M. C.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic velocity and attenuation studies have shown that 5-20 km thick low velocity layers exist above seismically fast slabs and are associated with broad zones of high attenuation in many subduction zones. These observations are generally interpreted as formation of hydrous phases by dehydration of the slab, although the impact of water in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) on seismic wave propagation is largely unknown. Recent petrological experiments on hydrous peridotite at subduction zone conditions suggest that chlorite will be stable adjacent to the subducting slab in sufficient quantities to be a significant water sink. We use a scheme that couples a petrological model (pHMELTS) with a 2-D thermal and variable viscosity flow model (ConMan) to model energy and mass transfer within a subduction zone. By varying input parameters including the convergence rate and slab dip we have developed models for cases in the Costa-Rica and Izu- Bonin-Marianas arc systems and are able to predict major and trace element compositions of primary melts, as well as geophysical observables, such as the topography and geoid. We find that the emergence of a slab- adjacent low-viscosity channel (LVC) is a natural consequence of the thermal and chemical controls on mantle dynamics and feedback between them. In our earlier models, as the LVC is dragged downwards by the subducting slab, hornblende breaks down at about 2.5 GPa and other hydrous phases such as serpentine are secondary in importance to the NAM water reservoir. The spatial limit of the LVC is the water-saturated solidus of the hydrated peridotite; the LVC thickens as the peridotite is progressively depleted by melting and the solidus migrates into the warmer wedge, despite water replenishment at depth. pHMELTS is a hybrid of the pMELTS model of Ghiorso and co-workers and includes amphiboles, serpentines and micas. Chlorite was lacking but we have recently rectified this omission. Following De Capitani and co- workers, we

  10. THE REACTIVITY OF PREHYDROLYZED SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULPS AFTER PROLONGED COOKING FOLLOWED BY CHLORITE DELIGNIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Germgard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In a laboratory study high-quality spruce chips were prehydrolyzed to remove hemicelluloses and then kraft cooked to different kappa numbers by varying the cooking time. Each pulp sample was then chlorite delignified to selectively remove the remaining lignin. The reactivities of the pulp samples before and after chlorite delignification were determined by Fock’s test, which is supposed to measure the pulp’s reactivity in the conventional viscose process. A number of analyses were carried out to determine which parameters affected pulp reactivity, as, for example: intrinsic viscosity, kappa number, pulp yield, carbohydrate composition, levelling-off degree of polymerization (LODP, and alkali solubility. The results of the study showed that the pulp reactivity increased with decreasing kappa number, and the highest reactivity was obtained after total lignin removal using chlorite delignification. It was also found that the carbohydrate composition had no influence on the pulp reactivity, but lower intrinsic viscosity either obtained by prolonged cooking or chlorite delignification correlated with higher pulp reactivity. Finally, lower alkali solubility, i.e. higher R18, reduced the reactivity.

  11. Influence of drinking water treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite/chlorate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Gialdini, Francesca; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%.

  12. Characterization of Zn-bearing chlorite by Moessbauer and infrared spectroscopy - occurrence associated to the Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of Canoas, PR, Brazil; Caracterizacao de clorita portadora de Zn por espectroscopia Moessbauer e espectroscopia infravermelho - uma ocorrencia associada ao deposito de Pb-Zn-Ag de Canoas, PR, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbernon, Rosely Aparecida Liguori [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EACH/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades; Blot, Alain [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), Paris (France); Pereira, Vitor Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Franco, Daniel Ribeiro, E-mail: imbernon@usp.br, E-mail: brotalain@free.fr, E-mail: vitor.pereira@ufrgs.br, E-mail: drfranco@on.br [Observatorio Nacional do Brasil (COGE/ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Geofisica

    2011-06-15

    In order to provide new insights on mineralogical aspects of geochemical mapping/natural processes related to the chlorite formation (e.g. crystallochemistry and mechanisms of formation of these materials, which has been applied in different studies of environmental profiles), we investigated chlorite samples associated to the Pb-Zn-Ag sulfide ore from Canoas 1 deposit (Vale do Ribeira, state of Parana, Brazil). By means of Moessbauer (MS) and infrared (IV) spectroscopy, we addressed some issues as those related to the chloritization processes, as well as how Zn would be incorporated into its crystalline structure. Results carried out by ME and IV spectroscopy clearly pointed out for a chlorite occurrence, which in fact incorporates Zn into its structure and also alters the structural patterns for this mineral. Moreover, ME data sets indicated the presence of Fe which is located only in octahedral sites, in trans-configuration, and the Zn emplacement by the chloritization process also occurs in the brucite layer. (author)

  13. COMPOSITION OF MINERAL PHASES OF THE GHIDIRIM DIATOMITE

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Rusu; Aliona Vrînceanu; Igor Polevoi

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the mineralogical composition of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. The mineral phase of the diatomite contains a number of clay minerals, like montmorillonite (in a mixture with insignificant quantities of slightly chloritized montmorillonite), illite and kaolinite. Diatomite contains also non-clay components as fine-dispersed quartz and amorphous material, the more probable sources of which are opal, amorphous alumosi...

  14. Evaluation of experimental teat dip containing sodium chlorite and lactic acid by excised teat assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A L; Oliver, S P; Fydenkevez, M E

    1984-12-01

    An experimental teat dip containing sodium chlorite and lactic acid, diluted in water, was evaluated by excised teat protocol. The teat dip was tested against 21 microorganisms. Included were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Numerous strains were tested for strain differences. Environmental bacteria were included because of their increasing importance as a cause of bovine mastitis. All excised teats were dipped in a bacterial suspension containing about 1 X 10(8) cfu/ml. Negative control teats were not dipped in a germicidal compound. Positive controls were dipped in 1% iodophor. Effectiveness of the experimental teat dip was expressed as the percent reduction in mean log of bacteria recovered from dipped teats as compared to numbers recovered from control teats. The sodium chlorite - lactic acid dip caused a greater percent log reduction than iodophor for 14 of 21 strains tested. However, differences were generally slight. The experimental teat dip appeared effective against Gram-negative bacteria. Some differences in percent log reduction were observed between strains of the same species. Lowest effectiveness and greatest strain variation were observed with Staphylococcus aureus for both dips tested. PMID:6530497

  15. Dissimilatory perchlorate reduction linked to aerobic methane oxidation via chlorite dismutase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.; Baesman, S. M.; Miller, L. G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars is controversial yet the evidence has aroused scientific interest, as CH4 could be a harbinger of extant or extinct microbial life. There are various oxidized compounds present on the surface of Mars that could serve as electron acceptors for the anaerobic oxidation of CH4, including perchlorate (ClO4-). We examined the role of perchlorate, chlorate (ClO3-) and chlorite (ClO2-) as oxidants linked to CH4 oxidation. Dissimilatory perchlorate reduction begins with reduction of ClO4- to ClO2- and ends with dismutation of chlorite to yield chloride (Cl-) and molecular oxygen (O2). We explored the potential for aerobic CH4 oxidizing bacteria to couple with oxygen derived from chlorite dismutation during dissimilatory perchlorate reduction. Methane (0.2 kPa) was completely removed within several days from the N2-flushed headspace above cell suspensions of methanotrophs (Methylobacter albus strain BG8) and perchlorate reducing bacteria (Dechloromonas agitata strain CKB) in the presence of 5 mM ClO2-. Similar rates of CH4 consumption were observed for these mixed cultures whether they were co-mingled or segregated under a common headspace, indicating that direct contact of cells was not required for methane consumption to occur. We also observed complete removal of 0.2 kPa CH4 in bottles containing dried soil (enriched in methanotrophs by CH4 additions over several weeks) and D. agitata CKB and in the presence of 10 mM ClO2-. This soil (seasonally exposed sediment) collected from the shoreline of a freshwater lake (Searsville Lake, CA) demonstrated endogenous CH4 uptake as well as perchlorate, chlorate and chlorite reduction/dismutation. However, these experiments required physical separation of soil from the aqueous bacterial culture to allow for the partitioning of O2 liberated from chlorite dismutation into the shared headspace. Although dissimilatory reduction of ClO4- and ClO3- could be inferred from the

  16. Evolution of chlorite composition in the Paleogene prototype basin of Jiyang Depression, Shandong, China, and its implication for paleogeothermal gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Ming; CHEN; XiaoMing; JI; JunFeng; ZHANG; Zhe; ZHANG; Yun

    2007-01-01

    The Dongying Basin,Huimin Basin,and Zhanhua Basin constitute the Jiyang Depression in Shandong Province.They are major oil and gas exploring districts within the depression.Through reconstructions of the paleotemperature of the three basins facilitated with the chlorite geothermometry,the thermal history of the Paleogene prototype basin in Jiyang Depression and its geologic significance were explored.This study reveals that the Si4+ component in chlorites reduces gradually as its buried depth increases,while the AlIV component increases accordingly.The chlorite type changes from silicon-rich diabantite to silicon-poor ferroamesite and prochlorite.The prochlorite in this district only appears in the deep buried depth,high temperature,and relatively old stratigraphies; while the diabantite appears in the shallower buried,low temperature,and newly formed strata; the ferroamesite exists in the conditions between prochlorite and diabantite formation.The diagenetic temperatures of the chlorites in these Paleogene basins are 171―238℃ for the Dongying Basin,160―202℃ for the Huimin Basin,and 135―180℃ for the Zhanhua Basin.The differences of the chlorite diagenetic temperatures in the three basins were controlled by the duration time of the structural depressing processes.Higher temperature indicates longer depression time.The relationship between the chlorite diagenetic temperature and its buried depth indicates that the average paleogeothermal gradient is about 38.3℃/km in the Paleogene prototype basin of Jiyang Depression.It was higher than the present geothermal gradient (29―30℃/km).This phenomenon was attributed to the evolution of the structural dynamics in the depression basin.

  17. Enhancement of the nanofibrillation of wood cellulose through sequential periodate-chlorite oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Henrikki; Visanko, Miikka; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Hormi, Osmo E O; Niinimaki, Jouko

    2012-05-14

    Sequential regioselective periodate-chlorite oxidation was employed as a new and efficient pretreatment to enhance the nanofibrillation of hardwood cellulose pulp through homogenization. The oxidized celluloses with carboxyl contents ranging from 0.38 to 1.75 mmol/g could nanofibrillate to highly viscous and transparent gels with yields of 100-85% without clogging the homogenizer (one to four passes). On the basis of field-emission scanning electron microscopy images, the nanofibrils obtained were of typical widths of approximately 25 ± 6 nm. All of the nanofibrillar samples maintained their cellulose I crystalline structure according to wide-angle X-ray diffraction results, and the crystallinity index was approximately 40% for all samples. PMID:22512713

  18. Clay mineral stratigraphy of Miocene to recent marine sediments in the central Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.P. de

    1992-01-01

    X-ray diffraction analyses were made of the smaller than 2 J..Lm fraction from about 1250 samples of the central Mediterranean Miocene to Recent and the southeastern North-Atlantic Miocene in order to reconstruct climatic changes. Relative quantities of the clay minerals chlorite, illite, pyrophylli

  19. Significance of saturation index of certain clay minerals in shallow coastal groundwater, in and around Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Chidambaram; U Karmegam; P Sasidhar; M V Prasanna; R Manivannan; S Arunachalam; S Manikandan; P Anandhan

    2011-10-01

    The saturation index of clay minerals like Gibbsite, Kaolinite, Illite, Montmorillonite and Chlorite in groundwater were studied in detail by collecting 29 groundwater samples from the shallow coastal aquifers in and around Kalpakkam. The samples collected were analysed for major cations, anions and trace elements by using standard procedures. The study reveals that pH has a significant role in the saturation index (SI) of minerals. It also shows that the relationship of electrical conductivity to the SI of these minerals is not significant than that of the ionic strength, log pCO2 values, and alumina silica ratio have significant relation to the SI of these clay minerals. The SI of these clay minerals was spatially distributed to identify the areas of higher SI. Silica has good correlation to SI of Kaolinite, Gibbsite and Montmorillonite and Al has good correlation to SI of all the minerals except to that of Chlorite.

  20. 法国比利牛斯山Trimouns滑石-绿泥石矿床地质与成因%Geology and ore genesis of the Trimouns talc-chlorite ore deposit,Pyrénées,France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ph de PARSEVAL; 蒋少涌; F FONTAN; 王汝成; F MARTIN; J FREEET

    2004-01-01

    位于法国比利牛斯山的nimouns矿床是世界上最大的滑石-绿泥石矿床之一.对该矿床形成的条件及滑石和绿泥石矿石的含量已较清楚.它是由不同类型的岩石通过热液交代蚀变而形成的,主要包括白云岩蚀变为滑石为主的矿石和硅铝质岩石(云母片岩和伟晶岩)蚀变为绿泥石为主的矿石.滑石矿石显示片理化结构(滑石片岩)或压实块状结构(块滑石).由伟晶岩蚀变而来的绿泥石矿石为呈绿色的球状矿体,而由云母片岩蚀变而来的绿泥石矿石呈块状或片理状、颜色为灰绿色和深灰色.本文对欧洲这个独一无二的滑石和绿泥石矿床的地质特征和成因进行了总结和讨论.流体包裹体研究表明成矿流体为高盐度(20 to30%eq.wt%NaCl)、中温(320℃)、压为为2.5kbars.磷钇矿和独居石的U-Pb定年结果表明,成矿年代为112~97Ma,成矿作用可能持续了16Ma以上.%The Trimouns deposit, in the French Pyr閚閑s, is one of the largest talc and chlorite exploitation in the world. The conditions of formation and concentration for talc and chlorite ores are now well known. The deposit consists the metasomatic alteration of various rocks, mainly dolostones altered into talc-dominant ore and silico-aluminous rocks (mica schists and pegmatites) into chlorite-dominant ore. The talc ore shows schisteous texture (talc schist) or in compact mass (steatite). The chlorite ore altered from pegmatite show green colors and ball bodies. The chlorite ores altered from mica schists are either massive or schisteous ores with graygreenish and dark gray colors. This paper summarizes the general geology and ore genesis of this exceptional talc and chlorite ore deposit in Europe. Fluid inclusion study shows high salinity of 20 to 30% eq. wt% NaCl, intermediate temperature of 320℃ and pressure of 2.5 kbars for the formation of Trimouns deposit. According to U-Pb dating on xenotime and monazite, the mineralization took

  1. Elucidation of the mechanism of enzymatic browning inhibition by sodium chlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Luo, Yaguang; Chen, Pei

    2008-10-15

    Sodium chlorite (SC) is a well known anti-microbial agent and its strong inhibitory effect on enzymatic browning of fresh-cut produce has recently been identified. We investigated the effect of SC on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and its substrate, chlorogenic acid (CA), as it relates to the mechanisms of browning inhibition by SC. Results indicate that the browning reaction of CA (1.0mM) catalyzed by PPO (33U/mL) was significantly inhibited by 1.0mM SC at pH 4.6. Two PPO isoforms were identified by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and both were inactivated by SC (3.0mM). This suggests that SC serves as a PPO inhibitor to prevent enzymatic browning. Furthermore, the effect of SC on the stability of CA in both acidic (pH 4.5) and basic conditions (pH 8.3) was studied by UV-Vis scan and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that at the presence of SC (3.0mM), CA (0.1mM) degraded to quinic acid and caffeic acid as well as other intermediates. Hence, the anti-browning property of SC can be attributed to the two modes of action: the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase directly and the oxidative degradation of phenolic substrates.

  2. Removal of Hg~0 with sodium chlorite solution and mass transfer reaction kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The absorption behavior of Hg0 was studied experimentally by using sodium chlorite solution(NaClO2) as the absorbent in a bubble reactor.Primary influencing factors on removal efficiency of Hg0 such as NaClO2 concentration,pH,reaction temperature and the concentration of Hg0 were investigated.The results indicated that 72.91% of Hg0 removal efficiency could be achieved in acidic NaClO2 solution.The removal mechanism of Hg0 was proposed by analyzing of Hg2+ concentration in ab-sorption solution after reaction and comparing the electrode potentials between NaClO2 species and Hg2+/Hg0.The experimental results of mass transfer-reaction kinetics on oxidation of Hg0 by NaClO2 solution showed that with the increase of NaClO2 concentration and the decrease of pH value,the enhancement factor(E) and ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) increased and the liquid phase mass transfer resistance decreased,which is benefit to the mass transfer adsorption reaction.Although the increase of reaction temperature could improve the enhancement factor(E),but the ratio of KG(Hg0)/kG(Hg0) decreased;as a result,the liquid phase mass transfer resistance increased,therefore,the reaction rate for removal of Hg0 decreased.

  3. Ordinary Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide and By-products Chlorite and Chlorate in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 常爱敏; 黄君礼

    2003-01-01

    Acute toxicity and accumulated toxicity of chlorine dioxide (C1O2) and by-products chlorite ( C1O-2 ) and chlorate (C1O-3) in water acted on mice are studied by the method of Horn and accumulation coefficient.Subchronic toxicity of the mixture of C1O2 and C1O-2 and ClO-3 in water acted on rat is studied though feeding test for 90 days, including statistical analysis of variance on weight gaining, food utilization efficiency, index of blood and serum, liver (or kidney)to body weight ratio, and histopathological examination on liver and kidney. The results show that aqueous solution of C1O2, NaC1O2 and NaC1O3 (with the concentration of 276. 5 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 200 mg/L respectively) and the mixed aqueous solution of C1O2 with the concentration of 553 mg/L are actually non poisonous, and non-cumulative aqueous solution as well.

  4. Clay-mineral suites, sources, and inferred dispersal routes: Southern California continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, J.R.; Dowling, J.S.; Schuetze, A.; Lee, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Clay mineralogy is useful in determining the distribution, sources, and dispersal routes of fine-grained sediments. In addition, clay minerals, especially smectite, may control the degree to which contaminants are adsorbed by the sediment. We analyzed 250 shelf sediment samples, 24 river-suspended-sediment samples, and 12 river-bed samples for clay-mineral contents in the Southern California Borderland from Point Conception to the Mexico border. In addition, six samples were analyzed from the Palos Verdes Headland in order to characterize the clay minerals contributed to the offshore from that point source. The clay-mineral suite for the entire shelf sediment data set (26% smectite, 50% illite, 24% kaolinite+chlorite) is closely comparable to that for the mean of all the rivers (31% smectite, 49% illite, 20% kaolinite+chlorite), indicating that the main source of shelf fine-grained sediments is the adjacent rivers. However, regional variations do exist and the shelf is divided into four provinces with characteristic clay-mineral suites. The means of the clay-mineral suites of the two southernmost provinces are within analytical error of the mineral suites of adjacent rivers. The next province to the north includes Santa Monica Bay and has a suite of clay minerals derived from mixing of fine-grained sediments from several sources, both from the north and south. The northernmost province clay-mineral suite matches moderately well that of the adjacent rivers, but does indicate some mixing from sources in adjacent provinces.

  5. Minerals from the Pohorje igneous massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zupančič

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogical composition of Pohorje igneous rocks was determined by means of optical microscopy and X-ray poviwder diffraction. Quartz, plagioclases and K-feldspars are the major minerals in the granodiorite and its porphyritic varieties. Characteristic and accessory minerals are biotite, hornblende, apatite, orthite, epidote, zircon and opaque minerals. Muscovite, pyroxenes and garnets occur rarely. The major minerals in malchites are plagioclases and hornblende.Restitic crystals of plagioclases, apatite and zircon were present in magma from which the Pohorje igneous body solidified. Sulphides, apatite and zircon precipitated in the first stage of magma crystallisation. In the next stage orthite, epidote and sphene crystallized. Biotite crystals probably formed slightly beforehornblende. The precipitation continued with plagioclases, quartz of first generation, more acid plagioclases, biotite and quartz of second generation. The crystallisation sequence ended with K-feldspar that replaced other minerals.The primary minerals are somewhere autometamorphosed to chlorite, epidote, calcite, sphene, sericite, kaolinite and limonite. In some areas in the NW part of Pohorje igneous body the alteration was hydrothermal.

  6. Uraniferous mineralizations in the Kuusamo Schist Belt, northeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kouveraara Co-Cu-Au mineralization was found in 1982 with the aid of a geophysical ground survey. This survey was connected with research on the Kouvervaara uranium mineralization in the Early Proterozoic Kuusamo Schist Belt, located just south of the Arctic Circle. In further work, using the Kouvervaara sulphide mineralization as a reference, six Co and Au bearing sulphide mineralizations were discovered, with the help of low altitude aerial geophysical techniques. The Co-Au mineralizations, hosted by the Sericite Quartzite Formation, occur within the hydrothermally altered zones. These zones consist of chloritization, carbonatization, sulphidization, sericitization and albitization, the latter being the most extensive. Excluding the Juomasuo mineralization, uranium is only a trace element in these mineralizations. Other characteristic trace elements are molybdenum and tungsten. The Sivakkaharju and Konttiaho Co-Au-U-Mo mineralizations were found by radiometric ground surveys carried out in 1985 and 1986. These hydrothermal mineralizations occur within brecciated quartz-albite-carbonate rocks and are good manifestations of the positive correlation between uranium and gold in the Kuusamo area. Compared with the other sulphide mineralizations, the Au, U, and Mo contents are remarkably high. Genetically, the mineralizations in the Kuusamo area are associated with deep seated fracture and fault zones, controlled by ancient intracontinental hot spot activity and continental rifting. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Abiotic CO2 reduction during geologic carbon sequestration facilitated by Fe(II)-bearing minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L. C.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Thomas, B.; Johnson, N. C.; Rosenbauer, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Redox reactions involving subsurface minerals and fluids and can lead to the abiotic generation of hydrocarbons from CO2 under certain conditions. Depleted oil reservoirs and saline aquifers targeted for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) can contain significant quantities of minerals such as ferrous chlorite, which could facilitate the abiotic reduction of carbon dioxide to n-carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and amorphous carbon (C0). If such reactions occur, the injection of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) could significantly alter the oxidation state of the reservoir and cause extensive reorganization of the stable mineral assemblage via dissolution and reprecipitation reactions. Naturally occurring iron oxide minerals such as magnetite are known to catalyze CO2 reduction, resulting in the synthesis of organic compounds. Magnetite is thermodynamically stable in Fe(II) chlorite-bearing mineral assemblages typical of some reservoir formations. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that GCS reservoirs buffered by the chlorite-kaolinite-carbonate(siderite/magnesite)-quartz assemblage favor the reduction of CO2 to n-carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, and C0, although the extent of abiotic CO2 reduction may be kinetically limited. To investigate the rates of abiotic CO2 reduction in the presence of magnetite, we performed batch abiotic CO2 reduction experiments using a Dickson-type rocking hydrothermal apparatus at temperatures (373 K) and pressures (100 bar) within the range of conditions relevant to GCS. Blank experiments containing CO2 and H2 were used to rule out the possibility of catalytic activity of the experimental apparatus. Reaction of brine-suspended magnetite nanoparticles with scCO2 at H2 partial pressures typical of reservoir rocks - up to 100 and 0.1 bars respectively - was used to investigate the kinetics of magnetite-catalyzed abiotic CO2 reduction. Later experiments introducing ferrous chlorite (ripidolite) were carried out to determine the potential for

  8. CLAY MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN SHIHEZI FORMATION FROM THE HUAIBEI COAL-BEARING STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文辉; 许光泉; 刑军

    1998-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in Shihezi Formation of Huaibei coal-bearing strata are determined by X-ray diffraction and Differential Thermal Analyzer, that is restated to the sedimentfaces and climatic changes in the source area, and to a lesser extent, alterations during burial diagenesis. In the Upper Shihezi Formation, the clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite in norther npart of the coal field, which was formed in alluvial sediment environment. But in the South ofHuaibei coal field, the clay mineral assemblage consists of mainly illite that reflects the influenceof sea water. The predominately kaolinite and sederite composition of the clay fraction in the lower Shihezi Formation sediments documents less relief and gentle erosion of kaolinite rich soils developing under warm source area. In the lower part of Shihezi Formation, some chlorite is detected, which suggests transformation of illite or kaolinite to chlorite under conditions of burial diagenesis.

  9. Effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and other sanitizers to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 on tomato surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Bari, Md Latiful; Nei, Daisuke; Juneja, Vijay; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    The use of a suitable sanitizer can reduce the risk of produce-related foodborne illnesses. We evaluated the effectiveness of several sanitizers to reduce inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiform). Depending on the method of inoculation (dipping/spotting), each of 80 g (eight tomatoes) of inoculated cherry tomatoes was washed in 400 mL of sanitizer solutions or 400 mL distilled water for 5 minutes. The effectiveness of sanitizers on spot-inoculated E. coli O157:H7 on tomato surfaces was found higher than on dip-inoculated tomatoes. Washing with water or chlorine water (0.1 g/L as free chlorine) could reduce 1.3 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in dip-inoculated (6.8 log CFU/g) tomatoes. Washing with lactic acid (LA) solution (1.0 g/L), phytic acid solution (1.0 g/L), calcinated seashells (oyster/sakhalin surf clam), and 1.0 g/L chitosan in 0.5 g/L LA (Chito) did not exhibit a significant higher effectiveness than that of water wash alone (1.0 log CFU/g). Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution prepared from 0.5 g/L of sodium chlorite and 1.0 g/L LA or phytic acid reduced 3.5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 in dip-inoculated tomato surfaces. ASC (0.5 g/L of sodium chlorite and 1.0 g/L of LA) wash followed by a second wash with LA exhibited an additional sanitary effectiveness compared to a single wash with ASC. However, washing with ASC followed by a second wash with Chito exhibited an additional 1.0 log CFU/g reduction compared to a secondary wash with water. No significant difference of color, taste, and texture was observed among the washed cherry tomatoes. PMID:20113205

  10. Fluid flow and polymetallic sulfide mineralization in the Kettara shear zone (Jebilet Massif, Variscan Belt, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'diaye, I.; Essaifi, A.; Dubois, M.; Lacroix, B.; Goodenough, K. M.; Maacha, L.

    2016-07-01

    The Kettara shear zone is a regional wrench shear zone within the Jebilet massif of Western Morocco, part of the Variscan orogenic belt. This massif is characterized by bimodal magmatism, largely intrusive, and by a number of polymetallic massive sulfide deposits. A syntectonic mafic-ultramafic intrusion and an adjacent, deformed pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposit are located within a 'compressional jog' of the shear zone. Hydrothermal alteration in both the intrusion and the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit is characterized by syntectonic replacement processes leading to formation of chlorite-schists and quartz ± calcite veins. Fluid inclusions in mineralized (pyrrhotite-bearing) quartz veins from the wall rocks adjacent to the deposit and in veins associated with chlorite-schists within the intrusion indicate a prevalence of H2O-CO2-CH4-N2 and H2O-salt fluid systems. In the mineralized veins the fluid shows reducing conditions, with gas dominated by CH4 and N2 and salinities around 7.5 wt% NaCl, whereas in the chlorite shear zones fluid is CO2 dominated and salinities are higher than 23 wt% NaCl. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of chlorite and quartz are similar and demonstrate involvement of metamorphic water in both the deposit and the intrusion. The data are consistent with a regional metamorphic fluid flow through the Kettara shear zone. The migrating metamorphic fluids were reduced in the organic matter-rich host rocks leading to deposition of sulfides in the mineralized veins. There are two possible hypotheses for the origin of these mineralized veins: either they were formed during deformation and remobilization of a syn-sedimentary massive sulfide deposit, or they were formed synchronously with the sulfide deposit during development of the Kettara shear zone.

  11. Comparison of the effects of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose and polyacrylic acid on the multiplication of phytopathogenic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, S

    1985-10-01

    Polyacrylic acid (PAA) and chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM) inhibit the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf disks by up to 50%. The reduction in TMV content is time-dependent and decreases with longer time intervals between the virus infection and the application of substances. The multiplication of potato virus X (PVX) in leaf disks is not affected by either PAA or COAM. In intact plants PAA produces a strong antiviral effect on both PVX and red clover mottle virus (RCMV). The effect produced by COAM is much less pronounced, although this substance is less toxic and could be used in a higher concentration than PAA. Neither of these compounds has a significant influence on the development of virus-induced necroses in Nicotiana glutinosa, Gomphrena globosa or Phaseolus vulgaris plants when administered one day before or after virus infection.

  12. Formation mechanism of ferromagnetic minerals in loess of China: TEM investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Tianhu; XU Huifang; JI Junfeng; CHEN Jun; CHEN Yang

    2003-01-01

    The results of TEM investigation indicate that magnetite and maghemite are the major ferromagnetic minerals in loess-paleosol sequences. Primary magnetite has the similar morphology and surface characteristics as eolian detrital particles. The magnetite can be classified into two categories, high-titanium and low-titanium, which may be the indicators of magmatic rocks and metamorphic rocks, respectively. TEM investigation at nanometer scale shows that primary detrital magnetite of micron scale had been partially weathered to maghemite of 5~20 nanometer during the pedogenic process, which maintain the pseudomorphism of the aeolian debris. Some chlorite particles were also weathered to nanometer scale magnetite or maghemite in the pedogenic process. So weathering of the two minerals leads to formation of superparamagnetism, which may be the important mechanism of magnetic-susceptibility increase in paleosols. The magnetite or maghemite resulting from the weathering of chlorite contains a small amount of P and S, which is the signal of microbe-mineral interaction, and indicates that microbes may play a certain role in chlorite weathering and formation of superparamagnetic particles.

  13. Characteristics and genesis of clay minerals in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Linlin; Jiang Bo; Peng Dehua; Yin Chengming; Zeng Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop appropriate reservoir protection measures in the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin and improve its oil and gas recovery efficiency, characteristics of clay minerals from eleven clay rock samples from the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin were investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and energy spectrum analysis. Clay mineral composition and distribution characteristics of the main hydrocarbon reservoirs, I.e., from the Jurassic and Paleogene-Neogene, were explored. We analyzed the main factors which affected these attributes. The results show that the major clay minerals in the northern margin are chlorite, kaolinite, illite, smectite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals, Illite is the most widely spread clay mineral in this area.Chlorite is mainly found in the entire Neogene and in shallow horizons of the Paleogene. Smectite is enriched in the shallow Paleogene-Neogene. There are large amounts of kaolinite and illite/smectite inter-stratified minerals in the Jurassic. The major factors affecting the different development of clay minerals in the region are properties of parent rocks, paleoclimate and paleowater media conditions,diagenesis transformation, tectonic and terrain conditions.

  14. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, C.E.

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes.

  15. Geothermal alteration of clay minerals and shales: diagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to perform a critical review of the data on the mineral and chemical alterations that occur during diagenesis and low-grade metamorphism of shale and other clay-rich rocks - conditions similar to those expected from emplacement of heat-producing radioactive waste in a geologic repository. The conclusions drawn in this document are that the following type of alterations could occur: smectite alteration, ion mobilization, illitic shales, kaolinite reactions, chlorite reactions, organic reactions, paleotemperatures, low temperature shales, high temperature shales, and phase equilibrium changes

  16. Catalysis of aluminosilicate clay minerals to the formation of the transitional zone gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷怀彦; 师育新; 关平; 房玄

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that the major clay minerals of the biothermocatalytic transitional zone source rock are montmorillonite, illite/montmorillonite (I/M) interlayer mineral, illite, kaolinite and chlorite. Within the depth of the transitional zone, montmorillonite could convert to the I/M ordered interlayer mineral via the I/M disordered one, i.e. in the intercrystalline layer of montmorillonite, Al3+ replaces Si4+ abundantly, resulting in a surface charge imbalance and the occurrence of a surface acidity. By means of the pyridine analytic method, the surface acidity of these aluminosilicate clay minerals is measured. The catalysis of aluminosilicate clay minerals, such as montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite to the thermo-degraded gas formation of the transitional zone is simulated in the differential thermal analysis-gas chromatography system and the alcohol dehydration catalyzed by clay minerals is employed to discuss this catalytic mechanism. Experiments have shown that montmorillonite is the major

  17. Distribution of clay minerals in drift sediments on the continental rise west of the Antarctic Peninsula, ODP Leg 178, Sites 1095 and 1096

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenbrand, C.-D.; W. Ehrmann

    2001-01-01

    The clay mineral compositions of upper Miocene to Quaternary sediments recovered at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 178, Sites 1095 and 1096, from the continental rise west of the Antarctic Peninsula were analyzed in order to reconstruct the Neogene and Quaternary Antarctic paleoclimate and ice dynamics. The clay mineral assemblages are dominated by smectite, illite, and chlorite. Kaolinite occurs only in trace amounts. Analysis of a surface-sample data set facilitates the assignment of thes...

  18. COMPOSITION OF MINERAL PHASES OF THE GHIDIRIM DIATOMITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Rusu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mineralogical composition of diatomite from the Ghidirim location of RM, as well as of the extracted clay phase are presented. The mineral phase of the diatomite contains a number of clay minerals, like montmorillonite (in a mixture with insignificant quantities of slightly chloritized montmorillonite, illite and kaolinite. Diatomite contains also non-clay components as fine-dispersed quartz and amorphous material, the more probable sources of which are opal, amorphous alumosilicates, aluminum and iron hydroxides. The applied procedure for separation of clay fractions by sizing settling in liquid media proves to be very useful, enabling possibilities for more accurate identification of the clay constituents of diatomic material. Procedure allows to separate very clean clay fraction especially rich in montmorillonite, which can be utilized itself as mineral adsorbent for practical purposes.

  19. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  20. A case of severe chlorite poisoning successfully treated with early administration of methylene blue, renal replacement therapy, and red blood cell transfusion : case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebhardtova, Andrea; Vavrinec, Peter; Vavrincova-Yaghi, Diana; Seelen, Mark; Dobisova, Anna; Flassikova, Zora; Cikova, Andrea; Henning, Robert H.; Yaghi, Aktham

    2014-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old man who attempted suicide by ingesting <100 mL of 28% sodium chlorite solution is presented. On arrival in the intensive care unit, the patient appeared cyanotic with lowered consciousness and displayed anuria and chocolate brown serum.Initial laboratory tests revealed 40%

  1. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  2. Quantitative mapping and statistical evaluation of fracture minerals in the granitic bedrock at Forsmark, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Martin; Sidborn, Magnus

    2016-10-01

    This article provides quantitative data on occurrences and amounts of fracture minerals that coat discrete fractures in granitic rock at the Forsmark site in Sweden. The data are useful for retardation modelling of radionuclide and other contaminants, and for groundwater composition calculations. In a unique campaign, 2071 open fractures in groundwater conducting rock have been mapped with respect to chlorite, calcite, and pyrite. In total 767 m of drill core has been studied from very shallow rock down to ~1000 m depth. The occurrences of fracture minerals, their thicknesses, and their fractions of surface coverage have been recorded for up to eight layers for each fracture. Detection limits are, for each layer, 0.1 mm for the thickness and 1 % for the surface coverage, except for pyrite crystals where surface coverages down to 0.01 % are detectable. The abundance of data has permitted statistical treatment, using parametric and non-parametric methods. Parametric fittings have been made to log-normal, truncated log-normal, and beta distributions. Chlorite, calcite, and pyrite were found in 57 %, 52 %, and 10 % of all mapped fractures, respectively. The fracture mineral thickness was 0.1 mm for calcite, 0.2 mm for chlorite, and 2 μm for pyrite, as averaged over the fracture surface area. For 50 % and 99 % of all fractures the total fracture coating thickness was less than 0.1 mm and 1 mm, respectively, which is important for diffusion resistance estimates. Average surface coverages were 18 % for calcite, 38 % for chlorite, and 0.5 % for pyrite. These data may be used for calculating the reaction capacity of flow paths.

  3. Mineral Composition and Weathering of Soils Derived from Xiashu Loess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGYOU-JUN; MAYI-JIE; 等

    1992-01-01

    Mineralogical,physical and chemical analyses of the soils derived from Xiashu loess were carried out.The primary minerals of these soils were found to be mainly composed of light minerals,such as quartz,feldspar and mica,with traces of heavy minerals.Clay minerals,more complicate in composition,were dominated by hydromica,accompanied by smectite,vermiculite,chlorite,kaolinite,2:1/1:1 randomly interstratified minerals and small amounts of quartz,goethite,lepidocrocite and hematite,Clay minerals were characterized by low crystallinity and fine particle size.In light of the quartz/feldspars ratio of the 0.01-0.05mm silt fraction,and the clay mineral composition,the freeness of iron oxide,and the silica/ sesquioxide and silica/ alumina ratios in <0.002mm clay fraction,it is concluded that the weathering intensity of these soils was lower than those of red soil and yellow earth,but higher than that of brown earth,and that the soil allitization,depotassication and hydroxylation of clay minerals increased from west to east and from north to south geographically.However,this general tendence did not coincide exactly with the gradual alteration of the geographic coordinates,and in some places,a reverse tendency also appeared,which could be attributed to the influence of some soil forming factors such as parent material and microtopography.

  4. Lead isotope compositions as guides to early gold mineralization: The North Amethyst vein system, Creede district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The North Amethyst vein system, which is hosted by approximately 27 Ma Carpenter Ridge Tuff and approximately 26 Ma Nelson Mountain Tuff, has two mineral associations separated by brecciation and sedimentation in the veins. The early association consists of quartz, rhodonite, hematite, magnetite, electrum (Au (sub 0.3-0.5) Ag (sub 0.7-0.5)) , and Mn carbonate, Au-Ag sulfide, Ag sulfosalt, and base metal sulfide minerals. The later mineral association cuts the Mn- and Au-bearing assemblages and consists of quartz, calcite, sericite, chlorite, hematite, adularia, fluorite, base metal sulfides, and Ag-bearing tetrahedrite.

  5. Mineral Quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Optimal intakes of elements, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper, zinc and iodine, can reduce individual risk factors including those related to cardiovascular diseases among humans and animals. In order to meet the need for vitamins, major minerals, trace minerals, fatty acids and amino acids, it is necessary to include a full spectrum programme that can deliver all of the nutrients in the right ratio. Minerals are required for normal growth, activities of muscles, skeletal development (such as calcium), cellular activity, oxygen transport (copper and iron), chemical reactions in the body, intestinal absorption (magnesium), fluid balance and nerve transmission (sodium and potassium), as well as the regulation of the acid base balance (phosphorus). The chapter discusses the chemical and instrumentation techniques used for estimation of minerals such as N, P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Cu, Zn, B and Mb. PMID:26939263

  6. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite in preventing browning and microbial growth on fresh-cut produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih Hui; Kim, Su Jin; Kwak, Soo Jin; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2012-09-01

    The use of suitable sanitizers can increase the quality of fresh-cut produce and reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to compare the washing effects of 100 mg/L sodium hypochlorite (SH) and 500 mg/L acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the prevention of enzymatic browning and the growth of microbial populations, including aerobic plate counts, E. coli, and coliforms, throughout storage at 4°C and 10°C. Fresh-cut zucchini, cucumbers, green bell peppers, and root vegetables such as potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, and radishes were used. Compared to SH washing, ASC washing significantly (pfresh-cut produce and prevented browning of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes during storage. More effective inhibition of aerobic plate counts and coliforms growth was observed on fresh-cut produce treated with ASC during storage at 10°C. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fresh-cut potatoes and sweet potatoes was more effectively inhibited after washing with ASC. The use of 500 mg/L ASC can provide effective antimicrobial and anti-browning treatments of fresh-cut produce, including processed root vegetables.

  7. Evaluation of Water-Mineral Interaction Using Microfluidic Tests with Thin Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Y. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Koh, Y. K.; Jo, H. Y.

    2014-12-01

    For the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, geological settings and groundwater conditions are significantly important because of their effects on a radionuclide migration. One of the preferred host rocks for the radioactive waste disposal is crystalline rock. Fractures in crystalline rocks are main fluid pathways. Groundwater reacts with fracture filling minerals in fracture zones, resulting in physicochemical changes in the minerals and groundwater. In this study, fracture filling mineral-groundwater interactions were investigated by conducting microfluidic tests using thin sections at various conditions (i.e., fluid chemistry and flow rate). Groundwater and rock core samples collected from the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) located in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were used in this study. Dominant bedrock is two-mica granite, which contains both biotite and muscovite. Secondary minerals (e.g., chlorite, calcite and clay minerals) occur in fracture and alteration zones. In nature, water-mineral interactions generally take long time. Microfluidic tests were conducted to simulate water-mineral interactions in shorter time with smaller scale. Thin sections of fracture filling minerals, minerals from alteration zones, and natural and synthetic groundwater samples were used for the microfluidic tests. Results showed that water-mineral interactions at various conditions caused changes in groundwater chemistry, dissolution of minerals, precipitation of secondary minerals, and formation of colloids, which can affect radionuclide migration. In addition, the fluid chemistry and flow rate affected characteristics of water-rock interactions.

  8. Clay mineral records of East Asian monsoon evolution during late Quaternary in the southern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhifei; C. Colin; A. Trentesaux; D. Blamart

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution clay mineral records combined with oxygen isotopic stratigraphy over the past 190 ka during late Quaternary from core MD01-2393 off the Mekong River in the southern South China Sea are reported to reconstruct a history of East Asian monsoon evolution.The dominating clay mineral components indicate a strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity, with high glacial illite, chlorite, and kaolinite contents and high interglacial smectites content. The provenance analysis indicates the direct input of clay minerals via the Mekong River drainage basin.Illite and chlorite derived mainly from the upper reach of the Mekong River, where physical erosion of meta-sedimentary rocks is dominant. Kaolinite derived mainly from active erosion of inhered clays from reworked sediments in the middle reaches. Smectites originated mainly through bisiallitic soils in the middle to lower reaches of the Mekong River. The smectites/(illite+chlorite)and smectites/kaolinite ratios are determined as mineralogical indicators of East Asian monsoon variations. Relatively high ratios occur during interglacials and indicate strengthened summer-monsoon rainfall and weakened winter-monsoon winds; relatively lower ratios happened in glacials, indicating intensified winter monsoon and weakened summer monsoon. The evolution of the summer and winter monsoons provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere, implying an astronomical forcing of the East Asian monsoon evolution.

  9. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  10. Analysis of mixed-layer clay mineral structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, W.F.

    1953-01-01

    Among the enormously abundant natural occurrences of clay minerals, many examples are encountered in which no single specific crystallization scheme extends through a single ultimate grain. The characterization of such assemblages becomes an analysis of the distribution of matter within such grains, rather than the simple identification of mineral species. It having become established that the particular coordination complex typified by mica is a common component of many natural subcrystalline assemblages, the opportunity is afforded to analyze scattering from random associations of these complexes with other structural units. Successful analyses have been made of mixed hydration states of montmorillonite, of montmorillonite with mica, of vermiculite with mica, and of montmorillonite with chlorite, all of which are variants of the mica complex, and of halloysite with hydrated halloysite.

  11. Silver-cobalt mineralization in the Upper Seymchan ore cluster, Northeastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryachev, N. A.; Gamyanin, G. N.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Savva, N. E.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Ignat'ev, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the Early Cretaceous Ag-Bi-Co-sulfoarsenide mineralization atypical of northeastern Asia, which contains diverse Co-Ni sulfoarsenides, Se-bearing Bi sulfotellurites, and Ag-Bi-Pb sulfosalts. The Upper Seymchan ore cluster is located at the boundary between the Paleozoic Omulevka Terrane of carbonate platform and the In'yali-Debin Synclinorium of the Kular-Nera Terrane. These ore-bearing sequences are represented by the Middle Jurassic terrigenous rocks that rest upon the Upper Triassic sandshale rocks of the upper structural stage. The sedimentary rocks are cut through by high-Al granitic plutons and younger granite-porphyry dikes. The orebodies that are superposed on igneous rocks were formed during (1) the quartz-chlorite-tourmaline stage of metasomatic alteration, (2) the main economic tourmaline-chlorite-quartz-sulfoarsenide vein stage, (3) the polysulfide-quartz stage with Ag, Se, Bi minerals, and (4) the postore quartz-calcite stage with fluorite. The epithermal veins of festoon chalcedony-like quartz with Sb-bearing arsenopyrite occupy a special position. In particular orebodies, the chlorite-quartz ore veins dominate at the upper levels, whereas the quartz-tourmaline veins occur at the lower levels. Wall-rock alteration is represented by metasomatic chloritization and tourmalinization up to the formation of monomineralic metasomatic zones. Sulfides and sulfoarsenides are distinguished by anomalous enrichment of sulfur in the light isotope (δ34S = -12.8 to -16.7‰) in contrast to the sulfur isotopic composition of Sb-asenopyrite (-1.7‰) from the genetically different epithermal veins. The oxygen isotopic composition of calcite (the third stage) is uniform at all studied deposits and reveals a tendency to updip enrichment in δ18O within a vertical interval of 200 m. Quartz from ore-bearing and epithermal veins has an almost identical δ18O value (±2‰) but differs from quartz at the tin deposits related to granites of the

  12. Investigation on type and origin of iron mineralization at Mesgar occurrence, south of Zanjan, using petrological, mineralogical and geochemical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimi

    2015-04-01

    150 m in length and average 1.5 m in width, reaching a maximum of 3 m. Two stages of mineralization identified at Mesgar. Stage-1 mineralization formed before the hydrothermal brecciation events. This stage is characterized by disseminated fine-grained hematite in the andesitic basalt lavas. Clasts of stage-1 mineralization have been recognized in the hydrothermal breccias of stage-2. Stage-2 is represented by quartz, hematite and chlorite veins and breccias cement. This stage contains abundant hematite, together with minor magnetite and chalcopyrite. The hydrothermal alteration assemblages at Mesgar grade from proximal quartz and chlorite to distal sericite and chlorite-calcite. The quartz and chlorite alteration types are spatially and temporally closely associated with iron mineralization. The sericite and chlorite-calcite alterations mark the outer limit of the hydrothermal system. Supergene alteration (kaolinite is commonly focused along joints and fractures. The ore minerals at Mesgar formed as vein and hydrothermal breccia cements, and show vein-veinlet, massive, brecciated, clastic and disseminated textures. Hematite is the main ore which is accompanied by minor magnetite and chalcopyrite. Goethite is a supergene mineral. Quartz and chlorite are present in the gangue minerals that represent vein-veinlet, vug infill, colloform, cockade and crustiform textures. The Mesgar volcanic host rocks are characterized by LILE and LREE enrichment coupled with HFSE depletion. They have positive U, Th and Pb and negative Ba, Nb, P and Ti anomalies. Our geochemical data indicate a calc-alkaline affinity for the volcanic rocks (Kuster and Harms, 1998; Ulmer, 2001, and suggest that they originated from mantle melts contaminated by the crustal materials (Chappell and White, 1974; Miyashiro, 1977; Harris et al., 1986. The ore zones show lower concentrations of REE, except Ce, relative to fresh volcanic host rocks. LREE are more depleted than HREE. These signatures indicate high

  13. Distribution and composition of authigenic minerals in surface sediments of the western Gulf of Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kunshan; SHI Xuefa; QIAO Shuqing; KORNKANITNAN Narumol; KHOKIATTIWONG Somkiat

    2015-01-01

    Generation, morphology, and distribution of authigenic minerals directly reflect sedimentary environment and material sources. Surface sediments were collected from the western Gulf of Thailand during 2011–2012, and 159 samples were analyzed to determine detrital minerals. Authigenic minerals, including siderite, pyrite, and glauconite, are abundant whereas secondary minerals, such as chlorite and limonite, are distributed widely in the study area. Siderite has a maximum content of 19.98 g/kg and appears in three types from nearshore to continental shelf, showing the process of forming-maturity-oxidation. In this process, the MnO content in siderite decreases, but Fe2O3 and MgO content increase. Colorless or transparent siderite pellets are fresh grains generated within a short time and widely distributed throughout the region; high content appears in coastal area where river inputs are discharged. Translucent cemented double pellets appearing light yellow to red are mature grains; high content is observed in the central shelf. Red-brown opaque granular pellets are oxidized grains, which are concentrated in the eastern gulf. Pyrite is mostly distributed in the central continental shelf with an approximately north–south strip. Pyrite are mainly observed in foraminifera shell and distributed in clayey silt sediments, which is similar to that in the Yangtze River mouth and the Yellow Sea. The pyrite in the gulf is deduced from genetic types associated with sulfate reduction and organic matter decomposition. Majority of glauconite are granular with few laminar. Glauconite is concentrated in the northern and southern parts within the boundary of 9.5° to 10.5°N and is affected by river input diffusion. The distribution of glauconite is closely correlated with that of chlorite and plagioclase, indicating that glauconite is possibly derived from altered products of chlorite and plagioclase. The K2O content of glauconite is low or absent, indicating its short

  14. Clay mineral distributions in the southern Yellow Sea and their significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    To better understand the characteristics of the clay minerals in the southern Yellow Sea, the X-ray quantitative determinations have been carried out for the surface samples obtained from the Yellow Sea. With newly compiled clay mineral synoptic maps, the depositional processes were described for four main clay minerals (illite, chlorite, kaolinite and smectite). The analysis shows that most clay minerals are of terrigenous source with the Huanghe River acting as the major sediment supplier. Besides, the source of muddy sediments in the Yellow Sea was also discussed. As for the central Yellow Sea mud (CYSM), the sediments in its northern part mainly come from the Huanghe River, and those in the rest are of multi-origin. Very similarly, a large amount of sediments in the northern part of the southeastern Yellow Sea Mud (SEYSM) derive from the Keum River and Yeongsan River, while those in the southern part are of multi-origin.

