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Sample records for chlamydia pneumoniae igg

  1. [Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierszcz, Jolanta; Dubiel, Jacek S; Krzysiek, Józef; Sztefko, Krystyna; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Roman, Pfitzner; Podolec, Piotr; Wodniecki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course. 60 AVS patients who did not agree for operational treatment were divided into group A (30 patients with high IgG titer) group B (30 patients with low IgG titer), group C (22 patients with high IgA titer) group D (38 patients with low IgA titer), group E (7 patients with high IgM titer), group F (53 patients with low IgA titer) Antibodies titers and echocardiographic scans were carried out every 12 months. There were more (p AVS deterioration in group A compared to group B. Group A patients had lower left ventricle posteriori wall systolic diameter compared to group B. There were no differences in echocardiographic parameters between group C and D. Mean ejection fraction was lower and mean right atrium diameter was higher in group E compared to group F. The results may suggest link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and deterioration of AVS.

  2. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial...

  3. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    surface differs from that of Chlamydia trachomatis. In order to study the surface of C. pneumoniae we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against C. pneumoniae strain VR-1310 and selected 14 MAbs that reacted with the surface of C. pneumoniae. All MAbs reacted in immunoelectron microscopy...... with the surface of both whole C. pneumoniae VR-1310 elementary bodies and with purified sarcosyl extracted outer membrane complexes. However, only 2 of the MAbs reacted in immunoblotting with C. pneumoniae proteins and only with antigen that had not been heat treated in SDS-sample buffer. This indicates...

  4. [The influence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Zyśko, Dorota; Teryks-Wołyniec, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the infectious factors the role of which is considered in the process of atherosclerosis and its complications. Of the study was to assess the incidence of Ch. pneumoniae infection in the patients with acute coronary events. The study was carried out in 36 patients, mean age 61.2 +/- 13.4 years, 27 men and 9 women hospitalised in our Department with the diagnosis of previous or recent acute myocardial infarction. The control group consisted of 19 subjects, aged 61.1 +/- 14.3 years, 10 men and 9 women hospitalised due to other reasons. In all studied patients during the first 24 hours venous blood was taken for the assessment of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and titres of IgA and IgG anti-Ch. pneumoniae antibodies, and pharyngeal swabs were done for Ch. pneumoniae assessment. Positive swab tests were found in 19% of the patients, positive IgG titres in 80% and IgA in 64% of the patients. In the control group the corresponding values were 11, 79, 42%, respectively. In the patients with positive IgG titres, negative IgA titre result was observed in 21% and in the control group in 53% (p < 0.05). The CRP level was significantly higher in the studied patients than in the control group (24.2 vs 4.2 mg/l; p < 0.05). 1. The high percentage of positive serologic tests and rare positive results of pharyngeal swabs indicate a frequent contact with Ch. pneumoniae in human population. 2. Ch. pneumoniae infection exerts no significant influence on the unspecific markers of inflammation. 3. The higher frequency of seroconversion-positive IgG and negative IgA titres--in the control group indicates the role of prolonged or acute Ch. pneumoniae infection in the development or progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its complications.

  5. [Chlamydia pneumoniae--etiology of ophthalmia neonatorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásný, J; Borovanská, J; Hrubá, D

    2003-07-01

    The authors observed mucous discharge in palpebral aperture, accompanied by a different degree of effusion of eyelids and chemosis of conjunctivae, particularly the tarsal ones, in 12 physiological newborns. Chlamydia pneumoniae proved to be the etiological agent in the newborn ophthalmia. The eye infection was not detected in the same period of time and in the same maternity hospital in the period of observation from September 1999 to March 2001. The detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae was performed in conjunctiva smears. The impression films on slides were examined by the method of indirect immunofluorescence with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies (medac, Germany). In the early stages the secretion included a sanguineous component, which was then changing into a mucoid or mucopurulent form. The character of conjunctival symptoms was changing in the course of inflammation. Effusion of the lower transitory fold (plica) was gradually accompanied by a picture of pseudofollicular changes on the tarsal conjunctiva. Clarithromycin in the form of syrup at daily doses of 15 mg/kg/day for the period of two weeks offered an efficient therapy of the affection. Control smears after 14 days were always negative and, at the same time, the pathological finding on the conjunctivae disappeared. The nasolacrimal obstruction was the only complication of this chlamydia infection, taking place in seven sucklings, i.e. in 58%. The passage through lacrimal drainage system reappeared in all the affected infants until they reached one year of age. The remaining question to be answered is the way the newborns encountered the infection. A nosocomial infection may be the case, but Chlamydia pneumoniae could also be present in the urogenital tract of mothers and transferred to the newborn via the birth canal similarly as is the case of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The mode of infection deserves further investigation.

  6. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS IgG ANTIBODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. .... more people were living inside the school hostel in FCETU (45; 45.0%) .... seroprevalence than their counterparts with less risky behaviours ..... Janet S.B, Stephen A.M. Medical Microbiology 24th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA, ...

  7. The Association Between Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Ischemic Stroke

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    Eini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, data on stroke and cerebrovascular accidents are sparse. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between C. pneumoniae infection and ischemic stroke. Patients and Methods In a case-control study, 141 patients, admitted with ischemic stroke, were compared with gender and age-matched control subjects (n = 141. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the presence of C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA in the patients’ sera was determined. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 15 and were compared between the two groups using T-test and chi square test. Results The mean ages of the case and control groups were 68.97 ± 12.29 and 66.95 ± 6.68 years old, respectively. The difference between these two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.102. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgG were 78.7% in the patients with stroke and 52.5% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgA were 41.1% in the stroke and 15.6% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The results supported the hypothesis that serological evidence of C. pneumoniae infection may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cerebrovascular accident.

  8. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and bronchial asthma: Is there a link?

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    Agarwal A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Besides well-defined environmental causes, accumulating evidence suggests that respiratory tract infections play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Among these Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been discussed as possibly inducing the development of asthma. Methods: This study was designed to investigate the presence of anti chlamydial IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies by ELISA in serum samples of 60 adults with a clinical history of asthma and 100 healthy age and sex matched controls. All the samples positive for Chlamydial genus specific IgG antibodies were then subjected to Chlamydia pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody ELISA. Results: The IgG anti chlamydial antibody-positivity rate in the patients with bronchial asthma (80% was significantly higher in all age groups than that in the healthy age and sex matched controls (59%. No significant association was observed for IgA and IgM anti chlamydial antibodies. C. pneumoniae species specific IgG antibody seroprevalence was also found to be significantly higher in all age groups in comparison to controls (61.66% vs 38%. Conclusions: Serological evidence of chronic infection with C. pneumoniae was more frequent in patients with asthma compared with control subjects. Our results support the correlation of bronchial asthma and chronic infection with C. pneumoniae in Indian population.

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

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    Shinsaku Imashuku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  10. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

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    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  11. CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE – THE PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES IN HEALTHY POPULATION AND IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA

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    Darja Keše

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determinate the prevalence rates of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in Slovenia and to evaluate the importance of C. pneumoniae infections at patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP.Materials and methods. With the microimmunofluorescence test (micro-IF we evaluated the presence of C. pneumoniae specific antibodies in 1036 healthy subjects, in two periods of time, in 1991–93 and 1997–1998. We also tested the pair sera collected from 2118 patients with CAP between 1993–1999.Results. We demonstrated that C. pneumoniae infections are common in our population, as we detected IgG antibodies in 43.1% of healthy population. The prevalence rate of C. pneumoniae infections statistically significant increased in two periods of time. Acute C. pneumoniae infections were proved in 15.9% of all patients with CAP.Conclusions. C. pneumoniae is important respiratory pathogen also in our community. The infections are more common in older patients. Because C. pneumoniae like other Chlamydia species has tendency to cause chronic disease, it is reasonable to diagnose this bacterium in respiratory patients. It is also recommended to test convalescent sera at serologic laboratory diagnosis.

  12. Atherogenic effects of Chlamydia pneumoniae: refuting the innocent bystander hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selzman, C.H.; Netea, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.A.; Weinberg, A.; Reznikov, L.L.; Grover, F.L.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis was first demonstrated in patients with ischemic heart disease in 1988. Subsequently, the organism has been detected in several cardiovascular lesions. Outside of observational reports, few studies mechanistically

  13. CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION AND CARDIAC RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFECTION

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    Zohreh Azarkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidences support the possible involvement of microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumonia in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases through a chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity with acute myocardial infarction and its related risk factors.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 88 patients admitted in CCU with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, without a history of chronic diseases including cancers were selected as cases and 49 surgical patients without an evidence of cardiovascular disease according to clinical examinations and ECG were selected as controls. Demographic characteristics and background risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire by expert nurses. Venous blood sample was obtained from participants for measuring the anti Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA method. The prevalence of antibodies was compared in both groups and its relation with coronary syndrome was evaluated.    RESULTS: 88 and 49 patients were enrolled in case and control groups, respectively. Mean age of patients and the controls was 14 ± 59.7 and 13 ± 56.9 years, respectively (P = 0.26. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was 63(71.9% and 23(46.9% in case and controlcontrol groups, respectively (P < 0.01; OR: 2.85; CI 95%: 1.38 - 5.9. Anti Chlamydia IgM was positive in 1 patient and 1 control. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was higher in patients older than 50 years old than those younger than 50 years old (OR: 2.83; CI 95%: 1.31 -1.14. There was a significant relation between BMI, smoking and Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity.    CONCLUSION: Considering the relation between anti Chlamydia antibody IgG seropositivity with BMI and myocardial infarction, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these prone patients can be benefical.

  14. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pecorum in a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Gillett, A K; Palmieri, C; Feng, T; Higgins, D P

    2016-11-01

    Chlamydiosis is a common infectious disease of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), but Chlamydia spp. have not yet been demonstrated to cause pneumonia in these animals. A juvenile male koala died following an episode of respiratory disease. At necropsy examination, the lung tissue was consolidated. Microscopical lesions in the lung included pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, proliferation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium and interstitial fibrosis. Hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells contained aggregates of small basophilic punctate organisms, which were confirmed as chlamydiae by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction identified these as Chlamydia pecorum. This report provides the best evidence to date of chlamydial infection causing pneumonia in a koala, and the first evidence that C. pecorum is capable of infecting the bronchiolar epithelium of the koala. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Survival of Chlamydia pneumoniae following contact with various surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); Harreveld, S. (Sonja); Joulandan, S.A.M. (S. Ahmad Mousavi); R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In this study, the survival and recovery of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) strains TW‐183, AR‐39, AR‐388 and CWL‐029 were measured after inoculation on glass, stainless steel, FormicaR laminate, paper, fabric and human skin. Methods: Inoculum in throat washes from healthy

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae : studies on an emerging pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe Chlamydiae are characterized as bacteria because of the composition of their cell wall and their growth by binary division. However, they are obligate intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotic cells that have a unique replication cycle similar to Rickettsia. Chlamydial

  17. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumonia and helicobacter pylori with atherosclerosis

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    ali Pooria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pooria A1, Maasoomi M2, Rafiee E3, Rezaee M4, Sabzi F5, Hossain Zadegan H6, Salehi M7, Mozaffari P8 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 3. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology 4. Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 6. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 7. Bsc in Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 8. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of deaths in the developed countries and causes one million mortalities per year in the USA. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, stress, and low activity are known to be the causes of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to confirm the relationship between chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn, as well as helicobacter pylori (Hp and atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: In this analytical case-control study two groups of patients were studied. The first group including 30 patients over 30 years old with coronary artery disease were operated using coronary artery bypass graft. The control group included 30 persons assessed with angiography and having normal coronary arteries. The data were collected and analyzed using statistical methods. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of IgA and IgG anti-Cpn, and IgG anti- Hp but they were statistically different concerning IgA anti-Hp which had more positive cases in the case group in comparison with the

  18. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

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    Dunya Fareed Salloom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a complex debilitating disease because its pathogenesis is not clear. This study aims at detecting some pathogenesis factors that lead to induce the disease. Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of these pathogenesis factors which acts as a triggering factor for the disease. The study groups included forty Iraqi Ankylosing spondylitis patients and forty healthy persons as a control group. Immunological and molecular examinations were done to detect Chlamydia. pneumoniae in AS group. The immunological results were performed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA to detect anti-IgG and anti-IgM antibodies of C. pneumoniae revealed that five of forty AS patients' samples (12.5% were positive for anti-IgG and IgM C. pneumoniae antibodies compared to controls which revealed seronegative. Molecular detection included 16srRNA and HSP-70 genes were to ensure the serological examination for detection of bacteria in the five blood samples which were positive; therefore, these results improved that C. pneumoniae played a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  19. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae as etiologic agents of persistent cough in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Castilla, Elias A; Laus, Stella; Kozy, Anita; Atchison, Robert W; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Ward, Joel I; Greenberg, David P

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were evaluated as agents of persistent cough in adolescents and adults (n = 491). Tests of 473 respiratory specimens by culture or PCR or both identified four episodes (0.8%) of M. pneumoniae-associated illness and no episodes of C. pneumoniae illness, suggesting that these bacteria do not frequently cause persistent cough.

  20. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae Association between cardiovascular disease and antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae

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    Guadalupe de los A García-Elorriaga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (pObjective. To evaluate the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD and antibodies against Chlamydia in Mexican population. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1988 to April 2000, at the Immunology and Infectology Research Unit of Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- and at the Cardiovascular Surgery and Circulatory Care, Hospital General CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Study subjects were 70 CVD hospitalized patients, older than 30 years, from both genders. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies against C. psitaccii, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were determined by microimmunofluorescence in study subjects and compared with those from 140 healthy individuals, matched by age and sex. Simple random sampling was used

  1. Is there any relationship between asthma and asthma attack in children and atypical bacterial infections; Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori.

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    Annagür, Ali; Kendirli, S G; Yilmaz, M; Altintas, D U; Inal, A

    2007-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by variable airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. There are many factors affecting the development and severity of childhood asthma such as genetic predisposition, atopy, environmental factors, obesity, diet, socioeconomic status, and infectious triggers. In the present study we aimed to investigate the frequency of Mycdoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Helicobacter pylori infections in asthmatic children. We investigated also whether there is a relationship between these agents and asthma attacks. Seventy-nine asthmatic children (46 males, aged 5-15 years) were included in study. The study group was divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 37 children with asthma attacks and group 2 consisted of 42 children with stable asthma. As a control group we studied 36 healthy children. Pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests for common allergens were performed; serum total IgE, phadiatop, specific IgM and IgG antibody levels (ELISA) for M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae and H. pylori were measured in all patients. Mycoplasma IgM and Chlamidia IgM were positive in 8.1% (3 patients) and 18.9% (7 patients) of group 1 patients, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference for Mycoplasma IgM (p = 0.031) and Chlamidia IgM (p = 0.03) between group1 and other two groups. We have not found significant difference for M. pneumoniae IgG, C. pneumoniae IgG and H. pylori IgM and IgG among groups. M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae may play a role in development of asthma exacerbations in childhood. We could not find a relationship between H. Pylori and asthma.

  2. Mycoplasma contamination of Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huniche, BS; Jensen, Lise Torp; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    media, immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two of the 6 ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1355 (TWAR strain 2043) and ATCC VR1356 (TWAR strain 2023)] were infected with Mycoplasma hominis and 1 isolate [ATCC VR2282 (TWAR strain TW183)] was contaminated with both...... Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma orale, whereas 3 of the ATCC isolates [ATCC VR1310, ATCC VR1360 (TWAR strain CM-1) and ATCC 53592 (TWAR strain AR39)] were not contaminated. The Finnish C. pneumoniae isolates Kajaani 6 and Parola were found to be contaminated with M. hominis and M. orale, respectively...

  3. [Case of infectious mononucleosis with suspected primary coinfection with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae and Epstein-Barr virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Toru

    2008-09-01

    A 26-year-old male was hospitalized with fever and pharyngeal pain. Liver dysfunction and an increase in the percentage of atypical lymphocytes in the peripheral blood were detected. Computed tomography showed pneumonia involving the right lung and synpneumonic pleural effusion. Serum immunological tests showed positive results for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM and IgG antibodies and Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) IgM and IgA antibodies on admission. The pneumonia and pleural effusion were no longer detectable after a week of treatment with starting azithromycin. At 7 weeks after admission, the liver function test results returned to within normal limits, the serum became negative for EBV VCA IgM antibody, the C. pneumoniae IgM antibody titer decreased, and the C. pneumoniae IgA and IgG antibody titers increased. This case was suspected to have infectious mononucleosis caused by primary coinfection with C. pneumoniae and EBV.

  4. Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG Antibodies Seroprevalence Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    % for males and females respectively), while in the same state, Anaghalu (2006) among a seroprevalence rate of 23.8% for males and 28.0% for females among infertile couples. Chlamydia is known as the “silent epidemic” ...

