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Sample records for chlamydia screening implementation

  1. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

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    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored

  2. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    : The main limitation of this report is that we relied only on published results. Most of research has been conducted in countries other than Germany. The fulfilment of the criteria for introduction of screening depends on contextual factors. More data from Germany are needed in order to answer the main questions concerning acceptance, use of selection criteria to identify subgroups and economical aspects of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Germany. Conclusions: The criteria for introduction of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis are partially fulfilled. The available evidence indicates that the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis will depend on the implementation of strategies for uptake enhancement and probably on the participation of men as well. A pilot project should be conducted in order to assess cost-effectiveness, acceptance and feasibility of different screening strategies in Germany. On the light of the available evidence, the inclusion of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in the benefit basket without embedding it in a multifaceted programme targeting primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and participation in screening cannot be recommende.

  3. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

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    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  4. Rationale, design, and results of the first screening round of a comprehensive, register-based, Chlamydia screening implementation programme in the Netherlands

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    Koekenbier Rik H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing Chlamydia trachomatis screening in the Netherlands has been a point of debate for several years. The National Health Council advised against implementing nationwide screening until additional data collected from a pilot project in 2003 suggested that screening by risk profiles could be effective. A continuous increase in infections recorded in the national surveillance database affirmed the need for a more active approach. Here, we describe the rationale, design, and implementation of a Chlamydia screening demonstration programme. Methods A systematic, selective, internet-based Chlamydia screening programme started in April 2008. Letters are sent annually to all 16 to 29-year-old residents of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and selected municipalities of South Limburg. The letters invite sexually active persons to login to http://www.chlamydiatest.nl with a personal code and to request a test kit. In the lower prevalence area of South Limburg, test kits can only be requested if the internet-based risk assessment exceeds a predefined value. Results We sent invitations to 261,025 people in the first round. One-fifth of the invitees requested a test kit, of whom 80% sent in a sample for testing. The overall positivity rate was 4.2%. Conclusions This programme advances Chlamydia control activities in the Netherlands. Insight into the feasibility, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and impact of this large-scale screening programme will determine whether the programme will be implemented nationally.

  5. Evaluation design of a systematic, selective, internet-based, Chlamydia screening implementation in the Netherlands, 2008-2010: implications of first results for the analysis

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    Koekenbier Rik H

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A selective, systematic, Internet-based, Chlamydia Screening Implementation for 16 to 29-year-old residents started in three regions in the Netherlands in April 2008: in the cities of Amsterdam and Rotterdam and a more rural region, South Limburg. This paper describes the evaluation design and discusses the implications of the findings from the first screening round for the analysis. The evaluation aims to determine the effects of screening on the population prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis after multiple screening rounds. Methods A phased implementation or 'stepped wedge design' was applied by grouping neighbourhoods (hereafter: clusters into three random, risk-stratified blocks (A, B and C to allow for impact analyses over time and comparison of prevalences before and after one or two screening rounds. Repeated simulation of pre- and postscreening Chlamydia prevalences was used to predict the minimum detectable decline in prevalence. Real participation and positivity rates per region, block, and risk stratum (high, medium, and low community risk from the 1st year of screening were used to substantiate predictions. Results The results of the 1st year show an overall participation rate of 16% of 261,025 invitees and a positivity rate of 4.2%, with significant differences between regions and blocks. Prediction by simulation methods adjusted with the first-round results indicate that the effect of screening (minimal detectable difference in prevalence may reach significance levels only if at least a 15% decrease in the Chlamydia positivity rate in the cities and a 25% decrease in the rural region after screening can be reached, and pre- and postscreening differences between blocks need to be larger. Conclusions With the current participation rates, the minimal detectable decline of Chlamydia prevalence may reach our defined significance levels at the regional level after the second screening round, but will probably not be

  6. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

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    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered.

  7. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

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    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  8. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Low-Risk Obstetric Patients

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    Robert K. Gribble

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in our rural obstetric population and assess the appropriateness of selective vs. universal prenatal screening.

  9. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

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    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  10. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Morré, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care professionals,

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012)

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    Horner, Patrick J.; Craig, Rachel; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Gary; McClure, Myra O.; Soldan, Kate; Nardone, Anthony; Johnson, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody. Methods Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE) were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16–44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey) (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men). Seroprevalence trends among 16–24 year-old women (n = 3,361) were investigated over ten time points from 1994–2012. Results In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16–44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0–27.1) in women and 13.9% (11.8–16.2) in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5–40.2] in 30–34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4–25.6] in 35–39 year-old men); years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16–24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16–24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008–2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84–1.05]). Conclusion Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes. PMID:28129328

  12. Chlamydia screening and positivity in juvenile detention centers, United States, 2009-2011.

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    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Newman, Daniel; Collins, Dayne; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.9 million new chlamydia infections occur in the United States each year. Among women, chlamydia can lead to serious adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chlamydia prevalence is highest among females aged 15-19 years. Despite long-standing recommendations directed at young, sexually active females, screening remains sub-optimal. Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) are uniquely situated to screen and treat high-risk adolescents. From 2009-2011, performance measure data on chlamydia screening coverage (proportion of eligible females screened) and positivity (proportion of females tested who were positive) were available from 126 geographically-dispersed JDCs in the United States. These facilities reported screening 55.2% of females entering the facilities (149,923), with a facility-specific median of 66.4% (range: 0-100%). Almost half (44.4%) of facilities had screening coverage levels of 75-100%. This screening resulted in the detection of 12,305 chlamydial infections, for an overall positivity of 14.7% (facility-specific median = 14.9%, range: 0-36.9%). In linear regression analysis, chlamydia positivity was inversely associated with screening coverage: as coverage increased, positivity decreased. The burden of chlamydia in JDCs is substantial; facilities should continue to deliver recommended chlamydia screening and treatment to females and identify mechanisms to increase coverage.

  13. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

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    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  14. Effects of population based screening for Chlamydia infections in the Netherlands limited by declining participation rates.

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    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16-29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level

  15. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice.

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    Jansen Casper L; Mutsaers Johan; Ouburg Sander; Nijsten Noëmi; Verweij Stephan P; Peters Remco PH; van Leeuwen A Petra; Morré Servaas A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM) are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of ...

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, G I J G; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar Anne; Ditkowsky, Jared; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Verkooyen, R P; de Groot, R.; Verbrugh, H A; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis screening durin

  17. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners; A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T.R. Pereboom (Monique T.); E.R. Spelten (Evelien); J. Manniën (Judith); G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); S.A. Morré (Servaas A); F.G. Schellevis (François); E.K. Hutton (Eileen K)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care pr

  18. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

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    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  19. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands. Oppo

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); Smith-Norowitz, T.A. (Tamar Anne); Ditkowsky, J. (Jared); M.R. Hammerschlag; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); de Groot, R.; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.J. Postma (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis scr

  1. Efficacy of interventions to increase the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care: a systematic review

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    Donovan Basil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for increasing the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care. Methods We reviewed studies which compared chlamydia screening in the presence and the absence of an intervention. The primary endpoints were screening rate or total tests. Results We identified 16 intervention strategies; 11 were randomised controlled trials and five observational studies, 10 targeted females only, five both males and females, and one males only. Of the 15 interventions among females, six were associated with significant increases in screening rates at the 0.05 level including a multifaceted quality improvement program that involved provision of a urine jar to patients at registration (44% in intervention clinics vs. 16% in the control clinic; linking screening to routine Pap smears (6.9% vs. 4.5%, computer alerts for doctors (12.2% vs. 10.6%; education workshops for clinic staff; internet-based continuing medical education (15.5% vs. 12.4%; and free sexual health consultations (16.8% vs. 13.2%. Of the six interventions targeting males, two found significant increases including the multifaceted quality improvement program in which urine jars were provided to patients at registration (45% vs. 15%; and the offering by doctors of a test to all presenting young male clients, prior to consultation (29 vs. 4%. Conclusions Interventions that promoted the universal offer of a chlamydia test in young people had the greatest impact on increasing screening in primary care.

  2. Delivery of chlamydia screening to young women requesting emergency hormonal contraception at pharmacies in Manchester, UK: a prospective study

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    O'Brien Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More women are requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC at pharmacies where screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake of free postal chlamydia screening by women under 25 years who requested EHC at pharmacies in Manchester, UK. Methods Six Primary Care Trusts (PCTs that had contracted with pharmacies to provide free EHC, requested the largest EHC providers (≥ 40 doses annually to also offer these clients a coded chlamydia home testing kit. Pharmacies kept records of the ages and numbers of women who accepted or refused chlamydia kits. Women sent urine samples directly to the laboratory for testing and positive cases were notified. Audit data on EHC coverage was obtained from PCTs to assess the proportion of clients eligible for screening and to verify the uptake rate. Results 33 pharmacies participated. Audit data for 131 pharmacy months indicated that only 24.8% (675/2718 of women provided EHC were also offered chlamydia screening. Based on tracking forms provided by pharmacies for the whole of the study, 1348/2904 EHC clients (46.4% who had been offered screening accepted a screening kit. 264 (17.6% of those who accepted a kit returned a sample, of whom 24 (9.1% were chlamydia-positive. There was an increase in chlamydia positivity with age (OR: 1.2 per year; 1.04 to 1.44; p = 0.015. Conclusion Chlamydia screening for EHC pharmacy clients is warranted but failure of pharmacists to target all EHC clients represented a missed opportunity for treating a well defined high-risk group.

  3. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

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    Wallace Louise M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group. Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening

  4. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

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    Jansen Casper L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72% involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%, while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83% and oropharyngeal infection (100% would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline

  5. Overestimation of complication rates in evaluations of Chlamydia trachomatis screening programmes--implications for cost-effectiveness analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkengoed, van IG; Morre, S.A.; Brule, van den AJ; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Boeke, AJ

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness analyses of screening programmes for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection suggest that screening at low prevalences in the population is cost-effective. However, the decision models in these studies are based on assumptions about the risk of complications, whic

  6. RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.

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    Isabelle Derré

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific.

  7. An econometric analysis of screening and treatment of patients with suspected Chlamydia.

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    Tavakoli, Manouche; Craig, Ann-Marie; Malek, Mo

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is probably the most common sexually transmitted disease in the Western industrialised countries with devastating consequences. However, it is an infection that can be so easily treated. There are over 50 million new cases occurring each year. In the United States chlamydia is seen as the most common and costly of the bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STD), with approximately 4 million new cases occurring each year at an estimated total cost of $2.4 billion. The characteristic of this infection is its difficulty of detection that promotes its spread and making its prediction rather complex. Chlamydial infections are commonly asymptomatic or cause mild or non-specific symptoms and signs, which are not easily detected. Approximately 70% of women with endocervical infections and up to 50% of men with urethral infections are asymptomatic and thus not likely to seek medical care. Chlamydia has become known as the "silent epidemic". It is the more frequently identifiable single cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), occurring in an estimated 15-40% of women. The primary objective of the study was to identify factors and quantify their contribution to the risk of being infected with Chlamydia and to construct an easy to use friendly method for early detection. The importance of developing some means of early detection is vital and previous studies suggest that selective screening might be one solution. A logit model was fitted to three broad variables: behavioural, patients' characteristics, and signs/symptoms noted by patient. The age of the women, the number of sexual partners over the past year, previous history of sexually transmitted disease, the use of barrier contraception and patients' and their partners' signs and symptoms were found to be among the most important variables. Such a model should allow patients who are in a high-risk category, allowing appropriate treatment.

  8. Chlamydia screening strategies and outcomes in educational settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad Shahid; Bauer, Heidi M; Hocking, Jane S; Ali, Hammad; Wand, Handan; Walker, Jennifer; Douglas, Laura; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca J

    2014-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening programs have been established in educational settings in many countries during the past 2 decades. However, recent evidence suggests that high uptake of screening and management (treatment, partner notification, and retesting for reinfection) improves program effectiveness. We conducted a systematic review to understand the screening strategies, the extent of screening conducted, and uptake of management strategies in educational settings. Screening studies in educational settings were identified through a systematic search of published literature from 2005 to 2011. We identified 27 studies describing 30 screening programs in the United States/Canada (n = 10), Europe (n = 8), Australia/New Zealand (n = 5), and Asia (n = 4). Most studies targeted both male and female students (74%). Classroom-based strategies resulted in 21,117 testes overall (4 programs), followed by opportunistic screening during routine health examination (n = 13,470; 5 programs) and opportunistic screening at school-based health centers (n = 13,006; 5 programs). The overall median CT positivity was 4.7% (range, 1.3%-18.1%). Only 5 programs reported treatment rates (median, 100%; range, 86%-100%), 1 partner notification rate (71%), 1 retesting rate within a year of an initial CT diagnosis (47%), and 2 reported repeat positivity rates (21.1% and 26.3%). In conclusion, this systematic review shows that a variety of strategies have been used to screen large numbers of students in educational settings; however, only a few studies have reported CT management outcomes.

  9. Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Coleman, Claire; Conroy, Ronán; Cormican, Martin; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Fleming, Catherine; McGee, Hannah; Murphy, Andrew; Ni Fhoghlu, Grainne; O'Neill, Ciaran; Gillespie, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of those transmitting and contracting it: most cases remain undetected and...

  10. Opportunistische screening op genitale infecties met Chlamydia trachomatis onder de seksueel actieve bevolking in Amsterdam. II. Kosteneffectiviteitsanalyse van screening bij vrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Coutinho, R A; Jager, Johannes C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of young women visiting general practitioners. DESIGN: Economic model analysis. METHODS: Data on the health care needs for CT complications were derived from various sources; costing was done using estimated cost p

  11. RNA interference screen identifies Abl kinase and PDGFR signaling in Chlamydia trachomatis entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherilyn A Elwell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The strain designated Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 that was used for experiments in this paper is Chlamydia muridarum, a species closely related to C. trachomatis (and formerly termed the Mouse Pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. This conclusion was verified by deep sequencing and by PCR using species-specific primers. All data presented in the results section that refer to C. trachomatis should be interpreted as referring to C. muridarum. Since C. muridarum TARP lacks the consensus tyrosine repeats present in C. trachomatis TARP, we cannot make any conclusions about the role of TARP phosphorylation and C. muridarum entry. However, the conclusion that C. trachomatis L2 TARP is a target of Abl kinase is still valid as these experiments were performed with C. trachomatis L2 TARP [corrected]. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in early events in Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we conducted a large scale unbiased RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells. This allowed identification of candidate host factors in a simple non-redundant, genetically tractable system. From a library of 7,216 double stranded RNAs (dsRNA, we identified approximately 226 host genes, including two tyrosine kinases, Abelson (Abl kinase and PDGF- and VEGF-receptor related (Pvr, a homolog of the Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR. We further examined the role of these two kinases in C. trachomatis binding and internalization into mammalian cells. Both kinases are phosphorylated upon infection and recruited to the site of bacterial attachment, but their roles in the infectious process are distinct. We provide evidence that PDGFRbeta may function as a receptor, as inhibition of PDGFRbeta by RNA interference or by PDGFRbeta neutralizing antibodies significantly reduces bacterial binding, whereas depletion of Abl kinase has no effect on binding. Bacterial internalization can occur through activation of PDGFRbeta or through independent

  12. Feasibility of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and treatment in low-risk pregnant women in Lima, Peru: a prospective study in two large urban hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, J; García, PJ; Segura, ER; García, P; Escudero, F; La Rosa, S; León, S; Klausner, JD

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chlamydia trachomatis, which is asymptomatic in most women, causes significant adverse effects for pregnant women and neonates. No programmes conduct antenatal screening in Latin America. We determined chlamydia prevalence, the feasibility and acceptability of chlamydia screening, and adherence to treatment in pregnant women in two urban public hospitals in Lima, Peru. Methods We offered chlamydia screening using self-collected vaginal swabs to pregnant women ≥ 16 years during their first antenatal visit. Chlamydia-infected women were contacted within 14 days and asked to bring partners for counselling and directly observed therapy with oral azithromycin. Unaccompanied women received counselling, directly observed therapy, and azithromycin to take to partners. Test of cure was performed ≥ 3 weeks after treatment. Results We approached 640 women for the study and enrolled 600 (93.7%). Median age was 27.3 years (range 16–47), median lifetime partners 2.3 (range 1–50), and median gestational age 26.1 weeks (range 4–41). Chlamydia prevalence was 10% (95% CI: 7.7% – 12.7%). Of 60 infected patients, 59 (98%) were treated with one dose of azithromycin. Fifty-two of 59 (88%) returned for test of cure, all of whom were treated successfully, with 46 (86%) achieving negative test of cure with one dose of azithromycin and 6 (12%) after retreatment with a second dose. Conclusions C. trachomatis screening and treatment in pregnancy was feasible and highly acceptable in two urban hospitals in Peru. Chlamydia prevalence was high. Clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening and treatment of pregnant women to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes in low-resource settings are warranted. PMID:25107711

  13. Cholesterol Screening: A Practical Guide to Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    Dry-chemistry cholesterol analysis has made screening feasible in a variety of settings. The article provides practical tips for the implementation of mass cholesterol screening using a portable dry-chemistry analyzer and discusses issues involved in conducting effective cholesterol screening programs from start to finish. (SM)

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening Men in Maricopa County Jails for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea to Avert Infections in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalappa, Chaitra; Huang, Ya-Lin A.; Gift, Thomas L.; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Taylor, Melanie; Gales, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia and gonorrhea infections can lead to serious and costly sequelae in women, but sequelae in men are rare. In accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, female jail inmates in Maricopa County (Phoenix area), Arizona, are screened for these infections. Owing to lack of evidence of screening benefits in men, male inmates are tested and treated based on symptoms only. Methods We developed a probabilistic simulation model to simulate chlamydia and gonorrhea infections in Maricopa County jail male inmates and transmissions to female partners per year. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of screening as the cost per infection averted. Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Maricopa County Department of Public Health and the Correctional Health Services. Results Compared with symptom-based testing and treating strategy, screening male arrestees of all ages and only those 35 years or younger yielded the following results: averted approximately 556 and 491 cases of infection in women at a cost of approximately US $1240 and $860 per case averted, respectively, if screened during physical examination (between days 8 and 14 from entry to jail), and averted approximately 1100 and 995 cases of infections averted at a cost of US $1030 and $710 per infection averted, respectively, if screened early, within 2 to 3 days from entry to jail. Conclusions Screening of male inmates incurs a modest cost per infection averted in women compared with symptom-based testing. Screening in correctional settings can be used by public health programs to reduce disease burden, sequelae, and associated costs. PMID:24275727

  15. Hormonal factors and the laboratory detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women: implications for screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, T; Horner, P; Hughes, A; Berry, J; Paul, I; Caul, O

    1997-01-01

    One thousand and fifty-six new and re-registered consecutive women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic requiring speculum examination were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis by enzyme immunoassay (IDEIA, Dako Diagnostics Ltd). Of 1022 women who had results available for both cervix and urethra C. trachomatis was detected in 8.8% (89/1022) in any site, 2.3% (23/1022) in both sites, 4.9% (51/1022) at the cervix alone and 1.5% (15/1022) at the urethra alone. Thus sampling at the urethra increased detection by 17% (15/89). Analysis of 808 women with a regular menstrual cycle showed a significant association of combined oral contraceptive use, age and ectropion with the detection of C. trachomatis. The detection of C. trachomatis showed a significant variation with the menstrual cycle (P = 0.023) (relative risk (rr) 1.7 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.0-2.8)). It was detected significantly more often in the latter part. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that ectropion and age were the stronger determinants of C. trachomatis detection and not oral contraceptive use or menstrual cycle. The variation in detection of C. trachomatis with the menstrual cycle was independently associated with combined oral contraceptive use and the lack of a cervical ectropion. The increased detection at the cervix was present after the second week in combined oral contraceptive users (P = 0.008) (rr = 2.3 (1.2-4.5)) but only after the 3rd week in women without an ectropion (P = 0.004) (rr = 2.7 (1.3-5.5)). Combined oral contraceptives, ectropion and youth, are markers for the carriage of C. trachomatis in the lower genital tract of women. It is also detected significantly more often in the latter part of the menstrual cycle in women who are oral contraceptive users.

  16. Evaluation of a new website design for iwantthekit for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuder, Margaret; Goheen, Mary Jett; Dize, Laura; Barnes, Mathilda; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2015-05-01

    The www.iwantthekit.org provides Internet-based, at-home sexually transmitted infection screening. The Web site implemented an automated test result access system. To evaluate potential deleterious effects of the new system, we analyzed demographics, Web site usage, and treatment. The post-Web site design captured more participant information and no decrease in requests, kit return, or treatment adherence.

  17. Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in screening infertile women for tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, S. P.; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C.; Land, J. A.; Ouburg, S.; Morre, S. A.; Greub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Since Waddlia chondrophila is closely related to Chlamydia trachomatis, we hypothesise that W. chondrophila may also be associated with tubal factor infertility (TFI) in women, a major complication of chronic C. trachomatis infection. Five hundred twenty serum samples were tested for anti-Waddlia an

  18. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  19. Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, IGM; Postma, MJ; Morre, SA; van den Brule, AJC; Meijer, CJLM; Bouter, LM; Boeke, AJP

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia, trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A

  20. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-01-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines. PMID:26980105

  1. Responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Borry, Pascal; Chokoshvili, Davit; Cornel, Martina C; van El, Carla G; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Howard, Heidi C; Janssens, Sandra; Kayserili, Hülya; Lakeman, Phillis; Lucassen, Anneke; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Vidmar, Lovro; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo J; Peterlin, Borut

    2016-06-01

    This document of the European Society of Human Genetics contains recommendations regarding responsible implementation of expanded carrier screening. Carrier screening is defined here as the detection of carrier status of recessive diseases in couples or persons who do not have an a priori increased risk of being a carrier based on their or their partners' personal or family history. Expanded carrier screening offers carrier screening for multiple autosomal and X-linked recessive disorders, facilitated by new genetic testing technologies, and allows testing of individuals regardless of ancestry or geographic origin. Carrier screening aims to identify couples who have an increased risk of having an affected child in order to facilitate informed reproductive decision making. In previous decades, carrier screening was typically performed for one or few relatively common recessive disorders associated with significant morbidity, reduced life-expectancy and often because of a considerable higher carrier frequency in a specific population for certain diseases. New genetic testing technologies enable the expansion of screening to multiple conditions, genes or sequence variants. Expanded carrier screening panels that have been introduced to date have been advertised and offered to health care professionals and the public on a commercial basis. This document discusses the challenges that expanded carrier screening might pose in the context of the lessons learnt from decades of population-based carrier screening and in the context of existing screening criteria. It aims to contribute to the public and professional discussion and to arrive at better clinical and laboratory practice guidelines.

  2. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...

  3. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridou, Maria; Vriend, Henrike J.; Lugner, Anna K.; Wallinga, Jacco; Fennema, Johannes S.; Prins, Jan M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Rijnders, Bart J.A.; Prins, Maria; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Veen, Maaike G.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Sande, Marianne A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and

  4. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins (Mariia); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV a

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of selective screening criteria for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women attending Colorado family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, J T; Henneberry, J F; Rickard, R S; Beebe, J L

    1992-01-01

    Women attending family planning clinics in Colorado during 1988 were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Chlamydiazyme, Abbott Laboratories; Abbott Park, IL). Cervical specimens from 11,793 women attending 22 family planning clinics were analyzed. Patient history and physical exams were used to assess risk factors for infection. A total of 913 individuals (7.7%) had positive culture results for C. trachomatis. Multivariate analysis showed that infection was significantly related to endocervical bleeding, cervical mucopurulent discharge, a new sexual partner in the last 3 months or multiple previous sexual partners (greater than 3) in the last year, pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, and age. Increased odd ratios were observed for the combination of endocervical bleeding and mucopurulent discharge and sexual history that included partners over the previous year as well as the most recent 3 months. A combination of these criteria was used to selectively screen women attending Colorado family planning clinics on an ongoing basis. A cost-benefit analysis employing a model reported previously showed a significant financial benefit associated with universal screening over either selective screening or no screening for C. trachomatis in this population.

  6. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  7. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman ... to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but ...

  8. Keeping participants on board: increasing uptake by automated respondent reminders in an Internet-based Chlamydia Screening in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokkum Nynke FB

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectiveness of Chlamydia screening programs is determined by an adequate level of participation and the capturing of high-risk groups. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of automated reminders by letter, email and short message service (SMS on package request and sample return in an Internet-based Chlamydia screening among people aged 16 to 29 years in the Netherlands. Methods Individuals not responding to the invitation letter received a reminder letter after 1 month. Email- and SMS-reminders were sent to persons who did not return their sample. It was examined to what extent reminders enhanced the response rate (% of package requests and participation rate (% of sample return. Sociodemographic and behavioural correlates of providing a cell phone number and participation after the reminder(s were studied by logistic regression models. Results Of all respondents (screening round 1: 52,628, round 2: 41,729, 99% provided an email address and 72% a cell phone number. Forty-two percent of all package requests were made after the reminder letter. The proportion of invitees returning a sample increased significantly from 10% to 14% after email/SMS reminders (round 2: from 7% to 10%. Determinants of providing a cell-phone number were younger age (OR in 25-29 year olds versus 16-19 year olds = 0.8, 95%CI 0.8-0.9, non-Dutch (OR in Surinam/Antillean versus Dutch = 1.3, 95%CI 1.2-1.4, Turkish/Moroccan: 1.1, 95%CI 1.0-1.2, Sub Sahara African: 1.5, 95%CI 1.3-1.8, non-Western other 1.1, 95%CI 1.1-1.2, lower educational level (OR in high educational level versus low level = 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-0.9, no condom use during the last contact with a casual partner (OR no condom use versus condom use 1.2, 95%CI 1.1-1.3, younger age at first sexual contact (OR 19 years or older versus younger than 16: 0.7, 95%CI 0.6-0.8. Determinants for requesting a test-package after the reminder letter were male gender (OR female versus male 0.9 95%CI 0

  9. "Pee-in-a-Pot": acceptability and uptake of on-site chlamydia screening in a student population in the Republic of Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, Deirdre

    2010-11-11

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore the acceptability and uptake of on-campus screening using a youth friendly approach in two Third Level higher education institutions (HEIs). This study is part of wider research exploring the optimal setting for chlamydia screening in Ireland. Methods Male and female students were given the opportunity to take a free anonymous test for chlamydia during a one week programme of "pee-in-a-pot" days at two HEI campuses in the West of Ireland. The study was set up after extensive consultation with the two HEIs and advertised on the two campuses using a variety of media in the two weeks preceding the screening days. Screening involved the provision and distribution of testing packs at communal areas and in toilet facilities. In Ireland, chlamydia notifications are highest amongst 20-29 year olds and hence the screening criterion was aimed at 18-29 year olds. Urine samples were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Following the screening days, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with participants about their experiences of the event. Results Out of 1,249 test kits distributed in two HEIs, 592 specimens were collected giving a return rate of 47.5%. Tests excluded (54) were due to labelling errors or ineligibility of participants\\' age. Two thirds of those tested were females and the mean age was 21 years. Overall,3.9% (21\\/538) of participants tested positive, 5% (17\\/336) among females and 2% (4\\/191) among males. Participant interviews identified factors which enhanced student participation such as anonymity, convenience, accessibility of testing, and the informal and non-medical approach to testing. Conclusions Screening for chlamydia using on-campus "pee-in-a-pot" days is an acceptable strategy in this population. This model can detect and treat asymptomatic cases of chlamydia and avoid many of the barriers associated with testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in

  10. "Pee-in-a-Pot": acceptability and uptake of on-site chlamydia screening in a student population in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balfe Myles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore the acceptability and uptake of on-campus screening using a youth friendly approach in two Third Level higher education institutions (HEIs. This study is part of wider research exploring the optimal setting for chlamydia screening in Ireland. Methods Male and female students were given the opportunity to take a free anonymous test for chlamydia during a one week programme of "pee-in-a-pot" days at two HEI campuses in the West of Ireland. The study was set up after extensive consultation with the two HEIs and advertised on the two campuses using a variety of media in the two weeks preceding the screening days. Screening involved the provision and distribution of testing packs at communal areas and in toilet facilities. In Ireland, chlamydia notifications are highest amongst 20-29 year olds and hence the screening criterion was aimed at 18-29 year olds. Urine samples were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Following the screening days, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with participants about their experiences of the event. Results Out of 1,249 test kits distributed in two HEIs, 592 specimens were collected giving a return rate of 47.5%. Tests excluded (54 were due to labelling errors or ineligibility of participants' age. Two thirds of those tested were females and the mean age was 21 years. Overall,3.9% (21/538 of participants tested positive, 5% (17/336 among females and 2% (4/191 among males. Participant interviews identified factors which enhanced student participation such as anonymity, convenience, accessibility of testing, and the informal and non-medical approach to testing. Conclusions Screening for chlamydia using on-campus "pee-in-a-pot" days is an acceptable strategy in this population. This model can detect and treat asymptomatic cases of chlamydia and avoid many of the barriers associated with testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs in

  11. Cost-effectiveness of screening programs for Chlamydia trachomatis - A population-based dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Kretzschmar, M; Leidl, R; Van den Hoek, A; Jager, JC; Postma, MJ

    2000-01-01

    Background: Models commonly used for the economic assessment of chamydial screening programs do not consider population effects. Goal: To develop a novel dynamic approach for the economic evaluation of chlamydial prevention measures and to determine the cost-effectiveness of a general practitioner-b

  12. Chlamydia screening--yes, but of whom, when, by whom, and with what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mårdh, P A

    2000-01-01

    The importance of screening programs in reducing the prevalence of genital chlamydial infections is stressed by the fact that the majority of infected persons are more or less asymptomatic. The use of oral contraceptives may mask infections affecting the upper genital tract. This imposes selective screening and rescreening of women with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease. The recent knowledge that vaginal introital samples will provide a detection rate equal to or even higher than that of cervical samples collected in the same women opens up the possibility of screening women in health units lacking a gynecological examination chair. It also opens up the possibility of outpatient screening programs, for example, home sampling and mailing samples to laboratories that will perform analyses. The use of nucleic acid-based assays means increased sensitivity and specificity compared with earlier used techniques such as ELISA. These former methods can also be used in low-prevalence populations with acceptable positive predictable value, but may be misleading if used in post-therapy check-ups because the antigen may persist in microbiologically cured cases.

  13. Comparing two definitions of ethnicity for identifying young persons at risk for chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, A; Koedijk, F D H; Op De Coul, E L M; Götz, H M; van der Sande, M A B; Van Den Broek, I V F

    2012-05-01

    Ethnic disparities in chlamydia infections in The Netherlands were assessed, in order to compare two definitions of ethnicity: ethnicity based on country of birth and self-defined ethnicity. Chlamydia positivity in persons aged 16-29 years was investigated using data from the first round of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI, 2008-2009) and surveillance data from STI centres (2009). Logistic regression modelling showed that being an immigrant was associated with chlamydia positivity in both CSI [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0-2·6] and STI centres (aOR 1·4, 95% CI 1·3-1·5). In both settings, 60% of immigrants defined themselves as Dutch. Despite the difference, classification by self-defined ethnicity resulted in similar associations between (non-Dutch) ethnicity and chlamydia positivity. However, ethnicity based on country of birth explained variation in chlamydia positivity better, and is objective and constant over time and therefore more useful for identifying young persons at higher risk for chlamydia infection.

  14. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Cervicitis - chlamydia; STI - chlamydia; STD - chlamydia; Sexually transmitted - chlamydia; ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydial infections in adolescents and adults. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  15. Should screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in HIV-men who have sex with men be recommended?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pérez-Hernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections (STI like Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG have been associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition (1. It has been also described as a high prevalence of asymptomatic CT and NG infections in men who have sex with men (MSM (2. The aim of this study was to know the prevalence of CT and/or NG infections in asymptomatic HIV-MSM and the related factors. Materials and Methods: Prospective study of a cohort of asymptomatic HIV-MSM with follow-up in Malaga (southern Spain during October 2012–May 2014. Patients with an opportunistic event or who received active antibiotic therapy for CT and/or NG in the previous month were excluded. All of them completed a questionnaire about sexual behaviour, barrier methods and recreational drugs use. Demographical, epidemiological, clinical, analytical and therapeutic data were also collected. Pharyngeal and rectal swabs, and urine samples were collected to be tested for CT and NG by nucleic acid amplification test (c4800 CT/NG. Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany (3. Statistics analysis: SPSS 17.0. Results: 255 patients were asked to participate and 248 of them accepted. Median age was 37.7 (30.6–46.3 years, median time since HIV diagnosis was 47.7 (10.5–104.1 months, and median CD4 cells count was 607 (440–824 cell/µL. There were 195 (78.6% patients on antiretroviral therapy; 81.5% of them had undetectable viral load. 80.5% of the patients had a past history of STI. Infection by CT and/or NG was diagnosed in 24 (9.7% patients. Overall four urine samples, two pharyngeal, and 15 rectal ones were positive for CT, and five pharyngeal and five rectal swabs were positive for NG. Two patients were co-infected by CT and NG: one with CT in urine and both in rectum, another with CT in urine and rectum and NG in pharynx. One patient presented CT in pharynx and rectum, and two patients NG in pharynx and rectum. Positive CT and/or NG tests were

  16. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... prevalence. Estimates of chlamydia positivity in surveys with low response rates should not be interpreted as estimates of population prevalence. Only two population-based surveys in EU/EEA Member States in this review had a response rate of >70%. The highest response rates were seen when specimens...