  15. Mineralization stages of the unique shear zone-hosted "Felsit-type" Sn-polymetallic mineralization in the eastern Erzgebirge, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Járóka, Tom; Seifert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The polymetallic cassiterite-bearing mineralization of the "Felsit-type" is located in the NW of the Freiberg mining district within the Großschirma area. The mineralization is hosted by metamorphic rocks of the Preßnitzer Group unit that form the most northeastern part of the Erzgebirge metamorphic core complex. This geological unit is in the Großschirma area predominantly composed of two-mica gneisses and mica schists, whereas intercalations of muscovite-gneiss ("red gneiss"), amphibolites and metacarbonates occur less commonly. These metamorphic rocks were deformed by several NE-SW striking fault zones. The hydrothermal Sn-bearing fluids migrated within shear zones that developed primarily at the contact between different lithotypes. The shear zones are characterized by strong pervasive metasomatic alterations which were triggered by small chlorite-cassiterite-quartz-sulfide-veins. The rock-forming minerals are strongly corroded and displaced by the ore and gangue minerals within the shear zones. The bulk geochemistry of selected drill core samples feature grades up to 0.28 wt. % Sn, 0.15 wt. % Cu, 300 ppm Pb, 140 ppm Zn, 1.1 wt. % F, 250 ppm Li, 820 ppm Rb, 90 ppm Cs, and 130 ppm W. Microscopic and geochemical studies of the samples show that the Sn-polymetallic mineralization of the "Felsit-type" can be distinguished into three different mineralization stages. The first one is dominated by chlorite and quartz. Cassiterite probably appears in two generations with different grain shapes: acicular (Freiberg Ag-Pb-Zn vein-ore district. The origin of the Sn-W mineralization in the Erzgebirge is still under debate.

  16. On the possibilities of occurrence of structure controlled unconformity-proximal uranium mineralization in Madhawanpalli - Rayalgandi Sector, Srisailam Sub-Basin, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern margin of Srisailam Sub-basin is well known for its potential to host unconformity proximal uranium mineralization and so far three deposits have been established at Lambapur, Peddagattu and Chitrial. Recent exploration in Madhawanpalli-Rayalgandi sector and follow up sub-surface exploration has indicated uranium mineralization in the granites beneath the cover of Srisailam sediments. The host rock is characterized by intense fracturing, brecciation, cataclasism and alterations like chloritization, illitization and silicification signifying the role of basement structures in uranium mineralization near the unconformity surface. (author)

  17. Clay mineral distribution in surface sediments of the South China Sea and its significance for in sediment sources and transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 陈木宏; 陈忠; 颜文

    2010-01-01

    Clay minerals of surface sediments in the South China Sea (SCS) are analyzed with X-ray diffraction, and their transport is explored with a grain size trend analysis (GSTA) model. Results show that clay mineral types in various sedimentary environments have different sediment sources and transport routes. Sediments in the northern SCS (north of 20°N) between the southwest of Taiwan Island and the outer mouth of the Pearl River have high contents of illite and chlorite, which are derived mainly from sediment...

  18. Features of Clay Minerals in the YSDP102 Core on the Continental Shelf of the Southeast Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xuejun; QU Gaosheng; LI Shaoquan

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-eight clay mineral samples from the YSDP102 core were analyzed by x-ray diffractometer to study the four clay minerals: illite, chlorite, kaolinite and smectite. Twenty-eight samples had been analyzed on the laser particle-size analyzer to reveal the particle features of the sediments. Distribution of the clay minerals and the particle characteristics in the YSDP102 core show that the core experienced three different depositional periods and formed three different sedimentary intervals due to different sediment sources and different depositional environments. Features of the clay minerals and the heavy minerals in the YSDP102 core indicate that coarse-grained sediments and fine-grained sediments result from different sources. The Yellow Sea Warm Current has greatly influenced the sedimentary framework of this region since the current's formation.

  19. Thermal Analysis: A Complementary Method to Study the Shurijeh Clay Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Jozanikohan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Clay minerals are considered the most important components of clastic reservoir rock evaluation studies. The Shurijeh gas reservoir Formation, represented by shaly sandstones of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age, is the main reservoir rock in the Eastern Kopet-Dagh sedimentary Basin, NE Iran. In this study, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies, and thermal analysis including differential thermal analysis (DTA, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA techniques were utilized in the characterization of the Shurijeh clay minerals in ten representative samples. The XRF studies showed that silica and aluminum oxides are present quantities. The XRD test was then used to determine the mineralogical composition of bulk components, as well as the clay fraction. The XRD patterns indicated the presence of dominant amount of quartz and plagioclase, with moderate to minor amounts of alkali feldspar, anhydrite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite, hematite and clay minerals. The most common clays in the Shurijeh Formation were illite, chlorite, and kaolinite. However, in very few samples, glauconite, smectite, and mixed layer clay minerals of both illite-smectite and chlorite-smectite types were also recognized. The XRD results were quantified, using the elemental information from the XRF test, showing that each Shurijeh exhibited low to moderate amounts of clay minerals, typically up to 21%. The amount of illite, the most dominant clay mineral, reached maximum of 13.5%, while the other clay types were significantly smaller. Based on the use of SEM and thermal data, the results of the identification of clay minerals, corresponded with the powder X-ray diffraction analysis, which can be taken into account as an evidence of the effectiveness of the thermal analysis technique in clay typing, as a complementary method besides the XRD.

  20. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  1. Ultramafic-hosted Hydrothermal Systems at Mid-Ocean Ridges: Serpentinization, Chloritization and Geochemical Controls on Mass-Transfer Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, W. E.; Pester, N. J.; Ding, K.

    2012-12-01

    concentrations and calculated subseafloor pH and temperature. The Rainbow hydrothermal system is also associated with a dome-like massif and morphology typical of Ocean Core Complexes. In sharp contrast with the LCHF, however, the Rainbow hydrothermal system is characterized by vent fluid temperatures in excess of 365°C, high dissolved Fe, Cu and Zn, and low pH (pH25°C=3.25). In-situ pH for Rainbow vent fluid (369°C) was determined to be 5.0±0.03. Trace alkali element concentrations indicate relatively low fluid/rock ratios, while dissolved B concentrations are depleted relative to seawater, but to a lesser degree than measured for Lost City vent fluid. Moderate concentrations of dissolved silica suggest fluid chemistry buffered by chlorite-fluid equilibria. Fluid flow in close proximity to gabbroic intrusions likely drives hydrothermal convection and mass transfer, although it is still unclear whether gabbroic intrusions alone can account for the enormous heat flux and the long duration of continuous hydrothermal activity observed for the Rainbow hydrothermal system.

  2. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oura, L Y; Fox, L K; Warf, C C; Kempt, G K

    2002-01-01

    Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. The effect of these teat dips on teat skin and teat end condition was also determined. Both dips contained 0.32% sodium chlorite, 1.32% lactic, and 2.5% glycerin. Dips differed in the amount of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (0.53 or 0.27%) added as a surfactant. Both dips significantly reduced new intramammary infection (IMI) rates compared with undipped controls. The dip containing 0.53% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 72% and Strep. agalactiae by 75%. The dip containing 0.27% dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid reduced new IMI by Staph. aureus by 100% and by Strep. agalactiae by 88%. Changes in teat skin and teat end condition for treatment and control groups varied in parallel over time. Teats treated with either teat dip had higher mean teat skin and teat end scores than control teats at some weeks. However, teat skin and teat end condition did not tend to change from the start to the completion of the trial. Application of the two new postmilking teat dips was effective in reducing new IMI from contagious mastitis pathogens. (Key words: teat dip, contagious mastitis, chlorous acid) PMID:11860118

  3. Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dixoide in a Sandstone-Shale System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-07-09

    A conceptual model of CO2 injection in bedded sandstone-shale sequences has been developed using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments. Numerical simulations were performed with the reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT to analyze mass transfer between sandstone and shale layers and CO2 immobilization through carbonate precipitation. Results indicate that most CO2 sequestration occurs in the sandstone. The major CO2 trapping minerals are dawsonite and ankerite. The CO2 mineral-trapping capacity after 100,000 years reaches about 90 kg per cubic meter of the medium. The CO2 trapping capacity depends on primary mineral composition. Precipitation of siderite and ankerite requires Fe+2 supplied mainly by chlorite and some by hematite dissolution and reduction. Precipitation of dawsonite requires Na+ provided by oligoclase dissolution. The initial abundance of chlorite and oligoclase therefore affects the CO2 mineral trapping capacity. The sequestration time required depends on the kinetic rate of mineral dissolution and precipitation. Dawsonite reaction kinetics is not well understood, and sensitivity regarding the precipitation rate was examined. The addition of CO2 as secondary carbonates results in decreased porosity. The leaching of chemical constituents from the interior of the shale causes slightly increased porosity. The limited information currently available for the mineralogy of natural high-pressure CO2 gas reservoirs is also generally consistent with our simulation. The ''numerical experiments'' give a detailed understanding of the dynamic evolution of a sandstone-shale geochemical system.

  4. Geochemistry of lamprophyres associated with uranium mineralization, Southeastern Desert, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two brecciated shear zones (NNW-SSE) are found crosscutting cataclastic rocks. The cataclastic rocks (3.0 km2) occupy the core of the granitic pluton and enclose a roof pendant of mafic-ultramafic rocks. The NNW-SSE-extending lamprophyre dykes vary in thickness from 0.5 m to 1 m and up to 800 m long, cutting the cataclastic rocks and are composed mainly of plagioclases, amphiboles, relics of pyroxenes and K-feldspar phenocrysts embedded in fine-grained groundmass. They are characterized as being peraluminous, calc-alkaline in composition (chemical trap) and enriched in calcite, sulfide and P2O5.The lamprophyres were affected by hydrothermal alteration (chlorite-carbonate alteration) while the cataclastic rocks were affected by diagenetic alteration (K-feldspar-albite alteration).Uranium mineralization is the product of hydrothermal events and has been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), involving primary uranium minerals (U3O8) and secondary uranium minerals (uranophane and beta-uranophane, kasolite, torbernite, autonite and meta-autonite) in addition to U-bearing minerals (astrocyanite, betafite and fergusonite).The presence of different mineral parageneses associated with clay minerals indicates that the lamprophyres were subjected to acidic and alkaline mineralizing solutions. Moreover, the U-Zr/U, U-Ce/U values show negative correlations, confirming U-enrichment in both cataclastic rocks and shear zones while the Th-eU/eTh, Th-Zr/Th and Th-Ce/Th values show negative correlations, indicating that the U-bearing solutions are rich in Th in the cataclastic rocks only.

  5. Main Clay Minerals in Soils of Fujian Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGGUO; ZHANGWEIMING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The clay minerals of more than 200 soil samples collected from various sites of Fujian Province were studied by the X-ray diffraction method and transmission electron microscopy to study their distribution and evolution.Montmorillonite was found in coastal solonchak,paddy soils derived from marine deposit,lacustrine deposit and river deposit,and some lateritic red soil,red soil and yellow soil with a low weathering degree.Chlorite existed mainly in coastal solonchak and paddy soil developed from marine deposit.1.4nm intergradient mineral appeared frequently in yellow soil,red soil and lateritic red soil.The content of 1.4nm intergradient mineral increased with the decrease of weathering degree from lateritic red soil to red soil to yellow soil.Hydrous micas were more in coastal solonchak,paddy soils derived from marine deposit,lacustrine deposit and river deposit.and puple soil from purple shale than in other soils.Kaolinte was the most important clay mineral in the soils iun this province.The higher the soil weathering degree,the more the kaolinite existed.From yellow soil to red soil to lateritic red soil,kaolinite increased gradually,Kaolinite was the predominant clay mineral accompanied by few other minerals in typical lateritic red soil. Tubular halloysite was a widespread clay mineral in soils of Fujian Province with varying quantities.The soil derived from the paent rocks rich in feldspar contained more tubular halloysite.Spheroidal halloysite was found in a red soil and a paddy soil developed from olivine basalt gibbsite in the soils in this district was largely“primary gibbsite” which formed in the early weathering stage.Gibbsite decreased with the increase of weathering degree from yellow soil to red soil to lateritic red soil.Goethite also decreased in the same sequence while hematite increased.

  6. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  7. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  8. SECONDARY MINERAL PARAGENESIS IN THE MAFIC EXTRUSIVE ROCKS FROM THE MT. MEDVEDNICA OPHIOLITE MÉLANGE (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Slovenec

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The samples of partly or completely altered basaltic extrusive rocks from Mt. Medvednica ophiolite mélange were analysed by the optical microscopy and by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD. The chemical composition of minerals from different paragenetic assembleges were determinated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and the measured microdomains were documented by back-scattered electrons (BSE imagery. The most widespread alteration processes that affected analysed rocks are albitization, chloritization, epidotization, prehnitization, pumpellyitization, zeolitization and titanitization. Subordinate processes that include formation of limonite, calcite, zoisite, siderite, hematite, Mn-oxydes, pyrite and SiO2-phases were not constrained in this paper. Albitization is fairly dominant alteration process in all rock and its progradation throughout a plagioclase grain is clearly documented by BSE microphotographs and microprobe chemical analysis. Prehnite and laumontite are sporadic alteration products of plagioclases. The chemical components released during the alterations of plagioclases and/or clinopyroxenes along with components from circulating and percolating heated see water and fluids enable formation of chlorites, epidote and pumpellyite. Chlorites and pumpellyite formed also by devitrification of volcanic glass in vitric rim of pillow lavas. Small patches of leucoxene, that is abundant in all samples, represent dense aggregates of titanite nanocrystals replacing ilmenite and/or Ti-magnetite. Epidote-bearing paragenesis in the analyzed rocks record comparatively the highest alterations grade that correspond to the middle grade of greenschist facies metamorphism typical of upper sequence of a see floor crust (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Nature of uranium mineralization and associated wall rock alteration in the White's East area of the Embayment, Rum Jungle, Northern Territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mineralisation in the White's East area of The Embayment is hosted by Lower Proterozoic schists of the Masson formation which have undergone polyphase deformation and upper greenschist metamorphism. Significant mineralisation is also present in apatite rocks. The ore zones occur near an unconformity with overlying Middle Proterozoic sandstone and breccia conglomerate. Kink breccias and fracture systems related to post Middle Proterozoic reverse faults are the controls for mineralising fluid migration. Pitchblende is the main uranium mineral and it occurs as fine disseminated grains, fibrous webs, clusters composed of botryoidal aggregates and locally as veins. Two generations of uranium mineralisation are present. The first generation (pitchblende I) occurs as fine grained inclusions within chlorite II, and the second (pitchblende II) as hydraulic fracture networks and massive veins intimately associated with sericite-hematite-chlorite III. Two hydrothermal alteration phases have affected both Lower Proterozoic and Middle Proterozoic sequences. The most extensive alteration mineral is chlorite, of which a number of varieties has been identified

  10. Occurrence, Structure and Mineral Phases of Nanoparticles in an Anthrosol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-Gao; SUN Fang-Fang; ZONG Yu-Tong

    2013-01-01

    Soils contain various kinds of crystalline to amorphous solid particles with at least one dimension in the nanoscale (< 100 nm).These nanoparticles contribute greatly to dynamic soil processes such as soil genesis,trace element cycling,contaminant transport,and chemical reaction.The nano-sized fraction of an Anthrosol was obtained to determine the occurrence,chemical composition,structure,and mineral phases of nanoparticles using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.Selected area electron diffraction or the fast Fourier transform of high-resolution images was used in structural characterization of the nanoparticles with HRTEM.Two nanoscale mineral types,i.e.,mineral nanoparticles and nanominerals,were observed in the Anthrosol.Mineral nanoparticles in soil included well crystalline aluminumsilicate nanosheets,nanorods,and nanoparticles.Nanosheets with a length of 120-150 nm and a width of about 10-20 nm were identified as chlorite/vermiculite series.The presence of clear lattice fringe spacing in HRTEM image of nanoparticles indicated that mineral nanoparticles had a relatively good crystallinity.The nanomineral ferrihydrite also existed in the Anthrosol.The HRTEM images and the particle size distribution histogram suggested that these ferrihydrite nanoparticles were quite homogeneous,and had a narrow size distribution range (1-7 nm) with a mean diameter of 3.6 ± 1.6 nm.Our HRTEM observation indicated that mineral nanoparticles and nanominerals were common and widely distributed in Anthrosols.HRTEM and selected area diffraction or lattice fringe spacing characterization provided further proofs to the structure of nanoparticles formed in soil.

  11. Occurrence mechanism of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals in Sarcheshmeh copper flotation concentrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.R. Barkhordari; E. Jorjani; A. Eslami; M. Noaparast

    2009-01-01

    The Sarcheshmeh copper flotation circuit is producing 5×10~4 t copper concentrate per month with an averaging grade of 28% Cu in rougher, cleaner and reeleaner stages. In recent years, with the increase in the open pit depth, the content of aluminosili- cate minerals increased in plant feed and subsequently in flotation concentrate. It can motivate some problems, such as unwanted consumption of reagents, decreasing of the copper concentrate grade, increasing of Al_2O_3 and SiO_2 in the copper concentrate, and needing a higher temperature in the smelting process. The evaluation of the composite samples related to the most critical working period of the plant shows that quartz, illite, biotite, chlorite, orthoclase, albeit, muscovite, and kaolinite are the major Al_2O_3 and SiO_2 beating minerals that accompany chalcopyrite, chalcoeite, and covellite minerals in the plant feed. The severe alteration to clay min-erals was a general rule in all thin sections that were prepared from the plant feed. Sieve analysis of the flotation concentrate shows that Al_2O_3 and SiO_2 bearing minerals in the flotation concentrate can be decreased by promoting the size reduction from 53 to 38 μm. Interlocking of the Al_2O_3 and SiO_2 beating minerals with ehalcopyrite and ehalcocite is the occurrence mechanism of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals in the flotation concentrate. The dispersed form of interlocking is predominant.

  12. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  13. Distribution of clay minerals in marine sediments off Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India:Indicators of sediment sources and transport processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian VEERASINGAM; Ramdoss VENKATACHALAPATHY; Thirunavukkarasu RAMKUMAR

    2014-01-01

    Clay mineralogy, texture size and statistical analyses were carried out on surface sediments from the continental shelf of Chennai, Bay of Bengal, India. The purpose of this study is to characterize the clay mineral distribution and its relation to the hydrodynamics off Chennai to identify the sources and transport pathways of the marine sediments. Characterization of clay minerals in coastal sediments by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has provided the association of quartz, feldspar, kaolinite, chlorite, illite and iron oxides (magnetite and hematite) derived from river catchments and coastal erosion. Kaolinite, chlorite, illite, iron oxides, and organic matter are the dominant minerals in Cooum, and Adayar region. High quartz and feldspar zones were identified in Marina, which are being confined the sand zone and paralleling the coast. The strong relationships among the wave energy density, sand, quartz and carbonate revealed that wave induced littoral drift system play a dominant role in transportation and deposition of sediments in the Chennai coast. The sediment texture and minerals data are in agreement well with the previous results of hydrodynamics and littoral drift models in this region. Multivariate statistical analyses (correlation, cluster and factor analyses) were carried out and obtained results suggested that clay minerals and organic matter are trapped in silt and clay particles, whereas quartz, feldspar and carbonate are associated with sand particles. Results of sediment sources and transport processes from this study will be useful to predict the fate of the pollutants released from land or the potential change in sediment delivery to coastal areas.

  14. Mineral artefacts mimicking microfossils in Archean rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, K.; Philippot, P.; Benzerara, K.

    2009-04-01

    Because prokaryotes populating the early Earth were structurally and morphologically very simple, it is difficult to obtain taxonomic information from microfossils, and even more problematic, to distinguish true fossils from abiotic objects. For example, many self-assembly processes associated with the precipitation of nanoscale minerals in the presence of organic compounds generate cell-like structures. Based on high resolution microscopy observations on natural samples, we describe three types of features common to Archean rocks and suggest that they represent microfossil-like artefacts. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy we have observed carbon-free silica inclusions in carbonate sediments that are very similar in size and shape (rods and spheres) to microorganisms. The common distribution of organic carbon at grain boundaries in those rocks indicate that such cell-like minerals, when coated by secondarily-migrated carbonaceous mater, could easily be mistaken for microfossils. The organisation and the micro- to nano-structure of bacteriomorphs might be even more confusing. We have observed chains of spheres that match in size and arrangement with some coccoid bacteria such as streptococci. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) observation of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) sections cut through these spheres shows that they are composed of TiO2nanocrystallites partly rimmed or linked by nanoscale chlorite films. This assemblage creates smooth cell-like structures at the micron-scale. However, the absence of organic carbon in those structures as well as the observation of many similar TiO2 chains of spheres dispersed in volcanic glass shards argue against a biologic origin. Ambient inclusions trails also generate filamentous structures that can be mistaken for microfossils. (Knoll and Barghoorn, 1974) suggested that such pseudofossils could have formed by the displacement of a crystal (e.g. pyrite) in its mineral matrix owing to pressure solution processes linked to gas

  15. Lability of soil organic carbon in tropical soils with different clay minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Thilde Bech; Elberling, Bo; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2010-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and turnover is influenced by interactions between organic matter and the mineral soil fraction. However, the influence of clay content and type on SOC turnover rates remains unclear, particularly in tropical soils under natural vegetation. We examined the lability....... Basal soil respiration rates were determined from bulk soils and soil fractions. Substrate induced respiration rates were determined from soil fractions. SOC lability was significantly influenced by clay mineralogy, but not by clay content when compared across contrasting clay minerals. The lability...... of SOC in tropical soils with contrasting clay mineralogy (kaolinite, smectite, allophane and Al-rich chlorite). Soil was sampled from A horizons at six sites in humid tropical areas of Ghana, Malaysian Borneo and the Solomon Islands and separated into fractions above and below 250 µm by wet sieving...

  16. Mineral Composition of Loess—Paleosol Samples from the Loess Plateau of China and Its Environmental Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑洪汉; B.K.G.THENG; 等

    1994-01-01

    34samples of loess-paleosol from the Luochuan and Xifeng sections in the Loess Plateau,northern China were eparated into sand,silt and clay fractions and analyzed for their mineral compositions.The results indicate that there is almost no difference between loess and paleosol in mineral composition.Major mineral species are quartz,mica,feldspar and chlorite,accounting for about 88-92% of the total;other minerals are kandite,smectite,vermiculite and a few heavy minerals.The calcite,magnetite and hematite were not taken into consideration because of their removal in the process of sample preparation.The main difference with respect to the mineral composition of samples collected from different sections and different statigraphic levels lies in the amount and grain size of minerals hosted.Comparisons between the Luochuan section and the Xifeng section,between paleosol and loess and between the upper part and the lower part of some paleosol layers show that the formers contain less feldspar but more mica and vermiculite and are finer in grain size,indicating the co-occurrence of both biochemical weathering process responsible for mineral change and physical weathering process leading to grain-size change during the soil-forming processes.This result favours such an explanation of the soil-forming mechanism that loess deposition and paleosol development occurred synchronously,though the rate of soil formation was greater than that of loess deposition,thus leading to soil development.

  17. Mineral Resources Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  18. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  19. Chelated minerals for poultry

    OpenAIRE

    SL Vieira

    2008-01-01

    Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confu...

  20. Mineral Supply Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Faced with shortcomings in its mineral supply, it’s imperative for China to balance its desire for reserves with its current economic needs Mineral resources are the corner- stone of materials needed for China’s national economic and social development.The country even counts on its mineral resources to satisfy 90 percent of its energy demands and over 95

  1. gold mineralization in Masjeddaghi area, east of Jolfa, NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Imamalipour

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two types of mineralization including porphyry copper and epithermal gold mineralization have occurred in relation with an intermediate volcano-plutonic complex in Masjeddaghi area. Different alterations including silica, advanced argillic, intermediate argillic and propylitic have been distinguished in relation with epithermal mineralization, which have a zonal pattern. Elemental mass gains and losses during alterations were calculated using Zr as an immobile monitor. Silica zone has enriched in SiO2 and relatively in Al2O3 and K2O, and has depleted in Na2O, MgO and CaO. Ba, Sr, Pb, Rb and Cu elements have also enriched. The advanced argillic zone shows enrichment in SO3, Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, MgO and L.O.I; and depletion in Fe2O3, CaO, Na2O, MnO and MgO. Barium, Cu, Sr and Zn have depleted in this zone. Propylitic zone has enriched in MgO, CaO, L.O.I and SiO2, and has depleted in Na2O and K2O. Geochemical and mineralogical evidences indicate that the hydrothermal leaching of mafic minerals in parent rocks and formation of quartz, kaolinite, sericite and alunite assemblage in advanced argillic zone; and chlorite, epidote and calcite assemblage in propylitic zone is responsible for the above mentioned chemical variations. It is likely that the gains and losses of elements have been controlled by agents such as water/rock ratios, temperature changes and chemistry of hydrothermal solutions. The CIA and MIA indicators in the altered rocks indicate the intensity of alteration in silica and advanced argillic zones in comparison with propylitic zone.

  2. Mineral composite assessment of Kelkit River Basin in Turkey by means of remote sensing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hakan Mete Dogan

    2009-12-01

    Utilizing remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) tools, mineral composite characteristics (ferrous minerals (FM), iron oxide (IO), and clay minerals (CM)) of the Kelkit River Basin (15913.07 km2) in Turkey were investigated and mapped. Mineral composite (MC) index maps were produced from three LANDSAT-ETM+ satellite images taken in 2000. Resulting MC index maps were summarized in nine classes by using ‘natural breaks’ classification method in GIS. Employing bi-variety correlation analysis, relationships among index maps were investigated. According to the results, FM and IO index maps showed positive correlation, while CM index map is negatively correlated with FM and IO index maps. Negative correlations between iron and clay variables suggested that the dominant clay minerals of the study area might be smectite, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite, which have little or no iron content. Using field data for which their geographic coordinates had been determined by global positioning system (GPS), developed MC maps were verified, and found dependable for environmental and ecological modeling studies.

  3. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  4. Chelated minerals for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SL Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic minerals have been subject of an increasing number of investigations recently. These compounds can be considered the most significant event regarding commercial forms of minerals targeting animal supplementation in the last decades. Minerals, especially metals, are usually supplemented in poultry feeds using cheap saline sources and have never required a lot of attention in terms of quality. On the other hand, definitions of organic minerals are very broad and frequently lead to confusion when decision-making becomes necessary. Organic minerals include any mineral bound to organic compounds, regardless of the type of existing bond between mineral and organic molecules. Proteins and carbohydrates are the most frequent candidates in organic mineral combinations. Organic fraction size and bond type are not limitations in organic mineral definition; however, essential metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn can form coordinated bonds, which are stable in intestinal lumen. Metals bound to organic ligands by coordinated bonds can dissociate within animal metabolism whereas real covalent bonds cannot. Chelated minerals are molecules that have a metal bound to an organic ligand through coordinated bonds; but many organic minerals are not chelates or are not even bound through coordinated bonds. Utilization of organic minerals is largely dependent on the ligand; therefore, amino acids and other small molecules with facilitated access to the enterocyte are supposed to be better utilized by animals. Organic minerals with ligands presenting long chains may require digestion prior to absorption. After absorption, organic minerals may present physiological effects, which improve specific metabolic responses, such as the immune response. Many studies have demonstrated the benefits of metal-amino acid chelates on animal metabolism, but the detection positive effects on live performance is less consistent.

  5. Clay minerals in surface sediments of the Pearl River drainage basin and their contribution to the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ZhiFei; Christophe COLIN; HUANG Wei; CHEN Zhong; Alain TRENTESAUX; CHEN JianFang

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals have played a significant role in the study of the East Asian monsoon evolution in the South China Sea by being able to track oceanic current variations and to reveal contemporaneous paleoclimatic changes prevailing in continental source areas. As one of the most important rivers inputting terrigenous matters to the northern South China Sea, the Pearl River was not previously paid attention to from the viewpoint of clay mineralogy. This paper presents a detailed study on clay minerals in surface sediments collected from the Pearl River drainage basin (including all three main channels,various branches, and the Lingdingyang in the estuary) by using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method.The results indicate that the clay mineral assemblage consists dominantly of kaolinite (35%-65%),lesser abundance of chlorite (20%-35%) and illite (12%-42%), and very scare smectite occurrences (generally <5%). Their respective distribution does not present any obvious difference throughout the Pearl River drainage basin. However, downstream the Pearl River to the northern South China Sea, the clay mineral assemblage varies significantly: kaolinite decreases gradually, smectite and illite increase gradually. Additionally, illite chemistry index steps down and illite crystallinity steps up. These variations indicate the contribution of major kaolinite, lesser illite and chlorite, and very scarce smectite to the northern South China Sea from the Pearl River drainage basin. The maximum contribution of clay minerals from the Pearl River is 72% to the northern margin and only 15% to the northern slope of the South China Sea. In both glacials and interglacials, kaolinite indicates that the ability of mechanical erosion occurred in the Pearl River drainage basin.

  6. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of telluride mineralization at Mahd Adh Dhahab, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, A.M.; Kelly, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    Mahd Adh Dhahab is unique among Precambrian gold deposits in that it displays many characteristics of epithermal precious metal districts. Au-Ag-Cu-Zn-Pb mineralization occurs principally in the third of five generations of quartz veins. Sulfur isotopic equilibrium was generally maintained among sulfides which range in delta/sup 34/S from -1.8 (galena) to 6.4 (pyrite). The narrow range in delta/sup 34/S of sulfides is inconsistent with large variations in f02 calculated from chlorite +/- pyrite +/- hematite assemblages. Galena-sphalerite pairs yield temperatures in the range 160-270/sup 0/C for stage 3 veins, which fall within the 120-300/sup 0/C range defined by fluid inclusion thermometry. Fluid salinities are in the range 0.5 wt.% NaCl equivalent. The trends indicate mixing of delta/sup 18/O approx. = 0 waters with heavier more oxidized waters during stage 4 deposition which led to non-equilibrium oxidation of H/sub 2/S. deltaD values of vein chlorites fall within a narrow range of -65 to -75, while deltaD measurements of inclusion fluids in quartz display a wider spread from -13 to -43; the lighter values may reflect contamination by secondary inclusions. The stable isotope data indicate probable derivation of both sulfur and carbon from igneous sources. District-wide variation in sulfur and oxygen isotopes indicate the presence of several hydrothermal centers, which has possible significance to exploration.

  7. Study on abatement of chlorite in drinking water pipe network in north city%北方某城市饮用水管网中亚氯酸盐调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 崔崇威; 许铁夫

    2014-01-01

    为保证饮用水给水管网的水质安全,通过现场实验对以二氧化氯为惟一消毒剂的典型管网进行连续试验检测,获得实际管网的二氧化氯消毒副产物亚氯酸盐和氯酸盐的变化规律并对其影响因素进行分析.结果表明,氯酸盐在实际管网中的量均小于0.05 mg/L,而亚氯酸盐在连接管、转弯管和支管的质量浓度分布明显偏低,说明实际管网中的管垢和流速是影响亚氯酸盐质量浓度变化的关键因素.实际管网内二氧化氯消毒副产物的调查分析对消毒剂的安全使用以及饮用水品质的提高具有重要意义.%This paper was designed to study the concentration of chlorite and elucidate the factors on concentration of chlorite in drinking water pipe network disinfected by chlorine di -oxide.The result showed that the lowest concentration of chlorite was connecting tube , elbow tube and branch in drinking water pipe network .The most important impact on chlorite was pipe sordes and flow rate .The transformation of chlorine dioxide disinfection byproducts in pipe network considered drinking water from safe to health play an important role .

  8. Simultaneous determination of bromate, chlorite and haloacetic acids by two-dimensional matrix elimination ion chromatography with coupled conventional and capillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Hui Boon; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2015-02-27

    A new, highly sensitive and reliable two-dimensional matrix elimination ion chromatography (IC) method was developed for simultaneous detection of bromate, chlorite and five haloacetic acids. This method combined the conventional IC in first dimension with capillary IC in the second dimension coupled with suppressed conductivity detection. The first dimension utilizes a high capacity column to partially resolve matrix from target analytes. By optimizing the cut window, the target analytes were selectively cut and trapped in a trap column through the use of a six-port valve, while the separated matrix were diverted to waste. The trapped target analytes were delivered on to the capillary column for further separation and detection. Temperature programming was used to improve selectivity in second dimension column to obtain complete resolution of the target analytes. Compared to the performance of one-dimensional IC, the two-dimensional approach resulted in a significant increase in sensitivity for all target analytes with limit of detection ranging from 0.30 to 0.64μg/L and provided more reliable analysis due to second column confirmation. Good linearity was obtained for all the target analytes with correlation coefficients >0.998. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of oxyhalides and haloacetic acids in various matrices with recoveries ranging from 90 to 116% and RSD less than 6.1%. The method allows direct injection of samples and the use of columns with different selectivity, thus significantly reduces the level of false positive results. The method is fully automated and simple, making it practical for routine monitoring of water quality. The satisfactory results also demonstrated that the two-dimensional matrix elimination method coupled with capillary IC is a promising approach for detection of trace substances in complex matrices.

  9. Ion chromatographic determination of trace iodate, chlorite, chlorate, bromide, bromate and nitrite in drinking water using suppressed conductivity detection and visible detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binghui, Zhu; Zhixiong, Zhong; Jing, Yao

    2006-06-16

    An ion chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of trace iodate, chlorite, chlorate, bromide, bromate and nitrite in drinking water has been developed using an anion-exchange column and the suppressed conductivity detector, followed by post-column addition of reagent to enhance visible absorbance detection of ions. A high capacity anion exchange Ion Pac9-HC column (250 mm x 4 mm I.D.) was used. Eight millimole per liter sodium carbonate was used as eluent, an auto-suppression external water mode was selected, 0.5 g/l o-dianisidine.2HCl (ODA)+4.5 g/l KBr+25% methanel+5.6% nitric acid was used as post-column reagent. The post-column reaction (PCR) temperature was at 60 degrees C, and the visible absorbance detected wavelength at 450 nm. The sample's pH and coexist anions had no influence on determination. The method enjoyed a wide linear range and a good linear correlation coefficient (r>0.999). The method detection limits were between 0.023 and 2.0 microg/l. The average recoveries ranged from 87.5 to 110.0%, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were in the range of 1.1-4.6%. The analytical results by the method of post-column addition of reagent to enhance visible absorbance detection of anions was compared with that of the suppressed conductivity detection, and the former was proved to be better in sensitivity and selectivity. The results showed that this method was accurate, sensitive and might be good for application and suitable for trace analysis at the level of mug/l.

  10. Detailed mineral and chemical relations in two uranium-vanadium ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrels, Robert M.; Larsen, E. S.; Pommer, A.M.; Coleman, R.G.

    1956-01-01

    Channel samples from two mines on the Colorado Plateau have been studied in detail both mineralogically and chemically. A channel sample from the Mineral Joe No. 1 mine, Montrose County, Colo., extends from unmineralized rock on one side, through a zone of variable mineralization, into only weakly mineralized rock. The unmineralized rock is a fairly clean quartz sand cemented with gypsum and contains only minor amounts of clay minerals. One boundary between unmineralized and mineralized rock is quite sharo and is nearly at right angles to the bedding. Vanadium clay minerals, chiefly mixed layered mica-montmorillonite and chlorite-monmorillonite, are abundant throughout the mineralized zone. Except in the dark "eye" of the channel sample, the vanadium clay minerals are accompanied by hewettite, carnotite, tyuyamunite, and probably unidentified vanadates. In the dark "eye," paramontroseite, pyrite, and marcasite are abundant, and bordered on each side by a zone containing abundant corvusite. No recognizable uranium minerals were seen in the paramontroseite zone although uranium is abundant there. Coaly material is recognizable throughout all of the channel but is most abundant in and near the dark "eye." Detailed chemical studies show a general increase in Fe, Al, U, and V, and a decrease in SO4 toward the "eye" of the channel. Reducing capacity studies indicate that V(IV) and Fe(II) are present in the clay mineral throughout the channel, but only in and near the "eye" are other V(IV) minerals present (paramontroseite and corvusite). The uranium is sexivalent, although its state of combination is conjectural where it is associated with paramontroseite. Where the ore boundary is sharp, the boundary of introduced trace elements is equally sharp. Textural and chemical relations leave no doubt that the "eye: is a partially oxidized remnant of a former lower-valence ore, and the remainder of the channel is a much more fully oxidized remnant. A channel sample from the

  11. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  12. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-09-26

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  13. Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jish Prakash, P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Tao, Weichun; Yapici, Tahir; Warsama, Bashir; Engelbrecht, Johann P.

    2016-09-01

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effects on the Red Sea, land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of windblown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ion chromatography (IC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser particle size analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used in climate

  14. The First X-ray Diffraction Patterns of Clay Minerals from Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas; Blake, David; Bish, David L.; Vaniman, David; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Chipera, Steve; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Farmer, Jack, D.; Treiman, Allan H; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Achilles, Cherie; DesMarais, David J.; Crisp, Joy A.; Sarrazin, Philippe; Morookian, John Michael; Grotzinger. John P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 021 band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx 10A with a slight inflexion at approx 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and heating

  15. Paleoenvironmental Implications of Clay Minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Thomas F.; Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, Curiosity spent approx 150 sols at Yellowknife Bay (YKB) studying a section of fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary rocks (with potential indications of volcanic influence), informally known as the Yellowknife Bay formation. YKB lies in a distal region of the Peace Vallis alluvial fan, which extends from the northern rim of Gale Crater toward the dune field at the base of Mt Sharp. Sedimentological and stratigraphic observations are consistent with the Yellowknife Bay formation being part of a distal fan deposit, which could be as young as middle Hesperian to even early Amazonian in age (approx. 3.5 to 2.5 Ga). The Yellowknife Bay formation hosts a unit of mudstone called the Sheepbed member. Curiosity obtained powdered rock samples from two drill holes in the Sheepbed Member, named John Klein and Cumberland, and delivered them to instruments in Curiosity. Data from CheMin, a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD)/X-ray fluorescence instrument (XRF), has allowed detailed mineralogical analysis of mudstone powders revealing a clay mineral component of approx. 20 wt.% in each sample. The clay minerals are important indicators of paleoenvironmental conditions and sensitive recorders of post-depositional alteration processes. The XRD pattern of John Klein reveals a 02l band consistent with a trioctahedral phyllosilicate. A broad peak at approx. 10A with a slight inflexion at approx. 12A indicates the presence of 2:1 type clay minerals in the John Klein sample. The trioctahedral nature of the clay minerals, breadth of the basal reflection, and presence of a minor component with larger basal spacing suggests that John Klein contains a trioctahedral smectite (probably saponite), whose interlayer is largely collapsed because of the low-humidity conditions. The XRD patterns show no evidence of corrensite (mixed-layer chlorite/smectite) or chlorite, which are typical diagenetic products of trioctahedral smectites when subjected to burial and

  16. Remote Sensing, Geology and Geochemistry on the GVIII Uranium Mineralization, Gabal Gattar, North Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GVIII- uranium occurrence of Gabal Gattar is located at the intersection of Lat. 27° 05' 56and Long. 33° 16' 33to the south of GH-uranium occurrence. This occurrence is hosted in the alkali feldspar granite of Gabal Gattar. It is dissected by NNE-SSW, ENE-WSW and NW-SE faults and fractures. The granite is strongly altered in the zones of these faults and fractures. This granite is composed of K-feldspars, quartz, plagioclase and biotite as essential minerals and zircon, apatite, fluorite as accessories. The secondary minerals are chlorite, sericite, muscovite and iron oxides. The main alterations along the fault and fracture zones are hematitization, silicification, kaolintiization, chloritization and fluoritization that increase at the zones of intersection.The Advanced Spacebome Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) discriminated and mapped the hematitized zones in the studied granitic rocks predicting iron oxides as pathfinder minerals that be helpful in localizing high uranium concentration. The compilated and integrated data as alteration zones, geological and structural features using Geographic Information System (GIS) played an important role in correlating, manipulating, visualizing and extracting the information getting a better result for interpretation and evaluation of this occurrence. The study granite is geochemically, alkali- feldspar granite to syenogranite originated from weakly peraluminous magma of alkaline affinity and of within plate tectonic setting due to crustal relaxation. This granite shows many geochemical characterestics similar to the A-type granite, high contents of SiO2, (Na2O + K2O), Rb, Nb, Y, low contents of MgO, CaO and Sr and apparently F-rich granite.Radiometric measurements of GVIII U-occurrence show that the study granite records uranium values between 15 and 28 ppm, while the anomalies record uranium values range from 400 to more than 30000 ppm. Surfacial yellow secondary uranium mineralization was

  17. Reduction and immobilization of hexavalent chromium by microbially reduced Fe-bearing clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce; Kovarik, Libor

    2014-05-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10, 20, and 30 °C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10 °C, though at 30 °C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly

  18. Reduction And Immobilization Of Hexavalent Chromium By Microbially Reduced Fe-bearing Clay Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Glasser, Paul; Dong, Hailiang; Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor

    2014-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a major contaminant in the environment. As a redox-sensitive element, the fate and toxicity of chromium is controlled by reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Previous research has shown the ability of structural Fe(II) in naturally present and chemically reduced clay minerals to reduce Cr6+ to Cr(III) as a way of immobilization and detoxification. However, it is still poorly known whether or not structural Fe(II) in biologically reduced clay minerals exhibits a similar reactivity and if so, what the kinetics and mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction are. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics and possible mechanisms of Cr6+ reduction by structural Fe(II) in microbially reduced clay minerals and the nature of reduced Cr(III). Structural Fe(III) in nontronite (NAu-2), montmorillonite (SWy-2), chlorite (CCa-2), and clay-rich sediments from the Ringold Formation of the Hanford site of Washington State, USA was first bioreduced to Fe(II) by an iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate as the sole electron donor and anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) as electron shuttle in synthetic groundwater (pH 7). Biogenic Fe(II) was then used to reduce aqueous Cr6+ at three different temperatures, 10°, 20°, and 30°C, in order to determine the temperature dependence of the redox reaction between Cr6+ and clay-Fe(II). The results showed that nontronite and montmorillonite were most effective in reducing aqueous Cr6+ at all three temperatures. In contrast, most Fe(II) in chlorite was not reactive towards Cr6+ reduction at 10°C, though at 30°C there was some reduction. For all the clay minerals, the ratio of total Fe(II) oxidized to Cr6+ reduced was close to the expected stoichiometric value of 3. Characterization of the Cr-clay reaction product with scanning electron microscopy with focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy with electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed that reduced chromium was possibly

  19. A field technique for rapid lithological discrimination and ore mineral identification: Results from Mamandur Polymetal Deposit, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Ramakrishnan; M Nithya; K D Singh; Rishikesh Bharti

    2013-02-01

    This work illustrates the efficiency of field spectroscopy for rapid identification of minerals in ore body, alteration zone and host rocks. The adopted procedure involves collection of field spectra, their processing for noise, spectral matching and spectral un-mixing with selected library end-members. Average weighted spectral similarity and effective peak matching techniques were used to draw end-members from library. Constrained linear mixture modelling technique was used to convolve end-member spectra. Linear mixture model was optimized based on root mean square error between field- and modelled-spectra. Estimated minerals and their abundances were subsequently compared with conventional procedures such as petrography, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence for accuracy assessment. The mineralized zone is found to contain azurite, galena, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, marcacite, gahnite, hematite, goethite, anglesite and malachite. The alteration zone contains chlorite, kaolinite, actinolite and mica. These mineral assemblages correlate well with the petrographic measurements (2 = 0.89). Subsequently, the bulk chemistry of field samples was compared with spectroscopically derived cumulative weighted mineral chemistry and found to correlate well (2 = 0.91–0.98) at excellent statistical significance levels (90–99%). From this study, it is evident that field spectroscopy can be effectively used for rapid mineral identification and abundance estimation.

  20. Vitamins, Minerals, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Crawford, Susan G.; Field, Catherine J.; Simpson, J. Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the breadth and depth of published research linking dietary vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) to mood. Since the 1920s, there have been many studies on individual vitamins (especially B vitamins and Vitamins C, D, and E), minerals (calcium, chromium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and vitamin-like…

  1. Luobusaite: A New Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Wenji; SHI Nicheng; FANG Qingsong; LI Guowu; XIONG Ming; YANG Jingsui; RONG He

    2006-01-01

    A group of mantle minerals including about 70-80 subtypes of minerals are discovered from a podiform chromitite in Tibet, China. Recovered minerals include diamond, coesite, moissanite,wustite, Fe-silides and a new mineral, luobusaite. All of these minerals were hand-picked from heavy-mineral separates of the podiform chromitite in the mantle peridotite of an ophiolite. The grains of luobusaite are as host mineral with inclusions of native silicon or as an intergrowth with native silicon and Fe-Si phase. Luobusaite occurs as irregular grains, with 0.1-0.2 mm in size, consisting of very finegrained aggregates. The mineral is steel-grey in color, metallic luster, and opaque. The empirical formula (based on 2 for Si) is Fe0.83Si2, according to the chemical compositions of luobusaite. X-ray powder-diffraction data: orthorhombic system, space group Cmca, a = 9.874 (14) (A), b = 7.784 (5) (A), c=7.829(7) (A), Z=16.

  2. Lithium mineral waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological surveys showed that Romania basement contains a variety of balneary resources located within on the surface crust. Mineral waters are spread over more than 20% of the country at different depths, with a wide range of physical, chemical and therapeutic properties depending on their genesis.Balneary resources are represented mainly by therapeutic minerals that the physicochemical properties answer the needs of medical and prophylactic maintenance, enhancement and restoration of health, work capacity and physical and mental comfort of the individual.The surface waters arising from a natural source or updated by drilling and whose physical and chemical characteristics that may exert dynamic pharmaco-therapeutic are considered therapeutic mineral waters. Mineral waters are waters that have a variable content of salts, gas, minerals, radioactive elements, which gives them therapeutic properties. In the past, name of mineral water was attributed to all shallow or groundwater mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes. In recent years, mineral water that could be used for therapeutic purposes have been given the name of curative water.Lithium arouses a great scientific interest because, although his structure is so simple, easy to analyze, with chemical and physical properties well established the myriad of the effects on biological systems by influencing many cellular processes and molecular and the mechanism of action are still unclear generates a mystery that modern science attempting to decipher.

  3. Mineral commodity summaries 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2016-01-01

    This report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering 2015 nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for more than 90 individual minerals and materials

  4. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Published on an annual basis, this report is the earliest Government publication to furnish estimates covering nonfuel mineral industry data. Data sheets contain information on the domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, and 5-year salient statistics for over 90 individual minerals and materials.

  5. Surface miner MTS 1250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Mining and Machinery Planning dept.

    1999-10-01

    The German manufacturer MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH has developed a new series of surface miners with capacities ranging between 500-2000 bm{sup 3}/h. The Surface Miner MTS 1250, launched at MINETIME '99, is described in this article. 1 tab., 1 photo.

  6. The differences in clay minerals between the northern and southern Chelungpu fault, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y.

    2004-12-01

    In 1999, we obtained a detailed data about motion of fault from the Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. The motion represents the high frequency of acceleration and small slip distance in southern part, and low frequency of acceleration and large slip distance in the northern part. Those differences in the fault motion between the southern and northern parts are coincidence with occurrences of deformation textures of rocks which were sampled by drilling of shallow parts (a few hundreds meter) of the fault in 2000. In the southern core, a relatively strong deformation structure is preserved in total, and gouge containing fragments of pseudotachylytes and ultracataclasites is observed at the Chi-Chi- earthquake fault, which indicates that the main deformation mechanisms for the southern part of the fault was brittle. On the other hands, in the northern part, sand layer with much amount of water is found at the Chi-Chi- earthquake fault zone, and no breakage of sand grain is observed, which suggests that the deformation mechanism for northern part is independent particulate flow. The purpose of this study is to reveal the differences in clay minerals between the southern and northern part of the Chi-Chi earthquake fault. And then, we discuss about rock-fluid interaction and frictional heating characterized in seismogenic fault system. We analyzed clay minerals by X-ray diffract meter (XRD) after classification of rock types such as sandstone, alteration of sandstone and mudstone, breccia, and gouge. 1.33 micron meter of grains are obtained. Oriented sample was made. XRD analysis was conducted under following condition; 35kV, 15mA, 1 degree per minute of scan rate, and 0.02 degree of scan step. Range of 2 theta was from 2 degree to 35 degree. At first, air-dried condition of samples was measured. After that, ethylene glycol solvated samples were measured. The result represents that all samples contain smectite, illite, chlorite. No difference in components of clay mineral is

  7. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  8. Alteration and petrology of Intrusive Rocks associated with Gold Mineralization at Kuh-E-Zar Gold Deposit, Torbat-e-Heydaryeh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mazloumi Bajestani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kuh- e -Zar gold deposit located 35 km west of Torbat-e-Heydaryeh, (Khorassan e- Razavi province, East of Iran. This deposit is a specularite-rich Iron oxide type (IOCG. This mine is situated within Khaf-Bardascan volcanic plutonic belt. Based on recent exploration along this belt, several IOCG type system plus Kuh-e-Zar deposit are discovered. In the study area, several type of tuff and lava having acid to intermediate composition are identified (upper Eocene. Oligo-Miocene granite, granodiorite, synogranite and monzonite intruded upper Eocene andesite-dacite-rhyolite. Intrusive rocks are meta-aluminous, medium to high-K series I-type. Based on spider diagram, intrusive rocks show enrichment in LILE = K, Th, Rb and depletion in HFSE = Nb, Sr, Ti. Based geochemistry of igneous rock, they formed in continental margin subduction zone. Propylitic (chlorite alteration is dominated and covers large area. Silicification is restricted only to mineralized zones. Argillic and albitization is found in certain location and cover small areas. The style of mineralization was controlled by the type and geometry of fault zones. Mineralization is found as vein, stockwork and breccias. Hypogene mineral Paragenesis include: specularite-quartz-gold-chlorite ± chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± galena ± barite. Secondary minerals formed due to oxidation are: goethite, limonite, lepidocrucite, Malachite, Azurite, Covelite, Cerucite, hydrocerucite, Pyrolusite and Smitsonite. In a few localities, chalcopyrite and minor pyrite and galena are found. Based on SEM analysis gold is present as electrum. Mineralization appeared in different type such as vein, stockwork and Hydrothermal breccia in strike sleep fault zone which are hidden inside volcano plutonic rocks. The average gold grade is between 3.02 ppm and ore reserve is estimated more than 3 million tons (cut off grade = 0.7 ppm.