  5. Asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Elorriaga Guadalupe de los A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Precisar si existe asociación entre enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV y anticuerpos contra Chlamydia en población mexicana. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal, realizado en la Unidad de Investigación en Inmunología e Infectología -Hospital de Infectología del Centro Médico Nacional La Raza (CMNR- y en el Servicio de Cirugía Cardiovascular y Asistencia Circulatoria, del Hospital General del CMNR, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, de agosto de 1998 a abril de 2000. Se determinaron anticuerpos IgG e IgM contra C. psittaci, C. trachomatis y C. pneumoniae mediante microinmunofluorescencia, en suero de 70 pacientes con ECV hospitalizados en el CMNR, mayores de 30 años, de uno u otro sexo, y se compararon con 140 sanos, pareados por edad y sexo. Se utilizaron muestras aleatorias simples, con un tamaño poblacional de 110, una prevalencia de 50% y un nivel de confianza de 99%. Para establecer la diferencia entre las proporciones de los títulos se utilizó ji cuadrada y se calculó la razón de momios. Resultados. El 94.3% (66/70 de los pacientes presentó IgG en contra de C. pneumoniae vs 37% (52/140 de los individuos sanos (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Existe una fuerte asociación entre anticuerpos IgG hacia C. pneumoniae y ECV.

  6. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors

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    Leena Hanski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target.

  7. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Leena; Vuorela, Pia

    2016-11-28

    Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C . pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target.

  8. Proteolytic cleavage of the Chlamydia pneumoniae major outer membrane protein in the absence of Pmp10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Timmerman, E; Gevaert, K

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae contains 21 genes encoding polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmp). While no function has yet been attributed to the Pmps, they may be involved in an antigenic variation of the Chlamydia surface. It has previously been demonstrated...

  9. Methods for Real-Time PCR-Based Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus Infections in an Opened Molecular Diagnostic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, Onya; Brouillet, René; Greub, Gilbert; Jaton, Katia

    2017-01-01

    The advances in molecular biology of the last decades have dramatically improved the field of diagnostic bacteriology. In particular, PCR-based technologies have impacted the diagnosis of infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria such as pathogens from the Chlamydiacae family. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based method using the Taqman technology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus infection. The method presented here can be applied to various clinical samples and can be adapted on opened molecular diagnostic platforms.

  10. Association between Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies and wheezing in young children and the influence of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, E; Gnarpe, J; Wettergren, B; Janson, C; Wickman, M; Nordvall, L

    2006-12-01

    The proposed association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and wheezing needs further clarification. Serum samples obtained from 1581 children aged 4 years in a population based cohort were tested for antibodies to Cpn and IgE antibodies to common allergens. Data on environmental factors and disease were collected prospectively from birth. The occurrence of IgG antibodies to Cpn at 4 years of age was associated with reported wheezing at different ages; however, these findings were most often not significant. In girls, the occurrence of anti-Cpn IgG was associated with wheezing at the ages of 1, 2, and 4 years (odds ratios (ORs) 3.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46 to 7.96), 2.13 (95% CI 1.02 to 4.44), and 2.01 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.54), respectively), and even higher ORs were observed for each age category when only high level antibody responses to Cpn were analysed. At the time of blood sampling the association between anti-Cpn IgG and wheezing was restricted to girls without atopic sensitisation (OR 2.39 (95% CI 1.25 to 4.57). No associations with wheezing were detected in boys, in whom IgE sensitisation was inversely associated with the presence of anti-Cpn IgG (OR 0.49 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.90)). This study suggests an association between evidence of earlier Cpn infection and a history of wheezing in young girls. Infection with Cpn may be an important risk factor for wheezing and possibly for non-atopic asthma, predominantly in girls.

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Fiorino, Erika; Gilardi, Federica; Aldini, Rita; Scotti, Elena; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Donati, Manuela; Montagnani, Marco; Cevenini, Monica; Franco, Placido; Roda, Aldo; Crestani, Maurizio; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to atherosclerosis, strictly associated with hyperlipidemia. The liver plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Since in animal models C. pneumoniae can be found at hepatic level, this study aims to elucidate whether C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerosis by affecting lipid metabolism. Thirty Balb/c mice were challenged intra-peritoneally with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and thirty with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar D. Thirty mice were injected with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer, as negative controls. Seven days after infection, liver samples were examined both for presence of chlamydia and expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism. C. pneumoniae was isolated from 26 liver homogenates, whereas C. trachomatis was never re-cultivated (P triglycerides levels compared both with negative controls (P metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Evaluation of association between an acute attack of childhood bronchial asthma and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Xing-Lian; Xing, Fu-Qiang; Yang, Ju-Sheng; Tu, Hong

    2006-04-01

    To identify whether there is an association between an acute attack of childhood bronchial asthma and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection. Serum specific antibodies IgM and IgG to CP were detected by ELISA in 120 asthmatic children with an acute attack and 82 healthy children. Anti-CP IgM was demonstrated in 22 cases (18.3%) and anti-CP IgG was demonstrated in 32 cases (26.7%) out of the 120 asthmatic patients. The incidence of CP infection in asthmatic children was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (3.7%) (P attack of asthma in 15 cases out of the 32 cases with CP infection, but 17 cases required glucocorticoid inhalation treatment together with anti-CP infection treatment (macrolide antibiotics, eg. azithromycin) for remission of asthma attack. There may be a link between an acute attack of childhood asthma and CP infection. It is thus necessary to detect the CP-specific antibodies in asthmatic children for proper treatment.

  13. The association of metabolic syndrome and Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1: The Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study

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    Pazoki Raha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we used National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III criteria in 1791 subjects, aged 25 years and over, selected by cluster random sampling in three Iranian ports in the northern Persian Gulf. Sera were analyzed for IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, HSV-1, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and CMV using ELISA. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, of the infectious agents, CMV [OR = 1.81 (1.05–3.10; p = 0.03], H. pylori [OR = 1.50 (1.12–2.00; p = 0.007] and Chlamydia pneumoniae [OR = 1.69 (1.27–2.25; p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome, which occurs very frequently in the general population, has a significant association with prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Hypothesis about participation of infection in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome should be investigated.

  14. Isolation of Chlamydia abortus from a laboratory worker diagnosed with atypical pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Nieves; Caro, M Rosa; Gallego, M Carmen; Murcia-Belmonte, Antonio; Álvarez, Daniel; Del Río, Laura; Cuello, Francisco; Buendía, Antonio J; Salinas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the aetiological agent of atypical pneumonia in human can sometimes be a tedious process, especially in cases where Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species and Chlamydia pneumoniae are ruled out. In such cases, a correct anamnesis of the patient is basic to clarify which pathogens might have produced the infection. For this reason, health professionals including veterinarians and laboratory personnel working with zoonotic pathogens should keep their doctors informed. A human case of atypical pneumonia linked to Chlamydia abortus is reported. A 47-year-old male, a veterinarian researcher into chlamydiae, developed respiratory symptoms, breathing problems and high fever. Serological analyses ruled out the involvement of several respiratory pathogens, such as M. pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Rickettsia conorii and C. pneumoniae, and Chlamydia abortus was identified as the possible aetiological agent of the infection. The isolation of C. abortus from the patient's sputum and subsequent molecular analysis confirmed the presence of this microorganism. As far as we know, although C. abortus has not been previously described as capable of causing pneumonia in humans, this is the first reported case of atypical pneumonia in which C. abortus is thought to have played an aetiological role.

  15. Isolation of Chlamydia abortus from a laboratory worker diagnosed with atypical pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Nieves; Caro, M. Rosa; Gallego, M. Carmen; Murcia-Belmonte, Antonio; ?lvarez, Daniel; del R?o, Laura; Cuello, Francisco; Buend?a, Antonio J.; Salinas, Jes?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying the aetiological agent of atypical pneumonia in human can sometimes be a tedious process, especially in cases where Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species and Chlamydia pneumoniae are ruled out. In such cases, a correct anamnesis of the patient is basic to clarify which pathogens might have produced the infection. For this reason, health professionals including veterinarians and laboratory personnel working with zoonotic pathogens should keep their doctors informed. ...

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae hides inside apoptotic neutrophils to silently infect and propagate in macrophages.

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    Jan Rupp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate strategies for silent infection of preferred host cells. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common pathogen in acute infections of the respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia and associated with chronic lung sequelae in adults and children. Within the lung, alveolar macrophages and polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN are the first line of defense against bacteria, but also preferred host phagocytes of chlamydiae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We could show that C. pneumoniae easily infect and hide inside neutrophil granulocytes until these cells become apoptotic and are subsequently taken up by macrophages. C. pneumoniae infection of macrophages via apoptotic PMN results in enhanced replicative activity of chlamydiae when compared to direct infection of macrophages, which results in persistence of the pathogen. Inhibition of the apoptotic recognition of C. pneumoniae infected PMN using PS- masking Annexin A5 significantly lowered the transmission of chlamydial infection to macrophages. Transfer of apoptotic C. pneumoniae infected PMN to macrophages resulted in an increased TGF-ss production, whereas direct infection of macrophages with chlamydiae was characterized by an enhanced TNF-alpha response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that C. pneumoniae uses neutrophil granulocytes to be silently taken up by long-lived macrophages, which allows for efficient propagation and immune protection within the human host.

  17. Amalgamation of Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Tran, Dihn; Lord, Reginald

    2008-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infect macrophages and accelerates foam cell formation in in vitro experiments, but whether this might occur in human atherosclerosis is unknown. In the present study, we examined 17 carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae in the cytoplasm of macrophage foam cells. The volume of the cytoplasm that was free from vacuoles and lipid droplets in C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells was dramatically reduced, and a phenomenon of the amalgamation of C. pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets was detected. Double immunohistochemistry showed that C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells contained a large number of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The observations provide support to the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae could affect foam cell formation in human atherosclerosis.

  18. Specific serum immunoglobulin g to chlamydia pneumoniae in healthy children and adults (south-east of iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemati, M.; Ali, S.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumonia) is an obligate intracellular bacterium and recognized as a risk factor for several diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis and arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of C. pneumonia in healthy subjects in different age groups. Methods: The serum levels of anti C. pneumonia IgG were measured by using of ELISA. Results: Totally, 630 subjects (164 children and 466 adults) were included into study. The sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody were 11.3% and 14.48 ± 2.18 RU/mL; at age = 10 years, 15% and 17.47 ± 2.40 RU/mL at age 11-20 years, 21% and 25.15 ± 4.56 RU/mL at age 21-30 years group, 40% and 53.77 ± 6.40 RU/mL at age 31-40 years, 94% and 146.41 ± 8.95 RU/mL at age 41-50 years, 98% and 153.59+-10.38 RU/mL at age 51-60 years, 96% and 138.80 ± 12.78 RU/mL at age 61-70 years, respectively. The differences of the sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody between age groups were significant (p<0.0001). The sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody were 11.6% and 14.33 ± 1.49 RU/mL in children and 65.5% and 97.40 ± 4.46 RU/mL in adults. The sero-prevalence and the mean titer of anti C. pneumonia antibody were significantly higher in adults in comparison with those in children (p<0.0001). Conclusion: These findings showed that the sero-prevalence and titer of anti C. pneumonia IgG were increased with advanced ages and were higher in adults as compared to children. (author)

  19. Growth in serum-free medium improves isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, M; Essig, A; Marre, R; Henkel, W

    1993-01-01

    Infectivity titers were determined for eight Chlamydia pneumoniae strains simultaneously grown in serum-free and serum-supplemented cell culture media. Use of serum-free medium resulted in a 10- to 50-fold increase in the susceptibility of HL cells to chlamydial infection. Comparative primary isolation of a wild-type strain also produced higher inclusion counts in a serum-free environment. Serum-free cultivation is recommended to increase the efficiency of C. pneumoniae isolation from clinica...

  20. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyu Chen

    Full Text Available We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD.A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs and standardized mean differences (SMD of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled.In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.57, P = 0.56. The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.13.Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

  2. Serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyu; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Chupeng; Chen, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean differences (SMD) of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled. In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.57, P = 0.56). The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.13). Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

  3. Searching for Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae in primary endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to search samples from primary endodontic infections for the presence of two common human bacterial pathogens - Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Genomic DNA isolated from samples taken from 25 root canals of teeth with asymptomatic (chronic) apical periodontitis and 25 aspirates from acute apical abscess was initially amplified by the multiple displacement amplification approach and then used as template in species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori and C. pneumoniae. All clinical samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. However, no clinical sample was positive for either H. pylori or C. pneumoniae. Neither H. pylori nor C. pneumoniae were found in samples from primary endodontic infections. These findings suggest that these species are not candidate endodontic pathogens and that the necrotic root canal does not serve as a reservoir for these human pathogens in healthy patients.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview

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    Rosa Sessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development.

  5. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

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    Giovanna Vitaliti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Casson, Peter R.; Christman, Gregory M.; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R.; Geisler, William M.; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) seropositivity as detected by the Ct elementary body (EB)-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ct EB ELISA) predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Design Cohort study Setting Outpatient clinics participating in the reproductive medicine network Patients 1250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in one of two randomized controlled trials: PPCOSII and AMIGOS Intervention Sera were analyzed for anti-Ct IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a research Ct EB ELISA. OD405 readings ≥0.35 and ≥0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Results 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-Ct IgG3. They tended to be non-White and smokers. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of HSG-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.40-5.34) times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusions Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-Ct IgG3 seropositivity is associated with lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women have up to 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:26413816

  7. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm 2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae -infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation.

  8. Chlamydia pneumoniae and stroke: is there a direct relationship? Chlamydia pneumoniae e acidente vascular cerebral aterotrombótico: existe relação direta?

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    Rubens J. Gagliardi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible relationship between atherothrombotic stroke and Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHOD: 150 patients with carotid atherothrombosis were enrolled. The casuistic was divided in three groups: ischemic stroke (IS: 65 patients; transient ischemic attack (TIA: 26 patients; and control: 59. The IS or TIA onset was up to 30 days from the beginning of the study. Carotid atheromatoses was diagnosed by Doppler-ultrasonography. Patients with cardioembolic risk or non-atherothrombotic origin were excluded. Comparisons were done between the three groups, and within each group according to the different age sub-groups, to the main arteries affected, and to the atherogenic risk factors. Bacteria detection was done using polimerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Only one patient tested positive for C. pneumoniae belonging to the control group. CONCLUSION: These results do not suggest that C. pneumoniae participated in the onset of IS or TIA or that it has a role in carotid plaque destabilization.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possível relação entre Chlamydia pneumoniae e acidente vascular cerebral aterotrombótico (AVC. MÉTODO: 150 pacientes com aterotrombose carotídea foram estudados. A casuística foi dividida em 3 grupos: AVC: 65 pacientes; ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT: 26 pacientes e controles: 59. O início do AVC ou AIT era até 30 dias da inclusão no estudo. A ateromatose carotídea foi diagnosticada por ultrassonografia com Doppler. Os pacientes com risco cárdio-embólico ou sem evidência de aterotrombose foram excluídos. Foram estabelecidas comparações entre os 3 grupos e dentro de cada grupo, formado sub-grupos de acordo com diferentes idades, território arterial comprometido e fatores de risco. A detecção da bactéria foi feita por reação de polimerização em cadeia. RESULTADOS: Somente um paciente, pertencente ao grupo controle, teve resultado positivo. CONCLUSÃO: Estes achados não sugerem que a C. pneumoniae

  9. Community epidemiology of Chlamydia and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in LRTI in France over 29 months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillat, Jacques; Flahault, Antoine; Barbeyrac, Bertille de; Orfila, Jeanne; Portier, Henri; Ducroix, Jean-Pierre; Bebear, Christiane; Mayaud, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is still little known in community settings. Methods: In all, 3207 adult cases of LRTI (871 with pneumonia, and 2336 with acute bronchitis) were prospectively included in the ETIIC 1 ETIIC : ETude de l'Incidence des Infections respiratoires basses d'origine Communautaire dues a Chlamydia pneumoniae et Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Incidence of CP and MP in LRTI in community settings)program by 303 general practitioners and 24 hospital physicians in France between September 1997 and February 2000. The polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays were used to detect CP or MP in 3198 pharyngeal specimens obtained by gargling. Results: Of these 3198 patients, 232 (7.3%), were PCR-positive for CP and/or MP. Immunoassays were far less sensitive than PCRs (Se = 2 and 13% for MP and CP). Among the 2336 patients with acute bronchitis, PCR was positive for CP in 95 (4.1%), and for MP, in 54 (2.3%). Among the 671 patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, PCR was positive for CP in 23 (3.4%), and for MP in 49 (7.3%). CP and MP displayed significant geographic heterogeneity. Independent clinical determinants of positive PCR for CP and/or MP were age below 45 years, previous antimicrobial therapy (especially betalactams). Clinical signs were not of practical use in distinguishing accurately between etiologic diagnoses. Conclusions: CP or MP diagnosed by PCR were found in more than 7% of patients with LRTI in community settings with a significant geographical heterogeneity and significant temporal trends in the incidence

  10. C-reactive protein and anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies as risk factors of cardiovascular death in incident patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Ramón; Frías, Yolanda; de Ventura, Maria Jesús; Rodríguez, Ernesto; Hurtado, María Elena; Alcántara, Guadalupe; Vázquez, Roberto; Ortiz, Ruth; Salcedo, Mario; Rios, Maria Elena; Kaji, Julio; Amato, Dante

    2003-01-01

    Recently it has been pointed out that inflammation and infections caused by germs such as Chlamydia pneumoniae are independent cardiovascular risk factors for the general population, but information about these relationships in dialysis patients is scarce. This work was done to analyze the association of C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies (anti-Chlp-IgG) as independent cardiovascular risk factors in incident patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Single-cohort, prospective observational study. Three CAPD centers from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and one from the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Mexico. A cohort of 75 adult incident patients on CAPD, without clinical signs of congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, or peripheral arterial insufficiency. No restrictions for age, gender, or cause of renal failure were applied. Mortality. Demographic variables, body composition by electrical bioimpedance, serum glucose, urea, creatinine, lipids, homocysteine, nutritional markers (albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin), CRP, and anti-Chlp-IgG were measured and registered at the time of the first admission. When a patient died, the cause of death was determined by review of the clinical chart. Mean follow-up time was 10.25 patient-months. There were 14 cardiovascular deaths. CRP was positive (> 10 mg/L) in 64% of the patients, and anti-Chlp-IgG in 64%; 29% of the patients were positive for both markers. The relative risk for cardiovascular mortality was 6.23 for patients positive for either CRP or anti-Chlp-IgG, and increased to 9.52 when both markers were positive. Multivariate analysis revealed that CRP and anti-Chlp-IgG were stronger cardiovascular death predictors than age, diabetes, and nutritional status. These data suggest that inflammation and the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections are important predictors of cardiovascular death in

  11. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... of sexually transmitted infection (STIs). Common STIs are gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes . Even if you ...

