Sample records for chloride hazards cases

  1. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards. (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca


    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  2. Hazards of lithium thionyl chloride batteries (United States)

    Parry, J. M.


    Two different topics which only relate in that they are pertinent to lithium thionyl chloride battery safety are discussed. The first topic is a hazards analysis of a system (risk assessment), a formal approach that is used in nuclear engineering, predicting oil spills, etc. It is a formalized approach for obtaining assessment of the degree of risk associated with the use of any particular system. The second topic is a small piece of chemistry related to the explosions that can occur with lithium thionyl chloride systems. After the two topics are presented, a discussion is generated among the Workshop participants.

  3. Benzalkonium chloride. Health hazard evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.


    Health hazards associated with the use of benzalkonium chlorides (BAC) are reviewed. Benzalkonium chloride is extensively used as a cationic disinfectant. It is found in a great many over-the-counter and prescription eye products, disinfectants, shampoos, and deodorants, and is used in concentrations that range from 0.001 to 0.01% in eyedrops, up to 2.5% in concentrated liquid disinfectants. Solutions of 0.03 to 0.04% BAC may cause temporary eye irritation in humans but are unlikely to cause any skin response except in persons allergic to quaternary ammonium compounds. Inhalation of a vaporized 10% solution of BAC produced a bronchospasmodic reaction in a previously sensitized individual. At present no other human health effects from BAC have been documented or inferred from exposure to such dilute concentrations.

  4. Investigation of Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards. (United States)


    LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE BATTERY SAFETY HAZARDS(U) GOULD RESEARCH CENTER ROLLING MEADOWS IL MATERIALS LAB A I ATTIA ET...838-012 7 ontract No. 60921-81-C-0363 6// Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards AD A 1 T 2 , Alan I. Attia Gould Research...REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Investigation of Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Final Report Battery Safety Hazards 9/28/81 - 12/31/82 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  5. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards (United States)

    Attia, A. I.; Gabriel, K. A.; Burns, R. P.


    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Explosions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).

  6. Lithium-thionyl chloride cell system safety hazard analysis (United States)

    Dampier, F. W.


    This system safety analysis for the lithium thionyl chloride cell is a critical review of the technical literature pertaining to cell safety and draws conclusions and makes recommendations based on this data. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring during discharge are discussed with particular attention given to unstable SOCl2 reduction intermediates. Potentially hazardous reactions between the various cell components and discharge products or impurities that could occur during electrical or thermal abuse are described and the most hazardous conditions and reactions identified. Design factors influencing the safety of Li/SOCl2 cells, shipping and disposal methods and the toxicity of Li/SOCl2 battery components are additional safety issues that are also addressed.

  7. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers... (United States)


    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at...

  8. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers... (United States)


    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and...

  9. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells (United States)

    Mahy, T. X.


    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  10. Reduction of hazards from copper(I) chloride in a Cu-Cl thermochemical hydrogen production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandehariun, Samane, E-mail: [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Wang, Zhaolin, E-mail: [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Rosen, Marc A., E-mail: [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Naterer, Greg F., E-mail: [Clean Energy Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hazards are quantified for each process of the cycle where the CuCl may be present. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using Cu{sub 2}OCl{sub 2} to absorb CuCl vapour is the most preferable option. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of a cooler at the outlet of the oxygen reactor is unadvisable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer If an atomization method is used for heat recovery, the fluid should be circulated. - Abstract: The copper-chlorine cycle of thermochemical water splitting, using various heat sources, is a promising technology for hydrogen production. The chemical hazards accompanying the new technology affect significantly the industrialization of the cycle, but have scarcely been examined. This paper addresses this need by examining the copper(I) chloride (CuCl) hazards that may be generated in the cycle. Regardless of the variations of Cu-Cl cycle, copper(I) chloride is always present, serving as an intermediate compound that may cause health concerns. In this paper, the CuCl hazards are quantified for each process from the generation source of the hazards along with the paths where the CuCl may be present. The processes of greatest relevance include oxygen production, heat recovery, solidification, and dissolution. The options for reducing the CuCl hazards in a Cu-Cl thermochemical hydrogen production plant are evaluated from the perspectives of variations of the Cu-Cl cycle, process integration, heat recovery, and equipment design. It is concluded that using the intake reactant Cu{sub 2}OCl{sub 2} for the oxygen production step to absorb CuCl vapor is the most preferable option compared with other alternatives such as absorbing CuCl vapor with water or CuCl{sub 2}, building additional structures inside the oxygen production reactor, and cooling the exiting gas at the outlet of the oxygen reactor.

  11. Investigation of lithium-thionyl chloride battery safety hazards. Final report 28 Sep 81-31 Dec 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, A.I.; Gabriel, K.A.; Burns, R.P.


    In the ten years since the feasibility of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell was first recognized (1) remarkable progress has been made in hardware development. Cells as large as 16,000 Ah (2) and batteries of 10.8 MWh (3) have been demonstrated. In a low rate configuration, energy densities of 500 to 600 Wh/kg are easily achieved. Even in the absence of reported explosions, safety would be a concern for such a dense energetic package; the energy density of a lithium-thionyl chloride cell is approaching that of dynamite (924 Wh/kg). In fact explosions have occurred. In general the hazards associated with lithium-thionyl chloride batteries may be divided into four categories: Explosions as a result of an error in battery design. Very large cells were in prototype development prior to a full appreciation of the hazards of the system. It is possible that some of the remaining safety issues are related to cell design; Explosions as a result of external physical abuse such as cell incineration and puncture; Explosions due to short circuiting which could lead to thermal runaway reactions. These problems appear to have been solved by changes in the battery design (4); and Expolsions due to abnormal electrical operation (i.e., charging (5) and overdischarging (6) and in partially or fully discharged cells on storage (7 and 8).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Troacă


    Full Text Available In the past two years, the main topic of discussion was "global economic crisis", why?, what effect?, or when and how to overcome it, "are questions that each and everyone asked themselves once at least in the last twenty-four months. It was discussed and it is still discussing daily on at least one TV channel on the topic: “The fact that this has caused and continues to generate topics of interest for both talk-shows and academic community, made us reflect on an idea: "If this phenomenon is the source of so much controversy, means that the information held by everyone is incomplete in a lesser or higher degree. This incomplete information is a characteristic of moral hazard, and does not this case of the current economic reality, or is it just an externality? ". This article is a study in terms of moral hazard on the economic crisis. The main idea of this study is the question: "Is moral hazard the case or the externality of the current economic situation?" Therefore, forms of the moral hazard are tracked and analyze before and after August 2008 (when the crisis started.

  13. Delayed geochemical hazard: Concept, digital model and case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; FENG Liu; Jacques Yvon


    Delayed Geochemical Hazard (DGH briefly) presents the whole process of a kind of serious ecological and environmental hazard caused by sudden reactivation and sharp release of long-term accumulated pollutant from stable species to active ones in soil or sediment system due to the change of physical-chemical conditions (such as temperature, pH, Eh, moisture, the concentrations of organic matters, etc.) or the decrease of environment capacity. The characteristics of DGH are discussed. The process of a typical DGH can be expressed as a nonlinear polynomial. The points where the derivative functions of the first and second orders of the polynomial reach zero, minimum and maximum are keys for risk assessment and harzard pridication.The process and mechanism of the hazard is due to the transform of pollutant among different species principally. The concepts of "total releasable content of pollutant", TRCP, and "total concentration of active specie", TCAS, are necessarily defined to describe the mechanism of DGH. The possibility of the temporal and spatial propagation is discussed. Case study shows that there exists a transform mechanism of "gradual release" and "chain reaction" among the species of the exchangeable and the bounds to carbonate, iron and manganese oxides and organic matter, thus causing the delayed geochemical hazard.

  14. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride. (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Soo-Jin


    Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN) test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health.

  15. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos


    The COPERNICUS EMS Risk & Recovery Mapping (RRM) activity offers services to support efficient design and implementation of mitigation measures and recovery planning based on EO data exploitation. The Azores Archipelagos case was realized in the context of the FWC 259811 Copernicus EMS RRM, and provides potential impact information for a number of natural disasters. The analysis identified population and assets at risk (infrastructures and environment). The risk assessment was based on hazard and vulnerability of structural elements, road network characteristics, etc. Integration of different hazards and risks was accounted in establishing the necessary first response/ first aid infrastructure. EO data (Pleiades and WV-2), were used to establish a detailed background information, common for the assessment of the whole of the risks. A qualitative Flood hazard level was established, through a "Flood Susceptibility Index" that accounts for upstream drainage area and local slope along the drainage network (Manfreda et al. 2014). Indicators, representing different vulnerability typologies, were accounted for. The risk was established through intersecting hazard and vulnerability (risk- specific lookup table). Probabilistic seismic hazards maps (PGA) were obtained by applying the Cornell (1968) methodology as implemented in CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et al. 2007). The approach relied on the identification of potential sources, the assessment of earthquake recurrence and magnitude distribution, the selection of ground motion model, and the mathematical model to calculate seismic hazard. Lava eruption areas and a volcanic activity related coefficient were established through available historical data. Lava flow paths and their convergence were estimated through applying a cellular, automata based, Lava Flow Hazard numerical model (Gestur Leó Gislason, 2013). The Landslide Hazard Index of NGI (Norwegian Geotechnical Institute) for heavy rainfall (100 year extreme monthly rainfall

  16. Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident. (United States)

    Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko


    In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

  17. 40 CFR 260.41 - Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities. (United States)


    ... of hazardous waste recycling activities. 260.41 Section 260.41 Protection of Environment... Rulemaking Petitions § 260.41 Procedures for case-by-case regulation of hazardous waste recycling activities... hazardous waste recycling activities described in § 261.6(a)(2)(iii) under the provisions of § 261.6 (b)...

  18. Report of moderate or severe sodium and chloride disturbance on 82 cases with acute cerebral stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma shun-tian


    Abtract Objective: To decrease the fatality rate and prevalence rotc of acute cerebral stroke complicated with morderate or servere serum sodium and chioride disturbance by explonng the relation between the pathogency and prognosis Methods: Medical records were surveyed and clinical presentation, laboratory test, complicated。 Actiology pathogency and prognosis were analyzed m 82 cases with moderate or severe serum sodium and chloride disturbance among 736 cases with acute cerebral stroke collected, Results: The prevalence rate and fatality rate of acutc cerebral stroke complicated with moderate or severe serum sodium and chlorede disturbance were 11.3% (82/ 736) and 60.8% (49/52) which were different significantly form that complicated with normal or minimal sedium sodium and chloride disturbame (p (0.001) 。 The 82 cases occured at 3-13 days after hospitalization (mean 6 days) 。 The actiology and pathogency were mainly ralated with some endogenic and iatrogenic factors such as hypothalamic-pituitary system were destroyed resultly from acute cerbral stroke which led to SIADH。 Conclusion: The fatality rate of acute cerebral stroke complicatee with moderate or seyere serum sodium and chloride disturbance is mcreased significantly, Put prophylaxis first to decrease the prevalence rate and fatalty rate。 Pay attlention to comprehensive therapy of acute cerebral stoke to prevent endogenic sodium and chloride disturbance and especially place importance on iatrogenic disturbance。

  19. PSHAe (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard enhanced): the case of Istanbul. (United States)

    Stupazzini, Marco; Allmann, Alexander; Infantino, Maria; Kaeser, Martin; Mazzieri, Ilario; Paolucci, Roberto; Smerzini, Chiara


    , "Numerical Study on the Role of Basin Geometry and Kinematic Seismic Source in 3D Ground Motion Simulation of the 22 February 2011 M-W 6.2 Christchurch Earthquake", SRL 11/2011; 82(6):767-782. DOI:10.1785/gssrl.82.6.767 Pilz M,Parolai S, Stupazzini M, Paolucci P and Zschau J, "Modelling basin effects on earthquake ground motion in the Santiago de Chile basin by a spectral element code", GJI 11/2011, 187(2):929-945. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05183.x Smerzini C and Villani M, "Broadband Numerical Simulations in Complex Near-Field Geological Configurations: The Case of the 2009 Mw 6.3 L'Aquila Earthquake", BSSA 12/2012; 102(6):2436-2451. DOI:10.1785/0120120002 Villani M, Faccioli E, Ordaz M, Stupazzini M, "High-Resolution Seismic Hazard Analysis in a Complex Geological Configuration: The Case of the Sulmona Basin in Central Italy", Earthquake Spectra, 11/2014; 30(4):1801-1824. DOI: 10.1193/112911EQS288M

  20. A fatal case of hypermagnesemia caused by ingesting magnesium chloride as a folk remedy. (United States)

    Torikoshi-Hatano, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Kato, Hideaki; Nagao, Masataka


    We report a fatal case of hypermagnesemia caused by oral ingestion of milk containing magnesium chloride as a folk remedy. The autopsy of the 75-year-old woman showed no injury or illness as the cause of death. Neither alcohol nor controlled drugs were found by the toxicological analysis. Her posthumous serum magnesium concentration was 10.2 mg/dL. The concentration of magnesium in serum was higher than that of the previous reports. Therefore, the cause of death was considered to be hypermagnesemia. Recently, the prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and health foods containing magnesium are consumed as supplements in the world, and their potential toxicity should be recognized.

  1. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride) (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun


    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of GO. Subsequently, resulting ZHS/GO was introduced into flexible PVC and fire hazards and mechanical properties of PVC nanocomposites were investigated. Compared to neat PVC, thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that the addition of ZHS/GO into PVC matrix led to an improvement of the charring amount and thermal stability of char residue. Moreover, the incorporation of 5 wt.% ZHS/GO imparted excellent flame retardancy to flexible PVC, as shown by increased limiting oxygen index, reduced peak heat release rate, and total heat release tested by an oxygen index meter and a cone calorimeter, respectively. In addition, the addition of ZHS/GO nanohybrids decreased the smoke products and increased the tensile strength of PVC. Above-excellent flame-retardant properties are generally attributed to the synergistic effect of GO and ZHS, containing good dispersion of ZHS/GO in PVC matrix, the physical barrier of GO, and the catalytic char function of ZHS.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this article, a class of Mantel-Haenszel type estimators of hazard ratios in proportional hazards model is presented for simple nested case-control study. The estimators have the form of the Mantel-Haenszel estimator of odds ratios, and it is shown that the estimators are dually consistent, and asymptotically normal. Dually consistently estimated covariance matrices of the proposed estimators are also developed. An example is given to illustrate the estimators.

  3. Turning a hazardous waste lagoon into reclaimed land for wildlife management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, A.K. [Woodward-Clyde International, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)


    Brownfields are turning back to green. This paper presents a case study of a former dump site for hazardous waste that has been remediated and will be developed into an enhanced wildlife management habitat. This successful remediation case combined various investigations, remedial designs, risk assessments, ecological studies, and engineering practices. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Flash flood hazard mapping: a pilot case study in Xiapu River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei Zhang


    Full Text Available Flash flood hazard mapping is a supporting component of non-structural measures for flash flood prevention. Pilot case studies are necessary to develop more practicable methods for the technical support systems of flash flood hazard mapping. In this study, the headwater catchment of the Xiapu River Basin in central China was selected as a pilot study area for flash flood hazard mapping. A conceptual distributed hydrological model was developed for flood calculation based on the framework of the Xinanjiang model, which is widely used in humid and semi-humid regions in China. The developed model employs the geomorphological unit hydrograph method, which is extremely valuable when simulating the overland flow process in ungauged catchments, as compared with the original Xinanjiang model. The model was tested in the pilot study area, and the results agree with the measured data on the whole. After calibration and validation, the model is shown to be a useful tool for flash flood calculation. A practicable method for flash flood hazard mapping using the calculated peak discharge and digital elevation model data was presented, and three levels of flood hazards were classified. The resulting flash flood hazard maps indicate that the method successfully predicts the spatial distribution of flash flood hazards, and it can meet the current requirements in China.

  5. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Tao


    Full Text Available Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L. His electrocardiogram (ECG prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people.

  6. Case report of occupational asthma induced by polyvinyl chloride and nickel. (United States)

    Song, Ga-Won; Ban, Ga-Young; Nam, Young-Hee; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min


    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a widely used chemical for production of plastics. However occupational asthma (OA) caused by PVC has been reported only rarely. We report a 34-yr-old male wallpaper factory worker with OA due to PVC and nickel (Ni) whose job was mixing PVC with plasticizers. He visited the emergency room due to an asthma attack with moderate airflow obstruction and markedly increased sputum eosinophil numbers. A methacholine challenge test was positive (PC20 2.5 mg/mL). Bronchoprovocation tests with both PVC and Ni showed early and late asthmatic responses, respectively. Moreover, the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was increased after challenge with PVC. To our knowledge, this is the first case of OA in Korea induced by exposure to both PVC and Ni. We suggest that eosinophilic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of PVC-induced OA and that FeNO monitoring can be used for its diagnosis.

  7. Assessing sensitivity of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) to fault parameters: Sumatra case study (United States)

    Omang, A.; Cummins, P. R.; Horspool, N.; Hidayati, S.


    Slip rate data and fault geometry are two important inputs in determining seismic hazard, because they are used to estimate earthquake recurrence intervals which strongly influence the hazard level in an area. However, the uncertainty of slip-rates and geometry of the fault are rarely considered in any probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), which is surprising given the estimates of slip-rates can vary significantly from different data sources (e.g. geological vs. Geodetic). We use the PSHA method to assess the sensitivity of seismic hazard to fault slip-rates along the Great Sumatran Fault in Sumatra, Indonesia. We will consider the epistemic uncertainty of fault slip rate by employing logic trees to include alternative slip rate models. The weighting of the logic tree is determined by the probability density function of the slip rate estimates using the approach of Zechar and Frankel (2009). We consider how the PSHA result accounting for slip rate uncertainty differs from that for a specific slip rate by examining hazard values as a function of return period and distance from the fault. We also consider the geometry of the fault, especially the top and the bottom of the rupture area within a fault, to study the effect from different depths. Based on the results of this study, in some cases the uncertainty in fault slip-rates, fault geometry and maximum magnitude have a significant effect on hazard level and area impacted by earthquakes and should be considered in PSHA studies.

  8. Hazardous Waste Management and Community Involvement in Canada: The Case of Montreal's Rural-Urban Fringe. (United States)

    Andre, Pierre; And Others


    Deals with conflicts associated with the management, disposal, and storage of hazardous wastes from the perspective of interests expressed in the local community. Analyzes three case studies to demonstrate the changing roles and relative importance of local and nonlocal interests. Draws conclusions regarding the significance of the analysis for…

  9. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne L Nel

    Full Text Available Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes, it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events.

  10. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management. (United States)

    Nel, Jeanne L; Le Maitre, David C; Nel, Deon C; Reyers, Belinda; Archibald, Sally; van Wilgen, Brian W; Forsyth, Greg G; Theron, Andre K; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Kahinda, Jean-Marc Mwenge; Engelbrecht, Francois A; Kapangaziwiri, Evison; van Niekerk, Lara; Barwell, Laurie


    Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves) were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes), it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events.

  11. Earthquake hazard in northeast India – A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj


    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds – a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively. The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in the broad northeast Indian region, implicates scenario earthquakes of 8.3 and 8.7 to the respective study regions for deterministic seismic hazard assessments. The microzonation approach as undertaken in the present analyses involves multi-criteria seismic hazard evaluation through thematic integration of contributing factors. The geomorphological themes for Sikkim Himalaya include surface geology, soil cover, slope, rock outcrop and landslide integrated to achieve geological hazard distribution. Seismological themes, namely surface consistent peak ground acceleration and predominant frequency were, thereafter, overlaid on and added with the geological hazard distribution to obtain the seismic hazard microzonation map of the Sikkim Himalaya. On the other hand, the microzonation study of Guwahati city accounts for eight themes – geological and geomorphological, basement or bedrock, landuse, landslide, factor of safety for soil stability, shear wave velocity, predominant frequency, and surface consistent peak ground acceleration. The five broad qualitative hazard classifications – `low’, `moderate’, `high’, `moderate high’ and `very high’ could be applied in both the cases, albeit with different implications to peak ground acceleration variations. These developed hazard maps offer better representation of the local specific seismic hazard variation in the terrain.

  12. Using Significant Geologic Hazards and Disasters to Focus Geoethics Case Studies (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.


    Ethics education since classical times has involved the consideration of stories, parables, myths, fables, allegories and histories. These are the ancient equivalents of case studies. Modern case studies are used in applied-ethics courses in law, engineering, business, and science. When used in a geoscience course, geoethical case studies can enrich a student's understanding of the relationships between issues of geoscience, engineering, sociology, business, public policy and law - all with an ethical dimension. Perhaps more importantly, real cases affected real people. Students develop a strong empathetic connection to the people involved, enhancing students' drive to understand the interconnected layers of the cases. Students might begin to appreciate that geoscientists can help to avoid or alleviate human suffering -- that their careers can have meaning and purpose beyond simply earning a paycheck. Geologic disasters in which losses could have been predicted, avoided or minimized are quite effective as cases. Coupling a "disaster" case with a comparable "hazard" case is particularly effective. For example, there are many places along the San Andreas Fault in California where [1] significant coseismic displacement has occurred during historical times, [2] structures that are still inhabited were built along or across active traces prior to the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act in 1971, and [3] inhabited structures have been built legally since 1971 within a few tens of feet of active traces. The question students confront is whether society ought to allow habitable structures to be built very near to a major active fault. This topic allows students to work with issues of law, history, seismology, seismic site response, crustal deformation adjacent to active faults, building codes and, ultimately, ethics. Similar progressions can be developed for other major geologic hazards, both natural and man-made, such as floods, landslides, erosion along rivers and

  13. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride)


    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun


    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS...

  14. Halogen-bonding for visual chloride ion sensing: a case study using supramolecular poly(aryl ether) dendritic organogel systems. (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Sun, Yihua; Feng, Yu; Chen, Hui; He, Yan-Mei; Fan, Qing-Hua


    A convenient and straightforward method for the visual recognition of chloride ion has been established through a chloride-responsive dendritic organogel. The specificity was largely attributed to the higher binding affinity of the dendritic gelator for chloride compared with other anions through halogen bonding interactions.

  15. Numerical Simulations as Tool to Predict Chemical and Radiological Hazardous Diffusion in Case of Nonconventional Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Ciparisse


    Full Text Available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations are widely used nowadays to predict the behaviour of fluids in pure research and in industrial applications. This approach makes it possible to get quantitatively meaningful results, often in good agreement with the experimental ones. The aim of this paper is to show how CFD calculations can help to understand the time evolution of two possible CBRNe (Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-explosive events: (1 hazardous dust mobilization due to the interaction between a jet of air and a metallic powder in case of a LOVA (Loss Of Vacuum Accidents that is one of the possible accidents that can occur in experimental nuclear fusion plants; (2 toxic gas release in atmosphere. The scenario analysed in the paper has consequences similar to those expected in case of a release of dangerous substances (chemical or radioactive in enclosed or open environment during nonconventional events (like accidents or man-made or natural disasters.

  16. FDA-iRISK--a comparative risk assessment system for evaluating and ranking food-hazard pairs: case studies on microbial hazards. (United States)

    Chen, Yuhuan; Dennis, Sherri B; Hartnett, Emma; Paoli, Greg; Pouillot, Régis; Ruthman, Todd; Wilson, Margaret


    Stakeholders in the system of food safety, in particular federal agencies, need evidence-based, transparent, and rigorous approaches to estimate and compare the risk of foodborne illness from microbial and chemical hazards and the public health impact of interventions. FDA-iRISK (referred to here as iRISK), a Web-based quantitative risk assessment system, was developed to meet this need. The modeling tool enables users to assess, compare, and rank the risks posed by multiple food-hazard pairs at all stages of the food supply system, from primary production, through manufacturing and processing, to retail distribution and, ultimately, to the consumer. Using standard data entry templates, built-in mathematical functions, and Monte Carlo simulation techniques, iRISK integrates data and assumptions from seven components: the food, the hazard, the population of consumers, process models describing the introduction and fate of the hazard up to the point of consumption, consumption patterns, dose-response curves, and health effects. Beyond risk ranking, iRISK enables users to estimate and compare the impact of interventions and control measures on public health risk. iRISK provides estimates of the impact of proposed interventions in various ways, including changes in the mean risk of illness and burden of disease metrics, such as losses in disability-adjusted life years. Case studies for Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella were developed to demonstrate the application of iRISK for the estimation of risks and the impact of interventions for microbial hazards. iRISK was made available to the public at in October 2012.

  17. 氯盐类融雪剂对混凝土路面危害分析%The analysis of chloride deicing salts’ hazard on concrete pavement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    氯盐类融雪剂在我国北方地区有着广泛的使用,但在使用过程中,存在对融雪剂的腐蚀性认识不足,缺乏相应产品标准和使用规范等问题。本文对融雪剂的类型进行了介绍,对氯盐类融雪剂对混凝土路面的腐蚀机理进行分析。通过冻融循环实验,研究了几种常见氯盐类融雪剂的腐蚀特性,并得出实验结论。%Chloride deicing salts has been widely used in northern China ,but the corrosion of deicing salt usually has been neglected during the use,and there is a lack of the appropriate product standards and the use of norms.In this paper,types of deicing salt are introduced;deicing salts of chlorine on the corrosion mechanism of concrete pavement are analyzed .By freeze-thaw cycle experiments ,the corrosion properties of several common chloride deicing salts has been studied ,and the conclusions of the experiment has been drawn .

  18. Reported vague symptoms and at-risk status: the case of polyvinyl chloride workers in Louisville. (United States)

    Sands, R G; Greenberg, R A


    This study concerns the frequency of visits to the dispensary by workers with vague symptoms of physical illness at a polyvinyl chloride plant in Louisville, KY, where an outbreak of hepatic angiosarcoma occurred. The illness behavior of three cohorts of workers at three levels of risk--workers removed from the chemical plant to a pallet plant (PP) because their screening results indicated liver abnormalities; workers who had some positive test results (TP); and workers whose test results were negative (TN)--was studied before (time 1) and after (time 2) the angiosarcoma crisis. It was predicted that, during time 2, the groups' visits to the dispensary would increase in relation to their levels of risk (PP greater than TP greater than TN). Although there was an overall increase in the percentage of visits because of vague symptoms during time 2, the only cohort with different behavior was the group of TP workers: they reduced their use of the dispensary. These results are similar to those in a previous study in which all symptoms of illness were included. It is speculated that social and individual factors, as well as the labeling phenomenon, explain the results. Health care providers are encouraged to follow up with workers at risk who seem to avoid monitoring their health.

  19. Forecasting Hazardous Waste Generation Using Short Data Sets: Case Study of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Karpušenkaitė


    Full Text Available Due to inefficient waste sorting in primary and secondary waste generation sources Lithuania fails in trying to meet EU requirements for waste management sector regarding the amount of waste flow that reaches landfills. Especially sensitive situation is with hazardous waste, which often are disposed along with municipal solid waste and with it reaches landfills and due to the fact that mechanical and biological treatment plant are only now being established in the biggest cities of Lithuania, landfills becomes a big issue. The main purpose of this research is to find out which mathematical modelling methods could be fitted and if it is possible to forecast annual hazardous waste generation by using automotive, medical and daylight lamps waste generation statistical data. This is part of a research of medical, automotive and daylight lamps waste generation forecasting possibilities. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four nonparametric regression methods were conducted on two developed data sets. The best and most promising results in both cases were demonstrated by generalized additives method (R2 = 0.99 and kernel regression (R2 = 0.99.

  20. Delayed geochemical hazard: a tool for risk assessment of heavy metal polluted sites and case study. (United States)

    Zheng, Mingxia; Feng, Liu; He, Juanni; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Minying; Wang, Jing


    A concept of delayed geochemical hazard (DGH) was proposed instead of chemical time bomb to represent an ecological and environmental hazard caused by sudden reactivation and release of long-term accumulated pollutants in soil/sediment system due to the change of physicochemical conditions or the decrease of environmental capacity. A DGH model was also established to provide a quantitative tool to assess and predict potential environmental risk caused by heavy metals and especially its dynamic evolutions. A case study of DGH was carried out for a mercury-polluted area in southern China. Results of soil column experiment showed that DGH was directly resulted from the transformation and release of pollutant from the releasable species to the active ones through a mechanism of chain reaction. The most possible chain reaction was summarized as HgE+C+F+O+R→HgE+C+F+O→HgE+C+F→HgE+C→HgE. Although 8.3% of the studied area with the total releasable content of mercury (TRCPHg) exceeded the DGH critical point value of 16.667mg/kg, with the possibility of DGH burst, the area was classified as low-risk of DGH. This confirmed that DGH model could contribute to the risk assessment and early warning of soil/sediment pollution.

  1. Rockfall hazard assessment by using terrestrial laser scanning. A case study in Funchal (Madeira) (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu Trung; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Domingos, Rodriguez; Wiatr, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig


    simulations. By implantation of the high resolution scans of the TLS into the local DEM, an improvement close to a solely high-resolution digital elevation model (HRDEM) can be achieved. The rockfall hazard assessment starts by comparison of time-shifted datasets and with additional automatic jointing analysis. Based on this data 3-D displacements and associated kinematical failure mechanism can be identified. Using on this information, it becomes possible to determine specific parameters for numerical rockfall simulations like average block sizes, shape or potential sources. Including additional data like surface roughness the results of numerical rockfall simulations allow to classify different areas of hazard based on run-out distances, frequency of impacts and related kinetic energy. The analysis shows that rockfall favourable occurs in areas where notches and undercuts, due to the lesser erosionresistence of pyroclatics or tuff layers, appear. In case of a rockfall the typical blocks have a cylindrical shape, a volume of 1 m3 and are able to hit the entire area. The results can help to provide useful information for civil protection and engineering countermeasures. Repeated TLS scans on the same area will continue the observation and the progress of instability and mass movement occurrence.

  2. Property-close source separation of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment--a Swedish case study. (United States)

    Bernstad, Anna; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Aspegren, Henrik


    Through an agreement with EEE producers, Swedish municipalities are responsible for collection of hazardous waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In most Swedish municipalities, collection of these waste fractions is concentrated to waste recycling centres where households can source-separate and deposit hazardous waste and WEEE free of charge. However, the centres are often located on the outskirts of city centres and cars are needed in order to use the facilities in most cases. A full-scale experiment was performed in a residential area in southern Sweden to evaluate effects of a system for property-close source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE. After the system was introduced, results show a clear reduction in the amount of hazardous waste and WEEE disposed of incorrectly amongst residual waste or dry recyclables. The systems resulted in a source separation ratio of 70 wt% for hazardous waste and 76 wt% in the case of WEEE. Results show that households in the study area were willing to increase source separation of hazardous waste and WEEE when accessibility was improved and that this and similar collection systems can play an important role in building up increasingly sustainable solid waste management systems.

  3. Benzalkonium chloride exposure in cats: a retrospective analysis of 245 cases reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). (United States)

    Bates, N; Edwards, N


    Benzalkonium chloride is commonly found in household products. This retrospective study examined 245 cases of feline exposure to benzalkonium chloride-containing products reported to the Veterinary Poisons Information Service (VPIS). A single route of exposure was reported in 188 cats (ingestion 126, skin 58, buccal 4); 57 cats had multiple routes. The common products involved were household antibacterial cleaners (43.6 per cent), household disinfectants (22.3 per cent) and patio cleaners (17.5 per cent). The most common signs were hypersalivation/drooling (53.9 per cent), tongue ulceration (40.4 per cent), hyperthermia (40.4 per cent) and oral ulceration (22.9 per cent). The mean time recorded for onset of the first clinical sign was 6.4 hours (range five minutes to 48 hours, median 4.5 hours, n=60), however, the VPIS was not contacted until 14.0 ± 13.2 hours after exposure (n=120). This figure also reflects the time of presentation. The most common treatments given were antibiotics (82.0 per cent), fluids (50.2 per cent), analgesia (45.3 per cent), gastroprotectants (31.0 per cent), dermal decontamination (24.1 per cent) and steroids (22.7 per cent). 13 cats (5.3 per cent) received syringe or nasogastric feeding. Of 245 cats, 12 (4.9 per cent) remained asymptomatic, 230 (93.9 per cent) recovered and three died (1.2 per cent). The time to recovery ranged from 1 to 360 hours (n=67) with a mean of 100.4 ± 82.0 hours (4.2 ± 3.4 days, median 72 hours).

  4. The reporting of food hazards by the media: The case of Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehagia, Olga; Chrysochou, Polymeros


    This study focuses on the coverage of food hazards by the Greek mass media. During the study period of three years, 311 articles from two daily and one Sunday newspaper were identified and analysed. The most important results drawn from the analyses are the following: (a) genetically modified foods...... was the most referenced food hazard; (b) there was often a simultaneous reference to more than one food hazard in the text; (c) most of the articles had informative content; (d) a periodicity existed in the media coverage of food hazards; and (e) the articles' content was dependent upon the food hazard...

  5. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal. (United States)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana


    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run

  6. Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand (United States)

    Cronin, Shane J.; Neall, V. E.; Lecointre, J. A.; Hedley, M. J.; Loganathan, P.


    The vent-hosted hydrothermal system of Ruapehu volcano is normally covered by a c. 10 million m 3 acidic crater lake where volcanic gases accumulate. Through analysis of eruption observations, granulometry, mineralogy and chemistry of volcanic ash from the 1995-1996 Ruapehu eruptions we report on the varying influences on environmental hazards associated with the deposits. All measured parameters are more dependent on the eruptive style than on distance from the vent. Early phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruption phases from crater lakes similar to that on Ruapehu are likely to contain the greatest concentrations of environmentally significant elements, especially sulphur and fluoride. These elements are contained within altered xenolithic material extracted from the hydrothermal system by steam explosions, as well as in residue hydrothermal fluids adsorbed on to particle surfaces. In particular, total F in the ash may be enriched by a factor of 6 relative to original magmatic contents, although immediately soluble F does not show such dramatic increases. Highly soluble NaF and CaSiF 6 phases, demonstrated to be the carriers of 'available' F in purely magmatic eruptive systems, are probably not dominant in the products of phreatomagmatic eruptions through hydrothermal systems. Instead, slowly soluble compounds such as CaF 2, AlF 3 and Ca 5(PO 4) 3F dominate. Fluoride in these phases is released over longer periods, where only one third is leached in a single 24-h water extraction. This implies that estimation of soluble F in such ashes based on a single leach leads to underestimation of the F impact, especially of a potential longer-term environmental hazard. In addition, a large proportion of the total F in the ash is apparently soluble in the digestive system of grazing animals. In the Ruapehu case this led to several thousand sheep deaths from fluorosis.

  7. Hazard and Risk of Highway Maintenance Works: Case Study of PLUS Expressways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che


    Full Text Available The North– South Expressway (NSE (Lebuhraya Utara-Selatan is the longest expressway in Malaysia with the total length of about 772 km (482 miles running from Bukit Kayu Hitam in to Johor Bahru. It is known named after the highway’s concessionaire, Projek Lebuhraya Utara Selatan Berhad (North South Expressway Project abbreviated as PLUS Expressway. A study on the occupational safety among maintenance workers of PLUS Expressway was conducted. The aim for this research is to identify the hazards and determine the risk level of highway maintenance works. This research has identified the hazards occupies during highway maintenance works. Subsequently, the levels of risk for hazards during highway maintenance works are determined. The scope of this study is along the northern PLUS Expressway specified from Southern Ipoh to Bukit Kayu Hitam and focused on the maintenance workers of Projek Penyelenggaraan Lebuhraya Berhad (PROPEL. Eighty (80 sets of questionnaires survey on likelihood and severity of highway maintenance hazards have been distributed to highway maintenance workers. The data were analysed by using Excel to compose weightage average index (WAI in order to compute the risk level of those hazards. The result concluded that the extreme level of hazard that occurred during maintenance of highway are hazards related to electricity, hazards that engage with scaffolding, hazards while using crane and hazards involve fire and explosion.

  8. Multi-hazard risk assessment using GIS in urban areas: a case study for the city of Turrialba, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van Cees J.; Montoya, Lorena; Boerboom, Luc; Badilla Coto, Elena


    In the framework of the UNESCO sponsored project on “Capacity Building for Natural Disaster Reduction” a case study was carried out on multi-hazard risk assessment of the city of Turrialba, located in the central part of Costa Rica. The city with a population of 33,000 people is located in an area,

  9. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case (United States)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro


    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  10. Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria (United States)

    Maltzkait, Anika; Pfurtscheller, Clemens


    Multihazard risk analysis and disaster planning for emergency services as a basis for efficient provision in the case of natural hazards - case study municipality of Au, Austria A. Maltzkait (1) & C. Pfurtscheller (1) (1) Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research (IGF), Austrian Academy of Sciences, Innsbruck, Austria The extreme flood events of 2002, 2005 and 2013 in Austria underlined the importance of local emergency services being able to withstand and reduce the adverse impacts of natural hazards. Although for legal reasons municipal emergency and crisis management plans exist in Austria, they mostly do not cover risk analyses of natural hazards - a sound, comparable assessment to identify and evaluate risks. Moreover, total losses and operational emergencies triggered by natural hazards have increased in recent decades. Given sparse public funds, objective budget decisions are needed to ensure the efficient provision of operating resources, like personnel, vehicles and equipment in the case of natural hazards. We present a case study of the municipality of Au, Austria, which was hardly affected during the 2005 floods. Our approach is primarily based on a qualitative risk analysis, combining existing hazard plans, GIS data, field mapping and data on operational efforts of the fire departments. The risk analysis includes a map of phenomena discussed in a workshop with local experts and a list of risks as well as a risk matrix prepared at that workshop. On the basis for the exact requirements for technical and non-technical mitigation measures for each natural hazard risk were analysed in close collaboration with members of the municipal operation control and members of the local emergency services (fire brigade, Red Cross). The measures includes warning, evacuation and, technical interventions with heavy equipment and personnel. These results are used, first, to improve the municipal emergency and crisis management plan by providing a risk map, and a

  11. Influence of behavioral biases on the assessment of multi-hazard risks and the implementation of multi-hazard risks mitigation measures: case study of multi-hazard cyclone shelters in Tamil Nadu, India (United States)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Patt, Anthony


    In December 2004, a multiple hazards event devastated the Tamil Nadu province of India. The Sumatra -Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of Mw=9.1-9.3 caused the Indian Ocean tsunami with wave heights up to 30 m, and flooding that reached up to two kilometers inland in some locations. More than 7,790 persons were killed in the province of Tamil Nadu, with 206 in its capital Chennai. The time lag between the earthquake and the tsunami's arrival in India was over an hour, therefore, if a suitable early warning system existed, a proper means of communicating the warning and shelters existing for people would exist, than while this would not have prevented the destruction of infrastructure, several thousands of human lives would have been saved. India has over forty years of experience in the construction of cyclone shelters. With additional efforts and investment, these shelters could be adapted to other types of hazards such as tsunamis and flooding, as well as the construction of new multi-hazard cyclone shelters (MPCS). It would therefore be possible to mitigate one hazard such as cyclones by the construction of a network of shelters while at the same time adapting these shelters to also deal with, for example, tsunamis, with some additional investment. In this historical case, the failure to consider multiple hazards caused significant human losses. The current paper investigates the patterns of the national decision-making process with regards to multiple hazards mitigation measures and how the presence of behavioral and cognitive biases influenced the perceptions of the probabilities of multiple hazards and the choices made for their mitigation by the national decision-makers. Our methodology was based on the analysis of existing reports from national and international organizations as well as available scientific literature on behavioral economics and natural hazards. The results identified several biases in the national decision-making process when the

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of Cd(II) from pure and Ni/Cd acidic chloride media using Cyanex 921: a selective treatment of hazardous leachate of spent Ni-Cd batteries. (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Young; Nguyen, Viet Tu; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kang, Ho; Pandey, B D


    The present paper is focused on solvent extraction of hazardous Cd(II) from acidic chloride media by Cyanex 921, a new extractant mixed with 10% (v/v) TBP in xylene. The optimum conditions for extraction and stripping of Cd(II) were investigated with an aqueous feed of 0.1 mol/L Cd(II) in 2.0 mol/L HCl. McCabe-Thiele diagram was in good agreement with the simulation studies, showing the quantitative extraction (99.9%) of Cd(II) within two counter-current stages utilizing 0.30 mol/L Cyanex 921 at O/A ratio of 3/2 in 10 min. Stoichiometry of the complexes extracted was determined and confirmed by numerical treatment and graphical method, revealing the formation of HCdCl3 · 2L and HCdCl3 · 4L for Cyanex 921(L) concentration in the range 0.03-0.1 mol/L and 0.1-1.0 mol/L, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters for the extraction of cadmium were also determined. The stripping efficiency of cadmium from the loaded organic with 0.10 mol/L HCl was 99.6% in a three-stage counter-current process at an O/A ratio of 2/3. Cyanex 921 was successfully applied for the separation of Cd(II) from Ni(II) in the simulated leach liquor of spent Ni-Cd batteries. The study demonstrates the applicability of the present hydrometallurgical approach for the treatment of hazardous waste, the spent Ni-Cd batteries.