  17. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  18. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  19. Screening of pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Alhusain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inroduction: Of the "top ten" sexually transmitted infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are ranked second and fifth, respectively, worldwide. Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the pregnant women for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and to detect antimicrobial resistance pattern of N. gonorrhoeae. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective, hospital-based analysis of a random sample of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of a tertiary hospital in eastern Saudi Arabia. Endocervical and high vaginal swabs were collected both from pregnant women and female patients attending gynecology clinic with lower genital tract infection (control group. C. trachomatis antigen was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. N. gonorrhoeae was detected by culture and identification of isolates, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 13.0 and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: C. trachomatis antigen was detected in 10.5% (10/95 and 34.4% (35/102 of pregnant women and control group, respectively (P < 0.001. The isolation rate of N. gonorrhoeae among pregnant women was 0.0% compared to 7.8% (8/102 among the control group (P < 0.01. N. gonorrhoeae were resistant to penicillin (62.5%, tetracycline (50%, ampicillin (25%, amoxycillin-clavulinic acid (25% and ciprofloxacin (37.5%, while they were susceptible to cefepime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, spectinomycin, and cefuroxime. Conclusion: Screening of pregnant women for C. trachomatis infection should be included in the antenatal care in this area. The detection rate of both organisms among the control group highlights the importance of preventive strategies. Certain antibiotics previously used in treating gonorrhea are no longer effective.

  20. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  1. Biology and intracellular life of chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranin Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. The developmental cycle of Chlamydiae is specific and different from other bacteria. The elementary body is the infectious form of the organism, responsible for attaching to the target host cell and promoting its entry. The reticulate body is the larger, metabolically active form of the organism, synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and proteins. The elementary body and reticulate body represent evolutionary adaptations to extracellular and intracellular environments. Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia. Predisposition of Chlamydia to persist within the host cell has been recognized as a major factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. The persistence implies a long-term association between chlamydiae and their host cell that may not manifest as clinically recognizable disease. The ability of chlamydia to remain within one morphological state for a long time in response to exogenous factors suggests an innate ability of these organisms to persist intracellulary in a unique developmental form. Chlamydiae induce interferon γ and exhibit growth inhibition in their presence. While the high levels of interferon γ completely restrict the development of chlamydia, its low levels induce the development of morphologically aberrant intracellular forms. The persistent forms contain reduced levels of major outer membrane protein but high levels of chlamydial heat shock protein. Conclusion. Immunopathogenesis of chlamydial infection is one of the main focal points of current research into Chlamydia. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent, usually asymptomatic and associated with serious sequelae. Screening programmes are the most important in the prevention of a long-term sequele.

  2. Importance of implementing program Screening Neonatal Hemoglobinopathies in Cape Verde

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Barbosa Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary blood diseases, the most frequent sickle cell anemia. To date not have curative treatment, unless bone marrow transplant, which has yet been carried out experimentally. The implementation of screening programs of hemoglobinopathies in health services in Cape Verde is shown to be of great relevance and importance to public health, as it will allow early detection and treatment associated with hemoglobinopathies. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(1.000): 87-88

  3. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  4. Readiness of primary care clinicians to implement lung cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Volk

    2015-01-01

    Practical needs related to identifying eligible patients, referral to screening centers, and tools for shared decision-making must be addressed before lung cancer screening can be implemented on a national scale.

  5. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  6. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B

    2015-01-01

    indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44......%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention...... activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control activities...

  7. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb). How is ... pain, inability to get pregnant, and potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). Men rarely have health ...

  8. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2010-09-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.

  9. How to translate a bioassay into a screening assay for natural products: general considerations and implementation of antimicrobial screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallarero, Adyary; Hanski, Leena; Vuorela, Pia

    2014-09-01

    Natural product sources have been a valuable provider of molecular diversity in many drug discovery programs and several therapeutically important drugs have been isolated from these. However, the screening of such materials can be very complicated due to the fact that they contain a complex mixture of secondary metabolites, but also the purified natural compounds exert a challenge for bioactivity screening. Success in identifying new therapeutics using in vitro bioassays is largely dependent upon the proper design, validation, and implementation of the screening assay. In this review, we discuss some aspects which are of significant concern when screening natural products in a microtiter plate-based format, being partly applicable to other assay formats as well, such as validation parameters, layouts for assay protocols, and common interferences caused by natural products samples, as well as various troubleshooting strategies. Examples from the field of natural product drug discovery of antibacterial compounds are discussed, and contributions from the realm of academic screenings are highlighted.

  10. Is implementing screening for distress an efficient means to recruit patients to a psychological intervention trial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, Corinne; Schroevers, Maya J.; Pool, Grieteke; Smink, Ans; Mul, Veronique E.; Coyne, James C.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesPsychological interventions show greater efficacy when evaluated with distressed patients. We report on the feasibility of implementing screening for recruiting distressed cancer patients to a randomized controlled trial of problem-solving therapy (PST), characteristics associated with enr

  11. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-02-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers pre-implementation. Data were gathered from 208 teachers and 4,411 students who participated in the national implementation of an evidence-based HIV intervention in The Bahamas. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for the detection of "low-performing" and "high-performing" teachers. The validity of the screening tool was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The School Pre-implementation Screening Tool consists of seven predictive factors: duration as teacher, working site, attendance at training workshops, training in interactive teaching, perceived importance of the intervention, comfort in teaching the curriculum, and program priority. The sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 57% in identifying "low-performing" teachers and 81% and 65% with "high-performing" teachers. The screening tool demonstrated an acceptable/good validity (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.68 for "low-performing teachers" and 0.78 for "high-performing" teachers). Our brief screening tool can facilitate teacher training and recruitment of engaged teachers in implementation of school-based interventions.

  12. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) methods

    OpenAIRE

    Owens Chantelle J; Owusu-Edusei Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, g...

  13. Implementation of cervical cancer screening: A demonstration in a rural community of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Labani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: S trategies for implementation of cervical screening are the need of the hour while effective screening tests for early detection exist. Aim: To demonstrate the implementation of cervical cancer screening by aided visual tests in a North Indian rural community. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional study in a rural setting. Subjects and Methods: Baseline survey of community perspectives of screening and identification of eligible women of age 30-59 years was performed by Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs. Screening was targeted on 7604 women by the methods of visual inspection of cervix using acetic acid (VIA, by using lugol′s iodine (VILI tests and by Pap test. Screen positives were referred to colposcopy and further management. Data on evaluation parameters was collected. Statistical Analysis: Screening test performances were assessed by sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV for detection of histological CIN II+. Results: Study showed coverage of 65.6% of total eligible women (7604. Extent of agreement of visual testes (VIA/VILI between nurses and doctor was 77.3-100%. Screen positivity rates by VIA, VILI and Pap were 9.7%, 13.5% and 2.6%, respectively. Screen positives turned up for confirmatory diagnosis were 78%. Acceptance of treatment was 76%. Screen positivity of VIA and VILI declined (P < 0.001 with increase in age. Sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of VIA were 59.0%, 92.3% and 3.6% and of VILI were72.7%, 89.6% and 3.3% respectively. NPV was 99% in all the tests. Conclusion: Implementation of screening by aided visual tests was successfully demonstrated through utilization of ASHAs for motivation, achievement of good coverage and good response in clinical management of screen positives.

  14. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  15. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  16. Determinants of successful implementation of population-based cancer screening programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Törnberg, Sven; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate the future implementation of population-based cancer screening programmes in European countries, we summarised the experience gained from existing programmes across Europe. We listed points that citizens, advocacy groups, politicians, health planners, and health professionals should......) piloting or trial implementation, (5) scaling up from pilot to service, (6) running of full-scale programme, and (7) sustainability. For each phase, a substantial number of specified conditions have to be met. Successful implementation of a cancer screening programme requires societal acceptance and local...

  17. Implementation of latent tuberculosis screening in HIV care centres: evaluation in a low tuberculosis incidence setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham-Thomas, C; Schepers, K; Dirix, V; Mascart, F; Van Vooren, J-P; Goffard, J-C

    2016-03-01

    The screening and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to prevent active tuberculosis (TB) is recommended by the WHO in all HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate its implementation within Belgium's HIV care. A multiple-choice questionnaire was sent to 55 physicians working in the country's AIDS reference centres. Response rate reached 62%. Only 20% screened all their HIV-infected patients for LTBI. Screening methods used and their interpretation vary from one physician to another. The main barriers to the implementation of LTBI screening and treatment, as perceived by the participants, are lack of sensitivity of screening tools, risks associated with polypharmacy and toxicity of treatment. The poor coverage of LTBI screening reported here and the inconsistency in methods used raises concern. However, this was not unexpected as, in low-TB incidence countries, who, when and how to screen for LTBI remains unclear and published guidelines show important disparities. Recently, a targeted approach in which only HIV-infected patients at highest risk of TB are screened has been suggested. Such a strategy would limit unnecessary exposure to LTBI treatment. This methodology was approved by 80% of the participants and could therefore achieve greater coverage. Its clinical validation is still pending.

  18. Implementation of Web-Based Autism Screening in an Urban Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Bianca A; Haynes, Kiauhna; Smith, Joy; McFadden, Terri; Robins, Diana L

    2016-09-01

    Screening toddlers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers, Revised (M-CHAT-R) has been shown to lower age of diagnosis by 2 years. In order to streamline ASD screening, research is exploring the use of web-based screening during well-child checkups. The current study examined implementation of the web-based M-CHAT-R in an urban pediatric clinic in Atlanta, Georgia. Toddlers (N = 2557; 87% African American) were screened during well-child visits (Mage = 22.43 months, SD = 3.65). Using the web-based version resulted in a 58.5% increase in the number of cases screened per month. A similar proportion of toddlers in each modality screened positive (P = .43), but significantly fewer children were missing "Follow-up" in the web-based administration (P web-based screening in underserved populations. Future research is necessary to understand factors that facilitate successful implementation of web-based ASD screening.

  19. The time is now to implement HPV testing for primary screening in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    Unacceptable disparities in cervical cancer between richer and poorer countries persist and serve as reminders of gross disparities in access to and quality of screening services. HPV testing is well-suited to address some of the barriers to implementing adequate screening programs in low resource settings. HPV testing has considerably better sensitivity than cytology providing the same extent of safety with fewer rounds of screening. New robust HPV testing platforms require little to no skill by laboratory workers and some can be used at the point-of-care. This allows for a round of screening to be accomplished in one or two visits, reducing costs and the inevitable attrition that occurs when women need to be recalled to obtain their results. HPV testing is ideal for incorporating into the new "screen-and-treat" approaches designed to overcome limitations of conventional, multi-visit, colposcopy-based approaches to screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the screening test that has been used most widely in screen-and-treat programs to date but the performance characteristics of this test are poor. HPV-based screen-and-treat is more effective in reducing disease in the population and reduces over-treatment intrinsic to this approach. HPV testing can be adapted or combined with other molecular tests to improve treatment algorithms. Infrastructure established to support VIA-based screen-and-treat can effectively incorporate HPV testing. We are poised at a critical juncture in public health history to implement HPV testing as part of primary screening and thereby improve women's health in low resource settings.

  20. Brief Report: Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing Increasing but Still Lagging in HIV Clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Stephen A; Ghanem, Khalil G; Mathews, William Christopher; Korthuis, Philip Todd; Yehia, Baligh R; Agwu, Allison L; Lehmann, Christoph U; Moore, Richard D; Allen, Sara L; Gebo, Kelly A

    2015-11-01

    Screening persons living with HIV for gonorrhea and chlamydia has been recommended since 2003. We compared annual gonorrhea/chlamydia testing to syphilis and lipid testing among 19,368 adults (41% men who have sex with men, 30% heterosexual men, and 29% women) engaged in HIV care. In 2004, 22%, 62%, and 70% of all patients were tested for gonorrhea/chlamydia, syphilis, and lipid levels, respectively. Despite increasing steadily [odds ratio per year (95% confidence interval): 1.14 (1.13 to 1.15)], gonorrhea/chlamydia testing in 2010 remained lower than syphilis and lipid testing (39%, 77%, 76%, respectively). Interventions to improve gonorrhea/chlamydia screening are needed. A more targeted screening approach may be warranted.

  1. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' {alpha}. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented

  2. Risk profile for Chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Morse, D L; Lawrence, C E; Murphy, D; Hipp, S

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. Overall Chlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors for Chlamydia infection included: age oral contraceptives (odds ratio 2.0), a history of having more than one sexual partner (odds ratio 1.7) and, in one clinic where data was available, inflammation on Papanicolaou smears (odds ratio 2.1). These data helped secure funding for Chlamydia preventive services and permitted development of a risk profile (score card) of Chlamydia for each age group. Use of such a score card can be most helpful in assigning which patients could benefit most from Chlamydia cultures, especially in those areas where testing is unavailable or too costly to screen all patients.

  3. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  4. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  5. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women. PMID:28199392

  6. Enhanced chlamydia surveillance in New South Wales (Australia) prisons, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Garry; Boonwaat, Leng; Douglas, Jenny; Awofeso, Niyi

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia is currently the most frequently notified infectious disease in New South Wales (NSW). Published articles relating to chlamydia prevalence in Australian prison settings are sparse, but studies from the United Kingdom and the United States indicate relatively high chlamydia prevalence among young incarcerated individuals. This article reports on findings from an enhanced chlamydia surveillance programme in NSW prisons between 2005 and 2007. The authors report a relatively low chlamydia prevalence among the general population of NSW prisoners (compared with figures from the United Kingdom and United States), which by the end of 2007 was 4%. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for the NSW prison population during the review period was about four times that of the general NSW community - 716/100,000 during the review period compared with 175/100,000 in the NSW general community. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for Aboriginal prisoners during the review period was 1262/100,000, compared with 1470/100,000 in the general Australian Aboriginal population. The authors grapple with the dilemma of expanding chlamydia screening and treatment services for the sexual health benefits of prison populations with static prison health budgets on one hand, and limited evidence of cost-effectiveness of such an expensive intervention on the other.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and maternal outcomes in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnancy is known to have grave impact on maternal and neonatal health, routine CT screening in pregnancy is not available in Ghana The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and adverse maternal outcomes of CT infection among pregnant women attending antennal clinic at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and thirty two (232) pregnant women screened for CT infection by PCR were pur...

  8. Implementation of semi-automated cloning and and prokaryotic expression screening: the impact of SPINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alzari, P.M.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of high-throughput (HTP) cloning and expression screening in Escherichia coli by 14 laboratories in the Structural Proteomics In Europe (SPINE) consortium is described. Cloning efficiencies of greater than 80% have been achieved for the three non-ligation-based cloning techniques

  9. Performance of Implementing Guideline Driven Cervical Cancer Screening Measures in an Inner City Hospital System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Daryl L.; Reimers, Laura L.; Wu, Eijean; Nathan, Lisa M.; Gruenberg, Tammy; Abadi, Maria; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In 2006, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) updated evidence based guidelines recommending screening intervals for women with abnormal cervical cytology. In our low-income inner city population, we sought to improve performance by uniformly applying the guidelines to all patients. We report the prospective performance of a comprehensive tracking, evidence-based algorithmically driven call-back and appointment scheduling system for cervical cancer screening in a resource-limited inner city population. Materials and Methods Outreach efforts were formalized with algorithm-based protocols for triage to colposcopy, with universal adherence to evidence-based guidelines. During implementation from August 2006 through July 2008, we prospectively tracked performance using the electronic medical record with administrative and pathology reports to determine performance variables such as the total number of Pap tests, colposcopy visits, and the distribution of abnormal cytology and histology results, including all CIN 2,3 diagnoses. Results 86,257 gynecologic visits and 41,527 Pap tests were performed system-wide during this period of widespread and uniform implementation of standard cervical cancer screening guidelines. The number of Pap tests performed per month varied little. The incidence of CIN 1 significantly decreased from 117/171 (68.4%) the first tracked month to 52/95 (54.7%) the last tracked month (p=0.04). The monthly incidence rate of CIN 2,3, including incident cervical cancers did not change. The total number of colposcopy visits declined, resulting in a 50% decrease in costs related to colposcopy services and approximately a 12% decrease in costs related to excisional biopsies. Conclusions Adherence to cervical cancer screening guidelines reduced the number of unnecessary colposcopies without increasing numbers of potentially missed CIN 2,3 lesions, including cervical cancer. Uniform implementation of administrative

  10. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwers Melissa C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological

  11. Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: an implementation guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. Several high-quality systematic reviews and practice guidelines exist to inform the most effective screening options. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. We developed an implementation guideline to answer the question: What interventions have been shown to increase the uptake of cancer screening by individuals, specifically for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers? Methods A guideline panel was established as part of Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-based Care, and a systematic review of the published literature was conducted. It yielded three foundational systematic reviews and an existing guidance document. We conducted updates of these reviews and searched the literature published between 2004 and 2010. A draft guideline was written that went through two rounds of review. Revisions were made resulting in a final set of guideline recommendations. Results Sixty-six new studies reflecting 74 comparisons met eligibility criteria. They were generally of poor to moderate quality. Using these and the foundational documents, the panel developed a draft guideline. The draft report was well received in the two rounds of review with mean quality scores above four (on a five-point scale) for each of the items. For most of the interventions considered, there was insufficient evidence to support or refute their effectiveness. However, client reminders, reduction of structural barriers, and provision of provider assessment and feedback were recommended interventions to increase screening for at least two of three cancer sites studied. The final guidelines also provide advice on how the recommendations can be used and future areas for research. Conclusion Using established guideline development methodologies and the AGREE II as our methodological frameworks, we developed an

  12. Issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screenings in the emergence of HPV vaccination in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Davidson, Patricia M; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the HPV vaccine has been a major breakthrough in preventing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases around the globe. Cervical cancer is a significant public health problem in Thailand. Despite the long-time availability of cervical cancer screening programs in Thailand, the uptake among the target female population remains low. HPV vaccines were approved by the Food and Drug Administration of Thailand in 2007. As of March 2011, due to financial limitations, HPV vaccines have still not been included in the national immunization program under the public health benefit plans although individuals has the option to pay privately for the vaccine. This paper discusses the issues and challenges in implementing cervical cancer screening programs in the era of HPV vaccination in Thailand. Recommendations to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening and further research to inform a policy regarding the cervical cancer screening measures are proposed.

  13. Evaluation of five kits for screening Chlamydia trachomatis%五种不同沙眼衣原体实验室筛查试剂检测性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广录; 张娟娟; 王峰; 于微; 洪福昌; 蓝丽娜; 吴肖冰; 张春来; 冯铁建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate five kits for screening Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) by comparing the CT screening test results with Roche Cobas Amplicor test . Methods A proportionate stratified sampling was taken a-mong 32 medical institutions, and 1986 urogenital specimens were collected from STD , gynecology and urology clinics from September to November 2009. Various Chlamydia trachomatis detection methods were evaluated by comparing with Roche Cobas Amplicor test as a "golden standard", Results By comparing with Roche Cobas Amplicor test, the sensitivity of three kinds of gold-Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) , I. E. Rapid-test kits of ICA1, ICA2 and ICA3 was 34. 48%, 15. 22% and 52.53% respectively, The specificity was 99.45%, 98.04% and 98. 93% respectively, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 93. 75% ,63. 64% and 92. 86% , the negative predictive value (NPV) was 86. 36%, 83. 68% and 88. 73%. The sensitivity of the two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kits of PCR1 and PCR2 was 70. 09% and 96. 43% respectively ; their specificity was 99. 44% and 100. 00% respectively, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 96. 15% and 100.00% , and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 94. 34% and 99. 31%. Four types of samples tested by ICA kits showed obvious differences in sensitivity and specificity. But no similar results were found in PCR detection test. Conclusions The performances of immuno-chromatographic test kits produced by these three companies are significantly different. But the overall level is lower than that of the PCR detection kits. In addition, the type of specimen also affects the result of Chlamydia trachomatis detection. The immunochromatography test kit is more suitable for female vaginal and cervical samples.%目的 通过对不同商品化沙眼衣原体(CT)检测试剂的检测结果,与Roche Cobas Amplicor检测结果的分析比较,评价5种沙眼衣原体检测试剂的性能.方法 采用分层按比例的方法抽取32家医

  14. Screening for sexually transmitted diseases in short-term correctional institutions: summary of evidence reviewed for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Anne C; Miller, Jamie; Trigg, Bruce G; Braverman, Paula; Lincoln, Thomas; Reams, Patricia N; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Sumbry, Anitra; Rice, Dana; Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Young persons entering US jails and youth detention facilities have high rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention added STD screening guidelines specific to correctional settings to the 2010 STD Treatment Guidelines. This article summarizes published evidence from 1990 to 2009 used to develop the recommendations. The literature supports routine screening of adolescents and young women (aged ≤35 years, or on the basis of local institutional prevalence data) for chlamydia and gonorrhea because of high prevalence and the subsequent risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. Chlamydia positivity among young women (aged <20 years) in juvenile detention facilities and adult facilities is more than 14%. Men in correctional settings are also at high risk for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Among boys in juvenile detention facilities, chlamydia positivity is estimated at 6.6%; among young men in adult facilities, positivity is 16.6%. Screening men (to reduce sequelae among women) should be considered based on local epidemiology and resource availability. Syphilis screening is not strongly supported in published literature because of low prevalence and is not routinely recommended; however, some screening may be warranted based on local prevalence. Although there is a great diversity in the organization of correctional facilities, implementation of screening recommendations is possible owing to improvements in test technology (urine specimens) and through integration of a standard screening protocol. Based on the high burden of disease and substantial opportunities to reach a high-risk population, correctional facilities are important venues to target efforts to control STDs.

  15. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT: third round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegeman Inge

    2012-06-01

    FIT- screening, such as the one that will be implemented in the Netherlands in 2013.

  16. Assessment of required resources for implementation of national breast cancer screening program in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Nemanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High values of standardized mortality and morbidity rates of standardized cancer mortality in Serbia, especially colorectal, cervical and breast cancer led to creation of national programs for their early detection and engagement of the international support for their implementation. Objective. Assessment of required resources (time, personnel, financial to implement the National program for screening of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia. Methods. Three possible scenarios have been prepared (optimistic, realistic and pessimistic based on the expected coverage by screening of women aged 45 to 69 years, and time, personnel and financial feasibility estimates were made for a two-year screening cycle. Results. Time aspect of feasibility even under conditions of “relaxation” of the assumption on the number of working days during the year did not question feasibility of any of the scenarios. Personnel feasibility is only possible in the pessimistic scenario, while the financial feasibility only makes sense in optimistic scenario as the least unfavorable solution due to economies of scale. Conclusion. Establishment of the initial base of skilled radiologists and radiology technicians and the system for their continuous medical education as well as allocation of specific MoH budget line for screening program expenditures, along with donated mammographs and good organization and coordination, may provide unobstructed implementation of the National program for early detection of breast cancer in the Republic of Serbia.

  17. Implementing women's cancer screening programs in American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Paula M; Orians, Carlyn E; Liebow, Edward; Joe, Jennie R; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Erb, Julie; Kenyon, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program provides funding to tribes and tribal organizations to implement comprehensive cancer screening programs using a program model developed for state health departments. We conducted a multiple-site case study using a participatory research process to describe how 5 tribal programs implemented screening services, and to identify strategies used to address challenges in delivering services to American Indian and Alaska Native women. We analyzed data from semistructured interviews with 141 key informants, 16 focus groups with 132 program-eligible women, and program documents. Several challenges regarding the delivery of services were revealed, including implementing screening programs in busy acute-care environments, access to mammography, providing culturally sensitive care, and providing diagnostic/treatment services in rural and remote locations. Strategies perceived as successful in meeting program challenges included identifying a "champion" or main supporter of the program in each clinical setting, using mobile mammography, using female providers, and increasing the capacity to provide diagnostic services at screening sites. The results should be of interest to an international audience, including those who work with health-related programs targeting indigenous women or groups that are marginalized because of culture, geographic isolation, and/or socioeconomic position.

  18. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vellinga Akke; O'Donovan Diarmuid; Glacken Marita; Cormican Martin; Brennan Wendy; O'Connell Emer; Cahill Niall; Lysaght Fionnguala; O'Donnell Joan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting duri...

  20. Psychiatric Assessment and Screening for the Elderly in Primary Care: Design, Implementation, and Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Abrams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We describe the design and implementation of a psychiatric collaborative care model in a university-based geriatric primary care practice. Initial results of screening for anxiety and depression are reported. Methods and Materials. Screens for anxiety and depression were administered to practice patients. A mental health team, consisting of a psychiatrist, mental health nurse practitioner, and social worker, identified patients who on review of screening and chart data warranted evaluation or treatment. Referrals for mental health interventions were directed to members of the mental health team, primary care physicians at the practice, or community providers. Results. Subjects (N=1505 comprised 38.2% of the 3940 unique patients seen at the practice during the 4-year study period. 37.1% (N=555 screened positive for depression, 26.9% (N=405 for anxiety, and 322 (21.4% screened positive for both. Any positive score was associated with age (P<0.033, female gender (P<0.006, and a nonsignificant trend toward living alone (P<0.095. 8.87% had suicidal thoughts. Conclusions. Screening captured the most affectively symptomatic patients, including those with suicidal ideation, for intervention. The partnering of mental health professionals and primary care physicians offers a workable model for addressing the scarcity of expertise in geriatric psychiatry.

  1. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens.

  2. The Early Results of a New Health Care Program Implementation in HBV Screening: an Iranian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Afsaneh; Naderi, Nostratollah; Sanati, Azar; Mohebi, Seyed Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Golmohamadi, Ali; Nori, Simin; Khanyaghma, Mahsa; Sheikhesmaeili, Farshad; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND According to the reports of World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran has decreased from 2-7% in 2001 to 1.3-0.8% in children aged 2-14 years. In 2010 the Institute of Medicine recommended more comprehensive screening by primary care physicians (PCPs) for evaluation, vaccination, and management of infected patients for further decrease in the prevalence of chronic HBV infection. Thus, with contribution of the Health Department, we developed a practical flowchart for PCPs to start active screening of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in all visited patients and refer the positive cases for further evaluation and management to Taleghani Hospital. METHODS With collaboration of Health Department of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences), physicians of health centers were asked to screen all their patients for HBsAg. Positive cases were referred to Taleghani Hospital. They were first registered and educated about their disease, life style, and prevention methods. Their first degree families were screened for HBV infection too and were referred for vaccination if needed. According to the results of lab tests, appropriate management was done by a hepatologist. RESULTS Since implementation of this program, we have encountered a significant rise in patient detection (even in high risk groups). Many of them were not aware of their disease and most of those who were aware of their disease were not managed appropriately. Family screening and vaccination were inadequate and need more emphasis. CONCLUSION Although health system is active about screening of HBV infection in high risk populations, it is not perfect. It seems that health system needs to upgrade the screening and management programs of HBV infection.

  3. Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia in North West zone of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbonlahor DE; Okoror LE; Esumeh FI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Chlamydia is made of organism responsible for respiratory as well as genital infections with very se-rious sequelae.In Nigeria there is paucity of information regards relative frequencies of Chlamydia infection of which this study reports in North West zone of Nigeria.Methods:Three hundred and thirty three (333)blood samples were collected from individuals attending various clinics in North West zone of Nigeria and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing antibody.Swabs collected from positive patients were re-tested using the Ro-manowsky-Giemsa staining technique.Statistical analysis were carried out in epi-info epidemiological software package.Results:From the total of 333 samples collected and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing anti-body (CCFA)only 287 (86%)were positive.The culture showed that 215 (75%)were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis while only 135 (47%)were positive for Chlamydia pneumoniae.Seventy-one (71)fe-males had symptomatic infection while 31 males were symptomatic.Of the 104 individuals who were asympto-matic 67 were females while 92 were males.Of the 31 symptomatic males were 22 positive to Chlamydia pneu-moniae and the symptoms being that of respiratory syndrome while 9 had difficulty urinating.All the symptom-atic women had symptoms resembling that of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)and vaginal discharge. Age groups 31-35 had the highest positive samples while the extreme ages had the lowest number of positive in-dividuals and also the lowest number of samples.The number of samples as well as the positive results were validated using the epi-info statistical package version 3.4.1.There was no significant difference in the num-ber of samples from both males and females (χ2 =1.360,CI =99%).Conclusion:A high percentage of pos-itive result as validated by statistical analysis shows that Chlamydia infections are endemic in the population and efforts should be made to screen for the organism to avoid the "silent epidemics".

  4. Using clinical decision support as a means of implementing a universal postpartum depression screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Holly; Nentin, Farida; Silverman, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    A major barrier to the diagnosis of postpartum depression (PPD) includes symptom detection. The lack of awareness and understanding of PPD among new mothers, the variability in clinical presentation, and the various diagnostic strategies can increase this further. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of adding clinical decision support (CDS) to the electronic health record (EHR) as a means of implementing a universal standardized PPD screening program within a large, at high risk, population. All women returning to the Mount Sinai Hospital OB/GYN Ambulatory Practice for postpartum care between 2010 and 2013 were presented with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in response to a CDS "hard stop" built into the EHR. Of the 2102 women who presented for postpartum care, 2092 women (99.5 %) were screened for PPD in response to a CDS hard stop module. Screens were missing on ten records (0.5 %) secondary to refusal, language barrier, or lack of clarity in the EHR. Technology is becoming increasingly important in addressing the challenges faced by health care providers. While the identification of PPD has become the recent focus of public health concerns secondary to the significant social burden, numerous barriers to screening still exist within the clinical setting. The utility of adding CDS in the form of a hard stop, requiring clinicians to enter a standardized PPD mood assessment score to the patient EHR, offers a sufficient way to address a primary barrier to PPD symptom identification at the practitioner level.

  5. Implementation of a nation-wide automated auditory brainstem response hearing screening programme in neonatal intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straaten, H.L.M. van; Hille, E.T.M.; Kok, J.H.; Verkerk, P.H.; Baerts, W.; Bunkers, C.M.; Smink, E.W.A.; Elburg, R.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Ilsen, A.; Maingay-Visser, A.P.G.F.; Vries, L.S. de; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: As part of a future national neonatal hearing screening programme in the Netherlands, automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) hearing screening was implemented in seven neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The objective was to evaluate key outcomes of this programme: participation rate,

  6. Improving the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) : a study using Chlamydia trachomatis as a model infection

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current preventive strategies sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising. This thesis presents a model with the aim of improving the prevention of STIs. Chlamydia being the most common STI in Sweden serves as a model infection. The presented model is based on five performed studies. First we evaluated the feasibility of taking a urine sample at home and sending it with mail for Chlamydia analysis. Postal screening was thereafter analyzed for cost effectiveness estimating th...

  7. [Cervicitis--epidemiological and clinical risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, A; Stevenson, M

    1994-01-01

    Fifty volunteer, asymptomatic sexually active university female students were examined and inquired, in order to find risk factors predictive of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Epidemiologic and behavioral factors (age, number of sexual partners, oral contraceptives use and history of previous sexually transmitted diseases) were found to be similar among the studied group and published data for North American female college students, but barrier contraceptive methods use was found to be different. Twenty two per cent of the sample had clinical cervicitis, and 30% had subclinical. If the screening models proposed by different authors would have been applied, between a 32% and 72% of the sample would have been selectively for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is concluded that international sugerences about Chlamydia trachomatis screening should be adopted until national experiences are made.

  8. Implementation of a food insecurity screening and referral program in student-run free clinics in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sunny; Malinak, David; Chang, Jinnie; Perez, Maria; Perez, Sandra; Settlecowski, Erica; Rodriggs, Timothy; Hsu, Ming; Abrew, Alexandra; Aedo, Sofia

    2017-03-01

    Food insecurity is associated with many poor health outcomes yet is not routinely addressed in clinical settings. The purpose of this study was to implement a food insecurity screening and referral program in Student-run Free Clinics (SRFC) and to document the prevalence of food insecurity screening in this low-income patient population. All patients seen in three SRFC sites affiliated with one institution in San Diego, California were screened for food insecurity using the 6-item United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Security Survey between January and July 2015 and referred to appropriate resources. The percentage of patients who were food insecure was calculated. The screening rate was 92.5% (430/463 patients), 74.0% (318/430) were food insecure, including 30.7% (132/430) with very low food security. A food insecurity registry and referral tracking system revealed that by January 2016, 201 participants were receiving monthly boxes of food onsite, 66 used an off-site food pantry, and 64 were enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). It is possible to implement a food insecurity screening and referral program into SRFCs. The prevalence of food insecurity in this population was remarkably high yet remained largely unknown until this program was implemented. Other health care settings, particularly those with underserved patient populations, should consider implementing food insecurity screening and referral programs.

  9. An early evaluation of clinical and economic costs and benefits of implementing point of care NAAT tests for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea in genitourinary medicine clinics in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine M E; Round, Jeff; Horner, Patrick; Macleod, John; Goldenberg, Simon; Deol, Arminder; Adams, Elisabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the costs and benefits of clinical pathways incorporating a point of care (POC) nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics compared with standard off-site laboratory testing. Method We simulated 1.2 million GUM clinic attendees in England. A simulation in Microsoft Excel was developed to compare existing standard pathways of management for chlamydia and gonorrhoea with a POC NAAT. We conducted scenario analyses to evaluate the robustness of the model findings. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Secondary outcomes included the number of inappropriate treatments, complications and transmissions averted. Results The baseline cost of using the point of POC NAAT was £103.9 million compared with £115.6 million for standard care. The POC NAAT was also associated with a small increase of 46 quality adjusted life years, making the new test both more effective and cheaper. Over 95 000 inappropriate treatments might be avoided by using a POC NAAT. Patients receive diagnosis and treatment on the same day as testing, which may also prevent 189 cases of pelvic inflammatory disease and 17 561 onward transmissions annually. Discussion Replacing standard laboratory tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea with a POC test could be cost saving and patients would benefit from more accurate diagnosis and less unnecessary treatment. Overtreatment currently accounts for about a tenth of the reported treatments for chlamydia and gonorrhoea and POC NAATs would effectively eliminate the need for presumptive treatment. PMID:24273127

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis: avances y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Ostos Ortiz, Olga Lucia; Sánchez, Ruth Mélida

    2003-01-01

    La Chlamydia es una bacteria Gram negativa, no móvil, de vida parasitaria intracelular obligada porque carece de habilidad para sintetizar ATP, son parásitos energéticos, no tienen vida libre y colonizan el citoplasma de las células susceptibles

  11. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, T P; Miceli, M; Silverman, J A

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [35S]methionine and [35S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and...