  12. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Candice M; Hovis, Kelley M; Bavoil, Patrik M; Myers, Garry SA; Carrasco, Jose A; Timms, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. Results We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequ...

  13. Prediction of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein localization in host mitochondria and cytoplasm and possible involvements in lung cancer etiology: a computational approach

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    Aws Alshamsan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting evidence suggests that the intercellular infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in lungs contributes to the etiology of lung cancer. Many proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae outmanoeuvre the various system of the host. The infection may regulate various factors, which can influence the growth of lung cancer in affected persons. In this in-silico study, we predict potential targeting of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic comportments of host cell and their possible involvement in growth and development of lung cancer. Various cellular activities are controlled in mitochondria and cytoplasm, where the localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae proteins may alter the normal functioning of host cells. The rationale of this study is to find out and explain the connection between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer. A sum of 183 and 513 proteins were predicted to target in mitochondria and cytoplasm of host cell out of total 1112 proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae. In particular, many targeted proteins may interfere with normal growth behaviour of host cells, thereby altering the decision of program cell death. Present article provides a potential connection of Chlamydia pneumoniae protein targeting and proposed that various targeted proteins may play crucial role in lung cancer etiology through diverse mechanisms.

  14. Smoking, season, and detection of chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in clinically stable COPD patients

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    Goldsmith Charles H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD remain unclear. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 100 outpatients with smoking-related, clinically stable COPD, and induced sputum was obtained in 62 patients. Results Patients had mean age (standard deviation of 65.8 (10.7 years, mean forced expiratory volume in one second of 1.34 (0.61 L, and 61 (61.0% were male. C. pneumoniae nucleic acids were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 27 (27.0%. Current smoking (odds ratio {OR} = 2.6, 95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.1, 6.6, P = 0.04, season (November to April (OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 9.2, P = 0.007, and chronic sputum production (OR = 6.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 23.2, P = 0.005 were associated with detection of C. pneumoniae DNA. Conclusions Prospective studies are needed to examine the role of C. pneumoniae nucleic acid detection in COPD disease symptoms and progression.

  15. Prevalência de Chlamydia Pneumoniae e Mycoplasma Pneumoniae em diferentes formas da doença coronariana Prevalencia de Chlamydia Pneumoniae y Mycoplasma Pneumoniae en diferentes formas de la enfermedad coronaria Prevalence of Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae in different forms of coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irineu Luiz Maia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Vários agentes infecciosos foram investigados desde que se demonstrou a associação entre infecção e aterosclerose, porém os resultados desses estudos são conflitantes. OBJETIVO: Testar a associação entre títulos séricos de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma em diferentes formas de síndromes coronarianas agudas (SCA. MÉTODOS: Cento e vinte e seis pacientes foram divididos em quatro grupos: SCA com elevação do segmento ST (32 pacientes, SCA sem elevação do segmento ST (30 pacientes, doença arterial coronariana crônica (30 pacientes e doadores de sangue sem doença coronariana conhecida (34 pacientes - grupo-controle. Nos primeiros dois grupos, amostras de soro foram coletadas na admissão (primeiras 24 horas de hospitalização e após 6 meses de seguimento. Nos outros dois grupos, colheu-se apenas uma amostra basal. Em todas as amostras, anticorpos IgG anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma foram dosados por imunofluorescência indireta. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas foram observadas entre a medida basal e após 6 meses de seguimento nos pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST, tanto para Chlamydia (650±115,7 vs. 307±47,5, p = 0,0001 quanto para Mycoplasma (36,5±5,0 vs. 21,5±3,5, p = 0,0004. Os grupos com SCA tiveram níveis séricos de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma mais altos na dosagem basal, em relação aos pacientes com doença arterial coronariana crônica e grupo-controle, mas as diferenças obtidas não tiveram significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou associação entre os títulos de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia e anti-Mycoplasma na fase aguda dos pacientes com angina instável ou infarto do miocárdio.FUNDAMENTO: Se han investigado diversos agentes infecciosos desde que se evidenció la asociación entre infección y aterosclerosis, sin embargo esos estudios ofrecen resultados conflictivos. OBJETIVO: Probar la asociación entre

  16. Performance of the multitarget Mikrogen Chlamydia trachomatis IgG ELISA in the prediction of tubal factor infertility (TFI) in subfertile women : Comparison with the Medac MOMP IgG ELISA plus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ess, Eleanne F.; Ouburg, Sander; Spaargaren, Joke; Land, Jolande A.; Morre, Servaas A.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for more accurate Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG antibody tests for tubal factor infertility (TFI) diagnostics. We evaluated the predictive value for TFI of Medac ELISA plus (MOMP) and multitarget Mikrogen ELISA (MOMP-CPAF-TARP). Based on Medac ELISA plus results, 183 subfertile

  17. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  18. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in calcified nodules of aortic stenotic valves Mycoplasma pneumoniae e Chlamydia pneumoniae nos focos de calcificação de valva aórtica estenótica

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    Maria de Lourdes HIGUCHI

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Aortic Valve Stenosis (AVS has been explained as an atherosclerotic process of the valve as they often exhibit inflammatory changes with infiltration of macrophages, T lymphocytes and lipid infiltration. The present study investigated whether the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, detected previously in atherosclerotic plaques, are also present in AVS. Ten valves surgically removed from patients with AVS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The mean and standard deviation of the percentage areas occupied by CP antigens and MP - DNA were respectively 6.21 +/- 5.41 and 2.27 +/- 2.06 in calcified foci; 2.8 +/- 3.33 and 1.78+/- 3.63 in surrounding fibrotic areas, and 0.21 +/- 0.17 and 0.12 +/- 0.13 in less injured parts of the valve. There was higher amount of CP and MP in the calcified foci and in the surrounded fibrosis than in more preserved valvular regions. In conclusion, the fact that there were greater amounts of CP and MP in calcification foci of AVS favors the hypothesis that AS is not an inevitable degenerative process due to aging, but rather that it may be a response to the presence of these bacteria, similarly to the morphology detected in atherosclerosis damage.Estenose da Valva Aórtica (EVA tem sido considerada como um processo aterosclerótico das valvas pois elas freqüentemente exibem alterações inflamatórias com acúmulo de macrófagos e linfócitos T, bem como infiltração de lípides. O presente estudo investigou se as bactérias Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP e Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, detectadas previamente em placas ateroscleróticas, estavam presentes na EVA. Dez valvas removidas cirúrgicamente de pacientes com EVA foram analisadas pela imunohistoquímica, hibridização in situ e microscopia eletrônica. A média e desvio padrão das porcentagens de área ocupadas por antígenos de CP e de DNA do MP foram respectivamente de 6,21 +/- 5,41 e 2

  19. The Type III Secretion System-Related CPn0809 from Chlamydia pneumoniae.

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    Astrid C Engel

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that possesses a type III secretion system (T3SS, which enables the pathogen to deliver, in a single step, effector proteins for modulation of host-cell functions into the human host cell cytosol to establish a unique intracellular niche for replication. The translocon proteins located at the top of the T3SS needle filament are essential for its function, as they form pores in the host-cell membrane. Interestingly, unlike other Gram-negative bacteria, C. pneumoniae has two putative translocon operons, named LcrH_1 and LcrH_2. However, little is known about chlamydial translocon proteins. In this study, we analyzed CPn0809, one of the putative hydrophobic translocators encoded by the LcrH_1 operon, and identified an 'SseC-like family' domain characteristic of T3S translocators. Using bright-field and confocal microscopy, we found that CPn0809 is associated with EBs during early and very late phases of a C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, CPn0809 forms oligomers, and interacts with the T3SS chaperone LcrH_1, via its N-terminal segment. Moreover, expression of full-length CPn0809 in the heterologous host Escherichia coli causes a grave cytotoxic effect that leads to cell death. Taken together, our data indicate that CPn0809 likely represents one of the translocon proteins of the C. pneumoniae T3SS, and possibly plays a role in the translocation of effector proteins in the early stages of infection.

  20. Decreased expression of liver X receptor-α in macrophages infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic arteries in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been shown to infect macrophages and to accelerate foam cell formation. It has been hypothesized that the C. pneumoniae infection affects foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of liver X receptors (LXR), but whether such an event occurs in human atherosclerosis is not known. In this study we examined carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The expression of LXR-α in macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae and macrophages that were not infected was compared using a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. The analysis revealed a 2.2-fold reduction in the expression of LXR-α in C. pneumoniae-infected cells around the lipid cores in atherosclerotic plaques. In the cytoplasm of laser-capture microdissected cells that were immunopositive for C. pneumoniae, electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae. We conclude that LXR-α expression is reduced in C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions which supports the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection might suppress LXR expression in macrophages transforming into foam cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Identification of two novel genes encoding 97- to 99-kilodalton outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae.Infect Immun. 1999 Jan;67(1):375-83

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, K; Madsen, AS; Mygind, P

    1999-01-01

    Two genes encoding 97- to 99-kDa Chlamydia pneumoniae VR1310 outer membrane proteins (Omp4 and Omp5) with mutual similarity were cloned and sequenced. The proteins were shown to be constituents of the C. pneumoniae outer membrane complex, and the deduced amino acid sequences were similar to those...

  2. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-like Mycoplasma on the infection of HEp-2 cells by the TW-183 strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E A; Wadowsky, R M

    2000-02-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  3. Effect of a Mycoplasma hominis-Like Mycoplasma on the Infection of HEp-2 Cells by the TW-183 Strain of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Elias A.; Wadowsky, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    We isolated a Mycoplasma hominis-like mycoplasma from a stock culture of Chlamydia pneumoniae TW-183 obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and eradicated the contaminant by treating the stock suspension with a nonionic detergent, Igepal CA-630. The M. hominis-like mycoplasma neither inhibits nor enhances the infectivity of C. pneumoniae for HEp-2 cells.

  4. Quantificação morfométrica de Chlamydia pneumoniae e Mycoplasma pneumoniae em aneurismas de aorta abdominal humana Morphometrical quantification of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas José Tachotti Pires

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A inflamação aterosclerótica, com possível papel de agentes infecciosos, pode contribuir na patogênese dos aneurismas da aorta abdominal (AAA. O achado de Chamydia pneumoniae (CP nessas lesões, em estudos prévios, sem quantificação, variou de 0-100%. O objetivo é quantificar a presença de CP e de Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP nos AAA. MÉTODO: A espessura, o número de células positivas para CP detectadas por imunoperoxidase e a porcentagem de área ocupada por MP detectada por hibridização "in situ", nas três camadas da aorta, foram medidos com sistema de análise de imagens, em 10 aortas abdominais aneurismáticas. Usouse três grupos-controle: 1 amostras das mesmas aortas, fora do aneurisma, exceto se a dilatação tomasse toda a porção sub-renal da artéria (n=7; 2 aortas com aterosclerose grave, mas sem aneurismas (n=10; 3 aortas sem aterosclerose ou com grau leve da doença (n=10. Todos os espécimes foram obtidos em necropsias. Usou-se o teste de Wald para comparar os grupos; fixou-se o nível de significância em 5%. RESULTADOS: A íntima era mais fina e a média mais espessa nos casos normais que nos outros grupos (p0,05. Também se detectou MP em todos os grupos. Este agente predominou no grupo de pacientes com aterosclerose, mas sem aneurisma na íntima e na adventícia; entretanto, as diferenças entre os grupos não foram significativas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados sugerem que os agentes enfocados não têm papel importante na patogênese dos AAA.OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic inflammation, with a possible role of infectious agents, could contribute to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA. Finding of Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP in these lesions in previous, non-quantifying studies ranged from 0-100%. The objective is to quantify the presence of CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP in AAA. METHODS: Thickness, number of cells positive for CP by immunohistochemistry and percent area occupied by MP

  5. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis heat shock proteins in women with tubal factor infertility are associated with prior infection by C. trachomatis but not by C. pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, K; Osser, S; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    The antibody response to heat shock proteins 60 and 10 were studied in 163 patients with tubal factor infertility and in 163 age-matched pregnant women. The associations of these antibodies with specific antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis and to Chlamydia pneumoniae as well as with antibodies...... proteins and to C. trachomatis but no independent influence of antibodies to C. pneumoniae. No interaction between C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae suggesting a synergistic effect was found although the heat shock proteins from these two organisms are immunologically similar. Antibodies to the chlamydial...

  6. Pneumonia Atipikal

    OpenAIRE

    Budastra I Nyoman; Siadi Purniti Putu; Subanada Ida Bagus

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia atipikal adalah pneumonia yang disebabkan oleh mikroorganisme yang tidak dapat diidentifikasi dengan teknik diagnostik standar pneumonia pada umumnya dan tidak menunjukkan respon terhadap antibiotik b-laktam. Mikroorganisme patogen penyebab pneumonia atipikal pada umumnya adalah Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, dan Legionella pneumophila. Manifestasi klinik, pemeriksaan laboratorium dan radiologis pneumonia atipikal menunjukkan gambaran tidak spesifik. Man...

  7. Characterization of hypothetical proteins Cpn0146, 0147, 0284 & 0285 that are predicted to be in the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Kaiyang

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although more than 100 Chlamydia pneumoniae hypothetical proteins have been predicted to be inclusion membrane proteins, only a few have been experimentally demonstrated to be in the inclusion membrane. Using antibodies raised with fusion proteins, we characterized four such hypothetical proteins encoded by two gene clusters (Cpn0146-147 and Cpn0284-285 in the C. pneumoniae genome. Results Cpn0146 and 0147 were detected in the inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 and 0285 inside inclusion and mainly associated with reticulate bodies although all four proteins contain an N-terminal bi-lobed hydrophobic region, a signature motif assigned to inclusion membrane proteins. These four hypothetical proteins were only detected in cells infected with C. pneumoniae but not other chlamydial species, with Cpn0147 at 6 hours and Cpn0146, 0284 & 0285 at 24 hours after infection. Cpn0146 & 147 but not Cpn0284 and 285 co-localized with a host cell endoplasmic reticulum marker, a property known to be possessed by some chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins, when expressed in the host cell cytosol via transgenes. However, the endoplasmic reticulum localization of the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane proteins did not result in inhibition of the subsequent C. pneumoniae infection. Conclusion The hypothetical proteins Cpn0146 & 0147 were localized in the C. pneumoniae inclusion membrane while Cpn0284 & 0285 within the inclusion although all four were predicted to be Inc proteins, suggesting the need to experimentally characterize the predicted Inc proteins.