  9. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation in Betul Belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswajit Ghosh; M N Praveen

    2008-08-01

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world.Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an inner high Mg-Ca core and an outer wider envelop of Al-Fe rich mineral assemblage.Most of the prospects have strata bound,moderately to steeply dipping, multiple,sub-parallel sheet like ore bodies composed of disseminated and semi-massive to massive ores.Zn-bearing spinel,staurolite,biotite and ilmenite typically occur within the foot-wall altera- tion zones in close proximity to the sulphide mineralization.Zincian spinel is ubiquitous irrespective of the nature of alteration zone.Zincian staurolite is nearly absent in Mg-Ca alteration zones but commonly present in Al-Fe alteration zone along with zincian ilmenite.Zn-bearing biotite in intimate association with zincian spinel is generally found in Mg-Ca alteration zone and in the transition to Al-Fe alteration zone.Most of these indicator minerals can be considered as products of desulphidation of sphalerite during metamorphism.Mechanisms other than desulphidation like formation of gahnite by overstepping of the zinc saturation limit of biotite during retrogression to chlorite and formation of zincian staurolite at the expense of gahnite is also recorded.Field presence of these minerals has immense significance in exploration in Betul Belt as they occur in close spatial relationship with the sulphide rich zones and therefore act as direct vectors to ore.

  10. Multifractal Modelling of Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Mineralization refers to the physical process, which enhances the concentration of certain elements in rocks. The end products of the mineralization include both ore bodies which provide economically useable reservoir at the current industrial standard and altered rocks with elevated element concentration values below the minimum requirement for the current mining standard. The latter may be considered as resources potentially useful in the future. From this point of view, the mineral deposits are defined to be only an economic part of the total resources (a useable reservoir).

  11. Mineral resources of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compiled and edited by Wright, Nancy A.; Williams, Paul L.

    1974-01-01

    Although the existence of mineral deposits in Antarctica is highly probable, the chances of finding them are quite small. Minerals have been found there in great variety but only as occurrences. Manganese nodules, water (as ice), geothermal energy, coal, petroleum, and natural gas are potential resources that could perhaps be exploited in the future. On the basis of known mineral occurrences in Antarctica and relationships between geologic provinces of Antarctica and those of neighboring Gondwana continents, the best discovery probability for a base-metal deposit in any part of Antarctica is in the Andean orogen; it is estimated to be 0.075 (75 chances in 1,000).

  12. Late Quaternary clay minerals off Middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea: Implications for source analysis and East Asian monsoon evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution clay mineral records combined with oxygen isotopic stratigraphy over the past 450 ka during late Quaternary from Core MD05-2901 off Middle Vietnam in the western South China Sea are reported to reconstruct a history of East Asian monsoon evolution.Variations in Illite,chlorite,and kaolinite contents indicate a strong glacial-interglacial cyclicity,while changes in smectite content present a higher frequency cyclicity.The provenance analysis indicates a mixture of individual clay minerals from various sources surrounding the South China Sea.Smectite derived mainly from the Sunda shelf and its major source area of the Indonesian islands.Illite and chlorite originated mainly from the Mekong and Red rivers.Kaolinite was provided mainly by the Pearl River.Spectral analysis of the kaolinite/(illite+chlorite) ratio displays a strong eccentricity period of 100 ka,implying the ice sheet-forced winter monsoon evolution; whereas higher frequency changes in the smectite content show an ice sheet-forced obliquity period of 41 ka,and precession periods of 23 and 19 ka and a semi-precession period of 13 ka as well,implying the tropical-forced summer monsoon evolution.The winter monsoon evolution is generally in coherence with the glacial-interglacial cyclicity,with intensified winter monsoon winds during glacials and weakened winter monsoon winds during interglacials; whereas the summer monsoon evolution provides an almost linear response to the summer insolation of low latitude in the Northern Hemisphere,with strengthened summer monsoon during higher insolation and weakened summer monsoon during lower insolation.The result suggests that the high-latitude ice sheet and low-latitude tropical factor could drive the late Quaternary evolution of East Asian winter and summer monsoons,respectively,implying their diplex and self-contained forcing mechanism.

  13. Statistical analysis of results from the quantitative mapping of fracture minerals in Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling - complementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Niressa AB, Norsborg (Sweden)); Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Within the Forsmark site investigation campaign, quantitative mapping of different fracture minerals has been performed. This has been done by studying fracture surfaces of drill core sections from many different boreholes at the Forsmark site /Eklund and Mattsson 2009/. The drill core mapping was focused on the rock in the vicinity of flow anomalies detected by the Posiva Flow Log (PFL). The quantitative mapping was performed only on open fractures. The fracture minerals that were mapped are calcite, chlorite, clay minerals (as a group), hematite, and pyrite. In this present report, data from the quantitative mineral mapping campaign are refined, sorted into different data subsets, and analysed by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The data subsets are associated with 21 different rock volumes, representing different elevations, rock domains, fracture domains, and groups of deformation zones. In total 2,071 fractures were mapped at the site, and the most frequent mineral was calcite. Its amount could be quantitatively estimated in 32% of the mapped fractures. Of the other minerals, chlorite was quantitatively estimated in 24%, clay minerals in 11%, pyrite in 10%, and hematite in 0.4% of the mapped fractures. For fractures where the averaged fracture mineral thickness, d{sub mean} [mm], and visible coverage, C{sub vis} [%], could be quantitatively estimated, the following arithmetic means were found: calcite = 0.11 mm and 18%, chlorite = 0.22 mm and 38%, clay minerals = 0.14 mm and 40%, pyrite = 2.3 mum and 0.5%, hematite = 19 mum and 14%. These quantities are based on visual inspection of fracture surfaces and do not include the contribution from non-consolidated fracture fillings. It is shown that there is significant spatial variability of d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} within the examined rock volumes. Furthermore, the non-parametric analyses indicate that there are differences in d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} between the different rock volumes. Even

  14. Statistical analysis of results from the quantitative mapping of fracture minerals in Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling - complementary studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Niressa AB, Norsborg (Sweden)); Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    Within the Laxemar site investigation campaign, quantitative mapping of different fracture minerals has been performed. This has been done by studying fracture surfaces of drill core sections from many different boreholes at the Laxemar site /Eklund and Mattsson 2008/. The drill core mapping was focused on the rock in the vicinity of flow anomalies detected by the Posiva Flow Log (PFL). The quantitative mapping was performed only on open fractures. The fracture minerals that were mapped are calcite, chlorite, clay minerals (as a group), hematite, and pyrite. In this present report, data from the quantitative mineral mapping campaign are refined, sorted into different data subsets, and analysed by parametric and non-parametric statistical methods. The data subsets are associated with 17 different rock volumes, representing different elevations, rock domains, fracture domains, and groups of deformation zones. In total 1,852 fractures were mapped at the site, and the most frequent mineral was calcite. Its amount could be quantitatively estimated in 51% of the mapped fractures. Of the other minerals, chlorite was quantitatively estimated in 46%, pyrite in 19%, clay minerals in 16%, and hematite in 0.05% of the mapped fractures. For fractures where the averaged fracture mineral thickness, d{sub mean} [mm], and visible coverage, C{sub vis} [%], could be quantitatively estimated, the following arithmetic means were found: calcite = 0.25 mm and 22%, chlorite = 0.29 mm and 41%, pyrite =1.3 mum and 0.2%, and clay minerals = 0.15 mm and 35%. These quantities are based on visual inspection of fracture surfaces and do not include the contribution from non-consolidated fracture fillings. It is shown that there is significant spatial variability of d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} within the examined rock volumes. Furthermore, the non-parametric analyses indicate that there are differences in d{sub mean} and C{sub vis} between the different rock volumes. Even so, the differences are

  15. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Multivitamin/mineral ... Vitamin K lowers the drug's effectiveness and doctors base the medicine dose partly on the amount of ...

  16. sequenceMiner algorithm

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....

  17. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2009 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2008 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Because specific information concerning committed inventory was no longer available from the Defense Logistics Agency, National Defense Stockpile Center, that information, which was included in earlier Mineral Commodity Summaries publications, has been deleted from Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009. National reserves and reserve base information for most mineral commodities found in this report, including those for the United States, are derived from a variety of sources. The ideal source of such information would be comprehensive evaluations that apply the same criteria to deposits in different geographic areas and report the results by country. In the absence of such evaluations, national reserves and reserve base estimates compiled by countries for selected mineral commodities are a primary source of national reserves and reserve base information. Lacking national assessment information by governments, sources such as academic articles, company reports, common business practice, presentations by company representatives, and trade journal articles, or a combination of these, serve as the basis for national reserves and reserve base information reported in the mineral commodity sections of this publication. A national estimate may be assembled from the following: historically reported

  18. Law of radioactive minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal device done in order to standardize and promote the exploration and explotation of radioactive minerals by peruvian and foreign investors. This device include the whole process, since the prospection until the development, after previous auction given by IPEN

  19. Coastal placer minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Gujar, A.R.

    the minerals mandatory permissions from the various governmental and local bodies are needed to obtain a prospecting mining license. One of the simplest ways to recover the placer sand is by manual scooping but sophisticated machines are also used...

  20. Minerals in environmental technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuiling, R.D. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Earth Sciences

    2000-07-01

    Minerals play a key role in the environment; this role is often not well understood, because the emphasis of most environmentalists is on air, water, or the composition of solid wastes as a whole, without paying attention to their mineralogical composition. Several minerals can serve as effective and cheap adsorbents for many toxic chemicals. Several minerals can be used as a cheap substitute for expensive chemicals in environmental technologies. Environmental technologies that produce an economically interesting mineral will have an edge over competing technologies. Most of the problems, overreaction, panicky and expensive measures with regard to exposure from quartz and asbestos stem from a poor understanding of natural levels of common contaminants, a disregard for mineralogy, and a lack of insight into natural processes in general.

  1. [Research on characteristics of soil clay mineral evolution in paddy field and dry land by XRD spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-dan; Li, Qiao; Luo, Xiang-li; Jiang, Hai-chao; Zheng, Qing-fu; Zhao, Lan-po; Wang, Ji-hong

    2014-08-01

    The present paper took the typical saline-alkali soil in Jilin province as study object, and determinated the soil clay mineral composition characteristics of soil in paddy field and dry land. Then XRD spectrum was used to analyze the evolutionary mechanism of clay mineral in the two kinds of soil. The results showed that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better than those in dry land, and paddy field would promote the weathering of mineral particles in saline-alkali soil and enhance the silt content. Paddy field soil showed a strong potassium-removal process, with a higher degree of clay mineral hydration and lower degree of illite crystallinity. Analysis of XRD spectrum showed that the clay mineral composition was similar in two kinds of soil, while the intensity and position of diffraction peak showed difference. The evolution process of clay mineral in dry land was S/I mixture-->vermiculite, while in paddy field it was S/I mixture-->vermiculite-->kaolinite. One kind of hydroxylated 'chlorite' mineral would appear in saline-alkali soil in long-term cultivated paddy field. Taking into account that the physical and chemical properties of soil in paddy field were better then those in dry land, we could know that paddy field could help much improve soil structure, cultivate high-fertility soil and improve saline-alkali soil. This paper used XRD spectrum to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two'kinds of land use comparatively, and was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  2. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  3. Heavy mineral placers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    , because of their high sp. gravity. Intrusive igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks are mostly the primary source for heavy placers (Table 3). Table 3. Important Placer Deposits of the world. Country Climatic zone Mineral Deposit Present Studies... minerals are of great value in studying 1. Provenance 2. Transport history of sediments 3. Weathering history of sediments and 4. In correlation and paleogeographic studies (Folk 1968). In addition to their use in solving academic and scientific...

  4. Clay Minerals: Adsorbophysical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and features of surfaces of clay minerals (kaolin, montmorillonite, etc) have an important scientific and practical value. On the surface the interrelation of processes at electronic, atomic and molecular levels is realized. Availability of mineral surface to external influences opens wide scientific and technical opportunities of use of the surface phenomena, so the research of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near-surface area of clay minerals is important. After long term researches of gas-clay mineral system in physical fields the author has obtained experimental and theoretical material contributing to the creation of the surface theory of clays. A part of the researches is dedicated to studying the mechanism of crystal-chemical and crystal-physical processes in near surface area of clay mineral systems, selectivity of the surface centers to interact with gas phase molecules and adsorbophysical properties. The study of physical and chemical properties of fine clay minerals and their modification has a decisive importance for development of theory and practice of nanotechnologies: they are sorbents, membranes, ceramics and other materials with required electronic features

  5. Mineral commodity summaries 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2013 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2012 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2013 are welcomed.

  6. Mineral commodity summaries 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2014-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2014 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2013 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses. For mineral commodities for which there is a Government stockpile, detailed information concerning the stockpile status is included in the two-page synopsis. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. “Appendix C—Reserves and Resources” includes “Part A—Resource/Reserve Classification for Minerals” and “Part B—Sources of Reserves Data.” A directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2014 are welcomed.

  7. Evaluation of CO₂ solubility-trapping and mineral-trapping in microbial-mediated CO₂-brine-sandstone interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Fengjun; Lu, Cong; Du, Juanjuan; Zhu, Rongyue; Sun, Lei

    2014-08-15

    Evaluation of CO₂ solubility-trapping and mineral-trapping by microbial-mediated process was investigated by lab experiments in this study. The results verified that microbes could adapt and keep relatively high activity under extreme subsurface environment (pH50 °C, salinity>1.0 mol/L). When microbes mediated in the CO₂-brine-sandstone interaction, the CO₂ solubility-trapping was enhanced. The more biomass of microbe added, the more amount of CO₂ dissolved and trapped into the water. Consequently, the corrosion of feldspars and clay minerals such as chlorite was improved in relative short-term CO₂-brine-sandstone interaction, providing a favorable condition for CO₂ mineral-trapping. Through SEM images and EDS analyses, secondary minerals such as transition-state calcite and crystal siderite were observed, further indicating that the microbes played a positive role in CO₂ mineral trapping. As such, bioaugmentation of indigenous microbes would be a promising technology to enhance the CO₂ capture and storage in such deep saline aquifer like Erdos, China.

  8. Oscillation of mineral compositions in Core SG-1b, western Qaidam Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Li, Minghui; Wang, Zhengrong; Wang, Jiuyi; Li, Jiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Zan, Jinbo

    2016-09-01

    Uplift of the Tibetan Plateau since the Late Miocene has greatly affected the nature of sediments deposited in the Qaidam Basin. However, due to the scarcity of continuously dated sediment records, we know little about how minerals responded to this uplift. In order to understand this response, we here present results from the high-resolution mineral profile from a borehole (7.3-1.6 Ma) in the Basin, which shows systematic oscillations of various evaporite and clay minerals that can be linked to the variation of regional climate and tectonic history. In particular, x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that carbonate minerals consist mainly of calcite and aragonite, with minor ankerite and dolomite. Evaporates consist of gypsum, celesite and halite. Clay minerals are principally Fe-Mg illite, mixed layers of illite/smectite and chlorite, with minor kaolinite and smectite. Following implications can be drawn from the oscillations of these minerals phases: (a) the paleolake was brackish with high salinity after 7.3 Ma, while an abrupt change in the chemical composition of paleolake water (e.g. Mg/Ca ratio, SO42- concentration, salinity) occurred at 3.3 Ma; (b) the three changes at ~6.0 Ma, 4.5-4.1 Ma and 3.3 Ma were in response to rapid erosions/uplift of the basin; (c) pore water or fluid was Fe/Mg-rich in 7.3-6.0 Ma, Mg-rich in 6.0-4.5 Ma, and K-rich in 4.1-1.6 Ma and (d) evaporation rates were high, but weaker than today’s.

  9. Uranium deposits of the Grants mineral belt: geochemical constraints on origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polygenetic origin of the uranium deposits of the Grants mineral belt is consistent with geologic and geochemical evidence. The characteristic suite of elements associated with uranium from distant source areas, viz. V, Mo, Se, As, indicates processes for deposition similar to those for Wyoming and Texas roll types of deposits, except that the rates of deposition were probably more dynamic thus leading to primary ore body geometries described as trend ore. Organic matter is associated with the ore and was important for both transport and precipitation; directly by providing reductants in addition to sulfide: sulfate redox reactions, and indirectly by promoting attack on allogenic rock forming and early formed diagenetic clay minerals. The trend ore in the Ambrosia Lake district and Smith Lake area is very nearly syngenetic; recent Rb-Sr age determinations yield ages of mineralization for coffinite-chlorite-organic carbon-pyrite assemblages of 135 +- 10 My as opposed to age of sedimentation for barren host rock of 145 +- 10 My. Only in the Jackpile-Paguate area are ages of mineralization quite different, i.e., 110-115 My. The Rb-Sr data also reveal for the Ambrosia Lake-Smith Lake areas Precambrian source materials and Permian--Triassic source material; both of which provided U to the Grants mineral belt. The trace element suites from ore zones, oxidized rocks near ore, and both oxidized and reduced rocks removed from ore suggest that the upper units of the Morrison Formation (i.e., Brushy Basin Member) contained volcanic detritus which provided not only U, V, Mo, Se, As but other trace elements which are not usually transported far from their sites of origin; viz. rare earth elements, Th, Ta, Sb.Thus a polygenetic model similar to the rolltype mechanisms but involving more complex sedimentary control and U from several source areas is compatible with the trend and other ore in the Grants mineral belt

  10. Infrared spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals and its implication to gold exploration in Shihu Gold Deposit, Hebei Province, P.R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiacheng; Yao, Yuzeng; Wang, Yingpeng; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal alteration is of great importance for mineral exploration, especially the blind ore-hunting due to its larger scale and special zonation compared to the ore bodies. Infrared spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals can be done with little or no sample preparation and quantitative result can be obtained. In this paper, 65 wall-rock samples of several horizontal and vertical profiles were selected from Shihu Gold deposit in Hebei Province to do reflectance spectrum measurements by means of rough surface, smooth section and powder with portable ASD FieldSpec®3 spectrometer. ViewspecPro software was used to preprocess the spectrum, and metasomatic alteration minerals were spectrally discriminated by SII (Spectral International Inc) Specmin software package with wavelength of 1100~2500nm. The results shows that: (1) among all the three spectral libraries embedded in SPECMIN software, i.e., ASD, USGS and JPL, ASD spectral library is more suitable for the spectral hydrothermal alteration minerals identification in Shihu Gold Deposit; (2) the observed mineral zonation from wall-rock gneiss to ore-body indicates obvious downtrend of amphibole, chlorite, sericite, carbonate and barite, which is consistent with the microscopic and XRD results; (3) spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals is theoretically feasible, which is economic and convenient, and most important of all, the result can be quantitative or semi-quantitative. The results are helpful and successfully applied to the further mineral exploration in Shihu Gold Deposit.

  11. Change of minerals due to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis contains new results on radio-induced alteration in solids, presenting investigations on alpha-particle haloes in several minerals (chlorite, muscovite, biotite, cordierite, diamond, fluorite, quartz, feldspars) and results of artificial irradiation experiments (with He2+ and O6+ ions, electrons and gamma-rays) on natural and synthetic crystals and glasses. Samples were characterised using modern micro- and nano-techniques: spectroscopic methods (Raman, PL, CL, IR, UV-VIS-NIR, EELS, EPR), microscopy (polarisation microscopy, SEM, TEM), diffraction (SAED, PXRD, SXRD) and chemical analysis (EDX, WDX, in addition TG). Furthermore, the presented work yields a comprehensive literature review of investigations on radiohaloes (from 1873 until present day) and is completed by results of mathematical modelling and Monte-Carlo-simulations of the interaction of radiation with matter. In all cases, there was very good agreement between measured penetration depths of irradiated particles and radiohalo radii on the one hand and particle ranges calculated by Monte-Carlo-simulations on the other hand. The phenomena of either inexplicably small or large radiohaloes (so called dwarf or giant haloes) reported in the literature could be explained using geometrical models and simulations. For the first time, radiohaloes in muscovite were analysed by spectroscopic methods. A comparison with haloes in chlorite and biotite showed that alpha-induced effects are similar in all investigated sheet silicates: It was observed in all cases that there is no amorphization but merely radio-induced disturbance of the short range order (due to accumulation of point defects). Changes of the coloration of sheet silicates are not caused by distinct additional absorption bands but by a shift of the high-energy absorption edge into the visible range. By obtaining spectra from different regions within haloes, it was possible to reconstruct the dose-dependent evolution of radio-induced light

  12. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  13. Measuring the Hardness of Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    The author discusses Moh's hardness scale, a comparative scale for minerals, whereby the softest mineral (talc) is placed at 1 and the hardest mineral (diamond) is placed at 10, with all other minerals ordered in between, according to their hardness. Development history of the scale is outlined, as well as a description of how the scale is used…

  14. Extraterrestrial magnetic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, D. M.; Markov, G. P.; Tsel'movich, V. A.; Sharonova, Z. V.

    2012-07-01

    Thermomagnetic and microprobe analyses are carried out and a set of magnetic characteristics are measured for 25 meteorites and 3 tektites from the collections of the Vernadsky Geological Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Museum of Natural History of the North-East Interdisciplinary Science Research Institute, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It is found that, notwithstanding their type, all the meteorites contain the same magnetic minerals and only differ by concentrations of these minerals. Kamacite with less than 10% nickel is the main magnetic mineral in the studied samples. Pure iron, taenite, and schreibersite are less frequent; nickel, various iron spinels, Fe-Al alloys, etc., are very rare. These minerals are normally absent in the crusts of the Earth and other planets. The studied meteorites are more likely parts of the cores and lower mantles of the meteoritic parent bodies (the planets). Uniformity in the magnetic properties of the meteorites and the types of their thermomagnetic (MT) curves is violated by secondary alterations of the meteorites in the terrestrial environment. The sediments demonstrate the same monotony as the meteorites: kamacite is likely the only extraterrestrial magnetic mineral, which is abundant in sediments and associated with cosmic dust. The compositional similarity of kamacite in iron meteorites and in cosmic dust is due to their common source; the degree of fragmentation of the material of the parent body is the only difference.

  15. 二氧化氯消毒饮用水中亚氯酸盐污染的初步研究%Priliminary Study on Chlorite Pollution of Drinking Water Disinfected by Chlorine Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施小平; 周明浩

    2000-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the status of chlorite pollution in drinking water due to chlorine dioxide , aswell as its causes and counter measures. [Methods]A water plant collecting surface water as raw water slightly pol-luted by organic compounds and B water plant collecting ground water without organic compounds pollution wereselected as observed objectives. Chlorine dioxide generators were used in both of A and B water plants, their rawmaterials was chlorite for A plant and chlorate for B plant. The levels of chlorite in treated water from these twowater plants were determined by amperometric titration. [Results]The levels of chlorite in treated water of A waterplant ranged 0.530~0.760 mg/L, 2.6~3.8 times of the standard value, with a over standard rate of 100%, thelevels of B water plant range 0.257~0.733 mg/L, 1.3~3.7 times of the standard value, with a over standard rateof 83.3%. [Conclusion] The treated water of A and B water plants presented higher pollution by chlorite, the by-product of chlorine dioxide disinfection.%[目的]了解二氧化氯消毒饮用水产生的亚氯酸盐(ClO2-)污染现状,并探讨其成因和对策。[方法]选择2个自来水厂,其中甲水厂以受轻度有机物污染的地面水为水源,乙水厂以未受有机物污染的地下水为水源,两个水厂均使用二氧化氯发生器,主要原料甲厂为亚氯酸盐,乙厂为氯酸盐。采用电流滴定仪法测定这2个水厂出厂水中ClO2-浓度。[结果]出厂水ClO2-浓度:甲厂0.530~0.760 mg/L,为标准值的2.6~3.8倍,超标率100%;乙厂0.100~0.733 mg/L,其中超标浓度值范围0.257~0.733 mg/L,为标准值的1.3~3.7倍,超标率83.3%。[结论]甲、乙自来水厂出厂水中由二氧化氯消毒产生的消毒副产物亚氯酸盐污染较严重。

  16. Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, Rita; Ward, Colin R.

    2006-10-02

    The coal of the Miocene Bukit Asam deposit in south Sumatra is mostly sub-bituminous in rank, consistent with regional trends due to burial processes. However, effects associated with Plio-Pleistocene igneous intrusions have produced coal with vitrinite reflectance up to at least 4.17% (anthracite) in different parts of the deposit. The un-metamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed coals, with Rv{sub max} values of 0.45-0.65%, contain a mineral assemblage made up almost entirely of well-ordered kaolinite and quartz. The more strongly heat-affected coals, with Rv{sub max} values of more than 1.0%, are dominated by irregularly and regularly interstratified illite/smectite, poorly crystallized kaolinite and paragonite (Na mica), with chlorite in some of the anthracite materials. Kaolinite is abundant in the partings of the lower-rank coals, but is absent from the partings in the higher-rank areas, even at similar horizons in the same coal seam. Regularly interstratified illite/smectite, which is totally absent from the partings in the lower-rank coals, dominates the mineralogy in the partings associated with the higher-rank coal beds. A number of reactions involving the alteration of silicate minerals appear to have occurred in both the coal and the associated non-coal lithologies during the thermal metamorphism generated by the intrusions. The most prominent involve the disappearance of kaolinite, the appearance of irregularly interstratified illite/smectite, and the formation of regular I/S, paragonite and chlorite. Although regular I/S is identified in all of the non-coal partings associated with the higher-rank coals, illite/smectite with an ordered structure is only recognised in the coal samples collected from near the bases of the seams. The I/S in the coal samples adjacent to the floor of the highest rank seam also appears to have a greater proportion of illitic components. The availability of sodium and other non-mineral inorganic elements in the original coal

  17. 43 CFR 19.8 - Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 2 of 43 CFR, which appears in Volume II of the List of CFR Sections Affected, 1964-1972, for the... patents, and mineral leasing within National Forest Wilderness. 19.8 Section 19.8 Public Lands: Interior... § 19.8 Prospecting, mineral locations, mineral patents, and mineral leasing within National...

  18. Microbially mediated mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, I. M.; Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Southam, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral carbonation involves silicate dissolution and carbonate precipitation, which are both natural processes that microorganisms are able to mediate in near surface environments (Ferris et al., 1994; Eq. 1). (Ca,Mg)SiO3 + 2H2CO3 + H2O → (Ca,Mg)CO3 + H2O + H4SiO4 + O2 (1) Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs with cell surface characteristics and metabolic processes involving inorganic carbon that can induce carbonate precipitation. This occurs partly by concentrating cations within their net-negative cell envelope and through the alkalinization of their microenvironment (Thompson & Ferris, 1990). Regions with mafic and ultramafic bedrock, such as near Atlin, British Columbia, Canada, represent the best potential sources of feedstocks for mineral carbonation. The hydromagnesite playas near Atlin are a natural biogeochemical model for the carbonation of magnesium silicate minerals (Power et al., 2009). Field-based studies at Atlin and corroborating laboratory experiments demonstrate the ability of a microbial consortium dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Phototrophic microbes, such as cyanobacteria, have been proposed as a means for producing biodiesel and other value added products because of their efficiency as solar collectors and low requirement for valuable, cultivable land in comparison to crops (Dismukes et al., 2008). Carbonate precipitation and biomass production could be facilitated using specifically designed ponds to collect waters rich in dissolved cations (e.g., Mg2+ and Ca2+), which would allow for evapoconcentration and provide an appropriate environment for growth of cyanobacteria. Microbially mediated carbonate precipitation does not require large quantities of energy or chemicals needed for industrial systems that have been proposed for rapid carbon capture and storage via mineral carbonation (e.g., Lackner et al., 1995). Therefore, this biogeochemical approach may represent a readily

  19. Bioreduction of Fe-bearing clay minerals and their reactivity toward pertechnetate (Tc-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael E.; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Liu, Chongxuan; Edelmann, Richard E.

    2011-09-01

    99Technetium ( 99Tc) is a fission product of uranium-235 and plutonium-239 and poses a high environmental hazard due to its long half-life ( t1/2 = 2.13 × 10 5 y), abundance in nuclear wastes, and environmental mobility under oxidizing conditions [i.e., Tc(VII)]. Under reducing conditions, Tc(VII) can be reduced to insoluble Tc(IV). Ferrous iron, either in aqueous form (Fe 2+) or in mineral form [Fe(II)], has been used to reduce Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). However, the reactivity of Fe(II) from clay minerals, other than nontronite, toward immobilization of Tc(VII) and its role in retention of reduced Tc(IV) has not been investigated. In this study the reactivity of a suite of clay minerals toward Tc(VII) reduction and immobilization was evaluated. The clay minerals chosen for this study included five members in the smectite-illite (S-I) series, (montmorillonite, nontronite, rectorite, mixed layered I-S, and illite), chlorite, and palygorskite. Surface Fe-oxides were removed from these minerals with a modified dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) procedure. The total structural Fe content of these clay minerals, after surface Fe-oxide removal, ranged from 0.7% to 30.4% by weight, and the structural Fe(III)/Fe(total) ratio ranged from 45% to 98%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy results showed that after Fe oxide removal the clay minerals were free of Fe-oxides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that little dissolution occurred during the DCB treatment. Bioreduction experiments were performed in bicarbonate buffer (pH-7) with structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals as the sole electron acceptor, lactate as the sole electron donor, and Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 cells as a mediator. In select tubes, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfate (AQDS) was added as electron shuttle to facilitate electron transfer. In the S-I series, smectite (montmorillonite) was the most reducible (18% and 41% without and with AQDS, respectively) and illite the least (1% for both

  20. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  1. Paleoenvironmental significance of clay mineral assemblages in the southeastern Arabian Sea during last 30 kyr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddhartha Sankar Das; Ajai K Rai; Vaseem Akaram; Dhananjai Verma; A C Pandey; Koushik Dutta; G V Ravi Prasad

    2013-02-01

    A gravity core SK-221 recovered from the southeastern Arabian Sea near Laccadive–Chagos Ridge was examined to identify the sources of detrital clay minerals and to decipher paleoenvironmental changes for the last 30 kyr. The clay mineral assemblages predominantly consist of illite, kaolinite and chlorite with small amounts of smectite. Quartz, feldspar and occasionally gibbsite are the clay-sized non-clay minerals present in the examined section. The detrital clay minerals primarily originated from the hinterland and were supplied to the present site by the numerous small rivers draining western India during preglacial and Holocene periods, and partly by the strong reworking of Indian continental shelf during glacial period. The low values of humidity proxies (kaolinite content, kaolinite to illite and smectite to illite ratios) and better illite crystallinity indicate relatively weak summer monsoon condition that resulted in reduced chemical weathering during glacial period, which was interrupted by a discrete event of winter monsoon intensification at ∼20–17 ka. The increased kaolinite content, higher values of humidity indices and poorer illite crystallinity reflect high humidity that resulted in strong hydrolysis activity during the preglacial and Holocene periods. The increased CaCO3 during above periods also indicates less terrigenous dilution and intensified southwest monsoon-led upwelling which result in higher surface biogenic productivity. The characteristic clay mineral associations broadly suggest dry to semi-drier conditions during Heinrich Events H1, H2, and H3 and also during Younger Dryas. The low values of biogenic carbonate and organic carbon also indicate low productivity associated with weak summer monsoons during Heinrich Events. Abrupt increased humidity was recorded at 15–12.7 ka (Bølling/Allerød Event) sandwiched between two lows of Heinrich Events. Cycles of millennial timescale variations 2300, 1800, 1300 and 1000 yr have been

  2. Clay Mineral: Radiological Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotomácio, J. G.; Silva, P. S. C.; Mazzilli, B. P.

    2008-08-01

    Since the early days, clays have been used for therapeutic purposes. Nowadays, most minerals applied as anti-inflammatory, pharmaceutics and cosmetic are the clay minerals that are used as the active ingredient or, as the excipient, in formulations. Although their large use, few information is available in literature on the content of the radionuclide concentrations of uranium and thorium natural series and 40K in these clay minerals. The objective of this work is to determine the concentrations of 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K in commercial samples of clay minerals used for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes. Two kinds of clays samples were obtained in pharmacies, named green clay and white clay. Measurement for the determination of 238U and 232Th activity concentration was made by alpha spectrometry and gamma spectrometry was used for 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Pb and 40K determination. Some physical-chemical parameters were also determined as organic carbon and pH. The average activity concentration obtained was 906±340 Bq kg-1 for 40K, 40±9 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra, 75±9 Bq kg-1 for 228Ra, 197±38 Bq kg-1 for 210Pb, 51±26 Bq kg-1 for 238U and 55±24 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, considering both kinds of clay.

  3. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The past 20 years have seen extensive marine exploration work by the major industrialized countries. Studies have, in part, been concentrated on Pacific manganese nodule occurrences and on massive sulfides on mid-oceanic ridges. An international jurisdictional framework of the sea-bed mineral...

  4. Uruguay minerals fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the bases for the development of the necessary works of prospection are exposed on mineral fuels of Uruguay. We have taken the set from: coal, lutitas bituminous, uranium, petroleum and disturbs. In all the cases we have talked about to the present state of the knowledge and to the works that we considered necessary to develop in each case

  5. Mineralization of fossil wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.

    1972-01-01

    Several pieces of fossil wood have been analyzed with X-ray diffraction and were grouped on the basis of mineralogical composition. Various mineralizations were studied in thin sections and by means of the scanning electron microscope. Wood-opals appear to show a structure preservation that points t

  6. Hydrated silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F; Murchie, S L; Pelkey, S M; Ehlmann, B L; Milliken, R E; Grant, J A; Bibring, J-P; Poulet, F; Bishop, J; Dobrea, E Noe; Roach, L; Seelos, F; Arvidson, R E; Wiseman, S; Green, R; Hash, C; Humm, D; Malaret, E; McGovern, J A; Seelos, K; Clancy, T; Clark, R; Marais, D D; Izenberg, N; Knudson, A; Langevin, Y; Martin, T; McGuire, P; Morris, R; Robinson, M; Roush, T; Smith, M; Swayze, G; Taylor, H; Titus, T; Wolff, M

    2008-07-17

    Phyllosilicates, a class of hydrous mineral first definitively identified on Mars by the OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activitié) instrument, preserve a record of the interaction of water with rocks on Mars. Global mapping showed that phyllosilicates are widespread but are apparently restricted to ancient terrains and a relatively narrow range of mineralogy (Fe/Mg and Al smectite clays). This was interpreted to indicate that phyllosilicate formation occurred during the Noachian (the earliest geological era of Mars), and that the conditions necessary for phyllosilicate formation (moderate to high pH and high water activity) were specific to surface environments during the earliest era of Mars's history. Here we report results from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of phyllosilicate-rich regions. We expand the diversity of phyllosilicate mineralogy with the identification of kaolinite, chlorite and illite or muscovite, and a new class of hydrated silicate (hydrated silica). We observe diverse Fe/Mg-OH phyllosilicates and find that smectites such as nontronite and saponite are the most common, but chlorites are also present in some locations. Stratigraphic relationships in the Nili Fossae region show olivine-rich materials overlying phyllosilicate-bearing units, indicating the cessation of aqueous alteration before emplacement of the olivine-bearing unit. Hundreds of detections of Fe/Mg phyllosilicate in rims, ejecta and central peaks of craters in the southern highland Noachian cratered terrain indicate excavation of altered crust from depth. We also find phyllosilicate in sedimentary deposits clearly laid by water. These results point to a rich diversity of Noachian environments conducive to habitability. PMID:18633411

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Industrial Mineral Mining Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — An Industrial Mineral Mining Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Industrial Mineral Mining Program. The sub-facility types are listed below:Deep...

  8. Carbon Mineral Ecology: Predicting the Undiscovered Minerals of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Hummer, D. R.; Downs, R. T.; Hystad, G.; Golden, J.

    2015-12-01

    The diversity and distribution of Earth's minerals through deep time reflects key events in our planet's crustal evolution. Studies in mineral ecology exploit mineralogical databases to document diversity-distribution relationships of minerals, which reveal that all carbon-bearing minerals, as well as subsets containing C with O, H, Ca, or Na, conform to Large Number of Rare Events (LNRE) distributions. LNRE models facilitate prediction of total mineral diversity, and thus point to minerals that exist on Earth but have not yet been discovered and described. Our model predicts that at least 548 C minerals exist on Earth today, indicating that at least 145 carbon-bearing mineral species have yet to be discovered. Furthermore, by analyzing subsets of the most common additional elements in carbon-bearing minerals (i.e., 378 C + O species; 282 C + H species; 133 C + Ca species; and 100 C + Na species), we predict that 129 of these missing carbon minerals contain oxygen, 118 contain hydrogen, 52 contain calcium, and more than 60 contain sodium. The majority of these as yet undescribed minerals are predicted to be hydrous carbonates, many of which may have been overlooked because they are colorless, poorly crystalized, and/or water-soluble. We propose the identities of plausible as yet undescribed carbon minerals, as well as search strategies for their discovery. Some of these minerals will be natural examples of known synthetic compounds, including carbides such as calcium carbide (CaC2), crystalline hydrocarbons such as pyrene (C16H10), and numerous oxalates, anhydrous carbonates, and hydrous carbonates. Many other missing carbon minerals will be isomorphs of known carbon minerals, notably of the more than 100 different hydrous carbonate structures. An understanding of Earth's "missing" minerals provides a more complete picture of geochemical processes that influence crustal evolution.

  9. Clay minerals and geochemistry of the bottom sediments in the northwestern East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Clay minerals of 34 sediments collected from the northwestern continental shelf of the East China Sea have been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The clay mineral distribution is mainly controlled by the sediment source and the dominant circulation pattern. The predominant clay mineral in our study area is illite comprising more than 67% of the whole clay fraction. The highest concentration of illite (>68%) is found in the southeastern offshore parts beyond the reach of terrigenous input from the Jeju Island. It means that these illites are largely transported by the Kuroshio Current from the South China Sea (SCS). Smectite is highly concentrated in the northwest middle part and in the outer-shelf mud patch. It seems to be due to the high supply of smectite transported from China where fine-grained sediments are discharged from modern and ancient Huanghe (Yellow) River. The relatively high abundant kaolinite is likely derived from the Changjiang (Yangtze) River via the Taiwan Warm Current. In contrast,large amounts of chlorite and high chlorite/kaolinite ratios occur in the northwestern area, reflecting the transportation by the Yellow Sea Coastal Current from the southern Yellow Sea. The discrimination diagrams clearly show that the sediments in the northwestern East China Sea are ultimately sourced from Chinese rivers, especially from the Huanghe River, whereas the sediment in the northeast part might come from the Jeju Island. The muddy sediments of the Changjiang River's submerged delta have much lower 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7162-0.7180) than those of the Shandong Peninsular mud wedge (0.7216-0.7249),which are supposed to be originated from the Huanghe River, suggesting the distribution pattern of 87Sr/86Sr ratios as a new tracer to discriminate the provenance of shelf sediments in the study area. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the outer-shelf muddy sediments ranged from 0.7169 to 0.7216 in a wide range and was between those of the Huanghe River and Changjiang

  10. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  11. Agricultural Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  12. 饮用水中的亚氯酸盐、氯酸盐和溴酸盐的离子色谱测定法%Determination of Chlorite ,Chlorate and Bromate in Drinking Water by Ion Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周虹; 周小新

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop an ion chromatography (IC) for simultaneous determination of chlorite, chlorate and bromate in drinking water. Methods The IC separation was carried out with the IonPAC AS23 column by using 4.5 mmol/L Na_2CO_3-0.8 mmol/L NaHCO_3 at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The injection volume was 250 μl.the temperature of conductivity detector cell and column were 30 ℃ and 35 ℃, respectively. The pressure upon the bottle of mobile phase was 40 kPa. The current of auto-regenerating suppressor was 25 mA. Results The results showed that in the range of 0 to 1 000 mg/L, the calibration equation for chlorite was y=0.009 6+1.600 0 x (r=0.999 3),for bromate was y=0.003 2+3.184 7 x (r=0.999 9),for chlorate was y= 0.001 8+1.788 9 x(r=0.999 9).The detection limit of chlorite,chlorate and bromate were all 5 μg/ L,the recovery rates were 89.0% -108.0% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 0.21%-2.70%. Conclusion The method is simple,fast,accurate, sensitive, little interference and is applicable to the simultaneous determination of chlorite, chlorate and bromate in drinking water.%目的 建立同时测定饮用水中亚氯酸盐、氯酸盐和溴酸盐的离子色谱法.方法 选择IonPacAS23色谱柱,淋洗液为4.5mmol/L Na_2CO_3-0.8 mmol/L NaHCO_3,流速为1.0 ml/min,进样量为250 μl,电导检测池温度为30℃,色谱柱温度为35 ℃,流动相瓶加压为40 kPa,抑制器抑制模式为自动再生模式,抑制器电流为25 mA.结果 在0~1 000.0 mg/L范围内,亚氯酸盐的线性方程为:y=0.009 6+1.600 0x,r=0.999 3,检出限为5μg/L;溴酸盐的线性方程为:y=0.003 2+3.184 7x,r=0.999 9,检出限为5μg/L;氯酸盐的线性方程为:y=0.001 8+1.788 9x,r=0.999 9,检出限为5μg/L.加标回收试验结果显示,该方法的平均回收率为89.0%~108.0%,RSD为0.21%~2.70%.结论 该法操作简单、快速、准确,灵敏度高、干扰少,适用于饮用水中亚氯酸盐、氯酸盐和溴酸盐的同时测定.

  13. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  14. Aggregates from mineral wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baic Ireneusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem concerning the growing demand for natural aggregates and the need to limit costs, including transportation from remote deposits, cause the increase in growth of interest in aggregates from mineral wastes as well as in technologies of their production and recovery. The paper presents the issue related to the group of aggregates other than natural. A common name is proposed for such material: “alternative aggregates”. The name seems to be fully justified due to adequacy of this term because of this raw materials origin and role, in comparison to the meaning of natural aggregates based on gravel and sand as well as crushed stones. The paper presents characteristics of the market and basic application of aggregates produced from mineral wastes, generated in the mining, power and metallurgical industries as well as material from demolished objects.

  15. Lulak Abad Iron Occurrence, Northwest of Zanjan: Metamorphosed and Deformed Volcano-Sedimentary Type of Mineralization in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Karami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Keywords: Iron mineralization, hydrothermal vein, alteration, Lulak Abad, Zanjan, Central Iran Introduction The Lulak Abad iron occurrence is located in the northwestern part of the Central Iran, 55 km west of Zanjan. Mineralization at the Lulak Abad area was originally identified by Zamin Gostar Company (2007, during a geophysical exploration. The present paper provides an overview of the geological framework, the mineralization characteristics, and the results of a geochemical study of the Lulak Abad iron occurrence with an application to the ore genesis. Identification of these characteristics can be used as a model for exploration of this type of iron mineralization in the Central Iran and elsewhere. Materials and methods Detailed field work was carried out at different scales (give scales in parentheses in the Lulak Abad area. About 16 polished thin and thin sections from host rocks and mineralized and altered zones were studied by conventional petrographic and mineralogical methods at the Department of Geology, University of Zanjan. In addition, a total of 7 samples from ore zones at the Lulak Abad occurrence were analyzed by ICP-OES for minor and trace elements and REE compositions at Geological Survey of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Result Rock units exposed in the Lulak Abad area consist of schists and metavolcanic units the Kahar Formation; Lotfi, 2001 that were intruded by granite and microdiorite bodies. The schist units consist of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist and muscovite schist that show granolepidoblastic texture with foliation-parallel disseminated magnetite. The metavolcanic units consist of metadacite, rhyolitic metatuff and meta-andesite with porphyritic textures. They are marked by dominant mylonitic foliation surrounding feldspar and quartz porphyroclasts. Alkali feldspar and quartz are the principal minerals of the granite. The intrusion is characterized by intense deformation features and is highly mylonitized. Based on field

  16. Discussion on Nontraditional Mineral Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of nontraditional mineral resources, and pro pose the major system of nontraditional mineral resources, including nontraditional resources, research methods, mining and mineral economics. Then the authors conclude that the research on nontraditional mineral resources is not only significant to satisfication the human needs in the 21st century, but also important to the development of the present geological theory.

  17. Production and stability of chlorine dioxide in organic acid solutions as affected by pH, type of acid, and concentration of sodium chlorite, and its effectiveness in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoikyung; Kang, Youngjee; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2008-12-01

    We studied the production and stability of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in organic acid solutions and its effectiveness in killing Bacillus cereus spores. Sodium chlorite (5000, 10,000, or 50,000 microg/ml) was added to 5% acetic, citric, or lactic acid solution, adjusted to pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0, and held at 21 degrees C for up to 14 days. The amount of ClO(2) produced was higher as the concentration of sodium chlorite was increased and as the pH of the acid solutions was decreased. However, the stability in production of ClO(2) was enhanced by increasing the pH of the organic acid solutions. To evaluate the lethal activity of ClO(2) produced in various acid solutions as affected by acidulant and pH, suspensions of B. cereus spores were treated at 21 degrees C for 1, 3, 5, or 10 min in hydrochloric acid or organic acid solutions (pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0) containing ClO(2) at concentrations of 100, 50, or 25 microg/ml. Populations of viable spores treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 100 or 50 microg/ml in organic acid solutions decreased more rapidly than populations treated with the same concentrations of ClO(2) in HCl. Rates of inactivation tended to increase with higher pH of ClO(2) solutions. Results show that ClO(2) formed in organic acid solutions has higher stability and is more lethal to B. cereus spores than ClO(2) formed at the same concentration in HCl solution. This finding emphasizes the benefits of using organic acid solutions to prepare ClO(2) intended for use as an antimicrobial.

  18. Refractory Minerals in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qinguo; LI Jing; LIU Jiehua; LIU Yanjun

    2004-01-01

    Henan province is very rich in refractory minerals of many varieties including silica, dolomite, graphite,pearlite, sepiolite, olivine, and sillimanite group minerals, besides the abundant reserves of fireclay and bauxite,which lay a good foundation for the development of the refractories industry of the province. The paper introduces the reserves, distribution and character of the refractory minerals in Henan province.