  12. Implementing and evaluating a program to facilitate chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: a mixed methods program evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Sopcak, Nicolette; O’Brien, Mary Ann; Meaney, Christopher; Faria, Vee; Baxter, Julia; Moineddin, Rahim; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Green, Lee; Cave, Andrew; Grunfeld, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background The objectives of this paper are to describe the planned implementation and evaluation of the Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Primary Care (BETTER 2) program which originated from the BETTER trial. The pragmatic trial, informed by the Chronic Care Model, demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening (CDPS) involving the use of a new role, the prevention practitioner. The desired goals of t...

  13. Improvement in screening for sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients following implementation of a nurse-led clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, E; Barrett, S; Kelsey, J; Lockyer, S; Welz, T; Poulton, M

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in the uptake of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening resulting from implementation of a specific STI clinic for HIV-positive patients. An audit of STI screening in HIV-positive patients was undertaken before and after the establishment of the clinic. Significant increases in the number of patients having a sexual health discussion and annual health screen were seen. High rates of positive results were found in all patient groups. National guidelines recommend regular STI screening for all HIV-positive patients. A specific clinic for HIV-positive patients is feasible and acceptable and may result in an increase in uptake of STI screening.

  14. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Owens, Chantelle J

    2009-01-01

    Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races) from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS) for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p 300 cases per 100,000 residents) than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less) in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379). The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than its contiguous neighbors. Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time. PMID:19245686

  15. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Chantelle J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p 300 cases per 100,000 residents than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379. The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time.

  16. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J.S; Juul, Svend; Vammen, S

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between the progression of small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHODS: Patients from a hospital-based mass screening programme for AAA with annual follow-up (mean 2.7 years....... pneumoniae. Aneurysm progression correlated with evidence of chronic C. pneumoniae infection....

  17. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Vandahl, Brian; Larsen, Martin Røssel;

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D......-PAGE profiles of whole lysates of infected cells but absent from purified Chlamydia. CPAF was recently identified by Zhong and colleagues as a secreted protease which cleaves host cell transcription factors essential for MHC class I and II antigen presentation. The identification of CPAF in this paper verifies...

  18. The Peru Cervical Cancer Screening Study (PERCAPS): the design and implementation of a mother/daughter screen, treat, and vaccinate program in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Carolina E; Levinson, Kimberly L; Salmeron, Jorge; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Fernandez, Maria Jose Vallejos; Belinson, Jerome L

    2014-06-01

    Peru struggles to prevent cervical cancer (CC). In the jungle, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers although technology exists to detect CC precursors. This study used community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to overcome barriers. The objective was to evaluate the utility of CBPR techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for CC prevention in the Peruvian jungle. The CC prevention program used self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) for screening, cryotherapy for treatment and the HPV vaccine Gardasil for vaccination. Community health leaders (HL) from around Iquitos participated in a two half day educational course. The HLs then decided how to implement interventions in their villages or urban sectors. The success of the program was measured by: (1) ability of the HLs to determine an implementation plan, (2) proper use of research forms, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) participants' satisfaction. HLs successfully registered 320 women at soup kitchens, schools, and health posts. Screening, treatment, and vaccination were successfully carried out using forms for registration, consent, and results with minimum error. In the screen/treat intervention 100% of participants gave an HPV sample and 99.7% reported high satisfaction; 81% of HPV + women were treated, and 57% returned for 6-month followup. Vaccine intervention: 98% of girls received the 1st vaccine, 88% of those received the 2nd, and 65% the 3rd. CBPR techniques successfully helped implement a screen/treat and vaccinate CC prevention program around Iquitos, Peru. These techniques may be appropriate for large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

  19. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W

    1983-03-01

    The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.

  20. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  1. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  2. Exploring Short-Term Responses to Changes in the Control Strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Clarke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  3. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence.

  4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Implementation Strategies of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing in Down Syndrome Screening Programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersy, E.; Die-Smulders, C.E. de; Coumans, A.B.; Smits, L.J.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de; Frints, S.G.; Veltman, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in Down syndrome screening programmes requires health policy decisions about its combination with other tests and its timing in pregnancy. AIM: Our aim was to aid health policy decision makers by conducting a quantitative analysis of

  5. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were exam...

  6. Implementation of a screen and treat program for child posttraumatic stress disorder in a school setting after a school suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuvastra, Anthony; Goldfarb, Elizabeth; Petkova, Eva; Cloitre, Marylene

    2010-08-01

    To provide effective treatments for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) children with PTSD must first be identified. The authors implemented a "screen and treat" program following a widely witnessed school suicide. Three months after the suicide, exposed students received the Child Trauma Symptom Questionnaire at school. Parents received the questionnaire to rate their children's PTSD symptoms. Children with scores > or =5 received follow-up interviews and those diagnosed with PTSD were referred for treatment. Ninety-six percent of exposed students were screened, 14% screened positive, and 6% had PTSD. Child and parent agreement was generally poor. All children with PTSD were successfully referred to treatment. Screen and treat programs using existing clinical instruments are efficient and acceptable for use in school settings following trauma.

  7. Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zaeimi Yazdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI recognized throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statistical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 endocervical samples were taken from women suffering from cervicitis attending to Mirzakoochakkhan Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA and PCR techniques were used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples. Twenty two (15.5% [95% CI, 9.54-21.4] of 142 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results, while DFA diagnosed 20 (14.1% positive cases [95% CI, 8.37-19.8]. No statistically significant difference was found between two diagnosis methods applied in this study. The prevalence was the highest (25% among women aged 25 to 29 yr and 35 to 39 yr. The x 2 test showed a significant relationship between positive test result and bearing a history of STI (P= 0. The results of this study showed high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women suffering from cervicitis and suggested that patients diagnosed with genital Chlamydia infection should be referred to the genitourinary medicine clinic for further STI screening and partner notification.

  8. Activity of Cathelicidin Peptides against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Leo, Korinne; Benincasa, Monica; Cavrini, Francesca; Accardo, Silvia; Moroni, Alessandra; Gennaro, Renato; Cevenini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of six cathelicidin peptides against 25 strains of Chlamydia was investigated. SMAP-29 proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion numbers of all 10 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis tested by ≥50% at 10 μg/ml. This peptide was also active against C. pneumoniae and C. felis. PMID:15728927

  9. Trends in breast cancer mortality in Sweden before and after implementation of mammography screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Haukka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start. RESULTS: Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22% in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20% in women 40 to 79 years of age. DISCUSSION: Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.

  10. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  11. Pilot prevalence evaluation of Chlamydia Trachomatis by PCR in female infertile referred to study center of infertility in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Goshayeshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common diseases as sexually transferred in world. According to the World Health Organization statistics, approximately 92 million new Chlamydia trachomatis infection occur in the world. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the cause of tubal obstruction, ectopic pregnancy and infertility in women. The aim of this study is prevalence evaluation of Chlamydia Trachomatis by PCR in female infertile referred to Montasarieh study center of infertility in Mashhad. Materials and Methods: The cervical swab specimens were collected from 100 infertile (as case and 30 fertile (as control group women attending to the infertility center of Mash-had Medical University. DNA extraction was performed from clinical specimens using DNA extraction kit. In this study, in addition to PCR reaction by commercial kit, PCR test was performed using specific primers and probe for CTCP gene. Results: The results of PCR reaction using the kit was match with PCR test and showed that the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is 21% in infertile women and 3.3% in normal fertile women that was statistically significant (p=0.024. Conclusion: Considering the high sensitivity of PCR method for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, this method can be useful for routine screening.

  12. Further investigation on MODIS solar diffuser screen vignetting function and its implementation in RSB calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, Williams L.

    2011-10-01

    The MODIS high-gain ocean color bands (B8-B16) are calibrated with its solar diffuser screen (SDS) closed to avoid saturation so that the vignetting function (VF) of SDS is necessary for the calculation of the gain coefficients of these detectors. Since there was no pre-launch system level characterization of the VF, a series of yaw maneuvers were carried out at the mission beginning for both Terra and Aqua to enable its on-orbit characterization. Current VF was derived from the low-gain bands (B1-B7 & B17-B19) data and applied to high-gain ocean color bands calibration, with the assumption that all bands and detectors should share the same VF since it is wavelength independent. As expected, error exists and it was carried over into the calibrated gain coefficients of those bands that use the SDS for their on-orbit calibration. In this paper, an improved VF calculation approach, still using the yaw data as input, is presented. The new approach takes the frame-level mismatch between different detector's footprints on the solar diffuser (SD) into account so that a proper SD image frame adjustment is made when the VF of the low-gain bands is translated into high-gain bands VF. A new set of band-and-detector dependent VFs can be derived using this approach. The implementation of the new VF into calibration of high-gain bands gain coefficient has effectively reduced the undesired seasonal oscillations in its trending from up to Terra's 0.6% and Aqua's 1.0% to nearly 0.2%.

  13. An observational study to evaluate three pilot programmes of retesting chlamydia-positive individuals within 6 months in the South West of England

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate 3 pilot chlamydia retesting programmes in South West England which were initiated prior to the release of new National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) guidelines recommending retesting in 2014.METHODS: Individuals testing positive between August 2012 and July 2013 in Bristol (n=346), Cornwall (n=252) and Dorset (n=180) programmes were eligible for inclusion in the retesting pilots. The primary outcomes were retest within 6 months (yes/no) and repeat diagnosis at r...

  14. [Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, T; Rullo, F; Smeraglia, R; Giorgio, A; Lettieri, G; Sannino, F; Martinelli, A

    1988-01-01

    330 women with a median age of 30.15 (+- 9.5) years sought gynecological consultation for advice on contraception and for cervical carcinoma screening. Anamnesis explored the presence of dysuria, dyspareunia, secretions, and pelvic pain, the number of partners, and type of contraceptive used. Endocervical samples were collected by means of tampon and the specimens were analyzed for 48 to 120 hours to find antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) by a solid phase immunoenzymatic test. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from all women to look for antibodies of C.T. and also the indirect immunoperoxidase test was used to search for specific antibodies of C.T. (IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG). The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. None of the women who used oral hormonal contraceptives or condoms were infected (presence of antigens and positivity for IgM and/or IgE and/or IgA), however, 36 of 90 IUD users (40%) were infected, 18 of 132 women who used no contraceptives whatsoever (13.7%) were also infected. 91% of the subjects had a single partner. In view of these findings the use of the condom and oral contraceptives is recommended with proper instruction about their potential side effects.

  15. Towards effective implementation strategies for ultrasound hip screening in child health care : meet the parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witting, M.

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is essential to allow for the normal development of the hip. In the Netherlands, the current screening for DDH consists of physical examination and identification of risk factors. In previous studies, ultrasound screening was

  16. Phase 1 implementation of nutrition screening in a Dublin acute teaching hospital

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition Screening Week results from 2010 and 2011 indicated that one in three to four patients admitted to Irish Hospitals are at risk of disease-related malnutrition, 74-75% of whom are at high risk1. Nutrition screening tools are used to screen for malnutrition risk. One such tool, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST)2 is a practical, easy to use tool that often takes ≤5 minutes to complete. MUST has been validated across care settings and across patient populations, and has been recommended for use in Irish Hospitals by the Department of Health and Children as part of standard care3. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK has demonstrated significant financial savings associated with the use of routine nutrition screening, in part due to reduced length of hospital stay4. The Irish Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (IrSPEN) has also demonstrated this5

  17. Pneumonia grave por "Chlamydia psittaci"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSCHIONI CRISTIANE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A psitacose, também conhecida como ornitose, é causada pela Chlamydia psittaci; caracteriza-se por doença de início insidioso, sintomas brandos e inespecíficos, lembrando infecção de vias aéreas superiores. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, sendo raramente doença sistêmica e fatal. Descreve-se um caso raro de pneumonia por Chlamydia psittaci que evoluiu para insuficiência respiratória aguda, necessitando de ventilação mecânica. Destaca-se a importância em considerar o diagnóstico, especialmente em casos de pneumonia comunitária que evolui de modo insatisfatório, que não responde à terapia antimicrobiana e cuja epidemiologia é positiva para exposição às aves. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental devido à excelente resposta terapêutica. O diagnóstico tardio pode levar a curso grave e fatal da doença.

  18. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  2. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Arceo, J; Toca Porraz, L; Díaz Esponda, C; Nava Flores, J

    1993-11-01

    We studied 93 gynecological samples of uterine cervix of patients at Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia No. 3, Centro Médico La Raza, IMSS, Health Promotion and Family Medicine Unit No. 5 with monoclonal antibodies. We found Chlamydia trachomatis in 28.4% in women where the infection was suspected. We should think in infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in women with acute cervicitis, acute salpingitis, cervical abnormalities, and to run the specific tests for its detection.

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis detection in cervical PreservCyt specimens from an Irish urban female population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in urban women undergoing routine cervical cytological screening and to investigate the relationship with age, cytology, smoking status and concurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. METHODS: A total of 996 women (age range 16-69 years) attending general practitioners for routine liquid-based cervical smear screening in the Dublin area were recruited in the study of prevalence of C. trachomatis. Informed consent was obtained and liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were sent for cytological screening. DNA was extracted from residual LBC and tested for C. trachomatis by PCR using the highly sensitive C. trachomatis plasmid (CTP) primers and for HPV infection using the MY09\\/11 primers directed to the HPV L1 gene in a multiplex format. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 5.4%. Prevalence was highest in the <25 years age group (10%). Coinfection with HPV and C. trachomatis occurred in 1% of the screening population. A higher rate of smoking was observed in women positive for C. trachomatis, HPV infections or those with abnormal cervical cytology. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was not associated with abnormal cytology. CONCLUSIONS: Women (5.4%) presenting for routine cervical screening are infected with C. trachomatis. Opportunistic screening for C. trachomatis from PreservCyt sample taken at the time of cervical cytological screening may be a possible strategy to screen for C. trachomatis in the Irish female population.

  5. A time-table organizer for the planning and implementation of screenings in manual or semi-automation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktug, Asli N.; Chai, Sergio C.; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a software to facilitate the planning and execution of screenings performed manually or in semi-automation mode, which follow a sequential sequence of events. Many assays involve multiple steps, often including time-sensitive stages, thus complicating the proper implementation to ensure that all plates are treated equally in order to achieve reliable outcomes. The Excel Macro-Enabled Workbook presented in this study analyzes and breaks down the timings for all tasks, calculates the maximum number of plates that suit the desired parameters, and allows for optimization based on tolerance of time delay and equal treatment of plates when possible. The generated Gantt charts allow for visual inspection of the screening process, and provide timings in tabulated form to assist the user to conduct the experiments as projected by the software. The program can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sams-hts/. PMID:23653394

  6. A timetable organizer for the planning and implementation of screenings in manual or semi-automation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goktug, Asli N; Chai, Sergio C; Chen, Taosheng

    2013-09-01

    We have designed an Excel spreadsheet to facilitate the planning and execution of screenings performed manually or in semi-automation mode, following a sequential set of events. Many assays involve multiple steps, often including time-sensitive stages, thus complicating the proper implementation to ensure that all plates are treated equally to achieve reliable outcomes. The spreadsheet macro presented in this study analyzes and breaks down the timings for all tasks, calculates the limitation in the number of plates that suit the desired parameters, and allows for optimization based on tolerance of time delay and equal treatment of plates when possible. The generated Gantt charts allow for visual inspection of the screening process and provide timings in a tabulated form to assist the user to conduct the experiments as projected by the software. The program can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sams-hts/.

  7. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Powell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  8. Implementing neonatal screening for congenital cytomegalovirus: addressing the deafness of policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jutte J C; Vossen, Ann C T M; Kroes, Aloys C M; van der Zeijst, Bernard A M

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important public health problem with approximately 7 in 1,000 newborns infected and consequently at risk for hearing impairment. Newborn hearing screening will fail to detect this hearing impairment in approximately half of the cases because late onset hearing loss is frequent. Hearing impairment has profound impact on cognitive and social development of children and their families, determining most of the disease burden of congenital CMV infection. The potential value of newborn screening for congenital CMV is increasingly discussed. To date, many experts acknowledge the benefit of antiviral treatment in the prevention of hearing deterioration in newborns with neurological symptoms, and the benefit of early identification of late-onset hearing impairment by means of extensive audiological follow up of infected infants. These opinions imply that the potential of newborn screening for CMV would lie in the identification of the large proportion of asymptomatic congenitally infected newborns at risk for developing late-onset hearing loss. Experience with postnatal antiviral treatment of symptomatic newborns is encouraging, but has not been studied in asymptomatic congenitally infected newborns. A large-scale study on the safety and effectiveness of combined screening and antiviral therapy for congenital CMV infection is the necessary next step to take and should not be delayed.

  9. Implementing relevance feedback in ligand-based virtual screening using Bayesian inference network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Ammar; Salim, Naomie; Ahmed, Ali

    2011-10-01

    Recently, the use of the Bayesian network as an alternative to existing tools for similarity-based virtual screening has received noticeable attention from researchers in the chemoinformatics field. The main aim of the Bayesian network model is to improve the retrieval effectiveness of similarity-based virtual screening. To this end, different models of the Bayesian network have been developed. In our previous works, the retrieval performance of the Bayesian network was observed to improve significantly when multiple reference structures or fragment weightings were used. In this article, the authors enhance the Bayesian inference network (BIN) using the relevance feedback information. In this approach, a few high-ranking structures of unknown activity were filtered from the outputs of BIN, based on a single active reference structure, to form a set of active reference structures. This set of active reference structures was used in two distinct techniques for carrying out such BIN searching: reweighting the fragments in the reference structures and group fusion techniques. Simulated virtual screening experiments with three MDL Drug Data Report data sets showed that the proposed techniques provide simple ways of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of ligand-based virtual screening searches, especially for higher diversity data sets.

  10. Development and Implementation of High School Chemistry Modules Using Touch-Screen Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Maurica S.; Zhao, Jinhui; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2012-01-01

    Technology was employed to motivate and captivate students while enriching their in-class education. An outreach program is described that involved college mentors introducing touch-screen technology into a high school chemistry classroom. Three modules were developed, with two of them specifically tailored to encourage comprehension of molecular…

  11. Feasibility of implementing the 'Screening for Distress and Referral Need' process in 23 Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nuenen, F M; Donofrio, S M; Tuinman, M A; van de Wiel, H B M; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the three-step process 'Screening for Distress and Referral Need' (SDRN) was developed for helping identifying, and referring cancer patients suffering from clinically relevant distress or needing a referral. This process includes (1) instrument completion, (2) patient-care provi

  12. Implementing Universal Maternal Depression Screening in Home Visiting Programs: A Pragmatic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Lisa S.; Taylor, Darby

    2014-01-01

    Maternal depression, although prevalent in low-income women, is not an inevitable consequence of poverty. Nevertheless, depression is a double burden for impoverished women: compromising infant development and diminishing mothers' ability to benefit from or effectively use home visiting services. Without universal screening, depression is often…

  13. Screening for diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in Southern Nigeria: a multi-centre implementation study under programme settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeke, Ngozi; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Chukwu, Joseph N.; Nwafor, Charles C.; Meka, Anthony O.; Egbagbe, Eruke E.; Soyinka, Festus O.; Alobu, Isaac; Agujiobi, Ifeanyi; Akingbesote, Samuel; Igbinigie, Osagie; Offor, Job B.; Madichie, Nelson O.; Alphonsus, Chukwuka; Anyim, Moses C.; Mbah, Obinna K.; Oshi, Daniel C.

    2017-01-01

    Implementation studies are recommended to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of programmes. In Nigeria, little is known about the burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to determine screening efficacy, prevalence of DM and determinants of DM among TB patients. We report on a multi-centre implementation study carried-out in 13 health facilities in six States of Southern Nigeria. All newly diagnosed TB patients registered from March to October 2015 were screened for DM using current World Health Organisation guidelines. Overall, 2094 TB patients were evaluated, 196 (9.4%) were found to have DM. The prevalence of newly diagnosed DM was 5.5% (115/2094). DM prevalence varied according to age group; occurring in 2.2% of patients aged ≤ 25 years and 16.9% in patients aged (56–65) years. The additional yield of DM was 59% while the number needed to screen to detect a new case of DM was 18. Factors associated with DM were; age >40 years (aOR2.8, CI 2.1–3.9), rural residence (aOR2.3, 1.6–3.2), private health facility care (aOR2.0, 1.4–2.7), and having an occupation that engages in vigorous activity (aOR0.6, 0.4–0.9). The burden of DM among TB patients is high. Prioritization of DM screening for TB patients is indicated. PMID:28281682

  14. A new implementation of high-throughput five-dimensional clone pooling strategy for BAC library screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deal Karin R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A five-dimensional (5-D clone pooling strategy for screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones with molecular markers utilizing highly-parallel Illumina GoldenGate assays and PCR facilitates high-throughput BAC clone and BAC contig anchoring on a genetic map. However, this strategy occasionally needs manual PCR to deconvolute pools and identify truly positive clones. Results A new implementation is reported here for our previously reported clone pooling strategy. Row and column pools of BAC clones are divided into sub-pools with 1~2× genome coverage. All BAC pools are screened with Illumina's GoldenGate assay and the BAC pools are deconvoluted to identify individual positive clones. Putative positive BAC clones are then further analyzed to find positive clones on the basis of them being neighbours in a contig. An exhaustive search or brute force algorithm was designed for this deconvolution and integrated into a newly developed software tool, FPCBrowser, for analyzing clone pooling data. This algorithm was used with empirical data for 55 Illumina GoldenGate SNP assays detecting SNP markers mapped on Aegilops tauschii chromosome 2D and Ae. tauschii contig maps. Clones in single contigs were successfully assigned to 48 (87% specific SNP markers on the map with 91% precision. Conclusion A new implementation of 5-D BAC clone pooling strategy employing both GoldenGate assay screening and assembled BAC contigs is shown here to be a high-throughput, low cost, rapid, and feasible approach to screening BAC libraries and anchoring BAC clones and contigs on genetic maps. The software FPCBrowser with the integrated clone deconvolution algorithm has been developed and is downloadable at http://avena.pw.usda.gov/wheatD/fpcbrowser.shtml.

  15. Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinghorn, G. R.; Waugh, M A

    1981-01-01

    One thousand eight non-pregnant women aged 16-34 years, presenting for the first time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for C trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral...

  16. Chlamydia in women: a case for more action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-19

    The 1985 Communicable Disease Surveillance Center figures for sexually transmitted diseases document over 14,000 confirmed cases of genital chlamydial infection in women. Yet, this figure seriously underestimates the size of the problem as many chlamydial infections are silent. The mainstay of diagnosis until recently has been isolation of C. trachomatis in cell culture, which is time consuming, technically demanding, expensive, and available in only a few centers. A firm diagnosis of chlamydial infection cannot be based on serology alone. Antibodies can be detected in 78-100% of womn with C. trachomatis in the cervix, but in those who are culture negative 31-87% also will have antibodies. More support is given to the diagnosis by demonstration of a rising titre of IgG antibody or by detection of IgM, but because of the late presentation of most women with chlamydia this is seldom possible. Newer tests include direct immunofluorescence statining of genital secretions which is rapid and simple. Results of this method compare favorably with those of cell culture, but screening large numbers of smears is expensive and tedious. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays also give good results. C trachomatis is a well known cause of cervicitis and salpingitis and is consequently a major factor in infertility. The frequency of chlamydial infection is influenced by sexual activity and promiscuity, but the effect of contraceptive choice is more difficult to determine. An IUD can provide a nidus for many infections, but the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) is more controversial. Instrumentation of the endocervical canal provides a route for introduction of infection, which is therefore a frequent and important complication of induced abortion. Westergaard et al. in a study of women having 1st trimester abortions found that 10% had symptomless cervical chlamydia; postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease developed in 28% of these patients by comparison with 10% in culture

  17. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shubing; Meng, Xiangjun; Skinner, Julie M.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Boddicker, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB) immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups) by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique’s potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia. PMID:27467585

  18. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth is the most common cause of infant death and can lead to long-term health and ... or babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth is the most common cause of infant death and can lead to long-term health and ...

  19. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis among male patients with urethritis in northeast of Iran detected by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiarash Ghazvini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning for appropriate preventive measures against Chlamydia trachomatis, a common cause of sexually transmitted disease, requires knowledge of prevalence of infection so that interventions can be targeted in a cost-effective manner. This study was performed on 178 male patients presenting with urethritis in the Mashhad province to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Northeast Iran. A cotton swab and first voided urine specimen were collected according to standard procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests were used for the detection of C. trachomatis in the specimens collected and the results were analyzed using SPSS program. Results showed that 10.6% of male patients in this group were infected with C. trachomatis. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in the Northeast Iran is high and suggests that Chlamydia screening as a routine part of STD investigations is highly necessary in this area.

  20. Implementing a screening program for acromegaly in Latin America: necessity versus feasibility

    OpenAIRE

    Danilowicz, Karina; Day, Patricia Fainstein; Marcos P. Manavela; Herrera, Carlos Javier; Deheza, María Laura; Isaac, Gabriel; Juri, Ariel; Katz, Debora; Oscar D. Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acromegaly is a rare disease with a large burden due its associated comorbidities and the life-long management required. Since the occurrence and severity of associated complications are related to length of exposure to the excess growth hormone seen in acromegaly, early diagnosis is imperative. The delay in diagnosis, however, can be long, and may be the result of a lack of disease awareness and screening programs. Since acromegaly is an uncommon disease, finding ways to increas...

  1. The Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women Attending Health Clinics in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Hadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is a common cause of sexually transmitted infections (STI anda prevalent microorganism found in the vaginal discharge of sexually active women. The infection usuallyhas no symptoms; although it may cause chronic complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID,ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility and cervical cancer. This study was done, for thefirst time, in Shiraz (southern Iran to determine the prevalence of genital C.T in women.Materials and Methods: A total of 402 women who referred for routine pap smears to randomlyselected health centers in Shiraz were tested with the IMAGEN Chlamydia test, a directimmunofluorescence test for the detection of Chlamydia in human urogenital specimens. Theresults of this test were compared to the socio-demographic condition of each participant as well astheir sexually transmitted disease (STD symptoms, both present and past.Results: The prevalence rate of Chlamydia infection was 8% (32/402. No correlation was foundbetween this infection and age, marital age, number of children, education and occupational statusof the participants. On the other hand, the correlation between the presence of infection and apositive history of STD symptoms, both present and past was significant.Conclusion: Chlamydia infection is quite frequent in our society, where knowledge about STDinfections is scant. Considering the sequelae of this infection and the fact that this is a quiet disease,it seems rational to screen sexually active women and inform them more about this issue.

  2. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  3. Staff views of an opportunistic chlamydia testing pilot in a primary health organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernon S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Auckland chlamydia pilot was one of three pilots funded by the Ministry of Health to trial implementation of the 2008 Chlamydia Management Guidelines prior to national roll-out. AIM: To assess what elements in the testing programme pilot worked best for staff and to determine how an opportunistic testing programme could be better configured to meet staff needs and preferences. METHODS: A staff survey listed key chlamydia testing tasks in chronological order, and service interventions supporting these tasks. Staff were asked to rate each task on its difficulty prior to the pilot, and then on the difference the pilot had made to each task. They were also asked to rate service interventions on their usefulness during the pilot implementation. RESULTS: The survey had a response rate of 94%. The testing tasks posing the greatest difficulties to staff were those involving patient interactions (41% and management of follow-up (52%. About 70% of staff felt tasks were improved by the pilot. Staff considered the three most useful service interventions to be a chlamydia-specific template created for the practice management system, provision of printed patient resources, and regular team discussions with other staff. DISCUSSION: A significant proportion of staff reported difficulties with routine tasks required for opportunistic testing for chlamydia, highlighting the need to involve staff during programme design. Practice nurse-led approaches to future opportunistic testing programmes should be considered as nurses had a more positive response to the pilot and nurse-led approaches have been shown to be successful overseas.

  4. Implementation of a high-throughput screen for identifying small molecules to activate the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Connie Wu

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor that induces a battery of cytoprotective genes involved in antioxidant defense through binding to Antioxidant Response Elements (ARE located in the promoter regions of these genes. To identify Nrf2 activators for the treatment of oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced diseases, the present study developed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Nrf2 activation using AREc32 cells that contain a luciferase gene under the control of ARE promoters. Of the 47,000 compounds screened, 238 (top 0.5% hits of the chemicals increased the luminescent signal more than 14.4-fold and were re-tested at eleven concentrations in a range of 0.01-30 µM. Of these 238 compounds, 231 (96% increased the luminescence signal in a concentration-dependent manner. Chemical structure relationship analysis of these 231 compounds indicated enrichment of four chemical scaffolds (diaryl amides and diaryl ureas, oxazoles and thiazoles, pyranones and thiapyranones, and pyridinones and pyridazinones. In addition, 30 of these 231 compounds were highly effective and/or potent in activating Nrf2, with a greater than 80-fold increase in luminescence, or an EC50 lower than 1.6 µM. These top 30 compounds were also screened in Hepa1c1c7 cells for an increase in Nqo1 mRNA, the prototypical Nrf2-target gene. Of these 30 compounds, 17 increased Nqo1 mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the present study documents the development, implementation, and validation of a high-throughput screen to identify activators of the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway. Results from this screening identified Nrf2 activators, and provide novel insights into chemical scaffolds that might prevent oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  5. Adherence to guidelines on cervical cancer screening in general practice : programme elements of successful implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is still only limited understanding of whether and why interventions to facilitate the implementation of guidelines for improving primary care are successful. It is therefore important to look inside the 'black box' of the intervention, to ascertain which elements work well or less

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakar S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31% neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  7. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  8. Progress in genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yong; Xiong Likuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the common genotyping techniques of Chlamydia trachomatis in terms of their principles,characteristics,applications and limitations.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literatures of PubMed database.The search terms were "Chlamydia trachomatis" and "genotyping".Meanwhile,data from World Health Organization were also cited.Study selection Original articles and reviews relevant to present review's theme were selected.Results Different genotyping techniques were applied on different occasions according to their characteristics,especially in epidemiological studies worldwide,which pushed the study of Chlamydia trachomatis forward greatly.In addition,summaries of some epidemiological studies by genotyping were also included in this work for reference and comparison.Conclusions A clear understanding of common genotyping techniques could be helpful to genotype C.trachomatis more appropriately and effectively.Furthermore,more studies on the association of genotypes of Ch/amydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations should be performed.

  9. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-time in Adolescent Boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Revalds Lubans

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary aim is to describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys ‘at risk’ of obesity from low-income communities.Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the ‘Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time’ (ATLAS program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7± 0.5 years in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation and evaluation of the app are also described.Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app.Conclusions: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys.

  10. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Francis J

    2010-09-01

    best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs.

  11. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  12. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in untreated women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis: a structured review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, W L; Risser, J M H

    2007-11-01

    Because of the long-term consequences of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis screening depends in part on the incidence of PID in untreated, chlamydia-infected women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the original research assessing the incidence of PID following C. trachomatis infection. We conducted a thorough search of the literature and selected all available prospective cohort studies. Six studies had original data: the incidence of PID varied from 0% (97.5% confidence interval [CI] 0-12%) during one year of follow-up of 30 women to 30% (95% CI 12-54%) during 50 days of follow-up of 20 women. Studies that included asymptomatic women in other settings reported a lower incidence than those that evaluated women in sexually transmitted disease clinics. In conclusion, no study was of a size or quality to answer our research question definitively. Investigators and clinicians planning chlamydia-screening programmes need to be cognizant of the inconclusive incidence data.

  13. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci in sputum samples by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, C Y; Sillis, M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci in sputum samples. METHODS--A nested PCR was developed, the first stage of which amplified DNA from both C pneumoniae and C psittaci while the second stage targeted specifically at C pneumoniae, allowing the two species to be differentiated. The primers were designed not to amplify sequences from C trachomatis. A panel of 26 sputum samples from patients with community acquired pneumonia eval...

  14. Osteoporosis screening and treatment among veterans with recent fracture after implementation of an electronic consult service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard H; Lyles, Kenneth W; Pearson, Megan; Barnard, Karen; Colón-Emeric, Cathleen

    2014-06-01

    Fewer than 24% of Veterans received appropriate evaluation and/or treatment for osteoporosis within 6 months of an index fracture. An electronic consult (E-consult) service was implemented at three Veterans Affairs Medical Centers to facilitate the identification of and recommend management for patients with recent fracture. The E-consult service used clinical encounter data based on ICD9 diagnosis codes to prospectively identify patients with potential osteoporotic fractures. Eligible patients' medical records were reviewed by a metabolic bone specialist, and an E-consult note was sent to the patient's primary provider with specific recommendations for further management. Recommendations were initiated at the provider's discretion. Between 2011 and 2013, the E-consult service identified 444 eligible patients with a low-trauma fracture who were not already on treatment. One hundred twenty-nine (29.1%) consults recommended immediate bisphosphonate treatment, and 258 (58.1%) recommended bone density assessments. Primary providers responded by prescribing bisphosphonates in 74 patients (57.4%) and by ordering bone density testing in 183 (70.9%) patients. At the facility level, prior to implementation of the E-consult service, the rate of osteoporosis treatment following a fracture was 4.8% for bisphosphonates and 21.3% for calcium/vitamin D. After implementation, the treatment rate increased to 7.3% for bisphosphonates (p = 0.02) and 35.2% for calcium/vitamin D (p E-consult service modestly improved the rate of osteoporosis treatment among patients with a recent fracture. These results suggest that a program with direct patient interaction is probably required to substantially improve treatment rates.