  8. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

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    Carrasco Jose A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183, providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. Results We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequenced C. pneumoniae koala genome and four C. pneumoniae human genomes to identify species-specific genes, and more importantly, to gain an insight into the genetic diversity and evolution of the species. We selected genes dispersed throughout the chromosome, representing genes that were specific to C. pneumoniae, genes with a demonstrated role in chlamydial biology and/or pathogenicity (n = 49, genes encoding nucleotide salvage or amino acid biosynthesis proteins (n = 6, and extrachromosomal elements (9 plasmid and 2 bacteriophage genes. Conclusions We have identified strain-specific differences and targets for detection of C. pneumoniae isolates from both human and animal origin. Such characterisation is necessary for an improved understanding of disease transmission and intervention.

  9. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Candice M; Hovis, Kelley M; Bavoil, Patrik M; Myers, Garry S A; Carrasco, Jose A; Timms, Peter

    2010-07-21

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species. We performed individual gene-by-gene comparisons of the recently sequenced C. pneumoniae koala genome and four C. pneumoniae human genomes to identify species-specific genes, and more importantly, to gain an insight into the genetic diversity and evolution of the species. We selected genes dispersed throughout the chromosome, representing genes that were specific to C. pneumoniae, genes with a demonstrated role in chlamydial biology and/or pathogenicity (n = 49), genes encoding nucleotide salvage or amino acid biosynthesis proteins (n = 6), and extrachromosomal elements (9 plasmid and 2 bacteriophage genes). We have identified strain-specific differences and targets for detection of C. pneumoniae isolates from both human and animal origin. Such characterisation is necessary for an improved understanding of disease transmission and intervention.

  10. Systems Biology Approaches for the Prediction of Possible Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae Proteins in the Etiology of Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahanavaj Khan

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has recently supported the association of bacterial infection with the growth and development of cancers, particularly in organs that are constantly exposed to bacteria such as the lungs, colon, cervical cancer etc. Our in silico study on the proteome of Chlamydia pneumoniae suggests an unprecedented idea of the etiology of lung cancer and have revealed that the infection of C. pneumoniae is associated with lung cancer development and growth. It is reasonable to assume that C. pneumoniae transports its proteins within host-intracellular organelles during infection, where they may work with host-cell proteome. The current study was performed for the prediction of nuclear targeting protein of C. pneumoniae in the host cell using bioinformatics predictors including ExPASy pI/Mw tool, nuclear localization signal (NLS mapper, balanced sub cellular localization predictor (BaCeILo, and Hum-mPLoc 2.0. We predicted 47/1112 nuclear-targeting proteins of C. pneumoniae connected with several possible alterations in host replication and transcription during intracellular infection. These nuclear-targeting proteins may direct to competitive interactions of host and C. pneumoniae proteins with the availability of same substrate and may be involved as etiological agents in the growth and development of lung cancer. These novel findings are expected to access in better understanding of lung cancer etiology and identifying molecular targets for therapy.

  11. No evidence of parvovirus B19, Chlamydia pneumoniae or human herpes virus infection in temporal artery biopsies in patients with giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tarp, B; Obel, N

    2002-01-01

    conditions. DNA was extracted from frozen biopsies and PCR was used to amplify genes from Chlamydia pneumoniae, parvovirus B19 and each of the eight human herpes viruses: herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus and human herpes viruses HHV-6, -7 and -8......OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested that infective agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), in particular Chlamydia pneumoniae and parvovirus B19. We investigated temporal arteries from patients with GCA for these infections as well as human herpes viruses....... RESULTS: In all 30 biopsies, PCR was negative for DNAs of parvovirus B19, each of the eight human herpes viruses and C. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of DNA from parvovirus B19, human herpes virus or C. pneumoniae in any of the temporal arteries. These agents do not seem to play a unique...

  12. Detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to Chlamydophila pneumoniae in pediatric community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections

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    Surinder Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae is an emerging infectious agent with a spectrum of clinical manifestations including lower and upper respiratory tract infections. Aims: To investigate the role of C. pneumoniae in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs in children using serological tests. Settings and Design: Two hundred children, age 2 months to 12 years, hospitalized for community-acquired LRTIs were investigated for C. pneumoniae etiology. Materials and Methods: We investigated 200 children hospitalized for community-acquired LRTIs, using ELISA for detecting anti-C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies. The demographic, clinical and radiological findings for C. pneumoniae antibody positive and C. pneumoniae antibody negative cases were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed by Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact tests using Epi Info (2002. Results: Clinical and radiological findings in both the groups were comparable. Serological evidence of C. pneumoniae infection was observed in 12 (6% patients; specific IgM antibodies were detected in 11 (91.67%; specific IgG antibodies in 1 (8.33% patients, while 4-fold rise in C. pneumoniae IgG antibody titers were noted in none of the patients. Conclusions: C. pneumoniae has a role in community-acquired LRTIs, even in children aged < 5 years. Serological detection using ELISA would enable pediatricians in better management of C. pneumoniae infections.

  13. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Larissa S; Almeida, Núbia Caroline C; Freitas Queiroz, Maria Alice; Zaninotto, Marcelo M; Fuzii, Hellen T; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Vallinoto, Antonio Cr; Ishak, Marluísa Og; Quaresma, Juarez As; Ishak, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae , which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ) markers in the vascular system tissues. Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women history of chronic coronary artery disease and the clinical history of the patients and cytokine dynamics in cardiac disease in the presence or absence of infectious agents.

  14. Molecular biology of Chlamydia pneumoniae surface proteins and their role in immunopathogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Boesen, Thomas; Hjernø, Karin

    1999-01-01

    present on the surface of the bacteria, we analyzed what components are present on the C pneumoniae surface. We identified a family of proteins, the GGAI or Omp4-15 proteins, of which at least 3 are present on the surface of C pneumoniae. We immunized rabbits with recombinant GGAI proteins and used...

  15. Construction of a highly flexible and comprehensive gene collection representing the ORFeome of the human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Christina J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn is the leading intracellular human pathogen responsible for respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. Basic and applied research in pathogen biology, especially the elaboration of new mechanism-based anti-pathogen strategies, target discovery and drug development, rely heavily on the availability of the entire set of pathogen open reading frames, the ORFeome. The ORFeome of Cpn will enable genome- and proteome-wide systematic analysis of Cpn, which will improve our understanding of the molecular networks and mechanisms underlying and governing its pathogenesis. Results Here we report the construction of a comprehensive gene collection covering 98.5% of the 1052 predicted and verified ORFs of Cpn (Chlamydia pneumoniae strain CWL029 in Gateway® ‘entry’ vectors. Based on genomic DNA isolated from the vascular chlamydial strain CV-6, we constructed an ORFeome library that contains 869 unique Gateway® entry clones (83% coverage and an additional 168 PCR-verified ‘pooled’ entry clones, reaching an overall coverage of ~98.5% of the predicted CWL029 ORFs. The high quality of the ORFeome library was verified by PCR-gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, and its functionality was demonstrated by expressing panels of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and by genome-wide protein interaction analysis for a test set of three Cpn virulence factors in a yeast 2-hybrid system. The ORFeome is available in different configurations of resource stocks, PCR-products, purified plasmid DNA, and living cultures of E. coli harboring the desired entry clone or pooled entry clones. All resources are available in 96-well microtiterplates. Conclusion This first ORFeome library for Cpn provides an essential new tool for this important pathogen. The high coverage of entry clones will enable a systems biology approach for Cpn or host–pathogen analysis. The high yield of

  16. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  17. Identification of Sphingomyelinase on the Surface of Chlamydia pneumoniae: Possible Role in the Entry into Its Host Cells

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    Tuula A. Peñate Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently suggested a novel mechanism, autoendocytosis, for the entry of certain microbes into their hosts, with a key role played by the sphingomyelinase-catalyzed topical conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide, the differences in the biophysical properties of these two lipids providing the driving force. The only requirement for such microbes to utilize this mechanism is that they should have a catalytically active SMase on their outer surface while the target cells should expose sphingomyelin in the external leaflet of their plasma membrane. In pursuit of possible microbial candidates, which could utilize this putative mechanism, we conducted a sequence similarity search for SMase. Because of the intriguing cellular and biochemical characteristics of the poorly understood entry of Chlamydia into its host cells these microbes were of particular interest. SMase activity was measured in vitro from isolated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies (EB and in the lysate from E. coli cells transfected with a plasmid expressing CPn0300 protein having sequence similarity to SMase. Finally, pretreatment of host cells with exogenous SMase resulting in loss plasma membrane sphingomyelin attenuated attachment of EB.

  18. A potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajonuma, Louis Chukwuemeka

    2010-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most common human infections that not only impact oral health but also are associated with adverse systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. Periodontal diseases is a chronic severe inflammatory process of the gingiva leading to the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, alveolar bone, and subsequently tooth loss due to bacteria infection. While it has been reported that several oral biofilm-forming bacteria might be involved, the role of C. pneumoniae infection in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease remains unknown. The present hypothesis proposes that C. pneumoniae is involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. This will lead to a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease, better treatment strategy and savings on total health care costs.

  19. Serological study of Bordetella Pertussis, Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Chlamydia Pneumonia in Iranian hajj pilgrims with prolonged cough illnesses: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Masoud; HosseiniB, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    Hajj pilgrimage is the biggest and longest mass gathering in the Muslim world. Annually, about 50% of more than 2.5 million pilgrims participating in this ritual get involved in severe devastating coughs. Most coughs continue, so the pilgrims turn back home and transmit them to family members and other people. Despite the high prevalence of coughs for many years, what causes them remains unknown. Considering the pertussis-like clinical picture of the so-called "hajj coughs", the researchers conducted a study to measure antibodies against three known common atypical bacteria, namely Bordetella Pertussis, Chlamydia Pneumonia and Mycoplasma Pneumonia. The study was done on three out of eleven groups of pilgrims from Yazd province, central Iran. The sample was selected randomly and consisted of 202 pilgrims who completed an informed consent. Their blood samples were taken, and the plasma was separated and then stored at -70 °C. After turning back from the journey, the pilgrims had their second blood samples taken. As many as 52 pilgrims failed to come for the second sampling, and two samples were broken during transportation. The final analysis was performed on the remaining 148 pairs of samples. Antibodies were already elevated in many pilgrims before the journey probably due to their old age (causing more exposure to pathogens) or unplanned pertussis vaccination. After their return, antibody elevation was only mild, again probably due to the old age of the participants (i.e. due to their weaker immune systems). Some antibodies even fell down without any known reason. In this study, previous hajj journey was assumed as a prophylactic factor, due to acquisition of immunity. Coughs with a prolonged pertussis-like picture were also presumed to be more related than other types of coughs to atypical pathogens. Statistical tests showed that the history of previous journeys had no prophylactic effect. Also, no correlation was found between the clinical pictures of coughs

  20. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedetti, Stefania; Bühl, Henrike; Gaballah, Ahmed; Klöckner, Anna; Otten, Christian; Schneider, Tanja; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Henrichfreise, Beate

    2014-01-01

    For intracellular Chlamydiaceae, there is no need to withstand osmotic challenges, and a functional cell wall has not been detected in these pathogens so far. Nevertheless, penicillin inhibits cell division in Chlamydiaceae resulting in enlarged aberrant bodies, a phenomenon known as chlamydial anomaly. D-alanine is a unique and essential component in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. In free-living bacteria like Escherichia coli, penicillin-binding proteins such as monofunctional transpeptidases PBP2 and PBP3, the putative targets of penicillin in Chlamydiaceae, cross-link adjacent peptidoglycan strands via meso-diaminopimelic acid and D-Ala-D-Ala moieties of pentapeptide side chains. In the absence of genes coding for alanine racemase Alr and DadX homologs, the source of D-Ala and thus the presence of substrates for PBP2 and PBP3 activity in Chlamydiaceae has puzzled researchers for years. Interestingly, Chlamydiaceae genomes encode GlyA, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase that has been shown to exhibit slow racemization of D- and L-alanine as a side reaction in E. coli. We show that GlyA from Chlamydia pneumoniae can serve as a source of D-Ala. GlyA partially reversed the D-Ala auxotrophic phenotype of an E. coli racemase double mutant. Moreover, purified chlamydial GlyA had racemase activity on L-Ala in vitro and was inhibited by D-cycloserine, identifying GlyA, besides D-Ala ligase MurC/Ddl, as an additional target of this competitive inhibitor in Chlamydiaceae. Proof of D-Ala biosynthesis in Chlamydiaceae helps to clarify the structure of cell wall precursor lipid II and the role of chlamydial penicillin-binding proteins in the development of non-dividing aberrant chlamydial bodies and persistence in the presence of penicillin.

  1. Characterization of serine hydroxymethyltransferase GlyA as a potential source of D-alanine in Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eDe Benedetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For intracellular Chlamydiaceae, there is no need to withstand osmotic challenges, and a functional cell wall has not been detected in these pathogens so far. Nevertheless, penicillin inhibits cell division in Chlamydiaceae resulting in enlarged aberrant bodies, a phenomenon known as chlamydial anomaly.D-alanine is a unique and essential component in the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls. In free-living bacteria like Escherichia coli, penicillin-binding proteins such as monofunctional transpeptidases PBP2 and PBP3, the putative targets of penicillin in Chlamydiaceae, cross-link adjacent peptidoglycan strands via meso-diaminopimelic acid and D-Ala-D-Ala moieties of pentapeptide side chains. In the absence of genes coding for alanine racemase Alr and DadX homologs, the source of D-Ala and thus the presence of substrates for PBP2 and PBP3 activity in Chlamydiaceae has puzzled researchers for years. Interestingly, Chlamydiaceae genomes encode GlyA, a serine hydroxymethyltransferase that has been shown to exhibit slow racemization of D- and L- alanine as a side reaction in E. coli. We show that GlyA from Chlamydia pneumoniae can serve as a source of D-Ala. GlyA partially reversed the D-Ala auxotrophic phenotype of an E. coli racemase double mutant. Moreover, purified chlamydial GlyA had racemase activity on L-Ala in vitro and was inhibited by D-cycloserine, identifying GlyA, besides D-Ala ligase MurC/Ddl, as an additional target of this competitive inhibitor in Chlamydiaceae. Proof of D-Ala biosynthesis in Chlamydiaceae helps to clarify the structure of cell wall precursor lipid II and the role of chlamydial penicillin-binding proteins in the development of non-dividing aberrant chlamydial bodies and persistence in the presence of penicillin.

  2. Genetic and infectious profiles influence cerebrospinal fluid IgG abnormality in Japanese multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshimura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abnormal intrathecal synthesis of IgG, reflected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF oligoclonal IgG bands (OBs and increased IgG index, is much less frequently observed in Japanese multiple sclerosis (MS cohorts compared with Western cohorts. We aimed to clarify whether genetic and common infectious backgrounds influence CSF IgG abnormality in Japanese MS patients. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed HLA-DRB1 alleles, and IgG antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA, and varicella zoster virus (VZV in 94 patients with MS and 367 unrelated healthy controls (HCs. We defined CSF IgG abnormality as the presence of CSF OBs and/or increased IgG index (>0.658. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CSF IgG abnormality was found in 59 of 94 (62.8% MS patients. CSF IgG abnormality-positive patients had a significantly higher frequency of brain MRI lesions meeting the Barkhof criteria compared with abnormality-negative patients. Compared with HCs, CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients showed a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 1501, whereas CSF IgG abnormality-negative patients had a significantly higher frequency of DRB1 0405. CSF IgG abnormality-positive MS patients had a significantly higher frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies compared with CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients, although there was no difference in the frequency of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies between HCs and total MS patients. Compared with HCs, anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies were detected significantly less frequently in the total MS patients, especially in CSF IgG abnormality-negative MS patients. The frequencies of antibodies against EBNA and VZV did not differ significantly among the groups. CONCLUSIONS: CSF IgG abnormality is associated with Western MS-like brain MRI features. DRB1 1501 and C. pneumoniae infection confer CSF IgG abnormality, while DRB1 0405 and H. pylori infection are positively and negatively

  3. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydia infections: proposal of a cost-effective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by genus Chlamydia are challenging for phisicians, as a results of a complicated pathogenesis and a variable clinical picture. Furthermore, potential sequelae following Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci infections are of clinical relevant interest. Serodiagnosis is a clue tool when the direct antigen research or the bacteria fragments detection is impaired. Some serological tests such as the ELISA or the indirect micro-immunofluorescence methods are routinely performed. To improve the diagnostic efficiency of these tests, a selective coating of specie-specific reactive antigens on microwells or on microscopic slides is proposed.A highly selective coating is essential to generate a specific immune response for each Chlamydia species and high levels of distinct IgA, IgG, IgM antibody classes.The goal of serology is the diagnostic value of results, therefore the correct choice of the best screening and confirmation test is of extreme relevance due to the clinical impact of results for the therapeutical approach and management of acute and chronic infections. In conclusion, a quantitative specific anti-Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody detection is a useful method to improve the follow up of complicated chronic clinical sequelae.