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  14. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study (United States)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.


    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  15. Assessment of bio-physical drought hazards. A case study of Karkheh River basin in Iran (United States)

    Kamali, Bahareh; Abbaspour, Karim; Houshmand Kouchi, Delaram; Yang, Hong


    Iran has been affected by frequent droughts. Climate change is expected to intensify the situation in the future. Extreme drought events have had serious impacts on hydrological and agricultural sector. Thus, identification of bio-physical drought hazard is critically important for formulating effective adaptive measures to improve water and food security. This study aims to investigate temporal and spatial pattern of drought hazards in meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural (inclusively biophysical) sectors in the Karkheh River Basin of Iran in the historical and future climate change context. To do so, drought hazard indices were built based on the severity and frequency of standardized precipitation index (SPI), standardized runoff index (SRI), and standardized soil moisture index (SSMI), which represent the three aspects of drought hazards. Variables required for calculating these indices were obtained from SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model constructed for the basin. The model was calibrated based on monthly runoff using the Sequential Uncertainty Fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm in SWAT-CUP. Based on the climate variability and drought analysis, three drought hazard classes, namely low, medium and high, were defined. This help identify how agricultural and hydrological sectors are related to meteorological droughts. Additionally, the bio-physical drivers of drought hazards were identified for each class. Comparing the results during historic and future scenarios revealed that the frequency of high- severity hazards will increase, whereas the same is not predicted for the area with medium hazard intensity. Inferred from findings of this study, the combined application of the SWAT model with bio-physical drought hazard concept helps better understanding of climate risks to water and food security. The developed approach is replicable at different scales to provide a robust planning tool for policy makers.

  16. Agent Regeneration and Hazardous Waste Minimization and Teaching Note. IBM Case Study. Doc #93-1. (United States)

    Oliker, L. Richard; And Others

    The manufacturing process used to produce printbands for International Business Machines, Inc. involves a photolithographic process in which the stainless steel panels are chemically machined using strong ferric chloride etching solution containing hydrochloric acid. The waste material that results from this chemical reaction is a solution…

  17. Citizen Monitoring during Hazards: The Case of Fukushima Radiation after the 2011 Japanese Earthquake (United States)

    Hultquist, C.; Cervone, G.


    Citizen-led movements producing scientific environmental information are increasingly common during hazards. After the Japanese earthquake-triggered tsunami in 2011, the government produced airborne remote sensing data of the radiation levels after the Fukushima nuclear reactor failures. Advances in technology enabled citizens to monitor radiation by innovative mobile devices built from components bought on the Internet. The citizen-led Safecast project measured on-ground levels of radiation in the Fukushima prefecture which total 14 million entries to date in Japan. This non-authoritative citizen science collection recorded radiation levels at specific coordinates and times is available online, yet the reliability and validity of the data had not been assessed. The nuclear incident provided a case for assessment with comparable dimensions of citizen science and authoritative data. To perform a comparison of the datasets, standardization was required. The sensors were calibrated scientifically but collected using different units of measure. Radiation decays over time so temporal interpolation was necessary for comparison of measurements as being the same time frame. Finally, the GPS located points were selected within the overlapping spatial extent of 500 meters. This study spatially analyzes and statistically compares citizen-volunteered and government-generated radiation data. Quantitative measures are used to assess the similarity and difference in the datasets. Radiation measurements from the same geographic extents show similar spatial variations which suggests that citizen science data can be comparable with government-generated measurements. Validation of Safecast demonstrates that we can infer scientific data from unstructured and not vested data. Citizen science can provide real-time data for situational awareness which is crucial for decision making during disasters. This project provides a methodology for comparing datasets of radiological measurements

  18. Risk assessment of major hazards and its application in urban planning: a case study. (United States)

    Zhou, Yafei; Liu, Mao


    With the rapid development of industry in China, the number of establishments that are proposed or under construction is increasing year by year, and many are industries that handle flammable, explosive, toxic, harmful, and dangerous substances. Accidents such as fire, explosion, and toxic diffusion inevitably happen. Accidents resulting from these major hazards in cities cause a large number of casualties and property losses. It is increasingly important to analyze the risk of major hazards in cities realistically and to suitably plan and utilize the surrounding land based on the risk analysis results, thereby reducing the hazards. A theoretical system for risk assessment of major hazards in cities is proposed in this article, and the major hazard risk for the entire city is analyzed quantitatively. Risks of various major accidents are considered together, superposition effect is analyzed, individual risk contours of the entire city are drawn out, and the level of risk in the city is assessed using "as low as reasonably practicable" guidelines. After the entire city's individual risk distribution is obtained, risk zones are divided according to corresponding individual risk value of HSE, and land-use planning suggestions are proposed. Finally, a city in China is used as an example to illustrate the risk assessment process of the city's major hazard and its application in urban land-use planning. The proposed method has a certain theoretical and practical significance in establishing and improving risk analysis of major hazard and urban land-use planning. On the one hand, major urban public risk is avoided; further, the land is utilized in the best possible way in order to obtain the maximum benefit from its use.

  19. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Lateh, Habibah [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang (Malaysia)


    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  20. Characterizing occupational risk perception: the case of biological, ergonomic and organizational hazards in Spanish healthcare workers. (United States)

    Portell, Mariona; Gil, Rosa M; Losilla, Josep M; Vives, Jaume


    Understanding how risk is perceived by workers is necessary for effective risk communication and risk management. This study adapts key elements of the psychometric perspective to characterize occupational risk perception at a worker level. A total of 313 Spanish healthcare workers evaluated relevant hazards in their workplaces related to biological, ergonomic and organizational factors. A questionnaire elicited workers' ratings of 3 occupational hazards on 9 risk attributes along with perceived risk. Factor and regression analyses reveal regularities in how different risks are perceived, while, at the same time, the procedure helps to summarize specificities in the perception of each hazard. The main regularity is the weight of feeling of dread/severity in order to characterize the risk perceived (β ranges from .22 to .41; p risk. Thus, participants consider their knowledge of the risk related to biological, ergonomic, and organizational hazards to be higher than the knowledge attributed to the occupational experts (mean differences 95% CIs [.10, .30], [.54, .94], and [0.52, 1.05]). We demonstrate the application of a feasible and systematic procedure to capture how workers perceive hazards in their immediate work environment.

  1. Reducing aluminum dust explosion hazards: case study of dust inerting in an aluminum buffing operation. (United States)

    Myers, Timothy J


    Metal powders or dusts can represent significant dust explosion hazards in industry, due to their relatively low ignition energy and high explosivity. The hazard is well known in industries that produce or use aluminum powders, but is sometimes not recognized by facilities that produce aluminum dust as a byproduct of bulk aluminum processing. As demonstrated by the 2003 dust explosion at aluminum wheel manufacturer Hayes Lemmerz, facilities that process bulk metals are at risk due to dust generated during machining and finishing operations [U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board, Investigation Report, Aluminum Dust Explosion Hayes Lemmerz International, Inc., Huntington, Indiana, Report No. 2004-01-I-IN, September 2005]. Previous studies have shown that aluminum dust explosions are more difficult to suppress with flame retardants or inerting agents than dust explosions fueled by other materials such as coal [A.G. Dastidar, P.R. Amyotte, J. Going, K. Chatrathi, Flammability limits of dust-minimum inerting concentrations, Proc. Saf. Progr., 18-1 (1999) 56-63]. In this paper, an inerting method is discussed to reduce the dust explosion hazard of residue created in an aluminum buffing operation as the residue is generated. This technique reduces the dust explosion hazard throughout the buffing process and within the dust collector systems making the process inherently safer. Dust explosion testing results are presented for process dusts produced during trials with varying amounts of flame retardant additives.

  2. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul


    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  3. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias


    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  4. The Use of Geospatial Technologies in Flood Hazard Mapping and Assessment: Case Study from River Evros (United States)

    Mentzafou, Angeliki; Markogianni, Vasiliki; Dimitriou, Elias


    Many scientists link climate change to the increase of the extreme weather phenomena frequency, which combined with land use changes often lead to disasters with severe social and economic effects. Especially floods as a consequence of heavy rainfall can put vulnerable human and natural systems such as transboundary wetlands at risk. In order to meet the European Directive 2007/60/EC requirements for the development of flood risk management plans, the flood hazard map of Evros transboundary watershed was produced after a grid-based GIS modelling method that aggregates the main factors related to the development of floods: topography, land use, geology, slope, flow accumulation and rainfall intensity. The verification of this tool was achieved through the comparison between the produced hazard map and the inundation maps derived from the supervised classification of Landsat 5 and 7 satellite imageries of four flood events that took place at Evros delta proximity, a wetland of international importance. The comparison of the modelled output (high and very high flood hazard areas) with the extent of the inundated areas as mapped from the satellite data indicated the satisfactory performance of the model. Furthermore, the vulnerability of each land use against the flood events was examined. Geographically Weighted Regression has also been applied between the final flood hazard map and the major factors in order to ascertain their contribution to flood events. The results accredited the existence of a strong relationship between land uses and flood hazard indicating the flood susceptibility of the lowlands and agricultural land. A dynamic transboundary flood hazard management plan should be developed in order to meet the Flood Directive requirements for adequate and coordinated mitigation practices to reduce flood risk.

  5. Modeling and hazard mapping of complex cascading mass movement processes: the case of glacier lake 513, Carhuaz, Peru (United States)

    Schneider, Demian; Huggel, Christian; García, Javier; Ludeña, Sebastian; Cochachin, Alejo


    that complex cascades of mass movement processes can realistically be modeled using different models and model parameters. The method to semi-automatically produce hazard maps is promising and should be applied in other case studies. Verification of model based results in the field remains an important requirement. Results from this study are important for the GLOF early warning system that is currently in an implementation phase, and for risk reduction efforts in general.

  6. Geological Hazards analysis in Urban Tunneling by EPB Machine (Case study: Tehran subway line 7 tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh


    Full Text Available Technological progress in tunneling has led to modern and efficient tunneling methods in vast underground spaces even under inappropriate geological conditions. Identification and access to appropriate and sufficient geological hazard data are key elements to successful construction of underground structures. Choice of the method, excavation machine, and prediction of suitable solutions to overcome undesirable conditions depend on geological studies and hazard analysis. Identifying and investigating the ground hazards in excavating urban tunnels by an EPB machine could augment the strategy for improving soil conditions during excavation operations. In this paper, challenges such as geological hazards, abrasion of the machine cutting tools, clogging around these tools and inside the chamber, diverse work front, severe water level fluctuations, existence of water, and fine-grained particles in the route were recognized in a study of Tehran subway line 7, for which solutions such as low speed boring, regular cutter head checks, application of soil improving agents, and appropriate grouting were presented and discussed. Due to the presence of fine particles in the route, foam employment was suggested as the optimum strategy where no filler is needed.

  7. Landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics: comparison of methods and case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Lorente, A.


    This paper, written as a deliverable of the DAMOCLES project, is a review of the different existing methodologies to landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics. Within the DAMOCLES project, multivariate statistical models have been applied to different study regions in Italy and Spain. The

  8. Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment at Bed Rock Level: Case Study for the City of Bhubaneswar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanti Rout


    Full Text Available In this study an updated deterministic seismic hazard contour map of Bhubaneswar (20°12'0"N to 20°23'0"N latitude and 85°44'0"E to 85° 54'0"E longitude one of the major city of India with tourist importance, has been prepared in the form of spectral acceleration values. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area has been divided into small grids of size 30˝×30˝ (approximately 1.0 km×1.0 km, and the hazard parameters in terms of spectral acceleration at bedrock level, PGA are calculated as the center of each of these grid cells by considering the regional Seismo-tectonic activity within 400 km radius around the city center. The maximum credible earthquake in terms of moment magnitude of 7.2 has been used for calculation of hazard parameter, results in PGA value of 0.017g towards the northeast side of the city and the corresponding maximum spectral acceleration as 0.0501g for a predominant period of 0.05s at bedrock level.

  9. A narrative review of secondary hazards in hospitals from cases of chemical self-poisoning and chemical exposure. (United States)

    Stewart-Evans, James L; Sharman, Andrew; Isaac, James


    Secondary hazards are an important consideration when dealing with both self-poisoned and chemically contaminated patients. Secondary exposure of hospital staff following the admission of a poisoned patient is relatively rare but potentially serious. Risks usually arise from chemical conversion of a deliberately ingested toxic substance and subsequent offgassing, but there may be toxic substances on the victim or their clothing. Surface contamination is a more common concern in cases where patients have been exposed to chemical releases. This paper presents a narrative review that considers some of the more commonly encountered toxic chemicals and situations that may present secondary hazards in hospitals. Risks to staff can be lowered by reducing the potential for, and duration of, exposure wherever possible. Good communication with the first responders at the scene, consultation with experts, decontamination and use of personal protective equipment, together with regular training, can minimize risks in the hospital environment.

  10. Natural hazard risk perception of Italian population: case studies along national territory. (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Tupputi Schinosa, Francesca De Luca; Zuddas, Isabella; Preto, Mattia; Marengo, Angelo; Esposito, Alessandro; Figliozzi, Emanuele; Rapinatore, Matteo


    Risk perception is judgment that people make about the characteristics and severity of risks, in last few years risk perception studies focused on provide cognitive elements to communication experts responsible in order to design citizenship information and awareness appropriate strategies. Several authors in order to determine natural hazards risk (Seismic, landslides, cyclones, flood, Volcanic) perception used questionnaires as tool for providing reliable quantitative data and permitting comparison the results with those of similar surveys. In Italy, risk perception studies based on surveys, were also carried out in order to investigate on national importance Natural risk, in particular on Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean Fields volcanic Risks, but lacked risk perception studies on local situation distributed on whole national territory. National importance natural hazard were frequently reported by national mass media and there were debate about emergencies civil protection plans, otherwise could be difficult to obtain information on bonded and regional nature natural hazard which were diffuses along National territory. In fact, Italian peninsula was a younger geological area subjected to endogenous phenomena (volcanoes, earthquake) and exogenous phenomena which determine land evolution and natural hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole) for population. For this reason we decided to investigate on natural risks perception in different Italian place were natural hazard were taken place but not reported from mass media, as were only local relevant or historical event. We carried out surveys in different Italian place interested by different types of natural Hazard (landslide, coastal erosion, hydrogeological instability, sinkhole, volcanic phenomena and earthquake) and compared results, in order to understand population perception level, awareness and civil protection exercises preparation. Our findings support that risks

  11. Seismic hazard in low slip rate crustal faults, estimating the characteristic event and the most hazardous zone: study case San Ramón Fault, in southern Andes (United States)

    Estay, Nicolás P.; Yáñez, Gonzalo; Carretier, Sebastien; Lira, Elias; Maringue, José


    Crustal faults located close to cities may induce catastrophic damages. When recurrence times are in the range of 1000-10 000 or higher, actions to mitigate the effects of the associated earthquake are hampered by the lack of a full seismic record, and in many cases, also of geological evidences. In order to characterize the fault behavior and its effects, we propose three different already-developed time-integration methodologies to define the most likely scenarios of rupture, and then to quantify the hazard with an empirical equation of peak ground acceleration (PGA). We consider the following methodologies: (1) stream gradient and (2) sinuosity indexes to estimate fault-related topographic effects, and (3) gravity profiles across the fault to identify the fault scarp in the basement. We chose the San Ramón Fault on which to apply these methodologies. It is a ˜ 30 km N-S trending fault with a low slip rate (0.1-0.5 mm yr-1) and an approximated recurrence of 9000 years. It is located in the foothills of the Andes near the large city of Santiago, the capital of Chile (> 6 000 000 inhabitants). Along the fault trace we define four segments, with a mean length of ˜ 10 km, which probably become active independently. We tested the present-day seismic activity by deploying a local seismological network for 1 year, finding five events that are spatially related to the fault. In addition, fault geometry along the most evident scarp was imaged in terms of its electrical resistivity response by a high resolution TEM (transient electromagnetic) profile. Seismic event distribution and TEM imaging allowed the constraint of the fault dip angle (˜ 65°) and its capacity to break into the surface. Using the empirical equation of Chiou and Youngs (2014) for crustal faults and considering the characteristic seismic event (thrust high-angle fault, ˜ 10 km, Mw = 6.2-6.7), we estimate the acceleration distribution in Santiago and the hazardous zones. City domains that are under

  12. Governance of complex socio-environmental risks: the case of hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea. (United States)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Gilek, Michael; Udovyk, Oksana


    Complex socio-environmental risks challenge society. In response to scientific uncertainty and sociopolitical controversies, environmental governance, precaution, and the ecosystem approach to management are held forward as complements to governmental risk-based sector-restricted regulation. We analyze this development for hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Based on interviews and policy analysis, we study informal governance and, in particular, four central EU and international policies, and investigate how present governance relates to risks and objectives at hand. While showing emergence of broader governance approaches, we conclude that central objectives will not likely be met. Furthermore, we question the quest for broad environmental governance and emphasize the value of command and control regulation, if it implements precaution. These findings contribute to the theorizing on environmental (risk) governance. Finally, we provide some ideas that could help development and implementation of risk policies for hazardous chemicals in the Baltic Sea as well as other complex risks.

  13. Assessing Hazards from Explosives as Part of Explosives Facility Safety Cases (United States)


    also enables the assessor to deduce the most appropriate means. 2.2 Detailed Hazard Identification Studies Techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA may be...comprehensive as possible, irrespective of the particular technique applied, whether it be HAZOP , FMEA, human error analysis or any other method. This is...incompatible chemicals / materials • Software faults - CNC programming errors - Control & instrumentation faults - Erroneous input/output with

  14. Volcanic-glacial interactions: GIS applications to the assessment of lahar hazards (case study of Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. D. Muraviev


    Full Text Available On the Kamchatka peninsula, lahars or volcanogenic mudflows arise as a result of intensive snow melting caused by incandescent material ejected by volcanoes onto the surface. Such flows carrying volcanic ash and cinders together with lava fragments and blocks move with a speed up to 70 km/h that can result in significant destructions and even human victims. Formation of such water flows is possible during the whole year.Large-scale GIS «Hazards of lahars (volcanogenic mudflows» has been developed for some volcano group as well as for individual volcanoes on the peninsula in framework of the GIS «Volcanic hazard of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc». Main components of this database are the following: physic-geographical information on region of active volcanism and adjacent areas, on human settlements; data on the mudflow activity; data on distribution of the snow and ice reserves. This database is aimed at mapping of surrounding territories and estimating a hazard of lahars.For illustration the paper presents a map of the lahar hazards, results of calculations of the distances of ejects and maximal area of ejected material spreading in dependence on a character and power of an eruption. In future we plan to perform operational calculations of maximal possible volumes of such flows and areas of their spreading. The calculations will be made on the basis of the GIS «Volcanic hazard of the Kuril-Kamchatka island arc».A volume of hard material carried by lahars onto slopes and down to foot of the Kluchevskaya volcanic massif is estimated on the basis of data on the snow and ice reserves on volcano slopes. On the average for many years, the snow accumulation in zones of the mudflow formations their volume often reaches 15–17 millions of cubic meters. Depending on the snowfall activity in different years this value may vary within 50% relative to the norm. Further on, calculations of maximal possible volume of such flows will be performed in a

  15. Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: A case study for tephra fallout (United States)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner


    During volcanic crises, volcanologists estimate the impact of possible imminent eruptions usually through deterministic modeling of the effects of one or a few preestablished scenarios. Despite such an approach may bring an important information to the decision makers, the sole use of deterministic scenarios does not allow scientists to properly take into consideration all uncertainties, and it cannot be used to assess quantitatively the risk because the latter unavoidably requires a probabilistic approach. We present a model based on the concept of Bayesian event tree (hereinafter named BET_VH_ST, standing for Bayesian event tree for short-term volcanic hazard), for short-term near-real-time probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis formulated for any potential hazardous phenomenon accompanying an eruption. The specific goal of BET_VH_ST is to produce a quantitative assessment of the probability of exceedance of any potential level of intensity for a given volcanic hazard due to eruptions within restricted time windows (hours to days) in any area surrounding the volcano, accounting for all natural and epistemic uncertainties. BET_VH_ST properly assesses the conditional probability at each level of the event tree accounting for any relevant information derived from the monitoring system, theoretical models, and the past history of the volcano, propagating any relevant epistemic uncertainty underlying these assessments. As an application example of the model, we apply BET_VH_ST to assess short-term volcanic hazard related to tephra loading during Major Emergency Simulation Exercise, a major exercise at Mount Vesuvius that took place from 19 to 23 October 2006, consisting in a blind simulation of Vesuvius reactivation, from the early warning phase up to the final eruption, including the evacuation of a sample of about 2000 people from the area at risk. The results show that BET_VH_ST is able to produce short-term forecasts of the impact of tephra fall during a rapidly

  16. Chloride transference during electrochemical chloride extraction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chemical titration method and lab-made chloride probes were jointly adopted to investigate the effects of water-to-cement (W/C) ratio and the impressed current density on chloride transport for cement-based materials during electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) process.The dissolution of bound chlorides and the effect of current density on dissolution were analyzed.The variations of chloride concentration at different depths and the chloride transference process were monitored.Test results show that W/C ratios adopted have slight influence on chloride extraction,while chloride extraction efficiency is mainly determined by the impressed current density.During ECE process a portion of bound chloride ions dissolved and the amount of bound chlorides released is directly proportional to current density.

  17. An evaluation of soil erosion hazard: A case study in Southern Africa using geomatics technologies (United States)

    Eiswerth, Barbara Alice

    Accelerated soil erosion in Malawi, Southern Africa, increasingly threatens agricultural productivity, given current and projected population growth trends. Previous attempts to document soil erosion potential have had limited success, lacking appropriate information and diagnostic tools. This study utilized geomatics technologies and the latest available information from topography, soils, climate, vegetation, and land use of a watershed in southern Malawi. The Soil Loss Estimation Model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA), developed for conditions in Zimbabwe, was evaluated and used to create a soil erosion hazard map for the watershed under Malawi conditions. The SLEMSA sub-models of cover, soil loss, and topography were computed from energy interception, rainfall energy, and soil erodibility, and slope length and steepness, respectively. Geomatics technologies including remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provided the tools with which land cover/land use, a digital elevation model, and slope length and steepness were extracted and integrated with rainfall and soils spatial information. Geomatics technologies enable rapid update of the model as new and better data sets become available. Sensitivity analyses of the SLEMSA model revealed that rainfall energy and slope steepness have the greatest influence on soil erosion hazard estimates in this watershed. Energy interception was intermediate in sensitivity level, whereas slope length and soil erodibility ranked lowest. Energy interception and soil erodibility were shown by parameter behavior analysis to behave in a linear fashion with respect to soil erosion hazard, whereas rainfall energy, slope steepness, and slope length exhibit non-linear behavior. When SLEMSA input parameters and results were compared to alternative methods of soil erosion assessment, such as drainage density and drainage texture, the model provided more spatially explicit information using 30 meter grid cells. Results of this

  18. Volcanic-glacial interactions: GIS applications to the assessment of lahar hazards (case study of Kamchatka)



    On the Kamchatka peninsula, lahars or volcanogenic mudflows arise as a result of intensive snow melting caused by incandescent material ejected by volcanoes onto the surface. Such flows carrying volcanic ash and cinders together with lava fragments and blocks move with a speed up to 70 km/h that can result in significant destructions and even human victims. Formation of such water flows is possible during the whole year.Large-scale GIS «Hazards of lahars (volcanogenic mudflows)» has been deve...

  19. Flood hazard and flood risk assessment using a time series of satellite images: a case study in Namibia. (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Shelestov, Andrii; Kussul, Olga


    In this article, the use of time series of satellite imagery to flood hazard mapping and flood risk assessment is presented. Flooded areas are extracted from satellite images for the flood-prone territory, and a maximum flood extent image for each flood event is produced. These maps are further fused to determine relative frequency of inundation (RFI). The study shows that RFI values and relative water depth exhibit the same probabilistic distribution, which is confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The produced RFI map can be used as a flood hazard map, especially in cases when flood modeling is complicated by lack of available data and high uncertainties. The derived RFI map is further used for flood risk assessment. Efficiency of the presented approach is demonstrated for the Katima Mulilo region (Namibia). A time series of Landsat-5/7 satellite images acquired from 1989 to 2012 is processed to derive RFI map using the presented approach. The following direct damage categories are considered in the study for flood risk assessment: dwelling units, roads, health facilities, and schools. The produced flood risk map shows that the risk is distributed uniformly all over the region. The cities and villages with the highest risk are identified. The proposed approach has minimum data requirements, and RFI maps can be generated rapidly to assist rescuers and decisionmakers in case of emergencies. On the other hand, limitations include: strong dependence on the available data sets, and limitations in simulations with extrapolated water depth values.

  20. Plan for Prevention of Natural Hazards in Urban Areas. Case of the City of Constantine (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykhlef Boubakeur


    Full Text Available Natural hazards are caused by different phenomena: landslides, earthquakes, floods etc. All the manifestations of forces of nature are called phenomena. We are speaking then of natural risks when these problems are threatening, with varying degrees, human activities, causing significant damage to human life, property and the environment. The need to consider natural hazards in land use planning tasks has become a major concern. During these past years, Algeria has been hit by frequent natural disasters, with the most recent ones endangering the lives of people and causing priceless damage, faced with such a situation the company of adequate measures, capable of exercising effective prevention, is essential. In addition to the seismic risk, for which prevention still needs to be improved, Algeria must also face gravity processes such as landslides. By their suddenness, they can put people in danger and destroy entire buildings involving the evacuation of entire neighbourhoods where the financial impact is significant on the state budget and local government. The main interest of this paper is the feasibility of a plan for prevention of natural disasters related to landslides based on geological maps, topography, hydrogeological and on existing buildings and vulnerability, and eventually lead to a Zoning risk that would be considered for inclusion in the Master Plan of Urban Planning and Land Use Plan and provide support for decisions taken by local authorities for the selection of sites.

  1. Learning Pathways in Environmental Science Education: The case of hazardous household items (United States)

    Malandrakis, George N.


    The present study draws on environmental science education to explore aspects of children’s conceptual change regarding hazardous household items. Twelve children from a fifth-grade class attended a 30-h teaching module of environmentally oriented science activities aimed at assessing their awareness about the environmental and health hazards posed by several typical household products. In-depth interviews before, 2 weeks after, and 1 year after, the teaching intervention revealed that children followed three pathways of conceptual change ranging from the substantial alterations of their initial ideas to the qualitative enrichment of those ideas to the complete rejection of the new knowledge. Two components of the instructional intervention—the use of living organisms in classroom experiments, and group learning activities—along with the development of children’s situated metacognitive ideas facilitated their learning and increased the durability of the acquired knowledge. Additionally, sound indications concerning the situated nature and the social construction of the new knowledge were observed, as well as that in environmental education moral and value issues are closely related to knowledge.

  2. Immobilization technologies for the management of hazardous industrial waste using granite waste (case study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheen, Mohamed R.; Ashmawy, Azza M.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Moniem, Shimaa M. Abdel [National Research Centre, Giza (Egypt)


    Full characterization of granite waste sludge (GWS) was accomplished by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Xray fluorescence (XRF) for identification of its phase and chemical composition. Different leaching tests were conducted to determine the efficiency of the GWS for metal stabilization in hazardous sludge. The leaching of the metals from stabilized contaminated sludge was decreased as the GWS amount increased. Only 15% of GWS was sufficient for stabilization of all metal ions under investigation. The main reason for metal immobilization was attributed to the aluminosilicates or silicates matrix within the GWS, which can transform the metals in the form of their insoluble hydroxides or absorbed in the stabilized matrix. Also, solidification/stabilization technique was used for remediation of contaminated sludge. Compressive strength test after curing for 28 days was used for measuring the effectiveness of remediation technique; it was found to be 1.88MPa. This indicated that the remediated sludge was well solidified and safe to be used as a raw substance for roadway blocks. Therefore, this huge amount of by-product sludge derived from the granite cutting industry, which has a negative environmental impact due to its disposal, can be utilized as a binder material for solidification/stabilization of hazardous sludge.

  3. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou. (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun


    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities.

  4. Hazardous and Industrial Wastes Management: a Case Study of Khazra Industrial Park, Kerman

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    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Increasing hazardous industrial wastes and lack of necessary regulations for management of them have led to serious problems in some parts of Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the situation of collection, transportation, recycling, and disposal of hazardous industrial wastes in the Khazra Industrial Park of Kerman, Iran. Materials & Methods: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was done using questionnaires and local visits during year 2009. In this questionnaire, some information about the industrial wastes, production, storage on site , collection, transformation, sorting, recycling, and disposal were recorded. Results:   In the Khazra Industrial Park, 71,600 kg/day of different industrial waste is produced. The biggest proportion of waste includes metals, and construction and demolition waste which are about 16,500 tons a year. The smallest proportion is non-iron metal waste, which is produced at a rate of 8 tons per year. 88.7 percent of the active industries at the Khazra Industrial Park produce solid industrial waste. Most of the industrial units do not use a united and coordinated system for storing waste and have no specific place for temporary storage inside the industrial park. The majority of industrial waste collection, which is about 59.8%, is done by private contractors. The industrial units transfer their waste separately, and just 9 industrial units recycle their waste. Disposal of these wastes is mainly done by selling to trading agencies. Each day, 3 tons of hazardous industrial waste is produced in this park. The highest production belongs to the oil factory (Keyhan Motor. Conclusions: According to the results, the Khazra Industrial Park needs a unified system for storing, transporting and collecting the sorted waste, and it also needs to have a transportation station with basic facilities. The wastes of most industrial units at the Khazra Industrial Park have the

  5. CMMAD Usability Case Study in Support of Countermine and Hazard Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor G. Walker; David I. Gertman


    During field trials, operator usability data were collected in support of lane clearing missions and hazard sensing for two robot platforms with Robot Intelligence Kernel (RIK) software and sensor scanning payloads onboard. The tests featured autonomous and shared robot autonomy levels where tasking of the robot used a graphical interface featuring mine location and sensor readings. The goal of this work was to provide insights that could be used to further technology development. The efficacy of countermine systems in terms of mobility, search, path planning, detection, and localization were assessed. Findings from objective and subjective operator interaction measures are reviewed along with commentary from soldiers having taken part in the study who strongly endorse the system.


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    Daniela Dal Molin


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental toxicity of hazardous industrial waste from landfill leachate of the one industrial solid waste center from the Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the ecotoxicity with Daphnia magna and toxicity and mutagenicity with Allium cepa were determined. The results of the row leachate sample indicated that the physical and chemical characteristics are compatible with the limit values imputed for treated wastewaters. Absence of acute ecotoxicity was also detected, however a significant (P<0.01 larger frequency of micronuclei was verified when compared with the results of the negative control, suggesting a genotóxico effect of this wast, although not significant alterations in the mitotic index and root growth was observed.

  7. Tribenzylammonium chloride

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    Waly Diallo


    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  8. Composite Material Hazard Assessment at Crash Sites (United States)


    wing tip areas and around cockpit, and the A-7D landing gear bushings Lithium thionyl chloride Soft, silvery highly reactive metallic...per the NIOSH Method 7400 fiber counting method. Pre-weighed 37-mm polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters captured total particulate batteries Pressurized tanks and aircraft parts Compressed liquids and gases (oxygen); tires Physical and chemical hazards from

  9. Natural Hazard Problem and Solution Definition in the News Media: the Case of Tropical Storm Allison (United States)

    Lindquist, Eric; Mosher-Howe, Katrina


    Focusing events such as natural or technological disasters can have significant impacts on public policy and planning in both the near and long term. These impacts can manifest at different temporal scales ranging from the period of immediate attention and disaster relief through the period of recovery and reconstruction and beyond. These impacts and associated decisions can be studied in retrospect and understood as not only short-term reactions, but as long-term components of subsequent natural hazard planning and public policy. By studying in detail how an event was defined, and the policy and planning alternatives that were raised or recommended in response to a disaster event, we can better understand the role that disaster-related focusing events play in the long-term evolution of a community's public policy, infrastructural planning efforts, and responses to natural disasters. This paper will use a focusing event framework to explore the local and regional policy impacts over time of a major urban flood in Houston, Texas, Tropical Storm Allison. Tropical Storm Allison (TSA), dropped 36 inches of rain on Houston over a period of four days in early June 2001, and was responsible for 22 deaths, 70,000 flood damaged homes, and 5 billion in damage to the region. The primary data source for this effort is a database of 500 articles from the major regional newspaper, the Houston Chronicle, over the period of 2001 through 2008. These articles were coded for multiple variables, including, cause, effect and impact (financial and social), blame, problem and solution definition and solution acceptance). This paper focuses primarily on the measures of problem definition (how was TSA, as an event, defined in the media, for example, as an act of God, or as a result of poor planning or decision making, etc), and on solution definition (what solutions were proposed to mitigate or adapt to future storms of this magnitude, how were they linked to the definition of the problem

  10. Can We Turn A Hazard Into A Development Tool ? The Case of Methane Hydrates In Permafrost (United States)

    Solana, C.; Light, M. P. R.

    Permafrost regions in the northern hemisphere may contain as much as 3.9×1015 kg of methane carbon in gas hydrates. Methane is one of the greenhouse gases with the largest short term warming potential (up to 59 times greater than CO2 in a 20 yr time span). Current warming scenarios of 8C in the Arctic regions in the next 100 yr will be enough to release the methane contained in the permafrost, accelerating dramat- ically the existing global climate warming trend. Areas covered with permafrost are also some of the poorest in the world due to the extreme conditions of temperature and light. Small isolated communities in these regions depend heavily on external re- sources and their survival economies have little means for development. Methane in permafrost is beginning to be exploited on a large scale in Russia. Methane derived from the decomposition of organic matter, at household scale, is also proving success- ful as a source of energy in developing countries. If cheap, simple, individual systems could be designed for exploiting the methane from the permafrost (in the same way as geothermal energy is being used in Iceland) a natural hazard could be transformed into a profitable resource and development tool.

  11. Are some "safer alternatives" hazardous as PBTs? The case study of new flame retardants. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Cassani, Stefano; Sangion, Alessandro


    Some brominated flame retardants (BFRs), as PBDEs, are persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic (PBT) and are restricted/prohibited under various legislations. They are replaced by "safer" flame retardants (FRs), such as new BFRs or organophosphorous compounds. However, informations on the PBT behaviour of these substitutes are often lacking. The PBT assessment is required by the REACH regulation and the PBT chemicals should be subjected to authorization. Several new FRs, proposed and already used as safer alternatives to PBDEs, are here screened by the cumulative PBT Index model, implemented in QSARINS (QSAR-Insubria), new software for the development/validation of QSAR models. The results, obtained directly from the chemical structure for the three studied characteristics altogether, were compared with those from the US-EPA PBT Profiler: the two different approaches are in good agreement, supporting the utility of a consensus approach in these screenings. A priority list of the most harmful FRs, predicted in agreement by the two modelling tools, has been proposed, highlighting that some supposed "safer alternatives" are detected as intrinsically hazardous for their PBT properties. This study also shows that the PBT Index could be a valid tool to evaluate appropriate and safer substitutes, a priori from the chemical design, in a benign by design approach, avoiding unnecessary synthesis and tests.

  12. Probabilistic and Deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment: A Case Study in Babol

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    H.R. Tavakoli


    Full Text Available The risk of earthquake ground motion parameters in seismic design of structures and Vulnerabilityand risk assessment of these structures against earthquake damage are important. The damages caused by theearthquake engineering and seismology of the social and economic consequences are assessed. This paperdetermined seismic hazard analysis in Babol via deterministic and probabilistic methods. Deterministic andprobabilistic methods seem to be practical tools for mutual control of results and to overcome the weaknessof approach alone. In the deterministic approach, the strong-motion parameters are estimated for the maximumcredible earthquake, assumed to occur at the closest possible distance from the site of interest, withoutconsidering the likelihood of its occurrence during a specified exposure period. On the other hand, theprobabilistic approach integrates the effects of all earthquakes expected to occur at different locations duringa specified life period, with the associated uncertainties and randomness taken into account. The calculatedbedrock horizontal and vertical peak ground acceleration (PGA for different years return period of the studyarea are presented.

  13. Hazardous Doping for Photo-Electrochemical Conversion: The Case of Nb-Doped Fe2O3 from First Principles

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    Natav Yatom


    Full Text Available The challenge of improving the efficiency of photo-electrochemical devices is often addressed through doping. However, this strategy could harm performance. Specifically, as demonstrated in a recent experiment, doping one of the most widely used materials for water splitting, iron (III oxide (Fe2O3, with niobium (Nb can still result in limited efficiency. In order to better understand the hazardous effect of doping, we use Density Functional Theory (DFT+U for the case of Nb-doped Fe2O3. We find a direct correlation between the charge of the dopant, the charge on surface of the Fe2O3 material, and the overpotential required for water oxidation reaction. We believe that this work contributes to advancing our understanding of how to select effective dopants for materials.

  14. Using ToxCast to Explore Chemical Activities and Hazard Traits: A Case Study With Ortho-Phthalates. (United States)

    Pham, Nathalie; Iyer, Shoba; Hackett, Edward; Lock, Bennett H; Sandy, Martha; Zeise, Lauren; Solomon, Gina; Marty, Melanie


    US EPA's Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCastTM) is a tool with potential use in evaluating safer consumer products, conducting chemical alternatives analyses, prioritizing chemicals for exposure monitoring, and ultimately performing screening-level risk assessments. As a case study exploring a potential use of ToxCast, we evaluated ToxCast results for ortho-phthalates focused on the well-established toxicological endpoints of some members of this class. We compared molecular perturbations measured in ToxCast assays with the known apical toxicity endpoints of o-phthalates reported in the open literature to broadly reflect on the predictive capability of the high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. We grouped the ToxCast assays into defined sets to examine o-phthalate activity and potency. This study revealed several links between key molecular events assayed in vitro and chemical-specific hazard traits. In general, parent o-phthalates are more active than their monoester metabolites. The medium-chain length o-phthalate group is also more active than other o-phthalate groups, as supported by Toxicological Priority Index ranking and statistical methods. Some HTS assay results correlated with in vivo findings, but others did not. For example, there was a notable lack of assay activity to explain the known male reproductive toxicity of these compounds. Ultimately, HTS data resources such as ToxCast may inform us of sensitive upstream toxicity endpoints and may assist in the rapid identification of environmental chemical hazards for screening and prioritization. However, this case study shows that the absence of positive results in ToxCast in vitro assays cannot be interpreted as absence of related in vivo toxicity, and limited biological coverage by the assays remains a concern.