  15. [Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1983-05-01

    1080 nonpregnant women ages 16-34 years, presenting for the 1st time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for Chlamydia trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptives (OCs). This was not because OC users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking OCs is greater. (author's)

  16. A Randomized Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing Training for Mandated Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Trauma Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Doyanne; Dunn, Christopher; Atkins, David; Ingraham, Leah; Zatzick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The American College of Surgeons has mandated that level I and level II trauma centers implement universal alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) for injured patients. This study was a secondary analysis of a national, 20-hospital, cluster-randomized implementation trial focusing on practical issues of training and supervising alcohol SBI providers in motivational interviewing (MI). The purpose of this study was to examine whether real-world trauma center providers can be trained to provide higher quality counseling using MI as part of brief interventions for alcohol and whether MI skills can be maintained over time. Sites were randomly assigned to receive a 1day workshop training in MI for alcohol SBI or not, and all providers regardless of training completed up to seven standardized patient assessments of MI fidelity over 27months. Six domains on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) coding system were assessed and compared to proficiency criteria. Providers in the intervention training group showed substantially improved MITI scores over the course of the 27-month time period. Domains that had particularly strong improvement were MI spirit and empathy; however, despite the overall improvement in the intervention group scores, expert-derived proficiency criteria were attained only for the global scores. Routine trauma center providers who receive MI training can deliver higher quality counseling in alcohol brief interventions, but may not, however, attain previously derived proficiency standards. Future implementation efforts in real-world acute care medical settings could further elucidate provider characteristics that predict training response and also strive to demonstrate that higher quality alcohol SBI implementation is associated with improved patient-level outcomes.

  17. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis.

  18. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Pneumonia: An Evolving Clinical Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Megran

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a recently recognized respiratory tract pathogen. It accounts for 6 to 10% of all cases of community acquired pneumonia requiring admission to hospital. Two patients hospitalized with C pneumoniae pneumonia are presented to illustrate its range of severity and the extrapulmonary manifestations.

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia: An evolving clinical spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megran, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Marrie, Thomas J

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a recently recognized respiratory tract pathogen. It accounts for 6 to 10% of all cases of community acquired pneumonia requiring admission to hospital. Two patients hospitalized with C pneumoniae pneumonia are presented to illustrate its range of severity and the extrapulmonary manifestations. PMID:22514396

  20. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  1. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  2. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS: TRANSMISION VERTICAL CON MEMBRANAS INTEGRAS

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de transmisión vertical de Chlamydia trachomatis con membranas amniocoriónicas íntegras. Se discute esta rara vía de contagio realizando una revisión actualizada de su diagnóstico y tratamiento

  3. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department ...

  4. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  5. Costing of National STI Program Implementation for the Global STI Control Strategy for the Health Sector, 2016-2021

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenromp, Eline L.; Wi, Teodora; Resch, Stephen; Stover, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In 2016 the World Health Assembly adopted the global strategy on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) 2016–2021 aiming to reduce curable STIs by 90% by 2030. We costed scaling-up priority interventions to coverage targets. Methods Strategy-targeted declines in Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis were applied to WHO-estimated regional burdens at 2012. Syndromic case management was costed for these curable STIs, symptomatic Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2), and non-STI vaginal syndromes, with incrementally expanding etiologic diagnosis. Service unit costs were multiplied with clinic attendances and people targeted for screening or prevention, by income tier. Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and screening were costed for coverage increasing to 60% of 10-year-old girls for vaccination, and 60% of women 30–49 years for twice-lifetime screening (including clinical follow-up for positive screens), by 2021. Results Strategy implementation will cost an estimated US$ 18.1 billion over 2016–2021 in 117 low- and middle-income countries. Cost drivers are HPV vaccination ($3.26 billion) and screening ($3.69 billion), adolescent chlamydia screening ($2.54 billion), and antenatal syphilis screening ($1.4 billion). Clinical management—of 18 million genital ulcers, 29–39 million urethral discharges and 42–53 million vaginal discharges annually—will cost $3.0 billion, including $818 million for service delivery and $1.4 billion for gonorrhea and chlamydia testing. Global costs increase from $2.6 billion to $ 4.0 billion over 2016–2021, driven by HPV services scale-up, despite vaccine price reduction. Sub-Saharan Africa, bearing 40% of curable STI burdens, covers 44% of global service needs and 30% of cost, the Western Pacific 15% of burden/need and 26% of cost, South-East Asia 20% of burden/need and 18% of cost. Conclusions Costs of global STI control depend on price trends for HPV vaccines and

  6. A Web-Based Respondent Driven Sampling Pilot Targeting Young People at Risk for Chlamydia Trachomatis in Social and Sexual Networks with Testing : A Use Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Kevin; Hoebe, Christian; Kok, Gerjo; Crutzen, Rik; Kara-Zaïtri, Chakib; de Vries, Nanne; van Bergen, Jan; Hamilton, Robert; van der Sande, Marianne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. METHODS: Two STI clinic nurses e

  7. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections.

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immuno...

  11. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclrerosis: pathogenic ways

    OpenAIRE

    Woolcott, Orison; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Sánchez, Luis; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process in which macrophages, smooth muscle cells, T lymphocytes, and several chemical mediators intervene. In recent years, the finding of Chlamydia pneumoniae in arterial atherosclerotic plaques has suggested an etiological role; however, whether C. pneumoniae causes atherosclerosis or precipitates or favors atheroesclerosis progression remains uncertain. We review studies published on-line or available in Lima specialized libraries regarding C. pne...

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole.

  14. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P

    2014-04-01

    The Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular bacteria characterized by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. It encompasses the single genus Chlamydia, which involves nine species that affect a wide range of vertebral hosts, causing infections with serious impact on human health (mainly due to Chlamydia trachomatis infections) and on farming and veterinary industries. It is believed that Chlamydiales originated ∼700mya, whereas C. trachomatis likely split from the other Chlamydiaceae during the last 6mya. This corresponds to the emergence of modern human lineages, with the first descriptions of chlamydial infections as ancient as four millennia. Chlamydiaceae have undergone a massive genome reduction, on behalf of the deletional bias "use it or lose it", stabilizing at 1-1.2Mb and keeping a striking genome synteny. Their phylogeny reveals species segregation according to biological properties, with huge differences in terms of host range, tissue tropism, and disease outcomes. Genome differences rely on the occurrence of mutations in the >700 orthologous genes, as well as on events of recombination, gene loss, inversion, and paralogous expansion, affecting both a hypervariable region named the plasticity zone, and genes essentially encoding polymorphic and transmembrane head membrane proteins, type III secretion effectors and some metabolic pathways. Procedures for molecular typing are still not consensual but have allowed the knowledge of molecular epidemiology patterns for some species as well as the identification of outbreaks and emergence of successful clones for C. trachomatis. This manuscript intends to provide a comprehensive review on the evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

  15. Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Kelly Shaw1,2, David Coleman1, Maree O'Sullivan1, Nicola Stephens31Department of Health and Human Services, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia; 2Health and Wellbeing Research Cluster, Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia; 3NSW Health, Sydney, New South Wales, AustraliaAbstract: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. The population prevalence of the infection appears to be increasing. C. trachomatis is of public health significance because of the impacts of untreated disease on reproductive outcomes, transmission of other sexually acquired infections, and the costs to health systems. At the individual level, C. trachomatis infection is readily treatable with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance appears to be increasing. At the population level, public health control of spread of infection is more problematic. Approaches to control include primary preventive activities, increased access to testing and treatment for people with or at risk of infection, partner notification and treatment, and screening either opportunistically or as part of an organized population screening program. A combination of all of the above approaches is likely to be required to have a significant effect on the burden of disease associated with genital chlamdyia infection and to reduce population prevalence. The development of a vaccine for genital chlamydia infection could significantly reduce the public health burden associated with infection; however a vaccine is not expected to be available in the near future.Keywords: chlamydia, public health, health policy, screening

  16. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  17. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye...

  18. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  19. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine specimens by using the amplified Chlamydia trachomatis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Mouton (Johan); R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); T.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); S.D.A. Deelen (Sabine); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe amplified Chlamydia trachomatis test (AMP-CT; Gen-Probe), a new diagnostic test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, was evaluated with urine specimens from 1,000 patients visiting the outpatient department for sexually transmitted diseases at the

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae e doença aterosclerótica = Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnem, Luciele

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: a infecção por Chlamydia pneumoniae pode constituir achado de importância etiopatogênica na ateromatose. Entretanto, a relevância clínica dessa associação, como mostram os estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios clínicos aqui revisados, ainda é incerta

  1. Home screening for sexually transmitted diseases in high-risk young women: randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Robert L; Østergaard, Lars; Hillier, Sharon L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS: In this......OBJECTIVE: Home screening tests could eliminate several barriers to testing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). AIM: To determine whether offering repeated home screening tests would increase the rate of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in a high-risk sample of young women. METHODS...

  2. High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babajide Keshinro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. Methods: TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS. Participants undergo a structured comprehensive assessment of HIV-related risks and screening for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV. Crude and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Log-binomial regression was used to explore factors associated with prevalent HIV infection and STIs. Results: From March 2013 to January 2016, 862 MSM and TGW (316 in Lagos and 546 in Abuja underwent screening for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea at study enrolment. Participants’ median age was 24 years [interquartile range (IQR 21–27]. One-third (34.2% were identified as gay/homosexual and 65.2% as bisexual. The overall prevalence of HIV was 54.9%. After adjusting for the RDS recruitment method, HIV prevalence in Abuja was 43.5% (95% CI 37.3–49.6% and in Lagos was 65.6% (95% CI 54.7–76.5%. The RDS-weighted prevalence of chlamydia was 17.0% (95% CI 11.8–22.3% in Abuja and 18.3% (95% CI 11.1–25.4% in Lagos. Chlamydia infection was detected only at the anorectal site in 70.2% of cases. The RDS-weighted prevalence of gonorrhoea was 19.1% (95% CI 14.6–23.5% in Abuja and 25.8% (95% CI 17.1–34.6% in Lagos. Overall, 84.2% of gonorrhoea cases presented with anorectal infection only. Over 95% of STI cases were asymptomatic. In a multivariable model, increased risk for chlamydia/gonorrhoea was associated with younger age, gay/homosexual sexual orientation

  3. High prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men and transgender women attending trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshinro, Babajide; Crowell, Trevor A; Nowak, Rebecca G; Adebajo, Sylvia; Peel, Sheila; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rodriguez-Hart, Cristina; Baral, Stefan D; Walsh, Melissa J; Njoku, Ogbonnaya S; Odeyemi, Sunday; Ngo-Ndomb, Teclaire; Blattner, William A; Robb, Merlin L; Charurat, Manhattan E; Ake, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevalence have been reported to be higher amongst men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria than in the general population. The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population using laboratory-based universal testing. Methods TRUST/RV368 represents a cohort of MSM and transgender women (TGW) recruited at trusted community centres in Abuja and Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants undergo a structured comprehensive assessment of HIV-related risks and screening for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV. Crude and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Log-binomial regression was used to explore factors associated with prevalent HIV infection and STIs. Results From March 2013 to January 2016, 862 MSM and TGW (316 in Lagos and 546 in Abuja) underwent screening for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhoea at study enrolment. Participants’ median age was 24 years [interquartile range (IQR) 21–27]. One-third (34.2%) were identified as gay/homosexual and 65.2% as bisexual. The overall prevalence of HIV was 54.9%. After adjusting for the RDS recruitment method, HIV prevalence in Abuja was 43.5% (95% CI 37.3–49.6%) and in Lagos was 65.6% (95% CI 54.7–76.5%). The RDS-weighted prevalence of chlamydia was 17.0% (95% CI 11.8–22.3%) in Abuja and 18.3% (95% CI 11.1–25.4%) in Lagos. Chlamydia infection was detected only at the anorectal site in 70.2% of cases. The RDS-weighted prevalence of gonorrhoea was 19.1% (95% CI 14.6–23.5%) in Abuja and 25.8% (95% CI 17.1–34.6%) in Lagos. Overall, 84.2% of gonorrhoea cases presented with anorectal infection only. Over 95% of STI cases were asymptomatic. In a multivariable model, increased risk for chlamydia/gonorrhoea was associated with younger age, gay/homosexual sexual orientation and higher

  4. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  5. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  6. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  7. Risk of reproductive complications following chlamydia testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Frølund, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty in the risk of reproductive complications (pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor infertility) following chlamydia infection and repeat infection hampers the design of evidence-based chlamydia control programmes. We estimate the association between......, ectopic pregnancy, or tubal factor infertility. FINDINGS: The 516 720 women (103 344 positive, 182 879 negative, 230 497 never-tested) had a mean follow-up of 7·96 years. Compared with women with only negative tests, the risk of each complication was 30% higher in women with one or more positive tests...... (pelvic inflammatory disease, adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1·50 [95% CI 1·43-1·57]; ectopic pregnancy, AHR 1·31 [1·25-1·38]; tubal factor infertility, AHR 1·37 [1·24-1·52]) and 60% lower in women who were never-tested (pelvic inflammatory disease, AHR 0·33 [0·31-0·35]; ectopic pregnancy, AHR 0·42 [0...

  8. Failure to demonstrate Chlamydia pneumoniae in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Ostergård, L; Henneberg, E W;

    1998-01-01

    To investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).......To investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)....

  9. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-19

    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  10. FastTrack to supercritical fluid chromatographic purification: Implementation of a walk-up analytical supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry screening system in the medicinal chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurigemma, Christine; Farrell, William

    2010-09-24

    Medicinal chemists often depend on analytical instrumentation for reaction monitoring and product confirmation at all stages of pharmaceutical discovery and development. To obtain pure compounds for biological assays, the removal of side products and final compounds through purification is often necessary. Prior to purification, chemists often utilize open-access analytical LC/MS instruments because mass confirmation is fast and reliable, and the chromatographic separation of most sample constituents is sufficient. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is often used as an orthogonal technique to HPLC or when isolation of the free base of a compound is desired. In laboratories where SFC is the predominant technique for analysis and purification of compounds, a reasonable approach for quickly determining suitable purification conditions is to screen the sample against different columns. This can be a bottleneck to the purification process. To commission SFC for open-access use, a walk-up analytical SFC/MS screening system was implemented in the medicinal chemistry laboratory. Each sample is automatically screened through six column/method conditions, and on-demand data processing occurs for the chromatographers after each screening method is complete. This paper highlights the "FastTrack" approach to expediting samples through purification.

  11. Fe en Accion/Faith in Action: Design and implementation of a church-based randomized trial to promote physical activity and cancer screening among churchgoing Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Elva M.; Haughton, Jessica; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Slymen, Donald J.; Sallis, James F.; Burke, Kari; Holub, Christina; Chanson, Dayana; Perez, Lilian G.; Valdivia, Rodrigo; Ryan, Sherry; Elder, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe both conditions of a two-group randomized trial, one that promotes physical activity and one that promotes cancer screening, among churchgoing Latinas. The trial involves promotoras (community health workers) targeting multiple levels of the Ecological Model. This trial builds on formative and pilot research findings. Design Sixteen churches were randomly assigned to either the physical activity intervention or cancer screening comparison condition (approximately 27 women per church). In both conditions, promotoras from each church intervened at the individual- (e.g., beliefs), interpersonal- (e.g., social support), and environmental- (e.g., park features and access to health care) levels to affect change on target behaviors. Measurements The study’s primary outcome is min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at baseline and 12 and 24 months following implementation of intervention activities. We enrolled 436 Latinas (aged 18–65 years) who engaged in less than 250 min/wk of MVPA at baseline as assessed by accelerometer, attended church at least four times per month, lived near their church, and did not have a health condition that could prevent them from participating in physical activity. Participants were asked to complete measures assessing physical activity and cancer screening as well as their correlates at 12- and 24-months. Summary Findings from the current study will address gaps in research by showing the long term effectiveness of multi-level faith-based interventions promoting physical activity and cancer screening among Latino communities. PMID:26358535

  12. Study on Drug Resistance and Relative Mechanisms of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯淑萍; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Chlamydia Trachomatis (C.T.) is one of the most common pathogens of human sexually transmitted diseases. Treatment of C.T. infection primarily depends on Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Quinolones, but with the wide use of antibiotics an increasing number of drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis cases have been reported. This review summarizes the resistant conditions and the possible resistance mechanisms of C.T..

  13. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  14. Costs and effects of chlamydial screening : Dynamic versus static modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welte, R; Postma, M; Leidl, R; Kretzschmar, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of modeling type on the economic evaluation of screening programs for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Study: We compared a stochastic network simulation model (dynamic model) with a decision analysis model (static model)

  15. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed. PMID:22514397

  16. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  17. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W;

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial infar...... individuals who are or are not infected with C. pneumoniae. The latter are needed in order to clarify the impact of the presence of C. pneumoniae and to avoid indiscriminate use of antimicrobials....... of viable organisms. However, the pathogenicity is unknown, and the significance of detecting the organism is unresolved. In two minor controlled clinical trials, patients with ischaemic heart disease were randomised into antibiotic-treated and placebo groups. Both trials showed a significant reduction...

  18. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Atherosclerosis: The End?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Journal, Patrick et al (pages 298-300 report on the results of a pilot study testing the hypothesis that seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae together with a specific bacteriophage protein is associated with first-episode myocardial infarction or unstable angina. The study evolved from an earlier report suggesting that C pneumoniae with phage seropositivity was strongly associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The phage association suggested a potential explanation for some of the variability in previous studies exploring C pneumoniae as a cause for atherosclerosis (ie, only selected strains of C pneumoniae were pathogenic. Patrick et al found no significant association or trend, and the authors concluded that the negative findings in their pilot study did not support further studies to address this potential association.

  20. The humoral immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with acute reactive arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Mordhorst, CH;

    1994-01-01

    Sera from 25 patients with clinical signs of reactive arthritis were analysed for antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis by immunoblotting. Purified elementary bodies, purified Chlamydia outer membrane complexes, and purified recombinant subcomponents were used as antigens. Antibodies against C...

  1. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  2. Immunochemistry for high-throughput screening of human exhaled breath condensate (EBC) media: implementation of automated quanterix SIMOA instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunochemistry is an important clinical tool for indicating biological pathways leading towards disease. Standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are labor intensive and lack sensitivity at low-level concentrations. Here we report on emerging technology implementing f...

  3. 吖啶橙荧光法检测泌尿生殖道分泌道中的沙眼衣原体%Detecting the chlamydia trachomatis from urogenital tract secretion by AOF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强武; 苏明权; 李立文; 李哲

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To explore the value and significance of detecting the chlamydia trachomatis(CT)from urogenital tract samples by the acridine orange fluorescence(AOF).METHODS:110 samples from urogenital tract were detected by AOF.RESULTS:The total positive rate is 49.0%,in which the male are 53.0%(16/30) the female are 45.0%(38/40).CONCLUSION:AOF is combination of fluorescence method and morphologic.It showes the characteristics of easiness and fastness,and can be used in screening the infection of the Chlamydia trachomatis.

  4. Implementation of a DOD ELAP Conforming Quality System at a FUSRAP Site Field Temporary Radiological Screening Laboratory - 13500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, M.S.; McElheny, G. [Cabrera Services Inc. 473 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT (United States); Houston, L.M.; Masset, M.R.; Spector, H.L. [United States Army Corps of Engineers -1776 Niagara Street, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A case study is presented on specific program elements that supported the transition of a temporary field radiological screening lab to an accredited operation capable of meeting client quality objectives for definitive results data. The temporary field lab is located at the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Linde Site in Tonawanda, NY. The site is undergoing remediation under the direction of the United States Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, with Cabrera Services Inc. as the remediation contractor and operator of the on-site lab. Analysis methods employed in the on-site lab include gross counting of alpha and beta particle activity on swipes and air filters and gamma spectroscopy of soils and other solid samples. A discussion of key program elements and lessons learned may help other organizations considering pursuit of accreditation for on-site screening laboratories. (authors)

  5. Clinic-Based Evaluation of a Rapid Point-of-Care Test for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Specimens from Sex Workers in Escuintla, Guatemala▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sabidó, M; G. Hernández; González, V; Vallès, X; Montoliu, A.; Figuerola, J.; Isern, V.; Viñado, B; Figueroa,L.; Casabona, J.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid point-of-care test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in specimens from 278 sex workers attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Guatemala. The sensitivity and the specificity of the test compared to the results of PCR were 62.96% and 99.60%, respectively. The test performed moderately well as a screening tool in a context in which clinical follow-up visits are infrequent.

  6. Promiscuous and adaptable enzymes fill "holes" in the tetrahydrofolate pathway in Chlamydia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E; Thiaville, Jennifer J; Proestos, James; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L; McCoy, Andrea J; Barona-Gómez, Francisco; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2014-07-08

    Folates are tripartite molecules comprising pterin, para-aminobenzoate (PABA), and glutamate moieties, which are essential cofactors involved in DNA and amino acid synthesis. The obligately intracellular Chlamydia species have lost several biosynthetic pathways for essential nutrients which they can obtain from their host but have retained the capacity to synthesize folate. In most bacteria, synthesis of the pterin moiety of folate requires the FolEQBK enzymes, while synthesis of the PABA moiety is carried out by the PabABC enzymes. Bioinformatic analyses reveal that while members of Chlamydia are missing the genes for FolE (GTP cyclohydrolase) and FolQ, which catalyze the initial steps in de novo synthesis of the pterin moiety, they have genes for the rest of the pterin pathway. We screened a chlamydial genomic library in deletion mutants of Escherichia coli to identify the "missing genes" and identified a novel enzyme, TrpFCtL2, which has broad substrate specificity. TrpFCtL2, in combination with GTP cyclohydrolase II (RibA), the first enzyme of riboflavin synthesis, provides a bypass of the first two canonical steps in folate synthesis catalyzed by FolE and FolQ. Notably, TrpFCtL2 retains the phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase activity of the original annotation. Additionally, we independently confirmed the recent discovery of a novel enzyme, CT610, which uses an unknown precursor to synthesize PABA and complements E. coli mutants with deletions of pabA, pabB, or pabC. Thus, Chlamydia species have evolved a variant folate synthesis pathway that employs a patchwork of promiscuous and adaptable enzymes recruited from other biosynthetic pathways. Importance: Collectively, the involvement of TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway completes our understanding of folate biosynthesis in Chlamydia. Moreover, the novel roles for TrpFCtL2 and CT610 in the tetrahydrofolate pathway are sophisticated examples of how enzyme evolution plays a vital role in the

  7. Development and implementation of a high-throughput compound screening assay for targeting disrupted ER calcium homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Honarnejad

    Full Text Available Disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis is believed to occur early in the cascade of events leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Particularly familial AD mutations linked to Presenilins result in exaggerated agonist-evoked calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Here we report the development of a fully automated high-throughput calcium imaging assay utilizing a genetically-encoded FRET-based calcium indicator at single cell resolution for compound screening. The established high-throughput screening assay offers several advantages over conventional high-throughput calcium imaging technologies. We employed this assay for drug discovery in AD by screening compound libraries consisting of over 20,000 small molecules followed by structure-activity-relationship analysis. This led to the identification of Bepridil, a calcium channel antagonist drug in addition to four further lead structures capable of normalizing the potentiated FAD-PS1-induced calcium release from ER. Interestingly, it has recently been reported that Bepridil can reduce Aβ production by lowering BACE1 activity. Indeed, we also detected lowered Aβ, increased sAPPα and decreased sAPPβ fragment levels upon Bepridil treatment. The latter findings suggest that Bepridil may provide a multifactorial therapeutic modality for AD by simultaneously addressing multiple aspects of the disease.

  8. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Janina; Liu, Guangchao; Kickhoefer, Valerie A.; Rome, Leonard H.; Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation. Previously, we described a natural nanocapsule called the vault which was engineered to contain major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and was an effective vaccine which significantly reduced early infection and favored development of a cellular immune response in a mouse model. In the current study, we used another chlamydial antigen, a polymorphic membrane protein G-1 (PmpG) peptide, to track antigen-specific cells and evaluate, in depth, the vault vaccine for its protective capacity in the absence of an added adjuvant. We found PmpG-vault immunized mice significantly reduced the genital bacterial burden and histopathologic parameters of inflammation following a C. muridarum challenge. Immunization boosted antigen-specific CD4 cells with a multiple cytokine secretion pattern and reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the genital tract making the vault vaccine platform safe and effective for chlamydial genital infection. We conclude that vaccination with a Chlamydia-vault vaccine boosts antigen-specific immunities that are effective at eradicating infection and preventing reproductive tract inflammation. PMID:28106821

  9. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  10. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100 % detection for ≥ 10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(- 1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 88 %. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis among women with normal and abnormal cervical smears in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maymunah Adeshola Adegbesan-Omilabu

    2014-06-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis was 27.7% with a decreasing trend noted with age (P <0.05. The majority of women with C. trachomatis were in the reproductive age group of 25-45 years. 50% of women with abnormal smears were positive for C. trachomatis, compared to only 16.7% of the controls (X2 = 10.95; P = 0.001. There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of C. trachomatis and cervical cytological types (X2 = 1.892; P = 0.595 Conclusions: The study revealed an association between Chlamydia trachomatis and precancerous lesions of the cervix. Routine screening and treatment of sexually active adolescents and women in the reproductive age group is recommended as an indirect measure to reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in Nigeria. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 501-506

  12. Sexually transmitted diseases and Chlamydia trachomatis in women consulting for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avonts, D; Sercu, M; Heyerick, P; Vandermeeren, I; Piot, P

    1989-10-01

    To study the frequency of genital infections in women consulting their family doctor for contraception, 248 women (median age 23 years) were examined for a range of genital microorganisms. The prevalence of clue cells, Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were 21.0%, 12.9% and 2.0%, respectively. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated in only one case, whereas Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 6.3% of women. A specific clinical picture for an infection with C. trachomatis in women was not seen. Given the prevalence of over 5% for C. trachomatis and the absence of typical signs and symptoms in infected women, screening for this organism is recommended in women requesting an intrauterine contraceptive device, to prevent complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and their sequelae.

  13. Oral contraceptive use and prevalence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, G R; Waugh, M A

    1981-06-01

    One thousand eight non-pregnant women aged 16-34 years, presenting for the first time at a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD), were examined and screened for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida species. The respective prevalence rates were 21.1%, 20.7%, 13.4%, and 27.8%. Isolation rates for C trachomatis, either occurring alone or in association with other genital infections, were significantly greater in women using oral contraceptive agents. This was not because oral contraceptive users were more promiscuous. The findings strengthen the case for providing a routine chlamydial culture service for women attending STD clinics. They also indicate that the likelihood of chlamydial infection in women taking oral contraceptives is increased.

  14. "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae" (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae), a novel chlamydia parasite of free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, Daniele; Müller, Karl-Dieter; Wingender, Jost; Michel, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Vannella sp. isolated from waterweed Elodea sp. was found infected by a chlamydia-like organism. This organism behaves like a parasite, causing the death through burst of its host. Once the vannellae degenerated, the parasite was successfully kept in laboratory within a Saccamoeba sp. isolated from the same waterweed sample, which revealed in fine through electron microscopy to harbor two bacterial endosymbionts: the chlamydial parasite we introduce and another endosymbiont initially and naturally present in the host. Herein, we provide molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and its two endosymbionts, with special focus on the chlamydia parasite. High sequence similarity values of the 18S rDNA permitted to assign the amoeba to the species Saccamoeba lacustris (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea). The bacterial endosymbiont naturally harbored by the host belonged to Sphingomonas koreensis (Alpha-Proteobacteria). The chlamydial parasite showed a strict specificity for Saccamoeba spp., being unable to infect a variety of other amoebae, including Acanthamoeba, and it was itself infected by a bacteriophage. Sequence similarity values of the 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae."

  15. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... since it is highly cross-linked by S-S bridges. There are, however, also similarities to gram-negative cell walls. The chlamydial major outer membrane protein, Omp1, forms pores and is closely associated with lipopolysaccharide, LPS. LPS, however, is more loosely associated with Omp1 than in other gram...

  16. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Goy, Genevieve; Jaton, Katia; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Blumer, Serafin; Borel, Nicole; Vial, Yvan; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert

    2011-09-01

    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis-positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of sex partners (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.9). C. trachomatis DNA was more frequently amplified from products of conception or placenta from women who had a miscarriage (4%) than from controls (0.7%; p = 0.026). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed C. trachomatis in placenta from 5 of 7 patients with positive PCR results, whereas results of immunohistochemical analysis were negative in placenta samples from all 8 negative controls tested. Associations between miscarriage and serologic/molecular evidence of C. trachomatis infection support its role in miscarriage.

  17. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Donati

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C and tetR(C gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11 were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C and tetR(C transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  18. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  19. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  20. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; Black, Carolyn M

    2003-02-01

    The clinically relevant pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis. The major complications and sometimes debilitating evolutionary outcomes of these infections include: trichiasis and cicatrizing trachoma, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease and involuntary tubal factor infertility and bronchopulmonary pneumonia. These diseases, in addition to other chlamydia-associated chronic syndromes (e.g., artherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), pose serious public healthcare and huge budgetary concerns. The current medical opinion is that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is a sine qua non--to control the morbidity of chiamydial infection in the human population. The research goal for an efficacious human chlamydial vaccine has faced key challenges to define the elements of protective immunity to facilitate vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of appropriate vaccine candidates that possess stable antigenic and immunologic properties and the development of effective delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost immune effectors to achieve long-term protective immunity. Progress in the functional immunobiology of Chlamydia has established the essential immunologic paradigms for vaccine selection and evaluation, including the obligatory requirement for a vaccine to induce T-helper Type 1 immune response that controls chlamydiae. Recent advances in chlamydial genomics and proteomics should enhance the identification of likely chlamydial gene products that fulfill the antigenic requirements of putative vaccine candidates. Major inroads are however needed in the construction and development of novel and effective delivery systems, such as vectors and adjuvants. This review summarizes the status of contemporary chlamydial vaccine research and promising trends fueling the growing optimism for an efficacious vaccine. The

  1. Is there a Relation between Chlamydia Infection and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Park, Ogyi; Matsumura, Shuji; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have failed to provide direct evidence of specific microbial chronic infection in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, a recent report suggests that there is a specific association of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with PBC and that C. pneumoniae or similar antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. To determine if Chlamydia infection is associated with PBC, we applied a combination of immunological and molecular approaches to investigate (a) the serological reactivity against two common Chlamydia human pathogens, C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, by immunoblotting, (b) the presence of Chlamydia in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by PCR amplification of Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA and (c) the presence of Chlamydia proteins in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by immunohistochemical staining. By immunoblotting, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae specific serological antibodies were found in 52/57 (91.2%) AMA positive PBC, 7/33 (21/2%) of AMA negative PBC, 1/25 (4%) PSC, 0/15 (0%) Sjorgen's syndrome and 0/20 (0%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 0/20 (0%) healthy volunteers at 1:200 sera dilution. PBC sera reacted to Chlamydia and E. coli lysates in western blots up to a maximum of 10-4 dilution. However, PCR amplification of the Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA gene was negative in 25/25 PBC livers but positive in 1/4 PSC liver, 3/6 in other liver disease controls and 1/4 normal liver samples. While two commercially available specific monoclonal antibodies stained positive controls (Chlamydia infected HEp-2 cells) they failed to detect Chlamydia antigens in PBC livers. The detection of Chlamydia specific antibodies but not Chlamydia rRNA gene and Chlamydia antigens in PBC suggests that Chlamydia infection is not involved in PBC. PMID:14768955

  2. Implementation of a Model Output Statistics based on meteorological variable screening for short‐term wind power forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranaboldo, Matteo; Giebel, Gregor; Codina, Bernat

    2013-01-01

    is evaluated in two wind farms, located in different topographical areas and with different NWP grid spacing. Because of the high seasonal variability of NWP forecasts, it was considered appropriate to implement monthly stratified MOS. In both wind farms, the first predictors were always wind speeds (at....... The proposed MOS performed well in both wind farms, and its forecasts compare positively with an actual operative model in use at Risø DTU and other MOS types, showing minimum BIAS and improving NWP power forecast of around 15% in terms of root mean square error. Further improvements could be obtained...

  3. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Harrell W Chesson; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia sc...

  4. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Boiko

    Full Text Available Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE, to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection.Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI. The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically.All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05.This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components.

  5. Chlamydia genomics: providing novel insights into chlamydial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host-pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the 'post-genomics' era.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Emer

    2009-10-29

    BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. METHODS: All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were

  7. Readiness and capacity of librarians in public libraries to implement a breast cancer outreach and screening campaign in medically underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goytia, Elliott J; Rapkin, Bruce; Weiss, Elisa S; Golub, David; Guzman, Vivian; O'Connor, Maureen

    2005-11-01

    Community-based partnerships are an important means of addressing cancer health disparities in medically underserved communities. Public libraries may be ideal partners in this effort. To assess the readiness and capacity of a public library system to implement cancer recruitment and outreach campaigns, 58 librarians in the Queens Borough Public Library System in New York completed self-administered questionnaires before and after a training on breast health, cancer, and screening. Results indicate that they are interested in participating in a cancer outreach campaign and feel it is a critical need in their community. Many librarians lacked the knowledge about cancer and cancer information resources needed to participate optimally. Nevertheless, librarians provide a cultural bridge to medically underserved communities. Partnering with a public library system to improve access to care has great potential, yet a number of challenges need to be overcome.