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae is genetically diverse in animals and appears to have crossed the host barrier to humans on (at least two occasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice M Mitchell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common human and animal pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases. Since the first isolation of C. pneumoniae TWAR in 1965, all human isolates have been essentially clonal, providing little evolutionary insight. To address this gap, we investigated the genetic diversity of 30 isolates from diverse geographical locations, from both human and animal origin (amphibian, reptilian, equine and marsupial. Based on the level of variation that we observed at 23 discreet gene loci, it was clearly evident that the animal isolates were more diverse than the isolates of human origin. Furthermore, we show that C. pneumoniae isolates could be grouped into five major genotypes, A-E, with A, B, D and E genotypes linked by geographical location, whereas genotype C was found across multiple continents. Our evidence strongly supports two separate animal-to-human cross species transfer events in the evolutionary history of this pathogen. The C. pneumoniae human genotype identified in the USA, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, Japan, Korea and Australia (non-Indigenous most likely originated from a single amphibian or reptilian lineage, which appears to have been previously geographically widespread. We identified a separate human lineage present in two Australian Indigenous isolates (independent geographical locations. This lineage is distinct and is present in Australian amphibians as well as a range of Australian marsupials.

  5. In situ detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and cytokines among cardiovascular diseased patients from the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas LS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larissa S Freitas,1 Núbia Caroline C Almeida,1 Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz,1 Marcelo M Zaninotto,2 Hellen T Fuzii,3 Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva,4 Antonio CR Vallinoto,1 Marluísa OG Ishak,1 Juarez AS Quaresma,3 Ricardo Ishak1 1Virus Laboratory, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Para, 2Hospital of Clinic Gaspar Viana, 3Laboratory of Immunopathology, Nucleus of Tropical Medicine, Federal University of Para, Belém, 4Departament of Pathology, Medical School of Ribeirão Preto, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Chronic coronary artery disease has been associated, as a consequence of the local inflammatory reaction with previous or persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, which led to the investigation of the association of cardiovascular disease and previous infection with C. trachomatis and the role of cytokine profile (in situ markers in the vascular system tissues. Methods: Sixty-nine biopsies were collected for immunohistochemical analysis for the presence of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and IL-10, in 16 fragments from atheromatous plaques, 32 aorta fragments, and 21 valve fragments, using a tissue microarray technique for paraffin embedded tissues. Results: Most patients undergoing revascularization surgery were men >50 years, while those undergoing valve replacement were mostly women <50 years. TNF-α was the most prevalent marker, detected in 91.7% (55/60 of the samples. The mean percent area stained was greater in patients infected with C. pneumoniae (3.81% vs 1.92%; p=0.0115 and specifically in the aorta (4.83% vs 2.25%; p=0.0025; C. trachomatis infection was higher in valves, and C. pneumoniae in plaques, both without statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the cytokine staining profile between patients previously infected with both species and uninfected patients. Conclusion: Although there was no difference in the cytokine profile between patients previously

  6. Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Liana Sousa [UNESP; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease with great morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the current guidelines recommendations the authors reviewed the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). In this paper will be presented data about etiology, clinics and diagnostic tools. © Copyright Moreira Jr. Editora.

  7. Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Liana Sousa [UNESP; Do Vale, Simone Alves [UNESP; Godoy, Irma de [UNESP; Tanni, Suzana Erico [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Pneumonia is an infectious disease with great morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the current guidelines recommendations the authors reviewed the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). In this paper will be also presented data about etiology, clinics and diagnostic tools. © Copyright Moreira Jr. Editora.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG seropositivity is associated with lower natural conception rates in ovulatory subfertile women without visible tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Land, J. A.; Opmeer, B. C.; Steures, P.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; van der Steeg, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and subsequent tubal damage is widely recognized. As such, C. trachomatis antibody (CAT) testing can be used to triage women for immediate tubal testing with hysterosalpingography (HSG) or laparoscopy. However, once invasive tubal testing has

  9. Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have received extra vaccinations and disease-preventing antibiotics to help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by bacteria. ... patients are hospitalized, treatment might include intravenous (IV) antibiotics ... Can I Help Myself Feel Better? If your doctor has prescribed ...

  10. The associaty of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Cytomegalovirus in the northern Persian Gulf population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdad Kayedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is not known whether infection by a specific pathogens is associated with type 2. We examined the association between chronic infection with four pathogens (Chlaydia pneumonia, Helicopacter pylori, Herpes simplex virus type 1 and cytomegalovirus and type 2 diabetes mellitus in a general Iranian population, in the northern Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods : In a population-based study of men and women aged >25 years, a random sample of 1754 (49.2 % males, 50.8 % females subjects were evaluated. Sera were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to C. pneumoniae, HSV-1, H. pylori, and CMV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was defined according to criteria of American Diabetes association. Results: A total of 150 (8.6% subjects had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the diabetic group, 42% were seropositive for C. pneumoniae, 64.7% for H. pylori, 92.9% for HSV-1 and 94.7% for CMV. In multiple logistic regression analyses, seropositivity for C.pneumoniae (OR=0.89, CI: 0.60-1.34, P=0.602, H. pylori(OR= 0.95, CI: 0.64-1.41, P= 0.808, HSV-1(OR= 1.76, CI: 0.86-3.62, P=0.120 ,CMV(OR=0.99, CI: 0.43-2.27, P=0.982 did not show a significant independent association with type 2 diabetes mellitus after adjustment for age, sex, chronic low-grade inflammation, and cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: There was not a strong association between type 2 dibetes mellitus and prior infection with viral and bacterial pathogens that had been previously correlated with coronary artery disease as well as carotid atherosclerosis.

  11. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Katir K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68% patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54% patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p p = 0.0001 tested positive for Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p = 0.0001. Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p = 0.0071 and p = 0.0001 respectively. Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p = 0.0001. Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia

  12. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue and estimation of prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue from a Danish population undergoing vascular repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholt Jes S

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date PCR detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic lesions from Danish patients has been unsuccessful. To establish whether non-detection was caused by a suboptimal DNA extraction method, we tested five different DNA extraction methods for purification of DNA from atherosclerotic tissue. Results The five different DNA extraction methods were tested on homogenate of atherosclerotic tissue spiked with C. pneumoniae DNA or EB, on pure C. pneumoniae DNA samples and on whole C. pneumoniae EB. Recovery of DNA was measured with a C. pneumoniae-specific quantitative real-time PCR. A DNA extraction method based on DNA-binding to spin columns with a silica-gel membrane (DNeasy Tissue kit showed the highest recovery rate for the tissue samples and pure DNA samples. However, an automated extraction method based on magnetic glass particles (MagNA Pure performed best on intact EB and atherosclerotic tissue spiked with EB. The DNeasy Tissue kit and MagNA Pure methods and the highly sensitive real-time PCR were subsequently used on 78 atherosclerotic tissue samples from Danish patients undergoing vascular repair. None of the samples were positive for C. pneumoniae DNA. The atherosclerotic samples were tested for inhibition by spiking with two different, known amounts of C. pneumoniae DNA and no samples showed inhibition. Conclusion As a highly sensitive PCR method and an optimised DNA extraction method were used, non-detection in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population was probably not caused by use of inappropriate methods. However, more samples may need to be analysed per patient to be completely certain on this. Possible methodological and epidemiological reasons for non-detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic tissue from the Danish population are discussed. Further testing of DNA extraction methods is needed as this study has shown considerable intra- and inter-method variation in DNA recovery.

  13. Detección de Chlamydia pneumoniae en tejido aórtico humano: amplificación del gen kdtA e hibridación in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Guzmán

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La ateroesclerosis es la principal causa de enfermedad coronaria y cerebrovascular, las cuales, a su vez, son las causas más comunes de mortalidad y morbilidad en el mundo occidental. Publicaciones recientes sugieren que ciertos microorganismos infecciosos podrían jugar un papel importante en la génesis y progresión de la aterosclerosis. De acuerdo con reportes seroepidemiológicos y de detección directa, Chlamydia pneumoniae podría ser el candidato más plausible. No obstante, no se ha determinado su papel específico en el proceso aterogénico, por lo cual en los últimos años ha surgido la necesidad de explorar diversas técnicas de detección de C. pneumoniae en arterias. Objetivo. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar la presencia de C. pneumoniae en muestras de tejido aórtico de catorce pacientes sometidos a cirugía de reemplazo aórtico, utilizando la amplificación del gen kdtA por PCR acoplada a un ensayo de hibridación in vitro. Materiales y métodos. De cada uno de catorce segmentos de aorta se obtuvo una muestra al azar para la extracción de ADN y la detección de C. pneumoniae por PCR-hibridación in vitro. Resultados. Doce (85,7% de catorce muestras de tejido de aorta resultaron positivas para C. pneumoniae. Conclusión. Los resultados encontrados en este estudio sugieren que la presencia de C. pneumoniae es frecuente en el tipo de muestras analizado. En estudios posteriores resultaría importante examinar si esta proporción se mantiene en una muestra poblacional mayor.

  14. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  15. Different presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii in schizophrenia: meta-analysis and analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Fernández J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available José Gutiérrez-Fernández,1 Juan de Dios Luna del Castillo,2 Sara Mañanes-González,1 José Antonio Carrillo-Ávila,1 Blanca Gutiérrez,3 Jorge A Cervilla,3 Antonio Sorlózano-Puerto1 1Department of Microbiology, 2Department of Statistics and Operation Research, 3Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Neurosciences and CIBERSAM, School of Medicine and Biohealth Research Institute (Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria IBS-Granada, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1 C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2 there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3 herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention. Keywords: meta-analysis, analytical study, Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, Toxoplasma gondii, schizophrenia

  16. Estandarización en Colombia de una prueba ELISA para la evaluación de los niveles séricos de anticuerpos IgG contra diez serotipos de Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Carolina Leal-Esteban

    2012-03-01

    Conclusión. Esta prueba ELISA cuantifica de forma confiable los niveles de IgG sérica contra diez serotipos de S. pneumoniae y, de acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en individuos sanos de nuestra población, en este trabajo se validan los parámetros internacionales para considerar adecuada la respuesta a la vacuna 23-valente contra este microorganismo.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i1.393

  17. Prevalence of chlamydia in patients attending gynecological clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the cultured samples 230 were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and 99 positive to Chlamydia pneumoniae. Statistical analysis using the student\\'s t test at 95% confidence interval shows that there was no significant difference between the number of females and males that presented themselves for screening.

  18. Effect of treatment for Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on markers of inflammation and cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes: South Thames Trial of Antibiotics in Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina (STAMINA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adam F M; Mendall, Michael A; Kaski, Juan-Carlos; Edger, Tracey M; Risley, Paul; Poloniecki, Jan; Camm, A John; Northfield, Timothy C

    2002-09-03

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with coronary heart disease. We conducted an intervention study using antibiotics against these bacteria in patients with acute coronary syndromes to determine whether antibiotics reduce inflammatory markers and adverse cardiac events. Patients (n=325) admitted with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina (acute coronary syndromes) were randomized to receive a 1-week course of 1 of 3 treatment regimens: (1) placebo; (2) amoxicillin (500 mg twice daily), metronidazole (400 mg twice daily), and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily); or (3) azithromycin (500 mg once daily), metronidazole (400 mg twice daily), and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily). Serum fibrinogen, white cell count, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at study entry and at 1, 3, and 12 months during follow-up. Cardiac death and readmission with acute coronary syndrome were considered clinical end points. Patients were followed for 1 year. C-reactive protein levels were reduced (P=0.03) in unstable angina patients receiving amoxicillin, and fibrinogen was reduced in both patient groups receiving antibiotics (P=0.06). There were 17 cardiac deaths and 71 readmissions with acute coronary syndrome. No difference in frequency or timing of end points was observed between the 2 antibiotic groups. At 12 weeks, there was a 36% reduction in all end points in patients receiving antibiotics compared with placebo (P=0.02). This reduction persisted during the 1-year follow-up. Neither C pneumoniae nor H pylori antibody status was significantly related to response to treatment. Antibiotic treatment significantly reduced adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes, but the effect was independent of H pylori or C pneumoniae seropositivity.

  19. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  20. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Chlamydia, ... and Syphilis FAQ071, December 2016 PDF Format Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What is a sexually ...

  1. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M

    1990-01-01

    .04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs......Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0...... of pneumonia. Even though chlamydia inclusions were detected in the lungs of 32 SIDS cases a causal relation between chlamydia infection and SIDS could not be demonstrated....

  2. Clinical and imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yongli; Peng Yun; Sun Guoqiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical and imaging features of chlamydial pneumonia in newborns. Methods: Medical records,chest X-Ray and CT findings of 17 neonates with chlamydia pneumonia were reviewed. The age was ranged from 9.0 to 28.0 days with mean of (16.8 ± 5.8) days. There were 11 males and 6 females. Sixteen were full term infants and one was born post term. All babies were examined with chest X-ray film, and 13 patients also underwent chest CT scan. Serologic test using immunofluorescence method for Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in all patients. Results: All newborns presented with cough but without fever. Positive results of the serologic tests were demonstrated. Chest films showed bilateral hyperventilation in 10 patients, diffuse reticular nodules in 10 patients including nodules mimicking military tuberculosis in 7 patients, and accompanying consolidation in 9 patients. CT features included interstitial reticular nodules in 13 patients with size, density, and distribution varied. Subpleural nodules (11 patients) and fusion of nodules (10 patients) predominated. Bilateral hyperinflation was found in 10 patients, which combined with infiltration in 12 patients, thickening of bronchovascular bundles in 10 patients, and ground glass sign in 5 patients. No pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy was detected in any patient. Conclusions: Bilateral hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial reticular nodules were the most common imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia. The main clinical characteristic of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia is respiratory symptoms without fever, which is helpful to its diagnosis. (authors)

  3. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Jolley, Keith A; Keijzers, Wendy C; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C J; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-12-02

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  4. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Pannekoek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  5. The use of serological titres of IgA and IgG in (early) discrimination between rectal infection with non-lymphogranuloma venereum and lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trochomotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van der Snoek (Eric); J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); H.B. Thio (Bing)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To investigate whether serological titres of species-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in patients with rectal chlamydial infection could discriminate between infection with serovar L2 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and infection with non-LGV serovars. Methods: A total of 39

  6. Atypical pathogens and challenges in community-acquired pneumonia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atypical organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are implicated in up to 40 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is empiric and includes coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. Doxycycline, a fluoroquinolone with ...

  7. Emerging role of Chlamydia and Chlamydia-like organisms in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Regan, Lesley; Greub, Gilbert

    2008-02-01

    This review considers the roles of Chlamydia spp. and newly identified Chlamydia-like organisms in miscarriage, stillbirths and preterm labour in both animals and humans. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used routinely to detect human pathogens could be the aetiological agents of these obstetrical conditions. There is growing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans and/or animals. Waddlia, a Chlamydia-like organism first isolated from an aborted bovine, has emerged as an agent of abortion in cattle. Recently, Waddlia was also implicated in human foetal death. Moreover, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is also abortigenic in ruminants. Whether additional novel Chlamydia-like organisms, such as Protochlamydia amoebophila, Neochlamydia hartmanellae, Criblamydia sequanensis, Rhabdochlamydia crassificans and Simkania negevensis, are involved in foetal loss or premature delivery remains to be determined. This review provides an update on the consequences of chlamydial infection during pregnancy and summarizes current evidence suggesting that some Chlamydia-related organisms are probably emerging obstetrical pathogens.

  8. Prevalence of chlamydia infection using chlamydia antigen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and Objectives: Tubal disease is often associated with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objective detection of this infection depends on tissue culture which is time consuming and expensive. Serologic techniques for chlamydia detection have been documented. While this may be rapid, ...

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  10. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-chlamydia em pacientes com síndrome metabólica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Riethmuller Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A síndrome metabólica está associada ao aumento de risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-Chlamydia têm sido relacionados ao desenvolvimento e à progressão da aterosclerose e dos eventos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores inflamatórios interleucina-6 (IL-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α e os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae em pacientes com síndrome metabólica (SM, com e sem eventos cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal constituído por 147 indivíduos. Desses, 100 (68% com SM e sem eventos cardiovasculares; e 47 (32% com SM e com eventos cardiovasculares. Dos indivíduos que sofreram eventos cardiovasculares, 13 (6,11% apresentam infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM, e dez (4,7%, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC. O diagnóstico da SM foi determinado pelos critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos sujeitos com eventos cardiovasculares foi de 61,26 ± 8,5 e de 59,32 ± 9,9 nos indivíduos sem esses eventos (p=0,279, havendo predomínio do sexo feminino. O grupo com SM e sem evento apresentou maior peso, altura, IMC e circunferência abdominal. Para os indivíduos com eventos cardiovasculares (p=0,001, os marcadores inflamatórios IL-6 e TNF-α e a doença vascular periférica foram significativamente maiores. Obtiveram-se níveis elevados de anticorpos IgG para Chlamydia pneumoniae no grupo SM, sem eventos e de IgA no grupo com eventos quando comparados os dois grupos. Com relação ao IAM e ao AVC, os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae não demonstraram significância estatística, comparados ao grupo sem eventos cardiovasculares. Associação foi observada com o uso de estatinas, hipoglicemiantes orais, injetáveis e anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais no grupo com esses eventos. CONCLUSÃO: Marcadores inflamatórios encontram-se significativamente elevados em pacientes com SM, com IAM e AVC. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia n

  11. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... fusion proteins constituting different regions of the protein were produced (Chlamydia pneumoniae-Omp2aa23-aa93, Chlamydia psittaci-Omp2aa23-aa94, and Chlamydia trachomatis-Omp2aa23-aa84, aa87-aa547, aa23-aa182, aa167-aa434, aa420-aa547). By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serologically defined...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  12. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  13. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... of chlamydia have not yet been found. The adhesin(s) is unknown, and no factor of importance for the inhibition of fusion between phagosome and host cell lysosomes has been described. A protein similar to the mip gene product of Legionella pneumofila may be a possible candidate for a pathogenicity factor...