  15. Menstrual hygiene – A salient hazard in rural schools: A case of Masvingo district of Zimbabwe

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    Everson Ndlovu


    Full Text Available Active participation of the girl child in development is hampered by Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM challenges. MHM is an important gender issue and a critical component in holistic human development. It affects about 25% of the global population aged between 15 and 49 years. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH interventions in schools have not prioritised MHM, thus exposing girls and the entire school community to health related hazards. The study explored knowledge, attitudes and community practices, and investigated the impact of religious and cultural beliefs on MHM and how they impact on the girl child in Masvingo district. The survey was largely qualitative and employed methodologies of document analysis, Focus Group Discussions (FGD and structured interviews. Participants included four churches, 13 NGOs, eight government departments and 40 women. Findings revealed deeply embedded power relations, a culture of silence around MHM, noninvolvement of men in MHM issues, limited availability in terms of information, and a girl unfriendly infrastructure, and limited access to menstrual hygiene products due to poverty and poor management and disposal practices. Resultant effects ranged from poor class participation, lack of concentration and constrained interactions with peers and teachers, low self-esteem, anxiety and the general feeling of being discriminated against. Results confirmed the need for increased awareness initiatives on MHM in a bid to tackle inherent religious and cultural beliefs that are a barrier to effective holistic implementation of WASH interventions that empower women and girls. Lobbying government to provide an appropriate policy framework, education and training, construction of girl friendly sanitary facilities, exploring and capitalisation of local production of Reusable Menstrual Pads (RUMPS, more research targeting children living with disabilities, those living in refugee and makeshift camps and Orphans and

  16. Innovative methods of hazard evaluation. Central Italy case study; Progetto Misha. Metodi innovativi per la stima dell'hazard. Applicazione all'Italia Centrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzza, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti, Rome (Italy)


    The Misha project (Innovative methods for hazard assessment) represents the application, at selected areas, of the methodologies developed in some strategic sectors for validation of non-conventional techniques for assessment of seismic risk. [Italian] Il progetto Misha (Metodi Innovativi per la Stima dell'Hazard: applicazione all'Italia Centrale) e' una delle attivita' caratterizzanti l'ultimo anno della convenzione triennale (1996-98) stipulata tra il Dipartimento della Protezione Civile ed il CNR-Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dai Terremoti. Misha rappresenta l'applicazione ad un'area campione delle metodologie sviluppate in taluni settori strategici nei quali si era articolata la convenzione: lo sviluppo e la validazione metodologica di tecniche non convenzionali per la stima della pericolosita' del territorio nazionale, l'individuazione di linee guida per la raccolta di informazioni sulle strutture sismogenetiche a livello nazionale, la transizione ad una nuova generazione di stime di hazard finalizzate ad un aggiornamento della classificazione sismica ed al riadeguamento antisismico del patrimonio edilizio.

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps from seismicity patterns analysis: the Iberian Peninsula case

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    A. Jiménez


    Full Text Available Earthquake prediction is a main topic in Seismology. Here, the goal is to know the correlation between the seismicity at a certain place at a given time with the seismicity at the same place, but at a following interval of time. There are no ways for exact predictions, but one can wonder about the causality relations between the seismic characteristics at a given time interval and another in a region. In this paper, a new approach to this kind of studies is presented. Tools which include cellular automata theory and Shannon's entropy are used. First, the catalogue is divided into time intervals, and the region into cells. The activity or inactivity of each cell at a certain time is described using an energy criterion; thus a pattern which evolves over time is given. The aim is to find the rules of the stochastic cellular automaton which best fits the evolution of the pattern. The neighborhood utilized is the cross template (CT. A grid search is made to choose the best model, being the mutual information between the different times the function to be maximized. This function depends on the size of the cells β on and the interval of time τ which is considered for studying the activity of a cell. With these β and τ, a set of probabilities which characterizes the evolution rules is calculated, giving a probabilistic approach to the spatiotemporal evolution of the region. The sample catalogue for the Iberian Peninsula covers since 1970 till 2001. The results point out that the seismic activity must be deduced not only from the past activity at the same region but also from its surrounding activity. The time and spatial highest interaction for the catalogue used are of around 3.3 years and 290x165 km2, respectively; if a cell is inactive, it will continue inactive with a high probability; an active cell has around the 60% probability of continuing active in the future. The Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Map obtained marks the main seismic active

  18. Geomorphological surveys and software simulations for rock fall hazard assessment: a case study in the Italian Alps

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    S. Devoto


    Full Text Available In northern Italy, fast-moving landslides represent a significant threat to the population and human facilities. In the eastern portion of the Italian Alps, rock falls are recurrent and are often responsible for casualties or severe damage to roads and buildings. The above-cited type of landslide is frequent in mountain ranges, is characterised by strong relief energy and is triggered by earthquakes or copious rainfall, which often exceed 2000 mm yr−1. These factors cause morphological dynamics with intense slope erosion and degradation processes. This work investigates the appraisal of the rock-fall hazard related to the presence of several large unstable blocks located at the top of a limestone peak, approximately 500 m NW with respect to the Village of Cimolais. Field surveys recognised a limestone block exceeding a volume of 400 m3 and identified this block as the most hazardous for Cimolais Village because of its proximity to the rocky cliff. A first assessment of the possible transit and stop areas has been investigated through in-depth traditional activities, such as geomorphological mapping and aerial photo analysis. The output of field surveys was a detailed land use map, which provided a fundamental starting point for rock fall software analysis. The geomorphological observations were correlated with DTMs derived by regional topography and Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS surveys to recognise possible rock fall routes. To simulate properly rock fall trajectories with a hybrid computer program, particular attention was devoted to the correct quantification of rates of input parameters, such as restitution coefficients and horizontal acceleration associated to earthquakes, which historically occur in this portion of Italy. The simulation outputs regarding the distribution of rock fall end points and kinetic energy along rock falling paths highlight the hazardous situation for Cimolais Village. Because of this reason, mitigation works have

  19. Vertebral artery aneurysm--a unique hazard of head banging by heavy metal rockers. Case report. (United States)

    Egnor, M R; Page, L K; David, C

    A 15-year-old drummer in a neighborhood rock music band suffered a traumatic true aneurysm of the cervical vertebral artery from violent head and neck motion. He underwent excision of the aneurysm after distal and proximal ligation of the artery. He is neurologically normal 1 year after surgery. The mechanisms of injury caused by extremes of cervical motion, as well as 5 previously reported cases of extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm from closed trauma, are discussed. Excision of vertebral artery aneurysms in patients with emboli from a mural thrombus is recommended. The consequences of vertebral artery ligation and the indications for distal reconstruction are discussed.


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    Full Text Available In the case of flood the main damages on the environment may occur as a consequence of accidents at sources of pollution. The issue of pollution sources is a key area of environmental protection. While pollution from point sources can be disposed by suitable technology, for diffuse pollution are essential proposals of preventive measures, that creating conditions to prevent contamination. The paper presents results of evaluation the sources of pollution in Hornad river basin in the eastern Slovakia in flooded area. Environmental risk assessment methods can be particularly useful in evaluating whether uses are threatened when a stressor of concern is not expressed as a numeric criterion in water quality standards. The risk assessment framework can add value to watershed-based management.

  1. Endotracheal intubation - A life saving procedure, still potential hazardous to upper airway: A case report. (United States)

    Afreen, Mahrukh; Ansari, Murtaza Ahsan


    Endotracheal intubation plays a key role in the management of upper airway obstruction in emergency situations. It is non-invasive and easily learned technique by medical professionals as compared to other more skilled, surgical procedures, e.g., tracheostomy and cricothyrotomies etc. But prolonged intubation may result in numerous complications, most notorious being tracheoesophageal fistula and narrowing of subglottic area. We report a profile of a patient who had been diagnosed as case of Guillian-Barre Syndrome, had difficulty in breathing due to paralysis of respiratory muscles. The patient was admitted in Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) for 40 days and was kept on artificial breathing through endotracheal intubation, which remained in place for 19 days. Later tracheostomy was performed. Patient ultimately developed severe subglottic stenosis and became dependent on tracheostomy tube.

  2. Software safety hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  3. Lithium battery hazard: old-fashioned planning implications of new technology. (United States)

    Ducatman, A M; Ducatman, B S; Barnes, J A


    Lithium battery technology has important military applications and will increasingly enter the civilian marketplace. In order to prevent explosive fragmentation under some circumstances of malfunction or misuse, lithium batteries are designed to vent externally in the event of malfunction. Depending on the chemistry and size of a venting lithium battery, the release of toxic gases such as sulfur dioxide or thionyl chloride may pose risks to exposed individuals, particularly in enclosed spaces. Chemical and thermal burns, laryngeal edema, pulmonary edema, and bronchiolitis obliterans are potential outcomes. A case report is presented which illustrates the hazards. The hazards are not from unpredictable outcomes, but from failure to plan for predictable outcomes.

  4. A case study for natural cascading hazard: the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif (Northern Spain) (United States)

    Garcia-Hernandez, Cristina; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Gallinar, David


    In this paper we study the events triggered by the Great Blizzard of 1888 in the Asturian Massif as a case study that shows how one hazard can be the main cause of another hazard occurring. The reconstruction of the chain of hazards triggered by the episode has been done on the basis of nivo-meteorogical conditions, event geographical location, and socio-economic impact. The episode has been studied through the analysis of the issues published in six different newspapers between the 20th of January and 30th of May 1888. We have collected the data of the ancient meteorological station of the University of Oviedo, and those contained in parish documents. Field work consisted in visual inspection and interviews to the contemporary residents. The information has been stored and crossed for statistical analysis using a logical database structure that has been designed with this purpose. The snowfall episode consisted in four consecutive snowstorms that occurred between the 14th of February 1888 and the 8th of April 1888, creating snow covers with an average depth ranging between 5 and 7 m. The snow accumulations were the main cause of material damage, affecting 27 high- and mid-elevation mountain municipalities. However, we have to consider that the newspapers only reflected those events affecting densely populated areas along with those which affected vital economic spaces (railway lines, roads in mountain passes, etc.). There were more than 200 interruptions with the traffic flow and communication outages, hampering economic activities. Snow built up on the roofs added extra weight to the structure of the buildings so more than 900 constructions collapsed, killing three persons and causing the loss of more than 19.000 head of cattle. Moreover, these snow accumulations were the basis of an episode of sixty-four snow avalanches that, undoubtedly, meant the main personal damage with a number of dead and wounded that reached 29 and 23 respectively. During the snowfall

  5. Man-Made Major Hazards Like Earthquake or Explosion; Case Study, Turkish Mine Explosion (13 May 2014.

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    Jamileh Vasheghani Farahani


    Full Text Available In all over the world, mining is considered as a high-risk activity that is pregnant with serious disasters not only for miners, engineers, and other people into it, but also for people who live near the mines. In this article, our main purpose is to examine some major mine disasters and safety in mines and the case study is a coal mine in Turkey. Safety in mines is one of the most important issues that need attention. Therefore, it is suggested that existing deficiencies in mines should be removed by continuous monitoring in all devices, equipments, control of Methane and safe separation of coal from a mine. Moreover, we recommend that early warning systems should be installed to alert some explosions, fires and other dangerous events to the fire departments, hospitals, Red Crescent and other major reliefs. Experiences from previous events in mines can help managers and miners. With some plans and projects related to disasters in mines and solution for them, some diseases such as black lung disease or other problems in mines such as carbon monoxide poisoning can forestall a danger. Before Mine owners begin their activity, they must research about the environmental and social effects of their activities. Therefore, they should identify some important hazards and determine some essential tasks to remove them or control risks via collaboration with other scientists.

  6. (Toxic hepatitis and acute renal failure after inhalation of chloride solvents: report of one case (author's transl))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixido Planas, J.; Martinez-Castelao, A.; Romero Gonzalez, R.; Grino Boira, J.; Gonzalez Segura, C.; Caralps Riera, A.


    Due to a combination of ingested ethanol and inhaled trichloroethylene (Tri) a 28 year old man developed toxic hepatitis and acute oliguric renal failure, both of which had a favorable evolution. Tri has been described as a cause of hepatic disfunction and acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, although some of the cases described are controversial, because Tri was either contaminated by other dissolvents or could not be proven pure, with the exception of one case. In many there was ethanol ingestion. The Tri inhaled by our patient was found to contain less than 1% of carbon tetrachloride (C-Tchl). This would suggest the C-Tchl to be responsible for the clinical picture although the combination Tri/ethanol cannot be discarded as the causal agent, due to the small amount of contaminant present.

  7. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.


    train station (Hauptbahnhof), are at high risk of inundation, causing huge indirect damages. The analysis of flood risk to agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage have pointed out that these receptors could be relatively less impacted by the selected flood scenario mainly because their scattered presence. Finally, the application of the KR-RRA methodology to the Sihl River case study as well as to several other sites across Europe (not presented here), has demonstrated its flexibility and possible adaptation to different geographical and socio-economic contexts, depending on data availability and peculiarities of the sites, as well as for other hazard scenarios.

  8. Hazard Ranking Methodology for Assessing Health Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Production: The Maryland Case Study. (United States)

    Boyle, Meleah D; Payne-Sturges, Devon C; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka; Wilson, Sacoby; Nachman, Keeve E; Babik, Kelsey; Jenkins, Christian C; Trowell, Joshua; Milton, Donald K; Sapkota, Amir


    The recent growth of unconventional natural gas development and production (UNGDP) has outpaced research on the potential health impacts associated with the process. The Maryland Marcellus Shale Public Health Study was conducted to inform the Maryland Marcellus Shale Safe Drilling Initiative Advisory Commission, State legislators and the Governor about potential public health impacts associated with UNGDP so they could make an informed decision that considers the health and well-being of Marylanders. In this paper, we describe an impact assessment and hazard ranking methodology we used to assess the potential public health impacts for eight hazards associated with the UNGDP process. The hazard ranking included seven metrics: 1) presence of vulnerable populations (e.g. children under the age of 5, individuals over the age of 65, surface owners), 2) duration of exposure, 3) frequency of exposure, 4) likelihood of health effects, 5) magnitude/severity of health effects, 6) geographic extent, and 7) effectiveness of setbacks. Overall public health concern was determined by a color-coded ranking system (low, moderately high, and high) that was generated based on the overall sum of the scores for each hazard. We provide three illustrative examples of applying our methodology for air quality and health care infrastructure which were ranked as high concern and for water quality which was ranked moderately high concern. The hazard ranking was a valuable tool that allowed us to systematically evaluate each of the hazards and provide recommendations to minimize the hazards.

  9. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan (United States)

    Chen, H. L.; Ito, Y.; Sawamukai, M.; Su, T.; Tokunaga, T.


    Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  10. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.


    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  11. Technical Note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gloël


    Full Text Available Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2 is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur significant risks and expense. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC has been used previously for freshwater samples. Here, we assess BAC as a less hazardous alternative microbial inhibitor for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O2/Ar ratios, as used for the determination of plankton net community production. BAC at a concentration of 50 mg dm−3 inhibited microbial activity for at least three days in seawater with chlorophyll a (Chl a concentrations up to 1 mg m−3, possibly longer when Chl a concentrations were lower. BAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg dm−3 were no more effective than 50 mg dm−3. With fewer risks to human health and the environment, and no requirement for expensive waste disposal, BAC could be a viable alternative to HgCl2 for short-term preservation of seawater samples, but is not a replacement for HgCl2 in the case of oxygen triple isotope analysis, which requires storage over weeks to months. In any event, further tests on a case-by-case basis should be undertaken if use of BAC was considered, since its inhibitory activity may depend on concentration and composition of the microbial community.

  12. Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples? (United States)

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; Kaiser, J.


    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur environmental risks and significant expense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less hazardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously as microbial inhibitor for freshwater samples. Here, we assess the use of BAC for marine samples prior to the measurement of oxygen-to-argon (O2 / Ar) ratios, as used for the determination of biological net community production. BAC at a concentration of 50 mg dm-3 inhibited microbial activity for at least 3 days in samples tested with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations up to 1 mg m-3. BAC concentrations of 100 and 200 mg dm-3 were no more effective than 50 mg dm-3. With fewer risks to human health and the environment, and no requirement for expensive waste disposal, BAC could be a viable alternative to HgCl2 for short-term preservation of seawater samples, but is not a replacement for HgCl2 in the case of oxygen triple isotope analysis, which requires storage over weeks to months. In any event, further tests on a case-by-case basis should be undertaken if use of BAC was considered, since its inhibitory activity may depend on concentration and composition of the microbial community.

  13. KULTURisk regional risk assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study (United States)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.


    less important mainly because the scattered presence of these assets. Finally, the application of the KR-RRA methodology to the Sihl River case study, as well as to several other sites across Europe (not presented here), has demonstrated its flexibility and the possible adaptation of it to different geographical and socioeconomic contexts, depending on data availability and particulars of the sites, and for other (hazard) scenarios.

  14. Application of a Data Mining Model and It's Cross Application for Landslide Hazard Analysis: a Case Study in Malaysia (United States)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet; Lee, Saro; Shattri, Mansor

    This paper deals with landslide hazard analysis and cross-application using Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing data for Cameron Highland, Penang Island and Selangor in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to cross-apply and verify a spatial probabilistic model for landslide hazard analysis. Landslide locations were identified in the study area from interpretation of aerial photographs and field surveys. Topographical/geological data and satellite images were collected and processed using GIS and image processing tools. There are ten landslide inducing parameters which are considered for the landslide hazard analysis. These parameters are topographic slope, aspect, curvature and distance from drainage, all derived from the topographic database; geology and distance from lineament, derived from the geologic database; landuse from Landsat satellite images; soil from the soil database; precipitation amount, derived from the rainfall database; and the vegetation index value from SPOT satellite images. These factors were analyzed using an artificial neural network model to generate the landslide hazard map. Each factor's weight was determined by the back-propagation training method. Then the landslide hazard indices were calculated using the trained back-propagation weights, and finally the landslide hazard map was generated using GIS tools. Landslide hazard maps were drawn for these three areas using artificial neural network model derived not only from the data for that area but also using the weight for each parameters, one of the statistical model, calculated from each of the other two areas (nine maps in all) as a cross-check of the validity of the method. For verification, the results of the analyses were compared, in each study area, with actual landslide locations. The verification results showed sufficient agreement between the presumptive hazard map and the existing data on landslide areas.

  15. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study. (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A


    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  16. Industrial Processes to Reduce Generation of Hazardous Waste at DoD Facilities. Phase I Report. Evaluation of 40 Case Studies. (United States)


    advantage of this process, making it warrant further research, is that the carbon dioxide vaporizes and thus does not contribute to hazardous waste...painting, paint stripping , metal plating, and the recycle of solvents and other organic fluids. As for the 18 cases recommended for further study, 7...involved modifications to metal plating, 5 involved painting or paint stripping , 5 involved recovering solvents, and one involved changes in purchase

  17. An index-based method to assess risks of climate-related hazards in coastal zones: The case of Tetouan (United States)

    Satta, Alessio; Snoussi, Maria; Puddu, Manuela; Flayou, Latifa; Hout, Radouane


    The regional risk assessment carried out within the ClimVar & ICZM Project identified the coastal zone of Tetouan as a hotspot of the Mediterranean Moroccan coast and so it was chosen for the application of the Multi-Scale Coastal Risk Index for Local Scale (CRI-LS). The local scale approach provides a useful tool for local coastal planning and management by exploring the effects and the extensions of the hazards and combining hazard, vulnerability and exposure variables in order to identify areas where the risk is relatively high. The coast of Tetouan is one of the coastal areas that have been most rapidly and densely urbanized in Morocco and it is characterized by an erosive shoreline. Local authorities are facing the complex task of balancing development and managing coastal risks, especially coastal erosion and flooding, and then be prepared to the unavoidable impacts of climate change. The first phase of the application of the CRI-LS methodology to Tetouan consisted of defining the coastal hazard zone, which results from the overlaying of the erosion hazard zone and the flooding hazard zone. Nineteen variables were chosen to describe the Hazards, Vulnerability and Exposure factors. The scores corresponding to each variable were calculated and the weights assigned through an expert judgement elicitation. The resulting values are hosted in a geographic information system (GIS) platform that enables the individual variables and aggregated risk scores to be color-coded and mapped across the coastal hazard zone. The results indicated that 10% and 27% of investigated littoral fall under respectively very high and high vulnerability because of combination of high erosion rates with high capital land use. The risk map showed that some areas, especially the flood plains of Restinga, Smir and Martil-Alila, with distances over 5 km from the coast, are characterized by high levels of risk due to the low topography of the flood plains and to the high values of exposure

  18. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  19. Flood hazard mapping by integrating airborne laser scanning data, high resolution images and large scale maps: a case study


    Fernandez, P.; G. Gonçalves; Gomes Pereira, L.; Moreira, M.


    The assessment and management of flood risks framework impose the mapping of flood hazard in potential flood risks areas. Floods in urban environments may happen due to rainfall extreme events and be exacerbated by saturated or impervious surfaces. Flood risk is greater in urban areas. (...)

  20. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica


    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  1. Applications of simulation technique on debris-flow hazard zone delineation: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hsu


    Full Text Available Debris flows pose severe hazards to communities in mountainous areas, often resulting in the loss of life and property. Helping debris-flow-prone communities delineate potential hazard zones provides local authorities with useful information for developing emergency plans and disaster management policies. In 2003, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau of Taiwan proposed an empirical model to delineate hazard zones for all creeks (1420 in total with potential of debris flows and utilized the model to help establish a hazard prevention system. However, the model does not fully consider hydrologic and physiographical conditions for a given creek in simulation. The objective of this study is to propose new approaches that can improve hazard zone delineation accuracy and simulate hazard zones in response to different rainfall intensity. In this study, a two-dimensional commercial model FLO-2D, physically based and taking into account the momentum and energy conservation of flow, was used to simulate debris-flow inundated areas.

    Sensitivity analysis with the model was conducted to determine the main influence parameters which affect debris flow simulation. Results indicate that the roughness coefficient, yield stress and volumetric sediment concentration dominate the computed results. To improve accuracy of the model, the study examined the performance of the rainfall-runoff model of FLO-2D as compared with that of the HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran model, and then the proper values of the significant parameters were evaluated through the calibration process. Results reveal that the HSPF model has a better performance than the FLO-2D model at peak flow and flow recession period, and the volumetric sediment concentration and yield stress can be estimated by the channel slope. The validation of the model for simulating debris-flow hazard zones has been confirmed by a comparison of field evidence from historical debris

  2. Complex Systems Education for natural Hazards and from down to up Pushing of Government and Officials: A Case Study (United States)

    Zvelebil, J.


    interplays of highly organized entities. Of course, such efforts mainly fail due to existence of qualitative differences between description of the same phenomena on different time-space scales or functional levels. Main features of a basic course "Application of nonlinear dynamics and Theory of Complex Systems for Physical Geographers" are described. They also partially follow the course reader's opinion about necessity of new reunion of modern philosophy and methodology of natural and human sciences Dangerous distortion of reflections of reality by the frequently proposed substitution of human science methodology by the natural science one is stressed. On the contrary, examples from philosophy (Bergson 1919, Wittgenstein 1953), which had anticipated and even defined some profound themes of Complex Systems (e.g. Kauffman 1993), as e.g. self-organizing, entropy decreasing behavior, or existence of discontinuities between description of the same phenomena on different time-space scales or functional levels. The second priority has information dissemination for decisions makers of natural Hazards management. Any successful Case history is better then ten popular lectures for those decision makers. A case history of highly computerized Integrated Information System (IIS) for unstable rock slope monitoring, on-line rock fall precursors diagnostics of time series and automated early warning launching, the both with the use of predominantly nonlinear tools is outlined. It stands to support author's opinion that pushing of officials is effective only if it is provided from down to up. That means it is based on satisfactory solution of specific community needs, instead of from up to down flowing more or less general directives of some far away sitting clerks. The third tactical item is rather long-distance run. Change of paradigm cannot be ordered, it is matter of generation change, as on scientific, as well as on decision makers (hopefully recruited from students already aware of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek


    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  4. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy) (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara


    has been applied also on the scientific output of MED-SUV WP6, as a tool for the short-term probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment. For the Campi Flegrei volcanic system, the expected tool has been implemented to compute hazard curves, hazard maps and probability maps for tephra fallout on a target grid covering the Campania region. This allows the end user to visualize the hazard from tephra fallout and its uncertainty. The response of end-users to such products will help to determine to what extent end-users understand them, find them useful, and match their requirements. In order to involve also Etna area in WP6 TASK 3 activities, a questionnaire developed in the VUELCO project (Volcanic Unrest in Europe and Latin America) has been proposed to Sicily Civil Protection officials having decision-making responsibility in case of volcanic unrest at Etna and Stromboli, to survey their opinions and requirements also in case of volcanic unrest

  5. Validating national landslide susceptibility and hazard maps for Caribbean island countries: the case of Dominica and tropical storm Erika. (United States)

    van Westen, Cees; Jetten, Victor; Alkema, Dinand


    The aim of this study was to generate national-scale landslide susceptibility and hazard maps for four Caribbean islands, as part of the World Bank project CHARIM (Caribbean Handbook on Disaster Geoinformation Management, This paper focuses on the results for the island country of Dominica, located in the Eastern part of the Caribbean, in-between Guadalupe and Martinique. The available data turned out to be insufficient to generate reliable results. We therefore generated a new database of disaster events for Dominica using all available data, making use of many different sources. We compiled landslide inventories for five recent rainfall events from the maintenance records of the Ministry of Public Works, and generated a completely new landslide inventory using multi-temporal visual image interpretation, and generated an extensive landslide database for Dominica. We analyzed the triggering conditions for landslides as far as was possible given the available data, and generated rainfall magnitude-frequency relations. We applied a method for landslide susceptibility assessment which combined bi-variate statistical analysis, that provided indications on the importance of the possible contributing factors, with an expert-based iterative weighing approach using Spatial Multi-Criteria Evaluation. The method is transparent, as the stakeholders (e.g. the engineers and planners from the four countries) and other consultants can consult the criteria trees and evaluate the standardization and weights, and make adjustments. The landslide susceptibility map was converted into a landslide hazard map using landslide density and frequencies for so called major, moderate and minor triggering events. The landslide hazard map was produced in May 2015. A major rainfall event occurred on Dominica following the passage of tropical storm Erika on 26 to 28 August 2015. An event-based landslide inventory for this event was produced by UNOSAT using very high resolution

  6. Geological-geophysical techniques applied to urban planning in karst hazardous areas. Case study of Zaragoza, NE Spain (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, O.; Soriano, A.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocoví Juan, A.


    Industrial and urban growth must deal in some settings with geological hazards. In the last 50 years, the city of Zaragoza (NE Spain) has developed an increase of its urbanized area in a progression several orders higher than expected from its population increase. This fast growth has affected several areas around the city that were not usually used for construction. Maps of the Zaragoza city area at the end of the XIXth century and beginning of the XXth reveal the presence of karst hazards in several zones that can be observed in more modern data, as aerial photographs taken during a period ranging from 1927 to present. The urban and industrial development has covered many of these hazardous zones, even though potential risks were known. The origins of the karst problems are related to the solution of evaporites (mainly gypsum, glauberite and halite) that represent the Miocene substratum of the Zaragoza area underlying the Quaternary terraces and pediments related to the Ebro River and its tributaries. Historical data show the persistence of subsidence foci during long periods of time while in recent urbanized areas this stability is not shared, observing the increase of activity and/or radius affection in short periods of time after building over. These problems can be related to two factors: i) urban development over hazardous areas can increase the karst activity and ii) the affection radius is not properly established with the commonly applied methods. One way to develop these detailed maps can be related to the geophysical approach. The applied geophysical routine, dependent on the characteristics of the surveyed area, is based on potential geophysical techniques (magnetometry and gravimetry) and others related to the application of induced fields (EM and GPR). The obtained results can be related to more straightforward criteria as the detection of cavities in the subsoil and indirect indicators related to the long-term activity of the subsidence areas

  7. GIS-Based Spatial Analysis and Modeling for Landslide Hazard Assessment: A Case Study in Upper Minjiang River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenlan; ZHOU Qigang; ZHANG Baolei; ZHOU Wancun; LI Ainong; ZHANG Haizhen; XIAN Wei


    By analyzing the topographic features of past landslides since 1980s and the main land-cover types (including change information) in landslide-prone area, modeled spatial distribution of landslide hazard in upper Minjiang River Basin was studied based on spatial analysis of GIS in this paper. Results of GIS analysis showed that landslide occurrence in this region closely related to topographic feature. Most areas with high hazard probability were deep-sheared gorge. Most of them in investigation occurred assembly in areas with elevation lower than 3 000 m, due to fragile topographic conditions and intensive human disturbances. Land-cover type, including its change information, was likely an important environmental factor to trigger landslide. Destroy of vegetation driven by increase of population and its demands augmented the probability of landslide in steep slope.

  8. How heterogeneous coseismic slip affects regional probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment: A case study in the South China Sea (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Chung-Han; Wang, Yu; Weiss, Robert; Qiu, Qiang


    Rupture complexity, typically in the form of heterogeneous slip distribution pattern, significantly affects the local tsunami wave field. However, the effect of rupture complexity is not commonly considered in any form of tsunami hazard assessment. Taking rupture complexity into account significantly increases the computational load, particularly in regional-scaled probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHAs) that usually require a large number of simulations based on synthetic scenarios. In this study, we investigate how the heterogeneous slip distribution affects the regional-scaled PTHA by taking the South China Sea (SCS) as an example. By doing this, we update PTHA for the SCS by incorporating the best available information of seismic tsunamigenic sources along the Manila megathrust. We integrate a stochastic source model into a Monte Carlo-type simulation, in which a broad range of slip distribution patterns is generated for large numbers of synthetic earthquake events. Green's function technique is employed to efficiently calculate the nearshore tsunami wave amplitude along the SCS coastlines. Our result suggests that for a relatively small and confined region like the SCS, the commonly used approach based on the uniform slip model significantly underestimates tsunami hazard not only in the near-source region like west Luzon, as expected, but also in the relative far field, such as south China and central Vietnam. Additionally, our sensitivity test of the patch size effects suggests that large patch size is unable to adequately resolve the details of heterogeneous seafloor deformation, and such approaches considerably underestimate the potential tsunami hazard for the SCS coasts.

  9. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal (United States)

    Bhattarai, D. R.


    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  10. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey (United States)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko


    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  11. Hazardous medical waste generation in Greece: case studies from medical facilities in Attica and from a small insular hospital. (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Katsafaros, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Panagiotis


    The accurate calculation of the unit generation rates and composition of medical waste generated from medical facilities is necessary in order to design medical waste treatment systems. In this work, the unit medical waste generation rates of 95 public and private medical facilities in the Attica region were calculated based on daily weight records from a central medical waste incineration facility. The calculated medical waste generation rates (in kg bed(-1) day( -1)) varied widely with average values at 0.27 ± 113% and 0.24 ± 121%, for public and private medical facilities, respectively. The hazardous medical waste generation was measured, at the source, in the 40 bed hospital of the island of Ikaria for a period of 42 days during a 6 month period. The average hazardous medical waste generation rate was 1.204 kg occupied bed(-1) day(-1) or 0.33 kg (official) bed( -1) day(-1). From the above amounts, 54% resulted from the patients' room (solid and liquid wastes combined), 24% from the emergency department (solid waste), 17% from the clinical pathology lab and 6% from the X-ray lab. In average, 17% of the total hazardous medical waste was solely infectious. Conclusively, no correlation among the number of beds and the unit medical waste generation rate could be established. Each hospital should be studied separately, since medical waste generation and composition depends on the number and type of departments/laboratories at each hospital, number of external patients and number of occupied beds.

  12. Rockfall Hazard Rating System along SH-72: a case study of Poladpur–Mahabaleshwar road (Western India, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khalid Ansari


    Full Text Available Construction of railways, highways and roads around steep slopes is a challenging assignment and require special investigations by geologists and geotechnical engineers that help to identify critical slopes. Rockfall Hazard Rating System for India (RHRSI is a modified scheme for Indian subcontinent and used to define overall stability of slopes in mountainous region or rock cut slopes. Once this rating system identifies critical zones, proper protection measures can be applied to prevent rockfalls. In this article, RHRSI is adopted to identify slopes, prone to rockfalls so that proper preventive measure can be proposed to mitigate loss. State Highway-72 (SH-72 connecting Poladpur to Mahabaleshwar, is an important transportation corridor supporting high vehicle traffic within the well-known tourist area is chosen for rockfall hazard rating. Field observations show that up to 15 km corridor from Mahabaleshwar town has frequent rockfall problems with two most rockfall locations situated at about 12 and 6 km from Mahabaleshwar town. Also, an attempt has been made to focus on risk-consequence analysis for rockfall locations. To this aim, the RHRSI is applied to SH-72 corridor on two locations which are identified as very prone to rockfall hazard.

  13. Construction of hazard maps of Hantavirus contagion using Remote Sensing, logistic regression and Artificial Neural Networks: case Araucan\\'ia Region, Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, G; Salinas, R


    In this research, methods and computational results based on statistical analysis and mathematical modelling, data collection in situ in order to make a hazard map of Hanta Virus infection in the region of Araucania, Chile are presented. The development of this work involves several elements such as Landsat satellite images, biological information regarding seropositivity of Hanta Virus and information concerning positive cases of infection detected in the region. All this information has been processed to find a function that models the danger of contagion in the region, through logistic regression analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

  14. A combined approach to physical vulnerability of large cities exposed to natural hazards - the case study of Arequipa, Peru (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Ettinger, Susanne; Zuccaro, Giulio; Guitton, Mathieu; Martelli, Kim; Degregorio, Daniela; Nardone, Stefano; Santoni, Olivier; Magill, Christina; Luque, Juan Alexis; Arguedas, Ana


    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru with almost one million inhabitants, is exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, landslides, flash floods, and volcanic eruptions. This study focuses on the vulnerability and response of housing, infrastructure and lifelines in Arequipa to flash floods and eruption induced hazards, notably lahars from El Misti volcano. We propose a combined approach for assessing physical vulnerability in a large city based on: (1) remote sensing utilizing high-resolution imagery (SPOT5, Google Earth Pro, Bing, Pléïades) to map the distribution and type of land use, properties of city blocks in terms of exposure to the hazard (elevation above river level, distance to channel, impact angle, etc.); (2) in situ survey of buildings and critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges) and strategic resources (e.g., potable water, irrigation, sewage); (3) information gained from interviews with engineers involved in construction works, previous crises (e.g., June 2001 earthquake) and risk mitigation in Arequipa. Remote sensing and mapping at the scale of the city has focused on three pilot areas, along the perennial Rio Chili valley that crosses the city and oasis from north to south, and two of the east-margin tributaries termed Quebrada (ravine): San Lazaro crossing the northern districts and Huarangal crossing the northeastern districts. Sampling of city blocks through these districts provides varying geomorphic, structural, historical, and socio-economic characteristics for each sector. A reconnaissance survey included about 900 edifices located in 40 city blocks across districts of the pilot areas, distinct in age, construction, land use and demographics. A building acts as a structural system and its strength and resistance to flashfloods and lahars therefore highly depends on the type of construction and the used material. Each building surveyed was assigned to one of eight building categories based on physical criteria (dominant

  15. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils


    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  16. Some preliminary results of a worldwide seismicity estimation: a case study of seismic hazard evaluation in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Christova


    Full Text Available Global data have been widely used for seismicity and seismic hazard assessment by seismologists. In the present study we evaluate worldwide seismicity in terms of maps of maximum observed magnitude (Mmax, seismic moment (M 0 and seismic moment rate (M 0S. The data set used consists of a complete and homogeneous global catalogue of shallow (h £ 60 km earthquakes of magnitude MS ³ 5.5 for the time period 1894-1992. In order to construct maps of seismicity and seismic hazard the parameters a and b derived from the magnitude-frequency relationship were estimated by both: a the least squares, and b the maximum likelihood, methods. The values of a and b were determined considering circles centered at each grid point 1° (of a mesh 1° ´1° and of varying radius, which starts from 30 km and moves with a step of 10 km. Only a and b values which fulfill some predefined conditions were considered in the further procedure for evaluating the seismic hazard maps. The obtained worldwide M max distribution in general delineates the contours of the plate boundaries. The highest values of M max observed are along the circum-Pacific belt and in the Himalayan area. The subduction plate boundaries are characterized by the largest amount of M 0 , while areas of continental collision are next. The highest values of seismic moment rate (per 1 year and per equal area of 10 000 km 2 are found in the Southern Himalayas. The western coasts of U.S.A., Northwestern Canada and Alaska, the Indian Ocean and the eastern rift of Africa are characterized by high values of M 0 , while most of the Pacific subduction zones have lower values of seismic moment rate. Finally we analyzed the seismic hazard in South America comparing the predicted by the NUVEL1 model convergence slip rate between Nazca and South America plates with the average slip rate due to earthquakes. This consideration allows for distinguishing between zones of high and low coupling along the studied convergence

  17. Hazardous Heavy metal distribution in Dahuofang catchment, Fushun, Liaoning, an important industry city in China: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing (China); The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Wu, Ji-You [State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Bejing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Shao, Hong-Bo [The CAS/Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Process, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Yantai Institute of Costal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai (China); Institute for Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science and Technology (QUST), Qingdao (China)


    Located in Liaoning Province, one of the traditional heavy industrial areas in China, Dahuofang Reservoir provides drinking water for nearly 30 000 000 citizens, as well as industrial and agricultural water for dozens of several cities and rural areas. The distribution of hazardous heavy metals is described in several types of soil, crops, and in different industrial or mining areas and main sewage irrigation areas. Five possible reasons that may cause the pollution are analyzed and listed. Also we provide some pragmatic suggestions for the remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride. (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H


    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  19. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study. (United States)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio


    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  20. Classification of residential areas according to physical vulnerability to natural hazards: a case study of Çanakkale, Turkey. (United States)

    Başaran-Uysal, Arzu; Sezen, Funda; Ozden, Süha; Karaca, Oznur


    The selection of new settlement areas and the construction of safe buildings, as well as rendering built-up areas safe, are of great importance in mitigating the damage caused by natural disasters. Most cities in Turkey are unprepared for natural hazards. In this paper, Çanakkale, located in a first-degree seismic zone and sprawled around the Sartçay Delta, is examined in terms of its physical vulnerability to natural hazards. Residential areas are analysed using GIS (geographic information system) and remote-sensing technologies in relation to selected indicators. Residential areas of the city are divided into zones according to an evaluation of geological characteristics, the built-up area's features, and urban infrastructure, and four risk zones are determined. The results of the analysis show that the areas of the city suitable for housing are very limited. In addition, the historical centre and the housing areas near Sartçay stream are shown to be most problematic in terms of natural disasters and sustainability.