  19. Chemical and mineralogical data of the metalliferous mineralization from S. Carlo mine (Peloritani mts, Ne Sicily, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisacane, G

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The mineralization processes in the Peloritani Belt (Southern Sector of the Calabria- Peloritani Arc prevalently developed during the Variscan orogenesis producing Pb, Zn, Fe, As, Sb, Cu, Ag, W, etc. polymetalliferous ore-bearing horizons. This paper focuses on the polymetalliferous mineralization recognised in the ancient S. Carlo Mine, which has already been subject of some studies and is part of an important discordant vein deposits system that are widespread in the Mandanici Unit (MaU. This Unit is characterized by a Variscan low-P, polyphasic and plurifacial metamorphic basement, exhibiting a prograde zoning, from chlorite zone of greenschist facies to oligoclase-almandine zone of amphibolite facies. The Variscan main foliation (Fv2 is irregularly cut by mineralized veins of decimetric to metric width. They are also perpendicular to the Alpine mylonitic shear zones of metric thickness developing along the sub-horizontal tectonic contacts between the tectono-stratigraphic units. These vein deposits formed along late-Alpine systems of fractures and faults, after Peloritani nappe emplacement. Minerographic study reveals a metalliferous mineral association mainly composed of tetrahedrite associated with, in order of decreasing abundance, chalcopyrite, bournonite, pentlandite, stromeyerite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, galena, sphalerite, pyrite, bismuthinite, boulangerite, jamesonite, covellite, bornite and argentite. Quartz, siderite and ankerite among non-metalliferous minerals are predominant. This work has been supported by mineralogical studies and chemical analyses carried out by Atomic Absorption and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry on powdered and separated samples of minerals. Geochemical data (major and trace elements have allowed a detailed characterization of the minerals. They have revealed that the most significant minerals with Au contents around 1 ppm are tetrahedrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and bournonite. The

  20. The Genesis of Precious and Base Metal Mineralization at the Miguel Auza Deposit, Zacatecas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findley, A. A.; Olivo, G. R.; Godin, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Miguel Auza mine located in Zacatecas State, Mexico, is a vein-type polymetallic epithermal deposit hosted in deformed argillite, siltstone and, greywacke of the Cretaceous Caracol Formation. Silver-rich base metal veins (0.2 m to >1.5 m wide) are spatially associated with the NE-striking, steeply SE- dipping (70-80°) Miguel Auza fault over a strike length of 1.6 km and a depth of 460 m. A 2 km2 monzonitic stock located in the proximity of the mineralized zones, has previously been interpreted as the source of the mineralizing fluids. Four distinct structural stages are correlated with hydrothermal mineral deposition: (I) The Pre-ore stage is characterized by normal faulting, fracturing of host rock, and rotation of bedding planes. This stage consists of quartz, illite, chlorite, +/- pyrite alteration of sedimentary wall rocks. (II) The Pyrite-vein stage is associated with reverse-sense reactivation of early normal faults, dilation of bedding planes/fractures, and deposition of generally barren calcite + pyrite veinlets. (III) The Main-ore stage is related to the development of reverse-fault- hosted massive sulphide veins. During this stage three phases of mineral deposition are recorded: early pyrite and arsenopyrite, intermediate chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and base metals, and late base metals and Ag-bearing minerals. Associated gangue minerals during the main ore stage are quartz, muscovite, calcite and chlorite. (IV) The Post-ore stage involves late NW-SE striking block faulting, brecciation and calcite veining. Later supergene oxidation of veins led to deposition of Fe-oxides and hydroxides, commonly filling fractures or replacing early-formed sulphide assemblages. The various vein types display classic epithermal textures including open space filling, banding, comb quartz and brecciation. The Ag-bearing minerals comprise pyrargyrite [Ag3(Sb,As)S3], argentotennantite [(Cu,Ag)10(Zn,Fe)2(Sn,As)4S13], polybasite-pearceite [(Ag,Cu)16(Sb,As)2S11], and

  1. Multiple techniques for mineral identification of terrestrial evaporites relevant to Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivaletta, N.; Dellisanti, F.; D'Elia, M.; Fonti, S.; Mancarella, F.

    2013-05-01

    Sulfates, commonly found in evaporite deposits, were observed on Mars surface during orbital remote sensing and surface exploration. In terrestrial environments, evaporite precipitation creates excellent microniches for microbial colonization, especially in desert areas. Deposits comprised of gypsum, calcite, quartz and silicate deposits (phyllosilicates, feldspars) from Sahara Desert in southern Tunisia contain endolithic colonies just below the rock surface. Previous optical observations verified the presence of microbial communities and, as described in this paper, spectral visible analyses have led to identification of chlorophylls belonging to photosynthetic bacteria. Spectral analyses in the infrared region have clearly detected the presence of gypsum and phyllosilicates (mainly illite and/or smectite), as well as traces of calcite, but not quartz. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has identified the dominant presence of gypsum as well as that of other secondary minerals such as quartz, feldspars and Mg-Al-rich phyllosilicates, such as chlorite, illite and smectite. The occurrence of a small quantity of calcite in all the samples was also highlighted by the loss of CO2 by thermal analysis (TG-DTA). A normative calculation using XRD, thermal data and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has permitted to obtain the mineralogical concentration of the minerals occurring in the samples. The combination of multiple techniques provides information about the mineralogy of rocks and hence indication of environments suitable for supporting microbial life on Mars surface.

  2. Geology and associated mineral occurrences of the Araxa Group, Mossamedes Region, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the region of Mossamedes, State of Goias, Brazil, the Precambrian metamorphic rocks of the Araxa group were mapped at the scale of 1:25,000, with emphasis on stratigraphic, structural, petrographic and economic aspects. These metamorphites represent a continous stratigraphic sequence which, from bottom to top can be subdivided into five informal lithostratigraphic units: 1) psamitic unit (quartzite, metaconglomerate); 2) psamitic-pelitic unit (quartzite, quartz schist, muscovite schist); 3) lower pelitic - volcanic unit (chlorite - biotite schist, fine grained blastoporphyritic gneiss, amphibolite and calc-schist); 4) upper pelitic - volcanic unit (garnet muscovite schist, biotite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, magnetite muscovite schist); 5) gneissic unit (epidote biotite gneiss, amphibolite). Three types of meta-intrusive rocks were found, besides basic dykes related to Mesozoic magmatism. Four phases of deformation affected the volcano-sedimentary sequence;D1, D2, D3 and D4, each of them developing distinct deformational features. Barrowian type metamorphism increases progressively from North to South from the biotite zone to the garnet zone (greenschist facies), reaching the staurolite-kyanite zone (amphibolite facies). The magmatism throughout the Group's evolution consists of mafic to felsic volcanic activity, mustly intermediary, as well as three intrusive events. Gold, copper and zinc minerals of economic interest occur within the studied area. The gold mineralizations are related to the pelitic-volcanic sequences. Copper occurs in several rocks from the pelitic-volcanic and gneissic sequences. (Author)

  3. Clay Mineral Assemblages as Proxies for Reconstructing Messinian Paleoenvironments in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Ruiz, Francisca; Comas, Menchu; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2014-05-01

    Significant tectonic and climate changes at time of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) led to a complex sedimentation involving marked changes in sediment composition, particularly in clay mineral assemblages. One of the noticeable mineralogical changes across this time interval is the strong smectite increase in Messinian deposits in comparison to the underlying Tortonian and overlaying Pliocene sediments. As no break in the clay mineralogy is recognized in the open ocean (Chamley et al., 1978), such changes are also distinctive of the Mediterranean basins. Since the early discoveries of the giant Messinian evaporite formation (DSDP Legs 13 and 42A), a vast literature contributed, during the last decades, to the continuous debate and re-examination of the actual Messinian paleoenvironment. Drilled records in the westernmost Mediterranean (Alboran Sea) have shown significant changes in the mineralogical assemblages associated to the Messinian events. This basin is depleted of significant salt deposits. Site 976 (ODP Leg 161) recovered a 670-m-thick, middle Miocene (Serravallian) to Pleistocene/Holocene sedimentary sequence, including a thin interval of Messinian sediment, lying directly upon the metamorphic basement. Analysis of clay mineral assemblages from the sedimentary cover of Hole 976B revealed an homogeneous clay association composed of illite, smectite, chlorite and kaolinite with no major changes in clay mineral abundances except for the sediment interval dated as Messinian, which is characterized by a sharp smectite increase (Martinez-Ruiz et al., 1999). Transmission Electron Microscope analyses of clay minerals revealed that smectite composition corresponds to Al-rich beidellites, which supports the existence of such smectites in peri-Mediterranean soils. Smectite formation was favored by the climate conditions at that time, comprising progressive aridification and the alternation of wet and dry climatic episodes. Diagenesis in these smectites is

  4. Metasomatic uranium mineralization of the Mount Isa North Block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proterozoic uranium deposits of the Mt Isa North Project are centred 40 km north of Mt Isa, NW Queensland. Regionally, the deposits occur within the Leichhardt River Fault Trough of the Mt Isa Inlier. Uranium mineralisation is likely related to the 1 600-1 500 Ma Isan Orogeny. Structurally controlled uranium mineralisation is preferentially hosted in greenschist facies basalts and interbedded clastic sediments of the Eastern Creek Volcanics (ECV). Uranium deposits of the Mt Isa North Project are defined by the following general characteristics: - Pervasive sodium and calcium metasomatism, expressed as red albitite with finely disseminated hematite and calcite, with distal zones of chlorite and magnetite. - Uraniferous albitite deposits typically comprise en echelon lenses and shoots. - Mineralisation is developed along N- to NE-striking shear zones with associated brittle deformation of the host lithologies. - Host rocks are mostly basalt flows with flow-top breccias and interbedded sandstones and siltstones of the ECV; quartzites are also locally mineralised. - Geochemically the deposits are characterized by enrichment of U, Na, Ca, Sr, Zr, Th, Hf and P, and depletion of K, Ba, Rb and Cs. Uranium mineralogy of albitites comprises several phases of refractory uranium minerals (e.g. brannerite, coffinite). The Mt Isa North Project includes 11 tenements being explored for uranium by Summit Resources. Summit's five uranium resources total 95.7 Mlb U3O8. Scoping studies focused on geologic assessment, environmental baseline monitoring and metallurgical test work of the Valhalla deposit are in progress. Summit is in a 50/50 Joint Venture with Paladin on the Valhalla and Skal deposits. Paladin also has a direct ownership of 81.99% of the issued shares of Summit Resources. (author)

  5. Water, mineral waters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraccia, Luisa; Liberati, Giovanna; Masciullo, Stefano Giuseppe; Grassi, Marcello; Fraioli, Antonio

    2006-06-01

    The authors focus on water resources and the use of mineral waters in human nutrition, especially in the different stages of life, in physical activity and in the presence of some morbid conditions. Mineral water is characterized by its purity at source, its content in minerals, trace elements and other constituents, its conservation and its healing properties recognized by the Ministry of Health after clinical and pharmacological trials. Based on total salt content in grams after evaporation of 1l mineral water dried at 180 degrees C (dry residues), mineral waters can be classified as: waters with a very low mineral content, waters low in mineral content, waters with a medium mineral content, and strongly mineralized waters. Based on ion composition mineral waters can be classified as: bicarbonate waters, sulfate waters, sodium chloride or saltwater, sulfuric waters. Based on biological activity mineral waters can be classified as: diuretic waters, cathartic waters, waters with antiphlogistic properties. Instructions for use, doses, and current regulations are included.

  6. Clay minerals in uraniferous deposit of Imouraren (Tim Mersoi basin, Niger): implications on genesis of deposit and on ore treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigerian uraniferous deposits are located in carboniferous and Jurassic formations of Tim Mersoi basin. AREVA is shareholder of 3 mine sites in this area: SOMAIR and COMINAK, both in exploitation since 1960's and IMOURAREN, 80 km further South, whose exploitation is planned for 2015. Mineralization of Imouraren deposit is included in the fluvial formation of Tchirezrine 2 (Jurassic), composed of channels and flood plains. Facies of channel in-fillings range from coarse sandstones to siltstones, while overflow facies are composed of analcimolites. Secondary mineralogy was acquired during 2 stages: 1- diagenesis, with formation of clay minerals, analcime, secondary quartz and albites, and 2- stage of fluids circulations, which induced alteration of detrital and diagenetic minerals, formation of new phases and uranium deposition. A mineralogical zoning, at the scale of deposit resulted from this alteration. The heterogeneity of Tchirezrine 2, at the level of both facies and mineralogy, is also evidenced during ore treatment, as ore reacts differently depending on its source, with sometimes problems of U recovery. Ore treatment tests showed that analcimes and chlorites were both penalizing minerals, because of 1- the sequestration of U-bearing minerals into analcimes, 2- their dissolution which trends to move away from U solubilization conditions (pH and Eh) and to form numerous sulfates, and 3- problems of percolation. A detection method of analcime-rich ores, based on infrared spectroscopy, was developed in order to optimize ore blending and so to reduce negative effects during ore treatment process. (author)

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3166, Jaldak (701) and Maruf-Nawa (702) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3362, Shindand (415) and Tulak (416) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3462, Herat (409) and Chishti Sharif (410) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3366, Gizab (513) and Nawer (514) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3470, Jalalabad (511) and Chaghasaray (512) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3564, Jowand (405) and Gurziwan (406) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3264, Naw Zad-Musa Qala (423) and Dihrawud (424) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3464, Shahrak (411) and Kasi (412) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3164, Lashkar Gah (605) and Kandahar (606) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3562, Khawja-Jir (403) and Murghab (404) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3364, Pasaband (417) and Markaz-e Kajiran (418) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  18. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3262, Farah (421) and Hokumat-e-pur-Chaman (422) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  19. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  20. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3466, La`l wa Sar Jangal (507) and Bamyan (508) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  1. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3568, Pul-e Khumri (503) and Charikar (504) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  2. Hyperspectral Surface Materials Map of Quadrangle 3566, Sangcharak (501) and Sayghan-o-Kamard (502) Quadrangles, Afghanistan, Showing Carbonates, Phyllosilicates, Sulfates, Altered Minerals, and Other Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  3. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3266, Uruzgan (519) and Moqur (520) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  4. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3368, Ghazni (515) and Gardez (516) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  5. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3770, Faizabad (217) and Parkhaw (218) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  6. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3468, Chak-e Wardak-Siyahgird (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3570, Tagab-e-Munjan (505) and Asmar-Kamdesh (506) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3268, Khayr Kot (521) and Urgun (522) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3670, Jurm-Kishim (223) and Zebak (224) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Radiation-induced defects in clay minerals, markers of the mobility of the uranium in solution in the unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the works driven on three groups of clay minerals (kaolins, illite, sudoite (di-tri-octahedral chlorites)) characteristics of the alteration halos surrounding unconformity-type uranium deposits, in order to reveal uranium paleo-circulations in the intra-cratonic meso-Proterozoic basins (1,2 - 1,6 Ga). Thanks to Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR), we were able to highlight the persistence of structural defects in kaolin-group minerals contemporaneous of the basin diagenesis, and demonstrate the existence of relatively stable defects in illites and sudoites contemporaneous of the uranium deposits setting. Thus, the main defect in illite (Ai centre) and the main defect in sudoite (As centre) are characterized by their g components such as, respectively, gt = 2,003 et g// = 2,051 for illite and gt = 2,008 et g// = 2,051 for sudoite. As the main defect in kaolins (kaolinite/dickite), the main defects in illite and sudoite are perpendicularly oriented according to the (ab) plane, on the tetrahedral Si-O bound. However, their thermal stabilities seem different. The observation of samples from different zones (background, anomal or mineralized) of the Athabasca basin (Canada) allowed to identify a parallel evolution between actual defects concentration measured in the different clay minerals and the proximity of the mineralisation zones. Consequently, clays minerals can be considered as potential plotters of zones where uranium-rich solutions have circulated. (author)

  11. Diffusion and sorption of HTO, Np, Na and Cl in rocks and minerals of Kivetty and Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaukonen, V.; Hakanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    This report is conclusion to the project, which started in 1993, and is direct continuation to technical reports TURVA-95-05 and TURVA-96-03. In this project rocks of Olkiluoto (mica gneiss and pegmatite) and Kivetty (granite) research areas and minerals found in these rocks were studied. A part of the rock samples were natural fracture surface samples and a part of them were intact rock. The main minerals were quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, biotite and hornblende. The accessory minerals were calcite, chlorite, kaolinite, muscovite and pyrite. The mass distribution coefficients of Np and Na (R{sub d}) under aerobic conditions were determined for crushed rocks and crushed minerals by batch experiments. The R{sub a} values for crushed rocks and crushed minerals were calculated using the measured specific surface areas. The effective diffusion coefficients D{sub e} of tritiated water (HTO) and neptunium and the apparent diffusion coefficients D{sub a} calculated from the time lag values of through-diffusion were determined for the rock slices. In the through-diffusion experiments for neptunium under aerobic conditions the stationary state was reached only in the pegmatite samples. The apparent diffusion coefficients D{sub a} of neptunium and sodium for rock slices and mineral pieces were determined from the concentration profiles. The diffusion coefficients (D{sub e}, D{sub a}) obtained from through-diffusion and its time-lag and from concentration profiles were converted into mass distribution coefficients R{sub d}. which were compared with the R{sub d} values measured by batch experiments. (orig.). 20 refs.

  12. Characteristics of Clay Minerals in the Northern South China Sea and Its Implications for Evolution of East Asian Monsoon since Miocene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Shiming; Li Anchun; Xu Kehui; Yin Xueming

    2008-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages, crystallinity, chemistry, and micromorphology of clay particles in sediments from ODP Site 1146 in the northern South China Sea (SCS) were analyzed, and used to trace sediment sources and obtain proxy records of the past changes in the East Asian monsoon climate since the Miocene, based on a multi-approach, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Clay minerals consist mainly of illite and smectite, with associated chlorite and kaolinite. The illite at ODP Site 1146 has very well-to-well crystallinity, and smectite has moderate-to-poor crystallinity. In SEM the smectite particles at ODP Site 1146 often appear cauliflower-like, a typical micromorphology of volcanic smecites. The smectite at ODP Site 1146 is relatively rich in Si element, but poor in Fe, very similar to the smectite from the West Philippine Sea. In contrast, the chemical composition of illite at ODP Site 1146 has no obvious differences from those of the Loess plateau, Yellow River, Yangtze River, and Pearl River. A further study on sediment source indicates that smectite originates mainly from Luzon, kaolinite from the Pearl River, and illite and chlorite from the Pearl River, Taiwan and/or the Yangtze River. The clay mineral assemblages at ODP Site 1146 were not only controlled by continental eathering regimes surrounding the SCS, but also by the changing strength of the transport processes. The ratios of (illite+chlorite)/smectite at ODP Site 1146 were adopted as proxies for the East Asian monsoon evolution. Relatively higher ratios reflect strongly intensified winter monsoon relative to summer monsoon, in contrast, lower ratios indicate a strengthened summer monsoon relative to winter monsoon. The consistent variation of this clay proxy from those of Loess plateau, eolian deposition in the North Pacific, planktonic, benthic foraminifera, and black carbon in the SCS since 20 Ma shows

  13. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo

    2016-09-01

    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS < 1000 mg/l), it was observed that the groundwater from the upper catchment with hydrochemical facies dominated by Nasbnd Mgsbnd HCO3-, evolves to Casbnd Mgsbnd and mixed cations HCO3- water types at the lower reaches. The lake water on the other hand is Nasbnd HCO3- water type. Results from principal component analyses (PCA) and other geochemical interpretations distinguished three sources of variations in the hydrochemistry. Saturation indices of possible reactive mineral phases show groundwater undersaturation relative to albite, anorthite, aragonite, barite, calcite, chlorite, chrysotile, dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.

  14. Determination of the mineral stability field of evolving groundwater in the Lake Bosumtwi impact crater and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yvonne Sena Akosua; Yidana, Sandow Mark; Banoeng-Yakubo, Bruce; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Addai, Millicent Obeng; Asiedu, Daniel Kwadwo

    2016-09-01

    Conventional graphical techniques, mass balance geochemical modelling, and multivariate statistical methods were jointly applied to hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the fractured rock aquifer system, and surface water in the Bosumtwi and surrounding areas to reveal evolutionary trends and the characteristics of evolving groundwater in the area. Four clusters distinguished from the Q-mode hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) comprised three main groundwater associations and one surface water group (lake water). Although both water resources are of low mineralization (TDS water types at the lower reaches. The lake water on the other hand is Nasbnd HCO3- water type. Results from principal component analyses (PCA) and other geochemical interpretations distinguished three sources of variations in the hydrochemistry. Saturation indices of possible reactive mineral phases show groundwater undersaturation relative to albite, anorthite, aragonite, barite, calcite, chlorite, chrysotile, dolomite, gypsum, k-felspar and talc, and supersaturation with respect to gibbsite, kaolinite, Ca-montmorillonite and k-mica in the area. The PCA and other geochemical interpretation identify weathering of feldspars and carbonate mineral dissolution as predominantly influencing the hydrochemistry of the groundwater. Hydrolysis of the aluminosilicates causes the groundwater to reach equilibrium with kaolinite. In addition to dissolution of silicates, the chemical composition of the lake water has been influenced by evaporation and consequent carbonate saturation.

  15. [X-ray powder diffraction of clay minerals of SZK01 core of Zabuye Lake, Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Fei; Zheng, Mian-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The present article chooses the core from the borehole SZK01 in Zabuye Lake as the main research object. According to the results of X-ray powder diffraction of clay minerals, the major components are illite, illite and smectite mixed layer mineral (I/S), kaolinite and chlorite. According to the different species and contents of clay, integration of the characteristics of mineral and the results of Δ18O, we reestablished the evolution process of paleoclimate in Zabuye Lake. In compaison with SZK02 core in Zabuye, Greenland GISP2 and GRIP and Guliya ice core, it contains 5 stages since 115 ka in Zabuye: the last interglacial (15-75.5 ka), the earlier last glacial (75.5-60 ka), the interstage of the last glacial (60-30.1 ka), the last glacial maximum (30.1-16.7 ka) and deglacial-holocene (since 16.7 ka). We also recognized 6 Heinrich events (H1-H6) and warm event in 71 ka. In particular, the content of kaolinite is low, with the negative-skewed value of Δ18O in 52-53 ka, while the value of Δ18O in SZK02 and Guliya ice core is negative-skewed too, indicating the cold event in Tibet plateau, named H5-1. All the above demonstrated that the climate in Tibet plateau is global since the earlier last glacial, and it also has regional characteristics.

  16. Surface miner MTS 1250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D. [MAN TAKRAF Foerdertechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    The Surface Miner MTS 1250 has been developed and tested by MAN TAKRAF with technical support from MIBRAG mbH. Its technology is based on a detailed analysis of all machines on the market and constitutes an optimum combination of their advantages. The unit can either be driven by a diesel-hydraulic drive for truck operation or by an electro-mechanical/electro-hydraulic drive for beltwagon and belt conveyor operation. The new equipment design is particularly suitable for mining deposits of difficult configuration. For specific requirements, MAN TAKRAF offers tailor-made solutions with smaller or greater throughputs and with enhanced specific cutting strength. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Surface Miner MTS 1250 wurde von MAN TAKRAF mit fachlicher Unterstuetzung der MIBRAG entwickelt und erprobt. Seine Technik basiert auf einer detaillierten Analyse aller am Markt befindlichen Geraete und kombiniert deren Vorteile optimal. Mit diesel-hydraulischem Antrieb wird er in Verbindung mit Trucks eingesetzt. Mit elektro-mechanischem/elektro-hydraulischem Antrieb wird er in Kombination mit einem Spezialbrandwagen und einer Bandanlage eingesetzt. Das neue Geraetekonzept ist fuer den Abbau von schwierigen Lagerstaetten sehr gut geeignet. Selbstverstaendlich werden entsprechend den Einsatzanforderungen auch Geraete mit kleinerer oder groesserer Durchsatzleistung und mit hoeherer spezifischer Schneidleistung von MAN TAKRAF angeboten (orig.)

  17. Recent advances in the study of H environments and behavior in minerals using neutron powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M. D.

    2002-12-01

    It is now possible to probe the structural environments and behavior of H atoms directly in complex minerals such as amphiboles, micas, chlorites and humites using neutron powder diffraction, in some cases as a function of pressure and/or temperature. A combination of high neutron flux and increased detector sensitivity and size offers the chance to see details of H behaviour. In the last year or so the advent of new gasket designs for the Paris-Edinburgh pressure cell allow the use of ethanol/methanol (EtOD/MeOD) as a pressure medium, removing peak broadening arising from deviatoric stress that occurs above 3 GPa for the standard fluorinert pressure medium. Essentially hydrostatic conditions obtain with EtOD/MeOD to 8 GPa at 298 K. A further recent development has been the design of a high P-T module for use with the Paris-Edinburgh cell. These technological improvements in pressure-cell design now allow us to make meaningful correlations between OH vibrational spectra collected at high P and/or T and detailed structural information on H behaviour obtained from neutron diffraction under similar conditions. In this talk I shall discuss recent neutron diffraction experiments on the effect of pressure upon hydrogen bonding in deuterated chlorite to 5 GPa (298 K), and a high P-T study of hydrogen bonding in deuterated brucite to 7 GPa, 1100 K. These two studies illustrate how far high-pressure neutron diffraction has come in the last 5 years. Finally, I shall describe a neutron powder diffraction study (ambient conditions) of leucophoenicite, Mn7Si3O12(OH)2, a close structural analogue of Phase-B and Superhydrous-B: the structure of leucophoenicite is topologically identical to the hydrous sheet of Phase-B and similar to that of Superhydrous-B. For various reasons it was not possible to deuterate the sample. Nonetheless, the two distinct H atoms were approximately located in difference-Fourier maps and then refined isotropically. The H positions in Phase-B were only

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of manganese minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Reddy, S.; Padma Suvarna, K.; Udayabhaska Reddy, G.; Endo, Tamio; Frost, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Manganese minerals ardenite, alleghanyite and leucopoenicite originated from Madhya Pradesh, India, Nagano prefecture Japan, Sussex Country and Parker Shaft Franklin, Sussex Country, New Jersey respectively are used in the present work. In these minerals manganese is the major constituent and iron if present is in traces only. An EPR study of on all of the above samples confirms the presence of Mn(II) with g around 2.0. Optical absorption spectrum of the mineral alleghanyite indicates that Mn(II) is present in two different octahedral sites and in leucophoenicite Mn(II) is also in octahedral geometry. Ardenite mineral gives only a few Mn(II) bands. NIR results of the minerals ardenite, leucophoenicite and alleghanyite are due to hydroxyl and silicate anions which confirming the formulae of the minerals.

  19. Radioactivity of phosphate mineral products

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava; Vitorović Gordana; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško

    2011-01-01

    The phosphate industry is one of the biggest polluters of the environment with uranium. Different products are derived after processing phosphoric ore, such as mineral and phosphate fertilizers and phosphate mineral supplements (dicalcium-and monocalcium phosphate) for animal feeding. Phosphate mineral additives used in animal food may contain a high activity of uranium. Research in this study should provide an answer to the extent in which phosphate minera...

  20. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew A. Pasek; Maheen Gull

    2013-01-01

    The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat a...

  1. 生活饮用水中溴酸盐、氯酸盐和亚氯酸盐的离子色谱测定法%Determination of bromate, chlorate, and chlorite in drinking water by ion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫明; 孙建飞; 王权帅

    2013-01-01

    [ Objective ] To establish a method for determination of bromate, chlorate, and chlorite in drinking water by ion chroma-tography. [ Methods] ] After filtration by 0.22 μm membrane filter, The water samples were put into the ion exchange system of ion chromatography, with the potassium hydroxide eluent. Different ions separated with the different affinity in one separation column and determined quantitatively by the external standard method. [ Results] Recoveries of bromate were 87.5% to 116.0% , and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 69% ; recoveries of chlorate were 86. 8% to 99.0% , with RSD of 1. 21% ; recoveries of chlorite of 80.1% to 87.0% , with the RSD of 0.93% and the correlation coefficients of all 3 ions were r >0.999 0. [ Conclusion] This method is simple, rapid, can obtain satisfactory separation, with high sensitivity and precision. Also, the recovery meets the methodological requirements. Above all, this method is entirely suitable for the simultaneous determination of bromate, chlorate, and chlorite in drinking water.%目的 建立离子色谱法测定生活饮用水中有溴酸盐、氯酸盐、亚氯酸盐的检测方法.方法 水样经0.22 μm滤膜过滤后,随氢氧化钾淋洗液进入离子色谱的离子交换系统.根据分离柱对不同离子的亲和力不同进行分离,外标法定量.结果 溴酸盐回收率为87.5% ~ 116.0%,相对标准偏差为2.69%;氯酸盐回收率为86.8%~ 99.0%,相对标准偏差为1.21%;亚氯酸盐回收率为80.1% ~ 87.0%,相对标准偏差为0.93%.以上3个项目相关系数均大于0.999 0.结论 该方法检测速度快,样品处理简便,能获得满意的分离效果,具有较高的灵敏度和精密度,回收率也满足方法学要求,完全适合于生活饮用水中有溴酸盐、氯酸盐、亚氯酸盐的同时测定.

  2. Mineral fibres and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of inorganic fibrous materials is a comparatively new phenomenon and was uncommon before the Industrial Revolution. Humans evolved in a comparatively fibre-free environment and consequently never fully developed the defence mechanisms needed to deal with the consequences of inhaling fibres. However, the urban environment now has an airborne fibre concentration of around 1 f.l-1, which is a tenfold increase on the natural background. Any sample of ambient air collected indoors or outdoors will probably contain some mineral fibres, but there is little evidence that these pose any risk to human health. They come from asbestos used in brakes, glass and mineral wools used as insulation and fire proofing of buildings, gypsum from plaster and a variety of types from many sources. Few of these have the potential to do any harm. Asbestos is the only fibre of note but urban levels are insignificant compared to occupational exposures. When the health of cohorts occupationally exposed to the several types of asbestos is studied the problem can be put into perspective. Studies of workers in the chrysotile industry exposed to much higher dust levels than in a factory today show no excess lung cancer or mesothelioma. By comparison those living near crocidolite mines, let alone working in them, may develop asbestos-related disease. As always, dose is the critical factor. Chrysotile is cleared from the lungs very efficiently, only the amphiboles are well retained. The only real health problem comes from the earlier use of asbestos products that may now be old, friable and damaged and made from amphibole or mixed fibre. If though, these are still in good condition, they do not pose a health problem. Asbestos-related diseases are very rare in those not occupationally exposed. Where they exist exposure has nearly always been to crocidolite. (author)

  3. Clinical analysis of vitamin B(6): determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 4-pyridoxic acid in human serum by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with chlorite postcolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Michael E; Pfeiffer, Christine M

    2004-10-15

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorometric detection was developed for the routine determination of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) in serum. Chlorite postcolumn derivatization was used to oxidize PLP to a more fluorescent carboxylic acid form. Sensitivity improved fourfold for PLP using chlorite postcolumn derivatization over traditional bisulfite postcolumn derivatization. The HPLC injection cycle was 15 min, facilitating a throughput of 60 patient samples (72 injections that included standards and quality control (QC) samples) in 18.5h. Method precision was evaluated using three serum QC pools with PLP and 4-PA concentrations of 11.5-34.8 nmol/L and 10.4-21.0 nmol/L, respectively. Within-run (n=7) repeatabilities were 0.6-1.2% for PLP and 0.9-1.8% for 4-PA. Run-to-run (n=23) reproducibilities were 3.6-6.7% for PLP and 3.7-5.6% for 4-PA. Relative detection (3sigma(0)) and quantitation (10sigma(0)) limits were 0.3 and 0.9 nmol/L, respectively, for both PLP and 4-PA using a 10-microl sample injection volume. Analytical recoveries ranged from 97 to 102%. Patient-matched serum and plasma specimens (n=25) were analyzed to evaluate specimen-type bias. Of the plasma types evaluated, heparinized plasma introduced the lowest relative bias for PLP (-5.3%) and minimal bias for 4-PA (-2.3%) compared with serum. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma showed the lowest bias for 4-PA (0.7%) but a relatively high bias for PLP (13.0%) due to a chromatographic interference. Human serum samples from a non-representative population subset (n=303) were commensurate with values published for other vitamin B(6) HPLC methods. These values gave geometric means of 42.4 nmol/L for PLP and 27.3 nmol/L for 4-PA. Medians for PLP and 4-PA were 40.1 and 21.8 nmol/L, respectively. The high sensitivity, precision, and throughput of this method, combined with its minimal serum specimen (150 microl) and sample injection

  4. Long-Term Effect of Fertilizer and Rice Straw on Mineral Composition and Potassium Adsorption in a Reddish Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Yu-lin; ZHENG Sheng-xian; NIE Jun; XIE Jian; LU Yan-hong; QIN Xiao-bo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing K+adsorption can be an effective alternative in building an available K pool in soils to optimize crop recovery and minimize losses into the environment. We hypothesized that long-term fertilization might change K+ adsorption because of changes in the chemical and mineralogical properties of a rice (Oryza sativa L.). The aims of this study were (i) to determine clay minerals in paddy soil clay size fractions using X-ray diffraction methods and a numerical diagram-decomposition method;(ii) to measure K+adsorption isotherms before and after H2O2 oxidation of organic matter, and (iii) to investigate whether K+adsorption is correlated with changes in soil chemical and mineral properties. The 30-yr long-term fertilization treatments caused little change in soil organic C (SOC) but a large variation in soil mineral composition. The whole-clay fraction (<5μm) corresponded more to the fertilization treatment than the fine-clay fraction (<1μm) in terms of percentage of illite peak area. The total percentage of vermiculite-chlorite peak area was significantly negatively correlated with the total percentage of illite peak area in the<5μm soil particles (R=-0.946, P<0.0006). Different fertilization treatments gave significantly different results in K+adsorption. The SOC oxidation test showed positive effects of SOC on K+adsorption at lower K+concentration ( 120 mg L-1) and negative effects at higher K+concentration (240 mg L-1). The K+adsorption by soil clay minerals after SOC oxidization accounted for 60-158%of that by unoxidized soils, suggesting a more important role of soil minerals than SOC on K+adsorption. The K+adsorption potential was significantly correlated to the amount of poorly crystallized illite present (R=0.879, P=0.012). The availability of adsorbed K+for plant growth needs further study.

  5. Study of Arabian Red Sea coastal soils as potential mineral dust sources

    KAUST Repository

    Prakash, P. Jish

    2016-03-23

    Both Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) satellite observations suggest that the narrow heterogeneous Red Sea coastal region is a frequent source of airborne dust that, because of its proximity, directly affects the Red Sea and coastal urban centers. The potential of soils to be suspended as airborne mineral dust depends largely on soil texture, moisture content, and particle size distributions. Airborne dust inevitably carries the mineralogical and chemical signature of a parent soil. The existing soil databases are too coarse to resolve the small but important coastal region. The purpose of this study is to better characterize the mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of soils from the Red Sea Arabian coastal plane, which in turn will help to improve assessment of dust effect on the Red Sea and land environmental systems and urban centers. Thirteen surface soils from the hot-spot areas of wind-blown mineral dust along the Red Sea coastal plain were sampled for analysis. Analytical methods included Optical Microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Ion Chromatography (IC), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Laser Particle Size Analysis (LPSA). We found that the Red Sea coastal soils contain major components of quartz and feldspar, as well as lesser but variable amounts of amphibole, pyroxene, carbonate, clays, and micas, with traces of gypsum, halite, chlorite, epidote and oxides. The wide range of minerals in the soil samples was ascribed to the variety of igneous and metamorphic provenance rocks of the Arabian Shield forming the escarpment to the east of the Red Sea coastal plain. The analysis revealed that the samples contain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and iron that are essential nutrients to marine life. The analytical results from this study will provide a valuable input into dust emission models used

  6. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 (± 1) % of ripidolite, 19 (± 1) % of saponite, and 19 (± 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases

  7. Stepwise effects of the BCR sequential chemical extraction procedure on dissolution and metal release from common ferromagnesian clay minerals: A combined solution chemistry and X-ray powder diffraction study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.C. [Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)], E-mail: pryan@middlebury.edu; Hillier, S. [Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH UK (United Kingdom); Wall, A.J. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Sequential extraction procedures (SEPs) are commonly used to determine speciation of trace metals in soils and sediments. However, the non-selectivity of reagents for targeted phases has remained a lingering concern. Furthermore, potentially reactive phases such as phyllosilicate clay minerals often contain trace metals in structural sites, and their reactivity has not been quantified. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to analyze the behavior of trace metal-bearing clay minerals exposed to the revised BCR 3-step plus aqua regia SEP. Mineral quantification based on stoichiometric analysis and quantitative powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) documents progressive dissolution of chlorite (CCa-2 ripidolite) and two varieties of smectite (SapCa-2 saponite and SWa-1 nontronite) during steps 1-3 of the BCR procedure. In total, 8 ({+-} 1) % of ripidolite, 19 ({+-} 1) % of saponite, and 19 ({+-} 3) % of nontronite (% mineral mass) dissolved during extractions assumed by many researchers to release trace metals from exchange sites, carbonates, hydroxides, sulfides and organic matter. For all three reference clays, release of Ni into solution is correlated with clay dissolution. Hydrolysis of relatively weak Mg-O bonds (362 kJ/mol) during all stages, reduction of Fe(III) during hydroxylamine hydrochloride extraction and oxidation of Fe(II) during hydrogen peroxide extraction are the main reasons for clay mineral dissolution. These findings underscore the need for precise mineral quantification when using SEPs to understand the origin/partitioning of trace metals with solid phases.

  8. The classification of minerals deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this part of book author present the classification of minerals deposits. Deposit formation take place as a result of complicated and long geology processes in the wide temperature intervals (from 1500 digC to usual) and pressures (from usual and to tens kilobars). Deposits of minerals as other investigation objects require in definite systematization on the base of definite characteristics

  9. 76 FR 6110 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... FR 80948 (December 23, 2010)]. The original comment period for Release No. 34-63547 is scheduled to... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 229 and 249 RIN 3235-AK84 Conflict Minerals AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... 1934 (the ``Exchange Act'') and would require any such issuer for which conflict minerals are...

  10. Mineral Atlas of the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In 1997 the mineral resources of Europe and neighbouring countries were presented as a printed map and a book of exhaustive information and references. This was the first published map inventory of mineral deposits from all parts of the formerly politically divided Europe (East and West), measured and evaluated according to identical geological and mining standards.

  11. Plant macro- and micronutrient minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    All plants must obtain a number of inorganic mineral elements from their environment to ensure successful growth and development of both vegetative and reproductive tissues. A total of fourteen mineral nutrients are considered to be essential. Several other elements have been shown to have beneficia...

  12. Mineral exploration in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal

  13. An EPR study of native radiation-induced paramagnetic defects in sudoite (di-trioctahedral Al-Mg chlorite) from the alteration halo related to unconformity-type uranium deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morichon, Élisa; Allard, Thierry; Beaufort, Daniel; Quirt, David

    2010-03-01

    Natural radiation-induced defects were identified in specimens of sudoite (Al-Mg di-trioctahedral chlorite) related to unconformity-type uranium deposits at the base of the Athabasca Group (Saskatchewan, Canada), using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X- and Q-band frequencies. X-band spectra indicate the presence of a main native defect, named the As-center, whose EPR signal is dominated by an axially distorted spectrum with apparent principal components as follows: g // = 2,051 and g ⊥ = 2,005, and a secondary defect with apparent component g = 2,025. The study of oriented specimens shows that the main defect has its g // component perpendicular to the ( ab) plane of sudoite. The As-center corresponds to an electron hole located on oxygen atoms of the structure and is likely associated with Si, according to the lack of hyperfine structure. The As-center in sudoite has EPR parameters similar to the A-center in kaolinite and dickite, and the Ai-center in illite. The saturation behavior of EPR spectra as a function of power demonstrates that native defects of sudoite are different from those known in other clays, such as kaolinite, dickite or smectite, but are similar to those of illite. The isochronal annealing data suggest that the main defect in sudoite is stable to more than 300°C. The corresponding defects characterized in sudoite may have the potential for tracing past radionuclide migration around unconformity-type uranium deposits.

  14. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    surfaces was proposed by Sandrone & Zucchetti, 1988. Magnesite and talc bearing shearzones in ultramafic hostrocks (Lahnaslampi & Horsmanaho, Finland): Both deposits are situated in the Proterozoic schist belt where the talc-magnesite rocks at Lahnaslampi are associated with minor serpentine breccias. The steatitization took place in two different stages: During prograde metamorphism with H2O-dominated solutions and at declining temperature and pressure in the presence of CO2-bearing fluids that resulted in the main steatitization along tectonic structures. A combined geological, petrological and geochronological is chosen to resolve mechanism of mineralisation within the different tectonic setting. Different phases of mineral formation are first distinguished by pertrological and structural field work and then dated by radiometric techniques. Fluid species and chemical environment during mineralisation is resolved by geochemical techniques and stable isotope studies. References Grillo, S., Prochaska, W. (2007): Fluid Chemistry and Stable Isotope Evidence of Shearzone related Talc and Chlorite Mineralizations in Central Sardinia-Italy, In: Conference Abstracts SGA-Meeting. Radvanec, M., Koděra, P., Prochaska, W. (2004): Mg replacement of the Gemerska Poloma talk-magnesite deposit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Acta Petrologica Sinica, 20, 773-790. Sandrone, Zucchetti (1988): Geology of the Italian high-quality cosmetic talc from the Pinerolo district (Western Alps). Zuffar' Days - Symposium held in Cagliari, 10-15

  15. 30 CFR 57.5070 - Miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner training. 57.5070 Section 57.5070 Mineral... Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Diesel Particulate Matter-Underground Only § 57.5070 Miner training. (a) Mine operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine covered by this part who...

  16. Magnetite-apatite mineralization in Khanlogh iron deposit, northwest of Neyshaboor, NE Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafzadeh Tehrani, Parvin; Asghar Calagari, Ali; Velasco Roldan, Francisco; Simmonds, Vartan; Siahcheshm, Kamal

    2016-04-01

    fluids. The high fluorine content of the apatite at Khanlogh may testify to the presence of Ti-fluoride complex in the fluids. Formation of apatite crystals was concurrent with development of titanium lamellae in magnetite. The apatite possesses high REE content which is possibly associated with monazite inclusions. The SEM studies better show these inclusions are occasionally present at the margin of apatite crystals and veins. Based upon field relations, microscopic examinations, and the results of XRD analyses, sodic (albite), propylitic (epidote, chlorite, calcite), and argillic (montmorillonite) alterations are developed in the study area. The principal minerals in these alteration zones are albite, epidote, sericite, chlorite, quartz, calcite, and montmorllonite. Mineralogy, alteration, geochemistry, structure, and texture of the ores at Khanlogh indicate that the magnetite and apatite were chiefly formed by hydrothermal solutions which were enriched in iron mainly transported by F- and Cl- rich fluids. Reference Hou,,T., Zhaochong, Z., Timothy, K., (2011). Gushan magnetite-apatite deposit in the Ningwu basin, Lower Yangtze River Valley, SE China: Hydrothermal or Kiruna-type? Ore geology review, 43, 333-346. Purtov, V.K., Kotelnikova, A.L. (1993). Solubility of titanium in chloride and fluoride hydrothermal solution. International Geology Review 35, 274 -287.

  17. [Mineral water as a cure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, Priska Binz

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of diseases with mineral spring water belongs to the oldest medical therapies. The "remedy" mineral water is therefore of importance also within the pharmacy. The present pharmacy historical work examines the impact of the use of mineral waters, as well as of their dried components, as therapeutic agents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, i.e. from approx. 1810 to 1930, as well as the contributions given by pharmacists in the development and analysis of mineral water springs. Beside these aspects, the aim here is also to describe the role played by pharmacists in the production of artificial mineral water as well as in the sale and wholesale of natural and artificial mineral water. In the first part of this work the situation in Switzerland and its surrounding countries, such as Germany, France, Italy and Austria, is discussed. The second part contains a case-study of the particular situation in the Canton Tessin. It is known from the scientific literature published at that time that information on mineral water was frequently reported. Starting from the beginning of the 19th century the number of such publications increased tremendously. The major part of them were publications in scientific journals or contributions to medical and pharmaceutical manuals and reference books. In particular the spa-related literature, such as spa-guides, was of growing interest to a broad public. The inclusion of monographs into the Swiss, the Cantonal as well the foreign pharmacopoeias granted a legal frame for the mineral waters and their dried components. These works are of major importance from a pharmacy historical standpoint and represent a unique proof of historical evidence of the old medicinal drug heritage. The most frequently used therapies based on mineral waters were drinking and bath cures. Several diseases, particularly those of a chronic character, were treated with mineral waters. The positive influence of these cures on the recovery of the patients

  18. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  19. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  20. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  1. Book review: Mineral resource estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral Resource Estimation is about estimating mineral resources at the scale of an ore deposit and is not to be mistaken with mineral resource assessment, which is undertaken at a significantly broader scale, even if similar data and geospatial/geostatistical methods are used. The book describes geological, statistical, and geostatistical tools and methodologies used in resource estimation and modeling, and presents case studies for illustration. The target audience is the expert, which includes professional mining geologists and engineers, as well as graduate-level and advanced undergraduate students.

  2. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm. The faults, joints and fractures, are the main controls on the mineralization, in forms of disseminated, vein, veinlet and minor stockwork and brecciation type mineralization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and trace elements. Vein and veinlet of Pb+Zn±Cu±Sb in the Gale-Chah abandoned mine accompanied by carbonate and silicic alterations in association with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bournonite and tetrahedrite as the hypogene ore minerals and their supergene products including cerussite, covellite, digenite and second-generation colloidal pyrite. The Pb+Zn+Cu+Sb mineralization associated with sericitic and silicic alterations in the Shurab abandoned mine, is composed of two types of mineralization, veinlet and brecciation vein in the porphyry dacite boundaries with Jurassic shale and sandstones, and the disseminated and disseminated-veinlet mineralization which is hosted by the altered porphyry dacite and rhyodacite intrusive rocks. The mineral assemblages are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, As-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite complex hypogene-sulfide ore as a hypogene ore, and malachite, covellite, cerussite and melancoitic pyrite as a sulfide-oxide supergene ore. The Pb+Zn+Sb±As±Ag polymetallic occurrence is associated with sericitic, carbonate and chloritic alteration assemblage in the Chupan occurrence, in two forms, I vein, veinlet-stockwork (30m depth confined to fault structures and II disseminated-replacement (below 70m mainly

  3. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  4. 77 FR 56273 - Conflict Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., Release No. 34-63547 (Dec. 15, 2010) [75 FR 80948] (the ``Proposing Release''). \\5\\ Public Law 111-203... (Jan. 7, 2011) (``WGC I''). \\33\\ Conflict Minerals, Release No. 34-63793 (Jan. 28, 2011) [76 FR...

  5. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    in minor errors, implying that aquifer sediments containing poorly crystalline materials can be outgassed at low temperatures if the outgassing time is increased. Scanning electron microscopy of the studied minerals demonstrated that the particle size as calculated from BET data compares well with......Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...

  6. US Forest Service Mineral Rights

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting ownership parcels of the subsurface estate representing mineral rights; it is collected only if the subsurface estate is...

  7. Clay Minerals Deposit of Halakabad (Sabzevar- Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Hashemi

    2012-01-01

    Clay minerals are expanded in south of Sabzevar. They are identified with light color in the filed. The XRD and XRF chemical and mineralogical studies on the Clay minerals indicated that their main clay minerals are Kaolinite, Illite and Dickite. Pyrophyllite is minor clay mineral. Quartz and Sanidine non clay minerals are present with clay minerals .Ratio of Al2O3 is about 40 per cent, it is very good for industrial minerals .Volcanic rocks are origin clay minerals .Their composition are bas...

  8. Ancient and recent clay formation on Mars as revealed from a global survey of hydrous minerals in crater central peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Vivian Z.; Milliken, Ralph E.

    2015-12-01

    Clay minerals on Mars have commonly been interpreted as the remnants of pervasive water-rock interaction during the Noachian period (>3.7 Ga). This history has been partly inferred by observations of clays in central peaks of impact craters, which often are presumed uplifted from depth. However, combined mineralogical and morphological analyses of individual craters have shown that some central peak clays may represent post-impact, possibly authigenic processes. Here we present a global survey of 633 central peaks to assess their hydrous minerals and the prevalence of uplifted, detrital, and authigenic clays. Central peak regions are examined using high-resolution Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment data to identify hydrous minerals and place their detections in a stratigraphic and geologic context. We find that many occurrences of Fe/Mg clays and hydrated silica are associated with potential impact melt deposits. Over 35% of central peak clays are not associated with uplifted rocks; thus, caution must be used when inferring deeper crustal compositions from surface mineralogy of central peaks. Uplifted clay-bearing rocks suggest the Martian crust hosts clays to depths of at least 7 km. We also observe evidence for increasing chloritization with depth, implying the presence of fluids in the upper portions of the crust. Our observations are consistent with widespread Noachian/Early Hesperian clay formation, but a number of central peak clays are also suggestive of clay formation during the Amazonian. These results broadly support current paradigms of Mars' aqueous history while adding insight to global crustal and diagenetic processes associated with clay mineral formation and stability.

  9. Ocellar lamprophyre dyke bearing mineralization, Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, mineralogy and geochemical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim M.E.; Saleh G.M.; Dawood N.A.; Aly G.M.