  14. The radiological appearance of bacterial pneumonias and their differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.H.; Fabel, H.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1985-01-01

    Under the influence of antibiotic therapy, bacterial pneumonias have undergone a remarkable change in the last few decades. Individual forms of pneumonia can be distinguished morphologically by their localization, the way in which they spread, their limitations, and their course. Clinically, opportunistic bacterial infections predominate. Increasingly, secondary pneumonias are observed in poststenotic areas, areas of infarction, in hypostatic areas, after aspiration, and in previously damaged lobes. Radiologic criteria for differentiating from atypical pneumonias (viruses, mycoplasmas and chlamydia) are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Understanding Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Learn About Pneumonia Pneumonia is a common lung infection caused by ... vaccinated and practicing good health habits What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection in one or both ...

  16. Is there a relationship between Parkinson's disease and Chlamydia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The control group was selected from healthy people. In both groups, 5 mL of blood was taken and after centrifugation frozen at –80°C. Presence and concentration for C. pneumoniae IgM and IgG were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence (IFA), using C. pneumoniae IgG ...

  17. Sen debut af neonatal pneumoni forårsaget af Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte Johanne; Hermansen, Mette Nortman

    2013-01-01

    A newborn colonized with Chlamydia trachomatis will often show symptoms of conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. We report a case of interstitial pneumonia caused by C. trachomatis in a 2-month-old boy admitted with RSV. We point to the importance of C. trachomatis in the differential diagnostics...

  18. Activity of synthetic peptides against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Biondi, Roberta; Papa, Valentina; Borel, Nicole; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Magnino, Simone; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Levi, Aurora; Franco, Octavio L

    2017-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six synthetic peptides against 36 strains of Chlamydia from different origins was investigated. Clavanin MO (CMO) proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion number of all Chlamydia strains from eight different species tested by ≥50% at 10 µg mL -1 . Mastoparan L showed an equal activity against C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, and C. muridarum, but did not exert any inhibitory effect against C. psittaci, C. pecorum, C. abortus, and C. avium even at 80 µg mL -1 . These data suggest that CMO could be a promising compound in the prevention and treatment of chlamydial infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-chlamydia em pacientes com síndrome metabólica Marcadores inflamatorios y anticuerpos anti-chlamydia en pacientes con síndrome metabólico Inflammatory markers and antichlamydial antibodies in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosecler Riethmuller Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A síndrome metabólica está associada ao aumento de risco de eventos cardiovasculares. Marcadores inflamatórios e anticorpos anti-Chlamydia têm sido relacionados ao desenvolvimento e à progressão da aterosclerose e dos eventos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os marcadores inflamatórios interleucina-6 (IL-6 e fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α e os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae em pacientes com síndrome metabólica (SM, com e sem eventos cardiovasculares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal constituído por 147 indivíduos. Desses, 100 (68% com SM e sem eventos cardiovasculares; e 47 (32% com SM e com eventos cardiovasculares. Dos indivíduos que sofreram eventos cardiovasculares, 13 (6,11% apresentam infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM, e dez (4,7%, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC. O diagnóstico da SM foi determinado pelos critérios do NCEP-ATPIII. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos sujeitos com eventos cardiovasculares foi de 61,26 ± 8,5 e de 59,32 ± 9,9 nos indivíduos sem esses eventos (p=0,279, havendo predomínio do sexo feminino. O grupo com SM e sem evento apresentou maior peso, altura, IMC e circunferência abdominal. Para os indivíduos com eventos cardiovasculares (p=0,001, os marcadores inflamatórios IL-6 e TNF-α e a doença vascular periférica foram significativamente maiores. Obtiveram-se níveis elevados de anticorpos IgG para Chlamydia pneumoniae no grupo SM, sem eventos e de IgA no grupo com eventos quando comparados os dois grupos. Com relação ao IAM e ao AVC, os anticorpos anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae não demonstraram significância estatística, comparados ao grupo sem eventos cardiovasculares. Associação foi observada com o uso de estatinas, hipoglicemiantes orais, injetáveis e anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais no grupo com esses eventos. CONCLUSÃO: Marcadores inflamatórios encontram-se significativamente elevados em pacientes com SM, com IAM e AVC. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia n

  20. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  1. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other types of STIs. Most common STIs are: Gonorrhea HIV/AIDS Syphilis Hepatitis Herpes Even if you ... you from passing the STIs back and forth. Gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia. Therefore, treatment for gonorrhea ...

  2. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  3. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  4. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Only limited information is available on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in Africa. In a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the Seregenti National Park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. Chlamydial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from large ruminants (African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, n=4) and a large predator (spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, n=1). Microarray results revealed Chlamydia abortus in all cases, confirmed by sequencing of selected samples, and a mixed infection with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae in an African buffalo. This is the first report of Chlamydiaceae in African wildlife of the Serengeti area.

  5. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  6. Pneumonia Nosokomial

    OpenAIRE

    Keliat, E.N; Abidin, Alwinsyah; Lubis, Nursyamsiah

    2017-01-01

    Pada masa yang lalu pneumonia diklasifikasikan sebagai pneumonia tipikal yang disebabkan oleh Str. Pneumonia daan atipikal yang disebabkan kuman atipik seperti halnya M. pneumonia. Kemudian ternyata manifestasi dari patogen lain seperti H. influenza, S. aureus dan bakteri Gram negatif memberikan sindrom klinik yang identik dengan pneumonia oleh Str E.N Keliat

  7. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  8. Chlamydia infection across host species boundaries promotes distinct sets of transcribed anti-apoptotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMessinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae. The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the arms race of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases.

  9. In vitro activity of a partially purified and characterized bark extract of Castanea sativa Mill. (ENC®) against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Valentina; Ginocchietti, Laura; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Costa, Roberta; Biondi, Roberta; Cevenini, Roberto; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldini, Rita; Donati, Manuela; Pollini, Gian Matteo; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. abortus infectivity was achieved with a 10 µg/mL ENC® concentration, whereas their infectivity was almost inhibited at 100 µg/mL ENC® concentration.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  11. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Anja; Schöfl, Gerhard; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  12. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis.A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins.This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  13. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  14. Pneumonia (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ...

  15. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  17. Prevalência de anticorpos para chlamydia trachomatis em grupos populacionais do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de anticorpos IgG, grupo-específico para Chlamydia, em populações do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal foi determinada através do teste de imunofluorescência indireta, tendo-se como antígeno a cepa SA2 (f. Foram considerados positivos os soros com títulos de IgG >1:32. Dentre as populações brasileiras, a prevalência de anticorpos para Chlamydia foi maior em Serra Norte (76,2%, p < 0,01 do que nas das populações de Belém (53,6% e dos Índios Xicrins (51,3%. Entre os pacientes do Departamento de Medicina Genito-Urinária do University College Hospital (UCH e do quadro do mesmo Hospital, a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foi de 62% e 53,1%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foram detectados em 54% e 66% na Inglaterra e em 56% e 68% em Portugal, nas pacientes do sexo feminino que freqüentavam Clínicas de Pré-Natal e de Infertilidade, respectivamente, Os resultados encontrados mostram uma alta exposição das populações testadas, à Chlamydia, principalmente do grupo de baixo nível sócio-econômico de Serra Norte, Brasil. A evidência de infecção por Chlamydia é da mesma ordem, tanto no Brasil, quanto na Inglaterra e Portugal.

  18. Lycopene Inhibits Propagation of Chlamydia Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naylia A. Zigangirova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogenic bacteria with similar developmental cycles and cell biology responsible for a wide range of diseases in different hosts including genital and eye inflammatory diseases, arthritis, and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In the present paper, we report that lycopene, one of the main dietary carotenoids, which is present in tomato and some other fruits, has a strong inhibitory effect on C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infections in alveolar macrophages. This finding was documented by both immunofluorescence analysis and electron microscopy. It was noted that lycopene treatment inhibited intracellular phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle and resulted in a significant loss of infectious progeny. The antichlamydial effect of lycopene was also confirmed in a clinical setting. There was a significant reduction of IgG antibodies against C. pneumoniae in the serum of volunteers treated for a month with oral ingestion of 7 mg of lycopene. Additional studies are needed to further explore the antichlamydial activity of lycopene and its possible effect on C. pneumoniae in relation to antichlamydial activity of lycopene to mechanisms of atherosclerosis.

  19. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  20. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Pneumonia Pneumosistis

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Gustawan; BNP Arhana; Putu Siadi Purniti; IB Subanada; K Dewi Kumara Wati

    2016-01-01

    Pneumonia pnemosistis merupakan penyebab kesakitan yang serius dan kematian pada kasus gangguan sistem imun. Pneumonia pnemosistis merupakan infeksi oportunistik tersering pada kasus yang terinfeksi HIV, leukemia dan anak yang menerima transplantasi organ. Organisme penyebab adalah Pneumocystis carinii. Manifestasi klinis berupa gangguan pernapasan disertai penyakit dasarnya. Diagnosis pasti ditegakkan dengan ditemukannya organisme dalam pemeriksaan mikroskopis. Pengobatan secara ...

  3. IgG2 immunodeficiency: association to pediatric patients with bacterial meningoencephalitis Inmunodeficiencia de IgG2: asociación en pacientes pediátricos con meningoencefalitis bacterianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIOMARA ESCOBAR-PÉREZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An IgG subclass deficiency is often associated with bacterial infections. We studied four pediatric patients suffering from meningoencephalitis, two of them due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and two due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Simultaneous diagnostic serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken during income. The four subclasses of IgG and albumin were quantified in both biologic fluids by radial immunodiffusion. Very low levels of seric IgG2 with non detectable cerebrospinal fluid IgG2 were found in the patients. No intrathecal IgG subclass synthesis was found in two patients. One patient with S. pneumoniae had IgG3 intrathecal synthesis. Intrathecal IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 synthesis was found in one patient suffering from H. influenzae according with reibergrams. Substitutive therapy with intravenous gammaglobulin was given to the patients as part of the treatment.Las deficiencias por subclases de IgG se asocian frecuentemente con infecciones de origen bacteriano. Se estudian cuatro pacientes en edad pediátrica con meningoencefalitis, dos de ellos a Streptococcus pneumoniae y dos a Haemophilus influenzae tipo b. Se toman muestras simultáneas diagnósticas de suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo en el momento del ingreso. Se cuantificaron las cuatro sublclases de IgG y albúmina en ambos líquidos biológicos por inmunodifusión radial. Se encontró que los pacientes presentaban cifras muy disminuidas de IgG2 sérico y ningun exhibia IgG2 en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Dos pacientes no sintetizaron ninguna subclase de IgG intratecalmente. Un paciente con S. pneumoniae sintetizó IgG3 intratecal. Uno de los pacientes con meningoencefalitis a H. influenzae sintetizó IgG1, IgG3 e IgG4 intratecalmente de acuerdo com el reibergrama. Estos pacientes recibieron terapia substitutiva com gammaglobulina intravenosa como parte de la medicación.

  4. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick M; Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Livingstone, Morag; Wright, Frank; McLean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Smith, David G E; Longbottom, David

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps). While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D). Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae. This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  5. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick M Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps. While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D.Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae.This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  7. Chlamydia sequelae cost estimates used in current economic evaluations: does one-size-fit-all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Koh Jun; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Dunbar, J Kevin; Woodhall, Sarah C

    2017-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that chlamydia screening programmes can be cost-effective, conditional on assumptions within mathematical models. We explored differences in cost estimates used in published economic evaluations of chlamydia screening from seven countries (four papers each from UK and the Netherlands, two each from Sweden and Australia, and one each from Ireland, Canada and Denmark). From these studies, we extracted management cost estimates for seven major chlamydia sequelae. In order to compare the influence of different sequelae considered in each paper and their corresponding management costs on the total cost per case of untreated chlamydia, we applied reported unit sequelae management costs considered in each paper to a set of untreated infection to sequela progression probabilities. All costs were adjusted to 2013/2014 Great British Pound (GBP) values. Sequelae management costs ranged from £171 to £3635 (pelvic inflammatory disease); £953 to £3615 (ectopic pregnancy); £546 to £6752 (tubal factor infertility); £159 to £3341 (chronic pelvic pain); £22 to £1008 (epididymitis); £11 to £1459 (neonatal conjunctivitis) and £433 to £3992 (neonatal pneumonia). Total cost of sequelae per case of untreated chlamydia ranged from £37 to £412. There was substantial variation in cost per case of chlamydia sequelae used in published chlamydia screening economic evaluations, which likely arose from different assumptions about disease management pathways and the country perspectives taken. In light of this, when interpreting these studies, the reader should be satisfied that the cost estimates used sufficiently reflect the perspective taken and current disease management for their respective context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. IgG subclasses in previously healthy adult patients with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t Ccmparing mean values of 19G1, 19G2, JgG3 and IgG4 between the critically ill and. rlOfl-sevet1! groups of patiems. Combined cases. Pooling of data on all cases allowed comparison of the various parameters indicating severity of pneumonia and the. IgG subclass levels between survivors and non-survivors. The results ...

  9. Aspiration pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Pneumococci organism Bronchoscopy Lungs Respiratory system References Musher DM. Overview of pneumonia. In: Goldman L, Schafer ... University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  10. Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among 16 patients after kidney transplantation. Journal of clinical microbiology 2008;46:966-71. Pifer LL, Hughes WT, ... diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Clinical microbiology and infection 2013;19:39-49. CDC. Pneumocystis ...

  11. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia is caused by drinking or breathing in gasoline , kerosene , furniture polish , paint thinner, or other oily ... Arterial blood gas monitoring Breathing support, including oxygen, inhalation treatment, breathing tube and ventilator (machine), in severe ...

  12. Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Selçuk Bektaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system is the most affected area in mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with exception of respiratory system. It is an important agent of childhood acute encephalitis and respiratory system infections in school-age children and young adults. Routine clinical and laboratory findings to identify spesific diagnosis is limited. Twelve-year-old female patient was admitted with fever, fatigue, sore throat, slipping the right eye, withdrawal of the mouth from the right and right hemiclonic seizures. Test of anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae IgM was positive and IgG antibodies were found to be 4-fold increase in the sera of follow-up. This article was presented with the aim of remembering M. pneumoniae to be an differential diagnosis in children with acute encephalitis.

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae, systemic inflammation and the risk of venous thrombosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maraha, B.; Peeters, M.F.; Aken, B.E. van; Heijer, M. den

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are involved in activation of the coagulation system, and elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 are associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. Using serologic and molecular biologic tests, we investigated in a case-control study on patients with

  14. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ali, Musa K.; Batchoun, R. G.; Al-Nour, Tariq M.

    2006-01-01

    To ascertain the causative organisms of community acquired pneumonia (Cap) in Jordanian patients requiring hospital admission. A prospective study of both adults and children admitted to Princess Basma and Princess Rahma Teaching Hospitals in Irbid, Jordan with a diagnosis of CAP over a 6-month period from April to October 2002. A total of 35 adult patients were admitted with a mean age of 47 years, and 63 children with a mean age of 3 years. A pathogen was isolated from 25 (71%) adults, and from 17 (27%) children, and sputum cultures gave the best diagnostic yield. In adults Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common isolate (26%), followed by Chlamydia pneumoniae (23%), Haemophilus influenzae (17%), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (9%), and Legionella pneumophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6%) each. Seven of the 9 gram negative isolates were from patients with some co morbid illness. While in children, Chlamydia pneumoniae was the most common (14%), followed by Mycoplasma pneumoniae (6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3%) each. Streptococcus pneumoniae and atypical microorganisms are the most common cause of CAP in previously healthy adults; while in those with associated co morbid illness, gram negative organisms are the likely cause. In children, the overall detection rate of causative organisms was low with atypical microorganisms being the most common. (author)

  15. Chlamydia Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chlamydiatest.html Chlamydia Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chlamydia Test? Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually ...