  1. Environmental hazard and ecological infrastructure construction of hilly city: a case of metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Weibo; Zhu Bo


    This paper takes metropolitan area of Chongqing Municipally, as an example. Chongqing, located at the tail area of the Three Gorges Reservoir, is a typically in-land hilly city in China. A series of serious eco-environmental hazard affecting hilly city have appeared: the forest landscape has been fragmented; the stability of ecological system has not been maintained; soil erosion has been serious; geological disasters have become more and more frequented; the phenomenon of citv "heat islands" is obvious." and environmental pollution is worsened with low physical self-puri-ficatian. All of the hazards above will affect ecological security of the tail area the the Three Gorges Reservoir and sus-tainable development of Chongqing. In order to guarantee ecological security and health of Chongqing and the Three Gorges Reservoir, the countermeasures for ecological infrastructure construction are put forward: quickly drawing up ecological infrastrueture planning of Chongqing Municipality, strengthening the integration and continuation of hilly, water spatial pattern, maintaining the diversity and stability of local ecosystem, establishing the green space system in-cluding suburban forest farmland and green space, recovering wetland ecosystem, optimizing industrial structure and urrban spatial distribution, developing recycling economy, establishing ecological infrastrucmre monitoring network and information forecast system, carrying out ecological management for Chongqing Municipality and so on.

  2. Incorporating Community Knowledge to Lahar Hazard Maps: Canton Buenos Aires Case Study, at Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano (United States)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Polio, C.; Gutierrez, E.


    Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano is an active composite volcano located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located in western part of El Salvador, Central America. The volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and the second (Santa Ana, 13 km) and fourth (Sonsosante, 15 km) largest cities of the country. On October 1st, 2005, the volcano erupted after months of increased activity. Following the eruption, volcanic mitigation projects were conducted in the region, but the communities had little or no input on them. This project consisted in the creation of lahar volcanic hazard map for the Canton Buanos Aires on the northern part of the volcano by incorporating the community's knowledge from prior events to model parameters and results. The work with the community consisted in several meetings where the community members recounted past events. They were asked to map the outcomes of those events using either a topographic map of the area, a Google Earth image, or a blank paper poster size. These maps have been used to identify hazard and vulnerable areas, and for model validation. These maps were presented to the communities and they accepted their results and the maps.

  3. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig


    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  4. Integrated multi-parameters Probabilistic Seismic Landslide Hazard Analysis (PSLHA): the case study of Ischia island, Italy (United States)

    Caccavale, Mauro; Matano, Fabio; Sacchi, Marco; Mazzola, Salvatore; Somma, Renato; Troise, Claudia; De Natale, Giuseppe


    The Ischia island is a large, complex, partly submerged, active volcanic field located about 20 km east to the Campi Flegrei, a major active volcano-tectonic area near Naples. The island is morphologically characterized in its central part by the resurgent block of Mt. Epomeo, controlled by NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems, by mountain stream basin with high relief energy and by a heterogeneous coastline with alternation of beach and tuff/lava cliffs in a continuous reshape due to the weather and sea erosion. The volcano-tectonic process is a main factor for slope stability, as it produces seismic activity and generated steep slopes in volcanic deposits (lava, tuff, pumice and ash layers) characterized by variable strength. In the Campi Flegrei and surrounding areas the possible occurrence of a moderate/large seismic event represents a serious threat for the inhabitants, for the infrastructures as well as for the environment. The most relevant seismic sources for Ischia are represented by the Campi Flegrei caldera and a 5 km long fault located below the island north coast. However those sources are difficult to constrain. The first one due to the on-shore and off-shore extension not yet completely defined. The second characterized only by few large historical events is difficult to parameterize in the framework of probabilistic hazard approach. The high population density, the presence of many infrastructures and the more relevant archaeological sites associated with the natural and artistic values, makes this area a strategic natural laboratory to develop new methodologies. Moreover Ischia represents the only sector, in the Campi Flegrei area, with documented historical landslides originated by earthquake, allowing for the possibility of testing the adequacy and stability of the method. In the framework of the Italian project MON.I.C.A (infrastructural coastlines monitoring) an innovative and dedicated probabilistic methodology has been applied to identify

  5. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery. (United States)

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  6. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  7. Factors associated with crashes involving taxi owners and non-owners: A case of moral hazard and adverse selection? (United States)

    Tay, Richard; Choi, Jaisung


    Taxis experience a higher risk of a motor vehicle crash partly because of their much higher levels of exposure on the roads. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with the frequency and severity of taxi collisions, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors associated with owner taxis and non-owner taxis. This study finds that collisions involving non-owners are more likely to be associated with poor or risky driving behaviors than collisions involving taxi vehicle owners. This result is consistent with the economic principles of moral hazard and adverse selection. Hence, policy makers responsible for traffic safety, taxi regulation or taxi operations should consider measures to reduce these market inefficiencies and improve the safety of not only taxi drivers but all road users.

  8. 危险废物焚烧工程实例介绍%Project Case Analysis of Hazardous Waste Incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖燕; 伍长青; 李军


    以江苏省如东县的危险废物焚烧处置工程为例,探讨了危险废物焚烧系统的工程原理和性能特点。结果表明:采用“回转窑+二燃室+余热锅炉+急冷塔+旋风除尘器+干式脱酸塔+布袋除尘器+湿式洗涤塔”工艺,回转窑温度控制在850℃左右,危险废物在回转窑停留的时间约60min;二燃室温度>1100℃,烟气在二燃室内的停留时间>2s;余热锅炉出口烟气温度约为550℃;两级除尘、干法与湿法相结合的工艺,可实现危险废物的无害化、减容、减量处理,为其他工程应用提供了参考。%By taking the incineration disposal engineering of hazardous wastes in Rudong county of Jiangsu province as an example, the article probes into engineering principle and performance characteristics of hazardous waste incineration system, and provides references for the other engineering practice in the future.

  9. Exploration of land-use scenarios for flood hazard modeling – the case of Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller


    Full Text Available Urban expansion leads to modifications in land use and land cover and to the loss of vegetated areas. These developments are in some regions of the world accelerated by a changing regional climate. As a consequence, major changes in the amount of green spaces can be observed in many urban regions. Amongst other dependences the amount of green spaces determines the availability of retention areas in a watershed. The goal of this research is to develop possible land-use and land-cover scenarios for a watershed and to explore the influence of land-use and land-cover changes on its runoff behavior using the distributed hydrological model HEC-HMS. The study area for this research is a small peri-urban watershed in the eastern area of Santiago de Chile.

    Three spatially explicit exploratory land-use/land-cover scenario alternatives were developed based on the analysis of previous land-use developments using high resolution satellite data, on the analysis of urban planning laws, on the analysis of climate change predictions, and on expert interviews. Modeling the resulting changes in runoff allows making predictions about the changes in flood hazard which the adjacent urban areas are facing after heavy winter precipitation events. The paper shows how HEC-HMS was used applying a distributed event modeling approach. The derived runoff values are combined with existing flood hazard maps and can be regarded as important source of information for the adaptation to changing conditions in the study area. The most significant finding is that the land-use changes that have to be expected after long drought periods pose the highest risk with respect to floods.

  10. Hazard And Risk Slope Inventory Using Geographical Information System (GIS): Case Study At Federal Route Simpang Pulai From Section 35 To 45 (United States)

    Kaamin, Masiri; Abd Kadir, Aslila; Nadzira Abu Zarin, Nurul; Farah Atiqah Ahmad, Nor; Nooraiin Mohd Razali, Siti; Mohd Bukari, Saifullizan; Anjang Ahmad, Mustaffa


    The demand for better and efficient road network has increased tremendously due to the rapid development experienced by the nation in the past few decades. Thus, the tendency to construct roads on the hilly terrain and forced the cuts and fills activities to be carried out. From Public Work Department (PWD) data, the second East West Highway (EWH) found 1335 numbers of non-failed and failed slopes along the highway that are need to be inspected. This case study was focused along the federal road of Simpang Pulai from section 35 to 45 which is part of the second EWH. Therefore, in order to manage the large number of the slopes, it is impossible to access the location and condition of slopes by conducting site inventory without any references. The Slope Smart Proforma A1 and Slope Management and Risk Tracking System (SMART) assessment was used to collect all the slopes data and analyzed the slope in order to verify the condition in terms of hazard and risk. The process of slope mapping was conducted using the Geographic Information System (GIS) application. As a result, the map of slope hazard and risk produced based on rating that has been designed by PWD in SMART. In conclusion, the map produced with data collected through proforma can be useful for the responsible parties to evaluate and inspect the condition of the slopes in order to take early preventive measures.

  11. An objective method for mapping hazardous flow deposits from the stratigraphic record of stratovolcanoes: a case example from Montagne Pelée (United States)

    Burt, M. L.; Wadge, G.; Curnow, R. N.


    A method is described that enables a variety of maps, which indicate the probabilities of deposition, to be constructed in a reproducible manner from the stratigraphie information typically available at well-studied stratovoicanoes. These maps can then be used as a basis for hazard assessment. The sampling of the deposits of previous eruptions is subject to uncertainties due to erosion, sectoral deposition and non-exposure. A model-based, iterative algorithm is used to compensate for the incomplete sampling. For each site, the available evidence from the other sites is used to estimate the probability of deposition for missing deposits. A geographical information system (GIS)-based method that uses Thiessen polygons to represent the presence or absence of deposits, together with simple cartographic rules based on depositional processes, then defines the extent of deposition. The combined operation of these two techniques is presented for Montagne Pelée in Martinique, using the amended stratigraphic record of Smith and Roobol (1990) for the past 6000 years. Three types of maps are created: maps for individual depositional events (the 1902 block-and-ash flow and surge deposits are used to verify the technique); maps for different deposit types aggregated over 6000 years of activity; and scenario maps which, in Montagne Pelée’s case, recognise that during the next Peléean or Plinian eruption a variety of hazards will have to be confronted.

  12. Urban Vulnerability Assessment to Seismic Hazard through Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis. Case Study: the Bucharest Municipality/Romania (United States)

    Armas, Iuliana; Dumitrascu, Silvia; Bostenaru, Maria


    In the context of an explosive increase in value of the damage caused by natural disasters, an alarming challenge in the third millennium is the rapid growth of urban population in vulnerable areas. Cities are, by definition, very fragile socio-ecological systems with a high level of vulnerability when it comes to environmental changes and that are responsible for important transformations of the space, determining dysfunctions shown in the state of the natural variables (Parker and Mitchell, 1995, The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database). A contributing factor is the demographic dynamic that affects urban areas. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall vulnerability of the urban area of Bucharest in the context of the seismic hazard, by using environmental, socio-economic, and physical measurable variables in the framework of a spatial multi-criteria analysis. For this approach the capital city of Romania was chosen based on its high vulnerability due to the explosive urban development and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings (most of the building stock being built between 1940 and 1977). Combining these attributes with the seismic hazard induced by the Vrancea source, Bucharest was ranked as the 10th capital city worldwide in the terms of seismic risk. Over 40 years of experience in the natural risk field shows that the only directly accessible way to reduce the natural risk is by reducing the vulnerability of the space (Adger et al., 2001, Turner et al., 2003; UN/ISDR, 2004, Dayton-Johnson, 2004, Kasperson et al., 2005; Birkmann, 2006 etc.). In effect, reducing the vulnerability of urban spaces would imply lower costs produced by natural disasters. By applying the SMCA method, the result reveals a circular pattern, signaling as hot spots the Bucharest historic centre (located on a river terrace and with aged building stock) and peripheral areas (isolated from the emergency centers and defined by precarious social and economic

  13. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  14. Fire's effect on chloride ingress related durability of concrete structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Wei-liang; ZHANG Yi


    This paper describes the effects of fire on durability of reinforced concrete structures, and points out that fire not only damages the chemical composition and physical structure of concrete by high temperature, but also leads to an additional risk due to the generation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)combustion gases. A mathematical model is proposed to calculate chloride ingress profiles in fire damaged concrete, so as to explore the service life prediction of the structure. Rapid Chloride Migration (RCM) test was carried out to determine the chloride diffusion coefficients for the application of the mathematical model. Finally, the detected results of a reported case testified to the validity of the mathematical model.

  15. Voluntary approaches to solid waste management in small towns: a case study of community involvement in household hazardous waste recycling. (United States)

    Massawe, Ephraim; Legleu, Tye; Vasut, Laura; Brandon, Kelly; Shelden, Greg


    An enormous amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) is generated as part of municipal solid waste. This scenario presents problems during disposal, including endangering human health and the environment if improperly disposed. This article examines current HHW recycling efforts in Hammond, Louisiana, with the following objectives: (a) analyze factors and attitudes that motivate residents to participate in the program; (b) quantify various types of HHW; and (c) analyze the e-waste stream in the HHW. Residents and city officials who were surveyed and interviewed cited that commitment shown by local authorities and passion to protect the environment and human health were part of their active participation in the program. An awareness program has played a key role in the success of the program. A legislation specific to e-waste is encouraged. While knowledge and information on laws and permit application processes and the promotion of greener products are encouraged, provision of storage or collection facilities and communal transportation will further motivate more residents to participate in the recycling program.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Dust Particles in HVOF Spraying and Occupational Hazards: Case Study in a Chinese Company (United States)

    Huang, Haihong; Li, Haijun; Li, Xinyu


    Dust particles generated in thermal spray process can cause serious health problems to the workers. Dust particles generated in high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying WC-Co coatings were characterized in terms of mass concentrations, particle size distribution, micro morphologies, and composition. Results show that the highest instantaneous exposure concentration of dust particles in the investigated thermal spray workshop is 140 mg/m3 and the time-weighted average concentration is 34.2 mg/m3, which are approximately 8 and 4 times higher than the occupational exposure limits in China, respectively. The large dust particles above 10 μm in size present a unique morphology of polygonal or irregular block of crushed powder, and smaller dust particles mainly exist in the form of irregular or flocculent agglomerates. Some heavy metals, such as chromium, cobalt, and nickel, are also found in the air of the workshop and their concentrations are higher than the limits. Potential occupational hazards of the dust particles in the thermal spray process are further analyzed based on their characteristics and the workers' exposure to the nanoparticles is assessed using a control banding tool.

  17. Environmental hazard mapping using GIS and AHP - A case study of Dong Trieu District in Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam (United States)

    Anh, N. K.; Phonekeo, V.; My, V. C.; Duong, N. D.; Dat, P. T.


    In recent years, Vietnamese economy has been growing up rapidly and caused serious environmental quality plunging, especially in industrial and mining areas. It brings an enormous threat to a socially sustainable development and the health of human beings. Environmental quality assessment and protection are complex and dynamic processes, since it involves spatial information from multi-sector, multi-region and multi-field sources and needs complicated data processing. Therefore, an effective environmental protection information system is needed, in which considerable factors hidden in the complex relationships will become clear and visible. In this paper, the authors present the methodology which was used to generate environmental hazard maps which are applied to the integration of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Geographical Information system (GIS). We demonstrate the results that were obtained from the study area in Dong Trieu district. This research study has contributed an overall perspective of environmental quality and identified the devastated areas where the administration urgently needs to establish an appropriate policy to improve and protect the environment.

  18. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate. (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H


    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  19. Foreshocks and short-term hazard assessment of large earthquakes using complex networks: the case of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (United States)

    Daskalaki, Eleni; Spiliotis, Konstantinos; Siettos, Constantinos; Minadakis, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.


    The monitoring of statistical network properties could be useful for the short-term hazard assessment of the occurrence of mainshocks in the presence of foreshocks. Using successive connections between events acquired from the earthquake catalog of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for the case of the L'Aquila (Italy) mainshock (Mw = 6.3) of 6 April 2009, we provide evidence that network measures, both global (average clustering coefficient, small-world index) and local (betweenness centrality) ones, could potentially be exploited for forecasting purposes both in time and space. Our results reveal statistically significant increases in the topological measures and a nucleation of the betweenness centrality around the location of the epicenter about 2 months before the mainshock. The results of the analysis are robust even when considering either large or off-centered the main event space windows.

  20. Adequate and anticipatory research on the potential hazards of emerging technologies: a case of myopia and inertia? (United States)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Gee, David


    History confirms that while technological innovations can bring many benefits, they can also cause much human suffering, environmental degradation and economic costs. But are we repeating history with new and emerging chemical and technological products? In preparation for volume 2 of 'Late Lessons from Early Warnings' (European Environment Agency, 2013), two analyses were carried out to help answer this question. A bibliometric analysis of research articles in 78 environmental, health and safety (EHS) journals revealed that most focused on well-known rather than on newly emerging chemicals. We suggest that this 'scientific inertia' is due to the scientific requirement for high levels of proof via well replicated studies; the need to publish quickly; the use of existing intellectual and technological resources; and the conservative approach of many reviewers and research funders. The second analysis found that since 1996 the funding of EHS research represented just 0.6% of the overall funding of research and technological development (RTD). Compared with RTD funding, EHS research funding for information and communication technologies, nanotechnology and biotechnology was 0.09%, 2.3% and 4% of total research, respectively. The low EHS research ratio seems to be an unintended consequence of disparate funding decisions; technological optimism; a priori assertions of safety; collective hubris; and myopia. In light of the history of past technological risks, where EHS research was too little and too late, we suggest that it would be prudent to devote some 5-15% of RTD on EHS research to anticipate and minimise potential hazards while maximising the commercial longevity of emerging technologies.

  1. Coal-mining seismicity and ground-shaking hazard: A case study in the Trail Mountain area, Emery County, Utah (United States)

    Arabasz, W.J.; Nava, S.J.; McCarter, M.K.; Pankow, K.L.; Pechmann, J.C.; Ake, J.; McGarr, A.


    We describe a multipart study to quantify the potential ground-shaking hazard to Joes Valley Dam, a 58-m-high earthfill dam, posed by mining-induced seismicity (MIS) from future underground coal mining, which could approach as close as ???1 km to the dam. To characterize future MIS close to the dam, we studied MIS located ???3-7 km from the dam at the Trail Mountain coal mine. A 12-station local seismic network (11 stations above ground, one below, combining eight triaxial accelerometers and varied velocity sensors) was operated in the Trail Mountain area from late 2000 through mid-2001 for the dual purpose of (1) continuously monitoring and locating MIS associated with longwall mining at a depth of 0.5-0.6 km and (2) recording high-quality data to develop ground-motion prediction equations for the shallow MIS. (Ground-motion attenuation relationships and moment-tensor results are reported in companion articles.) Utilizing a data set of 1913 earthquakes (M ??? 2.2), we describe space-time-magnitude distributions of the observed MIS and source-mechanism information. The MIS was highly correlated with mining activity both in space and time. Most of the better-located events have depths constrained within ??0.6 km of mine level. For the preponderance (98%) of the 1913 located events, only dilatational P-wave first motions were observed, consistent with other evidence for implosive or collapse-type mechanisms associated with coal mining in this region. We assess a probable maximum magnitude of M 3.9 (84th percentile of a cumulative distribution) for potential MIS close to Joes Valley Dam based on both the worldwide and regional record of coal-mining-related MIS and the local geology and future mining scenarios.

  2. Unusual origin and potentially hazardous course of the major blood vessels in neck – A clinically relevant rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi R


    Full Text Available We present a rare case of aberrant left brachiocephalic vein and brachiocephalic artery, which crosses the trachea in the neck obliquely and closely related to lower border of thyroid gland. If not noticed while performing open or percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy or other neck surgeries, trauma to these vessel and subsequent hemorrhage can occur and may be fatal. Vascular compression of the airway causing obstructive symptoms can also occur due to this anomaly. In this report the case is presented along with its clinical significance.

  3. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew


    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  4. Investigation of Lithium Thionyl Chloride Battery Safety Hazards (United States)


    for the Li/SOCI 2 cell by cyclic voltametry and ESR do not appear concentrated enough in discharged electrolyte to provide Raman emission. The Raman...employed were cyclic voltammetric and infrared spectroscopy. Al- though explosions were found to occur in anode limited wound C cells on overdischarge, no...S2C2 S2C12 is not easily identified by infrared but has been indicated by cyclic voltame- try of discharged electrolyte"l ’ 2o There is no

  5. Sea cliff instability hazard assessment at regional scale: a case study in the western coast of Portugal (United States)

    Marques, Fernando; Taborda, Rui; Carreira, Diogo


    Sea cliff evolution is mainly produced by mass movements of different types and sizes, which are a considerable source of natural hazard in coastal areas. For two neighboring counties (Sintra and Cascais) located in the west coast of Portugal, a sea cliff instability statistically based susceptibility assessment was tested in order to analyze the influence of a set of predisposing factors in the prediction of future failures affecting areas located along the cliff top. The coastal areas of Sintra (length of cliffs 24.8km) and Cascais (length of cliffs 22.0km) are examples of contrasting cliff morphology, height (from less than 6m to more than 120m), and rock mass composition and strength (alternating marls and limestones, sandstones, granite, limestones). The inventories of past instabilities were performed by a multitemporal study of aerial photographs from different dates, for the period 1947-2007 (Sintra), and 1947-2008 (Cascais), which enabled the detection and measurement of the local maximum retreat at the cliff top, length of cliff affected and horizontal area lost at the cliff top. The aerial photo based data coupled with field surveys enabled the identification of the type of movements. These are mainly of the rock fall and planar slide types. These aerial photo based studies enabled the identification and measurement of 63 cliff failures at Sintra and 67 at Cascais coasts, with variable spatial density from 0.4 to 20 failures per km of cliff length for the 60/61 years of study period, providing the basis for the division of the cliffs in homogeneous sections in terms of horizontal area lost at the cliff top. Along the different cliff sections, the mean retreat rates varied between 0.0003m/year and 0.025m/year, and the mean values of the maximum local retreat of the cliff top varied between 5m and 17m, with two exceptional cliff failures that caused a net retreat of the cliff top of 70m and 25m. For the assessment of the susceptibility of cliff failures


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka


    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  7. Inherent hazards, poor reporting and limited learning in the solid biomass energy sector: A case study of a wheel loader igniting wood dust, leading to fatal explosion at wood pellet manufacturer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John; Nichols, Jeffrey


    Large loaders are commonly used when handling solid biomass fuels. A preventable accident took place in 2010, where the malfunction of a front-end wheel loader led to a dust explosion which killed the driver and destroyed the building. The case offers an opportunity to examine the hazards of soli...

  8. The role of social and economic context, and local knowledge for post-disaster reconstruction of high-mountain hazards: a case study from the Peruvian Andes (United States)

    Dulce Burga, María; Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Huggel, Christian


    Following the occurrence of an extreme event, specific and immediate actions are oriented to relieve basic needs and guarantee the subsistence of daily life. One of the priorities is focused on the reconstruction and relocation to areas away from possible hazard. However, on a long-term perspective, new contexts, concerns and priorities among the affected as well as the immigrated population foster new risk perceptions, which in many cases may include the returning or settlement in areas exposed to hazards. In Santa Teresa (Cusco, Peru), risk has been part of its history. In 1998, two very large debris flows from deglaciated areas, in January and February respectively, destroyed the old city located by the riverside of the Sacsara river; including the loss of lives, housing, loss of infrastructure and roads, electricity and water cuts, among other important losses. Today, the new city is located on a terrace above the river reach; and their current inhabitants, mainly migrants from different cities of the region of Cusco, have a different perspective of this experience. On the contrary, many of the inhabitants who experienced these events have returned to the risk areas where they lost everything, or they have settled in disaster prone areas. There is a set of factors, such as local knowledge (regarding space, economy, etc.) and new social contexts (such as the rise of tourism in risk areas, for example) that are implicit in the current narratives regarding hazard and risk. This work purposes the following questions: how does the social and economic context, as well as local knowledge influence risk perceptions? Are there any differences concerning risk perceptions between groups who decided to live in disaster prone areas and groups who are less exposed to risk? And which are the strategies within the groups regarding risk, considering how this concept is understood among them? In order to analyze these questions, this work is based on a case study in the

  9. Utilizing relative potency factors (RPF) and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concepts to assess hazard and human risk assessment profiles of environmental metabolites: a case study. (United States)

    Terry, C; Rasoulpour, R J; Knowles, S; Billington, R


    There is currently no standard paradigm for hazard and human risk assessment of environmental metabolites for agrochemicals. Using an actual case study, solutions to challenges faced are described and used to propose a generic concept to address risk posed by metabolites to human safety. A novel approach - built on the foundation of predicted human exposures to metabolites in various compartments (such as food and water), the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) and the concept of comparative toxicity - was developed for environmental metabolites of a new chemical, sulfoxaflor (X11422208). The ultimate aim was to address the human safety of the metabolites with the minimum number of in vivo studies, while at the same time, ensuring that human safety would be considered addressed on a global regulatory scale. The third component, comparative toxicity, was primarily designed to determine whether the metabolites had the same or similar toxicity profiles to their parent molecule, and also to one another. The ultimate goal was to establish whether the metabolites had the potential to cause key effects - such as cancer and developmental toxicity, based on mode-of-action (MoA) studies - and to develop a relative potency factor (RPF) compared to the parent molecule. Collectively, the work presented here describes the toxicology programme developed for sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, and how it might be used to address similar future challenges aimed at determining the relevance of the metabolites from a human hazard and risk perspective. Sulfoxaflor produced eight environmental metabolites at varying concentrations in various compartments - soil, water, crops and livestock. The MoA for the primary effects of the parent molecule were elucidated in detail and a series of in silico, in vitro, and/or in vivo experiments were conducted on the environmental metabolites to assess relative potency of their toxicity profiles when compared to the parent. The primary metabolite

  10. Pharmaceuticals and iodinated contrast media in a hospital wastewater: A case study to analyse their presence and characterise their environmental risk and hazard. (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Aceña, J; Pérez, S; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Gil, A; Valcárcel, Y


    naproxen, the antibiotics (ABIs) clarithromycin, ofloxacin and trimethoprim, and the β-blocker (BBL) propranolol were present at concentrations leading to HQ values higher than 10, thus indicating high risk. When applying a factor to take into account potential dilution and degradation processes, only the compound ibuprofen showed a HQ higher than 1. Likewise, the cumulative HQ or Toxic Units (TUs) calculated in the raw water for each of the therapeutic groups studied showed that these three classes of drugs were at concentrations high enough to potentially generate high risk to aquatic organisms while taking into account possible dilution and degradation processes only one of them, the AAFs can be considered to represent high risk. Finally, the environmental hazard assessment performed showed that the AAFs diclofenac and ibuprofen and the ABI clarithromycin have the highest, maximum value of 9 of PBT Index due to their inherent environmentally damaging characteristics of persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. The methodology followed in the present case study can be taken as a novel approach to classify and categorize pharmaceuticals on the basis of their occurrence in hospital effluents, their derived environmental risks, and their associated environmental hazard. This classification becomes important because it can be used as a model or orientation for hospitals in the process of developing environmentally sustainable policies and as an argument to justify the adoption of advanced, specific treatments for hospital effluents before being discharged into the public sewage system.

  11. Rockslide susceptibility and hazard assessment for mitigation works design along vertical rocky cliffs: workflow proposal based on a real case-study conducted in Sacco (Campania), Italy (United States)

    Pignalosa, Antonio; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Marino, Ermanno; Terracciano, Rosario; Santo, Antonio


    The work here presented concerns a case study in which a complete multidisciplinary workflow has been applied for an extensive assessment of the rockslide susceptibility and hazard in a common scenario such as a vertical and fractured rocky cliffs. The studied area is located in a high-relief zone in Southern Italy (Sacco, Salerno, Campania), characterized by wide vertical rocky cliffs formed by tectonized thick successions of shallow-water limestones. The study concerned the following phases: a) topographic surveying integrating of 3d laser scanning, photogrammetry and GNSS; b) gelogical surveying, characterization of single instabilities and geomecanichal surveying, conducted by geologists rock climbers; c) processing of 3d data and reconstruction of high resolution geometrical models; d) structural and geomechanical analyses; e) data filing in a GIS-based spatial database; f) geo-statistical and spatial analyses and mapping of the whole set of data; g) 3D rockfall analysis; The main goals of the study have been a) to set-up an investigation method to achieve a complete and thorough characterization of the slope stability conditions and b) to provide a detailed base for an accurate definition of the reinforcement and mitigation systems. For this purposes the most up-to-date methods of field surveying, remote sensing, 3d modelling and geospatial data analysis have been integrated in a systematic workflow, accounting of the economic sustainability of the whole project. A novel integrated approach have been applied both fusing deterministic and statistical surveying methods. This approach enabled to deal with the wide extension of the studied area (near to 200.000 m2), without compromising an high accuracy of the results. The deterministic phase, based on a field characterization of single instabilities and their further analyses on 3d models, has been applied for delineating the peculiarity of each single feature. The statistical approach, based on geostructural

  12. NASA Hazard Analysis Process (United States)

    Deckert, George


    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  13. Benzalkonium Chloride and Glaucoma


    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Kiland, Julie A.


    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapo...

  14. Does time difference of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition in different tissues exist? A case study of zebra fish (Danio rerio) exposed to cadmium chloride and deltamethrin. (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Meiyi; Pan, Hongwei; Li, Shangge; Ren, Baigang; Ren, Zongming; Xing, Na; Qi, Luhuizi; Ren, Qing; Xu, Shiguo; Song, Jie; Ma, Jingchun


    In order to illustrate time difference in toxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and deltamethrin (DM), AChE activities were measured in different tissues, liver, muscle, brain, and gill, of Zebra fish (Danio rerio) across different concentrations in this research. The average AChE activity decreased comparing to 0.0 TU with DM (82.81% in 0.1 TU, 56.14% in 1.0 TU and 44.68% in 2.0 TU) and with CdCl2 (74.68% in 0.1 TU, 52.05% in 1.0 TU and 50.14% in 2.0 TU) showed an overall decrease with the increase of exposure concentrations. According to Self-Organizing Map (SOM), the AChE activities were characterized in relation with experimental conditions, showing an inverse relationship with exposure time. As the exposure time was longer, the AChE activities were correspondingly lower. The AChE inhibition showed time delay in sublethal treatments (0.1 TU) in different tissues: the AChE was first inhibited in brain by chemicals followed by gill, muscle and liver (brain > gill > muscle > liver). The AChE activity was almost inhibited synchronously in higher environmental stress (1.0 TU and 2.0 TU). As the AChE inhibition can induce abnormal of behavior movement, these results will be helpful to the mechanism of stepwise behavior responses according to the time difference in different tissues rather than the whole body AChE activity.

  15. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.M. (Independent Equipment Corp., Raritan, NJ (United States)); Sawyer, P.


    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  16. Potential flood hazard assessment by integration of ALOS PALSAR and ASTER GDEM: a case study for the Hoa Chau commune, Hoa Vang district, in central Vietnam (United States)

    Huong, Do Thi Viet; Nagasawa, Ryota


    The potential flood hazard was assessed for the Hoa Chau commune in central Vietnam in order to identify the high flood hazard zones for the decision makers who will execute future rural planning. A new approach for deriving the potential flood hazard based on integration of inundation and flow direction maps is described. Areas inundated in the historical flood event of 2007 were extracted from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) phased array L-band synthetic aperture data radar (PALSAR) images, while flow direction characteristics were derived from the ASTER GDEM to extract the depressed surfaces. Past flood experience and the flow direction were then integrated to analyze and rank the potential flood hazard zones. The land use/cover map extracted from LANDSAT TM and flood depth point records from field surveys were utilized to check the possibility of susceptible inundated areas, extracting data from ALOS PALSAR and ranking the potential flood hazard. The estimation of potential flood hazard areas revealed that 17.43% and 17.36% of Hoa Chau had high and medium potential flood hazards, respectively. The flow direction and ALOS PALSAR data were effectively integrated for determining the potential flood hazard when hydrological and meteorological data were inadequate and remote sensing images taken during flood times were not available or were insufficient.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Downstream Flooding due to a Flexible-Dam Collapse. The case of "La Esperanza" dam, Hidalgo-México: Implication on Hazard Assessment. (United States)

    Areu Rangel, O. S., Sr.; Mendoza-Sanchez, I.; Bonasia, R.


    The risk of flooding of settlements located downstream of a dam is high due to the large number of people living on natural waterways. Risk assessment of flooding could help in projecting containment and protection in case of a dam-break. For projecting containment and protection works, the assessment should take into account velocities, densities and impact pressure of the water on the villages in risk. Therefore, it is appealing to conduct a series of numerical simulations of downstream flooding including velocity and pressure fields, and their temporal and spatial fluctuations. The present work focuses on the real case of "La Esperanza" dam, located in the state of Hidalgo (Mexico). The dam was built 70 years ago and currently two thirds of its capacity is covered with silt, which implies a very high horizontal thrust. The simulation of the flood due to failure of the dam was carried on using the DualSPHysics code, a new implementation of the mesh-free Lagrangian Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method. For the boundary conditions, a Digital Elevation Model of the potentially affected area was built using satellite images, the actual bathymetry of the dam and cross sections of the channel. In order to evaluate the hazard posed to the villages located downstream of the dam, different collapse scenarios were simulated, with particular focus on the consequences of the temporal variation of rainfall. Preliminary results show acceleration and dynamic pressure values of water in especially selected areas that are subjected to high risk for the elevated number of inhabitant.

  18. 非对称渠道力量下的双边道德风险问题%Bilateral Moral Hazard in the Case of Asymmetry Channel Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向东; 黄雨婷


    In real economic activities,the factors that affect consumer demand are not only price,but also the services provided by retailers and the quality of the product that provided by suppliers. For their own profits,the retailers and supplies are likely to cheat,which leads to the problem of bilateral moral hazard in the supply chain activities. The authors set a linear demand function in which demand are decided by price,service and quality and investigate the issue of optimal contract design in the case of supplier-dominant channel and retailer-dominant channel respectively. The results confirms that the linear contract can solve the problem of moral hazard,what’s more,it points out that the terminal retail price and the mode of channel fees have direct impact on the design of optimal contract between retailers and suppliers in different channel power.%现实经济活动中,价格不是影响需求的唯一要素,产品质量与终端的分销服务也是重要因素。基于自身利益最大化的原则,供应商和零售商均会执行有利于自身收益的行为决策,其中可能会存在一些隐藏的欺诈行为,由此导致供应链活动中双边道德风险问题。本文分析了不同渠道力量背景下渠道活动中存在的双边道德风险问题,研究了供应商主导和零售商主导情况下的最优零供合同设计,认为线性合同可以很好地解决供应链活动中的双边道德风险问题;同时指出,终端零售价格以及通道费收取模式对不同主体拥有渠道势力下的零售商与供应商之间的最优合同设计会产生直接影响。

  19. The contribute of DInSAR techniques to landslide hazard evaluation in mountain and hilly regions: a case study from Agno Valley (North-Eastern Italian Alps) (United States)

    De Agostini, A.; Floris, M.; Pasquali, P.; Barbieri, M.; Cantone, A.; Riccardi, P.; Stevan, G.; Genevois, R.


    results of susceptibility analysis are compared with the location of landslides occurred in the study area during the November 2010 rainfall event. In the second step, results of DInSAR analysis (displacement maps over the time) are added on the prediction analysis to build up a map containing both spatial and temporal information on landslides and, as in the previous case, the prediction is tested by using November 2010 instabilities dataset. Comparison of the two tests allows to evaluate the contribution of interferometric techniques. Finally, morphometric factors and interferometric RADAR data are combined to design a preliminary analysis scheme that provide information on possible use of DInSAR techniques in landslide hazard evaluation of a given area.

  20. Integrating multidisciplinary science, modelling and impact data into evolving, syn-event volcanic hazard mapping and communication: A case study from the 2012 Tongariro eruption crisis, New Zealand (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Stewart, Carol; Wilson, Thomas M.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Scott, Bradley J.; Keys, Harry J.; Jolly, Gill E.; Wardman, Johnny B.; Cronin, Shane J.; McBride, Sara K.


    New Zealand's Tongariro National Park volcanoes produce hazardous eruptions every few years to decades. On 6 August 2012 the Te Maari vent of Tongariro Volcano erupted, producing a series of explosions and a fine ash of minor volume which was dispersed rapidly to the east. This manuscript presents a summary of the eruption impacts and the way these supported science communication during the crisis, particularly in terms of hazard map development. The most significant proximal impact was damage from pyroclastic surges and ballistics to the popular and economically-important Tongariro Alpine Crossing track. The only hazard to affect the medial impact zone was a few mms of ashfall with minor impacts. Field testing indicated that the Te Maari ash had extremely low resistivity when wetted, implying a very high potential to cause disruption to nationally-important power transmission networks via the mechanism of insulator flashover. This was not observed, presumably due to insufficient ash accumulation on insulators. Virtually no impacts from distal ashfall were reported. Post-event analysis of PM10 data demonstrates the additional value of regional air quality monitoring networks in quantifying population exposure to airborne respirable ash. While the eruption was minor, it generated a high level of public interest and a demand for information on volcanic hazards and impacts from emergency managers, the public, critical infrastructure managers, health officials, and the agriculture sector. Meeting this demand fully taxed available resources. We present here aspects of the New Zealand experience which may have wider applicability in moving towards improved integration of hazard impact information, mapping, and communication. These include wide use of a wiki technical clearinghouse and email listservs, a focus on multi-agency consistent messages, and a recently developed environment of collaboration and alignment of both research funding and technical science advice

  1. Oxomemazine hydro-chloride. (United States)

    Siddegowda, M S; Butcher, Ray J; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H S; Ramesh, A R


    IN THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 3-(5,5-dioxo-phen-othia-zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl-propanaminium chloride], C(18)H(23)N(2)O(2)S(+)·Cl(-), the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia-zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  2. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;


    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  3. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.


    shipped, and will otherwise maintain it as nearly as possible in its original condition.The recommendations provided are short-term solutions to the problems of shipping evidence, and have considered only currently commercially available containers. These containers may not be appropriate for all cases. Design, testing, and certification of new transportation containers would be necessary to provide a container appropriate for all cases.Table 1 provides a summary of the recommendations for each class of hazardous material.Table 1: Summary of RecommendationsContainerCost1-quart paint can with ArmlockTM seal ringLabelMaster(r)%242.90 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use4 DraftDraftDraftTable 1: Summary of Recommendations (continued)ContainerCost55-gallon open or closed-head steel drumsAll-Pak, Inc.%2458.28 - %2473.62 eachHazard Class 3, 4, 5, 8, or 9 Large Containers95-gallon poly overpack LabelMaster(r)%24194.50 each1-liter glass container with plastic coatingLabelMaster(r)%243.35 - %243.70 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Small ContainersTC Hazardous Material Transport ContainerCurrently in Use20 to 55-gallon PIH overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24142.50 - %24170.50 eachHazard Class 6 Division 6.1 Poisonous by Inhalation (PIH) Large Containers65 to 95-gallon poly overpacksLabelMaster(r)%24163.30 - %24194.50 each1-liter transparent containerCurrently in UseHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Small ContainersInfectious Substance ShipperSource Packaging of NE, Inc.%24336.00 eachNone Commercially AvailableN/AHazard Class 6 Division 6.2 Infectious Material Large ContainersNone Commercially Available N/A5

  4. The DELTA 181 lithium thionyl chloride battery (United States)

    Sullivan, Ralph M.; Brown, Lawrence E.; Leigh, A. P.

    In 1986, the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) undertook the development of a sensor module for the DELTA 181 spacecraft, a low earth orbit (LEO) mission of less than two months duration. A large lithium thionyl chloride battery was developed as the spacecraft's primary power source, the first known such use for this technology. The exceptionally high energy density of the lithium thionyl chloride cell was the primary driver for its use, resulting in a completed battery with a specific energy density of 120 Wh/lb. Safety requirements became the primary driver shaping all aspects of the power system design and development due to concerns about the potential hazards of this relatively new, high-energy technology. However, the program was completed without incident. The spacecraft was launched on February 8, 1988, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) with over 60,000 Wh of battery energy. It reentered on April 2, 1988, still operating after 55 days, providing a successful, practical, and visible demonstration of the use of this technology for spacecraft applications.