    2010-01-01

    The ocellar lamprophyre dyke (ENE-WSW) is recorded at Wadi Nugrus, Eastern Desert, Egypt. It cuts porphyritic biotite granites and varies in thickness from 0.5 to 1.5 m and up to 3 km in length. The lamprophyre dyke has been altered, and it is characterized by porphyritic and panidiomorphic textures with plagioclase, olivine, and augite constituting the porphyritic phase in a fine groundmass of the same composition. Rutile, titanite, apatite, fluorite, graphite, calcite, allanite, autunite and Fe-Ti oxides are accessory minerals. Kaolinite, chlorite and epidote are secondary minerals. Carbonitization and hematitization are common. Rounded to sub-rounded porphyritic and zoned ocelli with radiate or brush-like shapes are generally common and represent physical traps for mineralization. The ocellar features are interpreted to represent the late stage of magmatic segregation or magmatic crystallization involving two immiscible magmatic liquids.Mineralogical studies of altered lamprophyre samples, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), indicate the presence of secondary uranium minerals (autunite and uranophane), associated with gold, silver, nickel, atacamite, molybdenum, pyrite and zincite. The presence of kaolinite indicates a high temperature environment. The mixing of volatile fluids with meteoric water and fluid-wall rock interaction result in changes of pH and oxygen activity and deposition of base metals in reducing environs (graphite and pyrite). Precipitation of hematite probably decreased the pH of the solution and rose acidic fluids. The sudden change in pH and temperature of the fluids would lead to destabilization of base metal complexes favoring their deposition.The magma source of the Nugrus lamprophyre is determined to be between calc-alkaline and alkaline and it has HKCAB and shoshonitic nature and may be derived from decomposition melting of such a metasomatised lithospheric mantle. Olivine is a major

  10. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  11. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3666 and 3766, Balkh (219), Mazar-e Sharif (220), Qarqin (213), and Hazara Toghai (214) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  12. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3360 and 3460, Kawir-e Naizar (413), Kohe-Mahmudo-Esmailjan (414), Kol-e Namaksar (407), and Ghoriyan (408) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2962 and 3062, Gawdezereh (615), Galachah (616), Chahar Burjak (609), and Khan Neshin (610) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3668 and 3768, Baghlan (221), Taluqan (222), Imam Sahib (215), and Rustaq (216) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  15. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 3664 and 3764, Char Shengo (123), Shibirghan (124), Jalajin (117), and Kham-Ab (118) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  16. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangle 3260, Dasht-e-Chah-e-Mazar (419) and Anar Darah (420) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Livo, Keith E.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Giles, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  17. The geological and metallogenic setting of stratabound carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb mineralizations in the West Asturian Leonese Zone, NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, F.; Ribera, F.; Shepherd, T. J.; Spiro, B.

    1996-01-01

    Several carbonate-hosted stratabound zinc-lead ores in the Ponferrada-Caurel area (NW Spain) are hosted by the Lower to Middle Cambrian Vegadeo Formation. Two clearly distinct groups of mineralizations occur in different stratigraphic positions. The stratiform disseminated ore is located in the Lower Member as irregular and millimetre-thick layers of sphalerite and galena replacing earlier pyrite. The lack of hydrothermal alteration and the heavy C., O and S isotopic signatures suggest that this ore is of premetamorphic origin, the sulphur and fluids being derived from the host carbonates. The more likely source of the sulphide is the abiogenic thermal reduction of sulphate derived from sulphate beds intercalated with the carbonates. The second group of mineralizations is located at the top of the Vegadeo Fm, always along its contact with the overlaying shales and sandstones of the Cabos Series. This group is economically more important and include three styles of strata-bound mineralizations. The more common one is the ‘silica ore’, a hydrothermal rock that traces the contact between the carbonate and the detrital rocks along more than 50 km. Locally, a ‘carbonate-rich ore’ is found along the contact between the silica ore and the Vegadeo Fm. Laterally to these rocks, there are large bodies of the ≪breccia ore≫, made up of sulphides and calcite in a matrix of chlorite. The ore assemblage is composed of sphalerite and galena with minor amounts of chalcopyrite and pyrite. Co-Ni-As sulphides, bismuthinite, tetrahedrite and Pb-Bi sulphosalts are also found as trace minerals. The geological relationships and the isotopic signatures suggest that the three ores are synchronous and of late Hercynian age. They are interpreted as linked with a tectonically driven fluid flow along the stratigraphic contact between the carbonate and the detrital rocks. The model of ore genesis involves the circulation of fluids in likely equilibrium with the detrital rocks that

  18. Mineral commodity profiles: nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Nitrogen (N) is an essential element of life and a part of all animal and plant proteins. As a part of the DNA and RNA molecules, nitrogen is an essential constituent of each individual's genetic blueprint. As an essential element in the chlorophyll molecule, nitrogen is vital to a plant's ability to photosynthesize. Some crop plants, such as alfalfa, peas, peanuts, and soybeans, can convert atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form by a process referred to as 'fixation.' Most of the nitrogen that is available for crop production, however, comes from decomposing animal and plant waste or from commercially produced fertilizers. Commercial fertilizers contain nitrogen in the form of ammonium and/or nitrate or in a form that is quickly converted to the ammonium or nitrate form once the fertilizer is applied to the soil. Ammonia is generally the source of nitrogen in fertilizers. Anhydrous ammonia is commercially produced by reacting nitrogen with hydrogen under high temperatures and pressures. The source of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is almost 80 percent nitrogen. Hydrogen is derived from a variety of raw materials, which include water, and crude oil, coal, and natural gas hydrocarbons. Nitrogen-based fertilizers are produced from ammonia feedstocks through a variety of chemical processes. Small quantities of nitrates are produced from mineral resources principally in Chile. In 2002, anhydrous ammonia and other nitrogen materials were produced in more than 70 countries. Global ammonia production was 108 million metric tons (Mt) of contained nitrogen. With 28 percent of this total, China was the largest producer of ammonia. Asia contributed 46 percent of total world ammonia production, and countries of the former U.S.S.R. represented 13 percent. North America also produced 13 percent of the total; Western Europe, 9 percent; the Middle East, 7 percent; Central America and South America, 5 percent; Eastern Europe, 3 percent; and Africa and Oceania

  19. The heat capacities of osumilite from 298.15 to 1000 K, the thermodynamic properties of two natural chlorites to 500 K, and the thermodynamic properties of petalite to 1800 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, B.S.; Robie, R.A.; Kittrick, J.A.; Grew, E.S.; Nelen, J.A.; London, D.

    1984-01-01

    Modifications to an automated low-T, adiabatic calorimeter are described. Thermodynamic data obtained with this instrument are reported for minerals from metamorphic terrains. (U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations 8451)-J.A.Z.

  20. The Rožná uranium deposit (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): shear zone-hosted, late Variscan and post-Variscan hydrothermal mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříbek, Bohdan; Žák, Karel; Dobeš, Petr; Leichmann, Jaromír; Pudilová, Marta; René, Miloš; Scharm, Bohdan; Scharmová, Marta; Hájek, Antonín; Holeczy, Daniel; Hein, Ulrich F.; Lehmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Three major mineralization events are recorded at the Rožná uranium deposit (total mine production of 23,000 t U, average grade of 0.24% U): (1) pre-uranium quartz-sulfide and carbonate-sulfide mineralization, (2) uranium, and (3) post-uranium quartz-carbonate-sulfide mineralization. (1) K-Ar ages for white mica from wall rock alteration of the pre-uranium mineralization style range from 304.5 ± 5.8 to 307.6 ± 6.0 Ma coinciding with the post-orogenic exhumation of the Moldanubian orogenic root and retrograde-metamorphic equilibration of the high-grade metamorphic host rocks. The fluid inclusion record consists of low-salinity aqueous inclusions, together with H2O-CO2-CH4, CO2-CH4, and pure CH4 inclusions. The fluid inclusion, paragenetic, and isotope data suggest that the pre-uranium mineralization formed from a reduced low-salinity aqueous fluid at temperatures close to 300°C. (2) The uraniferous hydrothermal event is subdivided into the pre-ore, ore, and post-ore substages. K-Ar ages of pre-ore authigenic K-feldspar range from 296.3 ± 7.5 to 281.0 ± 5.4 Ma and coincide with the transcurrent reorganization of crustal blocks of the Bohemian Massif and with Late Stephanian to Early Permian rifting. Massive hematitization, albitization, and desilicification of the pre-ore altered rocks indicate an influx of oxidized basinal fluids to the crystalline rocks of the Moldanubian domain. The wide range of salinities of fluid inclusions is interpreted as a result of the large-scale mixing of basinal brines with meteoric water. The cationic composition of these fluids indicates extensive interaction with crystalline rocks. Chlorite thermometry yielded temperatures of 260°C to 310°C. During this substage, uranium was probably leached from the Moldanubian crystalline rocks. The hydrothermal alteration of the ore substage followed, or partly overlapped in time, the pre-ore substage alteration. K-Ar ages of illite from ore substage alteration range from 277.2 ± 5.5 to

  1. Study on mineral processing technology for abrasive minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Woong; Yang, Jung Il; Hwang, Seon Kook; Choi, Yeon Ho; Cho, Ken Joon; Shin, Hee Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Buyeo Materials in Buyeogun, Choongnam province is a company producing feldspar concentrate, but does not yet utilize the garnet as abrasive material and other useful heavy minerals wasted out from the process of feldspar ore. The purpose of this study is to develop technology and process for the recovery of garnet concentrate. As results, the garnet is defined as ferro manganese garnet. The optimum process for recovery of garnet concentrate is to primarily concentrate heavy minerals from tailings of feldspar processing. And secondly the heavy minerals concentrated is dried and separated garnet concentrate from other heavy minerals. At this time, the garnet concentrate is yield by 0.176%wt from 0.31%wt of heavy minerals in head ore. The garnet concentrate contains 33.35% SiO{sub 2}, 12.20% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 28.47% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.96% MnO. As for utilization of abrasive materials, a fundamental data was established on technology of grinding and classification. (author). 13 refs., 47 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Determination of Chlorite, Bromate, Chlorate in Surface Water and Drinking Water by Ion Chromatography%离子色谱法测定地表水和饮用水中亚氯酸盐、溴酸盐和氯酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦艳艳; 杨丽莉; 徐荣; 胡恩宇

    2013-01-01

    采用KOH梯度淋洗离子色谱法测定地表水和饮用水中ClO2-、BrO3-和ClO3-,在试验确定的条件下,3种离子与F-、Cl-、NO2-、NO3-、SO2-4、Br-、I-等7种离子分离度良好。 ClO2-、BrO3-、ClO3-在50.0μg/L~1000μg/L范围内线性良好,检出限分别为5.2μg/L、8.9μg/L、7.6μg/L,环境水样加标平行测定的RSD分别为2.1%~5.4%、4.1%~5.4%、2.5%~4.8%,两个质量浓度水平加标的平均回收率分别为93.7%~96.5%、90.3%~94.8%、98.7%~111%。%An ion chromatography method for determining chlorite , bromate and chlorate in surface water and drinking water was studied .The separation of the anions was achieved on an IonPac AS 19 Column with KOH as eluent, the chlorite, bromate, chlorate and other 7 kinds of anions could be well separated and determined within 25 min by employing a concentration gradient .The method has good linearity during the concentration 50.0 μg/L ~1 000 μg/L.The method detection limits of chlorite, bromate and chlorate was 5.2 μg/L, 8.9 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively.The RSD of the samples were 2.1%~5.4% ( chlorite), 4.1%~5.4%(bromate), and 2.5%~4.8% (chlorate).The recoveries of chlorite, bromate and chlorate in water samples were 93.7%~96.5%, 90.3%~94.8%and 98.7%~111%.

  3. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  4. Biomineralization: mineral formation by organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2014-09-01

    Organisms form many different types of minerals, with diverse shapes and sizes. These minerals fulfill a variety of functions. Inspired by the late H A Lowenstam, Steve Weiner and Lia Addadi have addressed many questions that relate to the mechanisms by which biological organisms produce these mineral phases and how their structures relate to their functions. Addadi and Weiner have explored the manner in which macromolecules extracted from mineralized tissues can interact with some crystal planes and not others, how these macromolecules can be occluded inside the forming crystals residing preferentially on specific crystal planes, and how they can induce one polymorph of calcium carbonate and not another to nucleate. Addadi and Weiner have also identified a novel strategy used by the sea urchin to form its smooth and convoluted mineralized skeletal elements. The strategy involves the initial production by cells of a highly disordered mineral precursor phase in vesicles, and then the export of this so-called amorphous phase to the site of skeletal formation, where it crystallizes. This strategy is now known to be used by many different invertebrate phyla, as well as by vertebrates to build bones and teeth. One of the major current research aims of the Weiner--Addadi group is to understand the biomineralization pathways whereby ions are extracted from the environment, are transported and deposited inside cells within vesicles, how these disordered phases are then transferred to the site of skeletal formation, and finally how the so-called amorphous phase crystallizes. Biology has clearly evolved unique strategies for forming crystalline minerals. Despite more than 300 years of research in this field, many challenging questions still remain unanswered.

  5. Mineral-resource data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Data bases are essential for modern scientific research. The new and exciting work being done in the Mineral Resource Program in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) usually begins with the question, "Where are the known deposits?" A mineral-resource data base containing this type of information and more can be useful not just to USGS scientists, but to anyone who needs such data. Users of the data bases from outside the USGS include mining and exploration companies, environmental groups, academia, other Federal Agencies, and the general public. At present, the USGS has two large mineral-resource data bases, MRDS (Mineral Resource Data System) and MAS (Minerals Availability System). MRDS was built and is mamtained by the USGS, and MAS was built and maintained by the Bureau of Mines. In 1996, after the Bureau was abolished, MAS was transferred to the USGS. The two data bases were compiled for different purposes and contain very different mformation. For instance, MAS contains information on costs, details of mining methods, and feasibility studies. MRDS has mineralogical and geologic data that are not contained in MAS. Because they are both mineral-resource data bases, however, they contain some information in common, such as location, name(s) of sites, and commodities present. Both data bases are international in scope, and both are quite large. MRDS contains over 110,000 records, while MAS has over 220,000. One reason that MAS has more records is that it contains information on smelters, mill sites, and fossil fuel sites, as well as mineral- resource sites. The USGS is working to combine the information in both data bases. This is a large undertaking that will require some years to complete. In the interim, information from both data bases will still be available

  6. DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF CLAY MINERALS IN SURFACE SEDIMENTS OF SOUTH YELLOW SEA AND THEIR PROVENANCE%南黄海表层沉积物黏土矿物分布及物源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝先洪; 张宪军; 刘新波; 李日辉; 张志珣

    2011-01-01

    通过对南黄海表层沉积物295个站位的黏土矿物含量分析,研究了南黄海表层沉积物黏土矿物的组合特征、分布规律及与物质来源的关系.南黄海表层沉积物中伊利石含量最高,蒙脱石和高岭石含量次之,绿泥石含量最低;黏土矿物的组合类型以伊利石-蒙脱石-高岭石-绿泥石型为主,伊利石-高岭石-蒙脱石-绿泥石型次之;南黄海表层沉积物黏土矿物主要为陆源成因,物质主要来源于黄河和长江的供给.现代黄河物质及老黄河物质主要沉积于南黄海的西部和中部;长江物质主要在南黄海的西南和中北部区域沉积,东部物质反映来自朝鲜半岛的物质对南黄海东部的作用.%The clay minerals composition of the surface sediments in the South Yellow Sea from 295 stations were studied with focus on clay assemblages and their distribution pattern as well as provenance. The research results show that illite dominates in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea with smectite or kao-linite as the second and chlorite the lowest. The assemblage of illite-smectite-kaolinete-chlorite is the main type of the clay minerals assemblage in the area, followed by the illite-kaolinete-smectite-chlorite assemblage. Clay minerals are mainly from the Yellow River and Yangtze River. Materials from both the recent and the ancient Yellow River deposited mainly in the western, middle part of the South Yellow Sea, while the substance from the Yangtze River deposited mainly in the southwestern and southern parts. In the eastern part of the study area, an influence of the material from the Korean peninsula was observed.

  7. 21 CFR 573.680 - Mineral oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mineral oil. 573.680 Section 573.680 Food and... Listing § 573.680 Mineral oil. Mineral oil may be safely used in animal feed, subject to the provisions of this section. (a) Mineral oil, for the purpose of this section, is that complying with the...

  8. Effect of mineral processing wastewater on flotation of sulfide minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ming; LIU Run-qing; SUN Wei; QIU Guan-zhou

    2009-01-01

    The effects of mineral processing wastewater on sulfide minerals were investigated by flotation, infrared spectrometry and electrochemistry test. The results show that lead-concentrate water can improve the flotation of galena, while the sulfur-concentrate water has negative effect on flotation of galena compared with distilled water. The flotation behavior of pyrite is contrary to that of galena in three kinds of water. Infrared spectra indicate that the residual collector in the lead-concentrate water is beneficial to the formation of lead xanthate on the surface of galena. Electrochemistry results indicate that electrochemistry reaction on galena surface has apparent change. The anode polarization is improved and cathode polarization is depressed.

  9. Mars Surface Mineralogic Diversity and Mineral Mixtures Mapping Using CRISM Data and the Tetracorder Spectral Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. N.; Swayze, G. A.; Murchie, S. L.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Seelos, K. D.; Viviano-Beck, C.; Bishop, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The search for minerals and other materials from the wealth of imaging spectroscopy data being returned from Mars poses a formidable task. Most recent mapping has required human intensive massaging/filtering of image cubes and mapping by parameters. The new CRISM Map-projected Targeted Reduced Data Record (MTRDR) image cubes enable a new level of sophistication in detection and mapping of materials. We use a new version of Tetracorder that has a more sophisticated expert system for the identification and mapping of materials in CRISM data, including curved continuum removal that permits more robust detection of weak spectral features embedded in larger features. The use of spectral feature fitting algorithms and curved continua enable subtle changes in mineralogy to be detected, including weak hydroxyl and carbonate features in the presence of strong >2 micron pyroxene absorptions, and organics and carbonates in the presence of the strong curvature from the 3-micron water band so prevalent on Mars. In mapping numerous CRISM scenes to date we find interesting mineralogic diversity expressed in the position and shape of the 1.9-micron water absorption, ranging from ~1.91 microns in many clays to ~1.93 microns in sulfates and may be an indicator of these minerals when the OH features are too weak to observe. All scenes mapped so far show the presence of the 1.9-micron water in various band positions. Another mineral found to be extensive is prehnite and mixtures of prehnite with chlorite and/or serpentine. Prehnite, Ca2Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)2, is a secondary or hydrothermal mineral in veins and cavities in mafic volcanic rocks and a product of low-grade metamorphism. Other minerals mapped include the clino-orthopyroxene series, clay minerals, sulfates, olivine, magnetite, hematite and goethite grain sizes, other Fe2+ and Fe3+ minerals, and H2O and CO2 ice. These diverse mineralogies could guide present and future landing missions to geologically interesting areas.

  10. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression......, for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  11. Clay minerals in pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateo, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Argille, Tito Scalo, PZ (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Clay minerals are fundamental constituents of life, not only as possible actors in the development of life on the Earth (Cairns-Smith and Hartman, 1986), but mainly because they are essential constituents of soils, the interface between the solid planet and the continental biosphere. Many, many authors have devoted themselves to the study of clays and clay minerals since the publication of the early modern studies by Grim (1953, 1962) and Millot (1964). In those years two very important associations were established in Europe (Association Internationale pour l'Etude des Argiles, AIPEA) and in the USA (Clay Mineral Society, CMS). The importance of these societies is to put together people that work in very different fields (agronomy, geology, geochemistry, industry, etc.), but with a common language (clays), very useful in scientific work. Currently excellent texts are being published, but introductory notes are also available on the web (Schroeder, 1998).

  12. Geochemistry and Minerality of Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oze, C.; Horton, T. W.; Beaman, M.

    2010-12-01

    Kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3) are capable of forming in a variety of environments including anthropogenic solutions such as wine. Here, we evaluate the geochemistry of twelve white wines in order to assess the potential relationship between kaolinite/gibbsite saturation and minerality, a common wine descriptor used to express the rock and/or soil character in the aromas and flavors of wines. Aluminum and Si concentrations ranged from 228-1,281 µg L-1 and 6,583-19,746 µg L-1, respectively, where Si and Al are the only elements to demonstrate positive covariance with minerality scores. Sulfur levels varied from 25,013-167,383 µg L-1 and show the strongest negative covariance with minerality scores. However, like all of the elements studied (Al, Si, Na, Mg, S, K, Ca, and Fe), these trends were not significantly different than random at the 95% confidence level. In contrast, the relative degrees of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation display strong positive covariance with minerality scores and these trends are not random at the greater than 95% confidence level. Overall, our tasters were able to accurately assess the degree of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation amongst the twelve wines based on the objective of assessing minerality. Although the wines were undersaturated with respect to gibbsite/kaolinite, geochemical modeling reveals that increasing the wines’ pHs from ~3.3 to 4.1-4.6 (which is achievable on the palate where saliva has a pH of 7.4) results in gibbsite/kaolinite oversaturation. By considering that minerality is a function of gibbsite/kaolinite saturation and decreasing S, the origin of minerality’s taste and chemical origin in wine with known physical standards becomes increasingly crystalline.

  13. Late-Quaternary variations in clay minerals along the SW continental margin of India: Evidence of climatic variations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Sukhija, B.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Paropkari, A.L.

    Down-core variations in illite, chlorite, smectite and kaolinite (the major clays) in two sup(14)C-dated cores collected along the SW continental margin of India show that illite and chlorite have enhanced abundance during 20-17, 12.5, 11-9.5, and 5...

  14. Characterizing Geology and Mineralization at High Latitudes in Alaska Using Airborne and Field-Based Imaging Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Kokaly, R. F.; Graham, G. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Buchhorn, M.; Johnson, M. R.; Hubbard, B. E.; Goldfarb, R. J.; Prakash, A.

    2015-12-01

    Passive optical remote sensing of high latitude regions faces many challenges including a short acquisition season and poor illumination. Identification of surface minerals can be complicated by steep terrain and vegetation cover. In July 2014, the HyMap* imaging spectrometer was flown over two study areas in Alaska. Contemporaneously, field spectra and samples of geologic units were collected, including altered and unaltered parts of intrusions hosting mid-Cretaceous porphyry copper deposits at Orange Hill and Bond Creek in the eastern Alaska Range. The HyMap radiance data were converted to surface reflectance using a radiative transfer correction program and reflectance spectra of calibration sites. Reflectance data were analyzed with the Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA), a module of USGS PRISM (Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements; speclab.cr.usgs.gov). Large areas of abundant epidote/chlorite, muscovite/illite, calcite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and (or) pyrophyllite were mapped, which are minerals typically formed during alteration of host rocks surrounding porphyry copper deposits. A map showing the wavelength position of the muscovite/illite absorption feature was made. Shifts in wavelength position have been related to the aluminum composition of micas and areas of high metal concentrations in past studies. In July 2015, rock and spectral sampling was continued in areas with surface exposures of copper- and molybdenum-bearing sulfides. Also, high-spatial resolution (~6 cm pixel size) imaging spectrometer data were collected at the Orange Hill deposit using the University of Alaska, Fairbanks (UAF) HySpex imaging spectrometer (www.hyperspectral.alaska.edu). Laboratory, field, and airborne spectra are being examined to define indicators of mineralization. The study results will be used to assess the effectiveness of spectroscopic remote sensing for geologic mapping and exploration targeting in Alaska and

  15. Estudo mineral de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Gomes Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn were evaluated in five different samples of medicinal plant leaves. Atomic absorption spectrometry was applied to the metals quantification. Except for Fe in Artemisia vulgaris L, significant levels of these elements were found in all investigated plant as compared to other vegetables which are abundant concerning that mineral content.

  16. Lagoa Real design - Mineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the works realized, in course and to realize of Lagoa Real Design, including the works for implantation of Mineral-Industrial complex with the production capacity of 1.000 ton of U sub(3) O sub(8) per year from 1988. (author)

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070252 Chen Meilan (Biological and Environmental College, Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China); Li Li Study on Adsorption of Phenol by Modified Organobentonite (Rock and Mineral Analysis, ISSN0254-5357, CN11-2131/TD, 24(4), 2005, p.259-261, 267, 6 illus., 1 table, 11 refs.) Key words: bentonite, benzene, adsorption

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20140786Deng Zhenping(Institute of Karst Geology,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Guilin 541004,China);Yang Wen-qiong Application of Stripping Voltammetry with a Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Copper in a Tracer and Groundwater Tracing Experiment(Rock and Mineral Analy-

  19. Miners take stock after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's uranium producers, already facing a tough market have been plunged further into the unknown following the accident at Chernobyl. The production of uranium in Australia is reviewed with emphasis on the three uranium miners -Queensland Mines, Energy Resources of Australia and Western Mining Corporation

  20. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  1. Radiological hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present document is to review and assess the occupational hazards to uranium miners in Canada. Amendments to regulations set the maximum permissible dose to uranium miners at 50 mSv per year. Uranium miners are exposed to radon and thoron progeny, external gamma radiation and long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides in dust. The best estimate for the lifetime risk of inhaled radon progeny is about 3 x 10-4 lung cancers per WLM for the average miner, with a range of uncertainty from about 1 -6 x 10-4 per WLM. This central value is nearly twice as high as that recommended by the ICRP in 1981. The probability of serious biological consequences following exposure to external gamma rays is currently under review but is expected to be in the range of 3 - 6 x 10-2 Sv-1. Dosimetric calculations indicate that the stochastic risks per WLM of thoron progeny are about one-third of those for radon progeny. The annual limits on intake of inhaled ore dusts recommended by the ICRP are probably too low by at least a factor of two for the type of ore and dust normally encountered in underground uranium mines in Ontario; this is due in part to the fact that the average diameter of these dusts is five times greater than the value used by the ICRP. Radiological exposures of uranium miners in Canada were reviewed. The biological impact of these exposures were compared with those of conventional accidents on the basis of the years of normal life expectancy that are lost or seriously impaired due to occupational hazards. The objectives in considering all occupational risks are to reduce the total risk from all causes and to use funds spent for health protection as effectively as possible

  2. Microprobe to closely examine minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of South Australia will develop synchrotron-based technology that can determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples at microscopic levels. The planned multi-analysis synchrotron X-ray facility Beam-line 11 is for implementing on the Australian Synchrotron. UniSA's Applied Centre for Structural and Synchrotron Studies (ACeSSS) will use Beamline 11 to shed new light on factors that constrain recoveries of copper and gold from typical copper ores. ACeSSS director Professor Andrea Gerson is working with an international team and the Australian Synchrotron on the design of Beamline 11. According to Gerson, there is scope to improve processing and/or increase recoveries in copper, gold and valueless pyrite either through separation, smelting, leaching or electro-processing. Using synchrotron technology, researchers will determine the structure and chemical composition of mineral samples to understand the fundamental behaviour of these materials in order to identify process and : environmental benefits. Three different strategies will be employed: tracing the movement of gold through the mineral processing chain to optimise and increase gold recovery; examining the surface layers formed when copper is leached from the mineral, chalcopyrite, to enhance the understanding of this surface layer formation and ultimately maximise cop-per recovery; and improving environmental remediation by understanding the mineralisation process during acid-rock drainage. ACeSSS will work with the minerals and environmental remediation sectors, building on the I establishment of the Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, and cementing close collaboration with UniSA's Ian Wark Research Institute. Contributions from the SA Premier's Science and Research Fund, BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, synchrotron partners Advanced Light Source (USA) and the Canadian Light Source Funding totalling $1.38m are available for

  3. Geochemical modeling of the influence of silicate mineral alteration on alkalinity production and carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Gerhard; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Gier, Susanne; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    as well as carbonates in porefluids under different pCO2 levels. In a second step, we will let the minerals react to a thermodynamically stable state and thereby observe the resulting alkalinity effect and the effect on carbonate precipitation. So far, modeling showed that saturation states of some of the most common clay minerals, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite and chlorite in a standard seawater solution strongly depend on silica and aluminum concentrations, but they show very little dependence on the pH. This is understandable since a congruent dissolution of clay minerals does not significantly increase or decrease the alkalinity. However, partial leaching of structural ions by incongruent dissolution/precipitation should have a strong effect on porewater alkalinity. Hence, substitution reactions will have to be simulated as part of this study. Calculated mineral alteration and rock-fluid interactions in deep sediments will contribute to a better understanding of carbonate diagenesis but also of long-term effects in subsurface CO2 storage reservoirs. Mavromatis et al. (2014) Chem. Geol. 385, 84-91. Parkhurst, D.L, and Appelo, C.A.J. (2013) U.S Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A43, 497 p. Wallmann et al. (2008) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72, 3067-3090.

  4. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN: Industrial Mineral Data in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — INDUSTRIAL_MINERALS_POINTS_IN is a shapefile that shows the distribution of stratigraphic data for various industrial minerals in Indiana. These data were derived...

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program—Mineral resource science supporting informed decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Aleeza M.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2016-09-19

    The USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP) delivers unbiased science and information to increase understanding of mineral resource potential, production, and consumption, and how mineral resources interact with the environment. The MRP is the Federal Government’s sole source for this mineral resource science and information. Program goals are to (1) increase understanding of mineral resource formation, (2) provide mineral resource inventories and assessments, (3) broaden knowledge of the effects of mineral resources on the environment and society, and (4) provide analysis on the availability and reliability of mineral supplies.

  6. Alteration geochemistry of the volcanic-hosted Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Fe-Cu mineralization at Gökçedoǧan, Çorum-Kargi region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Lokman; Öztürk, Sercan; Yalçın, Cihan; Abdelnasser, Amr; Hanilçi, Nurullah; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This study is to determine the mass/volume gain and loss of the major and trace elements during the alteration processes on Dedeninyurdu, Yergen and Fındıklıyar Fe-Cu mineralizations of the area. Fe-Cu mineralization occurred in the spilitic volcanic a rock of Saraycık Formation is associated with the different types of alteration zones which are pyritization, silicification and sericitization. The study area comprises Bekirli Formation, Saraycık Formation, Beşpınar Formation, and Ilgaz Formation. Saraycık formation consists of spilitic volcanic rocks with pelagic limestone, siltstone and chert. The ore mineralogical data show that the pyrite, chalcopyrite, covellite, hematite, malachite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization. As well as the geologic and petrographic studies reveal three alteration zones with definite mineral assemblages; phyllic alteration (quartz + sericite + pyrite) that represents the main alteration and mineralized zone; propylitic alteration; and carbonatized sericitic alteration zone. The boundaries between these zones are gradual. Mass balance calculations suggested that the phyllic alteration zone represented by gain in Si, Fe, K, S, and LOI and loss in Mg, Ca, and Na refers to silicification, sericitization and pyritization as well as replacement of Fe-Mg silicate and plagioclase. While, in the propylitic alteration zone, enrichment of Si, Fe, Mg, LOI and S occurred with depletions of Ca, Na, and K reflecting chloritization alteration type. On the other hand, carbonatized sericitic alteration zone shows local gain in Si, CaO and K reflects the occurrence of calc-silicate alteration. All alteration zones contain a large proportion of sulfide minerals (gain in S) with increase in loss on ignition (LOI). Keywords: Alteration geochemistry; Mass balance calculation, Fe-Cu mineralization; phyllic alteration, propylitic alteration.

  7. Miscellaneous Industrial Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  8. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  9. Characterization of biological mineralization in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, L.F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineralization is an essential requirement for normal skeletal development, which is generally accomplished through the function of two cell types, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Soft tissues do not mineralize under normal conditions, but under certain pathological conditions some tissues like articu

  10. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  11. ARC Code TI: sequenceMiner

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The sequenceMiner was developed to address the problem of detecting and describing anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences. sequenceMiner works...

  12. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  13. Mineral bridges in nacre revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Checa, Antonio G; Willinger, Marc-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We confirm with high-resolution techniques the existence of mineral bridges between superposed nacre tablets. In the towered nacre of both gastropods and the cephalopod Nautilus there are large bridges aligned along the tower axes, corresponding to gaps (150-200 nm) in the interlamellar membranes. Gaps are produced by the interaction of the nascent tablets with a surface membrane that covers the nacre compartment. In the terraced nacre of bivalves bridges associated with elongated gaps in the interlamellar membrane (> 100 nm) have mainly been found at or close to the edges of superposed parental tablets. To explain this placement, we hypothesize that the interlamellar membrane breaks due to differences in osmotic pressure across it when the interlamellar space below becomes reduced at an advanced stage of calcification. In no cases are the minor connections between superimposed tablets (< 60 nm), earlier reported to be mineral bridges, found to be such.

  14. Borate Minerals and RNA Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Di Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The abiotic origin of genetic polymers faces two major problems: a prebiotically plausible polymerization mechanism and the maintenance of their polymerized state outside a cellular environment. The stabilizing action of borate on ribose having been reported, we have explored the possibility that borate minerals stabilize RNA. We observe that borate itself does not stabilize RNA. The analysis of a large panel of minerals tested in various physical-chemical conditions shows that in general no protection on RNA backbone is exerted, with the interesting exception of ludwigite (Mg2Fe3+BO5. Stability is a fundamental property of nucleic polymers and borate is an abundant component of the planet, hence the prebiotic interest of this analysis.

  15. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yogurt legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils Zinc Zinc helps your immune system, which is ... peanuts legumes, such as beans, split peas, and lentils When people don't get enough of these ...

  16. KNIME: the Konstanz Information Miner

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, Michael R.; Cebron, Nicholas; Dill, Fabian; Di Fatta, Giuseppe; Gabriel, Thomas R.; Georg, Florian; Meinl, Thorsten; Ohl, Peter; Sieb, Christopher; Wiswedel, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    The Konstanz Information Miner is a modular environment, which enables easy visual assembly and interactive execution of a data pipeline. It is designed as a teaching, research and collaboration platform, which enables simple integration of new algorithms and tools as well as data manipulation or visualization methods in the form of new modules or nodes. In this paper we describe some of the design aspects of the underlying architecture and briefly sketch how new nodes can be incorporated.

  17. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema

  18. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20132374 Dong Yongsheng(Third Institute of Geologic Mineral Exploration and Development of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region,Hohhot 010050,China);Cheng Haoyang Determination of Nb,Ta,Th,and Zr by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry(Jilin Geology,ISSN1001-2427,CN22-1099/P,31(4),2012,p.113-114,129,3tables,2refs.)Key words:X-ray fluorescence spectra,rare

  19. Copper minerals under the microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Hjeltström, Anna

    2015-01-01

    From many perspectives copper is a very important metal for the modern society. It can be found in everything from jewellery to electronics. For this reason it is very important for geologists to be able to develop efficient methods for identification, characterisation, extraction and processing of copper. One method for the identification of copper bearing minerals is ore microscopy which has been used in this paper along with a general introduction. Samples from the study collection of the ...

  20. World mineral production 2004-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, T. J.; Bide, T.; Hannis, S.D.; Idoine, N.E.; Hetherington, L.E.; R. A. Shaw; Walters, A S; Lusty, P.A.J.; Kendall, R.

    2010-01-01

    This volume is the latest in the series World Mineral Production, published by the British Geological Survey. It comprises the most recent addition to a continuous dataset on global mineral production which stretches back to 1913. It contains production statistics, by country, for the majority of economically important mineral commodities, including ferrous and non–ferrous metals, industrial minerals and hydrocarbons. Commentary is provided detailing the characteristics, uses, production t...

  1. Is Struvite a Prebiotic Mineral?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Pasek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic relevance of mineral struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O, was studied experimentally as a phosphorylating reagent and, theoretically, to understand the geochemical requirements for its formation. The effectiveness of phosphorylation by the phosphate mineral, monetite, CaHPO4, was also studied to compare to the efficiency of struvite. The experiments focused on the phosphorylation reactions of the minerals with organic compounds, such as nucleosides, glycerol and choline chloride, and heat at 75 °C for about 7–8 days and showed up to 28% phosphorylation of glycerol. In contrast, the compositional requirements for the precipitation of struvite are high ammonium and phosphate concentrations, as well as a little Ca2+ dissolved in the water. Combined, these requirements suggest that it is not likely that struvite was present in excess on the early Earth to carry out phosphorylation reactions. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic aspects of struvite formation, complementing the results given by Orgel and Handschuh (1973, which were based on the kinetic effects.

  2. Multistage gold mineralization in the Wa-Lawra greenstone belt, NW Ghana: The Bepkong deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amponsah, Prince Ofori; Salvi, Stefano; Didier, Béziat; Baratoux, Lenka; Siebenaller, Luc; Jessell, Mark; Nude, Prosper Mackenzie; Gyawu, Eugene Adubofour

    2016-08-01

    The Bepkong gold deposit is one of several gold camps in the Paleoproterozoic Wa-Lawra greenstone belt in northwest Ghana. These deposits lay along the Kunche-Atikpi shear zone, which is part of the larger transcurrent Jirapa shear zone. The formation of these shear zones can be attributed to the general ESE-WNW major shortening that took place in the Wa-Lawra belt. Gold mineralization in the Bepkong deposit mainly occurs within graphitic shales and volcaniclastic rocks. The ore consists of four N-S trending lenticular bodies, plunging steeply to the south, that are lithologically and structurally controlled. Their shape and thickness are variable, though a general strike length of 560 m and an overall thickness of 300 m can be defined. An alteration mineral assemblage characterises the ore, and consists of chlorite-calcite-sericite-quartz-arsenopyrite-pyrite. Pyrite, as distinct from arsenopyrite, is not limited to the altered rocks and occurs throughout the area. At Bepkong, gold is associated with arsenopyrite and pyrite, which occur disseminated in the mineralized wall rock, flanking Type-1 quartz veins, or within fractures crossing these veins. Textural observations indicate the early formation of abundant arsenopyrite, followed by pyrite, with chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and pyrrhotite occurring as inclusions within pyrite and altered arsenopyrite. Detailed petrography, coupled with SEM, LA-ICP-MS and EMP analyses, indicate that gold in the Bepkong deposit occurs in three distinct forms: (i) invisible gold, mostly in arsenopyrite (ii); visible gold as micron-size grains within fractures and altered rims of arsenopyrite, as well as at the interface of sulphide grains; (iii) free visible gold in fractures in quartz veins and their selvages. We interpret the invisible gold to have co-precipitated with the early-formed arsenopyrite. The small visible gold grains observed within the sulphide interfaces, altered arsenopyrite, fractures and grain boundaries

  3. Hydrothermal frictional strengths of rock and mineral samples relevant to the creeping section of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    We compare frictional strengths in the temperature range 25–250 °C of fault gouge from SAFOD (CDZ and SDZ) with quartzofeldspathic wall rocks typical of the central creeping section of the San Andreas Fault (Great Valley sequence and Franciscan Complex). The Great Valley and Franciscan samples have coefficients of friction, μ > 0.35 at all experimental conditions. Strength is unchanged between 25° and 150 °C, but μ increases at higher temperatures, exceeding 0.50 at 250 °C. Both samples are velocity strengthening at room temperature but show velocity-weakening behavior beginning at 150 °C and stick-slip motion at 250 °C. These rocks, therefore, have the potential for unstable seismic slip at depth. The CDZ gouge, with a high saponite content, is weak (μ = 0.09–0.17) and velocity strengthening in all experiments, and μ decreases at temperatures above 150 °C. Behavior of the SDZ is intermediate between the CDZ and wall rocks: μ < 0.2 and does not vary with temperature. Although saponite is probably not stable at depths greater than ∼3 km, substitution of the frictionally similar minerals talc and Mg-rich chlorite for saponite at higher temperatures could potentially extend the range of low strength and stable slip down to the base of the seismogenic zone.

  4. Mineral zircon : A novel thermoluminescence geochronometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, HJ; Vainshtein, DI; De Meijer, RJ; Den Hartog, HW; Donoghue, JF; Rozendaal, A

    2002-01-01

    Mineral zircon contains trace amounts (typically 10-1000 ppm) of the alpha-emitters uranium and thorium, which irradiate this mineral internally. This outstanding feature of zircon turns out to be extremely useful when this mineral is applied as a thermoluminescence (TL) dating medium, because the b

  5. 43 CFR 8.5 - Mineral rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral rights. 8.5 Section 8.5 Public... INTERIOR AND OF THE ARMY RELATIVE TO RESERVOIR PROJECT LANDS § 8.5 Mineral rights. Mineral, oil and gas rights will not be acquired except where the development thereof would interfere with project...

  6. 亚氯酸钠对烤烟酶促棕色化反应及烟叶质量的影响%Effects of sodium chlorite on enzymatic browning reaction and curing quality of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任杰; 李雨江; 包可翔; 赖成连; 冷平; 孙福山

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effects of sodium chlorite(SC) on enzyme browning reaction and curing quality,the PPO activity,polyphenol content,chemical composition,smoking quality and economic characters of cured leaves of K326 were investigated.The results indicated that changes of PPO activity of tobacco leaves treated with SC and the control tobacco leaves were similar,but PPO activity of tobacco leaves treated with SC was lower than control tobacco leaves.The scopoletin and chlorogenic acid contents of middle leaves treated with SC were higher than the control leaves,but there was no significant difference of total polyphenol contents between SC treated and the control leaves.The chlorogenic acid,neochlorogenic acid,cryptochlorogenic acid,rutin and total polyphenol contents were higher than the control leaves.SC increased the chlorine and reducing sugar contents obviously,and made the chemical composition more coordinated.SC improved the smoking quality slightly,and increased the economic characters obviously.In conclusion,SC inhibited the enzymatic browning reaction and improved curing quality of flue-cured tobacco.%为研究亚氯酸钠(SC)对烤烟烘烤过程中酶促棕色化反应及烟叶烘烤质量的影响,以K326为试验材料,通过烘烤试验分析了SC对烤烟烘烤过程中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性、烤后烟叶多酚含量、常规化学成分、感官质量及经济性状的影响。结果表明:SC处理和对照烟叶在烘烤过程中多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性变化表现出基本相同的规律,但SC处理烟叶PPO活性均低于同期对照烟叶。SC处理中部叶莨菪亭和绿原酸含量显著高于对照,但多酚总量与对照无显著差异;SC处理上部叶绿原酸、新绿原酸、隐绿原酸、芸香苷、多酚总量均显著高于对照。SC处理显著提高了烤后烟叶的氯含量和还原糖含量,使化学成分更趋协调。SC处理烤后烟叶感官质量较对照有所改善,经济性状较对照显

  7. Impact of Long-Term Alfalfa Cropping on Soil Potassium Content and Clay Minerals in a Semi-Arid Loess Soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-Cheng; B. VELDE; LI Feng-Min; ZHANG Gan-Lin; ZHAO Ming-Song; HUANG Lai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa cropping has been considered an efficient method of increasing soil fertility.Usually nitrogen increase in root nodules is considered to be the major beneficial effect.A 21-year time series (five sampling periods) of alfalfa cultivation plots on a loess soil,initially containing illite and chlorite,in Lanzhou of northwestern China was selected to investigate the relationships among alfalfa cropping,soil potassium (K) content and soil clay minerals.The results indicated that soil K significantly accumulated after cropping,with a peak value at about 15 years,and decreased afterwards.The accumulated K was associated with the K increase in the well-crystallized illite,which was not extracted by the traditional laboratory K extraction methods in assessing bioavailability.The steep decline in soil K content after 15-year cropping was in accord with the observed fertility loss in the alfalfa soil.Plant biomass productivity peaked at near 9 years of culture,whereas soil K and clay minerals continued to increase until cropping for 15 years.This suggested that K increased in the topsoil came from the deep root zone.Thus alfalfa continued to store K in clays even after peak production occurred.Nitrogen did not follow these trends,showing a general decline compared with the native prairie soils that had not been cropped.Therefore,the traditional alfalfa cropping can increase K content in the topsoil.

  8. Magmatic and structural controls on porphyry-style Cu-Au-Mo mineralization at Kemess South, Toodoggone District of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duuring, Paul; Rowins, Stephen M.; McKinley, Bradley S. M.; Dickinson, Jenni M.; Diakow, Larry J.; Kim, Young-Seog; Creaser, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    -stage pyrite-rich stringer veins and related phyllic alteration assemblages are cut by anhydrite-rich, carbonate-rich, and chlorite veins. Fluids and metals associated with early-, main-, and late-stage veins were probably derived principally from the same deep magma chamber as the Maple Leaf granodiorite. These magmatic-derived fluids interacted with Asitka and Takla Group country rocks and possibly with meteoric and metamorphic fluids prior to mineralization.

  9. Alteration mineral mapping and metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data in Mingshujing area of Gansu Province, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yingjun; Qin, Kai; Tian, Feng

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing is a frontier of remote sensing. Due to its advantage of integrated image with spectrum, it can realize objects identification, superior to objects classification of multispectral remote sensing. Taken the Mingshujing area in Gansu Province of China as an example, this study extracted the alteration minerals and thus to do metallogenic prediction using CASI/SASI airborne hyperspectral data. The Mingshujing area, located in Liuyuan region of Gansu Province, is dominated by middle Variscan granites and Indosinian granites, with well developed EW- and NE-trending faults. In July 2012, our project team obtained the CASI/SASI hyperspectral data of Liuyuan region by aerial flight. The CASI hyperspectral data have 32 bands and the SASI hyperspectral data have 88 bands, with spectral resolution of 15nm for both. The hyperspectral raw data were first preprocessed, including radiometric correction and geometric correction. We then conducted atmospheric correction using empirical line method based on synchronously measured ground spectra to obtain hyperspectral reflectance data. Spectral dimension of hyperspectral data was reduced by the minimum noise fraction transformation method, and then purity pixels were selected. After these steps, image endmember spectra were obtained. We used the endmember spectrum election method based on expert knowledge to analyze the image endmember spectra. Then, the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF) mapping method was used to extract mineral information, including limonite, Al-rich sericite, Al-poor sericite and chlorite. Finally, the distribution of minerals in the Mingshujing area was mapped. According to the distribution of limonite and Al-rich sericite mapped by CASI/SASI hyperspectral data, we delineated five gold prospecting areas, and further conducted field verification in these areas. It is shown that there are significant gold mineralized anomalies in surface in the Baixianishan and Xitan prospecting

  10. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  11. Quantitative Prediction for Deep Mineral Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Pengda; Cheng Qiuming; Xia Qinglin

    2008-01-01

    On reviewing the characteristics of deep mineral exploration, this article elaborates on the necessity of employing quantitative prediction to reduce uncertainty. This is caused by complexity of mineral deposit formational environments and mineralization systems as increase of exploration depth and incompleteness of geo-information from limited direct observation. The authors wish to share the idea of "seeking difference" principle in addition to the "similar analogy" principle in deep mineral exploration, especially the focus is on the new ores in depth either in an area with discovered shallow mineral deposits or in new areas where there are no sufficient mineral deposit models to be compared. An on-going research project, involving Sn and Cu mineral deposit quantitative prediction in the Gejiu (个旧) area of Yunnan (云南) Province, China, was briefly introduced to demonstrate how the "three-component" (geoanomaly-mineralization diversity-mineral deposit spectrum) theory and non-linear methods series in conjunction with advanced GIS technology, can be applied in multi-scale and multi-task deep mineral prospecting and quantitative mineral resource assessment.

  12. The mineralization processes in teleost fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbörner, A A; Boivin, G; Baud, C A

    1979-11-01

    In Teleost fish scales, growth and mineralization are continuous. Different mineralization processes can be distinguished. The external layer of the scale is the first to be mineralized and may be classified as the initial calcifying structure of the scale. The initial calcification loci are matrix vesicles of cellular origin always observed during the formation of this layer. This mineralization process takes place progressively, closely following the elaboration of the organic matrix in the scale periphery. The outer limiting and internal layers of the scale are developed after the external layer has been formed. A mineral substance is deposited without the mediation of matrix vesicles, but in contact with the previously mineralized external layer. This type of mineralization is called subsequential. However, the mineralization of the outer limiting layer closely follows the secretion of a collagen-free organic matrix and is thus different from the mineralization of the internal layer in which the calcification front remains remote from the collagen matrix surface and corresponds to a delayed mineralization process. The isolated calcifications (Mandl's corpuscles) which develop in the unmineralized laminae of the internal layer are mineralized in the absence of matrix vesicles and without making contact with a pre-existing calcified tissue, probably by a heterogeneous nucleation of the collagen fibrils. PMID:519703

  13. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  14. Decorin modulates matrix mineralization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R.; Tanzawa, Hideki; Paschalis, Eleftherios P.; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans, is known to modulate collagen fibrillogenesis. In order to investigate the potential roles of DCN in collagen matrix mineralization, several stable osteoblastic cell clones expressing higher (sense-DCN, S-DCN) and lower (antisense-DCN, As-DCN) levels of DCN were generated and the mineralized nodules formed by these clones were characterized. In comparison with control cells, the onset of mineralization by S-DCN clones was significantly delayed; whereas it was markedly accelerated and the number of mineralized nodules was significantly increased in As-DCN clones. The timing of mineralization was inversely correlated with the level of DCN synthesis. In these clones, the patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation appeared unaffected. These results suggest that DCN may act as an inhibitor of collagen matrix mineralization, thus modulating the timing of matrix mineralization.

  15. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O' Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  16. Leptin and bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morberg, Cathrine M; Tetens, Inge; Black, Eva;

    2003-01-01

    Leptin has been suggested to decrease bone mineral density (BMD). This observational analysis explored the relationship between serum leptin and BMD in 327 nonobese men (controls) (body mass index 26.1 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), age 49.9 +/- 6.0 yr) and 285 juvenile obese men (body mass index 35.9 +/- 5.9 ....../m(2), age 47.5 +/- 5.1 yr). Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan measured BMD, fat mass, and lean mass. Fasting serum leptin (nanograms per milliliter) was strongly associated with fat mass (kilograms) in both controls (r = 0.876; P

  17. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150204 Abaydulla Alimjan(Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences,Kashgar Teachers College,Kashgar 844006,China);Cheng Chunying Non-Metallic Element Composition Analysis of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores from Oytagh Town,Xinjiang(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,33(1),2014,p.44-50,5illus.,4tables,28refs.)Key words:nonferrous metals ore,nonmetals,chemical analysis,thermogravimetric analysis Anions in non-ferrous ore materials

  18. Skull melting of synthetic minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, S.D.; Hull, D.E.; Herrick, C.C.

    1977-12-01

    Direct high-frequency induction melting of dielectric materials in a water-cooled cage has been developed in the LASL synthetic minerals program. Molten material is contained in a skull, i.e., sintered shell, of its own composition so the traditional problems associated with refractory melt contamination are essentially eliminated. Preliminary analyses of power input, cage design, and coil geometry are discussed. Initial experimental results on the preparation of polycrystalline ingots, single crystals, and glasses are presented along with possible applications of this technique.