  16. Analysis of ovine colostrum to detect antibody against progressive pneumonia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, T B; Banowetz, G M; Schipper, I A; Gabrielson, D A

    1982-01-01

    Immunoglobulins were isolated and purified from the colostrum and serum of progressive pneumonia virus infected sheep and also from non-infected control sheep. Four classes of immunoglobulins were isolated from sheep colostrum (IgG1, IgG2, IgA and Ig10s). Three classes of immunoglobulins were isolated from sheep serum (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM). Low levels of virus neutralizing activity were demonstrated only in the whole serum and purified serum IgG1 preparations. No complement fixing activity was...

  17. IgG4 Cholangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoh Zen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 cholangiopathy can involve any level of the biliary tree which exhibits sclerosing cholangitis or pseudotumorous hilar lesions. Most cases are associated with autoimmune pancreatitis, an important diagnostic clue. Without autoimmune pancreatitis, however, the diagnosis of IgG4-cholangiopathy is challenging. Indeed such cases have been treated surgically. IgG4-cholangiopathy should be diagnosed based on serological examinations including serum IgG4 concentrations, radiological features, and histological evidence of IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration. Steroid therapy is very effective even at disease relapse. A Th2-dominant immune response or the activation of regulatory T cells seems to be involved in the underlying immune reaction. It is still unknown why IgG4 levels are specifically elevated in patients with this disease. IgG4 might be secondarily overexpressed by Th2 or regulatory cytokines given the lack of evidence that IgG4 is an autoantibody.

  18. Multi Locus Sequence Typing of Chlamydia Reveals an Association between Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes and Host Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S. A.; Jolley, Keith A.; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity.

  19. Pneumonia necrotizante

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Coutinho; Nuno Príncipe

    2015-01-01

    A pneumonia adquirida na comunidade (PAC) é causa frequente de re-curso a Serviços de Urgência (SU), sendo a principal causa de sépsis em cuidados intensivos de adultos, com significativa morbi-mortalidade.1Uma das suas complicações, a pneumonia necrotizante, sendo rara, é grave e caracterizada por liquefação e necrose com cavitação do tecido pulmonar em áreas de consolidação parenquimatosa

  20. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally...

  1. From genomes to genotypes: molecular epidemiological analysis of Chlamydia gallinacea reveals a high level of genetic diversity for this newly emerging chlamydial pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Weina; Jelocnik, Martina; Li, Jing; Sachse, Konrad; Polkinghorne, Adam; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; You, Jinfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) gallinacea is a recently identified bacterium that mainly infects domestic chickens. Demonstration of C. gallinacea in human atypical pneumonia suggests its zoonotic potential. Its prevalence in chickens exceeds that of C. psittaci, but genetic and genomic research on C. gallinacea is

  2. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... in EU/EEA Member States • Ten EU/EEA Member States have conducted population-based cross-sectional surveys to measure the prevalence of chlamydia infection in a nationally representative sample of the population or in a subnational sample of the population. Fourteen EU/EEA Member States have conducted...... cross-sectional surveys using non-population-based sampling methods. Three EU/EEA Member States have no studies estimating chlamydia positivity or prevalence. • Estimates of chlamydia prevalence in population-based studies varied by country, sex, age group, national or sub-national coverage...

  3. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  4. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  9. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  10. Identification of Phylogenetic Position in the Chlamydiaceae Family for Chlamydia Strains Released from Monkeys and Humans with Chlamydial Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the comparative analysis concerning relatedness and evolutional difference of the 16S–23S nucleotide sequences of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain, and based on identification of phylogenetic position for Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trichomatis strains released from monkeys, relatedness of the above stated isolates with similar strains released from humans and with strains having nucleotide sequences presented in the GenBank electronic database has been detected for the first time ever. Position of these isolates in the Chlamydiaceae family phylogenetic tree has been identified. The evolutional position of the investigated original Chlamydia and Chlamydophila strains close to analogous strains from the Gen-Bank electronic database has been demonstrated. Differences in the 16S–23S nucleotide sequence of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain of plasmid and nonplasmid Chlamydia trachomatis strains released from humans and monkeys relative to different genotype groups (group B-B, Ba, D, Da, E, L1, L2, L2a; intermediate group-F, G, Ga have been revealed for the first time ever. Abnormality in incA chromosomal gene expression resulting in Chlamydia life development cycle disorder, and decrease of Chlamydia virulence can be related to probable changes in the nucleotide sequence of the gene under consideration

  11. Histopathologie der IgG4-RD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, S; Klöppel, G

    2016-01-01

    infiltrate, 2) storiform fibrosis and 3) obliterative phlebitis. The diagnosis is further supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of an increased infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio. The morphological criteria of IgG4-RD are in most cases detectable in biopsies...

  12. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingchuan; Cornell, Lynn D

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, increased IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and often tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Elevation of serum IgG4 often accompanies IgG4-RD; however, it is not specific in reaching the diagnosis. Like IgG4-RD in other organs, IgG4-TIN characteristically responds promptly to steroids, although there is a high relapse rate on discontinuation of immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not understood. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathogenicity of IgG in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Kuriyama, Katsutoshi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Tomono, Teruko; Morita, Toshihiro; Kakiuchi, Nobuyuki; Matsumori, Tomoaki; Mima, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Tatsuki; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Yamauchi, Yuki; Minami, Ryuki; Sakuma, Yojiro; Ota, Yuji; Maruno, Takahisa; Kurita, Akira; Sawai, Yugo; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Uza, Norimitsu; Matsumura, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Notohara, Kenji; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Seno, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterised by elevated serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the affected tissues. The pathogenic role of IgGs, including IgG4, in patients with IgG4-RD, however, is unknown. We examined the pathogenic activity of circulating IgGs in patients with IgG4-RD by injecting their IgGs into neonatal male Balb/c mice. Binding of patient IgGs to pancreatic tissue was also analysed in an ex vivo mouse organ culture model and in tissue samples from patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Subcutaneous injection of patient IgG, but not control IgG, resulted in pancreatic and salivary gland injuries. Pancreatic injury was also induced by injecting patient IgG1 or IgG4, with more destructive changes induced by IgG1 than by IgG4. The potent pathogenic activity of patient IgG1 was significantly inhibited by simultaneous injection of patient IgG4. Binding of patient IgG, especially IgG1 and IgG4, to pancreatic tissue was confirmed in both the mouse model and AIP tissue samples. IgG1 and IgG4 from patients with IgG4-RD have pathogenic activities through binding affected tissues in neonatal mice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. When is pneumonia not pneumonia?

    OpenAIRE

    Sasegbon, Ayodele

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man was admitted to hospital via the accident and emergency department with severe right-sided abdominal pain and raised inflammatory markers. His pain settled with analgaesia and he was discharged with a course of oral co-amoxiclav. He was readmitted to the hospital 7���days later reporting cough and shortness of breath. His chest X-ray showed a raised right hemi-diaphragm, presumed consolidation and a right-sided effusion. As a result, he was treated for pneumonia. Despite ant...

  15. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  16. IgG4-related lung disease presenting as interstitial lung disease with bronchiolitis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiu-Fan; Chu, Kuo-An; Tseng, Yen-Chiang; Wu, Chang-Che; Lai, Ruay-Sheng

    2017-12-01

    IgG4-related disease is a rare and novel disease entity that tends to involve multiple organs. The pulmonary manifestation of this disease is highly variable and may mimic lung cancer, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease (ILD), sarcoidosis, and so forth. Small airway disease is rarely reported in IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD). In the current study, we describe a rare case of IgG4-RLD with patterns of ILD and bronchiolitis. A 43-year-old man had chronic cough and dyspnea on exertion for 4 years. Initial chest radiography showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Follow-up chest computed tomography 4 years later revealed bilateral diffuse centrilobular nodules with tree-in-bud pattern, bronchial wall thickening, and mediastinal lymph nodes. Bilateral diffuse multifocal ground-glass opacities and mosaic attenuation were also observed. Pulmonary function test revealed mixed restrictive and obstructive ventilatory impairment. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Serum IgG4 level also showed remarkable elevation. Therefore, IgG4-RLD is confirmed. VATS wedge resection of right upper lobe and mediastinal lymph node. The patient responded well to steroid and immunosuppression therapy, and was regular followed-up in outpatient clinic. IgG4-RLD should be considered not only in ILD, but also in small airway disease. Serum IgG4 level may be a useful tool for screening.

  17. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Pneumonia KidsHealth / For Parents / Pneumonia What's in this article? ... the Doctor? Print en español Neumonía What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs . The ...

  18. The Seropositivity Rate of Atypical Agents in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhan Karakoc Gunes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the IgM antibody positivities of atypical pneumonia agents in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, and to compare the results with controls. The serum samples which were collected from 87 adult patients and 21 healthy controls have been investigated by a commercial ELISA (Pneumobact ELISA IgM, Vircell, Spain in which four different atypical pneumonia agents were fixed onto a slide. In the patients group, IgM positivity rates for the agents were as follows, respectively; 2.3% for Legionella pneumophila, 56.3% Chlamydia pneumoniae, 33.3% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9.2% for Coxiella burnetii. The rates of IgM positivities in the control group varied 7% for all of the agents except M. Pneumoniae and C. Pneumoniae and 2 of these controls were positive for L. Pneumophila IgM, one was positive for C. Burnetii IgM. According to the statistical evaluation, there were significant differences for IgM seropositivities to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia Pneumoniae,between the patient and the control groups (p0.05. We showed that the seropositivity rate of atypical agents in patients with CAP was significantly higher when compared to healthy control group. This result suggests us, atypical agents might be responsible in CAP patients in a great amount. Furthermore, our study also suggests that clinical and radiological findings are not useful for discriminating atypical from typical pneumonia. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 279-284

  19. Mycoplasmal pneumonia in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.; Lengerke, H.J. v.

    1987-10-01

    Roentgenographic findings of bilateral interstitial pneumonia without segmental consolidation and with regional lymphadenitis, which occurs after infancy, are always suggestive of pneumonia from Mycoplasma pneumoniae, as this is one of the most frequent types of pneumonia in children. M. pneumonia can be presumed by the discrepancy between the extensive roentgenographic findings and the generally good condition of the patient. Before therapy is decided upon it is important to know what the etiology is.

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. Analysis of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression in Cultured Cells Identifies PmpA and PmpH of Chlamydia psittaci as Candidate Factors in Pathogenesis and Immunity to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; De Vos, Winnok H; Huot Creasy, Heather; Marques, Patricia X; Ravel, Jacques; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bavoil, Patrik; Hsia, Ru-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) paralogous families of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus are putative targets for Chlamydia vaccine development. To determine whether this is also the case for Pmp family members of C. psittaci, we analyzed transcription levels, protein production and localization of several Pmps of C. psittaci. Pmp expression profiles were characterized using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) under normal and stress conditions. We found that PmpA was highly produced in all inclusions as early as 12 hpi in all biological replicates. In addition, PmpA and PmpH appeared to be unusually accessible to antibody as determined by both immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest an important role for these Pmps in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci, and make them promising candidates in vaccine development.

  6. IgG4-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Klöppel, Günter

    2018-01-01

    disease (IgG4-RD). The histologic key findings are lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells combined with storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Among the organs mainly affected by IgG4-RD are the pancreas and the extrahepatic bile ducts. The pancreatic and biliary...... alterations have been described under the terms autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and sclerosing cholangitis, respectively. These diseases are currently more precisely called IgG4-related pancreatitis (or type 1 AIP to distinguish it from type 2 AIP that is unrelated to IgG4-RD) and IgG4-related sclerosing...... cholangitis (IgG4-related SC). Clinically and grossly, both diseases commonly imitate pancreatic and biliary adenocarcinoma, tumors that are well known for their dismal prognosis. As IgG4-RD responds to steroid treatment, making a resection of a suspected tumor unnecessary, a biopsy is often required...

  7. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  8. The Netherlands Chlamydia cohort study (NECCST) protocol to assess the risk of late complications following Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Oeffelen, A A M; van Benthem, B H B; van Bergen, J E A M; Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M; Götz, H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Hogewoning, A A; van der Klis, F R M; van Baarle, D; Land, J A; van der Sande, M A B; van Veen, M G; de Vries, F; Morré, S A; van den Broek, I V F

    2017-04-11

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among young women, can result in serious sequelae. Although the course of infection is often asymptomatic, CT may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), leading to severe complications, such as prolonged time to pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor subfertility. The risk of and risk factors for complications following CT-infection have not been assessed in a long-term prospective cohort study, the preferred design to define infections and complications adequately. In the Netherlands Chlamydia Cohort Study (NECCST), a cohort of women of reproductive age with and without a history of CT-infection is followed over a minimum of ten years to investigate (CT-related) reproductive tract complications. This study is a follow-up of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI) study, executed between 2008 and 2011 in the Netherlands. For NECCST, female CSI participants who consented to be approached for follow-up studies (n = 14,685) are invited, and prospectively followed until 2022. Four data collection moments are foreseen every two consecutive years. Questionnaire data and blood samples for CT-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) measurement are obtained as well as host DNA to determine specific genetic biomarkers related to susceptibility and severity of infection. CT-history will be based on CSI test outcomes, self-reported infections and CT-IgG presence. Information on (time to) pregnancies and the potential long-term complications (i.e. PID, ectopic pregnancy and (tubal factor) subfertility), will be acquired by questionnaires. Reported subfertility will be verified in medical registers. Occurrence of these late complications and prolonged time to pregnancy, as a proxy for reduced fertility due to a previous CT-infection, or other risk factors, will be investigated using longitudinal statistical procedures. In the proposed study, the occurrence of late complications following

  9. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Langerak, Ankie A; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-02-28

    The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila), C. muridarum (Chlamydia) and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 - 500 base pairs) from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA) were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F). The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis resulted in a tree identical to that

  10. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  11. IgG4 breaking the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, Rob C.; Schuurman, Janine

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies have been known for some time to be functionally monovalent. Recently, the structural basis for this monovalency has been elucidated: the in vivo exchange of IgG half-molecules (one H-plus one L-chain) among IgG4. This process results in bispecific antibodies that

  12. Frequency of anti-Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in infertile women referred to Tabriz Al-Zahra hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Sattari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the major issues in society and its incidence is estimated to be almost 10-15%. Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis is an important cause of sexually transmitted diseases leading to infertility. Objective: This study was designed to determine the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies in infertile women at Al-zahra hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the blood samples were collected randomly from 184 infertile women (case group and 100 pregnant women (control group. The frequency of specific IgG and IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibodies were evaluated using ELISA method. Results: The frequency of IgG anti-C. trachomatis antibody in the control and case groups was 18% and 35.88%, respectively. IgM anti-C. trachomatis antibody was found in 2% of controls and 5.44% of infertile women. Our results showed the significant differences between the case and control groups in anti-C. trachomatis antibodies (IgG, p=0.035 and IgM, p=0.004. Also, no significant relation was seen between the frequency of anti-C. trachomatis antibodies and age, location, and tubal factor infertility in our two study groups. Conclusion: According to high frequency of antibody anti-C. trachomatis among infertile women in competition to the control group, evaluation and treatment of Chlamydia infections is necessary in these patients

  13. Recurrent meningitis in a child with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehapoglu, Aysel; Ozgurhan, Gamze; Demir, Aysegul Dogan; Uzuner, Selcuk; Nursoy, Mustafa Atilla; Turkmen, Serdar

    2014-08-01

    Recurrent meningitis is an uncommon life-threatening condition. Here, the case of a 6-year-old boy is reported who had two episodes of meningitis with an IgG3 subclass deficiency. The boy had aseptic meningitis at the age of 3 years, followed by bacterial meningitis at the age of 4 years. Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are a group of disorders associated with an increased incidence and/or severity of infection. Recurrent infections, sinusitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia are the most frequently observed illnesses in patients with IgG subclass deficiencies, of which an IgG3 subclass deficiency is the most common, especially in adults. Although cases of recurrent viral or bacterial meningitis have been reported, herein a patient is presented with recurrence of aseptic and bacterial meningitis 1 year after the initial episode. Some researchers recommend that all children with episodes of recurrent meningitis should be screened for primary immunoglobulin or complement deficiencies.

  14. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumocystis jiroveci can cause pneumonia in people whose immune system is not working well, especially people with advanced HIV infection. Viruses , such as the flu virus, are also a common cause of pneumonia. ...

  15. FastStats: Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utilization Therapeutic Drug Use Electronic Medical Records Health Expenditures Health Insurance Coverage Immunization Long Term Care Adult ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Pneumonia National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: Pneumonia National Institute of ...

  16. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  17. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  18. What Is Walking Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different from regular pneumonia? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Walking pneumonia is an informal term ... be treated with an antibiotic. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. Goldman L, et al., eds. Mycoplasma ...