  8. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, Kimberly A; Fisher, Derek J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. In contrast, most Chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxB abrogating activity. The G115R missense mutation was not predicted to impact AaxB functionality, making it unclear whether AaxB variations in other Chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. To address the impact of gene polymorphism on functionality, we investigated the activity and production of the Chlamydia AaxB variants. Because ArgDC plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli acid stress response, we studied the ability of these Chlamydia variants to complement an E. coli ArgDC mutant in an acid shock assay. Active AaxB was detected in four additional species: Chlamydia caviae, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia muridarum. Of the C. trachomatis serovars, only E appears to encode active enzyme. To determine when functional enzyme is present during the chlamydial developmental cycle, we utilized an anti-AaxB antibody to detect both uncleaved and cleaved enzyme throughout infection. Uncleaved enzyme production peaked around 20 h postinfection, with optimal cleavage around 44 h. While the role ArgDC plays in Chlamydia survival or virulence is unclear, our data suggest a niche-specific function.

  9. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and emerging Chlamydia-related bacteria in ectopic pregnancy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, S; Thuong, B C; Gyger, J; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C; Vasilevsky, S; Greub, G; Baud, D

    2015-09-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the seroprevalence and molecular evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Waddlia chondrophila in ectopic pregnancies (EP) and uneventful control pregnancies in 343 women from Vietnam. Whereas presence of C. trachomatis IgG was strongly associated with EP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5·41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·58-11·32], its DNA remained undetected in all tubal lesions. We confirmed an independent association between antibodies against Waddlia and previous miscarriage (aOR 1·87, 95% CI 1·02-3·42). Further investigations are needed to understand the clinical significance of Waddlia's high seroprevalence (25·9% in control pregnancies) in this urban population.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  11. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats.

  12. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  13. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  14. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Gils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  16. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. RESULTS: A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  17. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  18. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  19. Operational implementation of LED fluorescence microscopy in screening tuberculosis suspects in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Albert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Light emitting diode (LED fluorescence microscopy (FM is an affordable, technology targeted for use in resource-limited settings and recommended for widespread roll-out by the World Health Organization (WHO. We sought to compare the operational performance of three LED FM methods compared to light microscopy in a cohort of HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB suspects at an urban clinic in a high TB burden country. METHODS: Two spot specimens collected from TB suspects were included in the study. Smears were stained using auramine O method and read after blinding by three LED-based FM methods by trained laboratory technicians in the Infectious Diseases Institutelaboratory. Leftover portions of the refrigerated sputum specimens were transported to the FIND Tuberculosis Research Laboratory for Ziehl Neelsen (ZN smear preparation and reading by experienced technologist as well as liquid and solid culture. RESULTS: 174 of 627 (27.8% specimens collected yielded one or more positive mycobacterial cultures. 94.3% (164/174 were M. tuberculosis complex. LED FM was between 7.3-11.0% more sensitive compared to ZN microscopy. Of the 592 specimens examined by all microscopy methods, there was no significant difference in sensitivity between the three LED FM methods. The specificity of the LED FM methods was between 6.1% and 7.7% lower than ZN microscopy (P<0.001, although exclusion of the single poor reader resulted in over 98% specificity for all FM methods. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory technicians in routine settings can be trained to use FM which is more sensitive than ZN microscopy. Despite rigorous proficiency testing, there were operator-dependent accuracy issues which highlight the critical need for intensive quality assurance procedures during LED FM implementation. The low sensitivity of FM for HIV-positive individuals particularly those with low CD4 T cell counts, will limit the number of additional patients found by LED FM in countries with high

  20. Prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in Indian infertile patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Broor, Shobha; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in patients with infertility by PCR-RFLP and ompA gene sequencing. Prevalence of other etiological agents (viz., Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis) were also assessed. Endocervical swabs were collected from 477 women and urine was collected from 151 men attending the Infertility Clinic. The samples were screened for C. trachomatis by cryptic plasmid, ompA gene and nested ompA gene PCR. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Samples were screened for Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in infertile women and their male partners were 15.7% (75 of 477) and 10.0% (15 of 151) respectively. Secondary infertility was significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Genovar E was the most prevalent followed by genovar D and F. Twenty-four C. trachomatis strains were selected for ompA gene sequencing. No mixed infection was picked. Variability in ompA sequences was seen in 50.0%. Both PCR-RFLP and ompA gene sequencing showed concordant results. High prevalence of C. trachomatis in infertile couples warrants routine screening for C. trachomatis infection in all infertile couples. Genotyping of the ompA gene of C. trachomatis may be a valuable tool in understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  1. The Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection and Pregnancy%沙眼衣原体感染与妊娠

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐茜; 岳天孚

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is currently the most common sex transmitted disease pathogen world-widely , which is an important reason of lower genital tract infection as well. However ,the Chlamydia trachomatis infection is always asymptomatic and the clinicians did not pay adequate attention on it. Also it needs advanced lab equipments and techniques in detecting and screening the population with high risks and the follow-up and treatment is also lack of attention. Women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis suffer from the damages of the pathogen itself and the immune reactions it caused ,such as miscarriage,fetal growth restriction,fetal distress,pre-rupture of membrane,preterm labour,low body weight neonate,still birth, intra-uterine infection,infection of neonate and the puerperal infection and post partum haemorrage. So purposeful screening and treatment towards Chlamydia trachomatis infection are important to reduce the complications of both maternal and fetal.%沙眼衣原体是目前感染率最高的性传播性疾病病原体,为引起妊娠期下生殖道感染的重要病原体。因其感染常呈亚临床状态,实验室检测对设备及技术要求高,临床医师相关知识欠缺,以及缺乏充足条件筛选高危人群并进行追踪治疗性伴侣,其潜在危害十分重大。妊娠期沙眼衣原体感染对妊娠有诸多不良影响:病原体本身造成的损伤机制及其引发的免疫反应是造成流产、胎儿生长受限、胎儿窘迫、胎膜早破、早产、低出生体质量儿、死胎、宫内感染、新生儿感染、产褥期感染和产后出血的原因之一。因此,有针对性地及时检查和治疗沙眼衣原体感染是降低母婴病率,提高围生期保健质量的重要举措。

  2. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  3. HIV筛查实验室质量管理体系的建立与实施%HIV screening laboratory quality management system establishment and implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 周芸; 郭佳馥; 宁晓文; 白淑萍

    2014-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) antibody screening laboratory (hereinafter referred to as the HIV screening laboratory), is HIV/AIDS prevention and control of the important part. To establish a complete set of rigorous and efficient HIV laboratory quality management system, make the whole detection process from sample to receive test results reported, handlers,machine, material, method, environment,ring in al aspects can be control ed condition and the formation of operational mechanism.And at the same time, through participating in the laboratory, the laboratory test than between the organization, implementation, evaluation is to guarantee the quality of the laboratory test results effective means and measures.%人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)抗体检测筛查实验室(以下简称HIV筛查实验室),是艾滋病防控工作的重要组成部分。建立一整套严谨高效的HIV实验室的质量管理体系,使整个检测过程从样品接收到检测结果报出的人、机、料、法、环各方面均处于可控制状态并形成可操作的长效机制,同时通过参加实验室间比对,对实验室检测的组织、实施进行评价,是保证实验室检测结果质量的有效手段和措施。

  4. [Screening of sexually transmitted diseases in clinical and non-clinical settings in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codes, José Santiago; Cohen, Deborah Ann; de Melo, Neli Almeida; Teixeira, Guilherme Gonzaga; Leal, Alexandre dos Santos; Silva, Tiago de Jesus; de Oliveira, Miucha Pereira Rios

    2006-02-01

    The objectives were to study: (1) acceptance of STD screening in non-clinical settings for asymptomatic individuals; (2) risk factors and STD prevalence among individuals in non-clinical and clinical settings; and (3) non-clinical screening of asymptomatic populations as a feasible method for STD control. We recruited 139 males and 486 females between 18 and 30 years of age from a family planning clinic, schools, and community centers in low-income neighborhoods. We asked about STD symptoms and STD/HIV risk behaviors and tested the individuals for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV. Except for HIV, women recruited directly from the community had higher STD rates than those who came in for care at the clinic. Screening in non-clinical settings in Brazil is feasible and has a high yield among young adults in low-income communities. Infected participants would likely never have otherwise sought care or been tested or treated. STD control efforts could be implemented in any site that can reach populations at risk and become a routine procedure in health care settings where people report for problems unrelated to STDs.

  5. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

  6. Identification of an early-stage gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichlan, D G; Hatch, T P

    1993-05-01

    Chlamydiae are parasitic bacteria characterized by a temporally regulated developmental cycle. In the early stage of the cycle, metabolically inert elementary bodies reorganize to dividing reticulate bodies, a process about which little is known. The purpose of this investigation was to identify and clone chlamydial genes that are expressed preferentially during the early stage of the developmental cycle of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Several potential early genes were cloned with highly radioactive, host-free-generated RNA probes to screen a genomic library. One clone appeared to encode a gene that was particularly well expressed at 1 h postinfection. In further characterization, we found that it encodes two complete open reading frames and one partial open reading frame of 370 codons. The partial open reading frame, designated gltX, is very similar to bacterial glutamyl-tRNA synthetases and was demonstrated to be transcribed in vivo at 24 h postinfection by primer extension analysis. A lysine-rich open reading frame (LRO) of 117 codons was found upstream and divergent from gltX. The LRO lacks homology to known proteins, and we were unable to demonstrate that it is transcribed in vivo. The third open reading frame, of 182 codons, was found to be convergent with and partially overlap the LRO. It was confirmed to be preferentially expressed within the first 1.5 h of infection by Northern (RNA) blot analysis and was designated the early upstream open reading frame (EUO). Like the LRO, the EUO is not homologous to known proteins. A major potential transcription start site of the EUO was identified by primer extension analysis. However, the sequence upstream of the site does not closely resemble the consensus recognition sequences of bacterial sigma factors even though it is AT rich. The EUO is the first chlamydial gene specific to the early stage to be cloned and sequenced.

  7. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) and Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Osman, Kamelia M; Nashwa A. Ezzeldeen; Hadia A. Ali; Eman R. Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe) in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results...

  8. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  9. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M;

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.......04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs...

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  11. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women: relationship to history, contraception, and cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A

    1994-12-01

    The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p 0.05), condom (0%, p Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.

  12. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  13. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, S

    1992-08-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial structure changes, they transform to reticulated bodies (RB) which become larger, metabolically active, and start to replicate. Fourtysix hrs post infection RB reorganizes to EB followed by burst of the inclusion. The structure of the EB outer membrane differs from the membrane of gram-negative bacteria since it is highly cross-linked by S-S bridges. There are, however, also similarities to gram-negative cell walls. The chlamydial major outer membrane protein, Omp1, forms pores and is closely associated with lipopolysaccharide, LPS. LPS, however, is more loosely associated with Omp1 than in other gram negative bacteria since incubation of EB with antibodies against LPS will liberate it from the chlamydial surface. Therefore the surface localized LPS may be important for chlamydial survival. OMP1 varies between the different serovar of C. trachomatis. Several very conserved regions are separated by variable domains. The variable domains are very antigenic and are localized at the surface of EB. After chlamydial internalization into the host cell transition to RB starts. Some of the early proteins are DnaK-like and groEL-like heat-shock proteins. The chlamydial DnaK-like protein is very antigenic. Patient serum samples will recognize the chlamydial DnaK-like protein. From the determined DNA sequence the amino acid sequence was determined. It was 57% homologous to the Eschrichia

  14. Reasons Given by High School Students for Refusing Sexually Transmitted Disease Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ladatra S.; Nsuami, Malanda; Cropley, Lorelei D.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine reasons given by high school students for refusing to participate in a school-based noninvasive chlamydia and gonorrhea screening that was offered at no cost to students, using the health belief model as theoretical framework. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Public high schools in a southern urban United States…

  15. Sexually transmitted infections screening at HIV treatment centers for MSM can be cost-effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J.; Lugnér, Anna K.; Xiridou, Maria; Van Der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Prins, Maria; De Vries, Henry J.C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Prins, Jan M.; Rijnders, Bart J.A.; Van Veen, Maaike G.; Fennema, Johannes S.A.; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Der Sande, Marianne A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To estimate the cost-effectiveness of anorectal chlamydia screening among men who have sex with men (MSM) in care at HIV treatment centers. Design:Transmission model combined with economic analysis over a 20-year period. Setting and participants:MSM in care at HIV treatment centers. Interv

  16. 女性生殖道沙眼衣原体持续感染的现状%Persistent genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丹丹; 叶兴东; 任泽舫

    2008-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of genital Chlamydial trachomatis infection in populations. Young women are vulnerable to persistent genital chlamydial infection, which may lead to many serious complications (e.g., infertility). The severity of infection is determined by the virulence of Chlamydia trachomatis, environmental factors, and host susceptibility. The optimal serum marker for screening of persistent genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the combination of its IgG antibody and C-reactive protein, and IgG alone may only serve as the serum marker for previous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.%生殖道沙眼衣原体感染在人群中的发生率高,特别在年轻女性人群中,容易导致持续性的生殖道感染,进而引起一系列严重并发症(如不孕不育).感染的严重程度取决于沙眼衣原体本身的致病力大小、环境因素及宿主易感因素.筛检沙眼衣原体持续性感染的最佳血清学指标是其IgG和C反应蛋白(两者同时阳性),而IgG只能作为其既往感染的血清学指标.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in female genital tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases of female genital tract infection were investigated for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay. Rabbit antiserum to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide was used in a card test. Anti rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase with a chromogenic substrate 5 bromo-4 chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium were used for the enzymatic reaction. Chlamydial antigen could be detected in four out of thirty samples (13.3%. In contrast direct immunofluorescence detected 5 cases (16.6%. Although less sensitive, enzyme immunoassay can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in genital infections.

  18. Telling partners about chlamydia: how acceptable are the new technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Rhian M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification methods to help inform the development of strategies and resources to increase the number of partners notified. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people who were recently diagnosed with chlamydia from three sexual health centres and two general practices across three Australian jurisdictions. Results Most participants chose to contact their partners either in person (56% or by phone (44%. Only 17% chose email or SMS. Participants viewed face-to-face as the "gold standard" in partner notification because it demonstrated caring, respect and courage. Telephone contact, while considered insensitive by some, was often valued because it was quick, convenient and less confronting. Email was often seen as less personal while SMS was generally considered the least acceptable method for telling partners. There was also concern that emails and SMS could be misunderstood, not taken seriously or shown to others. Despite these, email and SMS were seen to be appropriate and useful in some circumstances. Letters, both from the patients or from their doctor, were viewed more favourably but were seldom used. Conclusion These findings suggest that many people diagnosed with chlamydia are reluctant to use the new technologies for partner notification, except in specific circumstances, and our efforts in developing partner notification resources may best be focused on giving patients the skills and confidence for personal interaction.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis and oral contraceptive use: a quantitative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Cottingham, J.; Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Chlamydia trachomatis is now recognised as a major sexually transmitted disease; oral contraceptive use is rapidly increasing particularly in developing countries. There are thus important public health implications of the many reports that isolation of C trachomatis is more frequent among users of oral contraceptives. The aim of this analysis was to assess the strength and consistency of this association by summarising published studies between 1972 and 1990. DESIGN--Studies iden...

  20. Towards an automated virtual slide screening: theoretical considerations and practical experiences of automated tissue-based virtual diagnosis to be implemented in the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bzdyl Piotr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To develop and implement an automated virtual slide screening system that distinguishes normal histological findings and several tissue – based crude (texture – based diagnoses. Theoretical considerations Virtual slide technology has to handle and transfer images of GB Bytes in size. The performance of tissue based diagnosis can be separated into a a sampling procedure to allocate the slide area containing the most significant diagnostic information, and b the evaluation of the diagnosis obtained from the information present in the selected area. Nyquist's theorem that is broadly applied in acoustics, can also serve for quality assurance in image information analysis, especially to preset the accuracy of sampling. Texture – based diagnosis can be performed with recursive formulas that do not require a detailed segmentation procedure. The obtained results will then be transferred into a "self-learning" discrimination system that adjusts itself to changes of image parameters such as brightness, shading, or contrast. Methods Non-overlapping compartments of the original virtual slide (image will be chosen at random and according to Nyquist's theorem (predefined error-rate. The compartments will be standardized by local filter operations, and are subject for texture analysis. The texture analysis is performed on the basis of a recursive formula that computes the median gray value and the local noise distribution. The computations will be performed at different magnifications that are adjusted to the most frequently used objectives (*2, *4.5, *10, *20, *40. The obtained data are statistically analyzed in a hierarchical sequence, and in relation to the clinical significance of the diagnosis. Results The system has been tested with a total of 896 lung cancer cases that include the diagnoses groups: cohort (1 normal lung – cancer; cancer subdivided: cohort (2 small cell lung cancer – non small cell lung cancer; non small cell lung

  1. Results of the implementation of a pilot model for the bidirectional screening and joint management of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus in Mexico.

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    Martín Castellanos-Joya

    Full Text Available Recently, the World Health Organisation and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease published a Collaborative Framework for the Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB and Diabetes (DM (CFTB/DM proposing bidirectional screening and joint management.To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the CFTB/DM in Mexico.Prospective observational cohort.15 primary care units in 5 states in Mexico.Patients aged ≥20 years diagnosed with DM or pulmonary TB who sought care at participating clinics.The WHO/Union CFTB/DM was adapted and implemented according to official Mexican guidelines. We recruited participants from July 2012 to April 2013 and followed up until March 2014. Bidirectional screening was performed. Patients diagnosed with TB and DM were invited to receive TB treatment under joint management.Diagnoses of TB among DM, of DM among TB, and treatment outcomes among patients with DM and TB.Of 783 DM patients, 11 (1.4% were unaware of their TB. Of 361 TB patients, 16 (4.4% were unaware of their DM. 95 TB/DM patients accepted to be treated under joint management, of whom 85 (89.5% successfully completed treatment. Multiple linear regression analysis with change in HbA1c and random capillary glucose as dependent variables revealed significant decrease with time (regression coefficients (β  = -0.660, (95% confidence interval (CI, -0.96 to -0.35; and β = -1.889 (95% CI, -2.77 to -1.01, respectively adjusting by sex, age and having been treated for a previous TB episode. Patients treated under joint management were more likely to experience treatment success than patients treated under routine DM and TB programs as compared to historical (adjusted OR (aOR, 2.8, 95%CI 1.28-6.13 and same period (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.13-4.96 comparison groups.Joint management of TB and DM is feasible and appears to improve clinical outcomes.

  2. Results of the Implementation of a Pilot Model for the Bidirectional Screening and Joint Management of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Diabetes Mellitus in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Joya, Martín; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Ortiz-Solís, Gabriela; Jiménez, Mirtha Irene; Salazar, Leslie Lorena; Montero-Campos, Rogelio; Mongua-Rodríguez, Norma; Baez-Saldaña, Renata; Bobadilla-del-Valle, Miriam; González-Roldán, Jesús Felipe; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; García-García, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, the World Health Organisation and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease published a Collaborative Framework for the Care and Control of Tuberculosis (TB) and Diabetes (DM) (CFTB/DM) proposing bidirectional screening and joint management. Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the CFTB/DM in Mexico. Design. Prospective observational cohort. Setting. 15 primary care units in 5 states in Mexico. Participants: Patients aged ≥20 years diagnosed with DM or pulmonary TB who sought care at participating clinics. Intervention: The WHO/Union CFTB/DM was adapted and implemented according to official Mexican guidelines. We recruited participants from July 2012 to April 2013 and followed up until March 2014. Bidirectional screening was performed. Patients diagnosed with TB and DM were invited to receive TB treatment under joint management. Main outcome measures. Diagnoses of TB among DM, of DM among TB, and treatment outcomes among patients with DM and TB. Results Of 783 DM patients, 11 (1.4%) were unaware of their TB. Of 361 TB patients, 16 (4.4%) were unaware of their DM. 95 TB/DM patients accepted to be treated under joint management, of whom 85 (89.5%) successfully completed treatment. Multiple linear regression analysis with change in HbA1c and random capillary glucose as dependent variables revealed significant decrease with time (regression coefficients (β)  = −0.660, (95% confidence interval (CI), −0.96 to −0.35); and β = −1.889 (95% CI, −2.77 to −1.01, respectively)) adjusting by sex, age and having been treated for a previous TB episode. Patients treated under joint management were more likely to experience treatment success than patients treated under routine DM and TB programs as compared to historical (adjusted OR (aOR), 2.8, 95%CI 1.28–6.13) and same period (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.13–4.96) comparison groups. Conclusions Joint management of TB and DM is feasible and appears to

  3. Computational toxicology as implemented by the U.S. EPA: providing high throughput decision support tools for screening and assessing chemical exposure, hazard and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlock, Robert; Dix, David

    2010-02-01

    Computational toxicology is the application of mathematical and computer models to help assess chemical hazards and risks to human health and the environment. Supported by advances in informatics, high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies, and systems biology, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA is developing robust and flexible computational tools that can be applied to the thousands of chemicals in commerce, and contaminant mixtures found in air, water, and hazardous-waste sites. The Office of Research and Development (ORD) Computational Toxicology Research Program (CTRP) is composed of three main elements. The largest component is the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT), which was established in 2005 to coordinate research on chemical screening and prioritization, informatics, and systems modeling. The second element consists of related activities in the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). The third and final component consists of academic centers working on various aspects of computational toxicology and funded by the U.S. EPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program. Together these elements form the key components in the implementation of both the initial strategy, A Framework for a Computational Toxicology Research Program (U.S. EPA, 2003), and the newly released The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals (U.S. EPA, 2009a). Key intramural projects of the CTRP include digitizing legacy toxicity testing information toxicity reference database (ToxRefDB), predicting toxicity (ToxCast) and exposure (ExpoCast), and creating virtual liver (v-Liver) and virtual embryo (v-Embryo) systems models. U.S. EPA-funded STAR centers are also providing bioinformatics, computational toxicology data and models, and developmental toxicity data and models. The models and underlying data are being made publicly

  4. Quantitative Detection of Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum by High-Sensitivity Real-Time PCR Reveals High Prevalence of Vaginal Infection in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    DeGraves, Fred J.; Gao, Dongya; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Schlapp, Tobias; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Bovine vaginal cytobrush specimens were analyzed for the presence of Chlamydia spp. by a high-sensitivity, high-specificity quantitative PCR. The 53% prevalence of low-level Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum genital infection detected in virgin heifers suggests predominantely extragenital transmission of Chlamydia in cattle and conforms to the high seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia antibodies.

  5. Roles of bovine Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis in human preterm birth

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    D. Baud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis are intracellular bacteria associated with human miscarriage. We investigated their role in human preterm birth. Whereas presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in genital tract was associated with human preterm birth, Waddlia was not, despite being present in women's genital tracts.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections during Pregnancy: Consequences for pregnancy outcome and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Chlamydia is responsible for a significant proportion of genitourinary tract infections in adult males and females, but like STIs in general, it is primarily a woman’s health care issue sin

  7. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: role of TLRs, NLRs, and the inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against C. pneumoniae infection.

  8. Two more species of Chlamydia-does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    The recent description of Chlamydia (C.) avium and C. gallinacea as new species of the reunited genus Chlamydia can be expected to have implications on the perception of avian chlamydiosis. We discuss possible effects on epidemiology, diagnosis and our understanding of aetiopathogenesis resulting from this discovery.

  9. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  10. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K;

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...

  11. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  12. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  13. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  14. Evidence of a conserved role for Chlamydia HtrA in the replication phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pooja; De Boer, Leonore; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina May

    2014-08-01

    Identification of the HtrA inhibitor JO146 previously enabled us to demonstrate an essential function for HtrA during the mid-replicative phase of the Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle. Here we extend our investigations to other members of the Chlamydia genus. C. trachomatis isolates with distinct replicative phase growth kinetics showed significant loss of viable infectious progeny after HtrA was inhibited during the replicative phase. Mid-replicative phase addition of JO146 was also significantly detrimental to Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia cavie. These data combined indicate that HtrA has a conserved critical role during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.

  15. Chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, N; Thoma, R; Spaeni, P; Weilenmann, R; Teankum, K; Brugnera, E; Zimmermann, D R; Vaughan, L; Pospischil, A

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the first case of bovine chlamydial abortion was reported in canton Graubunden, Switzerland. In this region, Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus is endemic in small ruminants. Hence, we aimed to investigate the incidence of chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden. During breeding seasons of 2003-2004, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placenta specimens (n = 235) from late-term abortions in cattle were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry with a Chlamydiaceae-specific monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and 2 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid [rRNA] PCR, intergenic spacer [IGS-S] PCR), followed by PCR product sequencing. In 149 of 235 cases (63.4%), histopathologic lesions such as purulent and/or necrotizing placentitis were observed. Chlamydial antigen was clearly demonstrated in immunohistochemistry in only 1 of 235 cases (0.4%). Cp. abortus or Cp. psittaci was found in 12 of 235 (5.1%) and 10 of 235 cases (4.2%) by 16 S rRNA PCR and IGS-S PCR, respectively. However, we detected, by 16 S rRNA PCR, 43 of 235 cases (18.3%) to be positive for chlamydia-like organisms. In contrast to the situation in small ruminants in the canton Graubunden, bovine abortion from Cp. abortus seems not to play an important role. Nevertheless, zoonotic potential should be taken into account when handling abortion material from cattle. The significance of chlamydia-like isolates other than Waddlia chondrophila remains an open question in abortion and needs further investigation.

  16. Association between chlamydia pneumoniae infection and carotid atherosclerotic plaques

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    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumonia infection and atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the association between this organism and atherosclerotic plaque formation in right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs and extracranial portions of internal carotid arteries (ICAs.
    METHODS: Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (IgA and IgG were measured and compared in 42 patients who had plaque in at least one CCA or ICA (detected by duplex ultrasound and 82 patients without any plaque in these arteries. Cp.IgG and Cp.IgA titers over 1.10 ISR were defined to be positive.
    RESULTS: We found that 6.1% of control subjects and 16.7% of cases were Cp.IgA seropositive. The difference between these two groups was prominent but was not statistically significant (P = 0.104. 4.2% of females without atherosclerotic plaque and 31.6% of females with plaque were Cp.IgA seropositive. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.005. There was no significant difference in seropositivity of Cp.IgG between case and control subjects or in male and female groups with or without plaque.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cp.IgA is a predictor of atherosclerosis in women, but Cp.IgG has no predictive value for plaque formation in either gender.
    KEY WORDS: Atherosclerotic plaque, Chlamydia pneumoniae, serum antibody.

  17. Correlation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ying Liu; An-Mei Deng; Jian Zhang; Ye Zhou; Ding-Kang Yao; Xiao-Qing Tu; Lie-Ying Fan; Ren-Qian Zhong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).METHODS: Cpn IgG and IgM were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 41 well-established PBC patients and two race-matched control groups (posthepatitis cirrhosis, n = 70; healthy controls, n = 57).RESULTS: The mean level and seroprevalence of Cpn IgG in PBC group and post-hepatitis cirrhosis (PHC) group were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (46.8±43.4 RU/mL, 49.5±45.2 RU/mL vs28.3±32.7 RU/mL;68.3%, 71.4%, 42.1%, respectively; P<0.05). There was a remarkably elevated seroprevalence of Cpn IgM in patients with PBC (22.0%) compared to the PHC and healthy control (HC) groups. For the PBC patients versus the HCs, the odds ratios (ORs) of the presence of Cpn IgG and IgM were 2.7 (95% CI 0.9-6.1) and 5.1 (95% CI 1.4-18.5), respectively. Though there was no correlation in the level of Cpn IgG with total IgG in sera of patients with PBC (r = -0.857, P = 0.344>0.05), Cpn IgM was related with the abnormally high concentrations of total IgM in PBC group.CONCLUSION: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae may be a triggering agent or even a causative agent in PBC, but suggest that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection probably contributes to the high level of IgM present in most patients with PBC.

  18. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39 had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population.

  19. Direct immunofluorescence for Chlamydia trachomatis on urogenital smears for epidemiological purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, G J; Kauer, F M; van Gijssel, P M; Schirm, J; Schroder, F P

    1988-04-01

    A population of 197 asymptomatic women, attending an out-patient department for birth-control advice, was screened for urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence on cervical and urethral smears. A blood sample was obtained for chlamydial serology and demographic, behavioural and clinical data were recorded. Eleven (5.5%) women had a chlamydial infection. Chlamydial infection, as diagnosed with direct immunofluorescence, correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.01), promiscuity (p less than 0.01), use of oral contraceptives (p less than 0.02) and high chlamydial antibody titres (p less than 0.01). These last also correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.02) and promiscuity (p less than 0.02). These results, obtained with direct immunofluorescence, are indistinguishable from those obtained previously with chlamydial culture. Direct immunofluorescence on urogenital smears seems a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Our data also support the hypothesis that oral contraceptive use is correlated with chlamydial infection because of increased cervical susceptibility to infection and not because of a sampling bias towards oral contraceptive users.

  20. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in non-urban pregnant women in Vellore, S. India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjyot K Vidwan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. METHODS: Pregnant women (≥28 weeks gestation in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. RESULTS: Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67% endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18-39 yrs and 22% (95% CI: 19.7-24.4% were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0-0.38% true positive CT infection using NAAT. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.

  1. Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Wohlmeister

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different infectious agents and their association with human papillomavirus (HPV in cervical carcinogenesis have not been completely elucidated. This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytological changes. The investigation of HPV and C. trachomatisproved its importance and may be considered in the future for including in screening programs, since these factors are linked to the early diagnosis of patients with precursor lesions of cervical cancer.

  2. Recovery of an environmental Chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingro, Astrid; Poppert, Sven; Heinz, Eva; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Essig, Andreas; Schweikert, Michael; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are a unique group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of vertebrates as well as symbionts of free-living amoebae. Although there is ample molecular evidence for a huge diversity and wide distribution of chlamydiae in nature, environmental chlamydiae are currently represented by only few isolates. This paper reports the recovery of a novel environmental chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp. The recovered environmental chlamydia strain UV-7 showed the characteristic morphology of chlamydial developmental stages as revealed by electron microscopy and was identified as a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (98.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Parachlamydia acanthamoebae). Infection studies suggested that Parachlamydia sp. UV-7 is not confined to amoeba hosts but is also able to invade mammalian cells. These findings outline a new straightforward approach to retrieving environmental chlamydiae from nature without prior, tedious isolation and cultivation of their natural host cells, and lend further support to suggested implications of environmental chlamydiae for public health.

  3. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul;

    1996-01-01

    (VD) and actual symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis. EIA positive specimens were confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. The investigation comprised 831 men and 80 women (17-26 years). The prevalence was 5.7% (95% confidence limits 4.2-7.4%) and 15% (8-25%) for men and women, respectively (p ... among Chlamydia positive men was 6. The frequency of earlier VD was 7.5% and 10% among men and women, respectively. Treatment with tetracycline was effective, which makes control of eradication unnecessary. We conclude that genital chlamydial infection among young asymptomatic people is common...

  4. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis sigma28 recognizes the fliC promoter of Escherichia coli and responds to heat shock in chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Li, Maixiang; Zhang, You-Xun

    2004-01-01

    The rpsD gene of Chlamydia trachomatis encodes the alternative sigma factor sigma28, which bears strong homology to many bacterial sigma factors, including Escherichia coli sigma8 and Bacillus subtilis sigmaB and sigmaD. Recently, a sigma28 promoter was identified upstream of the late-cycle-expressed gene hctB, which encodes the Chlamydia-histone-like protein 2 (Yu & Tan, 2003). In this study it is shown that the product of chlamydial rpsD is an E. coli sigma28 homologue. It was found that recombinant chlamydial sigma8, in combination with E. coli core RNA polymerase, initiates transcription in vitro from the E. coli sigma28-dependent promoter of fliC. It was also demonstrated that the recombinant chlamydial sigma28 does not recognize major sigma factor sigma70-consensus-like sequences in vitro. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, two rpsD transcripts were detected with 5' ends located 18 (transcript I) and 54 bp (transcript II) upstream of the translational initiation codon at 16 and 30 h post-infection. When the temperature of cultures infected with C. trachomatis was shifted from 35 to 42 degrees C, the rpsD transcript I increased dramatically. The levels of chlamydial sigma28, relative to EF-Tu, were greater throughout the exponential growth phase of the reticulate body, but lower late in the developmental cycle. These data support the hypothesis that sigma28 plays a role in the regulatory network that allows chlamydiae to survive changes in its environment, enabling it to complete its unique developmental cycle.

  6. Tissue-Resident T Cells as the Central Paradigm of Chlamydia Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Brunham, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    For almost 2 decades, results from Chlamydia pathogenesis investigations have been conceptualized using a cytokine polarization narrative. Recent viral immunity studies identifying protective tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) suggest an alternative paradigm based on localized immune networks. As Chlamydia vaccines enter the preclinical pipeline and, in the case of an attenuated trachoma vaccine, are given to human subjects, it may be useful to ask whether cytokine polarization is the appropriate framework for understanding and evaluating vaccine efficacy. In this review, we revisit C. trachomatis pathogenesis data from mice and humans using a Trm narrative and note a comfortable concordance with the Chlamydia pathogenesis literature.

  7. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  8. Implementing visual cervical cancer screening in Senegal: a cross-sectional study of risk factors and prevalence highlighting service utilization barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, J Andrew; Linn, Annē M; Irwin, Tracy; Peters, Karen E; Pyra, Maria; Traoré, Fatoumata; Touré Diarra, Mariama; Hasnain, Memoona; Wallner, Katie; Linn, Patrick; Ndiaye, Youssoupha

    2017-01-01

    Background Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old), especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years). There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and cervical cancer risk factors linked to the screening result. Results We screened 509 women; 5.6% of the estimated target population (9,041) in the region. The point prevalence of cervical dysplasia (positive VIA test) was 2.10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–3.21). Moreover, 287 women completed the cervical cancer risk factor survey (56.4% response rate) and only 38% stated awareness of cervical cancer; 75.9% of the screened women were less than 40 years of age. Conclusion The overall prevalence of dysplasia in this sample was lower than anticipated. Despite both overall awareness and screening uptake being less than expected, our study highlights the need to address challenges in future prevalence estimates. Principally, we identified that the highest-risk women are the ones least likely to seek screening services, thus illustrating a need to fully understand demand-side barriers to accessing health services in this population. Targeted efforts to educate and motivate older

  9. 'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'

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    Walker Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia' and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0 (n = 55 and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3 (n = 27. Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab (p Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections.