  19. Ultrasound-intensified mineral carbonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects of ultrasound-assisted mineral carbonation were investigated in this work. The objectives were to intensify the CO2 sequestration process to improve reaction kinetics and maximal conversion. Stainless steel slags, derived from the Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD) and Continuous Casting/Ladle Metallurgy (CC/LM) refining steps, were used for assessing the technical feasibility of this concept, as they are potential carbon sinks and can benefit from reduction in alkalinity (pH) by mineral carbonation. Ultrasound was applied by use of an ultrasound horn into the reaction slurry, where mineral carbonation reaction took place at 50 °C for up to 4 h; comparison was made to solely mechanically mixed process. It was found that sonication increases the reaction rate after the initial stage, and permits achieving higher carbonate conversion and lower pH. AOD slag conversion increased from 30% to 49%, and pH decreased from 10.6 to 10.1; CC slag conversion increased from 61% to 73% and pH decreased from 10.8 to 9.9. The enhancement effect of ultrasound was attributed to the removal of passivating layers (precipitated calcium carbonate and depleted silica) that surround the unreacted particle core and inhibit mass transfer. Significant particle size reduction was observed for sonicated powders, compared to particle size growth in the case of stirring-only; D[4,3] values increased without sonication by 74% and 50%, and decreased with sonication by 64% and 52%, respectively for AOD and CC slags. Considerations on scale-up of this technology, particularly with regards to energy efficiency, are also discussed. Highlights: ► Ultrasound increased CaO, AOD and CC slags mineral carbonation rates and conversions. ► Enhancement effect linked to removal of mass transfer inhibiting passivating layers. ►Carbonated particle size grew with stirring-only, and decreased with sonication. ► Lower pH of slags with greater carbonation extent can reduce heavy metal leaching

  20. The spatial and seasonal variations in mineral particle composition on the snow surface and their possible effect on snow algae in the Tateyama Mountains, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, T.; Takeuchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are autotrophic microbes and play an important role as primary producers in food chain of glaciers and snowfield. Although their reproduction requires nutrients, snow and ice is extreamly poor in nutrients. One of the possible sources of nutrients is mineral particles blown by wind and deposited on the snow. They may contain variable elements and provide nutrients for snow algae. However, we scarcely know about the relationship between mineral particles and snow algae. In this study, we described spatial and seasonal variations in mineral particle composition and also snow algae on the snow surface in the Tateyama Mountains, Japan. We discussed the possible effect of mineral particles on snow algae. Tateyama Mountains are located in middle-north part of Japan ranging from 2000 - 3000 m above sea level and have heavy snow fall in winter due to strong monsoon wind from Siberia. The snow starts to thaw in April and remains until late summer as perennial snow patches in some valleys. Kosa eolian dust is known to be blown from Chinese deserts and deposited on the snow every spring. Also, snow algal bloom is often observed as red-colored snow in summer. Samples were collected from the snow surface during summer in 2008 - 2011 at four different sites (A - D) in this area. We examined them by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microscope to obtain composition of mineral particles and structure of snow algae community. XRD analysis revealed mineral particles on the snow surface were mainly composed of quartz, plagioclase, hornblende, mica, chlorite, and amorphous. In April, mineral compositions of all sites were almost similar to that of Kosa eolian dust, indicating that these mineral particles were derived from Chinese arid regions. After May, the mineral compositions changed according to sites. The proportion of hornblende at the site C significantly increased whereas that of mica increased at the site D. Since the site C was located near geological features mainly

  1. Geochemistry and provenance of some detrital heavy minerals of alluvial sediments from Neagra Şarului River, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortescu, Catalina; Iancu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Bulgariu, Dumitru; Popa, Ciprian

    2014-05-01

    The present work focuses on the analyses of a selection of heavy mineral assemblages sampled from the Neagra Şarului River's alluvia, in order to determine their provenance and distribution, using their geochemical and physical characteristics. The study focused on a mountain river of about 30 km long, located in the north-western part of the Eastern Carpathians, an important tributary of the Bistria River. The bedrocks in the river drainage basin are constituted mainly by igneous rocks from Călimani Volcanic Complex in the west, and secondarily by a small area of low to medium grade metamorphic rocks, part of Crystalline-Mesozoic Zone, in the east. In order to trace the source of each individual mineral species, we prepared our samples via field separation and subsequent laboratory sieving using 8 different size fractions. An electromagnetic separator (Frantz Isodynamic) was used to separate and classify each heavy minerals species, depending on their magnetic susceptibility. Thus prepared, more than 500 grains per samples (from the 0.5-1 mm size fraction) were mounted on thin sections and analyzed using a Cambridge Microscan M9 with EDS system. These analyses served for mineral identification and relative abundance determination. The classification of the minerals and the nature of their inclusions are derived from the major element compositions computed from SEM-EDX analysis. We also used a stereo microscope in order to determine complementary properties of the grains, such as: color, degree of roundness and degree of alteration. In order of abundance, the main heavy minerals are magnetite, hematite, pyroxene, pyrite, manganese oxides, garnet, apatite, titanium oxides (ilmenite, titanite and rutile/anatase), chlorite, olivine, epidote, biotite and rhodochrosite. A particularity of the studied area is the presence of an altered magnetite caused first by the hydrothermal alteration and strong weathering of the source rocks and second by the river's acid water

  2. Spectral variations in rocks and soils containing ferric iron hydroxide and(or) sulfate minerals as seen by AVIRIS and laboratory spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data covering the Big Rock Candy Mountain area of the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah, identified abundant rocks and soils bearing jarosite, goethite, and chlorite associated with volcanic rocks altered to propylitic grade during the Miocene (2321 Ma). Propylitically-altered rocks rich in pyrite associated with the relict feeder zones of convecting, shallow hydrothermal systems are currently undergoing supergene oxidation to natrojarosite, kaolinite, and gypsum. Goethite coatings are forming at the expense of jarosite where most pyrite has been consumed through oxidation in alluvium derived from pyrite-bearing zones. Spectral variations in the goethite-bearing rocks that resemble variations found in reference library samples of goethites of varying grain size were observed in the AVIRIS data. Rocks outside of the feeder zones have relatively low pyrite content and are characterized by chlorite, epidote, and calcite, with local copper-bearing quartz-calcite veins. Iron-bearing minerals in these rocks are weathering directly to goethite. Laboratory spectral analyses were applied to samples of iron-bearing rock outcrops and alluvium collected from the area to determine the accuracy of the AVIRIS-based mineral identification. The accuracy of the iron mineral identification results obtained by analysis of the AVIRIS data was confirmed. In general, the AVIRIS analysis results were accurate in identifying medium-grained goethite, coarse-grained goethite, medium- to coarse-grained goethite with trace jarosite, and mixtures of goethite and jarosite. However, rock fragments from alluvial areas identified as thin coatings of goethite with the AVIRIS data were found to consist mainly of medium- to coarse-grained goethite based on spectral characteristics in the visible and near-infrared. To determine if goethite abundance contributed to the spectral variations observed in goethite-bearing rocks

  3. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of granite hosted rhyodacites associated with a disseminated pyrite mineralization (Arnolz, Southern Bohemian Massif, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göd, Richard; Kurzweil, Johannes; Klötzli, Urs

    2016-09-01

    The study focuses on a subvolcanic rhyodacite dyke intruding a fine grained biotite granite and paragneisses of the South Bohemian Massif, part of the Variscan Orogenic Belt in Central Europe. The subvertical dyke strikes NNE, displays a thickness of about 30 m and has been traced by boulder mapping for approximately 7 km. The rhyodacites have been affected by two hydrothermal fluids. An older one of oxidizing condition giving rise to a reddish to brownish type of rock (Type I) and a younger fluid of reducing condition causing a greenish variety (Type II). The hydrothermal alteration is associated with the formation of the clay minerals chlorite, sericite, kaolinite and smectite and a disseminated pyrite mineralization. Bulk chemistries of the rhyodacites emphasize the hydrothermal alterations to be isochemical with the exception of sulphur enriched up to a maximum of 0.6 wt%. Trace element composition of the rhyodacites points to a barren geochemical environment in terms of base and precious elements. Sulphur isotope investigations of pyrites from the rhyodacites and the hosting granites respectively yield d34S data ranging from +0.07 to -2.22 ‰, emphasizing a magmatic origin of the sulphur. Geochronological investigations yield in situ U/Pb zircon ages of 312 ± 4 Ma for the biotite granite and of 292 ± 4 Ma for the rhyodacitic dykes indicating a time gap of ≈ 20 Ma between these two intrusive events. A contemporaneous but geochemically specialized granitic intrusion associated with NW striking "felsitic" dykes occurs about 10 to 20 km to the NW of Arnolz. However, the rhyodacites around Arnolz differ significantly from these felsitic dykes in their geochemistry and alteration phenomena which points to a different magmatic source. This coincides with a change in the orientation of the dykes from a NW direction controlling the geochemically specialized intrusions in the NW to a dominating NNE direction mirrored by the studied rhyodacites at Arnolz.

  4. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  5. Recovery modelling and water resources of the abandoned open-pit talc-chlorite-feldspar mine excavations at Lasasai-Bonucoro,Central Sardinia,Italy%意大利撒丁岛中部Lasasai-Bonucoro地区的废弃露天滑石-绿泥石-长石采矿场的水资源及其修复模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maddalena FIORI; Carlo MATZUZZI

    2004-01-01

    In the district of Orani, central Sardinia, several talc-chlorite-feldspar bodies, hosted in Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks and granites, have long been mined by open- pit operations. The mining activity has deeply modified the original landscape of the Lasasai-Bonucoro area. Thus the rearrangement of this area, in particular of the open-pit works that are now occupied by newly formed pools, filled with water from aquifers flowing along faults crossed by mining operations, should be considered as an overall project of landscape restoration. In the first phase of this work, the environmental and hydrogeological characterisation and the general definition of different zones characterised by different sets of intervention operations has already been made. The following step will include the detailed definition of the different technological interventions to be performed. In order to attain a rehabilitation of this area, first of all the interventions will include: 1) smoothing and re-modelling of local morphology in its still rough sites, namely a few points of the mine benches and dumps, by removing the volumes in excess and settling them again in the hollows, on the base of the indications obtained from opportunely plotted sections; 2) restoration of the removed soil covers, and rehabilitation of the newly formed surfaces after waste disposal, trough re-vegetation techniques including settlement of vegetal soil and nutrients, herbaceous essence hydrosowing, temporary automatic sprinkling; 3) rehabilitation of the corrected slopes, and in general of the remaining poorly vegetated surfaces, trough the above re-vegetation techniques.The above operations will result in a slightly modified plane-altimetrical and landscape arrangement. However these interventions will be sufficient to reach a new environmental qualification, characterised by several opportunities of exploitation. Particular conditions, such as the constant outflow of good-quality water and the amenity of

  6. The nanosphere iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these 'Mars-soil analogs' were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxyl mineral such as 'green rust', or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable meaghemite (gamma-Fe203) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (aplha-Fe203) by extensive heat treatment. Their chemical reactivity offers a plausible mechanism for the somewhat puzzling observations of the Viking biology experiments. Their unique chemical reactivities are attributed to the combined catalytic effects of the iron oxide/oxyhydroxide and silicate phase surfaces. The mode of formation of these (nanophase) iron oxides on Mars is still unknown.

  7. Petrochemistry and hydrothermal alteration within the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland: implications for VMS mineralization in the British and Irish Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Steven P.; Roberts, Stephen; Earls, Garth; Herrington, Richard; Cooper, Mark R.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Archibald, Sandy M.; Moloney, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Although volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits can form within a wide variety of rift-related tectonic environments, most are preserved within suprasubduction affinity crust related to ocean closure. In stark contrast to the VMS-rich Appalachian sector of the Grampian-Taconic orogeny, VMS mineralization is rare in the peri-Laurentian British and Irish Caledonides. Economic peri-Gondwanan affinity deposits are limited to Avoca and Parys Mountain. The Tyrone Igneous Complex of Northern Ireland represents a ca. 484-464 Ma peri-Laurentian affinity arc-ophiolite complex and a possible broad correlative of the Buchans-Robert's Arm belt of Newfoundland, host to some of the most metal-rich VMS deposits globally. Stratigraphic horizons prospective for VMS mineralization in the Tyrone Igneous Complex are associated with rift-related magmatism, hydrothermal alteration, synvolcanic faults, and high-level subvolcanic intrusions (gabbro, diorite, and/or tonalite). Locally intense hydrothermal alteration is characterized by Na-depletion, elevated SiO2, MgO, Ba/Sr, Bi, Sb, chlorite-carbonate-pyrite alteration index (CCPI) and Hashimoto alteration index (AI) values. Rift-related mafic lavas typically occur in the hanging wall sequences to base and precious metal mineralization, closely associated with ironstones and/or argillaceous sedimentary rocks representing low temperature hydrothermal venting and volcanic quiescence. In the ca. 475 Ma pre-collisional, calc-alkaline lower Tyrone Volcanic Group rift-related magmatism is characterized by abundant non-arc type Fe-Ti-rich eMORB, island-arc tholeiite, and low-Zr tholeiitic rhyolite breccias. These petrochemical characteristics are typical of units associated with VMS mineralization in bimodal mafic, primitive post-Archean arc terranes. Following arc-accretion at ca. 470 Ma, late rifting in the ensialic upper Tyrone Volcanic Group is dominated by OIB-like, subalkaline to alkali basalt and A-type, high-Zr rhyolites. These units

  8. Mineralogy of the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ) in the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir, B.C., Mexico; Mineralogia de la zona mineralizada de silice-epidota (ZMSE) del yacimiento geotermico de Cerro Prieto, B.C., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, Georgina; Aragon, Alfonso; Portugal, Enrique; Arellano; Victor M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: gim@iie.org.mx; Leon, Jesus de; Alvarez, Julio [Comision Federal de Electricidad, B.C. (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    The distribution of hydrothermal minerals, mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion data were taken from drill cuttings from the production zone of wells all over the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. The production zone has been termed the silica-epidote mineralized zone (SEMZ), and is located in the deep part of the gray shale where thick layers of sandstone are found. Common mineral assemblages show three temperature ranges in the SEMZ: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius and 250-300 degrees Celsius. The first range is characterized by clays, calcite and quartz; the second by quartz, epidote, chlorite and mica, and the third by epidote, amphibole, illite and chlorite. The study of fluid inclusions in authigenic grain quartz has shown two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid + vapor) of different salinities. A wide range exists of homogenization temperatures (Th) and for some wells there is a good agreement between Th and direct temperature measurements. [Spanish] Se determino la distribucion de minerales hidrotermales y las asociaciones parageneticas y se realizo el estudio microtermometrico de inclusiones fluidas a partir de recortes de perforacion de pozos de las distintas areas del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto. Las muestras de recortes y nucleos de perforacion estudiados provienen de la zona de produccion a la que se le ha denominado Zona Mineralizada de Silice-Epidota (ZMSE), que se encuentra en la parte profunda de la lutita gris con importantes horizontes de areniscas. En esta zona las asociaciones parageneticas mas comunes han mostrado tres intervalos de temperatura para la ZMSE: <200 degrees Celsius, 200-250 degrees Celsius, 250-300 degrees Celsius. El primer intervalo esta caracterizado principalmente por arcillas, calcita y cuarzo; el segundo por cuarzo, epidota, clorita y micas, y el tercero por epidota, anfiboles, illita y clorita. El estudio de inclusiones fluidas en fragmentos de cuarzo autigenico mostro la presencia de inclusiones de dos fases

  9. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  10. Calculation of topological connectivity index for minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Topological method was applied firstly to calculate the topological connectivity index of minerals (TCIM). The reciprocal of effective atomic refractivity of metal dement in minerals was chosen as its valence. The reasonability of TCIM as an activity criterion was tested through comparison of TCIM with two kinds of dectronegativity parameter, i.e. ionic percentage and energy criteria of Yang's electronegativity, solubility product, energy criterion according to the gen eralized perturbation theory and adsorption of flotation reagents on the surface of minerals. The results indicated that TCIM is an effective structural parameter of minerals to study the structure-activity relationship. In addition, different mineral is of different TCIM value, so TCIM brings about convenience in comparison of flotation activity for minerals.

  11. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  12. Genetic Types of Diamond Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.A.MARAKUSHEV; 桑隆康; 等

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the proposed models of diamond formation both in meteorites and in kimberlite and lamproite bodies.metamorphic complexes and explosive-ring structures ("astroblemes"),The diamond distribution in meteorites(chondrites,iron meteorites and ureilites)is restricted to taente-kamasite phase.The diamond generation here is tied up with the first stage of evolution of the planets,This stage is characterized by high pressure of hydrogen. leading to the formation of the planet envelope,The second stage of planet evolution began with the progressive imopoverishment of their atmospheres in hydrogen due to its predominant emission into the space and to progressive development of oxidative conditions.The model appears to have proved the relict nature of diamond mineraolization in meteorites.Diamond and other high-pressure minerals(its"satellites") were crystallized without any exception in the early intratelluric stages of peridotite and eclogite-pyroxenite magma evolution just before the magma intrusion into the higher levels of the mantle and crust where diamond is not thermodynamically stable,The ultramafic intrusive bodies(bearing rich relict diamonds)in the dase of a platform paaear to be the substrata for the formation of kimberlite-lamproite magma chambers as a result of magmatic replacement.The model explains the polyfacial nature of diamondiferous eclotgites,pyroxenites and peridotites and discusses the process of inheritance of their diamond mineralization by kimberlites and lamproites.Dimond oproductivity of metamorthic complexes is originated by the inheritance of their diamonds from the above-mentioned primary diamondiferous rocks.Large diamondiferous explosive-ring structures were formed by high-energy endogenic explosion of fluid which came from the Earth's core.This high energy differs endogenic impactogenesis from explosive volcanism.It proceeds at very high temperature to create diaplectic galsses(monomineral pseudomorphs)-the product of

  13. Needs and opportunities in mineral evolution research

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, R. M.; Bekker, A.; Bish, D. L.; Bleeker, W.; Downs, R. T.; Farquhar, J.; Ferry, J. M.; Grew, E. S.; Knoll, Andrew Herbert; Papineau, D.; Ralph, J. P.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Valley, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in understanding mineral evolution, Earth’s changing near-surface mineralogy through time, depends on the availability of detailed information on mineral localities of known ages and geologic settings. A comprehensive database including this information, employing the mindat.org web site as a platform, is now being implemented. This resource will incorporate software to correlate a range of mineral occurrences and properties vs. time, and it will thus facilitate studies of the chang-...

  14. Clay minerals and sedimentary basin history

    OpenAIRE

    Merriman, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Clay minerals in the mud and soil that coat the Earth's surface are part of a clay cycle that breaks down and creates rock in the crust. Clays generated by surface weathering and shallow diagenetic processes are transformed into mature clay mineral assemblages in the mudrocks found in sedimentary basins. During metamorphism, the release of alkali elements and boron from clay minerals generates magmas that are subsequently weathered and recycled, representing the magma-to-mud pathway of the cl...

  15. Natural radionuclides in mineral fertilizers and farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Branislava M.; Vitorović Gordana; Andrić Velibor; Stojanović Mirjana; Vitorović Duško; Grdović Svetlana; Vićentijević Mihajlo

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary agriculture production is based on use of mineral fertilizers, which however can have high activity of natural radionuclides and so cause the appearance of technologically elevated radioactivity. In order to determine the influence of mineral fertilizers application in arable land, there was used gamma spectrometric method for defining the activity of natural radionuclides (40 K, 238U, 226Ra) in imported mineral fertilizers as well as in arable...

  16. World mineral production 2003-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Teresa; Hetherington, Linda; Hannis, Sarah; Bide, Tom; Benham, Antony John; Idoine, Naomi; Lusty, Paul

    2009-01-01

    World Mineral Production includes five year tables of production, by country, for the majority of economically important mineral commodities, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, industrial minerals and hydrocarbons. Additional information has been added describing the characteristics, uses production trends, prices and industry events for 11 commodities including bauxite/alumina/aluminium, coal, copper, fluorspar, gold, iron ore, lead, nickel, platinum, uranium and zinc.

  17. Inter-species variation in bone mineral

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Bone is a complex heterogeneous composite material with organic and inorganic components. The inorganic component; bone mineral, is a poorly crystalline, non-stoichiometric form of calcium hydroxylapatite. A model for the general structure and composition of bone mineral has been established within the literature. However, the nature and extent of variation in bone mineral composition and structure has, to date, been poorly understood. This situation also applies to the general response of bo...

  18. Mineral distributions at the developing tendon enthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea G Schwartz

    Full Text Available Tendon attaches to bone across a functionally graded interface, "the enthesis". A gradient of mineral content is believed to play an important role for dissipation of stress concentrations at mature fibrocartilaginous interfaces. Surgical repair of injured tendon to bone often fails, suggesting that the enthesis does not regenerate in a healing setting. Understanding the development and the micro/nano-meter structure of this unique interface may provide novel insights for the improvement of repair strategies. This study monitored the development of transitional tissue at the murine supraspinatus tendon enthesis, which begins postnatally and is completed by postnatal day 28. The micrometer-scale distribution of mineral across the developing enthesis was studied by X-ray micro-computed tomography and Raman microprobe spectroscopy. Analyzed regions were identified and further studied by histomorphometry. The nanometer-scale distribution of mineral and collagen fibrils at the developing interface was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. A zone (∼20 µm exhibiting a gradient in mineral relative to collagen was detected at the leading edge of the hard-soft tissue interface as early as postnatal day 7. Nanocharacterization by TEM suggested that this mineral gradient arose from intrinsic surface roughness on the scale of tens of nanometers at the mineralized front. Microcomputed tomography measurements indicated increases in bone mineral density with time. Raman spectroscopy measurements revealed that the mineral-to-collagen ratio on the mineralized side of the interface was constant throughout postnatal development. An increase in the carbonate concentration of the apatite mineral phase over time suggested possible matrix remodeling during postnatal development. Comparison of Raman-based observations of localized mineral content with histomorphological features indicated that development of the graded mineralized interface is linked

  19. Role of minerals in animal health disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available All mineral matter, essential or non-essential, can have a significant influence on production results and the health of animals, if large quantities of them are present in a feed ration. A maximally tolerant content depends on the animal specie and category. Many factors, such as physiological status (growth, lactation, etc., nutritive status, content and ratio of nutritive matter in the ration, duration of exposure, and the biological level of utilization of elements, also affect the maximally tolerant content of mineral matter in feed. The content of certain mineral matter in plant feed significantly depends on the soil factor, as well as the content and level of utilization of mineral matter from the soil. Mn, Se and Mo can be present in plant feed in such quantities as to induce toxicosis. Industrial contaminants, Cd, Pb or F, can contaminate plants, in particular their leaves, in quantities which lead to the appearance of clinical signs of conventional toxicosis. Moreover, natural water can contain large quantities of S, F, Na, Mg, or Fe, and certain mineral matter can get into water through industrial waste. In addition to the above, it is possible to cause unwanted effects through the frequent, but primarily unprofessional use of mineral additives, since it is extremely important, besides meeting the mineral requirements of each individual element, to secure a ratio among the mineral matter themselves as well as with other nutritive matter. Mineral matter present in food are in mutual interference, and these relations can be synergistic or antagonistic. The sufficiency of a large number of mineral matter has a negative effect on the utilization of other matter (conditional and/or border deficiency, while certain elements cause the clinical appearance of toxic effects. The accidental intake of large quantities of certain mineral matter is revealed as clinical signs of acute toxicosis, which is very different from chronic effects caused by

  20. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonate...

  1. Shock waves data for minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Johnson, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Shock compression of the materials of planetary interiors yields data which upon comparison with density-pressure and density-sound velocity profiles constrain internal composition and temperature. Other important applications of shock wave data and related properties are found in the impact mechanics of terrestrial planets and solid satellites. Shock wave equation of state, shock-induced dynamic yielding and phase transitions, and shock temperature are discussed. In regions where a substantial phase change in the material does not occur, the relationship between the particle velocity, U(sub p), and the shock velocity, U(sub s), is given by U(sub s) = C(sub 0) + S U(sub p), where C(sub 0) is the shock velocity at infinitesimally small particle velocity, or the ambient pressure bulk sound velocity. Numerical values for the shock wave equation of state for minerals and related materials of the solar system are provided.

  2. MINERAL NUTRIENTS AND MALE FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tvrdá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a complex mixture containing a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. While the production and functions of semen are well understood, studies focused on the macro- and micronutrients necessary for male fertility are constantly appearing with new information. Chemical elements play a crucial role in male reproduction, as an unbalance in their amounts may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and consequently, male fertility impairment. Dietary and feeding supplementation has the ability to increase male reproductive performance which is why the effects of minerals in diet cannot be ignored. This review will provide recent information to a better understanding of the positive as well as negative roles of selected macro- and micronutrients on male fertility.

  3. ROCKS & MINERALS DETERMINATION AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091570 Ge Yunjin(College of Geo-Resource and Information,China University of Petroleum,Dongying 257061,China);Chen Yong Advance in Low Temperature Phase Transition and Raman Spectrum Technique in Composition Determination of Fluid Inclusions(Rock and Mineral Analysis,ISSN0254-5357,CN11-2131/TD,27(3),2008,p.207-210,22 refs.)Key words:fluid inclusions,Raman spectraThe principle and development of low-temperature analytical techniques for fluid inclusions were expounded.The traditional low-temperature analytical technology mainly focused on the measurement of inorganic salt using congealed microthermometry,but now it is developed to semi-quantitative and quantitative analysis of fluid inclusions using in-situ cryogenic Raman spectrometry.

  4. Epidemiological studies of Czech miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, L. [National Radiation Protection Inst., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1995-09-01

    Lung cancer risk from radon was analysed in three cohorts of uranium (N=4320+5628) and burnt clay (N=915) miners. The follow-up of miners was extended up to 1990. Most of the cases (708) have been observed in the oldest (S) cohort followed since 1952. The other two cohorts, 18 years younger in average with substantially lower exposures, contributed 72 cases. Therefore, the main analyses of risk from radon were based on the S cohort. The data of the S cohort were subjected to checks both as for the individual exposures of the miners and the completeness of follow-up. The present mortality analyses from other causes suggest the follow-up is correct. The general patterns of mortality from violent deaths and diseases other than lung cancer show similar features in all the three cohorts, i.e. decreasing trend with time since first exposure in the first case, and increasing trend in the second one, confirming thus the healthy worker effect, in the first 20 years. A raised mortality was observed in later periods in respiratory and circulatory diseases and also in cancers other than lung cancer, suggesting that smoking habits among miners might be more frequent than in the general population. The estimates of lung cancer risk from radon exposure were based on relative linear models, where cumulative exposures were lagged by 5 years. The linear effect of cumulative exposure was substantially modified by time since exposure, exposure rate, and age at exposure. From the estimated intercept, it can be deduced that in the absence of exposure to radon, the estimated mortality from lung cancer in the cohort is about 1.5 times higher than in the general population. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Lungenkrebsrisiko bei Radonexposition wurde in drei Kohorten an Bergleuten von Uran- und Schiefertongruben analysiert (n=4320, 5628, 9159). Das follow up der Bergleute erfolgte bis zum Jahr 1990. Die meisten Krebsfaelle (708) wurden in der aelteren S-Kohorte, dessen follow up bereits 1952 begann

  5. Mineral elements in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimun Zamberlin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral elements occur in milk and dairy products as inorganic ions and salts, as well as part of organic molecules, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and nucleic acids. The chemical form of mineral elements is important because it determines their absorption in the intestine and their biological utilization. The mineral composition of milk is not constant because it depends on lactation phase, nutritional status of the animal, and environmental and genetic factors. The objective of this research is to point out the research results of chemical form, content and nutritional importance of individual mineral elements that are present in various milks and dairy products.

  6. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  7. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  8. Zirconium - an imported mineral commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines Canada's position in regard to the principal zirconium materials: zircon; fusion-cast zirconium-bearing refractory products; zirconium-bearing chemicals; and zirconium metal, master alloys, and alloys. None of these is produced in Canada except fused alumina-zirconia and certain magnesium-zirconium alloys and zirconium-bearing steels. Most of the 3 000-4 000 tonnes of the various forms of zircon believed to be consumed in Canada each year is for foundry applications. Other minerals, notably chromite, olivine and silica sand are also used for these purposes and, if necessary, could be substituted for zircon. Zirconium's key role in Canada is in CANDU nuclear power reactors, where zirconium alloys are essential in the cladding for fuel bundles and in capital equipment such as pressure tubes, calandria tubes and reactivity control mechanisms. If zirconium alloys were to become unavailable, the Canadian nuclear power industry would collapse. As a contingency measure, Ontario Hydro maintains at least nine months' stocks of nuclear fuel bundles. Canada's vulnerability to short-term disruptions to supplies of nuclear fuel is diminished further by the availability of more expensive electricity from non-nuclear sources and, given time, from mothballed thermal plants. Zirconium minerals are present in many countries, notably Australia, the Republic of South Africa and the United States. Australia is Canada's principal source of zircon imports; South Africa is its sole source of baddeleyite. At this time, there are no shortages of either material. Canada has untapped zirconium resources in the Athabasca Oil Sands (zircon) and at Strange Lake along the ill-defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland (gittinsite). Adequate metal and alloy production facilities exist in France, Japan and the United States. No action by the federal government in regard to zirconium supplies is called for at this time

  9. Relantionships between gold mineralization and granite - Discussion with the support of a pluridisciplinary study of the Passa Tres gold deposit (South Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Bárbara; Chauvet, Alain; Trzaskos, Barbara; Biondi, Joao Carlos; Bruguier, Olivier; Monie, Patrick; Villanova, Sandro; Bazille, Jose

    2016-04-01

    The Passa Três Granite, located at East of the Paraná State is elongated following a NNE-SSW direction. This sienogranite is emplaced within metapelites of the meso to neoproterozoic Açungui Group, between the Morro Agudo and Lancinha transcurrent faults, comprising the N040°E trending Lancinha Transcurrent Fault System. Gold mineralization within the Passa Três Granite is constituted by huge quartz veins with sulfides, variable quantities of fluorite and carbonates, forming orebodies with different internal textures, including massive, banded, sheared and brecciated. Structural data indicate the existence of two major fault systems, one N-S and the other E-W, with dips of 15-45°W and 20-75°S, respectively. Both NS and EW systems are interpreted to be contemporaneous and conjugate. Normal motions are everywhere suspected and main mineralized veins are located at opening sites at these fault systems, such as pull-aparts. The structural model suggests that the normal motion can be initiated by shearing along a "guide" level, in which sulfides and clay minerals are concentrated. This configuration can be observed at several scales, such as field, hand samples and thin section. Mineralized veins mainly contain, in addition to the quartz of the gangue, sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, molybdenite), fluorite, chlorite, muscovite, sericite, and carbonate. The presence of sericite, kaolinite and chlorite indicate the occurrence of, at least, propylitic and phyllic-type alterations, both in core of the granite and best-expressed at the rim of quartz-rich orebodies. Gold occurs as native grains in core of the quartz veins, within fractures that affect pyrite and frequently exhibiting normal motions consistent with the one observed at larger scale and systematically associated with chalcopyrite and galena. Quartz veins are sometimes bordered by aplitic dike. Additionally, some of the veins can exhibit a very thin margin of adularia minerals that seems to

  10. The nanophase iron mineral(s) in Mars soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Ben-Shlomo, T.; Margulies, L.; Blake, D. F.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Gehring, A. U.

    1993-01-01

    A series of surface-modified clays containing nanophase (np) iron oxide/oxyhydroxides of extremely small particle sizes, with total iron contents as high as found in Mars soil, were prepared by iron deposition on the clay surface from ferrous chloride solution. Comprehensive studies of the iron mineralogy in these "Mars-soil analogs" were conducted using chemical extractions, solubility analyses, pH and redox, x ray and electron diffractometry, electron microscopic imaging, specific surface area and particle size determinations, differential thermal analyses, magnetic properties characterization, spectral reflectance, and Viking biology simulation experiments. The clay matrix and the procedure used for synthesis produced nanophase iron oxides containing a certain proportion of divalent iron, which slowly converts to more stable, fully oxidized iron minerals. The clay acted as an effective matrix, both chemically and sterically, preventing the major part of the synthesized iron oxides from ripening, i.e., growing and developing larger crystals. The precipitated iron oxides appear as isodiametric or slightly elongated particles in the size range 1-10 nm, having large specific surface area. The noncrystalline nature of the iron compounds precipitated on the surface of the clay was verified by their complete extractability in oxalate. Lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) was detected by selected area electron diffraction. It is formed from a double iron Fe(II)/Fe(III) hydroxy mineral such as "green rust," or ferrosic hydroxide. Magnetic measurements suggested that lepidocrocite converted to the more stable maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) by mild heat treatment and then to nanophase hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) by extensive heat treatment. After mild heating, the iron-enriched clay became slightly magnetic, to the extent that it adheres to a hand-held magnet, as was observed with Mars soil. The chemical reactivity of the iron-enriched clays strongly resembles, and offers a plausible mechanism

  11. Geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mineral occurrences, and mineral resource assessment for the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic map with faults, along with additional scientific information needed for mineral resource assessment (geochemical analyses, mineral occurrences, geologic...

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook—Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-01-01

    This edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries during 2012 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:• Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.• Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.• Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  13. EXTRATERRESTRIAL MINERALS AND FUTURE FRONTIERS IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILMER GIRALDO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a las altas tasas de consumo de minerales y el alto crecimiento de la población humana, los recursos minerales en el planeta Tierra se encuentran en proceso de agotamiento, esta escasez crea la necesidad de encontrar nuevas alternativas para suplir las crecientes necesidades. Una alternativa adicional a la tradicional búsqueda de nuevos yacimientos en la tierra, es la búsqueda de yacimientos más allá de nuestro planeta, estos nuevos recursos se pueden buscar en la vecindad de nuestro planeta. La extracción en cuerpos de nuestro sistema solar como la Luna, Marte y el cinturón de asteroides puede proporcionar abundantes recursos energéticos como el helio 3 y minerales como el potasio, elementos de tierras raras, hierro y minerales del grupo del platino. Ahora, algunas compañías están planeando esta exploración y para los geólogos y profesionales de la minería en general, esto abre grandes posibilidades para la investigación científica, innovación tecnológica y desarrollo profesional en nuevos campos.

  14. 36 CFR 292.18 - Mineral resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral resources. 292.18... RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.18 Mineral resources. (a) Occupancy... exploration work which will not cause significant damage to surface resources and will not involve the...

  15. Mineral nutrition of cocoa : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van J.A.; Slingerland, M.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review on mineral nutrition of cocoa was commissioned by the Scientific Committee of the Cocoa Fertiliser Initiative to address the following questions: What knowledge is currently available about mineral nutrition of cocoa? What are the current knowledge gaps? What are the key areas

  16. Current concepts in perinatal mineral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2016-01-01

    The serum levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphate are maintained higher in the fetus than in the pregnant mother, especially in late gestation, to meet the demands of fetal bone development. In order to maintain this fetal stage-specific mineral homeostasis, the placenta plays a critical role through active transcellular mineral transport. Although the molecular mechanism of transplacental Ca transport has been well studied, little is known about the transport mechanism of phosphate and magnesium. Maternal mineral homeostasis is also altered during pregnancy to supply minerals to the fetus. In the lactating mother, osteocytic osteolysis is suggested to be involved in the supply of minerals to the baby. The levels of some calcitropic and phosphotropic (Ca- and phosphate-regulating, respectively) hormones in the fetus are also different from those in the adult. The PTH level in the fetus is lower than that in the mother and nonpregnant adult. It is suggested, however, that low fetal PTH plays an important role in fetal mineral metabolism. The concentration of PTHrP in the fetus is much higher than that of PTH and plays a critical role in perinatal Ca homeostasis. Uncovering the molecular mechanisms for fetal stage-specific mineral metabolism will lead to better management of perinatal patients with mineral abnormalities. PMID:26865750

  17. Mineral resource of the month: tantalum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article offers information on a rare transition metal called tantalum. It says that the blue-gray mineral resource was discovered in 1801 or 1802 and was used for capacitors in 1940. It adds that the tantalite ore and other minerals in the ore should be separated in order to generate concentrates of tantalum. The use of tantalum are also cited.

  18. Acidosis inhibits mineralization in human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shoko; Hirukawa, Koji; Togari, Akifumi

    2013-09-01

    Osteoblasts and osteoclasts maintain bone volume. Acidosis affects the function of these cells including mineral metabolism. We examined the effect of acidosis on the expression of transcription factors and mineralization in human osteoblasts in vitro. Human osteoblasts (SaM-1 cells) derived from the ulnar periosteum were cultured with α-MEM containing 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid and 5 mM β-glycerophosphate (calcifying medium). Acidosis was induced by incubating the SaM-1 cells in 10 % CO₂ (pH approximately 7.0). Mineralization, which was augmented by the calcifying medium, was completely inhibited by acidosis. Acidosis depressed c-Jun mRNA and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in a time-dependent manner. Depressing c-Jun mRNA expression using siRNA increased OPG production and inhibited mineralization. In addition, depressing OPG mRNA expression with siRNA enhanced mineralization in a dose-dependent manner. Acidosis or the OPG protein strongly inhibited mineralization in osteoblasts from neonatal mice. The present study was the first to demonstrate that acidosis inhibited mineralization, depressed c-Jun mRNA expression, and induced OPG production in human osteoblasts. These results suggest that OPG is involved in mineralization via c-Jun in human osteoblasts.

  19. Intracellular transport of ions in mineralizing tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study resulted in the development of a new model for bone cell physiology and has provided the means for studying the mechanism and site of action of bone affecting hormones and vitamin metabolites and has provided new information on mechanisms of mineralization and mineralization defects

  20. Minerals in fish: does the source matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.

    2015-01-01

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P. (2015). Minerals in fish: does the source matter? PhD thesis. Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Minerals are a group of micro-nutrients essential to fish. Meta-analysis of literature data was performed to identify the appropriate response criterion to de

  1. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  2. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  3. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  4. Dehydration-induced luminescence in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L. M.; Lahav, N.; Lawless, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports of triboluminescent phenomena in organic crystalline materials prompted a search for related processes in clay minerals. The reported extensive mechanical distortion produced on freezing and drying of montmorillonite was particularly interesting because of studies of condensation reactions in a wet/dry cycled reaction sequence. The discovery of an unusual luminescent process in several clay minerals is reported and its characteristics are described.

  5. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  6. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  7. Biochemical bases of mineral waters genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Zhernosekov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work directs data about mineral water genesis. The accent on balneological sense is done. We suggest the criteria of biochemical processes estimation which take part in mineral water compounds creation. These criteria can be used for illustration of dependence between waters medical properties and biochemical processes of their genesis.

  8. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  9. Characterization of Mexican zeolite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50% of the Mexican territory is formed by volcanic sequences of the Pliocene type, which appear extensively in the northwest states (Sonora, Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango) and west of Mexico (Jalisco and Nayarit), in central Mexico (Zacatecas, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosi, Queretaro, Hidalgo) and south of Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca); therefore, it is to be expected that in our country big locations of natural zeolites exist in its majority of the clinoptilolite type. The present study was focused toward the characterization of two Mexican natural zeolite rocks presumably of the clinoptilolite and filipsite types, one of them comes from the state of Chihuahua and the other of a trader company of non metallic minerals, due that these materials are not characterized, its are not known their properties completely and therefore, the uses that can be given to these materials. In this investigation work it was carried out the characterization of two Mexican zeolite rocks, one coming from the Arroyo zone, municipality of La Haciendita, in the state of Chihuahua; and the other one was bought to a trader company of non metallic minerals. The two zeolites so much in their natural form as conditioned with sodium; they were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy of high vacuum and elementary microanalysis (EDS), surface area analysis (BET), thermal gravimetric analysis. To differentiate the heulandite crystalline phase of the other clinoptilolite rock, its were carried out thermal treatments. The quantification of Al, Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe was carried out in solution, by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy and the quantity of Si was determined by gravimetry. The zeolite rocks presented for the major part the crystalline heulandite and clinoptilolite phases for the most part, and it was found that the zeolite coming from the state of Chihuahua possesses a bigger content of heulandite and the denominated filipsite it is really a zeolite

  10. Stable isotope systematics and fluid inclusion studies in the Cu-Au Visconde deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: implications for fluid source generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Silva, Antonia Railine; Villas, Raimundo Netuno Nobre; Lafon, Jean-Michel; Craveiro, Gustavo Souza; Ferreira, Valderez Pinto

    2015-06-01

    The Cu-Au Visconde deposit is located in the Carajás Mineral Province (CMP), northern Brazil, near the contact between the ca. 2.76 Ga metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Itacaiunas Supergroup rocks and the ~3.0 Ga granitic-gneissic basement. It is hosted by mylonitized Archean rocks, mainly metadacites, the Serra Dourada granite, and gabbros/diorites, which have been successively altered by sodic, sodic-calcic-magnesian, potassic, and calcic-magnesian hydrothermal processes, producing diverse mineralogical associations (albite-scapolite; albite-actinolite-scapolite-epidote; K-feldspar-biotite; chlorite-actinolite-epidote-calcite, etc.). Chalcopyrite is the dominant ore mineral and occurs principally in breccias and veins/veinlets. The aqueous fluids responsible for the alteration/mineralization were initially hot (>460 °C) and very saline (up to 58 wt.% equivalent (equiv.) NaCl), but as the system evolved, they experienced successive dilution processes. Mineral oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that 18O-rich ( to +9.4 ‰) fluids prevailed in the earlier alteration (including magnetitites) and reached temperatures as high as 410-355 °C. Metamorphic/formation waters, most likely derived from the Carajás Basin rocks, appear to have contributed a major component to the fluid composition, although some magmatic input cannot be discounted. In turn, the later alterations and the mineralization involved cooler (<230 °C), 18O-depleted ( to +3.7 ‰) and less saline (7-30 wt.% equiv. NaCl) fluids, indicating the influx of meteoric water. Fluid dilution and cooling might have caused abundant precipitation of sulfides, especially as breccia cement. Ore δ 34 S values (+0.5 to +3.4 ‰) suggest a magmatic source for sulfur (from sulfide dissolution in pre-existing igneous rocks). The chalcopyrite Pb-Pb ages (2.73 ± 0.15 and 2.74 ± 0.10 Ga) indicate that the Visconde mineralization is Neoarchean, rather than Paleoproterozoic as previously considered. If so, the

  11. Mineral Occurrence, Translocation, and Weathering in Soils Developed on Four Types of Carbonate and Non-carbonate Alluvial Fan Deposits in Mojave Desert, Southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; McDonald, E. V.

    2007-12-01

    Soil geomorphology and mineralogy can reveal important clues about Quaternary climate change and geochemical process occurring in desert soils. We investigated (1) the mineral transformation in desert soils developed on four types of alluvial fans (carbonate and non-carbonate) under the same conditions of climate and landscape evolution; and (2) the effects of age, parent materials, and eolian processes on the transformation and translocation of the minerals. Four types of alluvial-fan deposits along the Providence Mountains piedmonts, Mojave Desert, southeastern California, USA were studied: (1) carbonate rocks, primarily limestone and marble (LS), (2) fine-grained rhyodacite and rhyolitic tuff mixed with plutonic and carbonate rocks (VX), (3) fine- to coarse- grained mixed plutonic (PM) rocks, and (4) coarse-grained quartz monzonite (QM). These juxtaposed fan deposits are physically correlated in a small area (about 20 km by 15 km) and experienced the same climatic changes in the late Pleistocene and Holocene. The soils show characteristic mineral compositions of arid/semiarid soils: calcite is present in nearly all of the samples, and a few of the oldest soils contain gypsum and soluble salts. Parent material has profound influence on clay mineral composition of the soils: (1) talc were observed only in soils developed on the volcanic mixture fan deposits, and talc occurs in all horizons; (2) palygorskite occur mainly in the petrocalcic (Bkm) of old soils developed on the LS and VX fan deposits, indicating pedogenic origin; (3) chlorite was observed mainly in soils developed on VX fan deposits (all ages) and on some LS deposits, but it is absent in soils developed on PM and QM fan deposits; and (4) vermiculite was common throughout soils developed on plutonic rock fan deposits. These mineralogical differences suggest that minerals in the soils are primarily inherited from their parent materials and that mineral weathering in this area was weak. Except the

  12. Compilation of geology, mineralization, geochemistry and geophysical study of IP/RS & ground magnetic survey at Roudgaz area, southeast of Gonabad, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hajimirzajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Roudgaz prospect area is a Cu, Sn, Pb, Zn, and Au polymetal vein system located to the southeast of Gonabad and in the northeast of Lut block. Oxidan subvolcanic Tertiary rocks with monzonite to monzodiorite porphyry composition intruded the metamorphic rocks of middle Jurassic. The majority of intrusive bodies are affected by carbonation, argillic, sericitic, and silicification-tourmaline alteration. Mineralization in the area is controlled by fault and is present as vein with domination of NW-SE direction and 85-90º dip. Primary minerals are quartz, tourmaline, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and secondary minerals are malachite, azurite, and goethite. Geochemical sampling using chip composite method indicated high anomalies of Cu, Sn, Pb, and As (up to 10000 ppm, Zn (up to 5527 ppm, and Au (up to 325 ppb. Broad gossan zone is present in the area and is related to the oxidation of sulfide minerals. IP/RS survey was performed over the geochemical anomalies for identification of the location and extension of sulfide mineralization at depth. Generally, chargeability increases in gossan zones, veins, old workings and geochemical anomalies. Resistivity over the quartzite unit and also in locations where mineralized vein is associated with quartz has a high anomaly of up to 425 ohm-m. Due to high geochemical anomaly of Sn and its relation with reduced subvolcanic intrusives, ground magnetic survey was performed to identify the location of magnetite (oxidant and ilmenite (reduced series at depth. Variation of Total Magnetic Intensity (TMI is 335.1 Gamma in the TMI map. The highest magnetic anomalies in the RTP map are located to the north of the survey area which is related to magnetite series (hornblende biotite monzodiorite porphyry and extend to the south at depth. The lowest magnetic anomaly is located to the center of the survey area and particularly to the east of the Roudgaz village correlating the highest chargeability and geochemical anomaly. Based

  13. Radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration haloes in albite: implications for alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization and element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, D. C.; Chaudhuri, T.

    2016-07-01

    Uraninite, besides occurring in other modes, occurs as inclusions in albite in feldspathic schist in the Bagjata uranium deposits, Singhbhum shear zone, India. The feldspathic schist, considered the product of Na-metasomatism, witnessed multiple hydrothermal events, the signatures of which are preserved in the alteration halo in albite surrounding uraninite. Here we report radiation damage-controlled localization of alteration halo in albite and its various geological implications. Microscopic observation and SRIM/TRIM simulations reveal that the dimension of the alteration halo is dependent collectively on the zone of maximum cumulative α dose that albite was subjected to and by the extent of dissolution of uraninite during alteration. In well-preserved alteration haloes, from uraninite to the unaltered part of albite, the alteration minerals are systematically distributed in different zones; zone-1: K-feldspar; zone-2: chlorite; zone-3: LREE-phase/pyrite/U-Y-silicate. Based on textures of alteration minerals in the alteration microdomain, we propose a generalized Na+➔K+➔H+ alteration sequence, which is in agreement with the regional-scale alteration pattern. Integrating distribution of ore and alteration minerals in the alteration zone and their geochemistry, we further propose multiple events of U, REE, and sulfide mineralization/mobilization in the Bagjata deposit. The alteration process also involved interaction of the hydrothermal fluid with uraninite inclusions resulting in resorption of uraninite, redistribution of elements, including U and Pb, and resetting of isotopic clock. Thus, our study demonstrates that alteration halo is a miniature scale-model of the regional hydrothermal alteration types and patterns vis-à-vis mineralization/mobilization. This study further demonstrates that albite is vulnerable to radiation damage and damage-controlled fluid-assisted alteration, which may redistribute metals, including actinides, from radioactive minerals

  14. Thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Upadhyay; Hem Chandra; Meenakashi Joshi; Deepika P Joshi

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of elasticity of the minerals is useful for interpreting the structure and composition of the lower mantle and also in seismic studies. The purpose of the present study is to discuss a simple and straightforward method for evaluating thermoelastic properties of minerals at high temperatures. We have extended the Kumar’s formulation by taking into the account the concept of anharmonicity in minerals above the Debye temperature (D). In our present study, we have investigated the thermophysical properties of two minerals (pyrope-rich garnet and MgAl2O4) under high temperatures and calculated the second-order elastic constant () and bulk modulus (T) of the above minerals, in two cases first by taking Anderson–Gruneisen parameter (T) as temperature-independent and then by treating T as temperature-dependent parameter. The results obtained when T is temperature-dependent are in close agreement with experimental data.