  5. Benzalkonium chloride and glaucoma. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Carol A; Kaufman, Paul L; Kiland, Julie A


    Glaucoma patients routinely take multiple medications, with multiple daily doses, for years or even decades. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most common preservative in glaucoma medications. BAK has been detected in the trabecular meshwork (TM), corneal endothelium, lens, and retina after topical drop installation and may accumulate in those tissues. There is evidence that BAK causes corneal and conjunctival toxicity, including cell loss, disruption of tight junctions, apoptosis and preapoptosis, cytoskeleton changes, and immunoinflammatory reactions. These same effects have been reported in cultured human TM cells exposed to concentrations of BAK found in common glaucoma drugs and in the TM of primary open-angle glaucoma donor eyes. It is possible that a relationship exists between chronic exposure to BAK and glaucoma. The hypothesis that BAK causes/worsens glaucoma is being tested experimentally in an animal model that closely reflects human physiology.

  6. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo


    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  7. Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011. (United States)


    In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels.

  8. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)


    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  9. Paradoxical bronchospasm from benzalkonium chloride (BAC) preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution in a patient with acute severe asthma. A case report and literature review of airway effects of BAC. (United States)

    George, Mathew; Joshi, Saumya Vinod; Concepcion, Emily; Lee, Haesoon


    Nebulized bronchodilator solutions are available in the United States as both nonsterile and sterile-filled products. Sulfites, benzalkonium chloride (BAC), or chlorobutanol are added to nonsterile products to prevent bacterial growth. Bronchoconstriction from inhaled BAC is cumulative, prolonged, and correlates directly with basal airway responsiveness. The multi-dose dropper bottle of albuterol sulfate solution contains 50 μg BAC per/2.5 mg of albuterol, which may be below or at the lower limit of the threshold dose for bronchoconstriction. However, with repeated albuterol nebulization, the effect can be additive and cumulative, often exceeding the bronchoconstriction threshold. We report a case of a 17 years old patient, who received 32 mg of BAC via nebulization over a period of 3.5 days that probably caused persistent bronchospasm evidenced by failure to improve clinically and to increase peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) from 125 L/min (27% of predicted value) to 300 L/min (68% of predicted value) within 2 hours of withdrawing BAC. The patient's respiratory status and PEFR improved dramatically once the nebulization solution was switched to BAC free lev-albuterol solution. The pediatric providers, particularly the emergency department physicians, intensivists and pulmonologists need to be aware of this rare albeit possible toxicity to the respiratory system caused by BAC used as a preservative in albuterol nebulizer solution.

  10. 氯化铵和氯化钾对太湖黄泥土磷的吸持动力学影响的研究%Effects of ammonium chloride and potassium chloride on kinetics of phosphorus sorption of Taihu Paddy soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寿田; 周健民; 王火焰; 杜昌文; 陈小琴


    土壤中磷的移动性、植物有效性和对水体环境的潜在危害性与土壤对磷的吸持反应有关,而铵钾磷共施是农业生产中的普遍现象,因此,本文通过批量培养法,研究了相同摩尔数的氯化铵和氯化钾对磷的吸持动力学的影响,并对磷的吸持动力学进行了不同模型的拟合.结果表明,氯化铵、氯化钾均显著增加了土壤对磷的吸持,在培养初期(5 min),相同摩尔数的氯化铵、氯化钾对磷的吸持量无显著差异,但在15 min ~ 10 d阶段,相同摩尔数的氯化钾对磷吸持量的影响显著大于相同摩尔数的氯化铵.而铵钾共施时,两者对磷的吸持具有协同作用,并主要表现为氯化钾的作用.氯化铵对土壤磷吸持总量无显著影响,氯化钾则显著增加了土壤磷吸持总量,氯化钾和氯化铵处理土壤磷吸收总量则无显著差异.通过比较不同模型拟合的决定系数(R2)大小,不同模型拟合效果顺序为Elovich方程>双常数方程>Parabolic扩散方程>零级方程>一级方程>二级方程.%Translocation, plant availability, and hazard potential to water environment of soil phosphorus are related with phosphorus sorption of soil, and it is very common to apply fertilizer by compounding ammonium, potassium and phosphorus together in agricultural production. In this article, the effects of ammonium chloride and potassium chloride on kinetics of phosphorus sorption of paddy soil were conducted by the batch culture, and kinetics of phosphorus sorption was fitted to different models. The results showed that amounts of adsorbed phosphorus were significantly increased by the addition of ammonium chloride and potassium chloride, and there is no significant difference in amounts of phosphorus sorption between ammonium chloride and potassium chloride at the same mole number at the initial culture period, but amounts of phosphorus sorption treated with potassium chloride was significantly more than

  11. Chloride penetration into concrete under simulated field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motohashi, K.; Misra, S.; Yamamoto, A. (Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of field conditions such curing period, slump, maximum size of aggregate, etc. on chloride penetration into concrete. With a view to closely simulate the field conditions, all specimens were exposed to chloride attack for five days after casting. From the preliminary results obtained after a six month immersion in 3.3% NaCl solution, higher degrees of chloride ingress were observed in cases when the concrete was prematurely exposed to chloride attack or had a higher slump. In addition, apart from properties, such as water-cement ratio, etc., the relative orientation of the direction of penetration to that of casting, the mortar content of the mix, and the properties of the transition zone between the coarse aggregate and mortar were found to affect the diffusivity of the chloride. Under a limited number of conditions, soluble chloride content was also illustrated in addition to the total chlorides. 10 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Mercury as a health hazard. (United States)

    Curtis, H A; Ferguson, S D; Kell, R L; Samuel, A H


    Pink disease has virtually disappeared since teething powders were withdrawn. We describe a case in a boy who was exposed to metallic mercury vapour. We discuss the potential health hazard of spilled elemental mercury in the house and the difficulties of removing it from the environment.

  13. The action and interaction of calcium and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis and their chemical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilenkirchen, W.L.M.


    1. 1. The action and interaction of CaCl2 and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis have been studied. 2. 2. CaCl2 antagonizes death caused by alkali chlorides. The number of normally developing embryos increases in all cases. 3. 3. Alkali chlorides antagonize death caused by CaCl2. With NaC

  14. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.


    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  15. Hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) within multi-hazard methodologies (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.


    This paper combines research and commentary to reinforce the importance of integrating hazard interactions and interaction networks (cascades) into multi-hazard methodologies. We present a synthesis of the differences between multi-layer single-hazard approaches and multi-hazard approaches that integrate such interactions. This synthesis suggests that ignoring interactions between important environmental and anthropogenic processes could distort management priorities, increase vulnerability to other spatially relevant hazards or underestimate disaster risk. In this paper we proceed to present an enhanced multi-hazard framework through the following steps: (i) description and definition of three groups (natural hazards, anthropogenic processes and technological hazards/disasters) as relevant components of a multi-hazard environment, (ii) outlining of three types of interaction relationship (triggering, increased probability, and catalysis/impedance), and (iii) assessment of the importance of networks of interactions (cascades) through case study examples (based on the literature, field observations and semi-structured interviews). We further propose two visualisation frameworks to represent these networks of interactions: hazard interaction matrices and hazard/process flow diagrams. Our approach reinforces the importance of integrating interactions between different aspects of the Earth system, together with human activity, into enhanced multi-hazard methodologies. Multi-hazard approaches support the holistic assessment of hazard potential and consequently disaster risk. We conclude by describing three ways by which understanding networks of interactions contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of hazards, disaster risk reduction and Earth system management. Understanding interactions and interaction networks helps us to better (i) model the observed reality of disaster events, (ii) constrain potential changes in physical and social vulnerability

  16. Validation of landslide hazard assessment by means of GPS monitoring technique – a case study in the Dolomites (Eastern Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tagliavini


    Full Text Available In the last years a research project aimed at the assessment of the landslide hazard and susceptibility in the high Cordevole river basin (Eastern Dolomites, Italy have been carried out. The hazard map was made adopting the Swiss Confederation semi-deterministic approach that takes into account parameters such as velocity, geometry and frequency of landslides. Usually these parameters are collected by means of geological and morphological surveys, historical archive researches, aerophotogrammetric analysis etc. In this framework however the dynamics of an instable slope can be difficult to determine. This work aims at illustrating some progress in landslide hazard assessment using a modified version of the Swiss Confederation semi-deterministic approach in which the values of some parameters have been refined in order to accomplish more reliable results in hazard assessment. A validation of the accuracy of these new values, using GPS and inclinometric measurements, has been carried out on a test site located inside the high Cordevole river basin.

  17. Genetic k-Means Clustering Approach for Mapping Human Vulnerability to Chemical Hazards in the Industrialized City: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zeng


    Full Text Available Reducing human vulnerability to chemical hazards in the industrialized city is a matter of great urgency. Vulnerability mapping is an alternative approach for providing vulnerability-reducing interventions in a region. This study presents a method for mapping human vulnerability to chemical hazards by using clustering analysis for effective vulnerability reduction. Taking the city of Shanghai as the study area, we measure human exposure to chemical hazards by using the proximity model with additionally considering the toxicity of hazardous substances, and capture the sensitivity and coping capacity with corresponding indicators. We perform an improved k-means clustering approach on the basis of genetic algorithm by using a 500 m × 500 m geographical grid as basic spatial unit. The sum of squared errors and silhouette coefficient are combined to measure the quality of clustering and to determine the optimal clustering number. Clustering result reveals a set of six typical human vulnerability patterns that show distinct vulnerability dimension combinations. The vulnerability mapping of the study area reflects cluster-specific vulnerability characteristics and their spatial distribution. Finally, we suggest specific points that can provide new insights in rationally allocating the limited funds for the vulnerability reduction of each cluster.

  18. Great Balls of Fire: A probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard related to ballistics - A case study at La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island, Italy (United States)

    Biass, Sébastien; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Bonadonna, Costanza; Di Traglia, Federico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Lestuzzi, Pierino


    We present a probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard posed by volcanic ballistic projectiles (VBP) and their potential impact on the built environment. A model named Great Balls of Fire (GBF) is introduced to describe ballistic trajectories of VBPs accounting for a variable drag coefficient and topography. It relies on input parameters easily identifiable in the field and is designed to model large numbers of VBPs stochastically. Associated functions come with the GBF code to post-process model outputs into a comprehensive probabilistic hazard assessment for VBP impacts. Outcomes include probability maps to exceed given thresholds of kinetic energies at impact, hazard curves and probabilistic isoenergy maps. Probabilities are calculated either on equally-sized pixels or zones of interest. The approach is calibrated, validated and applied to La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island (Italy). We constructed a generic eruption scenario based on stratigraphic studies and numerical inversions of the 1888-1890 long-lasting Vulcanian cycle of La Fossa. Results suggest a ~ 10- 2% probability of occurrence of VBP impacts with kinetic energies ≤ 104 J at the touristic locality of Porto. In parallel, the vulnerability to roof perforation was estimated by combining field observations and published literature, allowing for a first estimate of the potential impact of VBPs during future Vulcanian eruptions. Results indicate a high physical vulnerability to the VBP hazard, and, consequently, half of the building stock having a ≥ 2.5 × 10- 3% probability of roof perforation.

  19. UNESCO World Heritage Site Hallstatt: Rockfall hazard and risk assessment as basis for a sustainable land-use planning- a case study from the Eastern Alps (United States)

    Melzner, Sandra; Mölk, Michael; Schiffer, Michael; Gasperl, Wolfgang


    In times of decreasing financial resources, the demand for the investment in protection measures with a positive return on investment is of high importance. Hazard and risk assessments are essential tools in order to ensure an economically justifiable application of money in the implementation of preventive measures. Many areas in the Eastern Alps are recurrently affected by rockfall processes which pose a significant hazard to settlements and infrastructures. Complex tectonic, lithological and geomorphologic settings require a sufficient amount of effort to map and collect high quality data to perform a reliable hazard and risk analysis. The present work summarizes the results of a detailed hazard and risk assessment performed in a community in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Upper Austroalpine Unit). The community Hallstatt is exposed to very steep limestone cliffs, which are highly susceptible towards future, in many parts high magnitude rock failures. The analysis of the record of former events shows that since 1652 several rockfall events damaged or destroyed houses and killed or injured some people. Hallstatt as a Unesco World Heritage Site represents a very vulnerable settlement, the risk being elevated by a high frequency tourism with greater one million visitors per year. Discussion will focus on the applied methods to identify and map the rockfall hazard and risk, including a magnitude-frequency analysis of events in the past and an extrapolation in the future as well as a vulnerability analysis for the existing infrastructure under the assumed events for the determined magnitude-frequency scenarios. Furthermore challenges for a decision making in terms of a sustainable land use planning and implementation of preventive measures will be discussed.

  20. Household Hazardous Waste (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... risks associated with household hazardous wastes, it is important that people always monitor the use, storage, and ...

  1. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H


    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  2. Parameters Affecting Hydrogen Chloride Measurements (United States)


    contain sea salt, which is hygroscopic because of the magnesium chloride present, or ammonium bisulfate , which mostly comes from sulfur pollution and is...boosters release hydrogen chloride as a combustion product, and hydrazines or nitric acid can be spilled from liquid fuel motors. Monitoring the...solubility constant, and the second is the acid ionization constant. From experimental work, the product of the two constants is well established (Reference

  3. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium......-powered incentives are sufficient to induce any given effort level. If the agent is overall moderately overconfident, the latter effect dominates; because the agent bears less risk in this case, he actually benefits from his overconfidence. If the agent is significantly overconfident, the former effect dominates......; the agent is then exposed to an excessive amount of risk, which is harmful to him. An increase in overconfidence--either about the base probability of success or the extent to which effort affects it--makes it more likely that high levels of effort are implemented in equilibrium....

  4. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN


    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  6. Cartography of flood hazard by overflowing rivers using hydraulic modeling and geographic information system: Oued El Harrach case (North of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Astite


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is the management of flood risk through the use of cartography of flood hazards by overflowing rivers. This cartography is developed using modern simulation tools namely the hydraulic model (HECRAS as well as the Geographic Information System (ArcGis. The study concerns Oued El Harrach (North of Algeria surrounding area which has been subject to several floods causing significant human and material damage. This loss is a consequence of the use flood zones as habitats for people. This can be avoided in the future by use the mapping of the spatial extent of the flood hazard on the land of the Oued El Harrach. Hence the importance of the cartography developed in this study as an essential tool for decision makers in prevention, protection and management of flood risks.

  7. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Quantitative Risk and Hazard Level of Arsenic Exposure in Groundwater, case Study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Nasrabadi


    Full Text Available Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran’s Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 μg/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb. The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

  8. Evaluating the spatial distribution of quantitative risk and hazard level of arsenic exposure in groundwater, case study of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Iran. (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Bidabadi, Niloufar Shirani


    Regional distribution of quantitative risk and hazard levels due to arsenic poisoning in some parts of Iran's Kurdistan province is considered. To investigate the potential risk and hazard level regarding arsenic-contaminated drinking water and further carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers, thirteen wells in rural areas of Qorveh County were considered for evaluation of arsenic concentration in water. Sampling campaign was performed in August 2010 and arsenic concentration was measured via the Silver Diethyldithiocarbamate method. The highest and lowest arsenic concentration are reported in Guilaklu and Qezeljakand villages with 420 and 67 μg/L, respectively. None of thirteen water samples met the maximum contaminant level issued by USEPA and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (10 ppb). The highest arsenic concentration and consequently risk and hazard levels belong to villages situated alongside the eastern frontiers of the county. Existence of volcanic activities within the upper Miocene and Pleistocene in this part of the study area may be addressed as the main geopogenic source of arsenic pollution. Quantitative risk values are varying from 1.49E-03 in Qezeljakand to 8.92E-03 in Guilaklu and may be interpreted as very high when compared by similar studies in Iran. Regarding non-carcinogenic effects, all thirteen water samples are considered hazardous while all calculated chronic daily intakes are greater than arsenic reference dose. Such drinking water source has the potential to impose adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects on villagers. Accordingly, an urgent decision must be made to substitute the current drinking water source with a safer one.

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  10. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. (United States)


    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene...

  11. Flash Flood Hazard Mapping Using Satellite Images and GIS Tools: A case study of Najran City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Elkhrachy


    Full Text Available Flash flood in the cities led to high levels of water in the streets and roads, causing many problems such as bridge collapse, building damage and traffic problems. It is impossible to avoid risks of floods or prevent their occurrence, however it is plausible to work on the reduction of their effects and to reduce the losses which they may cause. Flash flood mapping to identify sites in high risk flood zones is one of the powerful tools for this purpose. Mapping flash flood will be beneficial to urban and infrastructure planners, risk managers and disaster response or emergency services during extreme and intense rainfall events. The objective of this paper is to generate flash flood map for Najran city, Saudi Arabia, using satellite images and GIS tools. To do so, we use SPOT and SRTM DEMs data for which accuracy assessment is achieved by using check points, obtained by GPS observations. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used to determine relative impact weight of flood causative factors to get a composite flood hazard index (FHI. The causative factors in this study are runoff, soil type, surface slope, surface roughness, drainage density, distance to main channel and land use. All used data are finally integrated in an ArcMap to prepare a final flood hazard map for study area. The areas in high risk flood zones are obtained by overlaying the flood hazard index map with the zone boundaries layer. The affected population number and land area are determined and compared.

  12. Identifying Sources and Assessing Potential Risk of Exposure to Heavy Metals and Hazardous Materials in Mining Areas: The Case Study of Panasqueira Mine (Central Portugal as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Candeias


    Full Text Available The Sn-W Panasqueira mine, in activity since the mid-1890s, is one of the most important economic deposits in the world. Arsenopyrite is the main mineral present as well as rejected waste sulphide. The long history is testified by the presence of a huge amount of tailings, which release considerable quantities of heavy metal(loids into the environment. This work assesses soil contamination and evaluates the ecological and human health risks due to exposure to hazardous materials. The metal assemblage identified in soil (Ag-As-Bi-Cd-Cu-W-Zn; potentially toxic elements (PTEs reflects the influence of the tailings, due to several agents including aerial dispersion. PTEs and pH display a positive correlation confirming that heavy metal mobility is directly related to pH and, therefore, affects their availability. The estimated contamination factor classified 92.6% of soil samples as moderately to ultra-highly polluted. The spatial distribution of the potential ecological risk index classified the topsoil as being of a very high ecological risk, consistent with wind direction. Non-carcinogenic hazard of topsoil, for children (1–6 years, showed that for As the non-carcinogenic hazard represents a high health risk. The carcinogenic risks, both for children and adult alike, reveal a very high cancer risk mostly due to As ingestion.

  13. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish. (United States)

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P


    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique.

  14. Coastal dynamics studies for evaluation of hazard and vulnerability for coastal erosion. case study the town La Bocana, Buenaventura, colombian pacific (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza


    The analysis of the hazard and vulnerability in coastal areas caused for erosion is based on studies of coastal dynamics since that allows having a better information detail that is useful for decision-making in aspects like prevention, mitigation, disaster reduction and integrated risk management. The Town of La Bocana, located in Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific) was selected to carry out the threat assessment for coastal erosion based on three components: i) magnitude, ii) occurrence and iii) susceptibility. Vulnerability meanwhile, is also composed of three main components for its evaluation: i) exposure ii) fragility and iii) resilience, which in turn are evaluated in 6 dimensions of vulnerability: physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional and cultural. The hazard analysis performed used a semi-quantitative approach, and an index of variables such as type of geomorphological unit, type of beach, exposure of the surfing coast, occurrence, among others. Quantitative data of coastal retreat was measured through the use of DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) an application of ArcGIS, as well as the development of digital elevation models from the beach and 6 beach profiles strategically located on the coast obtained with GNSS technology. Sediment samples collected from these beaches, medium height and wave direction were used as complementary data. The information was integrated across the coast line into segments of 250 x 250 meters. 4 sectors are part of the coastal area of La Bocana: Pianguita, Vistahermosa, Donwtown and Shangay. 6 vulnerability dimensions units were taken from these population, as well as its density for exposure, wich was analyzed through a multi-array method that include variables such as, land use, population, type of structure, education, basic services, among others, to measure frailty, and their respective indicator of resilience. The hazard analysis results indicate that Vistahermosa is in very high threat, while

  15. Microseismic Precursory Characteristics of Rock Burst Hazard in Mining Areas Near a Large Residual Coal Pillar: A Case Study from Xuzhuang Coal Mine, Xuzhou, China (United States)

    Cao, An-ye; Dou, Lin-ming; Wang, Chang-bin; Yao, Xiao-xiao; Dong, Jing-yuan; Gu, Yu


    Identification of precursory characteristics is a key issue for rock burst prevention. The aim of this research is to provide a reference for assessing rock burst risk and determining potential rock burst risk areas in coal mining. In this work, the microseismic multidimensional information for the identification of rock bursts and spatial-temporal pre-warning was investigated in a specific coalface which suffered high rock burst risk in a mining area near a large residual coal pillar. Firstly, microseismicity evolution prior to a disastrous rock burst was qualitatively analysed, and the abnormal clustering of seismic sources, abnormal variations in daily total energy release, and event counts can be regarded as precursors to rock burst. Secondly, passive tomographic imaging has been used to locate high seismic activity zones and assess rock burst hazard when the coalface passes through residual pillar areas. The results show that high-velocity or velocity anomaly regions correlated well with strong seismic activities in future mining periods and that passive tomography has the potential to describe, both quantitatively and periodically, hazardous regions and assess rock burst risk. Finally, the bursting strain energy index was further used for short-term spatial-temporal pre-warning of rock bursts. The temporal sequence curve and spatial contour nephograms indicate that the status of the danger and the specific hazardous zones, and levels of rock burst risk can be quantitatively and rapidly analysed in short time and in space. The multidimensional precursory characteristic identification of rock bursts, including qualitative analysis, intermediate and short-time quantitative predictions, can guide the choice of measures implemented to control rock bursts in the field, and provides a new approach to monitor and forecast rock bursts in space and time.

  16. Identification of debris-flow hazards in warm deserts through analyzing past occurrences: Case study in South Mountain, Sonoran Desert, USA (United States)

    Dorn, Ronald I.


    After recognition that debris flows co-occur with human activities, the next step in a hazards analysis involves estimating debris-flow probability. Prior research published in this journal in 2010 used varnish microlamination (VML) dating to determine a minimum occurrence of 5 flows per century over the last 8100 years in a small mountain range of South Mountain adjacent to neighborhoods of Phoenix, Arizona. This analysis led to the conclusion that debris flows originating in small mountain ranges in arid regions like the Sonoran Desert could pose a hazard. Two major precipitation events in the summer of 2014 generated 35 debris flows in the same study area of South Mountain-providing support for the importance of probability analysis as a key step in a hazards analysis in warm desert settings. Two distinct mechanisms generated the 2014 debris flows: intense precipitation on steep slopes in the first storm; and a firehose effect whereby runoff from the second storm was funneled rapidly by cleaned-out debris-flow chutes to remobilize Pleistocene debris-flow deposits. When compared to a global database on debris flows, the 2014 storms were among the most intense to generate desert debris flows - indicating that storms of lesser intensity are capable of generating debris flows in warm desert settings. The 87Sr/86Sr analyses of fines and clasts in South Mountain debris flows of different ages reveal that desert dust supplies the fines. Thus, wetter climatic periods of intense rock decay are not needed to resupply desert slopes with fines; instead, a combination of dust deposition supplying fines and dirt cracking generating coarse clasts can re-arm chutes in a warm desert setting with abundant dust.

  17. An integrated approach for the evaluation of technological hazard impacts on air quality: the case of the Val d'Agri oil/gas plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calvello


    Full Text Available The Val d'Agri area (southern Italy hosts the biggest on-shore European reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant, named Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA, located in a rural/anthropized context. Several hazards are associated to this plant. These are mainly represented by possible impacts of the COVA atmospheric emissions on the local air quality and human health. This work uses a novel approach based on the integration of air quality measurements from the regional monitoring network, additional experimental measurements (i.e., sub-micrometric particulate matter – PM1 and Black Carbon – BC and advanced statistical analyses to provide a preliminary evaluation of the Val d'Agri air quality state and give some indications of specific areas potentially affected by COVA hazards. Results show that the COVA plant emissions exert an impact especially on the air quality of the area closest to it. In this area several pollutants specifically related to the COVA combustion processes (i.e., nitrogen oxides, benzene and toluene show the highest concentration values and significant correlations. The proposed approach represents a first step in the assessment of the risks associated to oil/gas exploration and pre-treatment activities and a starting point for the development of effective and exportable air quality monitoring strategies.

  18. Assessing coastal flooding hazard in urban areas: the case of estuarian villages in the city of Hyères-les-Palmiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roy Sylvestre


    Full Text Available This study, conducted on the city of Hyéres-les-Palmiers (French Riviera to guide the future land use planning, aimed to evaluate how sea level rise could modify coastal flooding hazards in urban areas located near small estuaries in a microtidal context. A joint probability approach allowed establishing typical storm parameters for specific return periods (30, 50 and 100 years, integrating offshore conditions (sea level and significant wave height and the river level. Storm scenarios have been established from these parameters and the chronology of the most impacting recent storm. Sea level rise has been integrated (20 cm for year 2030 and 60 cm for year 2100, and the coastal flooding has been simulated with a non-hydrostatic non-linear shallow-water model (SWASH. The calculations have been realized on high resolution DEM (1 to 5 m mesh size, integrating buildings and coastal protections. The approach has been validated by reproducing a recent flooding event. Obtained results show the importance of wave overtopping in current coastal flooding hazard in this area. Nevertheless, if Hyéres-les-Palmiers is currently little exposed to coastal flooding, these simulations highlight an increasing role of overflowing due to sea level rise, leading to significant flooding in 2100, even for quite frequent events.

  19. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator. (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell


    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  20. CHRIS: Hazard Assessment Handbook (United States)


    CODE AIJ 91 HAZARD ASSESSMENT CODE-ABC KLMN 95 A. VENTING GAS FIRE -CODE AB 97 B. LIOUID FIRE-CODE AKL 97 C. WATER POLLUTION HAZARDS - CODE AK 99 D...The Hazard Calculation Codes for liquefied natural gas are: AB — venting gas fire . AC - gas dispersion, ADE — liquid fire, and ADFG...5.4). Spill Amount Wind Velocity Wind Direction Weather ppm tons knots Primary Code ABCKLMN Code AB - Venting Gas Fire Assessment

  1. Natural Hazards and Vulnerability in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case studies: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro (United States)

    Ponce-Pacheco, A. B.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Espinosa-Campos, O.; Rodriguez, F.; Huerta-Parra, M.; Reyes-Pimentel, T.; Benitez-Olivares, I.


    On February 5, 2010, occurred a fracture on a wall of the artificial water channel called “La Compañía (CC)” in the section of the municipality of Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS), Estado de Mexico, Mexico. The dimensions of this fracture were 70m length, 20m wide and 5m height, and cause severe wastewater flooding that affected surrounding communities. This area was also impacted by a similar event in 2000 and 2005. In this study, we assess the social, economic, structural, and physical vulnerability to floods, earthquakes, subsidence, and landslides hazards in the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro and Avandaro of VCS. This area is located in soil of the old Chalco Lake, and in recent decades has experienced a large population growth. Due to urban development and the overexploitation of aquifers, the zone is also exposed to subsidence up to 40 cm per year. For these reasons, CC is at present, well above ground level. In this research, we applied the methodology developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to assess vulnerability. As a first step, we established the level of exposure of the communities to the four main hazards. We also analyzed the economic and social vulnerability of the area using data collected from a field survey. From the total family houses in the studied communities, we estimated a minimum sample statistically significant and the households from this sample were selected randomly. We defined five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. Our results indicate that San Isidro is the community with the highest level of structural vulnerability, as for the physical vulnerability it was found that the homes most affected by flooding are those located close to CC but we did not found a direct relationship between the physical vulnerability and structural vulnerability. The main hazard to which the zone of study is exposed is flooding because its period of recurrence is about five

  2. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].


    Daria Pakulska


    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The g...

  3. Volcanic hazard mapping for development planning


    Dunkley, P.N.; Young, S. R.


    It is estimated that more than 500 million people are at risk from the hazards posed by volcanoes. The potential therefore exists for major loss of life and damage to property in a number of regions, especially where large urban areas occur in proximity to dangerous volcanoes. As population pressures intensify, hazardous areas are likely to become increasingly developed, so raising the level of risk. In the case of major eruptions, losses to property, infrastructure and economic activity c...

  4. Probabilistic Multi-Hazard Assessment of Dry Cask Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencturk, Bora [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Padgett, Jamie [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Uddin, Rizwan [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States).


    systems the concrete shall not only provide shielding but insures stability of the upright canister, facilitates anchoring, allows ventilation, and provides physical protection against theft, severe weather and natural (seismic) as well as man-made events (blast incidences). Given the need to remain functional for 40 years or even longer in case of interim storage, the concrete outerpack and the internal canister components need to be evaluated with regard to their long-term ability to perform their intended design functions. Just as evidenced by deteriorating concrete bridges, there are reported visible degradation mechanisms of dry storage systems especially when high corrosive environments are considered in maritime locations. The degradation of reinforced concrete is caused by multiple physical and chemical mechanisms, which may be summarized under the heading of environmental aging. The underlying hygro-thermal transport processes are accelerated by irradiation effects, hence creep and shrinkage need to include the effect of chloride penetration, alkali aggregate reaction as well as corrosion of the reinforcing steel. In light of the above, the two main objectives of this project are to (1) develop a probabilistic multi-hazard assessment framework, and (2) through experimental and numerical research perform a comprehensive assessment under combined earthquake loads and aging induced deterioration, which will also provide data for the development and validation of the probabilistic framework.

  5. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products]. (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki


    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  6. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng


    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  7. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.


    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  8. Integrating Hazardous Materials Characterization and Assessment Tools to Guide Pollution Prevention in Electronic Products and Manufacturing (United States)

    Lam, Carl

    Due to technology proliferation, the environmental burden attributed to the production, use, and disposal of hazardous materials in electronics have become a worldwide concern. The major theme of this dissertation is to develop and apply hazardous materials assessment tools to systematically guide pollution prevention opportunities in the context of electronic product design, manufacturing and end-of-life waste management. To this extent, a comprehensive review is first provided on describing hazard traits and current assessment methods to evaluate hazardous materials. As a case study at the manufacturing level, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)-based and risk-based screening methods are used to quantify chemical and geographic environmental impacts in the U.S. printed wiring board (PWB) industry. Results from this industrial assessment clarify priority waste streams and States to most effectively mitigate impact. With further knowledge of PWB manufacturing processes, select alternative chemical processes (e.g., spent copper etchant recovery) and material options (e.g., lead-free etch resist) are discussed. In addition, an investigation on technology transition effects for computers and televisions in the U.S. market is performed by linking dynamic materials flow and environmental assessment models. The analysis forecasts quantities of waste units generated and maps shifts in environmental impact potentials associated with metal composition changes due to product substitutions. This insight is important to understand the timing and waste quantities expected and the emerging toxic elements needed to be addressed as a consequence of technology transition. At the product level, electronic utility meter devices are evaluated to eliminate hazardous materials within product components. Development and application of a component Toxic Potential Indicator (TPI) assessment methodology highlights priority components requiring material alternatives. Alternative

  9. Binder content influences on chloride ingress in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; Jones, M.R.; McCarthy, M.J. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom)


    The reported study looked at the effect of reducing free water contents, and thereby binder contents, and thereby binder contents, on the ingress of chloride in concrete. Concretes with equal water/binder ratio (and design strength), but with water contents reduced by up to 30 liters/m{sup 3}, were tested for chloride diffusion (D) and penetration. The quality of the microstructure was inferred from initial surface absorption tests (ISAT). The results show no practical difference in chloride durability between the corresponding concretes, and that reducing the binder content, (providing that the water/binder ratio is maintained) is not likely to be detrimental. However, the results reported underline the importance of binder type, in this case PFA. Implications of the results are discussed and, in light of the findings, whether specifications which demand minimum cement contents are justified.

  10. Slope instability induced by volcano-tectonics as an additional source of hazard in active volcanic areas: the case of Ischia island (Italy) (United States)

    Della Seta, Marta; Marotta, Enrica; Orsi, Giovanni; de Vita, Sandro; Sansivero, Fabio; Fredi, Paola


    Ischia is an active volcanic island in the Gulf of Naples whose history has been dominated by a caldera-forming eruption (ca. 55 ka) and resurgence phenomena that have affected the caldera floor and generated a net uplift of about 900 m since 33 ka. The results of new geomorphological, stratigraphical and textural investigations of the products of gravitational movements triggered by volcano-tectonic events have been combined with the information arising from a reinterpretation of historical chronicles on natural phenomena such as earthquakes, ground deformation, gravitational movements and volcanic eruptions. The combined interpretation of all these data shows that gravitational movements, coeval to volcanic activity and uplift events related to the long-lasting resurgence, have affected the highly fractured marginal portions of the most uplifted Mt. Epomeo blocks. Such movements, mostly occurring since 3 ka, include debris avalanches; large debris flows (lahars); smaller mass movements (rock falls, slumps, debris and rock slides, and small debris flows); and deep-seated gravitational slope deformation. The occurrence of submarine deposits linked with subaerial deposits of the most voluminous mass movements clearly shows that the debris avalanches impacted on the sea. The obtained results corroborate the hypothesis that the behaviour of the Ischia volcano is based on an intimate interplay among magmatism, resurgence dynamics, fault generation, seismicity, slope oversteepening and instability, and eruptions. They also highlight that volcano-tectonically triggered mass movements are a potentially hazardous phenomena that have to be taken into account in any attempt to assess volcanic and related hazards at Ischia. Furthermore, the largest mass movements could also flow into the sea, generating tsunami waves that could impact on the island's coast as well as on the neighbouring and densely inhabited coast of the Neapolitan area.

  11. 21 CFR 173.375 - Cetylpyridinium chloride. (United States)


    ... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.375 Cetylpyridinium chloride. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CAS Reg. No... Nutrition's Library, Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or...

  12. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca. (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy


    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  13. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes


    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P. A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.


    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA


    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  15. The Nature of Natural Hazards Communication (Invited) (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.


    Some of the many issues of interest to natural hazards professionals include the analysis of proactive approaches to the governance of risk from natural hazards and approaches to broaden the scope of public policies related to the management of risks from natural hazards, as well as including emergency and environmental management, community development and spatial planning related to natural hazards. During the talk we will present results of scientific review, analysis and synthesis, which emphasize same new trends in communication of the natural hazards theories and practices within an up-to-the-minute context of new environmental and climate change issues, new technologies, and a new focus on resiliency. The presentation is divided into five sections that focus on natural hazards communication in terms of education, risk management, public discourse, engaging the public, theoretical perspectives, and new media. It includes results of case studies and best practices. It delves into natural hazards communication theories, including diffusion, argumentation, and constructivism, to name a few. The presentation will provide information about: (1) A manual of natural hazards communication for scientists, policymakers, and media; (2) An up-to-the-minute context of environmental hazards, new technologies & political landscape; (3) A work by natural hazards scientists for geoscientists working with social scientists and communication principles; (4) A work underpinned by key natural hazards communication theories and interspersed with pragmatic solutions; (5) A work that crosses traditional natural hazards boundaries: international, interdisciplinary, theoretical/applied. We will further explore how spatial planning can contribute to risk governance by influencing the occupation of natural hazard-prone areas, and review the central role of emergency management in risk policy. The goal of this presentation is to contribute to the augmentation of the conceptual framework

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride. (United States)


    ... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O,...

  17. Cystic Fibrosis (CF): Chloride Sweat Test (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test KidsHealth > For Parents > Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Chloride Sweat Test Print A A A ... It Is A chloride sweat test helps diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF) , an inherited disorder that makes kids sick ...

  18. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the...

  19. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead...

  20. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride. (United States)


    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for cesium chloride capsules with type W overpacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J.C.


    This Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) documents the evaluation of a new basket design and overpacked cesium chloride capsule payload for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask in accordance with the onsite transportation requirements of the Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping manual, WHC-CM-2-14. This design supports the one-time onsite shipment of 16 cesium chloride capsules with Type W overpacks from the 324 Building to the 224T Building at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The SEP is valid for a one-time onsite shipment or until August 1, 1998, whichever occurs first.

  2. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.


    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  3. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams


    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  4. Natural hazards science strategy (United States)

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.


    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research - founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes - can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events. To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science. In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H-SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  5. Maintenance and recovery of agricultural terraces to reduce geo-hydrological hazards: the Santa Giulia in Centaura (Liguria, Italy) and Valstagna (Veneto, Italy) case studies (United States)

    Giostrella, Paola; Ferrarese, Francesco; Faccini, Francesco; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Lazzeri, Riccardo; Melillo, Massimo; Mozzi, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto


    Throughout the World, men have built terraced landscapes to gain ground suitable for cultivation in steep terrain. Beyond the historical and cultural importance of terraced slopes, terraces have played an important role for soil conservation and water management. In many areas, their abandonment has led to more frequent and/or abundant geo-hydrological hazards. We analyse two terraced areas in northern Italy, including (i) the Valstagna prealpine terraces (Veneto) where the Republic of Venice initiated the cultivation of tobacco in 1600, and (ii) the coastal terraces of Santa Giulia di Centaura (Liguria) where terraces host vineyards and olive groves since 2000 years. Using a combination of direct and indirect mapping methods and tools, including LiDAR topographic surveys, the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and the analysis of historical maps, we performed a systematic mapping of the terraces. Using the available maps, we determined statistics for the width, height and extent of stonewalls and we evaluated the historical evolution of the terraces for the past 50 years, considering changes in land use, the expansion of forest, and the changes in the precipitation regime. Finally, through a preliminary cost-benefit analysis, we propose good practices to help the recovery of the terraces in the two study areas.

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-105-1689, Fibre-Glast Development Corporation, Dayton, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zey, J.M.; Anastas, M.


    An evaluation was made concerning potential exposures of 1 or 2 employees during production of fibrous glass repair kits. Air samples were assessed for possible exposures to methylenechloride, butyl-cellosolve, styrene, general organics, total and respirable particulates, and carbon dioxide. Methylene chloride concentrations of 443 and 460 were found in 80-minute samples taken during cleaning of a mixer with methylene chloride. NIOSH recommends that exposures to methylene chloride should be reduced to the lowest feasible level. Organic vapors including methylene chloride were migrating into the office area from the production area of the facility. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists for exposure to methylene chloride. The authors recommend either substitution of a different solvent or the institution of more rigid engineering controls. Airborne concentrations of methylene chloride in the compounding, repacking, and office areas should be reduced.

  7. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride


    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Mehmet Akkurt; Yathirajan, H.S.; Ramesh, A. R.


    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxophenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethylpropanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothiazine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H...π interactions.

  8. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan


    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  9. Developing chloride resisting concrete using PFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhir, R.K.; El-Mohr, M.A.K.; Dyer, T.D. [Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering


    PFA concrete mixes were designed to optimize resistance to chloride ingress. Chloride binding capacity, intrinsic permeability and their concomitant influence on the coefficient of chloride diffusion have been investigated. PFA replacements up to 67% and exposure concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mole/liter were used. Chloride binding capacity was found to increase with increasing PFA replacement up to 50% and to then decline. It increased with chloride exposure concentration as well as water/binder ratio. The coefficient of chloride diffusion of concrete samples was found to be dependent on both the intrinsic permeability of the concrete and the ability of its cement matrix to bind chlorides.