  10. Chlamydia causes fragmentation of the Golgi compartment to ensure reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Dagmar; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Machuy, Nikolaus; Karlas, Alexander; Wehrens, Andrea; Siedler, Frank; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2009-02-05

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis survives and replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion, which intercepts host exocytic pathways to obtain nutrients. Like many other intracellular pathogens, C. trachomatis has a marked requirement for host cell lipids, such as sphingolipids and cholesterol, produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, the mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens acquire host cell lipids are not well understood. In particular, no host cell protein responsible for transporting Golgi-derived lipids to the chlamydial inclusions has yet been identified. Here we show that Chlamydia infection in human epithelial cells induces Golgi fragmentation to generate Golgi ministacks surrounding the bacterial inclusion. Ministack formation is triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of the Golgi matrix protein golgin-84. Inhibition of golgin-84 truncation prevents Golgi fragmentation, causing a block in lipid acquisition and maturation of C. trachomatis. Golgi fragmentation by means of RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of distinct Golgi matrix proteins before infection enhances bacterial maturation. Our data functionally connect bacteria-induced golgin-84 cleavage, Golgi ministack formation, lipid acquisition and intracellular pathogen growth. We show that C. trachomatis subverts the structure and function of an entire host cell organelle for its own advantage.

  11. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis......, but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......-based questionnaire from 1000 randomly selected Danes (control group) and 1300 young Danes with a laboratory-verified C. trachomatis infection. All respondents were between 15 and 29 years. Using univariate analysis, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) for having had concurrent partners in the group of C. trachomatis...

  12. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

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    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  13. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in rural Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkrajai, P; Thongkrajai, E; Pengsaa, P; Pakarasang, M

    1999-03-01

    A cross sectional study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among different groups of rural women in the northeast Thailand. The presence of chlamydial antigens in endocervical swabs was detected by ELISA. The prevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.8% (31/485), 5.2% (24/466) and 6.7% (12/179) in women attending antenatal, postpartum and family planning clinics respectively. The average prevalences of C. trachomatis among hospital-based and community-based women were 6.1% (67/1,103) and 3.6% (15/411) respectively. In addition, the prevalences of some pathogens including Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum and Neisseria gonorrhoea among hospital-based and community-based women were 14.2, 2.8, 0.7, 0.2 and 10.9, 5.1, 2.7, 0.0% respectively. It was concluded that C. trachomatis was a problem of woman's reproductive health.

  14. Infertility after acute salpingitis with special reference to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1983-09-01

    Of 552 women with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis (AS), 299 were reviewed 2.5 to 7.5 years later. Cervical secretions from these women had been cultured for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. For 49 of 82 women with visually normal pelvic organs, such cultures were also performed; these women served as control subjects. In women exposing themselves to pregnancy, 50 (23.3%) of 197 AS patients and 2 (6.7%) of 30 control women were infertile for at least 1 year (P less than 0.02). After one episode of AS, women harboring chlamydiae, gonococci, both, or neither of these microorganisms in the cervix on admission seemed to have the same fertility prognosis. Infertility was correlated with the number of AS episodes, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (millimeters per hour) at admission, and the severity of the inflammatory reactions of the tubes. The use of oral contraceptives at admission was found to be a positive prognostic factor regarding fertility. Oral contraceptives might protect the patient from severe tubal inflammatory reactions.

  15. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  16. Comparing urine samples and cervical swabs for Chlamydia testing in a female population by means of Strand Displacement Assay (SDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentzel-Larsen Tore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increasing number of diagnosed cases of Chlamydia trachomatis in many countries, in particular among young people. The present study was based on a growing request to examine urine as a supplementary or primary specimen in screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, with the Becton Dickinson ProbeTec (BDPT Strand Displacement Assay (SDA. Urine samples may be particularly important in screening young people who are asymptomatic. Methods A total of 603 women aged 15 and older were enrolled from the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic at Haukeland University Hospital, Norway, in 2007. Only 31 women were older than 35 years. Cervical swabs and urine samples were tested with BDPT for all participants. In cases of discrepant test results from a given patient, both samples were retested by Cobas TaqManCT and a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR-method (in-house. Prevalence of C. trachomatis, sensitivity, and specificity were estimated by latent class analysis using all test results available. Bootstrap BC confidence intervals (10 000 computations were estimated for sensitivity and specificity, and their differences in cervix vs. urine tests. Results A total of 1809 specimens were collected from 603 patients. 80 women (13.4% were positive for C. trachomatis. Among these, BDPT identified 72 and 73 as positive in cervix and urine samples, respectively. Of the 523 C. trachomatis negative women, BDPT identified 519 as negative based on cervical swabs, and 514 based on urine samples. Sensitivity for cervical swabs and urine samples with the BDPT were 89.0% (95% CI 78.8, 98.6 and 90.2% (95% CI 78.1, 95.5, respectively. The corresponding values for specificity were 99.2% (95% CI 98.3, 100 and 98.3% (95% CI 96.4, 100. Conclusions This study indicates that urine specimens are adequate for screening high-risk groups for C. trachomatis by the SDA method (BDPT. Such an approach may facilitate early detection and treatment

  17. Report of the first nationally implemented clinical routine screening for fetal RHD in D- pregnant women to ascertain the requirement for antenatal RhD prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Christiansen, Mette; Steffensen, Rudi Nora;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A combination of antenatal and postnatal RhD prophylaxis is more effective in reducing D immunization in pregnancy than postnatal RhD prophylaxis alone. Based on the result from antenatal screening for the fetal RHD gene, antenatal RhD prophylaxis in Denmark is given only to those D- ...

  18. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena; Uvell, Hanna; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Elofsson, Mikael; Vuorela, Pia Maarit

    2015-10-01

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  19. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  20. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

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    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  1. Uncivil engineers: Chlamydia, Salmonella and Shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joe Dan; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2010-08-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. Like the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella, Chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. Numerous Salmonella and Shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating Rho GTPases and tyrosine kinase signaling cascades and by directly manipulating actin dynamics. Recent studies indicate that similar host-cell alterations occur during Chlamydia invasion, but few effectors are known. The identification of additional Chlamydia effectors and the elucidation of their modes of function are critical steps towards an understanding of how this clinically important pathogen breaches epithelial surfaces and causes infection.

  2. Causality of Chlamydiae in Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: a Plea for Increased Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-02-01

    Current molecular genetic understanding of the metabolically active persistent infection state of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in the synovium in patients with arthritis and spondyloarthritis favors a causal relationship. Here, we examine how adequately the accepted criteria for that etiologic relationship are fulfilled, emphasizing the situation in which these microorganisms cannot be cultivated by standard or other means. We suggest that this unusual situation of causality by chlamydiae in rheumatic disease requires establishment of a consensus regarding microorganism-specific terminology as well as the development of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Recent studies demonstrate the value of molecular testing for diagnosis of reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis caused by C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae in clinical practice. Data regarding combination antibiotic therapy is consistent with the causative role of chlamydiae for these diseases. Observations of multiple intra-articular coinfections require more research to understand the implications and to respond to them.

  3. Evaluation of PCR, culture, and serology for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D. Willemse; S.C. Hiep-van Casteren; S.A. Joulandan; R.J. Snijder; H.P. van Helden; M.F. Peeters; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.M. van den Bosch (Jules)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe prospectively studied 156 patients with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission. Several respiratory specimens were obtained for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by cell culture and PCR. Three serum samples were obtained from

  4. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen.

  5. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  6. Intracellular survival and persistence of Chlamydia muridarum is determined by macrophage polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gracey

    Full Text Available Macrophages can display a number of distinct phenotypes, known collectively as polarized macrophages. The best defined of these phenotypes are the classically-activated, interferon gamma (IFNγ/LPS induced (M1 and alternatively-activated, IL-4 induced (M2 macrophages. The goal of this study is to characterize macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in the context of macrophage polarization. Here we use Chlamydia muridarum and murine bone-marrow derived macrophages to show Chlamydia does not induce M2 polarization in macrophages as a survival strategy. Unexpectedly, the infection of macrophages was silent with no upregulation of M1 macrophage-associated genes. We further demonstrate that macrophages polarized prior to infection have a differential capacity to control Chlamydia. M1 macrophages harbor up to 40-fold lower inclusion forming units (IFU than non-polarized or M2 polarized macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in 16sRNA in M2 macrophages with no change in M1 macrophages. Suppressed Chlamydia growth in M1 macrophages correlated with the induction of a bacterial gene expression profile typical of persistence as evident by increased Euo expression and decreased Omp1 and Tal expression. Observations of permissive Chlamydia growth in non-polarized and M2 macrophages and persistence in M1 macrophages were supported through electron microscopy. This work supports the importance of IFNγ in the innate immune response to Chlamydia. However, demonstration that the M1 macrophages, despite an antimicrobial signature, fail to eliminate intracellular Chlamydia supports the notion that host-pathogen co-evolution has yielded a pathogen that can evade cellular defenses against this pathogen, and persist for prolonged periods of time in the host.

  7. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze; Nwagwu Victor Onyebuchi; Jeremiah Isreal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics...

  8. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoting Ni; Siyuan Qin; Zhilong Lou; Hongrui Ning; Xiaolin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The...

  9. Pmp-like proteins Pls1 and Pls2 are secreted into the lumen of the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Ine; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2008-09-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis secretes effector proteins across the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole (inclusion) to modulate host cellular functions. In an immunological screen for secreted chlamydial proteins, we identified CT049 and CT050 as potential inclusion membrane-associated proteins. These acidic, nonglobular proteins are paralogously related to the passenger domain of the polymorphic membrane protein PmpC and, like other Pmp proteins, are highly polymorphic among C. trachomatis ocular and urogenital strains. We generated antibodies to these Pmp-like secreted (Pls) proteins and determined by immunofluorescence microscopy that Pls1 (CT049) and Pls2 (CT050) localized to globular structures within the inclusion lumen and at the inclusion membrane. Fractionation of membranes and cytoplasmic components from infected cells by differential and density gradient centrifugation further indicated that Pls1 and Pls2 associated with membranes distinct from the bulk of bacterial and inclusion membranes. The accumulation of Pls1 and, to a lesser extent, Pls2 in the inclusion lumen was insensitive to the type III secretion inhibitor C1, suggesting that this translocation system is not essential for Pls protein secretion. In contrast, Pls secretion and stability were sensitive to low levels of beta-lactam antibiotics, suggesting that a functional cell wall is required for Pls secretion from the bacterial cell. Finally, we tested the requirement for these proteins in Chlamydia infection by microinjecting anti-Pls1 and anti-Pls2 antibodies into infected cells. Coinjection of anti-Pls1 and -Pls2 antibodies partially inhibited expansion of the inclusion. Because Pls proteins lack classical sec-dependent secretion signals, we propose that Pls proteins are secreted into the inclusion lumen by a novel mechanism to regulate events important for chlamydial replication and inclusion expansion.

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Achchhe L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274 and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4% and sensitivity (97.1% of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate

  11. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities.

  12. Individual and population level effects of partner notification for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian L Althaus

    Full Text Available Partner notification (PN or contact tracing is an important aspect of treating bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. It facilitates the identification of new infected cases that can be treated through individual case management. PN also acts indirectly by limiting onward transmission in the general population. However, the impact of PN, both at the level of individuals and the population, remains unclear. Since it is difficult to study the effects of PN empirically, mathematical and computational models are useful tools for investigating its potential as a public health intervention. To this end, we developed an individual-based modeling framework called Rstisim. It allows the implementation of different models of STI transmission with various levels of complexity and the reconstruction of the complete dynamic sexual partnership network over any time period. A key feature of this framework is that we can trace an individual's partnership history in detail and investigate the outcome of different PN strategies for C. trachomatis. For individual case management, the results suggest that notifying three or more partners from the preceding 18 months yields substantial numbers of new cases. In contrast, the successful treatment of current partners is most important for preventing re-infection of index cases and reducing further transmission of C. trachomatis at the population level. The findings of this study demonstrate the difference between individual and population level outcomes of public health interventions for STIs.

  13. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

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    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  14. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  15. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias

  16. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  17. Using community engagement to inform and implement a community-randomized controlled trial in the Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne eWood

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Social, political, and economic factors are directly and indirectly associated with the quality and distribution of health resources across Canada. First Nations (FN women in particular endure a disproportionate burden of ill health in contrast to the mainstream population. The complex relationship of health, social, and historical determinants are inherent to increased cervical cancer in FN women. This can be traced back to the colonial oppression suffered by Canadian FN and the social inequalities they have since faced. Screening - the Papinacolaou (Pap test – and early immunization have rendered cervical cancer almost entirely preventable but despite these options, FN women endure notably higher rates of diagnosis and mortality due to cervical cancer. The Anishinaabek Cervical Cancer Screening Study (ACCSS is a participatory action research project investigating the factors underlying the cervical cancer burden in FN women. ACCSS is a collaboration with 11 FN communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada and a multidisciplinary research team from across Canada with expertise in cancer biology, epidemiology, medical anthropology, public health, virology, women’s health, and pathology. Interviews with healthcare providers and community members revealed that prior to any formal data collection education must be offered. Consequently, an educational component was integrated into the existing quantitative design of the study: a two-armed, community-randomized trial that compares the uptake of two different cervical screening modalities. In ACCSS, the Research Team integrates community engagement and the flexible nature of participatory research with the scientific rigor of a randomized controlled trial. ACCSS findings will inform culturally appropriate screening strategies, aiming to reduce the disproportionate burden of cervical disease in concert with priorities of the partner FN communities.

  18. Inventions on GUI for Touch Sensitive Screens

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2014-01-01

    A touch sensitive screen displays the information on the screen and also receives the input by sensing a user's touch on the same screen. This mechanism facilitates system interaction directly through the screen without needing a mouse or keyboard. This method has the advantage to make the system compact by removing keyboard, mouse and similar interactive device. However there are certain difficulties to implement a touch screen interface. The display screens of portable devices are becoming ...

  19. [A child with iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Tsumura, N; Nagai, K; Yamada, T; Sakata, Y; Tominaga, K; Kato, H; Motohiro, T; Masunaga, N; Mochizuki, M

    1994-12-01

    A case of uncommon iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is reported. The patient was a 9-year-old boy who had suffered from cough, pharyngeal pain, and low grade fever. The symptoms persisted for more than 1 month in spite of an oral cephem antibiotic. Ophthalmalgia, congestion around the iris and cough had lasted with alleviation and exacerbation. A diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection was made by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and microimmunofluorescence test (MIF). The symptoms subsided with administration of clarithromycin (CAM: 300 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Because of the simultaneous alleviation of iritis, C. pneumoniae infection was considered to introduce the iritis. Much remains to be clarified about this pathogenesis of iritis and more detailed evaluations are required.

  20. Quinolones for the Treatment of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly sexually transmitted bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The quinolones ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been shown to have activity against both of these bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin is particularly well suited for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis cervical infection, which can be considered the earliest manifestation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Not only can ofloxacin be effectively used as a single agent, it is also useful in treating urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Although it has moderate activity against anaerobes in general, ofloxacin does have activity against the anaerobes commonly isolated from female patients with soft tissue pelvic infections. Thus, ofloxacin has the potential for being utilized to treat early salpingitis.

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M; Corey, Lawrence

    2002-03-27

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients; however, its role as a respiratory pathogen in immunocompromised hosts has been infrequently recognized. We describe C. pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection in a 19-year-old male after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed fever on day +14, and a subsequent computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a right lateral pleural-based opacity, which was then resected during thoracoscopy. Diagnosis was made by culture and staining of the resected tissue with C. pneumoniae-specific monoclonal antibodies, and azithromycin was administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. pneumoniae respiratory infection after stem cell or marrow transplantation. C. pneumoniae often coexists with other etiologic agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Considering the infrequency of infections from this organism in this clinical setting, one must still rule out other more likely respiratory pathogens.

  2. Cloning of Omp1 Gene from Chlamydia trachomatis F Genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Manli(齐蔓莉); LIU Quanzhong(刘全中); JIAO Wenling(缴稳苓); TIAN Jingqun(田敬群); CHEN Jinying(陈锦英)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To directionally clone the omp1 gene fromChlamydia trachomatis (Ct) F genotype onto a plasmid vectorfor constructing a rudimentary DNA vaccine.Methods: The complete omp1 gene from genomic DNA of CtF genotype wild species was amplified with primers designedby computer. The recombinant gene was obtained byrestriction enzyme cutting, linking the gene with the plasmidvector in vitro, transforming the recombinant gene intobacteria, and extracting the DNA from the bacteria.Results: DNA extracted from the bacteria was composed ofthe omp1 gene and plasmid, which is identified by threemethods of singular restrictive enzyme cutting, doublerestrictive enzyme cutting and PCR.Conclusion: Cloning of the omp1 gene from the Ct Fgenotype means that a rudimentary DNA vaccine wassuccessfully constructed.

  3. Effects of interferon gamma on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A and L2 protein expression investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium causing human ocular and genital disease. The lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is an important immune effector exerting antimicrobial effects towards several intracellular parasites, the chlamydia included. IFN-gamma has been...

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among......Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities...

  5. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  6. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-06-21

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy.

  7. Implementation of a fluorescence-based screening assay identifies histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit as subunit-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kasper B; Mullasseril, Praseeda; Dawit, Sara; Kurtkaya, Natalie L; Yuan, Hongjie; Vance, Katie M; Orr, Anna G; Kvist, Trine; Ogden, Kevin K; Le, Phuong; Vellano, Kimberly M; Lewis, Iestyn; Kurtkaya, Serdar; Du, Yuhong; Qui, Min; Murphy, T J; Snyder, James P; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2010-06-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate a slow, Ca(2+)-permeable component of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system and play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity, neuronal development, and several neurological diseases. We describe a fluorescence-based assay that measures NMDA receptor-mediated changes in intracellular calcium in a BHK-21 cell line stably expressing NMDA receptor NR2D with NR1 under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter (Tet-On). The assay selectively identifies allosteric modulators by using supramaximal concentrations of glutamate and glycine to minimize detection of competitive antagonists. The assay is validated by successfully identifying known noncompetitive, but not competitive NMDA receptor antagonists among 1800 screened compounds from two small focused libraries, including the commercially available library of pharmacologically active compounds. Hits from the primary screen are validated through a secondary screen that used two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings on recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. This strategy identified several novel modulators of NMDA receptor function, including the histamine H3 receptor antagonists clobenpropit and iodophenpropit, as well as the vanilloid receptor transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) antagonist capsazepine. These compounds are noncompetitive antagonists and the histamine H3 receptor ligand showed submicromolar potency at NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors, which raises the possibility that compounds can be developed that act with high potency on both glutamate and histamine receptor systems simultaneously. Furthermore, it is possible that some actions attributed to histamine H3 receptor inhibition in vivo may also involve NMDA receptor antagonism.

  8. Implementation of Health education path in neonatal disease screening%健康教育路径在新生儿疾病筛查中的实施效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王畅; 林艳娟; 沈春秀; 陶雪玲

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the implementation effect of health education path in neo-natal disease screening , then promoting popularization and development of neonatal disease screening . [ Methods] The health education path was worked out for neonatal disease screening .A total of 986 cases of single birth mothers and their newborns were as the observation group , in which the path of health educa-tion was implemented for them .And 1 052 cases of single birth mothers and their newborns were as the con-trol group, in which the traditional method of health education was done .Comparison was made between the two groups in neonatal disease screening rate , positive recall rate , degree of parturient about understanding and mastering the knowledge of neonatal disease screening , parturient satisfaction and parental satisfaction . [ Results] The neonatal disease screening rate , positive recall rate , degree of parturient about under-standing and mastering the knowledge of neonatal disease screening , parturient satisfaction and parental satisfaction were all better in the observation group than those in the control group ( P <0.05 ). [ Conclusion] The health education path for neonatal disease screening can effectively promote its devel-opment and popularization .%[目的]探讨健康教育路径在新生儿疾病筛查中的实施效果,以促进新生儿疾病筛查的普及和发展。[方法]制定新生儿疾病筛查健康教育路径,以986例单胎产妇及其新生儿作为观察组,根据路径对其实施健康教育;以1052例单胎产妇及其新生儿为对照组,采用传统方法实施健康教育。对两组新生儿疾病筛查率、阳性召回率、产妇对新生儿疾病筛查知识的了解与掌握程度、产妇及家长满意度进行比较。[结果]观察组新生儿疾病筛查率、阳性召回率、产妇对新生儿疾病筛查知识的了解与掌握程度、产妇及家长满意度均显著优于对照组(P均<0.05)。[结论]

  9. Novel sequence types of Chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n = 4) and in the deer fecal sample (n = 1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies.

  10. Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis Load Is Similar in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women Reporting Anal Sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève A F S van Liere

    Full Text Available Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia is frequently diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM and in women, but it is unknown whether these infections are comparable in clinical impact and transmission potential. Quantifying bacterial load and identifying determinants associated with high bacterial load could provide more insight.We selected a convenience sample of MSM who reported anal sex (n = 90 and women with concurrent urogenital/anorectal chlamydia who reported anal sex (n = 51 or did not report anal sex (n = 61 from the South Limburg Public Health Service's STI unit. Bacterial load (Chlamydia/ml was quantified for all samples and log transformed for analyses. Samples with an unquantifiable human leukocyte antigen (n = 9 were excluded from analyses, as they were deemed inadequately sampled.The mean log anorectal chlamydia load (3.50 was similar for MSM and women who reported having anal sex (3.80, P = 0.21. The anorectal chlamydia load was significantly higher in these groups than in women who did not report having anal sex (2.76, P = 0.001. Detectable load values ranged from 1.81-6.32 chlamydia/ml for MSM, 1.74-7.33 chlamydia/ml for women who reported having anal sex and 1.84-6.31 chlamydia/ml for women who did not report having anal sex. Symptoms and several other determinants were not associated with anorectal chlamydia load.Women who did not report anal sex had lower anorectal loads, but they were within a similar range to the other two groups. Anorectal chlamydia load was comparable between MSM and women who reported anal sex, suggesting similar transmission potential.

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Land, Jolande A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Morré, Servaas A; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antib

  12. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, J A; Goessens, W H; Mouton, J W; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Niesters, H G; Quint, W G; Habbema, L; Stolz, E; Wagenvoort, J H

    1993-01-01

    The Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. Specimens were collecte

  13. Comparison of five commercial serological tests for the detection of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, D; Regan, L; Greub, G

    2010-06-01

    Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis-specific antibodies is valuable in investigating recurrent miscarriage, tubal infertility and extrauterine pregnancy. We compared here the performance of immunofluorescence (IF) to four other commercial tests in detecting IgG antibodies directed against C. trachomatis: two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) as the antigen, commercialised respectively by Medac and R-Biopharm (RB), one ELISA using the chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) as the antigen (Medac), as well as a new automated epifluorescence immunoassay (InoDiag). A total of 405 patients with (n = 251) and without (n = 154) miscarriages were tested by all five tests. The prevalence of C. trachomatis-specific IgG antibodies as determined by the IF, cHSP60-Medac, MOMP-Medac, MOMP-RB and InoDiag was 14.3, 23.2, 14.3, 11.9 and 26.2%, respectively. InoDiag exhibited the highest sensitivity, whereas MOMP-RB showed the best specificity. Cross-reactivity was observed with C. pneumoniae using IF, MOMP-RB and InoDiag, and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae using the cHSP60 ELISA test. No cross-reactivity was observed between C. trachomatis and the other Chlamydiales (Neochlamydia hartmannellae, Waddlia chondrophila and Simkania negevensis). Given its high sensitivity, the new automated epifluorescence immunoassay from InoDiag represents an interesting alternative. The MOMP-based ELISA of R-Biopharm should be preferred for large serological studies, given the high throughput of ELISA and its excellent specificity.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a sample of northern Brazilian pregnant women: prevalence and prenatal importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis as a probable cofactor in human papillomavirus infection in aboriginal women from northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Daniel Deluca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV are strongly associated with cervical cancer (CC, and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial infection (STBI worldwide, seems to be a risk factor for HPV infection and for CC. It is also known that both agents are more prevalent in vulnerable communities where lack of adequate primary health care is a cause for concern. The aim of this work was to determine the impact of CT and HPV infections in women belonging to an isolated aboriginal population (Pilaga community from a poor region in Northern Argentina (province of Formosa. For this purpose, a cross-sectional study was performed in all sexually active Pilaga women, who attended a local community-based gynecological health screening project. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR method on a cervical brush specimen was used to detect both agents. Results: A total of 227 women (20% of the total female population of the Pilaga community were studied and the overall prevalence was 26.4% for CT, 46.7% for HPV and 16.3% for concurrent infection. CT infection was higher in HPV DNA positive (34.2% than in HPV DNA negative women (19%; OR: 2.22/95% CI = 1.16-4.28 / p = 0.009 and the most prevalent HPV types were HPV-16 (19.4%, 6 and 18 (5.3%, 58 (3.5% and 33 (3.1%. Conclusions: The prevalence of CT and HPV observed in Pilaga women are among the worst registered in Latin America. Also, data collected suggest that chlamydial infection may play an important role in the natural history of HPV infection. On this respect, we propose that the association between these two agents seems to be more related to a mutual potentiation than to the fact that they share a common route of transmission.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in undocumented migrants undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irion Olivier

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI is the most frequent sexual transmitted disease (STI in Switzerland but its prevalence in undocumented migrants is unknown. We aimed to compare CTI prevalence among undocumented migrants undergoing termination of pregnancy (ToP to the prevalence among women with residency permit. Methods This prospective cohort study included all pregnant, undocumented women presenting from March 2005 to October 2006 to the University hospital for ToP. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit coming to the same hospital during the same time period for ToP Results One hundred seventy five undocumented women and 208 women with residency permit (controls were included in the study. Mean ages were 28.0 y (SD 5.5 and 28.2 y (SD 7.5, respectively (p = 0.77. Undocumented women came primarily from Latin-America (78%. Frequently, they lacked contraception (23%, controls 15%, OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.04;2.9. Thirteen percent of undocumented migrants were found to have CTI (compared to 4.4% of controls; OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.4;7.3. Conclusion This population of undocumented, pregnant migrants consisted primarily of young, Latino-American women. Compared to control women, undocumented migrants showed higher prevalence rates of genital CTI, which indicates that health professionals should consider systematic screening for STI in this population. There is a need to design programs providing better access to treatment and education and to increase migrants' awareness of the importance of contraception and transmission of STI.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and re-infection among young women--behavioural and microbiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. METHODS: 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9. Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1], being employed [RR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9] and having two or more new sex partners [RR = 5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6. The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01 and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia.

  18. Defining species-specific immunodominant B cell epitopes for molecular serology of Chlamydia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens.

  19. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs...... in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  20. A molecular survey of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in married women: a cross sectional study on 991 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamani-Tabriz L

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is a common and curable STI that may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. The few studies on C. trachomatis among Iranian women have had, for the most part, small sample sizes and are therefore unsuitable for epidemiological deductions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of urogenital C. trachomatis infections by PCR on urine samples of married women in their fertile years in order to determine the need for a C. trachomatis screening program for asymptomatic women in Iran."n"n Methods: This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was performed on 991 married women. The research material consisted of questionnaires and urine samples, which were transported daily to Avesina Research Institute, Tehran, Iran, to extract their DNA and prepare them for PCR tests. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS, version 13, and evaluated statistically by t-test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression, considering p<0.05 as significant."n"n Results: Of all the subjects, 127 (12.8% were positive by PCR for C. trachomatis. The mean age of the participants was 28.88± 6.19 years. Infection was more prevalent among those with

  1. Genital forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos abortsøgende--korrelerer med ung alder og nulliparitet, men ikke tidligere underlivsbetoendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Out of 432 women applying for termination of pregnancy, 7.9% (34/428) had cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and 0.7% (3/431) genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 19.2% among the women applying for termination who were under 20 years and 12.8% among those aged 21-25 years...

  2. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...

  3. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Ful-Term Deliveries and Women with Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are some documents which support the role of some certain infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis in spontaneous abortion. As there were not data about role this bacterium in abortion in this area of IRAN, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with abortion and compare it with healthy women with no previous history of abortion. Approach: This case-control study was carried out in Shariatee hospital of Hormozgan University of medical sciences, during 2004-2005. A number of 220 women with definite diagnosis of previous abortion and 200 matched women with normal full term delivery and negative history of miscarriage as controls were studied as case and control groups. All obtained PAP smears from the case and the control groups were then tested using Immunoflourescent method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Data was analyzed, using SPSS software (chi square and t-test. Results: The prevalence of positive direct immunofluorescent test on PAP smears indicating the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 56 (25.45% in women with abortion comparing to 13 (5.20% in women in control group, the difference was significant (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed Chlamydia trachomatis is an important causative agent for abortion in this area of IRAN.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  6. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  7. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young

  8. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul;

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR......) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  10. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Taylor B; Gottlieb, Sami L; Darville, Toni

    2017-01-19

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C. trachomatis vaccine is feasible. Vaccine development for genital chlamydial infection has been in the preclinical phase of testing for many years, but the first Phase I trials of chlamydial vaccine candidates are underway, and scientific advances hold promise for additional candidates to enter clinical evaluation in the coming years. We describe the clinical and public health need for a C. trachomatis vaccine, provide an overview of Chlamydia vaccine development efforts, and summarize current vaccine candidates in the development pipeline.

  11. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  12. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (PChlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (PChlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  13. [MEDICAL AND SOCIAL STATE OF HEALTH IN FAMILIES WITH THE FOCUS OF RESPIRATORY CHLAMYDIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V; Belova, E V; Kin, T I

    2015-01-01

    Medical and social state of health in family persons was assessed on the basis of a questionnaire. Developed by the author's questionnaire included two sections, reflecting the state of health, health risk factors and social characteristics of the family members of ENT patients. In the article there is presented an analysis of the medical and social state of 44 families of patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract associated with chlamydial infection. The comparison was performed with 43 families of ENT patients with unconfirmed respiratory chlamydia. Diagnosis of Chlamydia infection complex was carried out with the use of laboratory methods (direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, polymerase chain reaction). The health and social status of families with hearth respiratory chlamydia were shown to be significantly worse compared with families with the lack of the latter

  14. 网络教学屏幕监控系统的设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of Network Teaching Screen Monitoring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 韦家佳

    2014-01-01

    为了丰富程监控技术在教育教学的实践应用,结合高校教学的需求,基于Java+Socket+多线程技术,设计实现了一套网络教学屏幕监控系统,为师生构建数字化的学习环境提供了可能,从而实现有效的教学,提高了教学的质量。%In order to enrich the remote monitoring technology in the practice application of teaching and meet the requirements of the university teaching,design and implement a network teaching monitor system,which based on Java+Socket+Multi thread technology,ifling the possible away as construction of digital learning environment for teachers and students,achieving effective teaching and improving teaching quality.

  15. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and occurrence of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; ZHENG Wen; XIA Xi-rong; ZHANG Xi-long; TONG Mao-rong; FENG Gen-bao; ZHAO Bei-lei; HU Lan-ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. Pneumoniae) infection and asthma exacerbation. Methods: A prospective study of C. Pneumoniae infection was conducted in 75 patients with asthma and 63 patients with respiratory tract infection, and 100 blood donors served as controls.The presence of infection was convinced by the polymerase chain reaction and direct immunofluorescence assay for C. Pneumoniae DNA from throat swab specimens and micro-immunofluorescence testing for C. Pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. Results: Prevalence of specific IgG in asthma patients (81.3%) was higher than that of the blood donors (68. 0%, P<0. 05) and was not significantly different from respiratory tract infection patients (68. 0%, P>0. 05). The acute C. Pneumoniae infection rate of symptomatic asthma patients (59.4%) was markedly higher than that of respiratory tract infection patients (34.9%, P<0. 05). The average titer of C. Pneumoniae IgG instead of IgA in asthma patients (48. 38±6. 94)was significantly higher than respiratory tract infection patients (24. 70±8. 77, P<0. 05). Other pathogens were identified in 12 of 21 (57. 1%) asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae. The symptoms of 7 asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae infection were improved through antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible role of C. Pneumoniae infection in asthma.

  16. Effects of Mentha suaveolens essential oil on Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; De Santis, Fiorenzo; Filardo, Simone; Ragno, Rino; Angiolella, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS) can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  17. The pathogenesis of Chlamydia pneumoniae-type pneumonitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施毅; 印洁; 詹化文; 冯根宝; 张希龙; 苏欣; 宋勇; 夏锡荣; 周晓军; 申萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate mice as experimental animals for Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumoniae) infection and investigate the pathogenesis of C.pneumoniae derived pneumonitis.Methods Icr mice were inoculated with the C.pneumoniae strain, CWL-029, either intranasally or intravenously. After a single dose inoculation, mice were killed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 60th days. The pathological changes in lung tissue were analyzed.Results The Icr mice were shown to be susceptible to C.pneumoniae. Inoculation into mice with C.pneumoniae induced a prolonged course of lung infection, as demonstrated by persistence of lung pathology (up to 60 days). Via intranasal inoculation of mice, lung pathology was characterized by patchy interstitial pneumonitis with predominately neutrophil leukocyte infiltration early (within the first 7 days) and lymphocyte infiltration in the later stages (14 days later) of infection. After intravenous inoculation, a similarly developed interstitial pneumonitis was observed, but it was milder and patchier, especially in early stages. C.pneumoniae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) intermittently in the lung tissue. Inoculated mice developed serum IgG antibody responses.Conclusion The Icr mice were susceptible to C.pneumoniae, resulting in a pulmonary infection characterized by interstitial pneumonitis, occurring most strongly via intranasal inoculation.