  15. Biohydrometallurgy for nonsulfidic minerals - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, N.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology of Delhi, New Delhi (India). Center for Energy Studies

    2004-05-01

    Bioleaching is a technology applicable to metal extraction from low-grade ores, ore beneficiation, coal beneficiation, metal detoxification, and recovery of metals from waste materials. The technology is environmentally sound and it may lower operational cost and energy requirement. Whereas leaching of sulfidic minerals using chemolithoautotrophic bacteria is the most studied and commercially exploitable aspect of mineral biotechnology today, there is a dearth of literature on the dissolution of nonsulfidic minerals. Biohydrometallurgy of nonsulfidic minerals involves the action of heterotrophic microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi have the potential for producing acidic metabolites that are able to solubilize oxide, silicate, carbonate and hydroxide minerals by reduction, acidolysis and complexation mechanisms. It is an important aspect of biohydrometallugy that requires development to meet future needs.

  16. Feldspar minerals as efficient deposition ice nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Yakobi-Hancock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dusts are well known to be efficient ice nuclei, where the source of this efficiency has typically been attributed to the presence of clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite. However, the ice nucleating abilities of the more minor mineralogical components have not been as extensively examined. As a result, the deposition ice nucleation abilities of 24 atmospherically-relevant mineral samples have been studied, using a continuous flow diffusion chamber at −40.0 ± 0.3 °C. The same particle size (200 nm and particle preparation procedure were used throughout. The ice nucleation behaviour of the pure minerals is compared to that of complex mixtures, such as Arizona Test Dust (ATD and Mojave Desert Dust (MDD, and to lead iodide, which has been previously proposed for cloud seeding. Lead iodide was the most efficient ice nucleus (IN, requiring a critical relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi of 122.0 ± 2.0% to activate 0.1% of the particles. MDD (RHi 126.3 ± 3.4% and ATD (RHi 129.5 ± 5.1% have lower but comparable activity. From a set of clay minerals (kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, non-clay minerals (e.g. hematite, magnetite, calcite, cerussite, quartz, and feldspar minerals (orthoclase, plagioclase present in the atmospheric dusts it was found that the feldspar minerals (particularly orthoclase, and not the clays, were the most efficient ice nuclei. Orthoclase and plagioclase were found to have critical RHi values of 127.1 ± 6.3% and 136.2 ± 1.3%, respectively. The presence of feldspars (specifically orthoclase may play a significant role in the IN behaviour of mineral dusts despite their lower percentage in composition relative to clay minerals.

  17. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Larussa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD and celiac disease (CD, but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed.

  18. Surface mining of mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeunig, H.D.

    1982-05-01

    This article outlines general advantages of surface mining technology and aspects of selecting the most suitable mining technology in surface mine projection. Heavy surface mining equipment of the TAKRAF engineering plants is recommended for efficient excavation and overburden removal up to 230,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest excavator type and 440,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest overburden conveyor bridge. Two major variants of surface mine technology are outlined: design of surface mines with continuous working equipment (bucket wheel or bucket chain excavators requiring up to 200 N/cm digging force for minerals and overburden and haulage by belt conveyors) or discontinuously working equipment (dragline excavators, truck transportation, etc.). The second major variant concerns overburden removal to the spoil bank, either by haulage in a semicircle around the pit or by a shortcut across the pit from the excavation to the spoil bank side (direct spoil removal method). TAKRAF equipment for surface mining operations is described with various specifications and details on its performance. (In German)

  19. Iron mineralization and associated skarn development around southern contact of the Eğrigöz pluton (northern Menderes Massif-Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uǧurcan, Okşan Gökçen; Oyman, Tolga

    2016-11-01

    The Eğrigöz pluton is located in the northern portion of the Menderes Massif, which is the largest known metamorphic core complex that is also characterized by large-scale extension. Kalkan and Karaağıl skarn deposits are located on the southern border of the Eğrigöz Pluton, whereas Katrandağ mineralization developed along the roof pendant. Skarnization in these three areas is associated with the peraluminous, I-type, calc-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline Eğrigöz Pluton. Geochemical characteristics of the pluton indicate that it was generated in a continental arc setting. Kalkan, Karaağıl, and Katrandağ skarns are hosted in marble bands in two-mica gneiss of the Kalkan Formation, a locally dolomitic and clay-bearing limestone of the Arıkaya Formation and locally dolomitised limestone of the Balıkbaşı Formation, respectively. Skarn development occurred sequentially in two stages, prograde and retrograde. In Kalkan skarn, prograde stage is characterized by clinopyroxene (Di56-73 Hd26-43 Joh1-2), garnet (Adr45-69 Grs30-52 Alm0-1.4 Sps0.7-2.3), amphibole, and magnetite, whereas retrograde stage is dominated by epidote, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, and calcite. In Karaağıl, both calcic and magnesian skarn association occurred as a result of local variations in dolomite content in Arıkaya Formation. The prograde assemblage of magnesian skarn is composed chiefly of spinel, amphibole and olivine. These mineral assemblages were, partially or fully, altered to serpentine, talc, and chlorite during retrograde alteration. Mesh textures of the serpentine indicates that the serpentine was altered from olivine. Olivine was completely destroyed during retrograde alteration without relict grains remaining. Calcic skarn paragenesis include garnet (Grs36-80Adr20-62Alm0-2.2Sps0.2-2.6), clinopyroxene (Di81-92 Hd7-19 Jo0-1), and plagioclase, that belongs to the earlier stage, and amphibole of the retrograde stage. High grossular end member of the garnet probably

  20. The Remote Sensing Prospecting Information Extraction and Mineral Resources Prognosis in the Banqiao Rare Earth Mineral Deposit%板桥稀土矿遥感找矿信息提取与矿产预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章钦瑜; 张登荣; 黄国成; 朱骏

    2012-01-01

    通过对离子吸附型稀土矿成矿规律的分析,从浙江省板桥地区的遥感地质特征研究入手,在研究区地表范围内进行稀土遥感找矿信息的提取.首先利用SPOT图像和DEM数据构建的坡度数据对与稀土成矿相关的地貌单元进行解译;然后通过光谱特征分析和基于ASTER图像的矿物遥感异常提取,获取与成矿相关的高岭土、绢云母、绿泥石等风化特征矿物的分布信息;最后叠合分析地貌、坡度及异常提取结果,进行稀土遥感找矿预测.与地质调查资料及化探数据的对比分析证实,上述方法对圈定1:5万的大比例尺离子吸附型稀土矿分布范围是有效的,可为更详细的稀土矿产资源潜力评价提供依据.%In this paper, the prospecting information of the rare earth resources on Earth' s surface was extracted by analyzing the metallogenic regularity and geological remote sensing features of the study area. Firstly, the distribution of geomorphic units of Qedl was interpreted based on SPOT imagery and slope map obtained from DEM data. Then, the distribution of characteristic minerals closely related to rare earth deposits such as kaolin, sericite and chlorite was extracted by using remote sensing alteration anomaly extraction methods in the study area. At last, the potential rare earth ore districts were predicted by using overlap analysis of geomorphic units of Qedl as well as slope and abnormal extraction results. A comparison with the results of geological and geochemical survey shows that the remote sensing methods proposed in this paper are effective and reliable in prognosis of rare earth mineral distribution at the scale of 1 : 50 000 and can provide useful suggestions for more detailed potential evaluation of rare earth mineral resources.

  1. Authigenic minerals: Biologically influenced and induced organomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupraz, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Organominerals are minerals precipitated by interactions with organic matter without enzymatic control. Organomineralization of authigenic carbonate minerals depends on two key components: (1) the "carbonate alkalinity engine" impacting the calcium carbonate saturation index and (2) the organic matrix comprised of extracellular organic matter (EOM), which provides a template for carbonate nucleation. The alkalinity engine can be "intrinsic" when microbial metabolisms increase supersaturation or lower the kinetic barrier of precipitation, or "extrinsic" when the physicochemical environment creates the conditions for mineral formation. The organic matrix produced by various communities within the microbial mats is known to influence nucleation, morphology and mineralogy of minerals through binding of cations. By playing with these two key components, three types of authigenic minerals can be formed: (1) a purely physicochemical precipitation on an abiotic substrate, (2) a precipitation "influenced" by the presence of an organic matrix but resulting from a physicochemical forcing (environmentally driven), or (3) a "microbially-induced" precipitation, in which both supersaturation and organic matrix are resulting from microbial activity. In this keynote, we will review important processes involved in the precipitation of authigenic carbonate minerals in modern microbial mats and open the discussion on the potential use of authigenic carbonate minerals as biosignatures in the fossil record.

  2. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  3. 43 CFR Appendix F to Part 2 - Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands-Special Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing... 2—Mineral Leasing Act and Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands—Special Rules (a) Definitions. As... conduct coal exploration operations on land subject to the Mineral Leasing Act, under 30 U.S.C. 201(b),...

  4. Rheology of unstable mineral emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dunja S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the rheology of mineral oils and their unstable water emulsion were investigated. The oil samples were domestic crude oil UA, its fractions UA1, UA4 and blend semi-product UP1, while the concentration of oil in water emulsions was in the range from 1 up to 30%. The results were analyzed based on shear stress. The oil samples UA, UA1 and UP1 are Newtonian fluids, while UA4 is pseudoplastic fluid. The samples UA and UA4 show higher value of shear stress (83.75 Pa, 297 Pa, then other two samples UA1 and UP1 (18.41 Pa, 17.52 Pa. Rheology of investigated oils due to its complex chemical composition should be analyzed as a simultaneous effect of all their components. Therefore, structural composition of the oils was determined, namely content of paraffins, naphthenes, aromatics and asphaltenes. All samples contain paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics but only oils UA and UA4 contain asphaltenes as well. All investigated emulsions except 30% EUA4 are Newtonian fluids. The EUA4 30% emulsion shows pseudoplastic behaviour, and it is the only 30% emulsion among investigated ones that achieves lower shear stress then its oil. The characteristics of oil samples that could have an influence on their properties and their emulsion rheology, were determined. These characteristics are: neutralization number, interfacial tension, dielectric constant, and emulsivity. Oil samples UA and UA4 have significantly higher values of neutralization number, dielectric constants, and emulsivity. The sample UA has the lowest value of interface tension and the greatest emulsivity, indicating that this oil, among all investigated, has the highest preference for building emulsion. This could be the reason why 20% and 30% emulsions of the oil UA achieve the highest shear stress among all investigated emulsions.

  5. The DataMiner manager Web interface

    OpenAIRE

    Panichi, Giancarlo; Coro, Gianpaolo

    2016-01-01

    In this document we describe the DataMiner Manager Web interface that allows interacting with the gCube DataMiner service. DataMiner is a cross-usage service that provides users and services with tools for performing data mining operations. Specifically, it offers a unique access to perform data mining and statistical operations on heterogeneous data, which may reside either at client side, in the form of comma-separated values files, or be remotely hosted, possibly in a database. The DataMin...

  6. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  7. World mineral exploration trends and economic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded

  8. Applications of electrochemical techniques in mineral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yusheng; Sun, Fengyue; Xu, Yuanhong; Cong, Zhichao; Wang, Erkang

    2014-09-01

    This review, covering reports published in recent decade from 2004 to 2013, shows how electrochemical (EC) techniques such as voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiometry, coulometry, etc., have made significant contributions in the analysis of minerals such as clay, sulfide, oxide, and oxysalt. It was discussed based on the classifications of both the types of the used EC techniques and kinds of the analyzed minerals. Furthermore, minerals as electrode modification materials for EC analysis have also been summarized. Accordingly, research vacancies and future development trends in these areas are discussed.

  9. Characterization of minerals, metals and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Bai, Chengguang; Carpenter, John; Cai, Mingdong; Firrao, Donato; Kim, Byoung-Gon

    2012-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference contains chapters on all aspects of the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials. The title presents papers from one of the largest yearly gatherings of materials scientists in the world and thoroughly discusses the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials The scope includes current industrial applications and research and developments in the following areas:  Characterization of Ferrous Metals Characterization of Non-Ferrous Materials Characterization of Minerals and Ceramics Character

  10. Gold Rushes and mineral property rights allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Knud

    Even today, mineral property rights are allocated on what is essentially a first-come, first-serve or open access basis. Access to prospect and locate claims may be restricted in some areas such as national parks, but elsewhere a policy of open access is widely practised, albeit subject to a set...... influxes of prospectors competing for a very limited area. This paper charts significant gold rush events in the mineral industry in recent decades and uses preliminary data on the areas impacted by these gold rushes to argue that many mineral tenure systems should be modified in order to be better able...

  11. Biological degradation of heavy mineral soaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glombitza, F.; Iske, U.; Bullmann, M.

    1988-11-01

    The possibility of biological degradation is exemplified by a chemically highly resistant Zircon mineral of the heavy mineral soaps of the Baltic Sea, with the aid of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acetobacter spec. strains. The total matrix of the mineral is dissolved and all trace elements contained are solubilized. The different mechanisms of the leaching reaction give different distributions of the dissolved compounds in the phases of the leaching system. Concerning the REE a selectivity based on their physical characteristics is observed. There is a preferential solution of the light REE as compared to the heavy REE. The conditions of use are discussed.

  12. Skarn formation and trace elements in garnet and associated minerals from Zhibula copper deposit, Gangdese Belt, southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Zheng, Youye; Sun, Xiang; Wade, Benjamin P.

    2016-10-01

    Trace element concentrations in garnet and associated minerals from the mid-Miocene Zhibula Cu skarn, Gangdese Belt, Tibet reflect a diversity of local environments, evolving fluid parameters and partitioning with coexisting minerals. Exoskarn occurs as massive but narrow intervals within a Lower Jurassic volcano-sedimentary sequence containing limestone, the main skarn protolith. Endoskarn is present at the contact with mid-Miocene granodiorite dikes. Prograde skarn associations are garnet-dominant but also include diopside-dominant pyroxene in variable amounts. Garnet compositions in exoskarn change from andradite (And)- to grossular (Gr)-dominant from the massive intervals to bands/lenses within marble/tuff, but not in endoskarn. In both cases however, associations at the protolith contact include anorthite and wollastonite, both indicative of skarnoid or distal (relative to fluid source) skarn formation. Exoskarns also contain vesuvianite. Retrograde clinozoisite, actinolite and chlorite replace pre-existing skarn minerals. Garnet displays brecciation and replacement by Al-richer garnet. Depending on partitioning among coexisting minerals, chondrite-normalised REY (REE + Y) fractionation trends for garnet depict endo- to exoskarn diversity, the dominance of And- vs. Gr-rich garnet (in turn related to proximal-to-distal relationship to fluid source), as well as prograde-to-retrograde evolution in the same sample. A strong variation in Eu-anomaly, from positive to negative, in And-dominant garnet can be correlated with variation in salinity of ore-forming fluids, concordant with published fluid inclusion data. Trends depicted by And- and Gr-dominant garnets are consistent with published data from skarns elsewhere, in which the dominant substitution mechanism for REY is YAG-type. Zhibula garnets are enriched in a range of trace elements less commonly reported, including W, Sn, and As, but also Mo (as high as 730 ppm), an element seldom analysed for in silicates

  13. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  14. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  15. Mineral Resource Data System: Conterminous US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MRDS describes metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources throughout the world. Included are deposit name, location, commodity, deposit description, geologic...

  16. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-07-19

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation.

  17. NOAA and MMS Marine Minerals Geochemical Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Minerals Geochemical Database was created by NGDC as a part of a project to construct a comprehensive computerized bibliography and geochemical database...

  18. Major mineral deposits of the world

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Regional locations and general geologic setting of known deposits of major nonfuel mineral commodities. Originally compiled in five parts by diverse authors,...

  19. Surface geochemistry of the clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Sposito, Garrison; Skipper, Neal T.; Sutton, Rebecca; Park, Sung-Ho; Soper, Alan K.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    1999-01-01

    Clay minerals are layer type aluminosilicates that figure in terrestrial biogeochemical cycles, in the buffering capacity of the oceans, and in the containment of toxic waste materials. They are also used as lubricants in petroleum extraction and as industrial catalysts for the synthesis of many organic compounds. These applications derive fundamentally from the colloidal size and permanent structural charge of clay mineral particles, which endow them with significant ...

  20. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Christer Jansson; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.; Kamennaya, Nina A.; Trent Northen

    2012-01-01

    Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3), is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-...

  1. Metals, minerals and microbes: geomicrobiology and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2010-03-01

    Microbes play key geoactive roles in the biosphere, particularly in the areas of element biotransformations and biogeochemical cycling, metal and mineral transformations, decomposition, bioweathering, and soil and sediment formation. All kinds of microbes, including prokaryotes and eukaryotes and their symbiotic associations with each other and 'higher organisms', can contribute actively to geological phenomena, and central to many such geomicrobial processes are transformations of metals and minerals. Microbes have a variety of properties that can effect changes in metal speciation, toxicity and mobility, as well as mineral formation or mineral dissolution or deterioration. Such mechanisms are important components of natural biogeochemical cycles for metals as well as associated elements in biomass, soil, rocks and minerals, e.g. sulfur and phosphorus, and metalloids, actinides and metal radionuclides. Apart from being important in natural biosphere processes, metal and mineral transformations can have beneficial or detrimental consequences in a human context. Bioremediation is the application of biological systems to the clean-up of organic and inorganic pollution, with bacteria and fungi being the most important organisms for reclamation, immobilization or detoxification of metallic and radionuclide pollutants. Some biominerals or metallic elements deposited by microbes have catalytic and other properties in nanoparticle, crystalline or colloidal forms, and these are relevant to the development of novel biomaterials for technological and antimicrobial purposes. On the negative side, metal and mineral transformations by microbes may result in spoilage and destruction of natural and synthetic materials, rock and mineral-based building materials (e.g. concrete), acid mine drainage and associated metal pollution, biocorrosion of metals, alloys and related substances, and adverse effects on radionuclide speciation, mobility and containment, all with immense social

  2. World Mineral Production 2002-06

    OpenAIRE

    Hetherington, Linda; Brown, Teresa; Benham, Antony; Bide, Tom; Lusty, Paul; Hards, Vicky; Hannis, Sarah; Idoine, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    This publication includes five year tables of production, by country, for the majority of economically important mineral commodities, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals, industrial minerals and hydrocarbons. Additional information has been added describing the characteristics, uses production trends, prices and industry events for 11 commodities including bauxite/alumina/aluminium, coal, copper, fluorspar, gold, iron ore, lead, nickel, titanium, uranium and zinc. This is part ...

  3. Riqueza Mineral Y Pobreza En Los Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Leonith Hinojosa

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the paradox found in mineral-rich Andean countries where the sustained economic growth observed over the last decade has not provoked a corresponding decrease in poverty. The impact of the expansion of the extractive industries (mining and hydrocarbons) on these countries is addressed from the perspective of political economy, indicating that the permanence of poverty, in particular rural poverty in areas where mineral wealth is concentrated, can be explained by inconsis...

  4. Industrial mineral powder production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The recent annual output of major industrial mineral powders in the mainland of China has been more than 100 million t, accompanied by active development of such supporting technology as comminution, classification, separation/purification, and surface modification. In particular, the present paper reviews technologies for preparing ultra-fine particles involving dry and wet processing, modification and composition, calcination of kaolin clay, and processing of spherical/acerous industrial minerals.

  5. Magnetic Separation of Weakly Magnatic Copper Minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Agricola, J. N.M.; Top, J. L.; Fort, A. F.

    1989-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation of small (5-38 µm) weakly magnetic copper mineral particles from a copper concentrate and ore has been performed. In previous work coarser fractions of these minerals, bornite and chalcopyrite, were separated successfully. The recovery of the smaller particles in the magnetic fraction decreases but their grade increases compared to the results obtained on the larger particles. At a magnetic background field of 1.3 T the concentrate was upgraded from 72% borni...

  6. Exploring data with RapidMiner

    CERN Document Server

    Chisholm, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial style using examples so that users of different levels will benefit from the facilities offered by RapidMiner.If you are a computer scientist or an engineer who has real data from which you want to extract value, this book is ideal for you. You will need to have at least a basic awareness of data mining techniques and some exposure to RapidMiner.

  7. Infrared Extinction Spectra of Mineral Dust Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, P.; Laskina, O.; Alexander, J. M.; Young, M.; Grassian, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol affects the atmosphere by absorbing and scattering radiation and plays an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. The effect of atmospheric dust on climate is studied by various remote sensing techniques that use measurements from narrow band IR channels of satellites to determine key atmospheric properties. Therefore, it is essential to take radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol into account to correctly process remote sensing data. As aerosols are transported through the atmosphere they undergo aging and heterogeneous chemistry. This leads to changes in their optical properties and their effects on climate. In this study we carried out spectral simulations using both Mie theory and solutions derived in the Rayleigh regime for authentic dust samples and several processed components of mineral dust. Simulations of the extinction based on Mie theory shows that it does not accurately reproduce the peak position and band shape of the prominent IR resonance features. Errors in the simulated peak position and the line shape associated with Mie theory can adversely affect determination of mineral composition based on IR satellite data. Analytic solutions for various shapes derived from Rayleigh theory offer a better fit to the major band features of the spectra, therefore the accuracy of modeling atmospheric dust properties can be improved by using these analytic solutions. It is also important to take aging of mineral dust into account. We investigated the effect of chemical processing on the optical properties. It was shown that interactions of components of mineral dust (calcite, quartz and kaolinite) with humic and organic acids cause a shift of the IR resonance bands of these minerals. It may indicate changes in shape of the particles as well as changes in hygroscopicity and, as the result, the water content in these samples. Therefore, care should be taken when modeling optical properties of aged mineral dust.

  8. The Global Flows of Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogich, Donald G.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary review of the trends in worldwide metals and industrial minerals production and consumption based on newly developed global metals and minerals Material Flow Accounts (MFA). The MFA developed encompass data on extraction and consumption for 25 metal and mineral commodities, on a country-by-country and year-by-year basis, for the period 1970 to 2004. The data-base, jointly developed by the authors, resides with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as individual commodity Excel workbooks and within a Filemaker data management system for use in analysis. Numerous national MFA have been developed to provide information on the industrial metabolism of individual countries. These MFA include material flows associated with the four commodity categories of goods that are inputs to a country's economy, agriculture, forestry, metals and minerals, and nonrenewable organic material. In some cases, the material flows associated with the creation and maintenance of the built infrastructure (such as houses, buildings, roads, airports, dams, and so forth) were also examined. The creation of global metals and industrial minerals flows is viewed as a first step in the creation of comprehensive global MFA documenting the historical and current flows of all of the four categories of physical goods that support world economies. Metals and minerals represent a major category of nonrenewable resources that humans extract from and return to the natural ecosystem. As human populations and economies have increased, metals and industrial minerals use has increased concomitantly. This dramatic growth in metals and minerals use has serious implications for both the availability of future resources and the health of the environment, which is affected by the outputs associated with their use. This paper provides an overview of a number of the trends observed by examining the database and suggests areas for future study.

  9. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  10. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood. PMID:27377606

  11. Mineral oxide transformation of antimicrobial contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Kendall, T. A.

    2008-12-01

    The quality of our water supply is dependent on the organic-mineral interface. Organics contain reactive groups that dissolve minerals, and release surface associated contaminants into aquifers and reservoirs. Conversely, minerals may transform organic pollutants, including antimicrobial drugs that are potentially deleterious to aquatic ecosystems or human health. Under aqueous conditions typical of soils and natural waters, the antibiotic agent sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is transformed in the presence of pyrolusite, presumably on the MnO2 surface. At least 50 percent loss of SMX was observed after 269 h, in both acidic and basic solutions (pH 3-9). Nearly 100 percent loss is recorded at pH 3 and 66 percent loss was recorded at circumneutral pH. Initial mass spectrometry of the reaction products suggests an oxidative pathway where hydroxylation and oxidation occurs at the aniline moiety and isoxazolamine ring of SMX. Concomitant increases in aqueous manganese concentrations suggest reductive transformation of the mineral surface. Ongoing electric force spectroscopy and force microscopy experiments probe potential mineral surface alteration associated with the SMX-MnO2 reaction. Coupling bulk aqueous observations and mass spectrometry with molecular-scale force microscopy should further elucidate sulfonamide reactivity as influenced by mineral surface chemistry and topography. Moreover, the observed transformation suggests manganese oxides likely play an important role in the fate of SMX in the environment.

  12. Deglacial Record in the Illinois River Valley Explains Asynchronous Phases of Meltwater Pulses and Clay Mineral Excursions in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    One prominent event of the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) interstadial was the large meltwater release to global oceans. The Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) is usually considered the main source. But, the large LIS meltwater discharge conflicts with the marine record showing an active North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) during the B/A interval. Continuous dune-lacustrine successions in the Illinois River Valley (IRV) have shown complete records of the last deglacial chronozones. Their grain-size distributions and accurate B/A age 14C dates of plant fossils from 15 m deep lacustrine sediment in the IRV suggest that most of the IRV and parts of the adjacent upland were inundated by water. The inundation was caused by a sediment dam interpreted to have been constructed and followed by a breach at the confluence of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers during the B/A interval due to sediment mobilization by the large meltwater release. The grain size distributions correlate with meltwater pulses and mineralogical excursions in sediments from the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) very well. The blockage and release of illite and chlorite rich fine-grained sediments from the Lake Michigan basin changed the relative abundance of clay minerals and thus the ratio of smectite/(illite + chlorite) in the sediment of the GOM. This finding explains why the meltwater episodes from the LIS and the associated detrital discharges are not synchronous in the sediments in the GOM. The finding also ties meltwater pulses and associated detrital discharges in the GOM closely to the LIS discharges via the Mississippi River Valley on chronozonal scales. Three arguments can be made from this result: 1) unaffected AMOC during B/A interval resulted potentially from the hyperpycnal inflow into the GOM floor; 2) limited volume of the meltwater discharge did not significantly influence the AMOC; and 3) the freshwater input into the GOM from the LIS at this particular location did not significantly

  13. Effects of Chinese mineral strategies on the U.S. minerals industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Menzie, W.D.; Morse, D.E.; Papp, J.F.; Plunkert, P.A.; Tse, P.-K.

    2006-01-01

    For more than two decades now, China has been undergoing rapid economic growth and industrialization. The industrialization and urbanization of the once rural, farming nation is leading to increased consumption of mineral commodities to build infrastructure and to make into consumer goods. This increased consumption has led to higher mineral prices, lower stocks and, in some cases, temporary shortages of minerals. Chinese mineral producers and manufacturers are responding by building capacity, restructuring and modernizing industrial sectors and establishing international network that compete with those of the United States and other nations.

  14. Ion chromatography for simultaneous determination of bromate,chlorite and chlorate in drinking water%用离子色谱法同时测定生活饮水中溴酸盐、亚氯酸盐、氯酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐春华; 张颖; 王化勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To develop an ion chromatography (IC ) for simultaneous determination of chlorite, chlorate and bromate in drinking water. Methods: The IC separation was carried out with the IonPAC AS19 column by using hydroxide eluent at the flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The injection volume was 500 jxl. Conductivity detection cell temperature was set at 30℃ , column temperature was set at 35℃. Suppressor was in automatic regeneration mode, suppressor current was 87 mA. Results: The results showed that in the range of 0 μg/L to 500 μg/L, the linear e-quation of chlorite was y =2. 640x -0.027, r =0.9999, the detection limit was 0. 1 μg/L; In the range of 0 μg/L ~ 100 μg/L, the linear equation of bromate was y = 1. 342x - 0. 003 , r - 0. 9999 , detection limit was 0. 5 μg/L; In the range of 0 μg/L -500 μg/L, the linear equation of chlorate was y =2. 157x -0. 043 , r -0. 9999, the detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The recovery rates were 99. 70% ~102.6% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) were 1. 16% ~3.56%. Conclusion; The method is simple,fast,accurate, sensitive, little interference and applicable to the simultaneous determination of chlorite, chlorate and bromate in drinking water.%目的:建立能够同时测定生活饮用水中亚氯酸盐、氯酸盐和溴酸盐的离子色谱法.方法:选择Ion-PacAS19色谱柱,淋洗液为氢氧根淋洗液,流速为1.0 ml/min,进样量为500μl,电导检测池温度为30℃,色谱柱温度为35℃,抑制器抑制模式为自动再生模式,抑制器电流为87 mA.结果:在0μg/L ~ 500.0 μg/L范围内,亚氯酸盐的线性方程为:y=2.640x-0.027,r=0.9999,检出限为0.1 μg/L;在0μg/L ~ 100.0 μg/L溴酸盐的线性方程为:y=1.342x-0.003,r=0.9999,检出限为0.5 μg/L;在0μg/L~500.0 μg/L氯酸盐的线性方程为:y=2.157x-0.043,r=0.9999,检出限为0.2μg/L.加标回收试验结果显示,该方法的平均回收率为99.7% ~102.6%,RSD为1.16% ~3.56%.结论:该法操作简单、快速、准

  15. Stratigraphic position, origin and characteristics of manganese mineralization horizons in the Late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence, south-southwest of Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Maghfouri

    2014-10-01

    part or LMV unit comprised of limestone, marl and volcanic rocks, overlies concordantly on the lower part (K2tv. The manganese mineralization within the host volcano-sedimentary sequence, based on stratigraphic position, relative age and type of host rocks involved the two horizons: the first horizon (Mn Ia, Ib consisting of Benesbourd (Masoudi, 2008, Nudeh (Nasrolahi et al., 2012, Homaie (Nasiri et al., 2010, Goft and Manganese Gostar Khavar Zamin deposits, occurred in the lower part of the sequence (K2tv unit and is hosted by red tuffs. The second horizon (Mn II comprising of Zakeri (Taghizadeh et al., 2012, Cheshmeh Safeid, Mohammad Abad Oryan and Chah Setareh deposits, is hosted by marly-carbonate tuffs and locates within the upper part of the sequence (LMV unit (Maghfouri, 2012. Geometry and shape of the ore bodies in various deposits are as stratiform, layered, parallel and concordant with layering of the host rocks. Textures of the ores include massive, lenticular, banded, laminated and disseminated. Mineralogy of the ores in the two ore horizons is simple and similar and is dominated by pyrolusite, psilomelane and braunite. Gangue minerals are predominantly the host rock-forming minerals including quartz, chlorite and feldspar. Discussion Geochemical data, structures and textures, stratigraphic position and lithologic characteristics of the host rocks represent that manganese reserves in south-southwest Sabzevar were formed as sedimentary-exhalative. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the Tarbiat Modares University Grant Commission for research funding. References Maghfouri, S., 2012. Geology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Genesis of Cu Mineralization within Late Cretaceous Volcano-Sedimentary Sequence in Southwest of Sabzevar, with emphasis on the Nudeh Deposit. M.Sc. Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, 312 pp. (in Persian Masoudi, M., 2008. Geology, mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of Benesbourd Mn deposit in the Southwest Sabzevar

  16. From evaporated seawater to uranium-mineralizing brines: Isotopic and trace element study of quartz-dolomite veins in the Athabasca system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antonin; Boulvais, Philippe; Mercadier, Julien; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Cuney, Michel; France-Lanord, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Stable isotope (O, H, C), radiogenic isotope (Sr, Nd) and trace element analyses have been applied to quartz-dolomite veins and their uranium(U)-bearing fluid inclusions associated with Proterozoic unconformity-related UO2 (uraninite) ores in the Athabasca Basin (Canada) in order to trace the evolution of pristine evaporated seawater towards U-mineralizing brines during their migration through sediments and basement rocks. Fluid inclusion data show that quartz and dolomite have precipitated from brines of comparable chemistry (excepted for relatively small amounts of CO2 found in dolomite-hosted fluid inclusions). However, δ18O values of quartz veins (δ18O = 11‰ to 18‰) and dolomite veins (δ18O = 13‰ to 24‰) clearly indicate isotopic disequilibrium between quartz and dolomite. Hence, it is inferred that this isotopic disequilibrium primarily reflects a decrease in temperature between the quartz stage (˜180 °C) and the dolomite stage (˜120 °C). The δ13C values of CO2 dissolved in dolomite-hosted fluid inclusions (δ13C = -30‰ to -4‰) and the δ13C values of dolomite (δ13C = -23.5‰ to -3.5‰) indicate that the CO2 dissolved in the mineralizing brines originated from brine-graphite interactions in the basement. The resulting slight increase in the fluid partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) may have triggered dolomite precipitation instead of quartz. δ18O values of quartz veins and previously published δ18O values of the main alteration minerals around the U-ores (illite, chlorite and tourmaline) show that quartz and alteration minerals were isotopically equilibrated with the same fluid at ˜180 °C. The REE concentrations in dolomite produce PAAS-normalized patterns that show some similarities with that of UO2 and are clearly distinct from that of the other main REE-bearing minerals in these environments (monazite, zircon and aluminum phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals). The radiogenic isotope compositions of dolomite (87Sr/86Sri = 0.7053 to 0

  17. Mineral texture based seismic properties of meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks in the orogenic wedge of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almqvist, B. S. G.; Czaplinska, D.; Piazolo, S.

    2015-12-01

    Progress in seismic methods offers the possibility to visualize in ever greater detail the structure and composition of middle to lower continental crust. Ideally, the seismic parameters, including compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave velocities, anisotropy and Vp/Vs-ratio, allow the inference of detailed and quantitative information on the deformation conditions, chemical composition, temperature and the amount and geometry of fluids and melts in the crust. However, such inferences regarding the crust should be calibrated with known mineral and rock physical properties. Seismic properties calculated from the crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and laboratory measurements on representative core material allow us to quantify the interpretations from seismic data. The challenge of such calibrations lies in the non-unique interpretation of seismic data. A large catalogue of physical rock properties is therefore useful, with as many constraining geophysical parameters as possible (including anisotropy and Vp/Vs ratio). We present new CPO data and modelled seismic properties for amphibolite and greenschist grade rocks representing the orogenic wedge in the Central Scandinavian Caledonides. Samples were collected from outcrops in the field and from a 2.5 km long drill core, which penetrated an amphibolite-grade allochthonous unit composed of meta-sedimentary and meta-igneous rocks, as well as mica and chlorite-rich mylonites. The textural data was acquired using large area electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps, and the chemical composition of minerals obtained by energy dispersive x-ray (EDS). Based on the texture data, we compare and evaluate some of the existing methods to calculate texture-based seismic properties of rocks. The suite of samples consists of weakly anisotropic rocks such as felsic gneiss and calc-silicates, and more anisotropic amphibolite, metagabbro, mica-schist. The newly acquired dataset provides a range of seismic properties that

  18. Fluid Evolution During Mineralization of Atashkuh Fluorite-Barite (±Sulfide Deposit, South of Delijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction More than 30 fluorite occurrences with approximately 1.35 million tons of reserves have been recognized in Iran (Ghorbani, 2013. The Atashkuh fluorite-barite (±sulfide deposit is one of four occurrences located south of the city of Delijan in Markazi province, about 80 km SE of Arak city. The Atashkuh deposit occurs between the central Iran structural zone on the north and the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone on the south. The geology of the area is dominated by folded and faulted Jurassic carbonates and shales (Thiele et al., 1968. The lower Jurassic shale and calcareous sandstone of the Shemshak Formation and the Middle to Upper Jurassic dolomite of the Badamu Formation are the main host rocks for the fluorite veins. In this study, 40 samples from fluorite veins and host rocks were collected, from which 25 thin sections and 8 doubly-polished thin sections were prepared. Micro-thermometric studies were conducted on primary fluid inclusions using the Linkam THM600 heating-freezing stage. In addition, 10 samples were analyzed by XRD. Results Fluid inclusion data indicate that the Atashkuh fluorite-barite (±sulfides veins were deposited as a result of mixing a primary multi-component Na-K(-Mg-Ca high-salinity brine (SH type inclusions with less saline calcium-rich connate water (LVHH type inclusions and pressure reduction of ore bearing fluids. Fluid inclusions containing halite in high-salinity brine, and hydrohalite in connate water show suggest a high-salinity brine and connate water before mixing. The main mineralization stage was followed by circulation of low temperature meteoric water, responsible for the late stage mineralization. The micro-thermometry results suggest that the main fluorite mineralization occurred at 250 °C and 150 Mpa pressure. Dolomitization and silicification are the main alteration types associated with the Atashkuh mineralization. The occurrence of chlorite, talc, illite and dolomitized host rock all

  19. Implementation plan for Bolivian Mineral Exploration Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkemo, Harold

    1978-01-01

    Bolivia ranks second among world producers of tin and antimony, and first in bismuth production. Mineral exports in 1975 were valued at $314.2 million, nearly 60 percent of the value of all exports, and petroleum product exports totalled nearly $157 million, or 30 percent of the total. Tin accounted for 58 percent of the total value of metallic mineral exports. The central government derived about 19 percent of its total tax revenues in 1975 from the mining sector. The mining sector consists of the large, medium, and small mining subsectors, a classification established by the government. Individual operations are referred to as large, medium, or small depending upon the subsector into which they are classified. All large mining enterprises are owned and operated by a government corporation, COMIBOL; the medium and small operations are privately owned. COMIBOL's exports in 1975 were valued at $171.8 million or 70 percent of the total mineral exports; the medium mines accounted for $55.5 million or 23 percent, and the small mines for $17.5 million or 7 percent of the total. The combination of high operating costs, low productivity, inadequate ore reserves, and insufficient risk capital for exploration and development has led to the realization that there is an urgent need to improve the situation for mining in Bolivia. Proposals are being studied to revise the tax code, a program is underway to evaluate selected mineral deposits for possible exploration and development, and programs are under consideration to encourage minerals exploration. A minerals exploration plan is proposed which would offer technical and financial aid to various segments in the minerals field. A program, estimated to cost between $2 million and $2.5 million annually, and to be operated by a new agency in the Ministry of Mining and Metallurgy, is outlined.

  20. [Occurrence relationship between iron minerals and clay minerals in net-like red soils: evidence from X-ray diffraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-Lie; Han, Weni; Ma, Yu-Bo; Li, Rong-Biao

    2013-04-01

    The high purity of clay minerals is a key factor to reconstruct the palaeoclimate in clay mineralogy, however, the existence of iron minerals (such as goethite and hematite) and organics lead to the intergrowth of clay minerals and other minerals, producing other mineral impurities in enriched clay minerals. Although the removal of organics in soil sediments has been fully investigated, the occurrence state of iron minerals remains controversial, hindering the preparation of high-purity clay minerals. Therefore, the occurrence relationship of iron minerals and clay minerals in Jiujiang net-like red soils of the middle to lower reaches of the Yangtze River was investigated using the sequential separation method, which provided some implications for the removal of iron minerals in soil sediments. The results indicated that goethite and hematite were mostly absorbed on the surface of hydroxy-interlayered smectite and illite in the form of films, and the rest were absorbed by kaolinite.

  1. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  2. Biomimetic Mineralization of Recombinamer-Based Hydrogels toward Controlled Morphologies and High Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuping; Chen, Xi; Fok, Alex; Rodriguez-Cabello, Jose Carlos; Aparicio, Conrado

    2015-11-25

    The use of insoluble organic matrices as a structural template for the bottom-up fabrication of organic-inorganic nanocomposites is a powerful way to build a variety of advanced materials with defined and controlled morphologies and superior mechanical properties. Calcium phosphate mineralization in polymeric hydrogels is receiving significant attention in terms of obtaining biomimetic hierarchical structures with unique mechanical properties and understanding the mechanisms of the biomineralization process. However, integration of organic matrices with hydroxyapatite nanocrystals, different in morphology and composition, has not been well-achieved yet at nanoscale. In this study, we synthesized thermoresponsive hydrogels, composed of elastin-like recombinamers (ELRs), to template mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals using a biomimetic polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. Different from conventional mineralization where minerals were deposited on the surface of organic matrices, they were infiltrated into the frameworks of ELR matrices, preserving their microporous structure. After 14 days of mineralization, an average of 78 μm mineralization depth was achieved. Mineral density up to 1.9 g/cm(3) was found after 28 days of mineralization, which is comparable to natural bone and dentin. In the dry state, the elastic modulus and hardness of the mineralized hydrogels were 20.3 ± 1.7 and 0.93 ± 0.07 GPa, respectively. After hydration, they were reduced to 4.50 ± 0.55 and 0.10 ± 0.03 GPa, respectively. These values were lower but still on the same order of magnitude as those of natural hard tissues. The results indicated that inorganic-organic hybrid biomaterials with controlled morphologies can be achieved using organic templates of ELRs. Notably, the chemical and physical properties of ELRs can be tuned, which might help elucidate the mechanisms by which living organisms regulate the mineralization process.

  3. Evolution of Mineral-Organic Matter Associations in Sediments: From (Bio)mineralization to Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, E.; Nordlund, D.; Wankel, S. D.; Hansel, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Physical and chemical associations with mineral surfaces may protect organic matter (OM) from oxidative degradation and allow its preservation in soils and sediments. This study evaluates the mechanism of mineral-based preservation (MBP) and the time scale on which MBP is operative by tracking the co-evolution of oxide minerals and associated OM during mineral precipitation and ripening. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled to near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) as well as bulk NEXAFS demonstrate that, in laboratory systems using cell-free filtrate from pure bacterial cultures, an association between OM and biogenic manganese oxides is rapidly established. OM associated with freshly precipitated biominerals consists of proteinaceous carbon and nitrogen consistent with a microbial origin; this composition remains constant over the course of 96 hours, despite mineral aggregation and structural evolution from hexagonal to triclinic birnessite. We predict that, in natural systems, oxide minerals simultaneously drive remineralization and offer MBP. Different minerals will promote a different balance between the two, imparting a mineral-specific signature on the concentration and composition of preserved OM. We test this idea by conducting incubations of natural estuary waters spiked with compositionally and structurally diverse synthetic oxide minerals. The concentration and composition of mineral-associated OM were tracked by element analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS) and STXM-NEXAFS in multiple experiments lasting between 4 weeks and 1 year. Results from incubation experiments are contrasted with natural sediment samples from a range of depositional environments in order to evaluate the potential for long-term sequestration of organic carbon in sediments facilitated by minerals.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Trace Amount of Chlorite,Chlorate and Common Inorganic Anions in Running Water with kOH Isocratic Elution by Ion Chromatographic Method%KOH等度淋洗IC法同时测定自来水中微量ClO2-、ClO3-及常规阴离子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东; 罗倚坪

    2014-01-01

    The method to determine a trace of chlorite, chlorate and common inorganic anions in running water with KOH isocratic elution by ion chromatography was investigated. The conditions of method was that the concentration of KOH is 20. 5 mmol/L, the flow rate is 1. 0 mL/min, and the injection volume is 50 μL. The results showed that the concentration of F-,Cl-,NO3 -, SO4 2-,ClO2 -,ClO3 - in water was determined completely only in 12 minutes. The correlation coefficients of calibration curve was 0. 997 0-0. 999 9,while the detection limits was between 0. 05-7. 00 μg/L. The relative standard deviation( RSD) and the recoveries were between 0. 61%-3. 82%and 97. 6%-101. 7%, respectively. The method was sensitive, accurate and rapid, which was favorable to simultaneous quantification of chlorite, chlorate and common inorganic anions in drinking water.%建立了KOH等度淋洗离子色谱法同时测定自来水中微量亚氯酸盐、氯酸盐及氟化物、氯化物、硝酸盐、硫酸盐的分析方法。该方法以20.5 mmol/L KOH为淋洗液,流速1.0 mL/min,进样量50μL。结果表明,6种阴离子可在12分钟内检测完毕,各离子的线性相关系数为0.9970~0.9999;检出限为0.05~7.00μg/L;精密度为0.61%~3.82%;回收率为97.6%~101.7%,能够满足饮用水中这些指标的定量需要,是一种灵敏、准确、快速的理想方法。

  5. Xinjiang Integrates Mineral Resources of 11 Major Mining Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>According to reports,from this year,Xinjiang, a large mineral resource province,will implement mineral resource integration of 11 major mining areas involving minerals including coal, iron,copper and bentonite,so as to further adjust the structure of mineral exploitation and optimize the distribution of resources.

  6. 30 CFR 72.510 - Miner health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, or from the authorized... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miner health training. 72.510 Section 72.510... § 72.510 Miner health training. (a) Operators must provide annual training to all miners at a mine...

  7. Leukaemia and lymphoma among Czech uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, L.; Malatova, I. [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-01

    Leukaemia is one of the most sensitive cancers in relation to ionizing radiation. It is surprising that in studies of uranium miners, no risk of leukaemia in relation to cumulated radon exposure was observed (Darby et al, 1995). However, when the risk among Czech uranium miners was analyzed in dependence on duration of exposure, the trend was significant. These results were based on 10 cases (Tomasek, 1993). Since then the original cohort of 4320 miners has been extended by another cohort, now including nearly 10 000 uranium miners and the follow-up is longer by 10 years. The present report aims to analyze the risk of haemopoietic cancers in the Czech cohort accounting for both external and internal doses, similarly as reported by Jacobi and Roth (1995), and using available data on metal content and airborne particulates for dose estimates.The present results of follow-up show that increased risk of leukaemia among uranium miners is significantly associated with cumulated equivalent red bone marrow doses which is dominated by exposures to long lived alpha radionuclides in airborne particulates. The increased mortality is mainly observed decades after exposure and is consistent with estimated internal dose to red bone marrow. The estimated risk coefficient for leukaemia is consistent with results from other studies, however, further studies are needed to reduce uncertainty in the risk estimates. (N.C.)

  8. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  9. Mineral wealth and the economic transition: Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of mineral wealth can amplify the problems of the transition economies in three basic ways. First, the rebound of the real exchange rate that characterises a successful transition may be augmented by the capital inflow required to expand mineral production. This can cause both recession in the short-run and lower growth in the medium-term. Second, when the mineral revenues expand, the Dutch Disease effects may intensify the transition-related shrinkage of the non-mining tradable sector, thereby retarding economic diversification and rendering the economy vulnerable to external shocks. Third, a mineral boom tends to concentrate revenue on the government, which may use it to postpone difficult decisions on economic reform and/or dissipate the revenue due to weak financial markets and inadequate public accountability. Kazakhstan, like oil-rich Azerbaijan, is a late reformer and displays evidence of a faster transition rebound than other less resource-rich countries in the CIS do. However, Kazakhstan has two advantages over Azerbaijan. First, Kazakhstan has a more diversified mineral endowment with which to counter any trend towards single commodity specialization. Second, Kazakhstan is making a later start on oil expansion so that it can learn from the experience of Azerbaijan. Priorities for Kazakhstan are the continuation of prudent economic policies, the creation of institutions to enhance the transparency of the revenue flows, and the use of environmental accounting to provide a rationale for the deployment of the oil rents. (author)

  10. Photochemistry of Nitrate Adsorbed on Mineral Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gankanda, A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust particles in the atmosphere are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides including HNO3 and NO2. Although nitrate ion is a well-studied chromophore in natural waters, the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on mineral dust particles is yet to be fully explored. In this study, wavelength dependence of the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on different model components of mineral dust aerosol has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Al2O3, TiO2 and NaY zeolite were used as model systems to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and porous materials respectively, present in mineral dust aerosol. In this study, adsorbed nitrate is irradiated with 254 nm, 310 nm and 350 nm narrow band light. In the irradiation with narrow band light, NO2 is the only detectable gas-phase product formed from nitrate adsorbed on Al2O3 and TiO2. The NO2 yield is highest at 310 nm for both Al2O3 and TiO2. Unlike Al2O3 and TiO2, in zeolite, adsorbed nitrate photolysis to nitrite is observed only at 310 nm during narrow band irradiation. Moreover gas phase products were not detected during nitrate photolysis in zeolite at all three wavelengths. The significance of these differences as related to nitrate photochemistry on different mineral dust components will be highlighted.

  11. Impacts of Nickel Nanoparticles on Mineral Carbonation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bodor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents experimental results regarding the use of pure nickel nanoparticles (NiNP as a mineral carbonation additive. The aim was to confirm if the catalytic effect of NiNP, which has been reported to increase the dissolution of CO2 and the dissociation of carbonic acid in water, is capable of accelerating mineral carbonation processes. The impacts of NiNP on the CO2 mineralization by four alkaline materials (pure CaO and MgO, and AOD and CC steelmaking slags, on the product mineralogy, on the particle size distribution, and on the morphology of resulting materials were investigated. NiNP-containing solution was found to reach more acidic pH values upon CO2 bubbling, confirming a higher quantity of bicarbonate ions. This effect resulted in acceleration of mineral carbonation in the first fifteen minutes of reaction time when NiNP was present. After this initial stage, however, no benefit of NiNP addition was seen, resulting in very similar carbonation extents after one hour of reaction time. It was also found that increasing solids content decreased the benefit of NiNP, even in the early stages. These results suggest that NiNP has little contribution to mineral carbonation processes when the dissolution of alkaline earth metals is rate limiting.