  10. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense. (United States)

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M


    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense.

  11. Assessing the seismic coupling of shallow continental faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimates: a case-study from Italy (United States)

    Carafa, Michele M. C.; Valensise, Gianluca; Bird, Peter


    SUMMARYWe propose an objective and reproducible algorithmic path to forecast seismicity in Italy from long-term deformation models. These models are appropriate for Italy and its neighboring countries and seas thanks to the availability of rich, reliable and regularly updated historical earthquake and seismogenic fault databases, and to the density of permanent GPS stations. However, so far little has been done to assess the seismic coupling of Italian active faults, i.e. to quantify their ability to release earthquakes. This must be determined in order to use geodetic and active faulting observations in alternative seismicity models, to overcome possible limitations of the earthquake record for the assessment of seismic hazard. We use a probabilistic method to assign upper crustal earthquakes from the historical catalogue to their presumed causative faults, then collect all the events into three subcatalogues corresponding to the compressional, extensional and strike-slip faulting classes. We then determine the parameters of their Gutenberg-Richter frequency/magnitude relations using maximum-likelihood methods and integrate these distributions to estimate the long-term seismic moment rate for each class. Finally, we compare these seismicity rates to the long-term tectonic deformation based on GPS data, thus determining the coupled thickness (and estimating seismic coupling) for each fault class. We find that in our study region the seismic coupling and the related coupled thickness is on average two times larger for extensional than for compressional faults. As for the spatial distribution of earthquake rates, a larger number of events is predicted for the extensional settings of the Apennines chain, in agreement with the inferred seismic coupling but also with the long-term strain rates. We also find that the frequency/magnitude distributions indicate that the largest earthquakes occur in extensional settings, whereas compressional faults are expected to host

  12. Reviewing and visualising relationships between anthropic processes and natural hazards within a multi-hazard framework (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.


    Here we present a broad overview of the interaction relationships between 17 anthropic processes and 21 different natural hazard types. Anthropic processes are grouped into seven categories (subsurface extraction, subsurface addition, land use change, explosions, hydrological change, surface construction processes, miscellaneous). Natural hazards are grouped into six categories (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space). A wide-ranging review based on grey- and peer-reviewed literature from many scientific disciplines identified 54 relationships where anthropic processes have been noted to trigger natural hazards. We record case studies for all but three of these relationships. Based on the results of this review, we find that the anthropic processes of deforestation, explosions (conventional and nuclear) and reservoir construction could trigger the widest range of different natural hazard types. We also note that within the natural hazards, landslides and earthquakes are those that could be triggered by the widest range of anthropic processes. This work also examines the possibility of anthropic processes (i) resulting in an increased occurrence of a particular hazard interaction (e.g., deforestation could result in an increased interaction between storms and landslides); and (ii) inadvertently reducing the likelihood of a natural hazard or natural hazard interaction (e.g., poor drainage or deforestation reducing the likelihood of wildfires triggered by lightning). This study synthesises, using accessible visualisation techniques, the large amounts of anthropic process and natural hazard information from our review. In it we have outlined the importance of considering anthropic processes within any analysis of hazard interactions, and we reinforce the importance of a holistic approach to natural hazard assessment, mitigation and management.

  13. Occupational hazards of interventional cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Balter, Stephen; Weisz, Giora, E-mail:


    Complex catheter-based interventions and rising case volumes confer occupational risks to interventional cardiologists. Despite advances in technology, modern interventional procedures are performed in a manner remarkably similar to the techniques pioneered decades ago. Percutaneous interventions are associated with operator orthopedic injuries, exposures to blood borne pathogens, and the effects of chronic radiation exposure from fluoroscopy. This review highlights the occupational hazards of interventional procedures and provides a glimpse at the technologies and techniques that may reduce risks to operators in the catheterization laboratory.

  14. Sand hazards on tourist beaches. (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W


    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  15. The connection between long-term and short-term risk management strategies for flood and landslide hazards: examples from land-use planning and emergency management in four European case studies (United States)

    Prenger-Berninghoff, K.; Cortes, V. J.; Sprague, T.; Aye, Z. C.; Greiving, S.; Głowacki, W.; Sterlacchini, S.


    Adaptation to complex and unforeseen events requires enhancing the links between planning and preparedness phases to reduce future risks in the most efficient way. In this context, the legal-administrative and cultural context has to be taken into account. This is why four case study areas of the CHANGES1 project (Nehoiu Valley in Romania, Ubaye Valley in France, Val Canale in Italy, and Wieprzówka catchment in Poland) serve as examples to highlight currently implemented risk management strategies for land-use planning and emergency preparedness. The focus is particularly on flood and landslide hazards. The strategies described in this paper were identified by means of exploratory and informal interviews in each study site. Results reveal that a dearth or, in very few cases, a weak link exists between spatial planners and emergency managers. Management strategies could benefit from formally intensifying coordination and cooperation between emergency services and spatial planning authorities. Moreover, limited financial funds urge for a more efficient use of resources and better coordination towards long-term activities. The research indicates potential benefits to establishing or, in some cases, strengthening this link through contextual changes, e.g., in organizational or administrative structures, that facilitate proper interaction between risk management and spatial planning. It also provides suggestions for further development in the form of information and decision support systems as a key connection point. 1 Marie Curie ITN CHANGES - Changing Hydro-meteorological Risks as Analyzed by a New Generation of European Scientists

  16. Developing hazardous waste programs (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Developing a fully operational hazardous waste regulatory system requires at least 10 to 15 years—even in countries with strong legal and bureaucratic institutions, according to a report on "The Evolution of Hazardous Waste Programs," which was funded by Resources for the Future (RFF) and the World Bank's South Asia Environment Group, and issued on June 4.The report, which compares the experiences of how four developed and four developing countries have created hazardous waste programs, indicates that hazardous waste issues usually do not become a pressing environmental issue until after countries have dealt with more direct threats to public health, such as contaminated drinking water and air pollution. The countries examined include Indonesia, Thailand, Germany, and the United States.

  17. Automated Standard Hazard Tool (United States)

    Stebler, Shane


    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  18. Natural Hazards Image Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  19. Flood Hazard Area (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Hazardous Waste Research Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  1. Flood Hazard Boundaries (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. What Are Volcano Hazards? (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  3. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.


    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  4. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  5. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, R.H.


    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  6. Phytoremediation of Hazardous Wastes (United States)


    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Phytoremediation of Hazardous Wastes 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven C. McCutcheon, N. Lee Wolfe, Laura H. Carreria and Tse-Yuan Ou 5... phytoremediation (the use of plants to degrade hazardous contaminants) was developed. The new approach to phytoremediation involves rigorous pathway analyses...SUBJECT TERMS phytoremediation , nitroreductase, laccase enzymes, SERDP 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 8 16. PRICE CODE N/A 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  7. Hydrolysis of cupric chloride in aqueous ammoniacal ammonium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limpo, J. L.


    Full Text Available Cupric solubility in the CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for chloride concentrations lower than 4 molal in the temperature range 25-60 °C was studied. The experimental results show that for chloride concentration between 3.0 and 1.0 molal the cupric solubility is determined by the solubility of the cupric hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. For a chloride concentration value of 4.0 molal, there are two cupric compounds, the hydroxychloride Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 or the diammine chloride Cu(NH32Cl2, on which the solubility of Cu(II depends, according to the temperature and the value of the ratio [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total.

    Se estudia la solubilidad del Cu(II en el sistema CuCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O para concentraciones de cloruro inferiores a 4 molal en el intervalo de temperaturas 25-60 °C. Los resultados experimentales muestran que, para concentraciones de cloruros comprendidas entre 3,0 y 1,0 molal, la solubilidad cúprica viene determinada por la solubilidad del hidroxicloruro cúprico, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5. Para concentraciones de cloruro 4,0 molal, existen dos compuestos cúpricos, el hidroxicloruro, Cu(OH1.5Cl0.5 o el cloruro de diamina, Cu(NH32Cl2, de los que, de acuerdo con la temperatura y con el valor de la relación [NH3]Total/[Cu]Total depende la solubilidad del Cu(II.

  8. Training hazard perception skills. [previously known as: Training hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Hazard perception is an essential skill in the driving task, but it is still badly developed among novice drivers. Hazard perception consists of more than perceiving hazards. It also concerns appraising the seriousness of the hazards, and knowing how to act to avert them. There are indications that

  9. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.


    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  10. Estimating regional long-term economic consequences of natural hazards - a case study of the 2005 flood event in Tyrol (Austria) (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Lochner, B.; Brucker, A.


    The interaction of relief-driven alpine natural processes with the anthropogenic sphere often leads to natural disasters which significantly impact on remote alpine economies. When evaluating the effects of such events for future risk prevention strategies, it is essential to assess indirect losses. While the economic measurement of direct effects - the physical impact on structures and infrastructure - seems fairly manageable, less is known about the dimensions of indirect effects, especially on a local and regional scale within the Alps. The lack of standardized terminology, empirical data and methods to estimate indirect economic effects currently hampers profound decision support. In our study of the 2005 flood event in Tyrol, we surveyed companies from all sectors of the economy to identify the main drivers of indirect effects and interrupted economic flows. In collaboration with the Federal State administration, we extrapolate the total regional economic effects of this catastrophic event. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, we established and analysed a data pool of questionnaire and interview results as well as direct loss data. We mainly focus on the decrease in value creation and the negative impacts on tourism. We observed that disrupted traffic networks can have a highly negative impact, especially for the tourism sector in lateral alpine valleys. Within a month, turnover fell by approximately EUR 3.3 million in the investigated area. In the short run (until August 2006), the shortfall in touristic revenues in the Paznaun valley aggregated to approx. EUR 5.3 million. We observed that overnight stays rebound very quickly so that long-term effects are marginal. In addition, we tried to identify possible economical losers as well as winners of severe hazard impacts. In response to such flood events, high investments are made to improve disaster and risk management. Nearly 70% of the respondents specified the (re)construction sector and similar

  11. Nonparametric estimation for hazard rate monotonously decreasing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Fengyan; Li Weisong


    Estimation of density and hazard rate is very important to the reliability analysis of a system. In order to estimate the density and hazard rate of a hazard rate monotonously decreasing system, a new nonparametric estimator is put forward. The estimator is based on the kernel function method and optimum algorithm. Numerical experiment shows that the method is accurate enough and can be used in many cases.

  12. Iron(III) chloride catalyzed glycosylation of peracylated sugars with allyl/alkynyl alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; Silva, Rodrigo Cesar da; Monteiro, Julia L.; Correa, Arlene G.; Paixao, Marcio W., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    In this work, the use of ferric chloride as an efficient catalyst in glycosylation reactions of sugars in the presence of allyl and alkynyl alcohols is described. The corresponding glycosides were obtained with moderate to good yields. This new procedure presented greater selectivity when compared to classic methods found in the literature. Principal features of this simple method include non-hazardous reaction conditions, low-catalyst loading, good yields and high anomeric selectivity (author)

  13. Bed-sharing in the absence of hazardous circumstances: is there a risk of sudden infant death syndrome? An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Blair

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS among infants who co-sleep in the absence of hazardous circumstances is unclear and needs to be quantified. DESIGN: Combined individual-analysis of two population-based case-control studies of SIDS infants and controls comparable for age and time of last sleep. SETTING: Parents of 400 SIDS infants and 1386 controls provided information from five English health regions between 1993-6 (population: 17.7 million and one of these regions between 2003-6 (population:4.9 million. RESULTS: Over a third of SIDS infants (36% were found co-sleeping with an adult at the time of death compared to 15% of control infants after the reference sleep (multivariate OR = 3.9 [95% CI: 2.7-5.6]. The multivariable risk associated with co-sleeping on a sofa (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.1-47.4] or next to a parent who drank more than two units of alcohol (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.7-43.5] was very high and significant for infants of all ages. The risk associated with co-sleeping next to someone who smoked was significant for infants under 3 months old (OR = 8.9 [95% CI: 5.3-15.1] but not for older infants (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 0.7-2.8]. The multivariable risk associated with bed-sharing in the absence of these hazards was not significant overall (OR = 1.1 [95% CI: 0.6-2.0], for infants less than 3 months old (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 0.96-2.7], and was in the direction of protection for older infants (OR = 0.1 [95% CI: 0.01-0.5]. Dummy use was associated with a lower risk of SIDS only among co-sleepers and prone sleeping was a higher risk only among infants sleeping alone. CONCLUSION: These findings support a public health strategy that underlines specific hazardous co-sleeping environments parents should avoid. Sofa-sharing is not a safe alternative to bed-sharing and bed-sharing should be avoided if parents consume alcohol, smoke or take drugs or if the infant is pre-term.

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of hazards and their use in risk assessment and mitigation. Case study of road accidents in Romania (United States)

    Catalin Stanga, Iulian


    the spatial or temporal clustering of crash accidents. Since the 1990's, Geographical Informational Systems (GIS) became a very important tool for traffic and road safety management, allowing not only the spatial and multifactorial analysis, but also graphical and non-graphical outputs. The current paper presents an accessible GIS methodology to study the spatio-temporal pattern of injury related road accidents, to identify the high density accidents zones, to make a cluster analysis, to create multicriterial typologies, to identify spatial and temporal similarities and to explain them. In this purpose, a Geographical Information System was created, allowing a complex analysis that involves not only the events, but also a large set of interrelated and spatially linked attributes. The GIS includes the accidents as georeferenced point elements with a spatially linked attribute database: identification information (date, location details); accident type; main, secondary and aggravating causes; data about driver; vehicle information; consequences (damages, injured peoples and fatalities). Each attribute has its own number code that allows both the statistical analysis and the spatial interrogation. The database includes those road accidents that led to physical injuries and loss of human lives between 2007 and 2012 and the spatial analysis was realized using TNTmips 7.3 software facilities. Data aggregation and processing allowed creating the spatial pattern of injury related road accidents through Kernel density estimation at three different levels (national - Romania; county level - Iasi County; local level - Iasi town). Spider graphs were used to create the temporal pattern or road accidents at three levels (daily, weekly and monthly) directly related to their causes. Moreover the spatial and temporal database relates the natural hazards (glazed frost, fog, and blizzard) with the human made ones, giving the opportunity to evaluate the nature of uncertainties in risk

  15. A multi-sensor analysis of the 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak, Kuril Islands: A case study for hazards to aviation (United States)

    Williams, D.; Thomas, H. E.; Watson, M. I.


    The eruption of Sarychev Peak Volcano (48°N,153°E), Kuril Islands, occurred between June 12 and 18 2009 emplacing large volumes of sulphur dioxide and volcanic ash into the atmosphere and severely disrupting air traffic in the region. The eruption was observed by several satellite-borne sensors, including the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This work uses these three sensors concurrently, as the use of several instruments provides more frequent datasets enabling improvements in accurately locating volcanic clouds and the subsequent validation of dispersion models. The North Pacific region sees a large amount of air traffic and the clouds from Sarychev Peak intersected many major air routes. Volcanic ash poses a threat to the operation of aircraft by abrading the engines which can result in failure, as well as “sand blasting” of the cockpit windows. It is also important to detect and map any sulphur dioxide clouds created, as this can also be hazardous for aircraft. Volcanic aerosol can cause corrosion on the aircraft exterior and sulphur based minerals may be deposited within the engines, blocking cooling holes over time. SO2 can also enter the aircraft cabin through the ventilation system, which can cause respiratory problems for the passengers and crew. In addition, SO2 is often associated with volcanic ash as the two species are frequently collocated. When ash retrievals are limited by high concentrations of water vapour and ice in the atmosphere, the presence of SO2 can be used to infer the location of a potential ash cloud, so that aircraft encounters may be avoided. A collection of images from the three sensors, ranging from June 10 to 24 were acquired to determine the mass and location of the SO2 cloud. This data, along with ash cloud data collected from the two MODIS sensors for dates between June 11 and 20, was then used to create a chronology of

  16. Oxomemazine hydro­chloride (United States)

    Siddegowda, M. S.; Butcher, Ray J.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Yathirajan, H. S.; Ramesh, A. R.


    In the title compound [systematic name: 3-(5,5-dioxo­phen­othia­zin-10-yl)-N,N,2-trimethyl­propanaminium chloride], C18H23N2O2S+·Cl−, the dihedral angle between the two outer aromatic rings of the phenothia­zine unit is 30.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:22090928

  17. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John


    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  18. Pace and sotalol – three case reports of the benefits and potential hazards associated with sotalol administration in sinus node dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan H. Roşianu


    Full Text Available The sinus node dysfunction is associated with conduction system disease and supraventriculartachyarrhythmias (atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The only effective treatment for patients withchronic symptomatic sinus node dysfunction is pacemaker therapy. In tachy-brady syndrome patients, inaddition to pacemaker therapy, the pharmacological treatment is necessary to avoid tachycardiaepisodes. Because of the frequent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation episodes a good choice to maintain thesinus rhythm is represented by sotalol. This article will present three patients that provide examples ofbeneficial effects of sotalol and also on the risk of severe adverse events in some cases.

  19. Fatal Cesium Chloride Toxicity After Alternative Cancer Treatment


    Sessions, Daniel; Heard, Kennon; Kosnett, Michael


    Background: Cesium chloride (CsCl) is sold as a treatment for several types of cancers. The purported mechanism of action is alkalinization of relatively acidic neoplastic cells. The efficacy of CsCl has not been demonstrated in controlled experiments. Oral and intravenous CsCl use has been associated with seizures, cardiotoxicity, syncope, and death. Although intratumoral treatment with various antineoplastic agents is described, no cases of intratumoral cancer treatment with CsCl have been ...

  20. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley


    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section, as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley


    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section, as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  2. Chloride Ion Critical Content in Reinforced Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chloride ion critical content was studied under soaking and cycle of dry and wet conditions,with three electrochemical nondestructive measuring techniques, i e, half-cell potential, A C impedance, and time potential. The experimental results show that chloride ion critical content is primarily determined by the water cement ratio, while for the same concrete mixture the chloride ion critical content in soaking conditions is larger than that in a cycle of dry and wet conditions.

  3. A New Perspective on Sustainable Soil Remediation-Case Study Suggests Novel Fungal Genera Could Facilitate in situ Biodegradation of Hazardous Contaminants. (United States)

    Czaplicki, L M; Cooper, E; Ferguson, P L; Stapleton, H M; Vilgalys, R; Gunsch, C K


    Deciding upon a cost effective and sustainable method to address soil pollution is a challenge for many remedial project managers. High pressure to quickly achieve cleanup goals pushes for energy-intensive remedies that rapidly address the contaminants of concern with established technologies, often leaving little room for research and development especially for slower treatment technologies, such as bioremediation, for the more heavily polluted sites. In the present case study, new genomic approaches have been leveraged to assess fungal biostimulation potential in soils polluted with particularly persistent hydrophobic contaminants. This new approach provides insights into the genetic functions available at a given site in a way never before possible. In particular, this article presents a case study where next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to categorize fungi in soils from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund site in Portsmouth, Virginia. Data suggest that original attempts to harness fungi for bioremediation may have focused on fungal genera poorly suited to survive under heavily polluted site conditions, and that more targeted approaches relying on native indigenous fungi which are better equipped to survive under site specific conditions may be more appropriate.

  4. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei


    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...... have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion...

  5. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.


    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  6. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG


    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  7. Solubilities ,Densities and Refractive Indices of Rubidium Chloride or Cesium Chloride in Ethanol Aqueous Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO,Wen-Xia; HU,Man-Cheng; JIANG,Yu-Cheng; LI,Shu-Ni


    The data of solubilities.densities and refractive indices of rubidium chloride or cesium chloride in the system C2H5OH-H2O were measured by using a simple accurate analytical method at different temperatures,with mass fractions of ethanol in the range of O to 1.0.In all cases,the presence of ethanol significantly reduced the solubility of rubidium chloride and cesium chloride in aqueous solution.The solubilities of the saturated solutions were fitted via polynomial equations as a function of the mass fraction of ethanol.The CsCl-C2H5OH-H2O temary system appeared in two liquid phases:alcoholic phase and water phase.when the mass fractions of ethanol were in the range of 10.37% to 49.59%at 35℃.Density and refractive index were also determined for the same ternary systems with varied unsaturated salt concentrations.Values for both experiment and theory were correlated with the salt concentrations and proportions of alcohol in the solutions.The equations proposed could also account for the saturated solutions.

  8. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    incinerated. Allowing household paint waste to be collected with ordinary household waste is expected to reduce the cost of handling household hazardous waste, since paint waste in Denmark comprises the major fraction of household hazardous waste.......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  9. An Overview of the Health Hazards Due to Toxic Exposure in the Indian Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ramaswamy


    Full Text Available Since independence, there has been a phenomenal growth in the chemical industry, the number of units rising from 98 in 1947 to 964 in 1953 and 4364 in 1976. With the national demands ever growing, this trend of growth in chemical industry will continue in future also. The chemical units handle numerous toxic chemicals such as asbestos, benzene, carbon disulphide, carcinogenic dye intermediates, lead, manganese, organophosphorus pesticides, phosgene, vinyl chloride etc.Being aware of the potential health hazards arising out of exposure to these toxic chemicals necessary safeguards against health hazards have been incorporated in the Factories Act 1948.With nearly 100,000 tonnes of asbestos, over 100,000 tonnes of benzene, and considerably large quantities of other toxic chemicals being handled in the country, understandably, the random studies and surveys by research agencies have revealed the incidence of definite        asbestosis (7 per cent, benzene intoxication in alkaloid extraction units ( 44.8 per cent, lead poisoning in storage battery units (10.6 per cent, carbon disulphide poisoning in viscose rayon units (20 per cent, mercury poisoning and intoxication in chloroalkali units (22.7 per cent, manganese poisoning in ferromanganese units (24 per cent, silicosis among slate pencil workers (54.7 per cent etc.Albeit such a condition, the cases documented in official reports are very few. Even the scattered studies by research institution in occupational health cannot be pooled to evolve a national picture, since, quite often there is no standardised approach in the studies undertaken by different institutions.After discussing the findings of studies on various toxic chemicals and substances, the paper enumerates the present deficiencies in the current studies and suggest steps for obtaining comprehensive information on health hazards.

  10. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department


    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  11. Lightning hazards to aircraft (United States)

    Corn, P. B.


    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  12. ETINDE. Improving the role of a methodological approach and ancillary ethnoarchaeological data application for place vulnerability and resilience to a multi-hazard environment: Mt. Cameroon volcano case study [MIA-VITA project -FP7-ENV-2007-1 (United States)

    Ilaria Pannaccione Apa, Maria; Kouokam, Emmanuel; Mbe Akoko, Robert; Peppoloni, Silvia; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Thierry, Pierre


    The FP7 MIA-VITA [Mitigate and assess risk from volcanic impact on terrain and human activities] project has been designed to address multidisciplinary aspects of volcanic threat assessment and management from prevention to crisis management recovery. In the socio-economic analysis carried out at Mt. Cameroon Bakweri and Bakossi ethnic groups, ancillary ethnoarchaeological information has been included to point out the cultural interaction between the volcano and its residents. In 2009-2011, ethnoanthropological surveys and interviews for data collection were carried out at Buea, Limbe, West Coast, Tiko and Muyuka sub-divisions adjacent to Mt. Cameroon. One of the outstanding, results from the Bakweri and Bakossi cultural tradition study: natural hazards are managed and produced by supernatural forces, as: Epasa Moto, God of the Mountain (Mt. Cameroon volcano) and Nyango Na Nwana , Goddess of the sea (Gulf of Guinea). In the case of Mount Cameroon, people may seek the spirit or gods of the mountain before farming, hunting and most recently the undertaking of the Mount Cameroon annual race are done. The spirit of this mountain must be seek to avert or stop a volcanic eruption because the eruption is attributed to the anger of the spirit. Among the Northern Bakweri, the association of spirits with the mountain could also be explained in terms of the importance of the mountain to the people. Most of their farming and hunting is done on the Mountain. Some forest products, for instance, wood for building and furniture is obtained from the forest of the mountain; this implies that the people rely on the Mountain for food, game and architecture/furniture etc. In addition, the eruption of the mountain is something which affects the people. It does not only destroy property, it frustrates people and takes away human lives when it occurs. Because of this economic importance of the Mountain and its unexpected and unwanted eruption, the tendency is to believe that it has some

  13. Granular parakeratosis induced by benzalkonium chloride exposure from laundry rinse aids. (United States)

    Robinson, Aaron J; Foster, Rachael S; Halbert, Anne R; King, Emma; Orchard, David


    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammonium cationic detergent present in a number of household products, which can act as a major skin irritant. We present the case of six children who developed granular parakeratosis after exposure to benzalkonium chloride in laundry rinse aids, presenting as a brightly erythematous, tender but minimally pruritic, intertriginous eruption followed by superficial desquamation. The eruptions resolved over 3-4 weeks after cessation of exposure.

  14. Comparing polyaluminum chloride and ferric chloride for antimony removal. (United States)

    Kang, Meea; Kamei, Tasuku; Magara, Yasumoto


    Antimony has been one of the contaminants required to be regulated, however, only limited information has been collected to date regarding antimony removal by polyaluminium chloride (PACl) and ferric chloride (FC). Accordingly, the possible use of coagulation by PACl or FC for antimony removal was investigated. Jar tests were used to determine the effects of solution pH, coagulant dosage, and pre-chlorination on the removal of various antimony species. Although high-efficiency antimony removal by aluminum coagulation has been expected because antimony is similar to arsenic in that both antimony and arsenic are a kind of metalloid in group V of the periodic chart, this study indicated: (1) removal density (arsenic or antimony removed per mg coagulant) for antimony by PACl was about one forty-fifth as low as observed for As(V); (2) although the removal of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) by coagulation with FC was much higher than that of PACl, a high coagulant dose of 10.5mg of FeL(-1) at optimal pH of 5.0 was still not sufficient to meet the standard antimony level of 2 microg as SbL(-1) for drinking water when around 6 microg as SbL(-1) were initially present. Consequently, investigation of a more appropriate treatment process is necessary to develop economical Sb reduction; (3) although previous studies concluded that As(V) is more effectively removed than As(III), this study showed that the removal of Sb(III) by coagulation with FC was much more pronounced than that of Sb(V); (4) oxidation of Sb(III) with chlorine decreased the ability of FC to remove antimony. Accordingly, natural water containing Sb(III) under anoxic condition should be coagulated without pre-oxidation.

  15. Electrochemical Behavior of Copper in Thionyl Chloride Solutions. (United States)


    lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Thionyl chloride is known *3 to react...electrolyte for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . 8R. K. McAlpine and B. A. Soule, Prescott and Johnson’s Qualitative Chemical Analysis, D. carbon electrodes, cupric chloride appears to be a useful cathode additive for lithium - thionyl chloride batteries . Preliminary results2l

  16. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. T. Molina


    Full Text Available The contribution of garbage burning (GB emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA is investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA-2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60 % of the observation, indicating it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3–30 % simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  17. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City (United States)

    Li, G.; Lei, W.; Bei, N.; Molina, L. T.


    The contribution of garbage burning (GB) emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3-30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  18. Contribution of garbage burning to chloride and PM2.5 in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bei


    Full Text Available The contribution of garbage burning (GB emissions to chloride and PM2.5 in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA has been investigated for the period of 24 to 29 March during the MILAGRO-2006 campaign using the WRF-CHEM model. When the MCMA 2006 official emission inventory without biomass burning is used in the simulations, the WRF-CHEM model significantly underestimates the observed particulate chloride in the urban and the suburban areas. The inclusion of GB emissions substantially improves the simulations of particulate chloride; GB contributes more than 60% of the observation, indicating that it is a major source of particulate chloride in Mexico City. GB yields up to 3 pbb HCl at the ground level in the city, which is mainly caused by the burning of polyvinyl chloride (PVC in the garbage. GB is also an important source of PM2.5, contributing about 3–30% simulated PM2.5 mass on average. More modeling work is needed to evaluate the GB contribution to hazardous air toxics, such as dioxin, which is found to be released at high level from PVC burning in laboratory experiments.

  19. Managing risks of noncancer health effects at hazardous waste sites: A case study using the Reference Concentration (RfC) of trichloroethylene (TCE). (United States)

    Dourson, Michael L; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Thompson, Rod B; Pfau, Edward J; Lowe, John


    A method for determining a safety range for non-cancer risks is proposed, similar in concept to the range used for cancer in the management of waste sites. This safety range brings transparency to the chemical specific Reference Dose or Concentration by replacing their "order of magnitude" definitions with a scientifically-based range. EPA's multiple RfCs for trichloroethylene (TCE) were evaluated as a case study. For TCE, a multi-endpoint safety range was judged to be 3 μg/m(3) to 30 μg/m,(3) based on a review of kidney effects found in NTP (1988), thymus effects found in Keil et al. (2009) and cardiac effects found in the Johnson et al. (2003) study. This multi-endpoint safety range is derived from studies for which the appropriate averaging time corresponds to different exposure durations, and, therefore, can be applied to both long- and short-term exposures with appropriate consideration of exposure averaging times. For shorter-term exposures, averaging time should be based on the time of cardiac development in humans during fetal growth, an average of approximately 20-25 days.

  20. Health Care Wide Hazards (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  1. Hazards of Mercury. (United States)

    Environmental Research, 1971


    Common concern for the protection and improvement of the environment and the enhancement of human health and welfare underscore the purpose of this special report on the hazards of mercury directed to the Secretary's Pesticide Advisory Committee, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The report summarizes the findings of a ten-member study…

  2. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique


    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  3. Cadmium - is it hazardous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zartner-Nyilas, G.; Valentin, H.; Schaller, K.H.; Schiele, R.


    The report summarizes the state of knowledge and experience on cadmium. Biological, toxicological and epidemiological data have been evaluated. Cd pollution of the environment is reviewed under the aspect of human health. Uptake in food, threshod values of Cd exposure of the population, types and extent of health hazards, possible carcinogenic effects and future fields of research are discussed.

  4. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu


    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  5. Current electrosurgical practice: hazards. (United States)

    Pearce, J


    The beneficial aspects of electrosurgical cutting and coagulating techniques are nearly too numerous to list. The major contribution and electrosurgery has been to drastically reduce both blood loss and operative time resulting in reduced morbidity and mortality. There are, as well, procedures which would not be possible without electrosurgery. Nonetheless, as a source of high energy in the operating theatre, there are hazards attendant to the use of electrosurgery. Moreover, since high frequency signals are involved, the nature of the machine-patient interactions creating a potentially hazardous situation many not be easily identifiable. The significant hazards of electrosurgery in use are: explosions of combustible mixtures including anaesthesia gas and bowel gas; interference with instruments and pacemakers; stimulation of excitable tissues which on occasion has apparently caused ventricular fibrillation; and accidental radio frequency burns. Though the rate of incidents is low--in terms of the number per 100 000 procedures--individual accidents tend to be fairly catastrophic and traumatic to both the patient and surgical team. Frequently, litigation results from these accidents. Though the hazards cannot be eliminated, the probability of an incident can be minimized by careful technique.

  6. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.


    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks relate

  7. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.


    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  9. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.


    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  10. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.


    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  11. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Hazardous Waste Share Facebook Twitter ... listed or characteristic hazardous waste. Finally, it is important to note that some facilities petitioned EPA to ...

  12. Hazardous Material Storage Facilities and Sites - Commercial Hazardous Waste Operations (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Commercial Hazardous Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Hazardous Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to...

  13. 丁苯酞氯化钠注射液治疗急性脑梗死32例临床观察%Clinical Observation of 32 Cases of Butylphthalide and Sodium Chloride Injection in Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的 探究急性脑梗死采用丁苯酞氯化钠注射液治疗的临床疗效.方法 选取我院64例急性脑梗死患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,各组均32例,对照组采用常规治疗,观察组采用丁苯酞氯化钠注射液联合常规治疗.结果 观察组患者治疗总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05),且患者NIHSS(神经功能缺损)评分低于对照组(P<0.05),BI(日常生活能力)评分高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 急性脑梗死采用丁苯酞氯化钠注射液治疗,治疗效果良好.%Objective The clinical curative effect of acute cerebral infarction treated by butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection was analyzed.Methods Selected 64 cases of acute cerebral infarction in our hospital,according to the random number method,they were divided into the control group and the observation group, 32 cases each. The control group was treated with conventional therapy,the observation group using butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection combined with conventional treatment.Results The total effective rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P<0.05),and patients with NIHSS(neurological function defect) score was lower than the control group(P<0.05),BI(daily living ability)was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Acute cerebral infarction by butylphthalide and sodium chloride injection treatment,the treatment effect is good.

  14. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  15. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  16. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer


    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  17. The Additive Hazard Mixing Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Xiao-liang LING


    This paper is concerned with the aging and dependence properties in the additive hazard mixing models including some stochastic comparisons.Further,some useful bounds of reliability functions in additive hazard mixing models are obtained.

  18. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  19. Clinical Observation of Benzalkonium Chloride and Povidone-Iodine in Treatment of 56 Cases with Large Area of Skin Defect and Infection in Limbs%苯扎氯铵与碘伏治疗肢体大面积皮肤缺损并感染56例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鲁; 刘恒平; 王明喜


    Objective To observe the effect of benzalkonium chloride and povidone-iodine in the treatment of patients with large area of skin defect and infection in limbs. Methods Total 56 cases with large area of skin defects and infection in limbs in our hospital from September 2008 to November 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. After the debridement surgery and skin flap or skin graft surgery, benzalkonium chloride and povidone-iodine irrigation treatment were performed, the efficacy of two disinfectants and local adverse reactions were observed. Results The total effective rate was 96. 43% in the benzalkonium chloride group and 85. 71% in the povidone-iodine group. The growth of granulation,elongation of skin,effect of internal fixation materials on wound and the incidence of complication in the benzalkonium chloride group were better as compared to the povidone-iodine group. There was statistically significance,P <0. 05. Conclusion The benzalkonium chloride can accelerate wound healing, it has a strong bactericidal control on the local infection, and has non-irritating to the skin. It is the first choice for the treatment of antibacterial drugs for clinical disinfection.%目的 观察苯扎氯铵与碘伏治疗肢体大面积皮肤缺损并感染的效果.方法 将我院收治的56例肢体大面积皮肤缺损并感染患者随机分为两组,在清创手术及皮瓣转移术或皮肤移植术后分别采用苯扎氯铵与碘伏冲洗治疗,观察两种消毒剂的疗效、并发症、肉芽生长速度、皮肤爬行速度及内固定材料对创面的影响.结果 苯扎氯铵组总有效率96.43%,碘伏组总有效率为85.71%,苯扎氯铵组的肉芽生长速度、皮肤爬行速度、内固定材料对创面的影响、并发症发生率方面均明显优于碘伏组,上述指标组间差异均具有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).结论 苯扎氯铵能加速创面的愈合,有较强的杀菌、控制局部感染作用,且对皮肤无刺激性,临床

  20. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W


    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  1. Hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembra, R.L


    This report has found that while most states have accomplished few or no cleanups of sites contaminated by hazardous waste, some have enacted tough cleanup laws, committed relatively large resources to the cleanup effort, and achieved considerable results. At the 17 cleanup sites analyzed, state cleanup plans were generally stringent. However, no federal standards have been set for over half of the contaminants found at these sites. For 11 sites, the states set cleanup levels without doing formal risk assessments. Also, most states reviewed did not consider the full range of alternatives EPA requires. Most states have not shown that they can effectively clean up large, hazardous waste sites. This report recommends that EPA turn sites targeted for cleanup over to the states only if there are adequate controls and oversight.

  2. 77 FR 17573 - Hazard Communication (United States)


    ..., 1915 and 1926 Hazard Communication; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 58 / Monday... Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910, 1915, and 1926 RIN 1218-AC20 Hazard Communication AGENCY: Occupational Safety... modifying its Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to conform to the United Nations' Globally...

  3. Hazard Maps in the Classroom. (United States)

    Cross, John A.


    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  4. Safety considerations of lithium-thionyl chloride cells (United States)

    Subbarao, Surampudi; Halpert, Gerald; Stein, Irving


    The use of spirally wound lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl2) cells is currently limited because of their hazardous behavior. Safety hazards have ranged from mild venting of toxic materials to violent explosions and fires. These incidents may be related to both user- and manufacturer-induced causes. Many explanations have been offered to explain the unsafe behavior of the cells under operating and abuse conditions. Explanations fall into two categories: (1) thermal mechanisms, and (2) chemical mechanisms. However, it is quite difficult to separate the two. Both may be responsible for cell venting or explosion. Some safety problems encountered with these cells also may be due to design deficiencies and ineffective quality control during cell fabrication. A well-coordinated basic and applied research program is needed to develop safe Li-SOCl2 cells. Recommendations include: (1) learnig more about Li-SOL2 cell chemistry; (2) modeling cell and battery behavior; (3) optimizing cell design for safety and performance, (4) implementing quality control procedures; and (5) educating users.

  5. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang


    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  6. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, L.N.


    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities.

  7. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-214-1633, Sheldahl, Inc. , Northfield, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almaguer, D.; Seligman, P.


    In response to a request from Amalgamated Clothing and Textiles Workers Union, an evaluation was made of possible hazards at Sheldahl, Inc., Northfield, Minnesota. The facility produced flexible printed circuitry. At the facility, adhesives were mixed including solid resins such as polyester, epoxy or nylon; solvents such as methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and smaller quantities of 1,1,2-trichloroethane, methanol, and others; and additives such as powders, dyes, and isocyanate curing agents. Samples collected in lamination departments indicated workers were potentially exposed to methylene chloride at levels ranging from 26 to 132 parts per million (ppm). Methylene chloride concentrations for short-term exposures were calculated to range up to 1752 ppm. A potential health hazard from exposure to methylene chloride exists. A less toxic material should be substituted for methylene chloride. Exhaust ventilation systems and personal protective equipment should be upgraded. Solvent-soaked rags should be placed in sealable containers. Employee education should be undertaken, and medical monitoring should be conducted on a regular basis.

  8. Assessment of Correlation between Sweat Chloride Levels and Clinical Features of Cystic Fibrosis Patients (United States)

    Raina, Manzoor A.; Khan, Mosin S.; Malik, Showkat A.; Raina, AB Hameed; Makhdoomi, Mudassir J.; Bhat, Javed I.


    Introduction Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder and the incidence of this disease is undermined in Northern India. The distinguishable salty character of the sweat belonging to individuals suffering from CF makes sweat chloride estimation essential for diagnosis of CF disease. Aim The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the relationship of sweat chloride levels with clinical features and pattern of CF. Materials and Methods A total of 182 patients, with clinical features of CF were included in this study for quantitative measurement of sweat chloride. Sweat stimulation and collection involved pilocarpine iontophoresis based on the Gibson and Cooks methodology. The quantitative estimation of chloride was done by Schales and Schales method with some modifications. Cystic Fibrosis Trans Membrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutation status was recorded in case of patients with borderline sweat chloride levels to correlate the results and for follow-up. Results Out of 182 patients having clinical features consistent with CF, borderline and elevated sweat chloride levels were present in 9 (5%) and 41 (22.5%) subjects respectively. Elevated sweat chloride levels were significantly associated with wheeze, Failure To Thrive (FTT), history of CF in Siblings, product of Consanguineous Marriage (CM), digital clubbing and steatorrhoea on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis only wheeze, FTT and steatorrhoea were found to be significantly associated with elevated sweat chloride levels (pCFTR mutations and rest of the three cases were not having any mutation in CFTR gene. Conclusion The diagnosis is often delayed and the disease is advanced in most patients at the time of diagnosis. Sweat testing is a gold standard for diagnosis of CF patients as genetic mutation profile being heterozygous and unlikely to become diagnostic test. PMID:28208841

  9. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure


    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard


    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 kPa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly infl...