  18. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (plactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (plactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms.

  19. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  20. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  1. Seropositivity for Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tutanc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections may trigger acute asthma attacks and may be held responsible for etiopathogenesis in children with asthma. Although bacterial infections attract a limited amount of attention, recently Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, in particular, are reported to be the possible factors. IgM and IgG seroprevalence was investigated in 66 children patients with bronchial asthma (between the ages of 3 and 14 for CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In a total of 66 cases, 18 (27.2% patients were detected with IgG positivity for CP whereas 27 of them (40.9% were detected with IgG positivity for MP. IgG positivity was determined in 6 patients (13.0% in the control group for CP, and in 6 patients (10.8% in the control group for MP. The rate of the asthma patients with IgG seropositivity for MP was 4 times higher than that of the control group. It was seen that IgG antibody seropositivity for CP was higher in those with more frequent attacks. No such difference was observed in terms of IgG antibody seropositivity for M. pneumoniae. There are many studies indicating that CP and MP infections take an importance place in the etiology of bronchial asthma and asthma attacks in children. The results obtained reveal the effect of both microorganisms on the etiopathogenesis of the bronchial asthma and the increased number of asthma attacks.

  2. [Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Chlamydia trachomatis and other co-factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Troconis, J T

    1995-09-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in patients with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) was studied in one hundred eighty patients. The Chlamydiazyme test was performed in all of them. Endocervical samples were taken from 103 patients with CIN and 77 women who sought medical attention for different gynecological reasons (CG). Twenty three tests (12.8%) were positive; 15 of them had CIN (14.6%) and 8 were from the control group (10.4%). It was found a statistical significant difference between NIC III and early intercourse, NIC III and age, NIC and vaginal douches and, among NIC and number of pregnancies and deliveries. There was not a significant difference among Ct and early intercourse, number of sexual partners, pregnancies, deliveries, vaginal douches, oral contraceptives (OC), and vaginal discharge. No statistically significant differences were found between NIC and number of sexual partners, and OC and vaginal discharge. The low incidence of Ct in patients with CIN does not mean that Ct does not play a role in the origin and development of the cervical pathology.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Vesterinen, E

    1982-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries today, Chlamydia trachomatis seems to be the most important cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is most prevalent in symptomatic women and in persons visiting venereal disease clinics, the asymptomatic carrier rate, particularly in young women, appears to be surprisingly high. In addition to young age and level of sexual activity, the use of oral contraceptives and the presence of cervical ectopy are important risk factors for chlamydial infection. Chlamydial cervicitis often is characterized by a hypertrophic follicular appearance, with severe edema, erythema, friability, and endocervical mucopurulent discharge. On colposcopy, an atypical transformation zone is frequently observed. Papanicolaou smears taken from C. trachomatis culture-positive patients often reveal benign atypias and dyskaryotic changes. C. trachomatis, therefore, being a venereally transmitted intracellular organism, may well play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Future studies on patients with cytological atypias, therefore, also should include tests for C. trachomatis. Prospective studies are needed to determine the natural history and outcome of C. trachomatis-associated atypias and their behavior after adequate therapy. A large proportion of C. trachomatis-infected women also are culture-positive from the urethra. The demonstration that C. trachomatis is a common causative agent of acute urethral syndrome (also called abacterial urethritis, dysuria-pyuria syndrome) in women has been a valuable contribution. The diagnosis of pyuria in a patient with abacterial dysuria is of critical importance, since it suggests a chlamydial etiology and thus is a potentially treatable condition.

  4. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum Transmission Between Regular Sexual Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全中; 齐蔓莉; 缴稳苓

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the transmission ratio and epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) between regular sexual partners. Methods: We collected secretion specimens of geni-tourinary tract from sexual partners who attended our clinic during the period from May 1, 1999 to May 31,2000 and then detected Ct and Uu in the specimens. Results: The inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu infected between sexual partners was 59.22% and 38.92% respectively. There were no correlations between pa-tients' age and the inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu in-fected (P>0.05). The most common inconsistency be-tween regular partners was seen in man with Ct infec-tion while in female with Uu infection; and in man with concurrent infection of Ct while in female only with Uu; or in man with Ct infection while in female no Ct and Uu were detected. Conclusion: The sexual transmitting ability of Ct and Uu is not as active as we have expected.

  5. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported.

  6. Effects of Mentha suaveolens Essential Oil on Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sessa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  7. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  8. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  9. Are We There Yet? A Review of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Implementation Fidelity Tools and Proficiency Checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, Kaitlyn; Agley, Jon; DeSalle, Mallori; Gassman, Ruth A

    2016-08-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol is an evidence-based prevention practice designed to reduce frequency and severity of alcohol misuse. Many studies have validated the effectiveness of SBI for reducing levels of alcohol misuse, especially in primary medical care. Additional research continues to be conducted in terms of the effectiveness of including referral to treatment (SBIRT) and addressing illicit drug use and prescription drug abuse. Importantly, cross-comparison among SBIRT programs is difficult because evaluative processes vary widely between programs, which themselves often are substantively different. In this brief report, we utilized cross-comparison techniques to elucidate similarities and differences among SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists. In early 2014, researchers completed a systematic review of SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists published or made available from 2004 through April 2014; in total, eleven instruments were located and assessed. The analytic methodology consisted of creating a matrix with key SBIRT components identified from the literature prior to assessment. Three researchers populated the matrix with the identified fidelity tools and proficiency checklists before assessing each tool for the presence or absence of each component. The level of agreement between the researchers was checked for inter-rater reliability using free-marginal Kappa statistics. The results of the matrix analysis suggested heterogeneity among existing SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists. Importantly, it was not the case that this lack of concordance reflected poorly on any given fidelity tool. Rather, it emphasized the multi-partite and variable nature of SBIRT programs. It was not evident that a single standardized SBIRT fidelity tool or proficiency checklist could appropriately determine the level of fidelity to SBIRT for all programs. Suggestions for next steps in SBIRT fidelity research are provided

  10. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, Pcompared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases.

  11. Performance of three microimmunofluorescence assays for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae immunoglobulin M, G, and A antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mette; Berthelsen, Lene; Lind, Inga

    2002-01-01

    Labsystems (LAB) and MRL Diagnostics (MRL) by investigation of sera from three groups of patients: group I, 83 sera from 28 patients with atypical pneumonia; group II, 37 sera from 16 patients with acute C. pneumoniae or Chlamydia psittaci respiratory tract infection confirmed by PCR or culture; group III......The microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test is considered the "gold standard" for laboratory diagnosis of acute and chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The performance of a MIF test based on C. pneumoniae antigen from Washington Research Foundation (WRF) was compared with those of assays from...

  12. Mathematical analysis of a Chlamydia epidemic model with pulse vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, G P

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have considered a dynamical model of Chlamydia disease with varying total population size, bilinear incidence rate and pulse vaccination strategy. We have defined two positive numbers R₀ and (R₁≤ R₀). It is proved that there exists an infection-free periodic solution which is globally attractive if R₀ 1 The important mathematical findings for the dynamical behaviour of the Chlamydia disease model are also numerically verified using MATLAB. Finally epidemiological implications of our analytical findings are addressed critically.

  13. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  14. A predictive screening tool to detect diabetic retinopathy or macular edema in primary health care: construction, validation and implementation on a mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Azrak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most described techniques used to detect diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema have to be interpreted correctly, such that a person not specialized in ophthalmology, as is usually the case of a primary care physician, may experience difficulties with their interpretation; therefore we constructed, validated and implemented as a mobile app a new tool to detect diabetic retinopathy or diabetic macular edema (DRDME using simple objective variables. We undertook a cross-sectional, observational study of a sample of 142 eyes from Spanish diabetic patients suspected of having DRDME in 2012–2013. Our outcome was DRDME and the secondary variables were: type of diabetes, gender, age, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, foveal thickness and visual acuity (best corrected. The sample was divided into two parts: 80% to construct the tool and 20% to validate it. A binary logistic regression model was used to predict DRDME. The resulting model was transformed into a scoring system. The area under the ROC curve (AUC was calculated and risk groups established. The tool was validated by calculating the AUC and comparing expected events with observed events. The construction sample (n = 106 had 35 DRDME (95% CI [24.1–42.0], and the validation sample (n = 36 had 12 DRDME (95% CI [17.9–48.7]. Factors associated with DRDME were: HbA1c (per 1% (OR = 1.36, 95% CI [0.93–1.98], p = 0.113, foveal thickness (per 1 µm (OR = 1.03, 95% CI [1.01–1.04], p < 0.001 and visual acuity (per unit (OR = 0.14, 95% CI [0.00–0.16], p < 0.001. AUC for the validation: 0.90 (95% CI [0.75–1.00], p < 0.001. No significant differences were found between the expected and the observed outcomes (p = 0.422. In conclusion, we constructed and validated a simple rapid tool to determine whether a diabetic patient suspected of having DRDME really has it. This tool has been implemented on a mobile app. Further validation studies are required in the general diabetic population.

  15. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection.

  16. Genital Mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in patients with genital tract infections attending a tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karnika Saigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited data are available on the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT among Indian patients with genital tract infections. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, and CT in patients with genital tract infections. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of UU and MH were also assessed. Endocervical swabs/urethral swabs and first void urine samples of patients (n = 164 were collected. UU and MH were detected by culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. MG and CT were identified by PCR. Ureaplasma isolates were further biotyped and serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility was done by microbroth dilution method. UU, MH, MG, and CT were detected in 15.2%, 5.4%, 1.2%, and 6% patients, respectively. Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3/14 was the most prevalent. All isolates of UU and MH were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline and josamycin. Routine screening for these pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility testing is warranted to prevent sequel of infections and formulate treatment guidelines.

  17. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    . trachomatis infection in women attending an infertility clinic. In an effort to prevent Chlamydia infection associated infertility, we recommend screening of women with infertility due to C. trachomatis infection by in-house molecular method as a cost-effective solution in resource limited settings.

  19. Noninvasive Screening for Genital Chlamydial Infections in Asymptomatic Men: Strategies and Costs Using a Urine PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Baldwin Toye; Peter Jessamine; Ian Gemmill

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost saving strategies to screen for genital chlamydial infection in men using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology.METHODS: Men with no urethral symptoms presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were recruited. Study participants underwent a questionnaire interview. Urethral swabs were taken to perform a smear for polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by culture and PCR. First-catch urine was collected ...

  20. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    greatest responsibility lies with medical and health care institutions and those who determine the priorities of these institutions. Patient and physician barriers to mass cancer screening can be addressed by institutional support. If the quality of care delivered by providers, group practices, managed-care organizations, and HMOs is assessed with priority given to the regularity and consistency with which basic screening procedures are performed, cancer screening will undoubtedly receive greater attention in the clinic. Medical institutions must collaborate to develop standards for cancer screening with attention to the cost-effectiveness of various screening techniques to determine how limited resources can best be spent in cancer control. Such efforts should keep in mind "that a very small change implemented over a broad population may have a greater effect in absolute numbers than a large level of change applied in a small segment of the population."

  1. Non-detection of Chlamydia species in carotid atheroma using generic primers by nested PCR in a population with a high prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamford Kathleen B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis is controversial. We investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae and other Chlamydia spp. in atheromatous carotid artery tissue. Methods Forty elective carotid endarterectomy patients were recruited (27 males, mean age 65 and 13 females mean age 68, 4 had bilateral carotid endarterectomies (n= 44 endarterectomy specimens. Control specimens were taken from macroscopically normal carotid artery adjacent to the atheromatous lesions (internal controls, except in 8 cases where normal carotid arteries from post mortem (external controls were used. Three case-control pairs were excluded when the HLA DRB gene failed to amplify from the DNA. Genus specific primers to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP gene were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR in 41 atheromatous carotid specimens and paired controls. PCR inhibition was monitored by spiking with target C. trachomatis. Atheroma severity was graded histologically. Plasma samples were tested by microimmunofluorescence (MIF for antibodies to C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci and the corresponding white cells were tested for Chlamydia spp. by nPCR. Results C. pneumoniae was not detected in any carotid specimen. Twenty-five of 38 (66% plasma specimens were positive for C. pneumoniae IgG, 2/38 (5% for C. trachomatis IgG and 1/38 (3% for C. psittaci IgG. Conclusions We were unable to show an association between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and atheroma in carotid arteries in the presence of a high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae antibodies in Northern Ireland.

  2. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P;

    2000-01-01

    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis....... By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these proteins as the putative outer membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH....

  3. Evidence for the existence of two new members of the family Chlamydiaceae and proposal of Chlamydia avium sp. nov. and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine; Riege, Konstantin; Wehner, Stefanie; Dilcher, Meik; Creasy, Heather Huot; Weidmann, Manfred; Myers, Garry; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Ruettger, Anke; Bavoil, Patrik M; Hufert, Frank T; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Marz, Manja

    2014-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae with the recombined single genus Chlamydia currently comprises nine species, all of which are obligate intracellular organisms distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. Anecdotal evidence from epidemiological surveys in flocks of poultry, pigeons and psittacine birds have indicated the presence of non-classified chlamydial strains, some of which may act as pathogens. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA and ompA genes, as well as multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 field isolates were conducted. All independent analyses assigned the strains into two different clades of monophyletic origin corresponding to pigeon and psittacine strains or poultry isolates, respectively. Comparative genome analysis involving the type strains of currently accepted Chlamydiaceae species and the designated type strains representing the two new clades confirmed that the latter could be classified into two different species as their average nucleotide identity (ANI) values were always below 94%, both with the closest relative species and between themselves. In view of the evidence obtained from the analyses, we propose the addition of two new species to the current classification: Chlamydia avium sp. nov. comprising strains from pigeons and psittacine birds (type strain 10DC88(T); DSMZ: DSM27005(T), CSUR: P3508(T)) and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov. comprising strains from poultry (type strain 08-1274/3(T); DSMZ: DSM27451(T), CSUR: P3509(T)).

  4. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis represents a group of human pathogenic obligate intracellular and gram-negative bacteria. The genome of C. trachomatis D comprises 894 open reading frames (ORFs). In this study the global expression of genes in C. trachomatis A, D and L2, which are responsible for different ...

  5. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  6. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars;

    1991-01-01

    after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...... insemination before the inoculation takes place. Udgivelsesdato: 1991...

  7. Impact of Mass Distribution of Azithromycin on the Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Mohammed, Zeena; Massae, Patrick A.; Shao, John F.; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David C. W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2005-01-01

    In a community of Tanzania where trachoma is endemic, we cultured conjunctival swabs from all residents who had active trachoma and were PCR positive for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, both before (43 isolates) and 2 months after (9 isolates) mass antibiotic treatment. No clinically or programmatically significant increase in azithromycin or tetracycline resistance was observed. PMID:16251338

  8. Impact of Mass Distribution of Azithromycin on the Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Mohammed, Zeena; Massae, Patrick A.; Shao, John F.; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David C.W.; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2005-01-01

    In a community of Tanzania where trachoma is endemic, we cultured conjunctival swabs from all residents who had active trachoma and were PCR positive for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, both before (43 isolates) and 2 months after (9 isolates) mass antibiotic treatment. No clinically or programmatically significant increase in azithromycin or tetracycline resistance was observed.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ;

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  10. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of t

  11. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent Winding;

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  12. Chlamydia psittaci : a relevant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in two Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, S M C; Bos, W J W; van Hannen, E J; Dijkstra, F; Heddema, E R; van Velzen-Blad, H; Heijligenberg, R; Grutters, J C; de Jongh, B M; Meijvis, SCA

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Of all hospitalised community-acquired pneumonias (CAPs) only a few are known to be caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Most likely the reported incidence, ranging from of 0% to 2.1%, is an underestimation of the real incidence, since detection of psittacosis is frequently not incorporated in

  13. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); N. den Toom; T.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; E. Stolz (Ernst); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least

  14. Detection of infections of the eye with Chlamydia trachomatis by the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Fan (Jun); W.Y. Zhang (Wen); Y.Y. Wu (Yu); X.Y. Jing (Xiou); E.C.J. Claas (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to test the diagnostic feasibility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in eye swabs from patients with conjunctivitis, and to establish the basic technique of the PCR for epidemiological survey. The resul

  15. Quantitative Detection of Respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection by Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Kuoppa, Yvonne; Boman, Jens; Scott, Lena; Kumlin, Urban; Eriksson, Iréne; Allard, Annika

    2002-01-01

    Real-time PCR was evaluated as a quantitative diagnostic method for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection using different respiratory samples. Real-time PCR had efficiency equal to or better than that of nested touchdown PCR. This study confirmed sputum as the best sampling material to detect an ongoing C. pneumoniae infection.

  16. One-tube nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a one-tube nested PCR test, which allows the detection of minimal quantities of Chlamydia trachomatis in human fluids. This assay includes the use of an internal control to avoid false negative results due to the presence of inhibitors. The results obtained show that this assay is robust enough to be used for clinical diagnosis.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: knowledge, test practices, and attitudes of Dutch midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the Netherlands, testing for C. trachomatis is based on risk assessment. We assessed midwives' knowledge, test practices, assessment of risk behavior, and attitudes regarding testing for C. trachomati

  18. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  19. Risk Factors for Incident and Redetected Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Elise; Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in women, including the role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: In this population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark, 10,729 women aged 20 to 29 y...

  20. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis From Patients With Different Degrees of Clinical Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, L.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Klint, M.; Herrmann, B.; Morré, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the past, contradictory results have been obtained linking Chlamydia trachomatis serovars (ompA gene) to different clinical courses of infection. Methods: A high resolution multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system was used to genotype 6 genetic regions, including ompA, in 70 Dutch uro

  1. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis and cap...... the contribution of the MOMP variable segments to the topographical interactions which determine the antigenic structure responsible for human immune response....

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  3. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis and Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeen K. El-Jakee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results reveal that 96.4%, 81.8%, 89.1%, 80.0% and 58.2% of the examined samples were positive for chlamydiosis using PCR, Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, FA, and CFT respectively among Hoopoe. The percentages were 90.6%, 77.4%, 83.0%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively for the previous tests among Cattle Egret birds. The results suggest that Cattle Egret and Hoopoe may be reservoir of Chlamydiaceae species and thus shed the organisms in their excreta. The shedding of chlamydiae by free living birds in Egypt may expose humans that come in contact with these birds to zoonotic risks.

  4. Low prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.S.; Westh, Henrik T.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Fifty consecutive C trachomatis urine samples from each of the 14 regional microbiology laboratories were initially tested and re-analysed with a real-time C trachomatis PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene...

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame was identi...

  6. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  8. Sexual behavior and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic students in Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Guillén-Grima, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L; Serrano-Monzo, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Krämer, A

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess patterns of sexual activity, preventive behaviors, contraceptive use, and the prevalence of chlamydia infection in student populations from two countries. 188 asymptomatic students of the University of Bielefeld, Germany and 590 students of the Navarra Public University, Spain were surveyed using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Urine samples were analyzed by ligase chain reaction technique for chlamydia infection. Compared to German students, Spanish students were less likely to have more than one sex partner within the last 12 months (OR: 0.62; CI: 0.46-0.83), to have sexual intercourse more than one time per week (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to use oral contraceptives (OR: 0.16; CI: 0.10-0.26). They reported a higher use of condoms (OR: 2.93; CI: 2.01-4.27) and were more likely to always use condoms with a new sex partner (OR: 2.47; CI: 1.72-3.53). The prevalence of chlamydia infection was considerably higher in German students (5.8% [corrected] in females; 2.2% in males) than in Spanish students, where no case was found. The higher frequency of sexual activity, a higher engagement in risk-taking sexual behavior and the lower use of barrier contraceptives may contribute to the higher prevalence of chlamydia infection in German students.

  9. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  10. Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L3: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Er-xun; GAO Xing; YIN Yue-ping; WANG Fu-sheng; YAO Wei-dong; GONG Xiang-qian; CHEN Xiang-sheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a systemic sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) L1, L2 and L3, the organism gains entrance through skin breaks and abrasions and travels via the lymphatics to multiply within mononuclear phagocytes in regional lymph nodes.

  11. 衣原体质粒研究进展%Progress in Research of Chlamydia Plasmid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭菁; 刘良专; 吴移谋

    2013-01-01

    质粒是染色体外的遗传物质,大部分衣原体中存在隐蔽性质粒,其特有的基因组学和编码的蛋白对衣原体的生长周期、毒力、致病性和免疫性等起着十分重要的作用,对衣原体质粒的研究有助于了解其生物学作用,从而更好的预防与治疗衣原体感染的感染.%Plasmids are extrachromosomal genetic material. There are cryptic plasmids in most of Chlamydia, whose unique genomics and proteins encoded by the genomics play an important role in the growth cycle, virulence, pathogenicity and immunity of chlamydia. The studying of chlamydia plasmid is benefit of understanding their biological roles and base the prevention and treatment of Chlamydia infection.

  12. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age Attending the Gynecology Clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Amsalu, Anteneh; Shimelis, Techalew

    2016-01-01

    Background Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis(CT) is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) world-wide, especially in developing nations where routine laboratory diagnosis is unavailable. Little is known about the epidemiology of this infection in Ethiopia where other STIs are prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated factors of CT infection among women of reproductive age. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 322 consecutive women aged between 15–49 years at Hawassa University Referral Hospital from November 2014 to April 2015. Data on socio-demography and potential risk factors for genital infection were collected using structured questionnaires. Moreover, endocervical swabs were collected from all participants, screened for CT antigen using rapid immunochromatography assay, and cultured following the standard bacteriological method to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Result In this study, the overall prevalence of CT antigen and N. gonorrhoeae infection was 61(18.9%) and 1(0.31%), respectively. Women aged 15–24 years had the highest prevalence of CT infection (24.2%), followed by those aged 25–34 years (16.8%) and those aged 35–49 years (9.6%). CTinfection was associated with women who had unprotected sex within the last six months (aOR = 3.459; 95% CI = 1.459–8.222) and were sexually active for 6–10 years (aOR = 3.076; 95% CI = 1.152–8.209). None of the clinical symptoms and diagnoses was significantly associated with CT antigen positivity. Conclusions The high prevalence of genital CT infection in this study highlights the need for further large-scale studies on the general population. Thus, screening of women regardless of their symptoms should be in place. PMID:28006003

  13. Diagnostic Value of PCR and ELISA for Chlamydia trachomatis in a Group of Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Women in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Jenab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent sexually transmittedbacterial infections (STI in the world that lead to a cause of tubal factor infertility in women. Theaim of this study is to determine the presence of C.trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction (PCRand ELISA.Materials and Methods: Endocervical swabs were collected from 80 women; 22 of them wereasymptomatic and 58 symptomatic. Samples were examined by PCR designed to detect Chlamydialplasmid using specific KL1 and KL2 primers. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies to C.trachomatiswere detected by ELISA. Since elevated CRP levels are a marker for inflammation, the presence ofC- Reactive protein (CRP has also been evaluated in all samples.Results: The rate of C.trachomatis infection by PCR was revealed to be 27.2% and 18.9% inasymptomatic and symptomatic women, respectively The χ2 test shows no significant difference(p value= 0.22. Serological screening was done on all samples. The high level of IgG and IgAto C.trachomatis infection was 29.4% and 17.6%, respectively. The presence of high levels ofCRP, as a serological marker of persistence infection, was 31.8% and 34.4% in asymptomaticand symptomatic women, respectively. The high rate of CRP level in the samples indicates acuteinfections in both groups.Conclusion: Genital C.trachomatis infection is the leading cause of tubal factor infertility. Thepresent study shows that C.trachomatis infection could be present in symptomatic as well asasymptomatic women. Therefore, a screening test for C.trachomatis infection is recommended forall women who refer to gynecologic outpatient departments in Isfahan and other parts of Iran.

  14. A Web—Based Respondent Driven Sampling Pilot Targeting Young People at Risk for Chlamydia Trachomatis in Social and Sexual Networks with Testing: A Use Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Theunissen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the aim of targeting high-risk hidden heterosexual young people for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT testing, an innovative web-based screening strategy using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS and home-based CT testing, was developed, piloted and evaluated. Methods: Two STI clinic nurses encouraged 37 CT positive heterosexual young people (aged 16–25 years, called index clients, to recruit peers from their social and sexual networks using the web-based screening strategy. Eligible peers (young, living in the study area could request a home-based CT test and recruit other peers. Results: Twelve (40% index clients recruited 35 peers. Two of these peers recruited other peers (n = 7. In total, 35 recruited peers were eligible for participation; ten of them (29% requested a test and eight tested. Seven tested for the first time and one (13% was positive. Most peers were female friends (80%. Nurses were positive about using the strategy. Conclusions: The screening strategy is feasible for targeting the hidden social network. However, uptake among men and recruitment of sex-partners is low and RDS stopped early. Future studies are needed to explore the sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and impact of strategies that target people at risk who are not effectively reached by regular health care.

  15. Design and implementation of a screen sharing system based on embedded platform%一种基于嵌入式平台屏幕内容分享系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮; 邓春健; 宋喜佳

    2014-01-01

    In order to share screen among intelligent devices with high quality and low band width,a screen sharing system based on embedded system has been designed and implemented,which consists of a cross-platform client and server.For the purpose of reducing bandwidth and improving screen quality,a self-adaptive method based on scene recognition is proposed,which could recognize the application scene intelligently and adjust H.264 code rate according to network congestion state and application context.On the other hand,the server has been deployed on embedded board.For the server side,a solution based on multiple threads has been proposed,which consists of main thread, message receiving thread,decode thread and display thread.Every thread focuses on their own task, which could improve the robustness and coupling dramatically.Experiment results show that the pro-posed screen sharing system could support screen sharing between PC and embedded display system with 720 p high resolution.And this solution has the advantages including real time,low-bandwidth and low cost.%为了实现多种智能设备之间低带宽高画质的屏幕内容分享,设计了一种基于嵌入式平台大屏幕内容分享系统.该系统由跨平台客户端及基于嵌入式平台的服务器端两部分组成,针对传统屏幕内容分享系统占用带宽大、不适合分享高分辨率视频信息的缺点,提出了一种基于场景识别的码率自适应调整算法,该算法采用 H.264编码方式,能够根据网络拥塞状况及当前屏幕的应用场景对 H.264码率进行自适应调整,以达到节约带宽、提高画质的目的;另一方面,服务器端基于嵌入式平台,采用多线程并发设计,将视频的接收、解码、显示分线程独立处理,在提高程序的健壮性的同时降低了程序的耦合性.实验结果表明,该系统支持720 p 高分辨率视频信息共享,具有成本低、占用带宽小、实时性高的优点.

  16. Screening CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramírez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken int

  17. Design and Implementation of Touch-screen and Virtual Key Based on Qualcomm Platform%基于高通平台的触摸屏和虚拟按键设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋先涛; 王晓峰

    2012-01-01

    The requirements of the market for mobile devices are fast, easy, good experience and good quality. It presented an implementation method of the input subsystem based on Android and Quaicomm MSM8X55 platform,discussed the calibration principle of the "7point method" of touch screen through the capture data and analyzed the accuracy of calibration. It proposed a new non-real key implementation approach of virtual keys. It brought convenience to user after promoted to the market. Tests show that it reduces the equipment size and is easy to operate. Using virtual keys is cost less than the real key and extends the equipment life. Touch screen can predict the use of end products in the future.%针对目前市场上对移动终端设备要求操作快捷、方便、体验性好、质量好等特点,文中介绍了一种基于Android系统和Qualcomm的MSM8X55平台上的输入子系统实现方法.讨论了触摸屏的“7点法”的校准原理,通过抓取数据,分析校准后的准确度.并提出一种新的无实键的虚拟按键设计方法及其实现方式.该产品在成功推广到市场后,给用户带来了极大的方便.结果表明,触摸屏缩小设备体积,操作方便,采用虚拟按键比实键节省了成本,设备使用寿命延长.可以预测触摸屏在未来终端产品中的利用具有巨大的前景.

  18. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g. FtsZ and late (e.g. FtsI/Pbp3 components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with E. coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

  19. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  20. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the Chlamydia caviae elementary body and reticulate body forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Derek J; Adams, Nancy E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for significant diseases in humans and economically important domestic animals. These pathogens undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the environmentally stable elementary body (EB) and the replicative intracellular reticulate body (RB), a conversion that appears to require extensive regulation of protein synthesis and function. However, Chlamydia possess a limited number of canonical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of proteins in bacteria has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of post-translational control of protein function. We utilized 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with phosphoprotein staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to map the phosphoproteome of the EB and RB forms of Chlamydia caviae. Forty-two non-redundant phosphorylated proteins were identified (some proteins were present in multiple locations within the gels). Thirty-four phosphorylated proteins were identified in EBs, including proteins found in central metabolism and protein synthesis, Chlamydia-specific hypothetical proteins and virulence-related proteins. Eleven phosphorylated proteins were identified in RBs, mostly involved in protein synthesis and folding and a single virulence-related protein. Only three phosphoproteins were found in both EB and RB phosphoproteomes. Collectively, 41 of 42 C. caviae phosphoproteins were present across Chlamydia species, consistent with the existence of a conserved chlamydial phosphoproteome. The abundance of stage-specific phosphoproteins suggests that protein phosphorylation may play a role in regulating the function of developmental-stage-specific proteins and/or may function in concert with other factors in directing EB-RB transitions.

  1. Chlamydia muridarum infection subverts dendritic cell function to promote Th2 immunity and airways hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiko, Gerard E; Phipps, Simon; Hickey, Danica K; Lam, Chuan En; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2008-02-15

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that Chlamydia infection can lead to exacerbation of asthma. However, the mechanism(s) whereby chlamydial infection, which normally elicits a strong Th type 1 (Th1) immune response, can exacerbate asthma, a disease characterized by dominant Th type 2 (Th2) immune responses, remains unclear. In the present study, we show that Chlamydia muridarum infection of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) modulates the phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, and Ag-presenting capability of these BMDC. Chlamydia-infected BMDC express lower levels of CD80 and increased CD86 compared with noninfected BMDC. When infected with Chlamydia, BMDC secrete increased TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13. OVA peptide-pulsed infected BMDC induced significant proliferation of transgenic CD4(+) DO11.10 (D10) T cells, strongly inhibited IFN-gamma secretion by D10 cells, and promoted a Th2 phenotype. Intratracheal transfer of infected, but not control noninfected, OVA peptide-pulsed BMDC to naive BALB/c mice, which had been i.v. infused with naive D10 T cells, resulted in increased levels of IL-10 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Recipients of these infected BMDC showed significant increases in airways resistance and decreased airways compliance compared with mice that had received noninfected BMDC, indicative of the development of airways hyperreactivity. Collectively, these data suggest that Chlamydia infection of DCs allows the pathogen to deviate the induced immune response from a protective Th1 to a nonprotective Th2 response that could permit ongoing chronic infection. In the setting of allergic airways inflammation, this infection may then contribute to exacerbation of the asthmatic phenotype.

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque: a prospective study Chlamydia pneumoniae e placa aterosclerótica sintomática de carótida: um estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens J. Gagliardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible link between symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque and Chlamydia pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Recently, several studies have demonstrated that there may be a possible link between Chlamydia pneumonia and carotid atherosclerosis, however the real role of Chlamydia pneumoniae is not completely understood. METHOD: This is a prospective study with a total of 52 patients analyzed. All patients had been submitted to endarterectomy, and had suffered thrombotic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack up to 60 days prior to the surgery. Every patient presented carotid stenosis over 70%. The plaque was removed during the surgery and the laboratory exams were immediately done. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The PCR analyses of all 52 patients were negative for Chlamydia pneumoniae. CONCLUSION: These initial results do not show a relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possível relação entre placa sintomática de carótidas e Chlamydia pneumoniae. INTRODUÇÃO: Vários estudos têm demonstrado uma possível relação entre Chlamydia pneumonia e aterosclerose carotídea, entretanto o papel definitivo da bactéria não é totalmente conhecido. Há muita especulação: poderia iniciar o processo aterosclerótico, agravá-lo ou desestabilizá-lo. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com um total de 52 pacientes, endarterectomizados e previamente acometidos de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico ou crise isquêmica transitória, em até 60 dias antes da cirurgia. Todos os pacientes apresentavam estenose carotídea superior a 70%. Os testes laboratoriais foram realizados imediatamente após a endarterectomia. A Chlamydia pneumoniae foi pesquisada através de exame de DNA com reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR. RESULTADOS: O PCR dos 52 pacientes foram negativos para Chlamydia

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections: Implications for Pregnant Adolescents and Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Melzer-Lange

    1994-01-01

    trachomatis in pregnant adolescents. This study was undertaken to determine if aggressive screening for C. trachomatis in pregnant adolescents and early treatment with erythromycin can prevent complications in their newborn infants.

  4. Sensitivities of PCR, MicroTrak, ChlamydiaEIA, IDEIA, and PACE 2 for purified Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in urine, peripheral blood, peripheral blood leukocytes, and synovial fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, J G; Scharmann, K; Wollenhaupt, J; Nettelnbreker, E; Hopf, S.; Zeidler, H

    1995-01-01

    Routine microbiological diagnosis of Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis is based mainly on the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis with urogenital swabs or in urine. Because chlamydial antigen, rRNA, and DNA are present in low quantities in the inflamed joint, highly sensitive assays are needed to detect C. trachomatis not only at the primary site of infection but also in peripheral blood and peripheral blood leukocytes, which are suspected carriers for dissemination, and in synovial fluid. ...