  12. Cyanobacteria as Biocatalysts for Carbonate Mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Jansson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial carbonate mineralization is widespread in nature and among microorganisms, and of vast ecological and geological importance. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that trigger and control processes such as calcification, i.e., mineralization of CO2 to calcium carbonate (CaCO3, is limited and literature on cyanobacterial calcification is oftentimes bewildering and occasionally controversial. In cyanobacteria, calcification may be intimately associated with the carbon dioxide-(CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM, a biochemical system that allows the cells to raise the concentration of CO2 at the site of the carboxylating enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco up to 1000-fold over that in the surrounding medium. A comprehensive understanding of biologically induced carbonate mineralization is important for our ability to assess its role in past, present, and future carbon cycling, interpret paleontological data, and for evaluating the process as a means for biological carbon capture and storage (CCS. In this review we summarize and discuss the metabolic, physiological and structural features of cyanobacteria that may be involved in the reactions leading to mineral formation and precipitation, present a conceptual model of cyanobacterial calcification, and, finally, suggest practical applications for cyanobacterial carbonate mineralization.

  13. Calderas and mineralization: volcanic geology and mineralization in the Chianti caldera complex, Trans-Pecos Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duex, T.W.; Henry, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes preliminary results of an ongoing study of the volcanic stratigraphy, caldera activity, and known and potential mineralization of the Chinati Mountains area of Trans-Pecos Texas. Many ore deposits are spatially associated with calderas and other volcanic centers. A genetic relationship between calderas and base and precious metal mineralization has been proposed by some and denied by others. Steven and others have demonstrated that calderas provide an important setting for mineralization in the San Juan volcanic field of Colorado. Mineralization is not found in all calderas but is apparently restricted to calderas that had complex, postsubsidence igneous activity. A comparison of volcanic setting, volcanic history, caldera evolution, and evidence of mineralization in Trans-Pecos to those of the San Juan volcanic field, a major mineral producer, indicates that Trans-Pecos Texas also could be an important mineralized region. The Chianti caldera complex in Trans-Pecos Texas contains at least two calderas that have had considerable postsubsidence activity and that display large areas of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization. Abundant prospects in Trans-Pecos and numerous producing mines immediately south of the Trans-Pecos volcanic field in Mexico are additional evidence that ore-grade deposits could occur in Texas.

  14. Deciphering a multistage history affecting U-Cu(-Fe) mineralization in the Singhbhum Shear Zone, eastern India, using pyrite textures and compositions in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dipak C.; Barton, Mark D.; Sarangi, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    The ˜200-km-long intensely deformed Singhbhum Shear Zone (SSZ) in eastern India hosts India’s largest U and Cu deposits and related Fe mineralization. The SSZ separates an Archaean cratonic nucleus to the south from a Mesoproterozoic fold belt in the North and has a complex geologic history that obscures the origin of the contained iron-oxide-rich mineral deposits. This study investigates aspects of the history of mineralization in the SSZ by utilizing new petrographic and electron microprobe observations of pyrite textures and zoning in the Turamdih U-Cu(-Fe) deposit. Mineralization at Turamdih is hosted in intensively deformed quartz-chlorite schist. Sulfides and oxides include, in inferred order of development: (a) magmatic Fe(-Ti-Cr) oxide and Fe-Cu(-Ni) sulfide minerals inferred to be magmatic (?) in origin; followed by (b) uranium, Fe-oxide, and Fe-Cu(-Co) sulfide minerals that predate most or all ductile deformation, and are inferred to be of hydrothermal origin; and (c) Fe-Cu sulfides that were generated during and postdating ductile deformation. These features are associated with the formation of three compositionally and texturally distinct pyrites. Pyrite (type-A), typically in globular-semiglobular composite inclusions of pyrite plus chalcopyrite in magnetite, is characterized by very high Ni content (up to 30,700 ppm) and low Co to Ni ratios (0.01-0.61). The textural and compositional characteristics of associated chalcopyrite and rare pyrrhotite suggest that this pyrite could be linked to the magmatic event via selective replacement of magmatic pyrrhotite. Alternatively, this pyrite and associated sulfide inclusions might be cogenetic with hydrothermal Fe-oxide. Type-B pyrite that forms elongate grains and irregular relics and cores of pyrite with high Co contents (up to 23,630 ppm) and high Co to Ni ratios (7.2-140.9) are interpreted to be related to hydrothermal mineralization predating ductile deformation. A third generation of pyrite (type C

  15. A Review of Mineral Resources and GIS Applications in Mineral Resource Assessment in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yunxuan; Wang Lei; Liu Wansong; Xu Huiping; Sun Fengyue

    2000-01-01

    Northeast China is one of the regions in China that possesses a great abundance of mineral resources.Coal, petroleum, natural gas, gold, iron, magnesite, graphite, talc, molding sand, glass sand and some others account for large portion in reserves and yields of that in the whole country. The region faced also shortages of copper, molybdenum, oil shale, zirconium, tantalum, rare earth, and beryllium, although they have large reserves,but limited by economical and technical factors. Geological mapping and mineral exploration activities have been intensive. Only the north part of Daxinanling Mountains in the region leaves unexplored. GIS applications in mineral resource assessment in the region start not long. Databases for GIS applications are on the way of construction.Well - trained technical staff and expertise do not meet the demand.This article reviews the situation of mineral resources and GIS applications for mineral resource assessment in the region. Suggestions on multi - lateral cooperation and GIS training are also made.

  16. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  17. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  18. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  19. Ectopic mineral formation in the prostate gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Moskalenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the data of cont emporary scientific literature regarding the ectopic mineralization in the prostate gland, its pathogenetic features are considered. The scientific literature of recent decades gives grounds to assert that the processes of concrement formation in the prostate gland are influenced by many factors, pathological mineralization can be realized by different mechanisms. They include chronic inflammation, stagnation fract ions in gland, reflux of urine from the urethra at intravesicle obstruction, malformation of prostate and seminal vesicles, specific inflammation, polymorphism of gene protein inhibitors of calcification. These mechanisms are interconnected, each of them may participate in the overall development of concrement fo rmation in the prostate. In recent years, due to improved instrumental diagnosis we observe a significant increase of the number of patients, who were found with pathogenic prostate gland biol iths, which requires more detailed and in-depth study of the mechanisms of mineral formation in the prostate.

  20. Biogeochemical interactions during the biobeneficiation of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, J.; Mudliar, P. S.; Mudliar, S. N.; Pandey, R. A.

    2009-04-01

    Mineral biotechnology is one of the wings of biotechnology involving integrated application of the knowledge and techniques of biochemistry, microbiology, genetics and chemical engineering to draw benefit at the technological level from the properties and capacities of microorganisms. It offers the possibility of recovering, refining and concentrating wide varieties of minerals for services essential to life and well being of mankind. It also helps in minimising the environmental damages with recourse to conserving the natural resources for future generation. The paper outlines possible microorganism-microorganism interaction, microorganism-mineral interactions and microorganism interactions with produced products of biobeneficiation especially with respect to copper waste tailings and coal containing pyretic sulphur. Keywords: Copper; Tailings; Coal; Pyrite; Thiobascillus ferrooxidans; Thiobascillus thiooxidans

  1. Utilization of milk minerals by Iberian suckling piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Castellano, R; Aguinaga, M. A.; R. Nieto; AGUILERA, J.F.; Haro, A; I. Seiquer

    2013-01-01

    Little information is available concerning mineral metabolism in suckling piglets. The utilization of milk minerals and the mineral composition of Iberian (IB) suckling piglets were studied in two consecutive experiments at different ambient temperatures (trial 1, 27 ± 2°C; trial 2, 22 ± 2°C). Milk composition and the piglets’ performance were determined weekly over a 34 days lactation period and, at the end, body mineral contents were analyzed and mineral retention and bioavailability were c...

  2. Wet High Intensity Magnetic Separation of Iron Minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Y.; Veasey, T. J.; Rowson, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    Four different iron minerals were selected for study, and five size fractions of each mineral were prepared. The magnetic properties of these minerals were measured. The effect of particle size and magnetic susceptibility on wet high intensity magnetic separation was studied simultaneously. It was found that hematite—1 was a strongly paramagnetic mineral, and the effect of particle size in WHIMS was not significant. Goethite and limonite were weakly paramagnetic minerals, and could not be eff...

  3. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy of mineral standards

    OpenAIRE

    Ingall, Ellery D.; Brandes, Jay A.; Diaz, Julia M.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Paterson,David; McNulty, Ian; Elliott, W. Crawford; Northrup, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy was performed on phosphate mineral specimens including (a) twelve specimens from the apatite group covering a range of compositional variation and crystallinity; (b) six non-apatite calcium-rich phosphate minerals; (c) 15 aluminium-rich phosphate minerals; (d) ten phosphate minerals rich in either reduced iron or manganese; (e) four phosphate minerals rich in either oxidized iron or manganese; (f) eight phosphate mine...

  4. Geoelectrical Signatures Of Microbial Stimulated Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personna, Y. R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; O Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.; Williams, K. H.

    2007-05-01

    Bioremediation techniques are commonly utilized to address soil and groundwater contamination due to acid- mine drainage, industrial sources, and government nuclear weapon programs. One critical component of these efforts is the real time, spatially accurate monitoring of the remediation processes. For this reason non-invasive high resolution geophysical methods have been employed in the recent years to elucidate system transformations occurring during bioremediation. In our study, we performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of microbe-mediated iron sulfide (FeS) precipitation accompanying stimulated sulfate-reduction; a bioremediation technique currently utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface. In order to monitor the biomineralization process, we used two geoelectrical methods - induced polarization (IP) and self-potential (SP) - in conjunction with conventional geochemical measurements. The IP data showed significant anomalies associated with ongoing FeS mineralization accompanying microbial activity. The magnitude of the IP response can be considered a proxy for the mass of minerals accumulating in the pore space and may provide insight into the aggregation state of the mineralization. Additionally, strong SP anomalies developed during the mineralization as a result of the continuous redox state changes following the microbial induced mineral formation. Visibly black precipitates accumulated with the column indicating FeS precipitation, and high H2S content confirmed the observed geochemical and geophysical data. Overall, the results suggest that the IP and SP methods can be used to monitor the progress of the microbial induced mineralization process associated with the precipitation of insoluble metal sulfides, and indirectly monitor the microbial activity within the subsurface. These methods can be valuable tools to increase the efficiency of bioremediation techniques.

  5. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  6. Characteristics of Lead Sorption by Zeolite Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sewailem, M. S.

    Lead adsorption behavior was investigated using four Zeolite minerals (clinoptilolite, analcime, phillipsite and chabazite). The used Pb2+ concentrations were 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5 µmol mL-1. Results indicated that Pb2+ sorption followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, but over limited concentration ranges for clinoptilolite and analcime. The bindg energy (Kd) reached, 2.400 and 0.875 g L-1 for phillipsite and chabazite, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity for such minerals reached 208.33 and 204.08 mg g-1 with correlation coefficient (R2) reached, 0.997 and 0.995, respectively. Meanwhile, two stages for Pb2+adsorption were observed with clinoptilolite and analcime in the low and high concentrations of the applied Pb2+. Data also was applicable to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm over the used entire Pb2+ concentration ranges. The binding energy (n) reached, 1.014, 1.005, 1.001 and 1.001 g L-1 for clinoptilolite, analcime, phillipsite and chabazite, respectively. However, the b values (maximum adsorption capacity) reached 202.582, 201.651, 207.062 and 206.871 mg g-1 with correlation coefficient (R2) nearly one for all studying minerals, respectively. Desorption data indicated that most of the sorbed Pb2+ was extractedin the 1st extraction following the adsorption experiment. The ability of the used zeolite minerals to retain Pb2+ was high and there were differences between the studied minerals in sorption of Pb2+. In conclusion, data eliminated that, zeolite minerals especially, philipsite and chabazite, could be successfully used as packing material in subsurface reactive barriers intercepting ground water plumes and for fixed bed reactors designed to remove Pb2+ from industrial wastewater.

  7. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  8. Estimation of palaeohydrochemical conditions using carbonate minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amamiya, H.; Mizuno, T.; Iwatsuki, T.; Yuguchi, T.; Murakami, H.; Saito-Kokubu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term evolution of geochemical environment in deep underground is indispensable research subject for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, because the evolution of geochemical environment would impact migration behavior of radionuclides in deep underground. Many researchers have made efforts previously to elucidate the geochemical environment within the groundwater residence time based on the analysis of the actual groundwater. However, it is impossible to estimate the geochemical environment for the longer time scale than the groundwater residence time in this method. In this case, analysis of the chemical properties of secondary minerals are one of useful method to estimate the paleohydrochemical conditions (temperature, salinity, pH and redox potential). In particular, carbonate minerals would be available to infer the long-term evolution of hydrochemical for the following reasons; -it easily reaches chemical equilibrium with groundwater and precipitates in open space of water flowing path -it reflects the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater at the time of crystallization We reviewed the previous studies on carbonate minerals and geochemical conditions in deep underground and estimated the hydrochemical characteristics of past groundwater by using carbonate minerals. As a result, it was found that temperature and salinity of the groundwater during crystallization of carbonate minerals were evaluated quantitatively. On the other hand, pH and redox potential can only be understood qualitatively. However, it is suggested that the content of heavy metal elements such as manganese, iron and uranium, and rare earth elements in the carbonate minerals are useful indicators for estimating redox potential. This study was carried out under a contract with METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) as part of its R&D supporting program for developing geological disposal technology.

  9. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  10. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  11. Geoethical approach to mineral activities in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalay, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Antarctica is the outermost from civilization space continent. From 14.0 million km2 of surface area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1.6 km in thickness. Geologically, the continent is the least explored in the world, and it is almost absolutely unknown what mineral resources Antarctica has as they are buried in rock that is covered by a thick ice sheet. It is thought to have large and valuable mineral deposits under the ice. This is because of what has been found in samples taken from the small areas of rock that are exposed, and also from what has been found in South Africa and South America. Up until 180 million years ago, Antarctica was a part of the Gondwanaland super continent, attached to South America, the Southern part of Africa, India and Australia, these continents then drifted apart until they reached their current positions. This leads to a possibility that Antarctica may also share some of the mineral wealth of these continents. Right now on the ice-free areas of Antarctica iron ore, chromium, copper, gold, nickel, platinum, coal and hydrocarbons have been found. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Madrid Protocol, was signed in 1991 by the signatories to the Antarctic Treaty and became law in January 1998. The Protocol provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems and includes a ban on all commercial mining for at least fifty years (this is up for review in 2041). Current climate change and melting ice in Polar Regions is opening up new opportunities to exploit mineral and oil resources. Even Antarctica's weather, ice and distance from any industrialized areas mean that mineral extraction would be extremely expensive and also extremely dangerous, the depletion of mineral recourses on the Earth can reverse banning of mining in Antarctica in future. There is no question that any resource exploitation in Antarctica will cause

  12. French mineral exploration, 1973-82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both private and government-controlled organizations play significant roles in French mineral exploration. This chapter reviews French exploration from 1973 to 1982, a period in which exploration expenditures increased significantly. It begins by examining aggregate exploration expenditures for the period, as well as the allocation of funds according to geographic area and mineral type, and then identifies several influences upon these expenditure trends. The chapter concludes by looking at the productivity of French exploration and making tentative international comparisons. French uranium exploration is detailed

  13. Radioactive minerals - Multimedias strategies for their divulgation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Aldano, Ana; Fonseca, Pedro; Cabral, Tiago; Nobre, José

    2014-05-01

    The region corresponding to Sortelha-Penalobo - Bendada, located deep in the transition zone between the Hesperian massif and the Cova da Beira in the central part of Portugal, more specifically in the Mountainous region of the province of Beira Alta, county Sabugal. This region is characterized by great mineral wealth combined with geomorphology of recognized landscape value. Under the scientific point of view, this region is the origin of the mineral sabugalite (HAl(UO2)4(PO4)4.16H2O) that was described by the famous American mineralogist Clifford Frondel (1907-2002) in the fifties of the 20th century. Uranium minerals of Sabugal region were also associated with the radioactivity studies made by the well-known French physicist Marie Curie (1867-1934). In 2007, U. Kolitsch et al described the Bendadaite (Fe (AsO4) 2 (OH) 2 • 4H2O), which corresponds to a new mineral from the group arthurite. The mineral wealth of this region is responsible for a rich history of mining and to highlight the importance until the 1990s the extraction of uranium minerals. The main uranium minerals extracted were the tobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 12 H2O), the metatobernite (Cu (UO2) 2 (PO4) 2 • 8 H 2 O), the autonite (Ca (UO2) 2 (PO4 ) 2 • 12H2O-10) and sabugalite (HAL (UO2) 4 (PO4) 4 16H2O). Due to the high radioactivity of these minerals, their handling becomes infeasible for disclosure purposes. An integrated and multidisciplinary museological strategy aims to access 3D images by QR codes, using multitouch as the primary means of interaction with the user, and can handle even the virtual samples, access various magnifications and enjoy explanations supplied by a mascot, in a fun way. All this framework and geological environment becomes an asset for the scientific, educational and economic development of the region. On the other hand, it has a vital importance in the context of a strategy of forming a geological park, in the point of view of tourism, research and

  14. Mineral resource of the month: arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic has a long and varied history: Although it was not isolated as an element until the 13th century, it was known to the ancient Chinese, Egyptians and Greeks in compound form in the minerals arsenopyrite, realgar and orpiment. In the 1400s, “Scheele’s Green” was first used as an arsenic pigment in wallpaper, and leached arsenic from wallpaper may have contributed to Napoleon’s death in 1821. The 1940s play and later movie, Arsenic and Old Lace, dramatizes the metal’s more sinister role. Arsenic continues to be an important mineral commodity with many modern applications.

  15. Structure of chitosan gels mineralized by sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrzejewska, Z.; Skwarczyńska, A.; Douglas, T. E. L.; Biniaś, D.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Sielski, J.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents the structural studies of mineralized chitosan hydrogels. Hydrogels produced by using sodium beta-glycerophosphate (Na-β-GP) as a neutralizing agent. Mineralization was performed method "post loading", which consisted in sorption to the gels structure Ca ions. In order to obtain - in the structure of gels - compounds similar to the hydroxyapatites present naturally in bone tissue, gels after sorption were modified in: pH 7 buffer and sodium hydrogen phosphate. In order to determine the structural properties of the gels, the following methods were used: infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformation, FTIR, X-ray diffractometry, XRD, scanning electron microscopy, SEM.

  16. Radiological safety of bone mineral densitometry equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease leading to increased risk of bone fractures. Bone mineral densitometry (BMD) is a well accepted clinical tool for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis. There are several different modalities for BMD such as Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, Radiographic Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computerized Tomography. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is now well established as the method of choice for osteoporosis assessment. This study was conducted to assess the radiation dose to patients and staff from the standard scan modes

  17. Minerals with metal-organic framework structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskić, Igor; Pekov, Igor V.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are an increasingly important family of advanced materials based on open, nanometer-scale metal-organic architectures, whose design and synthesis are based on the directed assembly of carefully designed subunits. We now demonstrate an unexpected link between mineralogy and MOF chemistry by discovering that the rare organic minerals stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite exhibit structures found in well-established magnetic and proton-conducting metal oxalate MOFs. Structures of stepanovite and zhemchuzhnikovite, exhibiting almost nanometer-wide and guest-filled apertures and channels, respectively, change the perspective of MOFs as exclusively artificial materials and represent, so far, unique examples of open framework architectures in organic minerals.

  18. An Overview of Mineral Processing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲恒磊; 周廉; 魏海荣; 赵永庆

    2001-01-01

    The latest progress in mineral processing in China is described. It is also pointed out that the existing techno logy can not meet the needs of economic development. The combined challenges of poor resources, economical benefits and environmental pollution issues require further research to upgrade the separation efficiency economically. The me thods of mineral processing should play a more important part in waste treatment such as wastewater treatment, the re mediation of contaminated soil and the recycling of wastes. Biomineral technology will be utilised in the near future.

  19. OXYGEN TENSION REGULATES PREOSTEOCYTE MATURATION AND MINERALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zahm, Adam; Bucaro, Michael; Srinivas, Vickram; Shapiro, Irving M.; Adams, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that low pO2 regulates bone cell mineralization. MLO-A5 and MLO-Y4 cells were cultured in monolayer and alginate scaffolds in hypoxia (2% O2) or normoxia (20% O2). Reduction of the O2 tension from 20% to 2% resulted in reduced mineralization and decreased alkaline phosphatase activity of MLO-A5 cells in both monolayer and three-dimensional cultures. Similar changes in osteogenic activity were seen when these preosteocyte-like cells wer...

  20. PROBABILISTIC MINER'S RULE IN FATIGUE RELIABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Firstly, constant amplitude P-Sa-Sm-Nc surface family is established. Secondly, four basic assumptions, i.e., monotonically increasing, non-coupling, separability and nonintersecting of fatigue damage accumulation are proposed from the viewpoint of both damage mechanics and fracture mechanics. Then the individual isodamage D-Sa-Sm-N surface under constant amplitude loading is constructed and the two-dimensional individual Miner's rule is derived. Consequently, the two-dimensional probabilistic Miner's rule (TPMiner) is established and proved for a population subjected to variable amplitude loading. Finally, with successfully experiment verification, TPMiner proves be to very useful and feasible in fatigue reliability theory.

  1. The solubility of a metallic mineral with other coexisting minerals and the ore-forming processes of metallic sulfides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CEN; Kuang; (岑况); YU; Chongwen; (於崇文)

    2001-01-01

    Most metallic minerals in ore deposits are sulfides. When a sulfide mineral coexists with rock-forming minerals, its solubility is distinctly different from itself alone. The change in dissolution character of a mineral with coexisting rock-forming minerals leads to particular geochemical be-havior. The concept of solubility of a metallic mineral with coexisting rock-forming minerals and its theory and model of calculation are put forward. Taking Tianmashan Cu-Au ore deposit of sulfide minerals in Tongling district as an example, solubilities of some metallic minerals with other coex-isting minerals, such as pyrite or chalcopyrite with quartz (representing sandstone) or calcite (rep-resenting limestone), are calculated. The results show the mechanism of ore-forming processes. As the ore-forming fluid flows through sandstone, it dissolves pyrite in the sandstone at first, then transports the iron and sulfur to the interface between sandstone and limestone and eventually precipitates them on the interface.

  2. Predicting the Mineral Composition of Dust Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlwitz, J. P.; Perez, C.; Miller, R. L.; Rodriguez, S.

    2012-12-01

    Models of the soil (''mineral'') dust aerosol cycle, embedded in climate and Earth system models, are essential tools for understanding the causal relationships and feedbacks between dust and climate. Many soil dust schemes in Earth system models use a simplified representation of soil dust aerosols, where the soil dust is distinguished by size bins or size distribution modes, with a globally uniform representation of the mineralogical composition of the particles. Although models with such a simplified assumption about the properties of soil dust particles have already significantly contributed to the understanding of the role of soil dust aerosols in climate, this is a limitation for a number of reasons: 1. The response of clouds and the large-scale circulation depends on the radiative properties like the single scattering albedo, which should vary with the mineral composition of the source region; 2. Chemical processes at the surface of the soil dust particles that form sulfate and nitrate coatings depend on the dust mineral composition; 3. The availability of soil dust minerals as cloud condensation nuclei depends on their hygroscopicity, which in turn depends on the mineral composition; 4. Fertilization of phytoplankton with soluble iron, a process that influences ocean carbon uptake, depends upon mineral types. We present a new version of the soil dust scheme in the NASA GISS Earth System ModelE, which takes into account the mineral composition of the soil dust particles. Soil dust aerosols are represented as a mixture of externally and internally mixed minerals, such as Illite, Kaolinite, Smectite, Calcite, Iron(hydr)oxide, Quartz, Feldspar, and Gypsum, as well as aggregates between Iron(hydr)oxide and each of the minerals. We test two approaches to constrain the mineral composition of the soil dust particles against data from measurements published in literature as well as measurements from Izaña (Tenerife). The comparison between modeled and measured data

  3. Mapping the Mineral Resource Base for Mineral Carbon-Dioxide Sequestration in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevor, S.C.; Graves, C.R.; Van Gosen, B. S.; McCafferty, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This database provides information on the occurrence of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States that are suitable for sequestering captured carbon dioxide in mineral form, also known as mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration. Mineral carbon-dioxide sequestration is a proposed greenhouse gas mitigation technology whereby carbon dioxide (CO2) is disposed of by reacting it with calcium or magnesium silicate minerals to form a solid magnesium or calcium carbonate product. The technology offers a large capacity to permanently store CO2 in an environmentally benign form via a process that takes little effort to verify or monitor after disposal. These characteristics are unique among its peers in greenhouse gas disposal technologies. The 2005 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage suggested that a major gap in mineral CO2 sequestration is locating the magnesium-silicate bedrock available to sequester the carbon dioxide. It is generally known that silicate minerals with high concentrations of magnesium are suitable for mineral carbonation. However, no assessment has been made in the United States that details their geographical distribution and extent, nor has anyone evaluated their potential for use in mineral carbonation. Researchers at Columbia University and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a digital geologic database of ultramafic rocks in the conterminous United States. Data were compiled from varied-scale geologic maps of magnesium-silicate ultramafic rocks. The focus of our national-scale map is entirely on ultramafic rock types, which typically consist primarily of olivine- and serpentine-rich rocks. These rock types are potentially suitable as source material for mineral CO2 sequestration.

  4. Raman spectra of human dentin mineral

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsuda, H; Ruben, J; Arends, J

    1996-01-01

    Human dentin mineral has been investigated by using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Fluorescence and thermal problems were largely avoided by preparing dentin samples by grinding and ultrasonic agitation in acetone. The Raman spectral features were consistent with those of impure hydroxyapatite containing

  5. Explosion of Ultrahigh Pressure Minerals in Mantle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Wenji; YANG Jingsui; FANG Qingsong; YAN Binggang; ZHANG Zhongming

    2001-01-01

    @@ The microexplosion stucture of ultrahigh pressure minerals was found for the first time in podform chromitites within the mantle peridotite facies of Luobusa ophiolite along the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone.The explosion stuctures of high-energy silicate inclusions are commonly seen in thin sections (see figure).

  6. Computer programmes for mineral processing presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Aleksandar; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper will be shown computer application of softwares Minteh-5, Minteh-6 and Cyclone in Visual Basic, Visual Studio for presentation of two-products for some closed circuits od grinding-clasifying processes. These methods make possibilities for appropriate, fast and sure presentation of some complex circuits in the mineral processing technologies.

  7. Biaxial phases in mineral liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroege, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    A review is given of liquid crystals formed in colloidal dispersions, in particular those consisting of mineral particles. Starting with the historical development and early theory, the characteristic properties related to the colloidal nature of this type of liquid crystals are discussed. The possi

  8. Heavy minerals : from 'Edelstein' to Einstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meijer, RJ

    1998-01-01

    Identification in 1982 on the Dutch Frisian Island of Ameland of beach sand with;ln enhanced level of natural radioactivity, due to concentrations of heavy minerals, inspired a multi-disciplinary research project. A joint research effort in geochemistry, sedimentology, hydrodynamics, solid-state phy

  9. Mineral resource of the month: mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on mercury, a mineral commodity used in industrial and small-scale gold mining applications. Mercury has been reported to be used for amalgamation with gold since the Roman times. Mercury from cinnabar from Almadén, Spain has been used by Romans and has been continued to be used through the Middle Ages and the Colonial era.

  10. Yarlongite:A New Metallic Carbide Mineral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Nicheng; BAI Wenji; LI Guowu; XIONG Ming; FANG Qingsong; YANG Jingsui; MA Zhesheng; RONG He

    2009-01-01

    Yarlongite occurs in ophiolitic chromitite at the Luobusha mine(29°5'N 92°,5'E,about 200 km ESE of Lhasa),Qusum County,Shannan Prefecture,Tibet Autonomous Region,People'S Republic of China.Associated minerals are:diamond,moissanite,wiistite,iridium("osmiridium"), osmium("iridosmine"),periclase,chromite,native irun,native nickel,native chromium,forsterite. Cr-rich diopside,intermetallic compounds Ni-Fe-Cr,Ni-Cr,Cr-C,etc.Yariongite and its associated minerals were handpicked from a large heavy mineral sample of chromitite.The metallic carbides associated with yarlongite are cohenite,tongbaite,khamrabaevite and qusongite(IMA2007.034). Yarlongite occurs as irregular grains,with a size between 0.02 and 0.06 mm,steel-grey colour,H Mohs:5 1/2-6.Tenacity:brittle.Cleavage:{0 0 1}perfect.Fracture:conchoidal.Chemical formula: (Cr4Fe4Ni)∑9C4,or(Cr,Fe,Ni)∑9C4,Crystal system:Hexagonal,Space Group:P63/mc,a=18.839(2)A,C =4.4960(9)A,V=745.7(2)A3,Z=6,Density(calc.)=7.19 g/cm3(with simplified formula).Yarlongite has been approved as a new mineral by the CNMNC(IMA2007-035).Holotype material is deposited at the Geological Museum of China(No.M11650).

  11. New Mexico Known Mineral Deposit Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains all Known Mineral Deposit Areas in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the...

  12. Rare earth elements and strategic mineral policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooroshy, J.; Korteweg, R.; Ridder, M. de

    2010-01-01

    Newspapers report almost daily on international tensions around ‘strategic’ or ‘critical’ minerals such as rare earth elements. The temporary freeze of rare earth exports from China to Japan in late 2010 in retaliation of the capture of a Chinese captain is but one example of the strategic use of no

  13. New Mexico Minerals Industry Locator System (MILS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This contains all Mineral Industry Systems in the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a 1:500,000 scale map of the state of New...

  14. Organic matter mineralization in marine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Vlug, T.; Van der Nat, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Many of the reactions and biogeochemical processes that occur in the marine environment are related directly or indirectly to the mineralization of organic matter. Decomposition of organic matter is responsible for the recycling of essential nutrients, for the oxygen balance of the ocean and its sed

  15. Lidar Methods for Observing Mineral Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuo SUGIMOTO; HUANG Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    Lidar methods for observing mineral dust aerosols are reviewed. These methods include Mie scattering lidars, polarization lidars, Raman scattering lidars, high-spectral-resolution lidars, and fluorescence lidars. Some of the lidar systems developed by the authors and the results of the observations and applications are introduced. The largest advantage of the lidar methods is that they can observe vertical distribution of aerosols continuously with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Networks of ground-based lidars provide useful data for understanding the distribution and movement of mineral dust and other aerosols. The lidar network data are actually used for validation and assimilation of dust transport models, which can evaluate emission, transport, and deposition of mineral dust. The lidar methods are also useful for measuring the optical characteristics of aerosols that are essential to assess the radiative effects of aerosols. Evolution of the lidar data analysis methods for aerosol characterization is also reviewed. Observations from space and ground-based networks are two important approaches with the lidar methods in the studies of the effects of mineral dust and other aerosols on climate and the environment. Directions of the researches with lidar methods in the near future are discussed.

  16. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  17. Measurement and Modelling of Scaling Minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villafafila Garcia, Ada

    2005-01-01

    of scale formation found in many industrial processes, and especially in oilfield and geothermal operations. We want to contribute to the study of this problem by releasing a simple and accurate thermodynamic model capable of calculating the behaviour of scaling minerals, covering a wide range...

  18. Phalangeal bone mineral density predicts incident fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Holmberg, Teresa; Brixen, Kim; Rubin, Katrine Hass;

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the use of phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) in predicting fractures in a cohort (15,542) who underwent a BMD scan. In both women and men, a decrease in BMD was associated with an increased risk of fracture when adjusted for age and prevalent fractures...

  19. Mineral resources of Colombia (other than petroleum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singewald, Quentin Dreyer

    1950-01-01

    The following report summarizes data acquired during 1942-45, in Colombia, by geologists and engineers of the Foreign Economic Administration, with whom the United States Geological Survey cooperated. Twenty-nine mineral commodities are considered, but the data for five of them are scant because they were of no interest to FEA personnel. Petroleum is not considered. Preliminary to a review of individual mineral commodities, resumes are given of the general geography and geology of Colombia and of the country's mining laws. The principal mineral commodities, besides petroleum, produced in Colombia are (1) emeralds, gold, platinum, and silver, mainly for export, and (2) barite, cement, clay, coal, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, silica, and stone, mainly for the domestic market. A large number of other mineral commodities are known in "raw" prospects, some of which may eventually become productive. Their distribution and apparent potentialities, as of 1945, are given. Factors unfavorable to mining are the ruggedness of the terrain, the scarcity of outcrops, and the very high transportation costs.

  20. Reserve evaluation of minerals at NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method used for the reserve evaluation of minerals, particularly of uranium, as used worldwide, and specially at NUCLEBRAS is described. This is done through a series of procedures envolving basic definitions, reserve evaluation methods (conventional, statistical and geoestatistical), data management, use of computer systems, classification and evaluation of reserves. (Author)

  1. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  2. Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maclellan, I. M.; Kaizer, J. L.; McCulloch, P. D.; Ratcliffe, R.; Wenning, A. S. [Nova Scotia Dept. of Natural Resources, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    Activities of the Nova Scotia Registry of Mineral and Petroleum Titles are described, including statistical information about staking and mining activity in the province during 1999. In terms of activities, the Registry receives applications and issues licenses and leases for mineral and petroleum rights, receives statements of exploration expenditures and assessment reports that pertain to renewal of licenses and leases, maintains maps showing the disposition of lands under license or lease, and maintains a system of prospector registration. In addition, the Registry processes applications for underground gas storage rights and treasure trove rights and maintains a database of information concerning production and employment in Nova Scotia mines and quarries. At the end 1999 there were 230,660 hectares under exploration licence. Exploration expenditures, including engineering, economic and feasibility studies during 1999 totalled $4.2 million, mostly by junior mining companies searching for industrial mineral commodities. Mining activity during 1999 generated revenues of $340 million. Coal production dropped by 25 per cent, due mainly to the closure of the Phalen Mine. Gypsum production was up to 7.9 million tonnes; shipments of cement, barite and clay products also increased during 1999; salt production remained unchanged from 1998 with 842,000 tonnes. Production of construction aggregates totalled 10.6 million tonnes, down slightly from the year before. Mineral industry employment was roughly 2,500 persons, down by 24 per cent from 1998 levels, due primarily to the closure of the Phalen Mine.

  3. Oxydesulphurization of coal using trona mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the desulphurization of coal by oxydesulphunzation method using raw trona mineral was investigated. The experiments were carried out on a Turkish lignite sample which has both high pyritic and high organic sulphur contents. Some experimental parameters such as temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, concentration and time were investigated.

  4. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has lead to concerns about global warming. A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept beh

  5. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...

  6. Flotation of aluminosilicate minerals using alkylguanidine collectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Feng; ZHONG Hong; LIU Guang-yi; ZHAO Sheng-gui; XIA Liu-yin

    2009-01-01

    The flotation mechanism of aluminosilicate minerals using alkylguanidine collectors was studied through flotation experiments, Zeta potential measurements and FT-IR spectrum analysis. It is shown that kaolinite, illite and pyrophyllite all exhibit good floatability with alkylguanidines as collectors at pH 4-12. The flotation recoveries rise with the increase of the carbon chain length. Isoelectric point(IEP) is determined to be 3.5, 3.0 and 2.3 for kaolinite, illite and pyrophyllite, respectively. However, it is anomalous that the presence of cationic collectors has less influence on the negatively charged mineral surfaces. It is explained by the special structure of guanidine which is one of the strongest bases, having two -NH2 groups. One of them maybe interacts with minerals by electrostatic forces, and the other maybe forms hydrogen bonding with OH- ions on the aluminosilicate surfaces or in the aqueous solution, increasing the density of negative charge on the aluminosilicate surface and leading unpronounced positive charge to increase on the aluminosilicate. By combining the flotation tests, Zeta potential and FTIR measurements above, the interaction mechanism can be concluded. The simultaneous presence of cationic and neutral amine groups makes it possible for SAG cation to bind on three aluminosilicate minerals by both electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding. While in acidic medium, the interaction of the alkylguanidines on the aluminosilicate surfaces is mainly by means of electrostatic force and hydrogen bond; in the alkaline medium, it is by the way of electrostatic effect and hydrogen bond.

  7. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  8. Recycling Ni from Contaminated and Mineralized Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rare plant species accumulate potentially valuable concentrations of some metals. Alyssum murale readily accumulates over 2% Ni in aboveground dry matter when grown on Ni-mineralized serpentine soils in Oregon, allowing production of “hay” biomass with at least 400 kg Ni ha-1 with low levels of fer...

  9. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelliere, Emma C; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  10. Minerals in the foods eaten by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Cancelliere

    Full Text Available Minerals are critical to an individual's health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods.

  11. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  12. Minerals from Macedonia IV.Discrimination between some carbonate minerals by FTIR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovski, Gligor; Stefov, Viktor; Shoptrajanov, Bojan; Boev, Blazo

    2002-01-01

    The use of FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish between some geologically im­portant carbonate minerals (calcite - CaCO3), aragonite - CaCO3, siderite - FeCO3, magnesite - MgCO3, and dolomite - CaMg(CO3)2 originating from Macedonia and to detect mineral impurities in them is considered. 1t was shown that the series of the studied isomorphous calcite type minerals is an ideal test case for the evaluating the in­fluence of the corresponding cation upon the band frequencies or the carbonate ...

  13. Organo-mineral interactions in Pseudomonas putida-birnessite assemblages: Impact on mineral reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanova, Anna; Kroll, Alexandra; Pena, Jasquelin

    2016-04-01

    The ability of microorganisms to precipitate biogenic birnessite nanoparticles is widely spread in the bacterial and fungal trees of life, with this process accounting largely for the formation of birnessite in nature. Birnessite minerals occur typically as nanoparticles that exhibit significant chemical and structural disorder. Furthermore, the mineral is embedded within a biomass matrix composed of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substances, where the biomass not only provides reactive surfaces but can mediate electron transfer reactions. The overarching question guiding our research is: How do nanoscale properties and admixing with microbial biomass modify the reactivity of Mn oxide minerals? In this study, we investigate the biomass-birnessite composites of Pseudomonas putida GB-1 biomass and δ-MnO2 nanoparticles. We characterized the structure and composition of the mineral fraction using X-ray diffraction, Mn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet-chemical methods. To characterize the biomass fraction, we employed FTIR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances. Finally, we measured Ni(II) sorption isotherms at pH 6 and Ni K-edge EXAFS spectra to determine the extent and mechanism of Ni sorption in the biomass-mineral composites and in biomass-only and mineral-only systems. This approach provided direct and indirect evidence for the extent of organo-mineral interactions in the composites, as well as a direct measure of sorption reactivity in the composites relative to biomass-only and mineral-only systems. We found that admixing of mineral nanoparticles with biomass reduced the reactivity of the edge sites of birnessite particles towards Ni(II) through the attachment of organic moieties to the mineral particles and/or modification of the assemblage surface charge properties. In addition, the interaction of biomass components with MnO2 particles leads to partial Mn(IV) reduction and

  14. Petrography, Mineral Chemistry and Geothermobarometry of Andalusite- Bearing Schists North of Azna (Northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abdollahi Silabi

    2016-07-01

    deformation that hasproduced the current morphologyof the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Shabanian Borujeni, 2008. In this paper we focused on petrography and mineral chemistry and thermodynamic conditions of the metapelites. Materials and methods The chemical compositions of minerals were determined by a CAMECA SX100 electron microprobe (EMP at Universität Stuttgart (Germany. The instrument is equipped with five wavelength dispersive spectrometers. The beam current and acceleration voltage were 15 nA and 15 kV, respectively. v Discussion and Results The Azna regional metamorphic rocks include quartz-feldspar schists, mica schists, andalusite-bearing schists and quartzites. The Azna metapelites are schists, containing quartz, feldspars, andalusite, muscovite, biotite, muscovite, chlorite and garnet, in variable proportions, characterized byporphyroblastic and lepidoblastic textures. Based on mineralogy, minerals of these rocks contain andalusite, garnet, feldspar, muscovite, biotite, quartz and chlorite. Microprobe analyses show that the mineral compositions are as follows: White micas in the andalusite-bearing schists are muscovite, plagioclases are albite-oligoclase, garnets are almandine-spessartine with weak chemical zoning and biotites are siderophylite-annite. Based on geothermobarometry, these rocks formed in the hornblende-hornfels facies and the low pressure part of the amphibolite facies,with temperatures about 562-692 °C and pressures1.07-4.12 kbar. After the regional metamorphism of these rocks,granitoidintrusions causedthermal metamorphism of these rocks and the formation of andalusite-bearing schists. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the Office of Graduate Studies of the University of Isfahan for their support. We also thank Prof. Hans-JoachimMassonne, who played major roles during the microprobe analysis of minerals at the InstitutfürMineralogie und Kristallchemie, Universität Stuttgart (Germany. References Aghanabati, A., 2004. Geology of Iran. Geological

  15. Information system of mineral deposits in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribernik, K.; Rokavec, D.; Šinigioj, J.; Šolar, S.

    2010-03-01

    At the Geologic Survey of Slovenia the need for complex overview and control of the deposits of available non-metallic mineral raw materials and of their exploitations became urgent. In the framework of the Geologic Information System we established the Database of non-metallic mineral deposits comprising all important data of deposits and concessionars. Relational database is built with program package MS Access, but in year 2008 we plan to transfer it on SQL server. In the evidence there is 272 deposits and 200 concessionars. The mineral resources information system of Slovenia, which was started back in 2002, consists of two integrated parts, mentioned relational database of mineral deposits, which relates information in tabular way so that rules of relational algebra can be applied, and geographic information system (GIS), which relates spatial information of deposits. . The complex relationships between objects and the concepts of normalized data structures, lead to the practical informative and useful data model, transparent to the user and to better decision-making by allowing future scenarios to be developed and inspected. Computerized storage, and display system is as already said, developed and managed under the support of Geological Survey of Slovenia, which conducts research on the occurrence, quality, quantity, and availability of mineral resources in order to help the Nation make informed decisions using earth-science information. Information about deposit is stored in records in approximately hundred data fields. A numeric record number uniquely identifies each site. The data fields are grouped under principal categories. Each record comprise elementary data of deposit (name, type, location, prospect, rock), administrative data (concessionar, number of decree in official paper, object of decree, number of contract and its duration) and data of mineral resource produced amount and size of exploration area). The data can also be searched, sorted and

  16. Evolution of uranium and thorium minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, R. M.; Ewing, R. C.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The origins and near-surface distributions of the approximately 250 known uranium and/or thorium minerals elucidate principles of mineral evolution. This history can be divided into four phases. The first, from ~4.5 to 3.5 Ga, involved successive concentrations of uranium and thorium from their initial uniform trace distribution into magmatic-related fluids from which the first U4+ and Th4+ minerals, uraninite (UO2), thorianite (ThO2) and coffinite (USiO4), precipitated in the crust. The second period, from ~3.5 to 2.2 Ga, saw the formation of large low-grade concentrations of detrital uraninite (containing several weight percent Th) in the Witwatersrand-type quartz-pebble conglomerates deposited in a highly anoxic fluvial environment. Abiotic alteration of uraninite and coffinite, including radiolysis and auto-oxidation caused by radioactive decay and the formation of helium from alpha particles, may have resulted in the formation of a limited suite of uranyl oxide-hydroxides. Earth’s third phase of uranium mineral evolution, during which most known U minerals first precipitated from reactions of soluble uranyl (U6+O2)2+ complexes, followed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ~2.2 Ga and thus was mediated indirectly by biologic activity. Most uraninite deposited during this phase was low in Th and precipitated from saline and oxidizing hydrothermal solutions (100 to 300°C) transporting (UO2)2+-chloride complexes. Examples include the unconformity- and vein-type U deposits (Australia and Canada) and the unique Oklo natural nuclear reactors in Gabon. The onset of hydrothermal transport of (UO2)2+ complexes in the upper crust may reflect the availability of CaSO4-bearing evaporites after the GOE. During this phase, most uranyl minerals would have been able to form in the O2-bearing near-surface environment for the first time through weathering processes. The fourth phase of uranium mineralization began approximately 400 million years ago, as the rise of land plants

  17. THE HISTORY OF BORSEC MINERAL WATER BOTTLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The History of Borsec Mineral Water Bottling. The mineral water springs of Borsec have been known to exist since ancient times. It started as a legend, presented by Orbán Balász, who mentions an author named Salzer. In his „Voyage Diaries in Transylvania”, Salzer recounts the discovery of healing springs in the area, and attributes it, like many other authors, to a Romanian shepherd called Gheorghe, who, suffering from ulcer, returning home one day, drank from one of the Borsec springs. Drinking the sour water, he felt better. Consequently, he remained there for a couple of days, drinking water from the same spot and curing his ailment. Written documents date back from the 16th century, when Bethlen Farkas, in the historical novel „Historia”, recounts that, in 1594, Sigismund Bathory, who resided in Alba Iulia, suffered from nervous exhaustion. His Italian doctor, Bucello, who knew about the curing effects of the Borsec mineral waters, prescribed a treatment using the water from the „Lobogó” spring. The water, transported to the princely estate in large covered barrels, eventually healed Sigismund Bathory. It is easy to see why, at the end of the 16th century, the mineral water of Borsec, with its miracle properties, was well known in Transylvania and at the imperial court of Vienna. The above mentioned spring, used from the 19th century onwards, for spas and for bottling, earned great renown, especially due to the high concentration of CO2 (over 2.5 g/l. The bottled sparkling water, due to its pleasant taste and its chemical stability, is the most sought after table water. This explains why, in most cases, the notion of mineral water is associated with „Borsec”.

  18. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. A.; Dipple, G. M.; Raudsepp, M.; Anderson, R. G.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon sequestration or disposal has been recognized as a necessary first step toward the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Of the proposed methodologies for carbon disposal, binding CO2 in carbonate minerals represents the most environmentally benign and geologically stable means of reducing atmospheric carbon levels. By some estimates, as much as 87% of the Earth's carbon is bound in carbonate minerals. Carbon sequestration seeks to accelerate the natural weathering processes responsible for carbon fixation in minerals. Atmospheric CO2 is being fixed in carbonate efflorescences forming in tailings from both inactive and active chrysotile mines. Our data suggest that microbial activity in tailings may mediate the precipitation of more thermodynamically stable hydrated magnesium carbonate phases. Carbonation of kaolinite-serpentine group minerals in ultramafic mine tailings represents a potential implementation of the carbon sequestration process. We have developed a protocol for verifying and quantifying carbon sequestration in mine tailings. Quantitative phase analysis with the Rietveld method and X-ray powder-diffraction data is used to determine the modal abundance of hydrated magnesium carbonates in mine tailings. Stable and radiogenic isotopes are used to fingerprint an atmospheric source for CO2 and to detect contamination by bedrock carbonate. Global implementation of carbon sequestration in ultramafic mine tailings has the potential to draw CO2 directly from the atmosphere at a rate of 10(8) tonnes of carbon per year. In situ sequestration in mine tailings bypasses the need to transport large quantities of tailings to industrial point sources and can be accomplished without high-pressure, high-temperature reactors. Mine tailings may, therefore, represent the optimal environment in which to pursue carbon sequestration in minerals.

  19. Uranium Occurrences and Its Mineral Combination Characteristics in Uranium Deposit No.302%302铀矿床矿石中铀的存在形式及矿物组合特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奇峰; 夏菲; 潘家永; 陈黎明; 林坤

    2015-01-01

    Electronic probe analysis indicated that uranium in uranium deposit No.302 mainly existed as independent uranium minerals and minors occurred as isomorphism of thorium in zircon and rutile and other accessory minerals.The independent uranium ore minearal mainly as pitchblende,some as coffinG ite,uranothorite, brannerite and the second uranium minerals of uranophane, autunite, chalcolite. The ore consist of five kind mineral combination,the diversity of uranium ore mineral combination reG flects the long term and complex activity of hydrothermal fluid in the deposit,which also indicate the multiphases and variety of fluid composition and forming environment in hydrothermal activity. Alteration related with uranium mineralization are siliconization,hematization,purple black fluoritizaG tion,pyritization,calcitization,sericitization and chloritization,etc.%电子探针分析显示,302铀矿床矿石中铀的存在形式以独立铀矿物为主,少量呈类质同像赋存于钍石、锆石及金红石等副矿物之中。独立铀矿物以沥青铀矿为主,其次有铀石、铀钍石、钛铀矿等原生铀矿物和硅钙铀矿、钙铀云母、铜铀云母等次生铀矿物。铀矿石具有5种不同的矿物组合,这种矿物组合的多样性,反映了该矿床热液流体活动的长期性和复杂性,即成矿热液流体作用具有多阶段性,以及热液流体组成和成矿环境的多变性。与铀矿化相关的蚀变有硅化、赤铁矿化、紫黑色萤石化、黄铁矿化、方解石化、绢云母化及绿泥石化等。

  20. Mineral waste in the UK – Innovation, optimisation and recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Mineral waste is largely an unavoidable by-product of the extraction, processing and production of mineral-based products. The UK is well-endowed with mineral resources which have been worked for thousands of years resulting in millions of tonnes of mineral waste across the country. The most significant mineral resource worked was coal with more than 26,000 million tonnes of coal produced and 3600 million tonnes of waste rock. Other significant volumes of mineral waste were derived from m...