  10. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.


    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  11. Volcanic hazards to airports (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.


    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  12. The use of representative cases in hazard analysis of the tank waste remediation system at Hanford. The information in this document is a combination of HNF-SA-3168-A {ampersand} HNF-SA-3169-A - The control identification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, B.J.


    During calendar year 1996, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford, Inc. conducted a safety analysis in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94 as part of the development of a Final Safety Analysis Report (TSAR) for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at the DOE Hanford site. The scope of the safety analysis of TWRS primarily addressed 177 large underground liquid waste storage tanks and associated equipment for transferring waste to and from tanks. The waste in the tanks was generated by the nuclear production and processing facilities at Hanford. The challenge facing the safety analysis team was to efficiently analyze the system within the time and budget allotted to provide the necessary and sufficient information for accident selection, control identification, and justification on the acceptability of the level of safety of TWRS. It was clear from the start that a hazard and accident analysis for each of the 177 similar tanks and supporting equipment was not practical nor necessary. For example, many of the tanks were similar enough that the results of the analysis of one tank would apply to many tanks. This required the development and use of a tool called the ''Hazard Topography''. The use of the Hazard Topography assured that all tank operations and configurations were adequately assessed in the hazard analysis and that the results (e.g., hazard identification and control decisions) were appropriately applied to all tanks and associated systems. The TWRS Hazard Topography was a data base of all the TWRS facilities (e.g., tanks, diversion boxes, transfer lines, and related facilities) along with data on their configuration, material at risk (MAR), hazards, and known safety related phenomenological issues. Facilities were then classified into groups based on similar combinations of configuration, MAR, hazards and phenomena. A hazard evaluation was performed for a tank or facility in each group. The results of these evaluations, also contained in

  13. Treatment of Uncertainties in Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard (United States)

    Thio, H. K.


    . Furthermore, by considering fractile results in addition to average and/or median hazard, we can extend its usefulness to areas where worst-case scenarios are usually preferred, such as evacuation planning.

  14. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries (United States)

    Frank, H. A.


    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  15. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata


    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  16. Qualitative Determination of Nitrate with Triphenylbenzylphosphonium Chloride. (United States)

    Berry, Donna A.; Cole, Jerry J.


    Discusses two procedures for the identification of nitrate, the standard test ("Brown Ring" test) and a new procedure using triphenylbenzylphosphonium chloride (TPBPC). Effectiveness of both procedures is compared, with the TPBPC test proving to be more sensitive and accurate. (JM)

  17. Corneal Neurotoxicity Due to Topical Benzalkonium Chloride


    Sarkar, Joy; Chaudhary, Shweta; Namavari, Abed; Ozturk, Okan; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Hallak, Joelle; Jain, Sandeep


    Topical application of benzalkonium chloride (BAK) to the eye causes dose-related corneal neurotoxicity. Corneal inflammation and reduction in aqueous tear production accompany neurotoxicity. Cessation of BAK treatment leads to recovery of corneal nerve density.

  18. Chloride Ingress into Concrete under Water Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou; Sander, Lotte Braad; Grelk, Bent;


    The chloride ingress into concrete under water pressures of 100 kPa and 800 kPa have been investigated by experiments. The specimens were exposed to a 10% NaCl solution and water mixture. For the concrete having w/c = 0.35 the experimental results show the chloride diffusion coefficient at 800 k......Pa (~8 atm.) is 12 times greater than at 100 kPa (~1 atm.). For w/c = 0.45 and w/c = 0.55 the chloride diffusion coefficients are 7 and 3 times greater. This means that a change in pressure highly influences the chloride ingress into the concrete and thereby the life length models for concrete structures....

  19. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  20. Clear plastic cups: a childhood choking hazard. (United States)

    Weiss, R L; Goldstein, M N; Dharia, A; Zahtz, G; Abramson, A L; Patel, M


    The disposable plastic beverage cup is not usually regarded as hazardous to young children. Certain varieties of these products however, are manufactured from a brittle, clear plastic that easily cracks and fragments. While most conscientious parents keep their children safe from peanuts, balloons, and other known choking hazards, a child can surreptitiously bite a cup edge and aspirate the fragment. We report two cases of foreign body aspiration involving clear plastic cups that went undetected one of which remained 21 months following a negative rigid bronchoscopy. Diagnostic difficulties are related to the transparency and radiolucency of these objects. When suspicious of foreign body aspiration in children, otolaryngologists should inquire about the availability of clear plastic cups in the household and be mindful of the diagnostic pitfalls. Further investigations including CT scanning and repeat bronchoscopy may be helpful in cases of suspected missed foreign bodies. An educational campaign aimed at prevention and placement of product package warning labels should be established.

  1. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian


    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  2. [On the problem of the study of the chemical air pollution with chlororganic hydrocarbons at productions of polyvinyl chloride and epichlorohydrin]. (United States)

    Taranenko, N A; Meshakova, N M; Zhurba, O M; Telezhkin, V V


    Hygienic assessment of working conditions at the chemical productions of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and epichlorohydrin (EPCH) in East Siberia has shown that the employees are exposed to the chlororganic hydrocarbons of hazard category 1-2, out of them there were found to be more toxical pollutants such as vinyl chloride, 1.2-dicloroethane in the production of polyvinyl chloride; allyl chloride and epichlorohydrin in the production of epichlorohydrin. Multistageness of the technological processes, the absence of the isolation of main stages of the technological processes as well as the heating microclimate contribute to the chemical pollution of the air environment. In spite of the significant improvement of the hygienic situation at the productions mentioned in the recent 10 years according to the chemical factor due to the introduction of the complex of curative measures, the working conditions of the employees still belonged to the harmful category. According to the content of the harmful chemical substances in the air of the working zone and the parameters of microclimate, the working conditions of the employees working at the production of epichlorohydrin and in the shop of vinyl chloride production must be qualified as the harmful ones of the first category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.1), in the production shop for PVC- as the harmful ones which correspond to the second category of the hazard and danger (Class 3.2).

  3. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes


    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert


    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear ...

  4. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai


    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  5. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  6. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng


    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  7. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching (United States)

    Malamud, B. D.


    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  8. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  9. Alumina/silica aerogel with zinc chloride as an alkylation catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The alumina/silica with zinc chloride aerogel alkylation catalyst was obtained using a one step sol-gel synthesis, and subsequent drying with supercritical carbon dioxide. The aerogel catalyst activity was found to be higher compared to the corresponding xerogel catalyst, as a result of the higher aerogel surface area, total pore volume and favourable pore size distribution. Mixed Al–O–Si bonds were present in both gel catalyst types. Activation by thermal treatment in air was needed prior to catalytic alkylation, due to the presence of residual organic groups on the aerogel surface. The optimal activation temperature was found to be in the range 185–225°C, while higher temperatures resulted in the removal of zinc chloride from the surface of the aerogel catalyst with a consequential decrease in the catalytic activity. On varying the zinc chloride content, the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst exhibited a maximum. High zinc chloride contents decreased the catalytic activity of the aerogel catalyst as the result of the pores of the catalyst being plugged with this compound, and the separation of the alumina/silica support into Al-rich and Si-rich phases. The surface area, total pore volume, pore size distribution and zinc chloride content had a similar influence on the activity of the aerogel catalyst as was the case of xerogel catalyst and supported zinc chloride catalysts.

  10. Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks (United States)

    Harajli, Ali A.

    Modeling of Multi-Layered Protection Systems for Chloride Penetration in Concrete Bridge Decks. This paper covers the development of a new methodology for predicting the chloride concentration and corrosion initiation times for a multi-layer protection overlay system. The first topic will be presenting an innovative method to predict the chloride concentrations using different diffusion coefficients for each protective layer. The new method covers the cases where the applied surface chloride concentrations are either a constant or linear functions with time. The second topic will implement the results from field data about the chloride variations due to the presence of applied topical layers for comparison with the theoretical models. This section will also apply damage factors that are time-dependent to simulate external factors such as traffic loading or vibrations. The third topic will investigate the sensitivity of the single and multi-layer systems due to diffusivity parameter changes. The fourth topic will analyze the random variation of the diffusivity values to predict the mean and standard deviation of chloride concentrations. The diffusivity values are selected from published values by NIST and are based on certain water cement (w/c) ratios.

  11. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezger Elke


    Full Text Available Abstract We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC. With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC.

  12. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (United States)


    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC. PMID:23078861

  13. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan


    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  14. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess


    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...... with atmospheric nitrogen to produce lithium nitride. Nodules of lithium nitride were found to be present on the lithium foil in other cells of the accident batch. The investigation attributed the explosion to the formation of porous lithium nitride during intermediate storage and a violent exothermal...... decomposition with the SOCl2–LiAlCl4 electrolyte triggered by welding. The literature is silent on hazards of explosion of Li–SOCl2 cells associated with the presence of lithium nitride. The silence is intriguing. Possible causes may be that such explosions are very rare, that explosions go unpublished...

  15. A comprehensive probabilistic model of chloride ingress in unsaturated concrete


    Bastidas-Arteaga, Emilio; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio; Bressolette, Philippe; Schoefs, Franck


    International audience; Corrosion induced by chloride ions has become a critical issue for many reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ingress into concrete has been usually simplified as a diffusion problem where the chloride concentration throughout concrete is estimated analytically. However, this simplified approach has several limitations. For instance, it does not consider chloride ingress by convection which is essential to model chloride penetration in unsaturated conditions as ...

  16. Periurbanisation and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Loison


    Full Text Available In mountainous areas in recent decades urbanisation has expanded to areas where low ground adjoins mountainsides that are unstable in a number of respects. Periurbanisation in mountain basins with unstable sides poses specific problems that local players have to address. The Lavanchon basin (southeast of Grenoble, which is subject to very rapid urban growth combined with particularly dynamic mountainsides, is representative of the way activity is being brought into closer contact with potential hazards. A diachronic study of changes in land use between 1956 and 2001 shows how valley infrastructures at the bottom of mountainsides have become increasingly dense. In this context, a survey was carried out among a number of residents in the Lavanchon basin in an attempt to evaluate the degree of awareness that the population has of the natural hazards to which it is exposed. The results show that slightly more than half of the population surveyed was aware of the problem of natural hazards being present in the area, with most inhabitants being more concerned about industrial and pollution hazards. New residents were unaware of or were unwilling to accept the reality of hazards. The low incidence of significant natural events, the effectiveness of the protective structures built, the absence of information provided by the public authorities and the division of the basin between several management bodies appear to have engendered a feeling of safety from natural phenomena. The geographical distribution of appreciation of the hazard clearly shows a distinction between those inhabitants living on the low ground and those at the bottom of the mountainsides, and this corresponds fairly closely with the historical and current location of the main potentially hazardous events that have occurred.Dans les territoires de montagne, les dernières décennies ont vu l’expansion de l’urbanisation vers les zones de contact entre la plaine et les versants, lieux

  17. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.


    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  18. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)


    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  19. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolak, M; Engel, G; Man, D [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)


    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl{sub 4}) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl{sub 4}, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl{sub 4}, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl{sub 4} and palmitic acid with CCl{sub 4}. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  20. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes (United States)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D.


    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C3H7)3SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl4) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl4, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl4, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl4 and palmitic acid with CCl4. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  1. Sports: The Infectious Hazards. (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K


    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  2. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui


    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  3. Identification of Potential Hazard using Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Rizkya, I.; Siregar, I.


    This research was conducted in the paper production’s company. These Paper products will be used as a cigarette paper. Along in the production’s process, Company provides the machines and equipment that operated by workers. During the operations, all workers may potentially injured. It known as a potential hazard. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of a safety and health program in the stage of risk management. This is very important as part of efforts to prevent occupational injuries and diseases resulting from work. This research is experiencing a problem that is not the identification of potential hazards and risks that would be faced by workers during the running production process. The purpose of this study was to identify the potential hazards by using hazard identification and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using severity criteria and the probability of an accident. According to the research there are 23 potential hazard that occurs with varying severity and probability. Then made the determination Risk Assessment Code (RAC) for each potential hazard, and gained 3 extreme risks, 10 high risks, 6 medium risks and 3 low risks. We have successfully identified potential hazard using RAC.

  4. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions. (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert


    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  5. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters. (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul


    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  6. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  7. [Risk assessment of health disorders and quality of life in employees of modern polyvinyl chloride production]. (United States)

    Meshchakova, N M; D'iakovich, M P; Shaiakhmetov, S F; D'iakovich, O A; Telezhkin, V V


    The authors analyse changes in exposure load and associated occupational risk, health state of workers engaged into contemporary polyvinyl chloride production. Consideration covered objective parameters--results of thorough medical examinations -and subjective ones--results of quantitative risk evaluation of general pathologic syndromes and life quality caused by health state. The latter were compared with general working population unexposed to the hazards. Findings are statistically significant increase of functional disorders risk connected with cardiovascular and nervous diseases. Correlation was found between cardiovascular diseases prevalence and exposure chemical load. Statistically significant differences were seen in all life quality components between the workers groups compared.

  8. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.


    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kiš


    Full Text Available Today we all are eyewitnesses of increasing pollution, which disappears in the atmosphere, soil, and underground water. The pollution is a result of men's actions and their reckless attitute toward the nature. Natural resources should be preserved at the level which can provide substantial quality to men, animals, and plants. Any hazardous intervention upon the biological diversity should be avoided and both the genetic balance and the harmony of biological systems, live ogranisms, and dead matter should be preserved. Motor oil is a specific substance needed to facilitate the adequate operation of a machine (e.g. a tractor, but after some time it becomes hazardous, i.e. a hazardous waste. The deposit of the motor oil has to be done in the proper way since it is a potential source of contamination. Used motor oil is a potential environmental bomb in cases of its improper and illegal deposit, especially in the cases when it is carelessly left around the facilities of factories, companies and privately owned farms. A research was conducted on family farms in Osijek-Baranya County and Vukovar-Srijem County in order to determine the way of treatment of used motor oil generated from the engine, transmission, and the accompanying packaging materials.

  10. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers... (United States)


    ... established by this final rule may not be challenged separately in any civil or criminal proceedings brought... maintain the emissions control systems. Consistent with the legislative history, we can consider costs and... are allowing the emissions profile to be based on engineering assessment or measurement. Because...

  11. 76 FR 29527 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers... (United States)


    ... components (e.g., cooling towers, heat exchangers, pumps, and other equipment associated with the heat..., Louisiana. Persons interested in presenting oral testimony at either public hearing should contact Ms... agency name and docket number or Regulatory Information Number (RIN) for this rulemaking. Direct...

  12. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides. (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas


    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  13. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R


    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  14. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  15. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch


    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically redu...

  16. Global Polynomial Kernel Hazard Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiabu, Munir; Miranda, Maria Dolores Martínez; Nielsen, Jens Perch;


    This paper introduces a new bias reducing method for kernel hazard estimation. The method is called global polynomial adjustment (GPA). It is a global correction which is applicable to any kernel hazard estimator. The estimator works well from a theoretical point of view as it asymptotically...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubák Matúš


    Full Text Available Moral hazard can be found almost in all fields of human activities. Moral hazard is a change of economic agent´s behaviour when circumstances change. Theoretical background of moral hazard issue in economics dates back to 1970s. Recognition of moral hazard started by published studies of Pauly (Pauly 1968, Zeckhauser (Zeckhauser 1970, Arrow (Arrow 1971 and Mirrlees (Mirrlees 1999. Current situation of the global economy (fall 2011 was caused largely by moral hazard executed by authorities such as governments, institutions, ranking agencies, banks, chief executive officers, politicians etc. Efforts to stabilise Eurozone, governments bail-outs to banks, governments purchases of toxic assets, rescue packages given to the bank sector and big companies, which are “too big to fail”, rescue packages given to debtor nations, golden parachutes given to employees which are leaving companies are nothing but the manifestations of moral hazard in economic and politic reality. This paper uses an economic experiment with 96 subjects to examine the tendencies of economic agents towards moral hazard. Design of the experiment allowed simulating third party’s intervention on a market (e.g. state funding accelerating purchase, health care insurance function on the market with health care. Obtained data are statistically evaluated and it is shown, that economic agents incline to moral hazard in case, when it is possible. Study shows how rational agents became less rational in terms of average market price, after intervention of a third party on the market. Third party intervention raises the average market prices presenting a manifestation of moral hazard. It is shown, that under given assumptions, even rational economic agents diverge from rational and market efficient strategies and behave irresponsibly. Despite generally negative attitude towards moral hazard, it is shown that economic agents have tendencies to behave in such a manner

  18. Hazard classification or risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla


    The EU classification of substances for e.g. reproductive toxicants is hazard based and does not to address the risk suchsubstances may pose through normal, or extreme, use. Such hazard classification complies with the consumer's right to know. It is also an incentive to careful use and storage...... and to substitute with less toxic compounds. Actually, if exposure is constant across product class, producersmay make substitution decisions based on hazard. Hazard classification is also useful during major accidents where there is no time for risk assessment and the exposure is likely to be substantial enough...... be a poor substitute for a proper risk assessment as low potency substances can constitute a risk if the exposure is high enough and vice versa. Examples illustrating the strength and limitations of hazard classification, risk assessment and toxicological potency will be presented with focus on reproductive...

  19. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany


    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel


    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under the study in concentrations of 0.4, 0.8, 1, 1.2 percent have reliable antibacterial properties, and bacterial resistance to benzalkonium chloride has not occurred yet.

  1. Cesium chloride-induced torsades de pointes. (United States)

    Wiens, Matthew; Gordon, Wendy; Baulcomb, Daisy; Mattman, Andre; Mock, Tom; Brown, Robert


    The chloride salt of cesium, a group 1A element, is gaining popularity as an alternative treatment of advanced cancers. Cesium chloride has primarily been used in cardiovascular research for arrhythmogenesis in animals because of its potassium-blocking effects. The present report describes a 45-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer who experienced repeated episodes of torsades de pointes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia after several months of oral cesium therapy. There was a clear temporal relationship between cesium ingestion and the arrhythmia, which later resolved following discontinuation of cesium therapy. Serial cesium plasma and whole blood levels were measured over the ensuing six months and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.

  2. Hamburger hazards and emotions. (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Røssvoll, Elin; Langsrud, Solveig; Scholderer, Joachim


    Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior. With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. A representative sample of 1046 Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger, whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness (rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done), and were asked to state their likelihood of eating. We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers, that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked. These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies.

  3. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Araki, Yasusuke; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Hiraji, Chihiro; Nagai, Shoya [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    The document of radiation hazard control from April 2001 to March 2002 in the research institute of atomic energy of Kinki University was reported and actual data were presented. 106 personnel were subjected to the control, the reactor maximal output was 1W with total output of 399,64 W center dot h for total 718.23 h and the institute underwent the inspection by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for twice, which resulting in getting satisfactory evaluation. The control involved was for the personnel, laboratories and field. The first was done mainly with film badges and sometimes with pocket dosimeters, and revealed the exposure of 0.480 mSv at maximum. The laboratory dose equivalent was continuously measured with the ionization chamber area monitor and sometimes with the ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters and scintillation survey meters. The film badge and TLD were also used. In addition, concentrations of radioactivity were measured in the exhaust gas and water with the dust-monitor and overall-monitor, respectively, and surface densities by smear-method with 2 pi-gas flow and liquid scintillation counters. The field control was carried out by calculation of environmental gamma-ray dose equivalent rate based on monthly TLD dose data and by actual beta-ray measurement of environmental specimens collected at every 3 months. (J.P.N.)

  4. Radiation hazard control report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Morishima, Hiroshige; Araki, Yasusuke; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Matsubayashi, Hideki; Hiraji, Chihiro [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan)


    The document of radiation hazard control from April 2000 to March 2001 in the research institute of atomic energy of Kinki University was reported and actual data were presented. Seventy five personnel were subjected to the control, the reactor maximal output was 1W with total output of 463.74 W center dot h for total 777.34 h and the institute underwent the inspection by Science and Technology Agency for 3 times, which resulting in getting satisfactory evaluation. The control involved was for the personnel, laboratories and field. The first was done mainly with film badges and sometimes with pocket dosimeters, and revealed the exposure of 0.264 mSv at maximum. The laboratory dose equivalent was continuously measured with the ionization chamber area monitor and sometimes with the ionization chamber survey meters, GM tube survey meters and scintillation survey meters. The film badge and TLD were also used. In addition, concentrations of radioactivity were measured in the exhaust gas and water with the dust-monitor and overall-monitor, respectively, and surface densities by smear-method with the 2 pi-gas flow and liquid scintillation counters. The field control was carried out by calculation of environmental gamma-ray dose equivalent rate based on monthly TLD dose data and by actual beta-ray measurement of environmental specimens collected at every 3 months. (J.P.N.)

  5. Pricing hazardous substance emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staring, Knut; Vennemo, Haakon


    This report discusses pricing of emissions to air of several harmful substances. It combines ranking indices for environmentally harmful substances with economic valuation data to yield price estimates. The ranking methods are discussed and a relative index established. Given the relative ranking of the substances, they all become valued by assigning a value to one of them, the `anchor` substance, for which lead is selected. Valuations are provided for 19 hazardous substances that are often subject to environmental regulations. They include dioxins, TBT, etc. The study concludes with a discussion of other categories of substances as well as uncertainties and possible refinements. When the valuations are related to CO, NOx, SOx and PM 10, the index system undervalues these pollutants as compared to other studies. The scope is limited to the outdoor environment and does not include global warming and eutrophication. The indices are based on toxicity and so do not apply to CO{sub 2} or other substances that are biologically harmless. The index values are not necessarily valid for all countries and should be considered as preliminary. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  6. Copper(I) mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived organozinc reagents with acid chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Tanner, David Ackland


    This paper describes the development of a straightforward experimental protocol for copper-mediated cross-coupling of amino acid derived beta-amido-alkylzinc iodides 1 and 3 with a range of acid chlorides. The present method uses CuCN center dot 2LiCl as the copper source and for organozinc reagent...... 1 the methodology appears to be limited to reaction with more stable acid chlorides, providing the desired products in moderate yields. When applied to organozinc reagent 3, however, the protocol is more general and provides the products in good yields in all but one of the cases tested....

  7. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igrutinović Zoran


    Full Text Available Introduction. Pseudo-Bartter syndrome encompasses a heterogenous group of disorders similar to Bartter syndrome. We are presenting an infant with pseudo-Bartter syndrome caused by congenital chloride diarrhoea. Case Outline. A male newborn born in the 37th gestational week (GW to young healthy and non-consanguineous parents. In the 35th GW a polyhydramnios with bowel dilatation was verified by ultrasonography. After birth he manifested several episodes of hyponatremic dehydration with hypochloraemia, hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis, so as Bartter syndrome was suspected treatment with indomethacin, spironolactone and additional intake of NaCl was initiated. However, this therapy gave no results, so that at age six months he was rehospitalized under the features of persistent watery diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and acute renal failure (serum creatinine 123 μmol/L. The laboratory results showed hyponatraemia (123 mmol/L, hypokalaemia (3.1 mmol/L, severe hypochloraemia (43 mmol/L, alcalosis (blood pH 7.64, bicarbonate 50.6 mmol/L, high plasma renin (20.6 ng/ml and aldosterone (232.9 ng/ml, but a low urinary chloride concentration (2.1 mmol/L. Based on these findings, as well as the stool chloride concentration of 110 mmol/L, the patient was diagnosed congenital chloride diarrhoea. In further course, the patient was treated by intensive fluid, sodium and potassium supplementation which resulted in the normalization of serum electrolytes, renal function, as well as his mental and physical development during 10 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Persistent watery diarrhoea with a high concentration of chloride in stool is the key finding in the differentiation of congenital chloride diarrhoea from Bartter syndrome. The treatment of congenital chloride diarrhoea consists primarily of adequate water and electrolytes replacement.

  8. Comparison of different methods for determination of sodium chloride in cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.


    Full Text Available The content of NaCl (weight fraction of Cl-ions, in % was analysed in different cheeses, which were bought in supermarkets, and made by domestic manufacturers. Sodium chloride in cheese samples was analysed after the extraction of chloride by nitric acid solution. Concentration of chloride ions was potentiometricly determined, with the chloride selective electrode and titrimetricly by Volhard method. According to the results in the analysis of the content of NaCl in %, by different methods it was determined that the share of NaCl in % ranged from 0.66 to 4.43% (determined by potentiometric route that is from 0.97 to 4.72% (determined by titrimetric route by Volhard method. The difference in received results in different methods is less if the share of NaCl, in % is higher than 3%. If the share is less than 3%, the difference in results rapidly increases, and the biggest difference is when the share is less than 1%. This analysis was done according to the results received by Volhard method, which is accepted as a standard method. As Volhard method is in connection with cheese resolving by intense oxidation means, azotic acid and potassium permanganate, obligatory in fume board (hood, it is not a practical method. On the other hand, the potentiometric method with usage of the chloride-selective electrode is very simple and gives reliable and reproductive results. In case of a small content of NaCl, in %, higher precision and accuracy of determination by chloride-selective electrode can be obtained by indirect measurement of chloride-ions (by standard addition method.

  9. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment (United States)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon


    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  10. Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Frozen Chloride Salts on Icy Bodies (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Thomas, Elena C.; Hodyss, Robert; Vu, Tuan; Choukroun, Mathieu


    Currently, our understanding of the chemical composition of Europa's surface is our best means of inferring constraints on the subsurface ocean composition and its subsequent habitability. The bulk of our knowledge of Europa surface chemistry can be traced to near infrared spectra recorded by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo spacecraft. However, the usefulness of this and other remote sensing data is limited by the availability of spectral libraries of candidate materials under relevant conditions (temperature, thermal/radiation history, etc.). Chloride salts are expected to exist on the surface of Europa, and other icy bodies, based on geochemical predictions of the ocean composition. In order to help improve our understanding of Europa's surface composition, we have conducted a study of frozen chloride-salt brines prepared under simulated Europa surface conditions (vacuum, temperature, and UV irradiation) using both near IR and Raman spectroscopies. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the hydration states of various chloride salts as a function of temperature. Near IR spectroscopy of identically prepared samples was used to provide reference reflectance spectra of the identified hydrated salts. Our results indicate that at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 233 K, hydrohalite is formed from the freezing of NaCl brines, while the freezing of KCl solutions does not form KCl hydrates. In addition, the freezing of MgCl2 solutions forms a stable hexahydrate, and the freezing of CaCl2 solutions forms a hexahydrate, a tetrahydrate, and a dihydrate. Dehydration of the salts was observed as temperatures were increased, leading to a succession of hydration states in the case of CaCl2.

  11. Debris flow hazards mitigation--Mechanics, prediction, and assessment (United States)

    Chen, C.-L.; Major, J.J.


    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Fourth International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment held in Chengdu, China, September 10-13, 2007. The papers cover a wide range of topics on debris-flow science and engineering, including the factors triggering debris flows, geomorphic effects, mechanics of debris flows (e.g., rheology, fluvial mechanisms, erosion and deposition processes), numerical modeling, various debris-flow experiments, landslide-induced debris flows, assessment of debris-flow hazards and risk, field observations and measurements, monitoring and alert systems, structural and non-structural countermeasures against debris-flow hazards and case studies. The papers reflect the latest devel-opments and advances in debris-flow research. Several studies discuss the development and appli-cation of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technologies in debris-flow hazard/risk assessment. Timely topics presented in a few papers also include the development of new or innovative techniques for debris-flow monitoring and alert systems, especially an infra-sound acoustic sensor for detecting debris flows. Many case studies illustrate a wide variety of debris-flow hazards and related phenomena as well as their hazardous effects on human activities and settlements.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire (United States)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.


    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  13. Controlling chloride ions diffusion in concrete. (United States)

    Zeng, Lunwu; Song, Runxia


    The corrosion of steel in concrete is mainly due to the chemical reaction between the chloride ions and iron ions. Indeed, this is a serious threaten for reinforced concrete structure, especially for the reinforced concrete structure in the sea. So it is urgent and important to protect concrete against chloride ions corrosion. In this work, we report multilayer concrete can cloak chloride ions. We formulated five kinds of concrete A, B, C, D and E, which are made of different proportion of cement, sand and glue, and fabricated six-layer (ABACAD) cylinder diffusion cloak and background media E. The simulation results show that the six-layer mass diffusion cloak can protect concrete against chloride ions penetration, while the experiment results show that the concentration gradients are parallel and equal outside the outer circle in the diffusion flux lines, the iso-concentration lines are parallel outside the outer circle, and the concentration gradients in the inner circle are smaller than those outside the outer circle.

  14. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.


    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  15. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K


    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  16. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixt...

  17. Gebromeerde vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van H.J.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.


    Sinds begin 2008 worden in het Nationaal Plan Diervoeder Choline Chloride monsters (= diervoeder additief) gevonden waarbij de DR CALUX screenings-assay een sterk verdacht signaal geeft, maar bij de GC-HRMS geen dioxines en dl-PCB's worden gevonden. Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van nader ond

  18. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek


    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  19. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de


    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  20. 21 CFR 582.3845 - Stannous chloride. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stannous chloride. 582.3845 Section 582.3845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives §...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1017 - Vinyl chloride. (United States)


    ... possible exposure conditions. (2) Protective garments shall be provided clean and dry for each use. (i... Required Authorized Personnel Only (3) Containers of polyvinyl chloride resin waste from reactors or other... which may be useful: A. For kidney dysfunction: urine examination for albumin, red blood cells,...

  2. Current techniques in acid-chloride corrosion control and monitoring at The Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirtz, Paul; Buck, Cliff; Kunzman, Russell


    Acid chloride corrosion of geothermal well casings, production piping and power plant equipment has resulted in costly corrosion damage, frequent curtailments of power plants and the permanent shut-in of wells in certain areas of The Geysers. Techniques have been developed to mitigate these corrosion problems, allowing continued production of steam from high chloride wells with minimal impact on production and power generation facilities.The optimization of water and caustic steam scrubbing, steam/liquid separation and process fluid chemistry has led to effective and reliable corrosion mitigation systems currently in routine use at The Geysers. When properly operated, these systems can yield steam purities equal to or greater than those encountered in areas of The Geysers where chloride corrosion is not a problem. Developments in corrosion monitoring techniques, steam sampling and analytical methodologies for trace impurities, and computer modeling of the fluid chemistry has been instrumental in the success of this technology.

  3. Geophysics and Seismic Hazard Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuihua; ZhouYuanze; YuSheng


    The earthquake is a natural phenomenon, which often brings serious hazard to the human life and material possession. It is a physical process of releasing interior energy of the earth, which is caused by interior and outer forces in special tectonic environment in the earth, especially within the lithosphere. The earthquake only causes casualty and loss in the place where people inhabit. Seismic hazard reduction is composed of four parts as seismic prediction, hazard prevention and seismic engineering, seismic response and seismic rescuing, and rebuilding.

  4. Climate change and geomorphological hazards in the eastern European Alps. (United States)

    Keiler, Margreth; Knight, Jasper; Harrison, Stephan


    Climate and environmental changes associated with anthropogenic global warming are being increasingly identified in the European Alps, as seen by changes in long-term high-alpine temperature, precipitation, glacier cover and permafrost. In turn, these changes impact on land-surface stability, and lead to increased frequency and magnitude of natural mountain hazards, including rock falls, debris flows, landslides, avalanches and floods. These hazards also impact on infrastructure, and socio-economic and cultural activities in mountain regions. This paper presents two case studies (2003 heatwave, 2005 floods) that demonstrate some of the interlinkages between physical processes and human activity in climatically sensitive alpine regions that are responding to ongoing climate change. Based on this evidence, we outline future implications of climate change on mountain environments and its impact on hazards and hazard management in paraglacial mountain systems.

  5. Comparison between half-cell potential of reinforced concrete exposed to carbon dioxide and chloride environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnuk Tangtermsirikul


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of concrete mix proportion and fly ash on half-cell potential (HCPand corrosion current density (icorr of steel in concrete exposed to different environments. Reinforced concrete specimenswith different fly ash replacement percentages and water to binder ratios (w/b were studied in this paper. The specimenswere subjected to two highly corrosive environments which are chloride and carbon dioxide. HCP and icorr were used tomonitor the corrosion process. Results of this study demonstrate that both HCP and icorr indicated the same tendency,especially for corroded specimens after being exposed to chloride. This means that HCP can be used to inspect corrosion ofsteel due to chloride. In case of carbonation, concrete specimens with fly ash showed more negative potential values thanconcrete without fly ash. However, chloride exposure test exhibited that specimen with higher fly ash replacement corrodedearlier. Moreover, HCP measurement presented different values between concrete exposed to chloride and carbon dioxide.There was an effect of carbonation to increase HCP during the initiation stage. A proper evaluation guideline for steelcorrosion due to carbonation needs to be further studied.

  6. Spatial variability of chloride in concrete within homogeneously exposed areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angst, U.M.; Polder, R.B.


    The concept of variability is increasingly considered in service life predictions. This paper reports experimental data on the spatial distribution of chloride in uncracked concrete subjected to homogeneous exposure. Chloride concentrations were measured with potentiometric sensors embedded in concr

  7. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)


    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范强; 巨能攀; 向喜琼; 黄健


    Landslides are the most common geohazards in mountainous terrains and can cause extraordinary landscape changes and destruction of people’s lives and properties.So assessing landslide hazards is significant and can provide valuable information to planners,developers and engineers.This paper examines some landslides at a hilly area of western China,Guizhou province.The purpose is to generate a landslide susceptibility map using the weights of evidence.It is based on the GIS technology and combined with landslides inventory and environmental factors.The causal factors include lithology,tectonic,elevation,slope,aspect,relief,distance from road and distance from stream.The weight of each causal class is calculated in a GIS software ArcGIS 10.Then the landslide hazard index of each unit is produced and divided into four classes:very high hazard,high hazard,medium hazard and low hazard.Finally,a success rate curve is built to detect the capability rate of the method.The study area under the curve is 0.7 1 .A hazard zonation map is produced and the predictive power of the map is tested on the basis of landslides inventory.The evaluation results are in line with the landslides distribution.The weights of evidence are effective to assess the landslides hazard in regional scale.%以GIS为技术平台,采用证据权法对研究区进行了滑坡地质灾害危险性分析。综合分析历史滑坡数据及其环境因素和触发因素,数据源主要有地形图、DEM、地质图,选取地层岩性、构造、高程、坡度、坡向、地形起伏度、道路、水系作为危险性评价因子。首先应用ArcGIS软件对数据源进行处理,提取各个评价因子图层,并对每个图层进行分级、缓冲区分析等处理,建立若干证据层。然后将历史灾害点与评价因子进行空间关联分析,计算每个评价因子等级的权重,最后计算出评价单元的危险性指数,并将危险性分为极高危险区、高危险

  9. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.


    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  10. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction]. (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria


    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  11. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska


    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  12. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction. (United States)

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F


    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  13. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.


    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  14. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment - Application to the Mediterranean Sea (United States)

    Sorensen, M. B.; Spada, M.; Babeyko, A.; Wiemer, S.; Grünthal, G.


    Following several large tsunami events around the world in the recent years, the tsunami hazard is becoming an increasing concern. The traditional way of assessing tsunami hazard has been through deterministic scenario calculations which provide the expected wave heights due to a given tsunami source, usually a worst-case scenario. For quantitative hazard and risk assessment, however, it is necessary to move towards a probabilistic framework. In this study we focus on earthquake generated tsunamis and present a scheme for probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA). Our PTHA methodology is based on the use of Monte-Carlo simulations and follows probabilistic seismic hazard assessment methodologies closely. The PTHA is performed in four steps. First, earthquake and tsunami catalogues are analyzed in order to define a number of potential tsunami sources in the study area. For each of these sources, activity rates, maximum earthquake magnitude and uncertainties are assigned. Following, a synthetic earthquake catalogue is established, based on the information about the sources. The third step is to calculate multiple synthetic tsunami scenarios for all potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes in the synthetic catalogue. The tsunami scenarios are then combined at the fourth step to generate hazard curves and maps. We implement the PTHA methodology in the Mediterranean Sea, where numerous tsunami events have been reported in history. We derive a 100000 year-long catalog of potentially tsunamigenic earthquakes and calculate tsunami propagation scenarios for ca. 85000 M6.5+ earthquakes from the synthetic catalog. Results show that the highest tsunami hazard is attributed to the Eastern Mediterranean region, but that also the Western Mediterranean can experience significant tsunami waves for long return periods. Hazard maps will be presented for a range of probability levels together with hazard curves for selected critical locations.

  15. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite


    Nikola Unković; Milica Ljaljević Grbić; Miloš Stupar; Jelena Vukojević; Vesna Janković; Danica Jović; Aleksandar Djordjević


    A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number...

  16. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.


    Rice, J M


    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  17. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers. (United States)

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M


    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  18. Evaluation of COSHH essentials: methylene chloride, isopropanol, and acetone exposures in a small printing plant. (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Harper, Martin; Bowen, Russell B; Slaven, James


    The current study evaluated the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Essentials model for short-term task-based exposures and full-shift exposures using measured concentrations of three volatile organic chemicals at a small printing plant. A total of 188 exposure measurements of isopropanol and 187 measurements of acetone were collected and each measurement took approximately 60 min. Historically, collected time-weighted average concentrations (seven results) were evaluated for methylene chloride. The COSHH Essentials model recommended general ventilation control for both isopropanol and acetone. There was good agreement between the task-based exposure measurements and the COSHH Essentials predicted exposure range (PER) for cleaning and print preparation with isopropanol and for cleaning with acetone. For the other tasks and for full-shift exposures, agreement between the exposure measurements and the PER was either moderate or poor. However, for both isopropanol and acetone, our findings suggested that the COSHH Essentials model worked reasonably well because the probabilities of short-term exposure measurements exceeding short-term occupational exposure limits (OELs) or full-shift exposures exceeding the corresponding full-shift OELs were <0.05 under the recommended control strategy. For methylene chloride, the COSHH Essentials recommended containment control but a follow-up study was not able to be performed because it had already been replaced with a less hazardous substance (acetone). This was considered a more acceptable alternative to increasing the level of control.

  19. Exporting hazards to developing countries. (United States)

    Menkes, D B


    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources.

  20. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  1. 2013 FEMA Flood Hazard Boundaries (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  2. Natural Hazards - A National Threat (United States)

    Geological Survey, U.S.


    The USGS Role in Reducing Disaster Losses -- In the United States each year, natural hazards cause hundreds of deaths and cost billions of dollars in disaster aid, disruption of commerce, and destruction of homes and critical infrastructure. Although the number of lives lost to natural hazards each year generally has declined, the economic cost of major disaster response and recovery continues to rise. Each decade, property damage from natural hazards events doubles or triples. The United States is second only to Japan in economic damages resulting from natural disasters. A major goal of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to reduce the vulnerability of the people and areas most at risk from natural hazards. Working with partners throughout all sectors of society, the USGS provides information, products, and knowledge to help build more resilient communities.

  3. Optical Landing Hazard Sensor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Visidyne proposes to investigate an active optical 3D imaging LADAR as the sensor for an automated Landing Hazard Avoidance system for spacecraft landing on the Moon...