  5. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  6. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  7. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  8. Oral azithromycin in extended dosage schedule for chronic, subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease: a probable cure in sight? Results of a controlled preliminary trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jaideep DograPoly Clinic, Central Government Health Scheme, Jaipur, Rajasthan, IndiaPurpose: Two mega trials have raised the question as to whether the hypothesis that infection plays a role in atherosclerosis is still relevant. This controlled preliminary trial investigated an extended dose of azithromycin in the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease (CAD.Patients and methods: Forty patients with documentary evidence of CAD were screened for immunoglobulin G titers against C. pneumoniae and grouped into either the study group (patients with positive titer, n = 32 or control group (patients with negative titer, n = 8. Cases who met inclusion criteria could not have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from every patient. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell indices, serum creatinine, and liver function tests, and repeated every 2 months. A primary event was defined as the first occurrence of death by any cause, recurrent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina. Patients in the study group received 500 mg of oral azithromycin once daily for 5 days, which was then repeated after a gap of 10 days (total of 24 courses in the 1-year trial period. The control group did not have azithromycin added to their standard CAD treatment.Results: In the study group, 30 patients completed the trial. Two patients had to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in the initial first quarter of the 1-year trial period. In the control group, one patient died during the trial, one had to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and one had percutaneous coronary intervention.Conclusion: The patients tolerated the therapy well and there was a positive correlation between azithromycin and secondary prevention of CAD.Keywords: azithromycin, Chlamydia pneumoniae

  9. The DUF582 Proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis Bind to Components of the ESCRT Machinery, Which Is Dispensable for Bacterial Growth In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromman, François; Perrinet, Stéphanie; Gehre, Lena; Subtil, Agathe

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are Gram negative bacteria that develop exclusively inside eukaryotic host cells, within a membrane-bounded compartment. Members of the family Chlamydiaceae, such as Chlamydia trachomatis, are pathogenic species infecting vertebrates. They have a very reduced genome and exploit the capacities of their host for their own development, mainly through the secretion of proteins tailored to interfere with eukaryotic processes, called effector proteins. All Chlamydiaceae possess genes coding for four to five effectors that share a domain of unknown function (DUF582). Here we show that four of these effectors, which represent the conserved set in all Chlamydiaceae, accumulate in the infectious form of C. trachomatis, and are therefore likely involved in an early step of the developmental cycle. The fifth member of the family, CT621, is specific to C. trachomatis, and is secreted during the growth phase. Using a two-hybrid screen in yeast we identified an interaction between the host protein Hrs and the DUF582, which we confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations in co-transfected mammalian cells. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence that a second domain of one of the DUF582 proteins, CT619, binds the host protein Tsg101. Hrs and Tsg101 are both implicated in a well conserved machinery of the eukaryotic cell called the ESCRT machinery, which is involved in several cellular processes requiring membrane constriction. Using RNA interference targeting proteins implicated at different stages of ESCRT-driven processes, or inhibition by expression of a dominant negative mutant of VPS4, we demonstrated that this machinery was dispensable for bacterial entry, multiplication and differentiation into infectious progeny, and for uptake of glycogen into the parasitophorous vacuole. In light of these observations we discuss how the DUF582 proteins might target the ESCRT machinery during infection. PMID:27774439

  10. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32 %) chickens, 130 (38.92 %) ducks and 97 (31.09 %) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (Pcaged and free-range chickens was 7.54 % and 29.63 %, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (Pcaged and free-range ducks was 26.13 % and 45.29 %, respectively (Pbirds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent.

  11. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  12. Detection of Chlamydia in the peripheral blood cells of normal donors using in vitro culture, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Chester

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp are medically significant infectious agents associated with various chronic human pathologies. Nevertheless, specific roles in disease progression or initiation are incompletely defined. Both pathogens infect established cell lines in vitro and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has detected Chlamydia DNA in various clinical specimens as well as in normal donor peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC. However, Chlamydia infection of other blood cell types, quantification of Chlamydia infected cells in peripheral blood and transmission of this infection in vitro have not been examined. Methods Cp specific titers were assessed for sera from 459 normal human donor blood (NBD samples. Isolated white blood cells (WBC were assayed by in vitro culture to evaluate infection transmission of blood cell borne chlamydiae. Smears of fresh blood samples (FB were dual immunostained for microscopic identification of Chlamydia-infected cell types and aliquots also assessed using Flow Cytometry (FC. Results ELISA demonstrated that 219 (47.7% of the NBD samples exhibit elevated anti-Cp antibody titers. Imunofluorescence microscopy of smears demonstrated 113 (24.6% of samples contained intracellular Chlamydia and monoclonals to specific CD markers showed that in vivo infection of neutrophil and eosinophil/basophil cells as well as monocytes occurs. In vitro culture established WBCs of 114 (24.8% of the NBD samples harbored infectious chlamydiae, clinically a potentially source of transmission, FC demonstrated both Chlamydia infected and uninfected cells can be readily identified and quantified. Conclusion NBD can harbor infected neutrophils, eosinophil/basophils and monocytes. The chlamydiae are infectious in vitro, and both total, and cell type specific Chlamydia carriage is quantifiable by FC.

  13. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  14. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  15. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  16. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot become radioactive from this procedure. However, some photographic film may need to be hand-screened because ... level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum allowable ...

  17. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicology screening is most often done using a blood or urine sample. However, it may be done soon after the person swallowed the medication, using stomach contents taken through gastric lavage (stomach pumping) or after vomiting.

  18. Evaluation of effect of trial implementation of follow-up for key women in gynecopathy screening%妇科普查中"重点对象随访"试行的效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲蔚; 王国琴; 施红; 金辉; 姚剑峰

    2011-01-01

    districts in 2008 and 2009 showed that prevalence rates of hysteromyoma, benign ovarian tumors, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer in 2008 and 2009 were all significantly higher than in 2007. In poor or retired women, rate of loss the follow-up ( 10.7% vs 18.6%; X2 = 47. 3908, P = 0.000) was significantly lower than that in working women, but their follow-up effect was poorer than the working women (X2 =59.7532, P =0. 000). The effect of follow-up in the urban areas was poorer than that in the rural areas (x2 =206. 2991, P = 0.000). In resistance rate there was significant difference among different age groups (X2 =45. 9426, P =0.001 ). The effect of follow-up improved after the MCH institutes assigned their screening work to the community or subject units. Conclusion The trial implementation of follow-up for key women in gynecological diseases screening has achieved some effects and the effect of follow up could be improved further ff the screening methods are optimized.

  19. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Katir K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68% patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54% patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p p = 0.0001 tested positive for Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p = 0.0001. Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p = 0.0071 and p = 0.0001 respectively. Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p = 0.0001. Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia

  20. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  1. Whole genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Simon R.; Clarke, Ian N.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Marsh, Peter; Skilton, Rachel J.; Holland, Martin J.; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Lewis, David A.; Spratt, Brian G.; Unemo, Magnus; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Brunham, Robert; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Speksnijder, Arjen; Bébéar, Cécile M.; Clerc, Maïté; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed whole genome phylogeny from representative strains of both trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars from temporally and geographically diverse sources. Our analysis demonstrates that predicting phylogenetic structure using the ompA gene, traditionally used to classify Chlamydia, is misleading because extensive recombination in this region masks true relationships. We show that in many instances ompA is a chimera that can be exchanged in part or whole, both within and between biovars. We also provide evidence for exchange of, and recombination within, the cryptic plasmid, another important diagnostic target. We have used our phylogenetic framework to show how genetic exchange has manifested itself in ocular, urogenital and LGV C. trachomatis strains, including the epidemic LGV serotype L2b. PMID:22406642

  2. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS UROGENITAL INFECTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study were 486 outpatients between the ages of 17 and 62, diagnosed with urethritis, epidydimitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. The following tests were used to make the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA, Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA, Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA amplification for Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Ureaplasma Urealyiticum. Comparison PCR and EIA showed statistically significant difference between the positive results obtained by the two methods (p0,1. EIA is a method that gives a higher percentage of nonspecific positive reactions, while the results obtained from ELFA are much closer to the ones obtained by PCR. According to contemporary evidence based medicine, the developmet of unified standard methods for diagnosis and evaluation is of vital importance, not only for the patient and the treating physician but also concerns for the healthcare system, the general public and the pharmaceutical companies as well.

  3. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up.

  4. Coinfection of Chlamydiae and other Bacteria in Reactive Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: Need for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Zeidler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive (inflammatory arthritis has been known for many years to follow genital infection with the intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis in some individuals. Recent studies from several groups have demonstrated that a related bacterium, the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, can elicit a similar arthritis. Studies of these organisms, and of a set of gastrointestinal pathogens also associated with engendering inflammatory arthritis, have been relatively extensive. However, reports focusing on coinfections with these and/or other organisms, and the effects of such coinfections on the host immune and other systems, have been rare. In this article, we review the extant data regarding infections by multiple pathogens in the joint as they relate to engendering arthritis, and we suggest a number of research areas that must be given a high priority if we are to understand, and therefore to treat in an effective manner, such arthritides.

  5. Interaction between the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Pedersen, LB; Koehler, JF;

    1993-01-01

    The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible in the h......The gene encoding the Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) from serovar L2 was cloned into Escherichia coli by use of expression vector pET11d. In this vector, transcription of the gene is under the control of a bacteriophage T7 promoter, and T7 RNA polymerase is inducible...

  6. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  7. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    suspected outbreak of vaginal trichomoniasis among female inmates. Sex Trans Dis 1999; 335-338. 11. Fleming D, Wasserheit J. From epidemiological synergy...Morgan SC, Pinson GB. Validity of self-obtained vaginal specimen for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis . J Clin Microbiol 1997; 35:1618-1619. 6...Weisenfeld, HC, Lowry DLB, Phillips H. Self-collection of vaginal swabs for the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis : opportunity to

  8. Plaque Formation by and Plaque Cloning of Chlamydia trachomatis Biovar Trachoma

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Akira; Izutsu, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Ohuchi, Masanobu

    1998-01-01

    A new technique for the induction of plaque formation by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar trachoma applicable to the titration of infectivity and cloning of biovar trachoma was established. Three novel strains were cloned and confirmed to be free of glycogen inclusions. The lack of glycogen accumulation correlated with the absence of a 7.5-kb plasmid, which is highly conserved in other strains of C. trachomatis. Although the growth efficiency of these plasmid-free strains was slightly lower than ...

  9. Diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic males by testing urine by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Domeika, M; Bassiri, M; Mårdh, P A

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) (MikroTrak; Syva) was compared with PCR (Amplicor; Roche) for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine (FVU) from 184 men attending a skin and venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 18.5%. Discrepant results between Syva EIA and Roche PCR were retested by using major outer membrane protein primer-based PCR. After retesting, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive and negative p...

  10. Influence of temperature, medium, and storage duration on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA detection by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Laura; Wolffs, Petra F G; van Tiel, Frank H; Dukers, Nicole; Herngreen, Selma B; Bruggeman, Cathrien A; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2013-03-01

    We validated the use of stored samples for Chlamydia trachomatis research. C. trachomatis DNA was detected by real-time PCR in clinical (urine and self-taken vaginal swabs) and spiked samples using six different media, five different time points (up to 2 years), and four different temperature conditions. C. trachomatis was detected in all 423 samples, and no clinically relevant degradation impact was detected.

  11. Unveiling New Molecular Factors Useful for Detection of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Rodriguez-Cerdeira; Elena Sanchez-Blanco; Alberto Molares-Vila; Alfonso Alba

    2012-01-01

    Background. Untreated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women can result in disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ultimately culminating in tubal occlusion and infertility. While nucleic acid amplification tests can effectively diagnose uncomplicated lower genital tract infections, they are not suitable for diagnosing upper genital tract pathological sequelae. Objective. The purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive review of new molecular factors associated...

  12. Current crisis or artifact of surveillance: insights into rebound chlamydia rates from dynamic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers David M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After initially falling in the face of intensified control efforts, reported rates of sexually transmitted chlamydia in many developed countries are rising. Recent hypotheses for this phenomenon have broadly focused on improved case finding or an increase in the prevalence. Because of many complex interactions behind the spread of infectious diseases, dynamic models of infection transmission are an effective means to guide learning, and assess quantitative conjectures of epidemiological processes. The objective of this paper is to bring a unique and robust perspective to observed chlamydial patterns through analyzing surveillance data with mathematical models of infection transmission. Methods This study integrated 25-year testing volume data from the Canadian province of Saskatchewan with one susceptible-infected-treated-susceptible and three susceptible-infected-treated-removed compartmental models. Calibration of model parameters to fit observed 25-year case notification data, after being combined with testing records, placed constraints on model behaviour and allowed for an approximation of chlamydia prevalence to be estimated. Model predictions were compared to observed case notification trends, and extensive sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of model results. Results Model predictions accurately mirrored historic chlamydial trends including an observed rebound in the mid 1990s. For all models examined, the results repeatedly highlighted that increased testing volumes, rather than changes in the sensitivity and specificity of testing technologies, sexual behaviour, or truncated immunological responses brought about by treatment can, explain the increase in observed chlamydia case notifications. Conclusions Our results highlight the significant impact testing volume can have on observed incidence rates, and that simple explanations for these observed increases appear to have been dismissed in

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with...

  14. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Neerja Bhatla; Kriti Puri; Elizabeth Joseph; Alka Kriplani; Venkateswaran K. Iyer; Sreenivas, V

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, inter...

  15. Prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women with HIV in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Monteiro Pinto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection among women with HIV in São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included women with HIV who were receiving care from sixteen public health services in São Paulo (October 2013 to March 2014. All participants answered a questionnaire regarding their sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics. A urine sample was tested for CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG using the polymerase chain reaction. The chi-square test and a logistic regression model were used to test the associations with CT or NG infections. RESULTS: We evaluated 853 women and ultimately included 836 (98% women. The mean age was 40.5 ± 0.34 years, and the prevalences of CT and NG infections were 1.8% and 0.5%, respectively. CT infection was associated with CD4+ T-cell counts of <350 cells/mm3 [adjusted odds ratio (ORadj: 24.5], age of 18-25 years (ORadj: 23.2, the non-use of condoms during the last 6 months (ORadj: 10.2, a self-reported history of a sexually transmitted infection (ORadj: 9.4, and having two or more sexual partners during the last year (ORadj: 6.1. CONCLUSIONS: Although we observed a low prevalence of CT infection among women with HIV, younger age was associated with a high risk of infection. Therefore, it may be appropriate to include screening for CT as part of the routine care for this population.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16-26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2-8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6-4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01-8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available.

  17. Hospitalisations for pelvic inflammatory disease temporally related to a diagnosis of Chlamydia or gonorrhoea: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Reekie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The presence and severity of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID symptoms are thought to vary by microbiological etiology but there is limited empirical evidence. We sought to estimate and compare the rates of hospitalisation for PID temporally related to diagnoses of gonorrhoea and chlamydia. METHODS: All women, aged 15-45 years in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, with a diagnosis of chlamydia or gonorrhoea between 01/07/2000 and 31/12/2008 were followed by record linkage for up to one year after their chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis for hospitalisations for PID. Standardised incidence ratios compared the incidence of PID hospitalisations to the age-equivalent NSW population. RESULTS: A total of 38,193 women had a chlamydia diagnosis, of which 483 were hospitalised for PID; incidence rate (IR 13.9 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU (95%CI 12.6-15.1. In contrast, 1015 had a gonorrhoea diagnosis, of which 45 were hospitalised for PID (IR 50.8 per 1000 PYFU, 95%CI 36.0-65.6. The annual incidence of PID hospitalisation temporally related to a chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis was 27.0 (95%CI 24.4-29.8 and 96.6 (95%CI 64.7-138.8 times greater, respectively, than the age-equivalent NSW female population. Younger age, socio-economic disadvantage, having a diagnosis prior to 2005 and having a prior birth were also associated with being hospitalised for PID. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are both associated with large increases in the risk of PID hospitalisation. Our data suggest the risk of PID hospitalisation is much higher for gonorrhoea than chlamydia; however, further research is needed to confirm this finding.

  18. Frequency of Chlamydia Trachomatis in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Non-pregnant Women in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Okhli (MSc

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common causes of genital infection in men and women. Genital chlamydial infections in women are clinically asymptomatic in 70-80% of the cases; therefore, the lack of timely diagnosis and treatment leads to complications such as infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic women in the Golestan province. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 cervical swab samples obtained from 150 women referred to the clinic, after obtaining written consent and completion of questionnaires. The swab samples were transferred to laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline solution and DNA extraction was carried out using phenol-chloroform and boiling methods. The frequency of chlamydial infection was evaluated by PCR. Results: None of the tested samples were found as Chlamydia-positive. Conclusion: The findings require that some more extensive research with larger sample sizes and dispersed population be performed to determine the true prevalence. Considering the serious complications of chlamydial infections and its asymptomatic nature, a highly sensitive and specific method such as PCR should be used to detect Chlamydia. It is suggested that this method be used along with a complementary test to obtain the results that are more accurate. Furthermore, conducting simultaneous studies on other populations at risk will be very helpful in obtaining representable national data.

  19. The Infection of Chlamydia Pneumonia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 许香广; 张国良; 方卫华

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between infection with chlamydia pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Serology of chlamydia pneumoniae specific IgG、IgM antibodies were measured by microimmunofluorescence test in groups of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and health control(HC). Results The total infection positive rates were 30.6% in HC group and 88.1% in AMI group, including the previous infection rates which were 30.6% and 71.4%, while the acute infection rates were 0% and 16.7%. The frequency of total infection, previous infection and acute infection was significantly higher in AMI group than in the HC group. Odds Ratio for the development of AMI were 16.82, 5.68, 14.2, respectively(95% CI 5.83 to 48.54,2.46 to 13.11, 1.68 to 119.97). Geometric mean IgG titre was significantly higher in patients with AMI compared with the HC group (P< 0.01). There is no IgM positive in HC group but there were two cases in AMI group. Conclusions The presence of high titers of immmunoglobulin G in AMI. Chlamydia pneumonia infection may be a risk factor for the AMI .

  20. Targeted disruption of Chlamydia trachomatis invasion by in trans expression of dominant negative Tarp effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Parrett

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis invasion of eukaryotic host cells is facilitated, in part, by the type III secreted effector protein, Tarp. The role of Tarp in chlamydiae entry of host cells is supported by molecular approaches that examined recombinant Tarp or Tarp effectors expressed within heterologous systems. A major limitation in the ability to study the contribution of Tarp to chlamydial invasion of host cells was the prior absence of genetic tools for chlamydiae. Based on our knowledge of Tarp domain structure and function along with the introduction of genetic approaches in C. trachomatis, we hypothesized that Tarp function could be disrupted in vivo by the introduction of dominant negative mutant alleles. We provide evidence that transformed C. trachomatis produced epitope tagged Tarp, which was secreted into the host cell during invasion. We examined the effects of domain specific Tarp mutations on chlamydial invasion and growth and demonstrate that C. trachomatis clones harboring engineered Tarp mutants lacking either the actin binding domain or the phosphorylation domain had reduced levels of invasion into host cells. These data provide the first in vivo evidence for the critical role of Tarp in C. trachomatis pathogenesis and indicate that chlamydial invasion of host cells can be attenuated via the introduction of engineered dominant negative type three effectors.

  1. Evolutionary Cell Biology of Division Mode in the Bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia- Chlamydiae Superphylum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Marín, Elena; Canosa, Inés; Devos, Damien P.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes. PMID:28018303

  2. Evolutionary cell biology of division mode in the bacterial Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae superphylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rivas-Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum are exceptions to the otherwise dominant mode of division by binary fission, which is based on the interaction between the FtsZ protein and the peptidoglycan (PG biosynthesis machinery. Some PVC bacteria are deprived of the FtsZ protein and were also thought to lack PG. How these bacteria divide is still one of the major mysteries of microbiology. The presence of PG has recently been revealed in Planctomycetes and Chlamydiae, and proteins related to PG synthesis have been shown to be implicated in the division process in Chlamydiae, providing important insights into PVC mechanisms of division. Here, we review the historical lack of observation of PG in PVC bacteria, its recent detection in two phyla and its involvement in chlamydial cell division. Based on the detection of PG-related proteins in PVC proteomes, we consider the possible evolution of the diverse division mechanisms in these bacteria. We conclude by summarizing what is known and what remains to be understood about the evolutionary cell biology of PVC division modes.

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe: legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeika, M; Hallen, A; Karabanov, L; Chudomirova, K; Gruber, F; Unzeitig, V; Poder, A; Deak, J; Jakobsone, I; Lapinskaite, G; Dajek, Z; Akovbian, V; Gomberg, M; Khryanin, A; Savitcheva, A; Takac, I; Glazkova, L; Vinograd, N; Nedeljkovic, M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge concerning genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in eastern Europe is scarce. Data on the legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection have never been collected, summarised, and presented to the international scientific community. The aim of this study was to present the current situation on the main aspects of chlamydial infections in the countries of eastern Europe. Methods: Written questionnaires concerning legal aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the infection were distributed among national STI operating administrators as well as researchers who had presented papers at earlier meetings of European chlamydia or STI societies. Results: Most of the countries have not legalised reporting of chlamydial infections and in those who have done so, the quality of the reporting system is poor. Contact tracing is mostly done on a voluntary basis. Reported chlamydia incidence varies from 21 to 276 per 100 000 inhabitants. The most commonly used diagnostic test remains the direct immunofluorescence test; however, some tendencies towards nucleic acid amplification are in evidence. Diagnostic services are paid for by the patient himself, while treatment in many countries is partially or completely covered by public insurance. Conclusions: This is the first report summarising data concerning the situation on C trachomatis infections in eastern Europe. The reporting system and diagnosis of C trachomatis infections remain suboptimal, which allows neither control of the epidemiological situation nor optimal treatment of the patients. The most urgent work currently necessary is the education of professionals and the general population. PMID:12081171

  4. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-09-25

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC.

  5. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-11-13

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection.

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  7. Porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 and Chlamydia suis to modelize ocular chlamydiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Tobias; Cnudde, Thomas; Hamonic, Glenn; Rieder, Meghanne; Pasternak, J Alex; Lai, Ken; Tikoo, Suresh K; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, François

    2015-08-15

    Human ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections can lead to trachoma, the major cause of infectious blindness worldwide. Trachoma control strategies are very helpful but logistically challenging, and a trachoma vaccine is needed but not available. Pigs are a valuable large animal model for various immunological questions and could facilitate the study of human ocular chlamydial infections. In addition, a recent study identified the zoonotic potential of Chlamydia suis, the natural pathogen of pigs. In terms of the One Health Initiative, understanding the host-pathogen-interactions and finding a vaccine for porcine chlamydia infections would also benefit human health. Thus, we infected the porcine retinal cell line VIDO R1 with C. suis and analyzed the chlamydial life cycle and the innate immune response of the infected cells. Our results indicate that C. suis completes its life cycle in VIDO R1 cells within 48 h, comparable to C. trachomatis in humans. C. suis infection of VIDO R1 cells led to increased levels of various innate immune mediators like pathogen recognition receptors, cytokines and chemokines including IL6, TNFα, and MMP9, also most relevant in human C. trachomatis infections. These results illustrate the first steps in the host-pathogen-interactions of ocular C. suis infections in pigs and show their similarity to C. trachomatis infections in humans, justifying further testing of pigs as an animal model for human trachoma.

  8. Characterization of native and recombinant 75-kilodalton immunogens from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    A 75-kilodalton (kDa) immunogen from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 was characterized. The 75-kDa protein was localized in the cytoplasm of chlamydiae and was shown to be a protein synthesized early in the developmental cycle of chlamydiae. A gene library was made by the recombinant DNA technique......, using the expression vectors pEX1, pEX2, and pEX3. From this library one clone was found which reacted with a monoclonal antibody against the 75-kDa immunogen of C. trachomatis. The 75-kDa protein produced by the recombinant Escherichia coli was expressed independently of the promoter for the hybrid...... protein cro-betagalactosidase. Thus it is not produced as a fusion protein. Epitope mapping of the 75-kDa protein from C. trachomatis L2 and from the recombinant E. coli performed by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease digestion showed that the two proteins are identical. Furthermore, patient sera reacted...

  9. Co-cultivation of conjunctival epithelial cells and Chlamydia trachomatis: electron microscopic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D S; Ko, M K; Kang, K T

    1998-06-01

    This study used primary culture of rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells to investigate the infection process of chlamydia. The epithelial cells isolated from conjunctiva of rabbit were initially cultured for three weeks. After attaining confluence they were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) serotype D, and after co-cultivation for 24, 48, and 96 hours, electron microscopic study was performed. An inclusion body, a characteristic finding of chlamydial infection, was observed in the vicinity of the nucleus after 24 hours of co-cultivation. It contained a large number of elementary and reticulate bodies and their intermediate forms. Infectious particles known as elementary bodies were noted in the inclusion as 20 to 30 microns sized round bodies with an electron dense core. Reticulate bodies were also noted; they too were round but somewhat pleomorphic and larger than elementary bodies. Some reticulate bodies multiplied actively by means of binary fission. In this study, we observed the characteristic changes of C. trachomatis-infected cells; this in-vitro system might provide a suitable model for the study of some aspects of the pathogenesis of ocular chlamydia infection.

  10. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Anthony PH

    2011-04-20

    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  11. Identification of two novel genes encoding 97- to 99-kilodalton outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae.Infect Immun. 1999 Jan;67(1):375-83

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K; Madsen, AS; Mygind, P

    1999-01-01

    of putative outer membrane proteins encoded by the Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis gene families. By use of a monospecific polyclonal antibody against purified recombinant Omp4, it was shown that without heating, the protein migrated at 65 to 75 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel...

  12. The Study of Chlamydia Pneumoniae DNA in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell of Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Tao; Xu Xiang Guang; Zhang Guo Liang; Fang Weihua

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To detection of chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) DNA in the circulating mononuclear cell fractions of coronary heart disease and to investigate the association between infection with chlamydia pneumoniae and coronary heart disease (CHD) and prospectively whether blood -based nested polymerase chain reaction ( nPCR ) is useful in identifying Cpn infection. Methods The peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) Cpn DNA was examined using nPCR technique and confirmed by electrophoresis in 150 patients with CHD. Select 55 patients with clinical suspected CHD but angiography result are normal as control group (CG). Then we conducted a prospective , randomized, double - blind, placebo -controlled study of 6 months of azithromycin and placebo treatment in CHD group. Patients with Cpn DNA positive were then randomized to receive azithromycin or placebo. After treatment blood sample were collected for repeated measurement . Results Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was detected in 49(32.7% ) of 150persons with CHD and in 1 ( 1.8% ) of 55 persons with control group,odds ratio 26.2, 95% confidence interva13.52 - 194.98. The positivity rates of nPCR in CHD groups were higher than those in control group. 16 cases (29. 1% ) in latent coronary heart diseases(LCHD) group , 19 cases (39.6%) in unstable angina(UAP) group ,and 14 cases (29.9%) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)group were Cpn positive by nPCR. There were no significant difference among in AMIUAP and LCHD group. There were significiant difference in Cpn DNA negative rates after the azithromycin and the placebo treatment. Conclusions Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in PBMC of a significant proportion of persons with CHD. The potential role of chlamydia pneumoniae in coronary atherosclerosis may therefore be more related to acceleration of disease or systemic effects by persistent infection than to sudden initiation of progressive coronary artery disease by acute infection. The detection of Cpn DNA in PBMC with nPCR may be

  13. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien De Puysseleyr

    Full Text Available Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C. The tet(C gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  14. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Puysseleyr, Kristien; De Puysseleyr, Leentje; Geldhof, Julie; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  15. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  16. Infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis e Neisseria gonorrhoeae em mulheres atendidas em serviço de planejamento familiar Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among women in a family planning clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Maria dos Santos Fernandes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a prevalência de infecções por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT e Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG entre mulheres adolescentes e jovens em ambulatório de planejamento familiar. MÉTODOS: um total de 230 mulheres com idade menor ou igual a 24 anos e antecedente de até quatro parceiros sexuais foram acompanhadas por até 48 meses, com coletas de urina para pesquisa de CT e NG pelo método da reação em cadeia da polimerase nos meses 1, 12, 24, 36 e 48. As variáveis estudadas foram faixa etária, escolaridade, estado marital, número de gestações, abortos e filhos vivos, idade de início da vida sexual, uso anterior e atual de condom, uso anterior de dispositivo intrauterino, número de parceiros nos últimos seis meses e tempo de seguimento. Realizou-se análise bivariada das variáveis segundo os testes positivos para CT e NG e análise múltipla por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: a frequência de infecções por CT foi de 13,5% e por NG de 3%, duas mulheres apresentaram ambos os testes positivos. O antecedente de uso de dispositivo intrauterino foi associado aos testes positivos para NG. CONCLUSÕES: as prevalências de infecção por CT e NG foram altas na faixa etária estudada e o rastreamento de mulheres jovens deve ser considerado em nossos serviços para controle da disseminação e prevenção de sequelas das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis.PURPOSE: to study infection prevalence by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, among adolescent and young women in a family planning outpatient clinic. METHODS: a total of 230 women up to 24 years old and history of up to four sexual partners have been followed-up for 48 months, with urine collection to search CT and NG, by the polymerase chain reaction method at the 1st, 12nd, 24th, 36th and 48th months. The variables studied were age group, schooling, marital status, number of gestations, abortions and children alive, age at the onset of sexual life, previous

  17. New Design and Implementation of LCD Touch Screen Controller Based on Linux%基于Linux液晶显示触摸屏控制的新设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 何建忠

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the working principle of ADC and touch screen for resistance, using ADC and GPIO module of the microprocessor LM3S3749 instead of dedicated controller ADS7846 touch screen. The hardware connection between LM3S3749 and LCD touch screen Interface circuit was designed, and a necessary program flowchart and function code was given. The method of obtaining coordinates of touch screen and the algorithms of LCD screen display synchronization were proposed to improve the efficiency of touch screen and LCD screen, and to satisfy the control precision.%在分析电阻触摸屏和ADC的工作原理的基础上,采用微处理器LM3S4749自带模块ADC和GPIO代替触摸屏专用控制器ADS7846.设计出LM3S3749与液晶显示触摸屏接口电路的硬件连接,并给出必要的序流程图和函数代码.提出触摸屏触点坐标的获得方法与液晶屏显示同步的算法,以提高设计触摸屏与液晶的效率,满足控制精度.

  18. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  19. Aerobic bacteria, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii and Cytomegalovirus as agents of severe peneumonia in small infants Bactérias aeróbias, Chlamydia trachomatis, Pneumocystis carinii e Cytomegalovirus: agentes causadores de pneumonia grave em pequenos lactentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ejzenberg

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied 58 infants hospitalized for pneumonia in a semi-intensive care unit. Age ranged from 1 complete to 6 incomplete months. The infants were sent from another hospital in 20 cases and from home in a further 38. Pulmonary involvement, which was alveolar in 46 cases and interstitial in 12, was bilateral in 31 children. The investigation was carried out prospectively on the etiological agents associated with respiratory infection to look for evidence of aerobic bacteria (blood cultures, Chlamydia trachomatis and Cytomegalovirus (serology, and Pneumocystis carinii (direct microscopy of tracheal aspirated material. The following infectious agents were diagnosed in 21 children (36.2%: Aerobic bacteria (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus (3, Cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Aerobic bacteria and Cytomegalovirus (1. Seven cases of infection by Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Cytomegalovirus were diagnosed out of the 12 cases with pulmonary interstitial involvement.Os autores estudaram prospectivamente 58 lactentes internados por pneumonia em unidade semi-intensiva. A idade foi limitada entre 1 mês completo e 6 meses incompletos. A procedência das crianças foi de outro hospital em 20 casos e domiciliar em 38. O acometimento pulmonar era alveolar em 46 casos, intersticial em 12 e bilateral em 31 crianças. Foram pesquisados agentes etiológicos associados à infecção respiratória dos lactentes jovens: Bactérias aeróbias (Hemoculturas, Chlamydia trachomatis e Cytomegalovirus (sorologia, e Pneumocystis carinii (microscopia direta do aspirado traqueal. Foram diagnosticadas infecções em 21 crianças (36,2%: Bactérias aeróbias (8, Chlamydia trachomatis (5, Cytomegalovirus (3, Pneumocystis carinii (3, Cytomegalovirus e Chlamydia trachomatis (1, Bactéria aeróbia e Cytomegalovirus (1. Foram diagnosticadas 7 infecções por Chlamydia trachomatis e/ou Cytomegalovirus entre as 12 crianças com

  20. Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Chlamydia abortus in frozen fetal and placental tissues of aborting ewes in northeastern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hireche, Sana; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Bouaziz, Omar; Boussena, Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes is one of the most serious health problems in sheep flocks worldwide. It has a significant economic impact because abortion, decrease in milk production and weak lambs. Besides, the bacteria is zoonotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia abortus infection in 552 ewes in Constantine using a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA kit. Chlamydial DNA was investigated in ten ovine fetuses and eight placentas using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The study concluded that 7.2 % of ewes were seropositive and 33.3 % of sheep flocks had at least one seropositive ewe. Adjacent farmworker visits (OR = 7.667, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.307; 27.203) was defined as a risk factor. Deliveries of weak lambs (OR = 2.920, 95 % CI (OR) = 1.022; 8.342) and septicemia in lambs (OR = 9.971, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.383; 41.713) were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed positive signals to C. abortus in six fetuses and four placentas. Sequencing of the omp2 gene revealed that the Algerian strain is 96 % similar with C. abortus FAS strain. C. abortus plays a major role in abortion in northeastern Algeria. Appropriate control measures must be implemented to reduce economic losses and to avoid human contamination.