  4. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth


    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  5. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.


    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin


    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  7. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)


    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  8. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Comprehensive, peer-reviewed toxicology data for about 5,000 chemicals. The data bank focuses on the toxicology of potentially hazardous chemicals. It is enhanced...

  9. Sustainable regional development and natural hazard impacts (United States)

    Petrova, Elena; Svetlosanov, Vladimir; Kudin, Valery


    During the last decades, natural hazard impacts on social and economic development in many countries were increasing due to the expansion of human activities into the areas prone to natural risks as well as to increasing in number and severity of natural hazardous events caused by climate changes and other natural phenomena. The escalation of severe disasters (such as Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan 2011) triggered by natural hazards and related natural-technological and environmental events is increasingly threatening sustainable development at different levels from regional to global scale. In our study, we develop a model of ecological, economic and social sustainable development for the European part of Russia and the Republic of Belarus. The model consists of six blocks including 1) population, 2) environment, 3) mineral resources, 4) geographic space, 5) investments, and 6) food production and import. These blocks were created based on the analysis of the main processes at the regional level; all the blocks are closely interrelated between each other. Reaching the limit values of block parameters corresponds to a sharp deterioration of the system; as a result, the system can lose its stability. Aggravation of natural and natural-technological risk impacts on each block and should be taken into account in the model of regional development. Natural hazards can cause both strong influences and small but permanent perturbations. In both cases, a system can become unstable. The criterion for sustainable development is proposed. The Russian Foundation for Humanities and Belorussian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research supported the study (project 15-22-01008).

  10. Desert dust hazards: A global review (United States)

    Middleton, N. J.


    Dust storms originate in many of the world's drylands and frequently present hazards to human society, both within the drylands themselves but also outside drylands due to long-range transport of aeolian sediments. Major sources of desert dust include the Sahara, the Middle East, central and eastern Asia, and parts of Australia, but dust-raising occurs all across the global drylands and, on occasion, beyond. Dust storms occur throughout the year and they vary in frequency and intensity over a number of timescales. Long-range transport of desert dust typically takes place along seasonal transport paths. Desert dust hazards are here reviewed according to the three phases of the wind erosion system: where dust is entrained, during the transport phase, and on deposition. This paper presents a synthesis of these hazards. It draws on empirical examples in physical geography, medical geology and geomorphology to discuss case studies from all over the world and in various fields. These include accelerated soil erosion in agricultural zones - where dust storms represent a severe form of accelerated soil erosion - the health effects of air pollution caused by desert aerosols via their physical, chemical and biological properties, transport accidents caused by poor visibility during desert dust events, and impacts on electricity generation and distribution. Given the importance of desert dust as a hazard to human societies, it is surprising to note that there have been relatively few attempts to assess their impact in economic terms. Existing studies in this regard are also reviewed, but the wide range of impacts discussed in this paper indicates that desert dust storms deserve more attention in this respect.

  11. Teaching Coastal Hazard, Risk, and Environmental Justice (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Blockstein, D.; Davis, F.; McDaris, J. R.


    Geoscience literacy and expertise play a role in all societal issues that involve the Earth. Issues that range from environmental degradation and natural hazards to creating sustainable economic systems or livable cities. Human health and resilience also involves the Earth. Environmental hazard issues have dimensions and consequences that have connections to environmental justice and disproportionate impacts on people based on their ethnicity, gender, cultural and socioeconomic conditions. Often these dimensions are hidden or unexplored in common approaches to teaching about hazards. However, they can provide importance context and meaning to students who would not otherwise see themselves in STEM disciplines. Teaching geoscience in a framework of societal issues may be an important mechanism for building science and sustainability capacity in future graduates. In May 2015, the NSF STEP center InTeGrate held a workshop in New Orleans, LA on teaching about Coastal Hazards, Risk and Environmental Justice. This was an opportunity to bring together people who use these topics as a powerful topic for transdisciplinary learning that connects science to local communities. This workshop was tailored for faculty members from minority-serving institutions and other colleges and universities that serve populations that are under-represented in the geosciences and related fields. The workshop outcome was a set of strategies for accomplishing this work, including participants' experience teaching with local cases, making connections to communities, and building partnerships with employers to understand workforce needs related to interdisciplinary thinking, sustainability science and risk. The participants articulated both the great need and opportunity for educators to help learners to explore these dimensions with their students as well as the challenge of learning to teach across disciplines and using controversial topics.

  12. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  13. Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Benzalkonium Chloride


    Youngbeom Ahn; Jeong Myeong Kim; Ohgew Kweon; Seong-Jae Kim; Jones, Richard C.; Kellie Woodling; Goncalo Gamboa da Costa; LiPuma, John J.; David Hussong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Cerniglia, Carl E.


    ABSTRACT Pharmaceutical products that are contaminated with Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) bacteria may pose serious consequences to vulnerable patients. Benzyldimethylalkylammonium chloride (BZK) cationic surfactants are extensively used in medical applications and have been implicated in the coselection of antimicrobial resistance. The ability of BCC to degrade BZK, tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C14BDMA-Cl), dodecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12BDMA-Cl), decyldimethyl...

  14. Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.


    Krajewski, J.; Dobecki, M; Gromiec, J


    Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.

  15. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  16. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  17. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (United States)

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  18. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.


    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  19. Effect of cracking and randomness of inputs on corrosion initiation of reinforced concrete bridge decks exposed to chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konecny


    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at the indicative evaluation of the effect of random scatter of input parameters in case of durability of reinforced concrete bridge deck. The time to onset of corrosion of steel reinforcement of concrete bridge deck exposed to chloride is evaluated. The effect of cracking in concrete onto chloride ingress is considered. The selected steel reinforcement protection strategies are: unprotected steel reinforcement, epoxy-coated steel reinforcement and water-proof barrier bellow asphalt overlay. The preliminary model for damage effect on chloride ion ingress through water proof membrane under penetrable asphalt overlay is used. 2-D finite element chloride ingress model is combined with Monte Carlo simulation technique. The innovative crack effect modeling via highly penetrable elements is applied. Deterministic and probabilistic calculations are compared.

  20. A method for mapping flood hazard along roads. (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Nickman, Alireza; Lyon, Steve W; Olofsson, Bo; Folkeson, Lennart


    A method was developed for estimating and mapping flood hazard probability along roads using road and catchment characteristics as physical catchment descriptors (PCDs). The method uses a Geographic Information System (GIS) to derive candidate PCDs and then identifies those PCDs that significantly predict road flooding using a statistical modelling approach. The method thus allows flood hazards to be estimated and also provides insights into the relative roles of landscape characteristics in determining road-related flood hazards. The method was applied to an area in western Sweden where severe road flooding had occurred during an intense rain event as a case study to demonstrate its utility. The results suggest that for this case study area three categories of PCDs are useful for prediction of critical spots prone to flooding along roads: i) topography, ii) soil type, and iii) land use. The main drivers among the PCDs considered were a topographical wetness index, road density in the catchment, soil properties in the catchment (mainly the amount of gravel substrate) and local channel slope at the site of a road-stream intersection. These can be proposed as strong indicators for predicting the flood probability in ungauged river basins in this region, but some care is needed in generalising the case study results other potential factors are also likely to influence the flood hazard probability. Overall, the method proposed represents a straightforward and consistent way to estimate flooding hazards to inform both the planning of future roadways and the maintenance of existing roadways.

  1. The Management of Victory in Accordance with Law Firm Belief and Strong Management--Study on Analysis of Dafeng Bureau and Feed Additives and Sodium Chloride Case Proceedings%依法行政获胜诉坚定信念强管理--对大丰局查处饲料添加剂氯化钠一案诉讼过程的剖析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The of Dafeng City, salt administration investigate Dafeng deer fisheries cooperatives to buy feed additives sodium chloride case litigation process analysis and study, elaborates the importance and necessity of strengthening feed additives such as sodium chloride involving salt products supervision. It is pointed out that the salt administrative organs and salt law enforcement personnel to the mission, firm faith, to defend their duties to ensure stability of salt market order and people's safety of salt.%文章通过对大丰市盐务管理局查处大丰市金鹿渔业专业合作社购买“饲料添加剂氯化钠”一案诉讼过程的剖析研究,阐述加强饲料添加剂氯化钠等涉盐产品监管工作的重要性和必要性,指出盐业行政机关和盐政执法人员要不辱使命,坚定信念,守土尽责,确保盐业市场秩序的稳定和人民群众的食盐安全。

  2. Hypokalemia as an early index in trimethyltin chloride poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangXJ; LiLY


    Nowdays,dimethyltin(DMT) is widely used as plastic stabilizers.Trimethyltin chloride(TMT) is the main byproduct of DMT.Our study on SD rats had shown that hypokalemia played a very inportant role in TMT poisoning.The purpose of this paper was to clarify if hypokalemia can be used as an early index of diagnosis,therapy and prevention in TMT intoxication.We analyzed the serum potassium of 169 cases exposed to TMT,from which 123 cases were measured in 24h after the disease was complained.The serum potassium of 96 cases(78%) were below 3.5mmol·L-1.Four cases died with very serious hypokalemia(<2.5mmol·L-1).The lower the serum potassium was,the more serious of symptom would be found.In the recent 3 accidents,we measured the serum potassium as early as possible,and treat with KCl(iv or po) rightly.All of the 95 cases recovered within 1 month.No sequela was found.The available evidence suggested that hypokalemia could be the early clinical signs of TMT intoxication.Injection of KCl early should be the first selected treatment.

  3. Toxic Hazards Research Unit (United States)


    Spleen Trachea Kidneys Lungs and bronchi Adrenals Heart Bladder Thyroid Seminal vesicles Parathyroids Prostate Esophagus Testes Stomach Ovaries Duodenum...20 2 16 Lungs 18 38 24 Liver 4 6 10 Kidneys 3 4 2 Spleen 0 1 0 In both cases, the organ findings were miscellaneous in nature and generally represent...ponents included methane, nitrogen, ammonia , water, methanol, azomethane and hydrazine. Other peak identifications derived from the computer on the basis

  4. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid


    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...

  5. Floc properties and membrane fouling of polyferric silicate chloride and polyferric chloride: the role of polysilicic acid. (United States)

    Dong, Hongyu; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Sun, Shenglei; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian


    Impact of polysilicic acid (pSi) in polyferric silicate chloride (PFSiC) on coagulation-ultrafiltration process was investigated in comparison with polyferric chloride (PFC). The Fe(III) species distribution in PFSiC and PFC was measured by a timed complexation spectroscopy method. Characteristics of flocs produced by PFSiC and PFC were studied using a laser diffraction particle sizing device. Moreover, membrane fouling was evaluated using a dead-end batch ultrafiltration unit under two operation modes, coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) and coagulation-sedimentation-ultrafiltration (CSUF). The results indicated that PFSiC with various Si/Fe ratios had better turbidity removal efficiency but inferior organic matter removal. Flocs formed by PFSiC were larger than those by PFC. In case of PFSiC, floc size increased with Si/Fe ratio increasing. PFSiC with various Si/Fe ratios resulted in more compact and weaker flocs than PFC. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that under C-UF mode, PFSiC with Si/Fe ratios of 0.07 and 0.10 presented better membrane performance than PFC. Under CSUF mode, addition of pSi could alleviate membrane fouling.

  6. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition. (United States)

    Lithner, Delilah; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Göran


    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out.

  7. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids. (United States)

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy


    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  8. Investigation of ozone and coagulant material’s (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime efficiency in “Kerman Kork” industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hussein Javid


    Full Text Available Background: Entry of untreated wastewater of wool scouring factories has been associated with many environmental hazards because of high rate of pollution. Presently effective treatment methods and reducing the costs of operation and maintenance from treatment units have always been under the attention of this industry owners. The aim of this survey is to present a suitable method for the treatment of wool scouring. Methods: In this study, chemical coagulant is used for wastewater treatment (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, poly aluminum chloride and lime. And then these materials with “ozone” as a strong oxidative in reduction of the amount of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in wastewater effluent has been surveyed. Results: The results of this work showed that only ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate among the above chemical coagulant had a high efficiency in the turbidity removal. Productivity of turbidity removal using ferric chloride with the pH of 4 to 5 was 99%, and turbidity was reduced from 166 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU to 1.5 NTU, and productivity of turbidity removal using aluminum sulfate within the pH 4.5 to 5 was 99.33% that reduced turbidity from 166 to 1.1 NTU. Results of ozonation with 5 g/hour and the oxygen flow of 2.5 litter per min with the pH assess of 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min to wastewater from chemical treatment with ferric chloride showed that the rate of COD was reduced from 24700 mg/L to 2940 mg/L. In ozonation to wastewater of chemical treatment with aluminum sulfate within the above rang of time, the rate of COD was reduced from 22500 mg/l to 4800 mg/l. Conclusion: We can be hopeful that in near future, getting the cheap technology of ozone production in industrial scale, one can use this technology for the propose of removal of pollutants having removal preferable by help of advanced treatment approaches.

  9. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. (United States)


    ... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a... is not to exceed 0.02 g vinyl chloride/kg (0.04 lb vinyl chloride/ton) of polyvinyl chloride...

  10. Calcium/thionyl chloride battery technology (United States)

    Counts, T.


    This final report documents the development efforts conducted by the Lithium Batteries Group of the Couples Department of Eagle-Picher Industries. The objective of the project was to develop calcium-thionyl chloride cell technology. The original project was divided into two main tasks. Task One was to consist of component optimization and stability studies. Once sufficiently advanced, the ongoing results of Task One were to be integrated with Task Two. Task Two was to consist of demonstration of an optimized primary cell. In July, 1983, the program was redirected. Task Two was split, with effort to be directed toward both the original primary cell and toward a high discharge rate reserve configuration cell. Additional electrolyte salts were to be evaluated as a means of improving the storability of the active calcium-thionyl chloride cell.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren


    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  13. Iron (III) chloride doping of CVD graphene. (United States)

    Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Hsu, Allen L; Kong, Jing


    Chemical doping has been shown as an effective method of reducing the sheet resistance of graphene. We present the results of our investigations into doping large area chemical vapor deposition graphene using Iron (III) Chloride (FeCl(3)). It is shown that evaporating FeCl(3) can increase the carrier concentration of monolayer graphene to greater than 10(14) cm(-2) and achieve resistances as low as 72 Ω sq(-1). We also evaluate other important properties of the doped graphene such as surface cleanliness, air stability, and solvent stability. Furthermore, we compare FeCl(3) to three other common dopants: Gold (III) Chloride (AuCl(3)), Nitric Acid (HNO(3)), and TFSA ((CF(3)SO(2))(2)NH). We show that compared to these dopants, FeCl(3) can not only achieve better sheet resistance but also has other key advantages including better solvent stability.

  14. Earthquake Hazard Assessment: an Independent Review (United States)

    Kossobokov, Vladimir


    Seismic hazard assessment (SHA), from term-less (probabilistic PSHA or deterministic DSHA) to time-dependent (t-DASH) including short-term earthquake forecast/prediction (StEF), is not an easy task that implies a delicate application of statistics to data of limited size and different accuracy. Regretfully, in many cases of SHA, t-DASH, and StEF, the claims of a high potential and efficiency of the methodology are based on a flawed application of statistics and hardly suitable for communication to decision makers. The necessity and possibility of applying the modified tools of Earthquake Prediction Strategies, in particular, the Error Diagram, introduced by G.M. Molchan in early 1990ies for evaluation of SHA, and the Seismic Roulette null-hypothesis as a measure of the alerted space, is evident, and such a testing must be done in advance claiming hazardous areas and/or times. The set of errors, i.e. the rates of failure and of the alerted space-time volume, compared to those obtained in the same number of random guess trials permits evaluating the SHA method effectiveness and determining the optimal choice of the parameters in regard to specified cost-benefit functions. These and other information obtained in such a testing may supply us with a realistic estimate of confidence in SHA results and related recommendations on the level of risks for decision making in regard to engineering design, insurance, and emergency management. These basics of SHA evaluation are exemplified with a few cases of misleading "seismic hazard maps", "precursors", and "forecast/prediction methods".

  15. Slope stability hazard management systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Weather-related geo-hazards are a major concern for both natural slopes and man-made slopes and embankments.Government agencies and private companies are increasingly required to ensure that there is adequate protection of sloping surfaces in order that interaction with the climate does not produce instability. Superior theoretical formulations and computer tools are now available to address engineering design issues related to the near ground surface soil-atmospheric interactions. An example is given in this paper that illustrates the consequences of not paying adequate attention to the hazards of slope stability prior to the construction of a highway in South America. On the other hand, examples are given from Hong Kong and Mainland China where significant benefits are derived from putting in place a hazard slope stability management system. Some results from a hazard management slope stability study related to the railway system in Canada are also reported. The study took advantage of recent research on unsaturated soil behaviour and applied this information to real-time modelling of climatic conditions. The quantification of the water balance at the ground surface, and subsequent infiltration, is used as the primary tool for hazard level assessment. The suggested hazard model can be applied at either specific high risk locations or in a more general, broad-based manner over large areas. A more thorough understanding of unsaturated soil behaviour as it applies to near ground surface soils,along with the numerical computational power of the computer has made it possible for new approaches to be used in slope hazard management engineering.

  16. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis


    Güler, Ekrem; Olgar, Şeref; Davutoğlu, Mehmet; Garipardıç, Mesut; Karabiber, Hamza


    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is ...

  17. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis


    Ekrem Güler; Şeref Olgar; Mehmet Davutoğlu; Mesut Garipardıç; Hamza Karabiber


    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is...



    K. Imandel; M.B. Shaywaard; F. Mobaraki


    Benzalkonium chloride is a quaternary ammounium Compounds derivative under different names such as Afxhang, Hamoon, Mahan etc, which have great and expanded use in sanitation and medical affairs. Bactericidal activity of these disinfectants was fulfilled according to National Standard Method No.2842 on Staph. Aureus, Sal. Typhimouium and E. coli. This laboratory test showed that, except Mahan that has not bactericidal efficacy on E.coli at concentration 0.4 percent, other disinfectants under ...

  19. Inactivation of Viruses by Benzalkonium Chloride (United States)

    Armstrong, J. A.; Froelich, E. J.


    Benzalkonium chloride (as Roccal or Zephiran) was found to inactivate influenza, measles, canine distemper, rabies, fowl laryngotracheitis, vaccinia, Semliki Forest, feline pneumonitis, meningopneumonitis, and herpes simplex viruses after 10 min of exposure at 30 C or at room temperature. Poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus were not inactivated under the same conditions. It was concluded that all viruses tested were sensitive except members of the picorna group. The literature was reviewed. PMID:4288740

  20. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts (United States)


    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  1. Comparative Distributions of Hazard Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Abdul Wajid


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the comparison among the distributions used in hazard analysis. Simulation technique has been used to study the behavior of hazard distribution modules. The fundamentals of Hazard issues are discussed using failure criteria. We present the flexibility of the hazard modeling distribution that approaches to different distributions.

  2. Developing Polymer Cathode Material for the Chloride Ion Battery. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhao, Zhigang; Yang, Meng; Xia, Hui; Yu, Tingting; Shen, Xiaodong


    The chloride ion battery is an attractive rechargeable battery owing to its high theoretical energy density and sustainable components. An important challenge for research and development of chloride ion batteries lies in the innovation of the cathode materials. Here we report a nanostructured chloride ion-doped polymer, polypyrrole chloride, as a new type of potential cathode material for the chloride ion battery. The as-prepared polypyrrole chloride@carbon nanotubes (PPyCl@CNTs) cathode shows a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g(-1) and superior cycling stability. Reversible electrochemical reactions of the PPyCl@CNTs cathode based on the redox reactions of nitrogen species and chloride ion transfer are demonstrated. Our work may guide and offer electrode design principles for accelerating the development of rechargeable batteries with anion transfer.

  3. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv


    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  4. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)


    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  5. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect. (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M


    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS.

  6. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species. (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano


    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  7. Capacity loss and faradaic efficiency of lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoier, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlaikjer, C.; Johnson, A.; Riley, S. [Battery Engineering, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)


    In lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/TC) cells, a lithium limited design was thought to be safer than a cathode limited design because the amount of lithium left in discharged cells would be minimal. However, lithium corrosion reduces the capacity faster than does cathode degradation during storage. The optimization of the ratio of lithium to carbon was studied, considering storage time and temperature. The efficiency of converting chemical energy into electrical energy has been studied for the case of D cells with surface area from 45 to 345 cm{sup 2}, under constant and various pulsed loads. Microcalorimetric monitoring of the heat output during discharge allowed the direct measurement of faradaic efficiency, and showed that self discharge is far more pervasive that previously acknowledged. Typical faradaic efficiencies for constant load varied from 30% at low current density to 90% at moderate and 75 % at high current density. Pulsed current further depresses these efficiencies, except at very low average current density.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl chloride and benzocaine. (United States)

    Carazo, Juan Luis Anguita; Morera, Blanca Sáenz de San Pedro; Colom, Luis Palacios; Gálvez Lozano, José Manuel


    Ethyl chloride (EC) or chloroethane (C2H5Cl) is a volatile halogenated hydrocarbon. Reports of contact sensitivity to this gas are infrequent considering its widespread use as a local anesthetic, and it may have a relatively low sensitization potential. Benzocaine is another local anesthetic derivative of the ethyl ester of para-aminobenzoic acid, previously reported as a causative agent of delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We present a patient who developed a generalized itching dermatitis after the application of a medical aerosol containing EC, as well as facial angioedema and tongue swelling after the local application of benzocaine. Patch-test results were positive for EC "as is" (++), benzocaine 5% in petrolatum (++), and caine mix (+++) at 96 hours (day 4). The possibility of cross-sensitization between both drugs would not have been chemically plausible. We report the first published clinical case of contact allergic dermatitis from two chemically unrelated local anesthetics (EC and benzocaine) in the same patient.

  9. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.


    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  10. N-Chlorotaurine and ammonium chloride: an antiseptic preparation with strong bactericidal activity. (United States)

    Gottardi, Waldemar; Arnitz, Roland; Nagl, Markus


    The bactericidal activity of the endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine (NCT) is significantly enhanced in the presence of ammonium chloride which induces the formation of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) whose strong bactericidal activity is well known. In this study the properties of NCT plus ammonium chloride have been investigated. The reaction of active chlorine compounds like chloramine-T (N-chlorotoluene-sulfonamide sodium), chloroisocyanuric acid derivatives, hypochlorites (NaOCl, CaOCl(2)) with ammonium chloride did not stop at the stage of monochloramine, and the pungent smelling by-products di- and trichloramine, NHCl(2) and NCl(3), were also formed. This was not the case with NCT where only monochloramine was generated. The equilibrium constant of the reaction of NCT with ammonium was found to be [Formula: see text] , which allows to estimate the equilibrium concentration of monochloramine in aqueous solutions of NCT and ammonium chloride. At concentrations each ranging between 0.01% and 1.0% it comes to [NH(2)Cl]=3.5-254 ppm. As an unexpected result the monochloramine containing formulation turned out to be most stable in plain water without buffer additives. Quantitative killing assays revealed complete inactivation of 10(6) to 10(7)CFU/mL of seven bacterial strains by 0.1% NCT plus 0.1% ammonium chloride within 5 min, while with plain 0.1% NCT an incubation time of 2-4h was needed to achieve the same effect. The highly significant increase of bactericidal activity (200-300-fold) could be assigned to the presence of monochloramine which could be isolated by vacuum distillation. Aqueous solutions of NCT and ammonium chloride provide a highly effective and well tolerable antiseptic preparation appropriate to a treatment cycle of at least 1 month if stored in the refrigerator.

  11. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt (United States)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.


    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  12. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (United States)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron


    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  13. Environmental and health hazard ranking and assessment of plastic polymers based on chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lithner, Delilah, E-mail:; Larsson, Ake; Dave, Goeran


    Plastics constitute a large material group with a global annual production that has doubled in 15 years (245 million tonnes in 2008). Plastics are present everywhere in society and the environment, especially the marine environment, where large amounts of plastic waste accumulate. The knowledge of human and environmental hazards and risks from chemicals associated with the diversity of plastic products is very limited. Most chemicals used for producing plastic polymers are derived from non-renewable crude oil, and several are hazardous. These may be released during the production, use and disposal of the plastic product. In this study the environmental and health hazards of chemicals used in 55 thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers were identified and compiled. A hazard ranking model was developed for the hazard classes and categories in the EU classification and labelling (CLP) regulation which is based on the UN Globally Harmonized System. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. All have a large global annual production (1-37 million tonnes). A considerable number of polymers (31 out of 55) are made of monomers that belong to the two worst of the ranking model's five hazard levels, i.e. levels IV-V. The polymers that are made of level IV monomers and have a large global annual production (1-5 million tonnes) are phenol formaldehyde resins, unsaturated polyesters, polycarbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, and urea-formaldehyde resins. This study has identified hazardous substances used in polymer production for which the risks should be evaluated for decisions on the need for risk reduction measures, substitution, or even phase out

  14. The asbestos hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellini, M. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra


    This lecture arises from my own opinion about the positive role of Earth Sciences in general, and Mineralogy in particular, in defining and solving environmental and health problems. These disciplines should cooperate with other sciences in defining what is the problem, and how the problem might be solved, taking into account economical, social and environmental aspects. However, it seems that quite often scientific and technical knowledge is simply not existent in everyday life. At best, it is just confined within a narrow, negative role; the social request is that science contributes only in passively monitoring, analyzing and counting phenomena that cannot be overturned (or that are, in any case, governed elsewhere). The history of the asbestos issue has been a dramatic example of the failure of science in helping people while making important decisions.

  15. Dirty ducting's numerous hazards. (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan


    Hospitals and other healthcare facilities that do not regularly inspect, monitor, and, if necessary, clean, both their general ventilation ductwork and 'often forgotten' kitchen grease extract systems could not only be putting occupants' health, and even lives, at risk, but could also face heavy financial penalties, significant damage to buildings, and even prosecution, a leading ductwork cleaning specialist has warned. In many cases, Richard Norman, managing director, and Simon Vann, business development director, at Indepth Hygiene Services, told HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, the cost of having a grease extract ductwork system professionally cleaned could be 'relatively insignificant', while the 'generally higher' outlay required for thorough clean of a hospital-wide general ventilation ductwork system may well be spreadable over months, or even years.

  16. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer Mikkelsen


    Full Text Available Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink.

  17. A New Lifetime Distribution with Bathtube and Unimodal Hazard Function (United States)

    Barriga, Gladys D. C.; Louzada-Neto, Francisco; Cancho, Vicente G.


    In this paper we propose a new lifetime distribution which accommodate bathtub-shaped, unimodal, increasing and decreasing hazard function. Some special particular cases are derived, including the standard Weibull distribution. Maximum likelihood estimation is considered for estimate the tree parameters present in the model. The methodology is illustrated in a real data set on industrial devices on a lite test.

  18. Anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility of a green high performance concrete admixture in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yongbao; LIU Xinrong; LIU Dongyan; CHEN Jiangong; HUANG Xiongjun


    The effects of green high performance concrete (GHPC) admixture on the anti-chloride permeability and anti- chloride corrodibility of concrete are studied by a series of experiments designed on the basis of the diffusion principle and electrochemical principle. The GHPC admixture consists of fly ash, gangue, slag, red mud, etc., of which the mass fraction of industrial residues is over 96 %. The anti-permeabilities and anti-corrodibilities of the tested GHPC and normal concrete (NC) are evaluated by the Diffusion Coefficients of chloride which was obtained by measuring the concentration of chloride in the tested systems by the voltage difference method. It is found that the adoption of GHPC admixture greatly improves the anti-chloride permeability and anti-chloride corrodibility by modifying the inner structure and contracting the porosity of concrete to the reduce considerably the diffusion rate of chloride. The admixture is desirable regarding its engineering performances as well as economical and environmental interests.

  19. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (United States)


    ... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard... safety hazards, critical control points, critical limits, and procedures required to be identified and... color additives; and (ix) Physical hazards; (2) List the critical control points for each of...

  20. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia


    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: The HSE Unit

  1. Approaches and practices related to hazardous waste management, processing and final disposal in germany and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, J.A.L.; Pereira, F.A.; Tomich, S. [CETREL S.A., Camacari, BA (Brazil)


    A general overview of the existing management and processing of hazardous wastes technologies in Germany and Brazil is presented in this work. Emphasis has been given to the new technologies and practices adopted in both countries, including a comparison of the legislation, standards and natural trends. Two case studies of large industrial hazardous waste sites are described. 9 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. 49 CFR 171.1 - Applicability of Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) to persons and functions. (United States)


    .... Movement of a hazardous material by rail car, aircraft, motor vehicle, or vessel (except as delegated by... of a rail car on private track. (4) Rail and motor vehicle movements of a hazardous material... marking, or other medium, or, in the case of a rail car, until the car is delivered to a private track...

  3. Chloride Ingress in Concrete with Different Age at Time of First Chloride Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Østergaard; Iskau, Martin Riis; Hasholt, Marianne Tange


    Concrete structures cast in spring have longer time to hydrate and are therefore denser and more resistant to chloride ingress when first subjected to deicing salts in winter than structures cast in autumn. Consequently, it is expected that a spring casting will have a longer service life....... This hypothesis is investigated in the present study by testing drilled cores from concrete cast in 2012 and 2013 on the Svendborgsund Bridge. The cores are subject to petrographic examination and mapping of chloride profiles. Moreover, chloride migration coefficients have been measured. The study shows...... that the effect of the extra time of hydration obtained when casting in spring increases the expected service life of the concrete structure significantly....

  4. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective (United States)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas


    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  5. Evaluation in vinyl chloride monomer-exposed workers and the relationship between liver lesions and gene polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shou-Min Zhu; Xue-Feng Pen; Jun-Xiang Wan; Zhao-Lin Xia


    AIM: To analyze occupational health hazards exposure to doses lower than the Chinese occupational health standard in a selected VC polymerization plant in China,and also to elucidate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and genetic susceptibility on liver lesions of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).METHODS: In order to explore the mechanism of VCM-related health effects, we used a case-control design to investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and liver lesions in workers occupationally exposed to VCM. Genotypes of CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTM1, ALDH2 and ADH2 were identified using PCR and PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Even when the concentration of VCM was lower than the current Chinese occupational health standard,neurasthenia, pharyngeal irritation, liver ultrasonography abnormalities and hemoglobin disorders were significantly higher in exposure subjects compared to non-exposure subjects, and the relative risks (RR and 95% CI) were 1.74 (1.06-2.85), 1.97 (1.56-2.48), 10.69 (4.38-26.12),and 2.07 (1.20-3.57). CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2 genotype was significantly associated with liver damages (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.51-7.20, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The incidences of neurasthenia and liver ultrasonography abnormalities significantly increase when the cumulative exposure dose increases. The genotypes of metabolic enzymes (CYP2E1 c1c2/c2c2, null GSTT1 and ADH2 1-1) play important roles in VCM metabolism.Polymorphisms of CYP 2E1, GSTT1 and ADH2 may be a major reason of genetic susceptibility in VCM-induced hepatic damage.

  6. Test Methods and Protocols for Environmental and Safety Hazards Associated with Home Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cautley, D. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Viner, J. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Lord, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Pearce, M. [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)


    A number of health hazards and hazards to the durability of homes may be associated with energy retrofitting and home renovation projects. Among the hazards associated with energy retrofit work, exposure to radon is thought to cause more than 15,000 deaths per year in the U.S., while carbon monoxide poisoning results in about 20,000 injuries and 450 deaths per year. Testing procedures have been developed for identifying and quantifying hazards during retrofitting. These procedures commonly include a battery of tests to screen combustion appliances for safe operation, including worst case depressurization measurement, backdrafting (spillage) under depressurized or normal conditions, and carbon monoxide production.

  7. The Relative Severity of Single Hazards within a Multi-Hazard Framework (United States)

    Gill, Joel C.; Malamud, Bruce D.


    Here we present a description of the relative severity of single hazards within a multi-hazard framework, compiled through examining, quantifying and ranking the extent to which individual hazards trigger or increase the probability of other hazards. Hazards are broken up into six major groupings (geophysical, hydrological, shallow earth processes, atmospheric, biophysical and space), with the interactions for 21 different hazard types examined. These interactions include both one primary hazard triggering a secondary hazard, and one primary hazard increasing the probability of a secondary hazard occurring. We identify, through a wide-ranging review of grey- and peer-review literature, >90 interactions. The number of hazard-type linkages are then summed for each hazard in terms of their influence (the number of times one hazard type triggers another type of hazard, or itself) and their sensitivity (the number of times one hazard type is triggered by other hazard types, or itself). The 21 different hazards are then ranked based on (i) influence and (ii) sensitivity. We found, by quantification and ranking of these hazards, that: (i) The strongest influencers (those triggering the most secondary hazards) are volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and storms, which when taken together trigger almost a third of the possible hazard interactions identified; (ii) The most sensitive hazards (those being triggered by the most primary hazards) are identified to be landslides, volcanic eruptions and floods; (iii) When sensitivity rankings are adjusted to take into account the differential likelihoods of different secondary hazards being triggered, the most sensitive hazards are found to be landslides, floods, earthquakes and ground heave. We believe that by determining the strongest influencing and the most sensitive hazards for specific spatial areas, the allocation of resources for mitigation measures might be done more effectively.

  8. Crossing Hazard Functions in Common Survival Models. (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajia; Peng, Yingwei


    Crossing hazard functions have extensive applications in modeling survival data. However, existing studies in the literature mainly focus on comparing crossed hazard functions and estimating the time at which the hazard functions cross, and there is little theoretical work on conditions under which hazard functions from a model will have a crossing. In this paper, we investigate crossing status of hazard functions from the proportional hazards (PH) model, the accelerated hazard (AH) model, and the accelerated failure time (AFT) model. We provide and prove conditions under which the hazard functions from the AH and the AFT models have no crossings or a single crossing. A few examples are also provided to demonstrate how the conditions can be used to determine crossing status of hazard functions from the three models.

  9. Remote sensing of rainfall for debris-flow hazard assessment (United States)

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Coe, J.A.; Godt, J.W.; ,


    Recent advances in remote sensing of rainfall provide more detailed temporal and spatial data on rainfall distribution. Four case studies of abundant debris flows over relatively small areas triggered during intense rainstorms are examined noting the potential for using remotely sensed rainfall data for landslide hazard analysis. Three examples with rainfall estimates from National Weather Service Doppler radar and one example with rainfall estimates from infrared imagery from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite are compared with ground-based measurements of rainfall and with landslide distribution. The advantages and limitations of using remote sensing of rainfall for landslide hazard analysis are discussed. ?? 2003 Millpress,.

  10. Modified estimators for the change point in hazard function (United States)

    Karasoy, Durdu; Kadilar, Cem


    We propose the consistent estimators for the change point in hazard function by improving the estimators in [A.P. Basu, J.K. Ghosh, S.N. Joshi, On estimating change point in a failure rate, in: S.S. Gupta, J.O. Berger (Eds.), Statistical Decision Theory and Related Topics IV, vol. 2, Springer-Verlag, 1988, pp. 239-252] and [H.T. Nguyen, G.S. Rogers, E.A. Walker, Estimation in change point hazard rate model, Biometrika 71 (1984) 299-304]. By a simulation study, we show that the proposed estimators are more efficient than the original estimators in many cases.

  11. A conflict model for the international hazardous waste disposal dispute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Kaixian, E-mail: [Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Hipel, Keith W., E-mail: [Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Fang, Liping, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)


    A multi-stage conflict model is developed to analyze international hazardous waste disposal disputes. More specifically, the ongoing toxic waste conflicts are divided into two stages consisting of the dumping prevention and dispute resolution stages. The modeling and analyses, based on the methodology of graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR), are used in both stages in order to grasp the structure and implications of a given conflict from a strategic viewpoint. Furthermore, a specific case study is investigated for the Ivory Coast hazardous waste conflict. In addition to the stability analysis, sensitivity and attitude analyses are conducted to capture various strategic features of this type of complicated dispute.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett


    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  13. Medical waste: a minimal hazard. (United States)

    Keene, J H


    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. A Green Laser Pointer Hazard

    CERN Document Server

    Galang, Jemellie; Hagley, Edward W; Clark, Charles W


    An inexpensive green laser pointer was found to emit 20 mW of infrared radiation during normal use. This is potentially a serious hazard that would not be noticed by most users of such pointers. We find that this infrared emission derives from the design of the pointer, and describe a simple method of testing for infrared emissions using common household items.

  15. Modeling lahar behavior and hazards (United States)

    Manville, Vernon; Major, Jon J.; Fagents, Sarah A.


    Lahars are highly mobile mixtures of water and sediment of volcanic origin that are capable of traveling tens to > 100 km at speeds exceeding tens of km hr-1. Such flows are among the most serious ground-based hazards at many volcanoes because of their sudden onset, rapid advance rates, long runout distances, high energy, ability to transport large volumes of material, and tendency to flow along existing river channels where populations and infrastructure are commonly concentrated. They can grow in volume and peak discharge through erosion and incorporation of external sediment and/or water, inundate broad areas, and leave deposits many meters thick. Furthermore, lahars can recur for many years to decades after an initial volcanic eruption, as fresh pyroclastic material is eroded and redeposited during rainfall events, resulting in a spatially and temporally evolving hazard. Improving understanding of the behavior of these complex, gravitationally driven, multi-phase flows is key to mitigating the threat to communities at lahar-prone volcanoes. However, their complexity and evolving nature pose significant challenges to developing the models of flow behavior required for delineating their hazards and hazard zones.

  16. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski


    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  17. Health-hazard-evaluation determination report No. HHE-77-13-414, Tee Printing, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burroughs, G.E.


    An evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Tee Printing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, following a request from an authorized representative of management. Particular attention was given to the presence of vinyl chloride monomer in rubber based inks containing polyvinyl chloride. At the facility, silk screening was done on shirts in a three-step operation. The inks used were all approximately equal mixtures of a plasticizer, often diotylphthalate, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and pigments. It was thought that the black ink also contained small amounts of lead. Personal breathing-zone air samples for the three workers employed in silk screening showed total dust concentrations of 1.7 to 2.5 mg/cu m with area samples ranging from 1.9 to 5.3 mg/cu m. The six lead and seven vinyl chloride samples were below the limits of detection. The author concludes that all exposures are below recommended limits. Since there were complaints of occasional irritation, particularly during cold weather, the author recommends that the ventilation system be upgraded to remove smoke from the oven area.

  18. Role of chloride in the morphological evolution of organo-lead halide perovskite thin films. (United States)

    Williams, Spencer T; Zuo, Fan; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Liao, Chien-Yi; Liang, Po-Wei; Jen, Alex K-Y


    A comprehensive morphological study was used to elucidate chloride's role in CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3-x)Cl(x) film evolution on a conducting polymer, PEDOT:PSS. Complex ion equilibria and aggregation in solution, as well as the role they play in nucleation, are found to ultimately be responsible for the unique morphological diversity observed in perovskite films grown in the presence of the chloride ion. An intermediate phase that is generated upon deposition and initial annealing templates continued self-assembly in the case of CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3-x)Cl(x). In the absence of chloride, the film growth of CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3) is directed by substrate interfacial energy. By employing the through-plane TEM analysis, we gain detailed insight into the unique crystallographic textures, grain structures, and elemental distributions across the breadth of films grown from precursor solutions with different chemistries. The lattice coherence seen in morphologies generated under the influence of chloride provides a physical rational for the enhancement in carrier diffusion length and lifetime.

  19. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler


    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  20. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın


    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.