  19. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

  20. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  1. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  2. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  3. Molecular evidence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection in reptiles in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2014-01-01

    In the central area of Argentina, the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections in reptiles are still unknown. A nested polymerase chain reaction of the rpoB gene was used to detect C. pneumoniae in cloacal swab samples from 19 reptiles at a recreational area. Eleven (57.89%) reptiles were positive; the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of this bacterium. Neither C. pneumoniae DNA in the caregivers pharynges nor IgM antibodies anti-C. pneumoniae in their serum samples were detected; however, caregivers presented very high titers of IgG anti-C. pneumoniae. The detection of C. pneumoniae DNA in reptiles demonstrated the circulation of this agent in the recreational area and could be responsible for the exacerbated immune response of the personnel handling the reptiles, which suggests a potential zoonotic cycle. This is the first report of the detection of C. pneumoniae in reptiles in Argentina. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cell elevation in orbital IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD): Potential use in IgG4-RD assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anita S Y; Mudhar, Hardeep; Shen, Sunny Yu; Lang, Stephanie S; Fernando, Malee; Hilmy, Maryam Hazly; Guppy, Naomi Jayne; Rennie, Ian; Dunkley, Lisa; Al Jajeh, Issam

    2017-11-01

    To determine the role of serum and tissue IgG2 in orbital biopsies with the histological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in comparison with non-IgG4-related orbital inflammatory disorders (OID), including autoimmune disorders. This is an international (Sheffield, UK, and Singapore) collaborative, retrospective case review of 69 patients (38 from Singapore National Eye Centre and 31 from Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) with orbital inflammatory biopsies between 2002 and 2016. Clinical information and histology were reviewed and cases were classified into three groups: Group 1: IgG4-RD orbital inflammation (n=43); Group 2: idiopathic OID (n=12) and Group 3: autoimmune OID (n=14). Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were collated where available and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for tissue IgG2 plasma cells was performed. Dual IHC showed IgG2 plasma cells as a distinct population from IgG4 plasma cells. Significant (twofold) serum IgG2 elevation was noted among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic (group 2) and autoimmune OID (group 3). Similarly, significant elevation of tissue IgG2 plasma cells was also seen among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic and autoimmune OID (groups 2 and 3). Significant elevations of serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cells are present in orbital IgG4-RD in comparison with non-IgG4 orbital inflammation (idiopathic and autoimmune OID), suggesting that IgG2 may play a role in IgG4-RD. A serum IgG2 cut-off >5.3 g/L was found to be 80% sensitive and 91.7% specific for orbital IgG4-RD, with an accuracy of 0.90. Tissue IgG2 and IgG4 subclass reporting may provide additional insight regarding the 'IgG4-RD' pathogenesis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...... association of gold particles with the periphery of the chlamydial body. After fixation of the chlamydia cells, the reactivity was, however, similar to the anti-MOMP reactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that MAb specific for LPS could remove LPS from the chlamydial membrane....

  6. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis.

  7. IgG4-related nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Roccatello, Dario

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disorder, often with multiple organ involvement, characterized by dense tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and frequently elevated serum IgG4 concentration. The kidney can be involved either directly or indirectly. The most frequent direct renal manifestations of IgG4-RD are IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and membranous glomerulonephropathy. Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is another condition that is frequently IgG4-related and that can indirectly affect the kidney causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography show different imaging findings and are useful tools for monitoring therapeutic response. Steroid treatment is the first line of therapy, but relapsing or refractory forms of the disease are frequently observed and require more aggressive therapeutic approaches. At our centre, we treated three cases of aggressive IgG4-related TIN and two cases of IgG4-related RPF with an intensified, immune suppressive protocol, obtaining good results without severe adverse effects.

  8. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru

    2016-08-01

    More men than women develop immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Age at clinical onset is significantly older in patients with IgG4-SC. Patients with IgG4-SC appear similar to those with cholangiocarcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The association between IgG4-SC and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is useful for the diagnosis of IgG4-SC. However, some IgG4-SC cases are isolated from AIP and are difficult to diagnose. The authors focus on three distinct features of IgG4-SC. First, diffuse inflammation induces a longer stenosis on cholangiography in contrast to the short stenosis of patients with PSC. Second, fibroinflammatory involvement is observed mainly in the stroma of the bile duct wall, whereas the bile duct epithelium is intact. Third, steroid therapy results in remarkable improvement. Although the prognosis of patients with IgG4-SC is good, some cases have developed portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis during their clinical course. Further study is needed to elucidate the long-term outcomes and mechanism of IgG4-SC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Antibody response to a major human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen in patients without evidence of immunosuppression and in patients with suspected atypical pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Lebech, M; Lind, K

    1993-01-01

    under evaluation due to atypical pneumonia, 76 patients showed no change in the titre of antibodies to Legionella spp. or Mycoplasma pneumoniae in two consecutive serum samples. Three of these 76 patients (4%) demonstrated an increase in the level of IgG antibodies to gp95 in the paired samples. One...

  10. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells in tissue diagnostic of IgG4-related disease. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio in tissues of 132 patients with IgG4-related disease and 48 patients with other disorders. Result. Serum IgG4 >135  mg/dl demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 79.6% in diagnosing IgG4-related disease, and serum IgG4/IgG ratios >8% had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 87.5%, respectively. IgG4+cell/IgG+ cell ratio in tissues >40% had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 85.7%, respectively. However, the number of IgG4+ cells was reduced in severely fibrotic parts of tissues. Conclusion. Although a recent unanimous consensus of all relevant researchers in Japan recently established the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease, findings such as ours indicate that further discussion is needed.

  11. C3b/iC3b deposition on Streptococcus pneumoniae is not affected by HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hyams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of infection in both HIV positive patients and those with complement deficiencies. We hypothesised that HIV positive individuals might exhibit reduced opsonisation of pneumococcus with complement due to reduced levels of S. pneumoniae specific IgG. We discovered no difference in C3 deposition on S. pneumoniae between HIV positive or negative individuals, and furthermore C3 deposition remained unchanged as HIV progressed towards AIDS. We found no correlation between C3 deposition on S. pneumoniae and CD4 cell count in HIV infected individuals. Hence we have demonstrated no failure of complement immunity in HIV positive patients.

  12. streptococcus pneumoniae , klebsiella pneumoniae proteus vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2-20mm) on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris when compared to the ... The result from this preliminary study suggests that the plant contains active compounds that .... Veterinary and Medical Laboratory Technology, Vom,. Jos.

  13. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  15. Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Herrmann, Björn; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s,

  16. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J.C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe. PMID:21029543

  17. IgG4-gerelateerde ziekte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J.; Doorenspleet, Marieke E.; Verheij, Joanne; de Vries, Niek; Beuers, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is often difficult to make. The clinical spectrum is diverse, with a variety of organ systems that may be affected simultaneously or sequentially. Patients often present with symptoms that mimic a malignant disease, for example, symptoms compatible with a

  18. IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzalla Cassione, Emanuele; Stone, John H

    2017-05-01

    Remarkable insights have been gleaned recently with regard to the pathophysiology of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). These findings have direct implications for the development of targeted strategies for the treatment of this condition. Oligoclonal expansions of cells of both the B and T lymphocyte lineages are present in the blood of patients with IgG4-RD. Oligoclonal expansions of plasmablasts are a good biomarker for disease activity. An oligoclonally expanded population of CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes is found not only in the peripheral blood but also at tissue sites of active disease. This cell elaborates cytokines that may drive the fibrosis characteristic of IgG4-RD. T follicular helper cells (Tfhc), particularly the Tfhc2 subset, appear to play a major role in driving the class switch to IgG4 that typifies this disease. The relationship between malignancy and IgG4-RD remains an area of interest. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD have proceeded swiftly, leading to the identification of a number of potential targeted treatment strategies. The completion of classification criteria for IgG4-RD, an effort supported jointly by the American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism, will further facilitate studies on this disease.

  19. IgG4 antibodies in Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskander, R.; Das, P. K.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins were determined in 40 Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis. In addition to the well-established elevation in total IgE, a striking imbalance in the IgG subclass levels was found: IgG3 and IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, whereas IgG2 levels were normal. The IgG4 level did

  20. Fibrosing organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Brooke; Rassl, Doris

    2013-10-01

    Organising pneumonia (otherwise referred to as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia) is characterised histologically by plugs of granulation tissue, which are present predominantly within small airways, alveolar ducts and peri-bronchiolar alveoli. This pattern is not specific for any disorder or cause, but is one type of inflammatory response to pulmonary injury, which may be seen in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Typically, organising pneumonia responds very well to corticosteroid treatment; however, a small percentage of patients appear to develop progressive fibrosis.

  1. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhang; Tongxi, Liu; Jie, Luo; Yujuan, Jiao; Wei, Jiang; Xia, Liu; Yumin, Zheng; Xin, Lu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the clinical, laboratory, imaging pathology, and prognosis features of IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis. We worked with a 55-year-old man suffering from IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis who had the most widespread lesion in his dura mater. We also review previous related studies and discuss the clinical characteristics of this rare disease. In total, eight IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis patients have been reported in the literature since 2009. They were mostly male patients, 51.7 ± 11.9 years old on average. Cervical and thoracic vertebrae were the most common sites for lesions. The most prominent symptom was varying numbness and weakness of the limbs and/or body associated with spinal cord compression. There was one patient (1/5) with elevated serum IgG4 levels and three patients (3/3) with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG4 index. Positive histopathologic findings are the strongest basis for a diagnosis. All the patients with IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis responded well to glucocorticoid therapy. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis is an orphan disease that mainly occurs in cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Older males are the most susceptible group. Serum IgG4 levels were consistently normal in these cases, so analysis of CSF for IgG4 production (IgG4 index) could become a useful tool. Pathological findings remain the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients responded favorably to glucocorticoid treatment.

  2. Human IgG4 binds to IgG4 and conformationally altered IgG1 via Fc-Fc interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; Ooievaar-de Heer, Pleuni; Vermeulen, Ellen; Schuurman, Janine; van der Neut Kolfschoten, Marijn; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fc fragment of IgG4 can interact with the Fc fragment of another IgG molecule. This interaction is a confounding factor when measuring IgG4 rheumatoid factor levels. Recently, we demonstrated that half-molecules of IgG4 can exchange to form a bispecific Ab. We expected these two phenomena to be

  3. Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > Pneumonia Pneumonia Symptoms, Causes, and Risk Factors Anyone can get ... risk for pneumonia. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Pneumonia symptoms can vary from mild to severe, ...

  4. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  5. Future of human Chlamydia vaccine: potential of self-adjuvanting biodegradable nanoparticles as safe vaccine delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rajnish; Verma, Richa; Dixit, Saurabh; Igietseme, Joseph U; Black, Carolyn M; Duncan, Skyla; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A

    2018-03-01

    There is a persisting global burden and considerable public health challenge by the plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases caused by members of the Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. The major diseases are conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, and interstitial pneumonia. The failures in screening and other prevention programs led to the current medical opinion that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is the best approach to protect humans from chlamydial infections. Unfortunately, there is no human Chlamydia vaccine despite successful veterinary vaccines. A major challenge has been the effective delivery of vaccine antigens to induce safe and effective immune effectors to confer long-term protective immunity. The dawn of the era of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and the adjuvanted derivatives may accelerate the realization of the dream of human vaccine in the foreseeable future. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current status of human chlamydial vaccine research, specifically the potential of biodegradable polymeric nanovaccines to provide efficacious Chlamydia vaccines in the near future. Expert commentary: The safety of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles-based experimental vaccines with or without adjuvants and the array of available chlamydial vaccine candidates would suggest that clinical trials in humans may be imminent. Also, the promising results from vaccine testing in animal models could lead to human vaccines against trachoma and reproductive diseases simultaneously.

  6. A novel synthetic peptide microarray assay detects Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Schnee, Christiane; Müller, Elke; Peisker, Madlen; Schumacher, Thomas; Schubert, Evelyn; Ruettger, Anke; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Ehricht, Ralf

    2018-03-16

    Serological analysis of Chlamydia (C.) spp. infections is still mainly based on micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA. To overcome the limitations of conventional serology, we have designed a novel microarray carrying 52 synthetic peptides representing B-cell epitopes from immunodominant proteins of all 11 chlamydial species. The new assay has been validated using monospecific mouse hyperimmune sera. Subsequently, serum samples from cattle, sheep and humans with a known history of chlamydial infection were examined. For instance, the specific humoral response of sheep to treatment with a C. abortus vaccine has been visualized against a background of C. pecorum carriership. In samples from humans, dual infection with C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae could be demonstrated. The experiments revealed that the peptide microarray assay was capable of simultaneously identifying specific antibodies to each Chlamydia spp. The actual assay represents an open platform test that can be complemented through future advances in Chlamydia proteome research. The concept of the highly parallel multi-antigen microarray proven in this study has the potential to enhance our understanding of antibody responses by defining not only a single quantitative response, but also the pattern of this response. The added value of using peptide antigens will consist in unprecedented serodiagnostic specificity.

  7. Free-living and captive turtles and tortoises as carriers of new Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitura, Agata; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Zaręba, Kinga; Zając, Magdalena; Laroucau, Karine; Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika

    2017-01-01

    A variety of Chlamydia species belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family have been reported in reptilian hosts but scarce data about their occurrence in turtles and tortoises are available. In this study, research was conducted to acquire information on invasive alien species (IAS) of turtles and indigenous turtles and tortoises, living both free and in captivity, as possible reservoirs of Chlamydiaceae. Analysis of specimens (pharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissues) from 204 turtles and tortoises revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 18.3% and 28.6% among free-living and captive animals respectively, with variable levels of shedding. Further testing conducted with a species-specific real-time PCR and microarray test was unsuccessful. Subsequently sequencing was applied to genotype the Chlamydiaceae-positive samples. Almost the full lengths of the 16S rRNA and ompA genes as well as the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS) and 23S rRNA domain I were obtained for 14, 20 and 8 specimens respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed two distinct branches. Group 1 (10 specimens), specific to freshwater turtles and reported here for the first time, was most closely related to Chlamydia (C.) pneumoniae strains and the newly described Candidatus C. sanzinia. Group 2 (four specimens), detected in Testudo spp. samples, showed highest homology to C. pecorum strains but formed a separate sub-branch. Finally, molecular analysis conducted on positive samples together with their geographical distribution in places distant from each other strongly suggest that Group 1 specimens correspond to a new species in the Chlamydiaceae family. In-depth studies of Chlamydia spp. from turtles and tortoises are needed to further characterise these atypical strains and address arising questions about their pathogenicity and zoonotic potential.

  8. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  9. Free-living and captive turtles and tortoises as carriers of new Chlamydia spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mitura

    Full Text Available A variety of Chlamydia species belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family have been reported in reptilian hosts but scarce data about their occurrence in turtles and tortoises are available. In this study, research was conducted to acquire information on invasive alien species (IAS of turtles and indigenous turtles and tortoises, living both free and in captivity, as possible reservoirs of Chlamydiaceae. Analysis of specimens (pharyngeal and cloacal swabs and tissues from 204 turtles and tortoises revealed an overall Chlamydiaceae prevalence of 18.3% and 28.6% among free-living and captive animals respectively, with variable levels of shedding. Further testing conducted with a species-specific real-time PCR and microarray test was unsuccessful. Subsequently sequencing was applied to genotype the Chlamydiaceae-positive samples. Almost the full lengths of the 16S rRNA and ompA genes as well as the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS and 23S rRNA domain I were obtained for 14, 20 and 8 specimens respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed two distinct branches. Group 1 (10 specimens, specific to freshwater turtles and reported here for the first time, was most closely related to Chlamydia (C. pneumoniae strains and the newly described Candidatus C. sanzinia. Group 2 (four specimens, detected in Testudo spp. samples, showed highest homology to C. pecorum strains but formed a separate sub-branch. Finally, molecular analysis conducted on positive samples together with their geographical distribution in places distant from each other strongly suggest that Group 1 specimens correspond to a new species in the Chlamydiaceae family. In-depth studies of Chlamydia spp. from turtles and tortoises are needed to further characterise these atypical strains and address arising questions about their pathogenicity and zoonotic potential.

  10. Secondary acute pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pathological changes, promoting the development of secondary pneumonias, are investigated. To this group belong: blood circulation disturbance in small circle, bronchial passability disturbance, aspiration of liquids, gases and vapors, infections and purulent processes, intoxications, injuries, operative interference. Roetgenologic symptomatics of each secondary acute pneumonia form is presented in detail

  11. What Is Pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pneumonia. Pulse oximetry. For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen is ... brain injury, swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs. Aspiration pneumonia can cause lung abscesses. ...

  12. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment.

  13. Detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia by multiplex Lightmix® RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karoline; Springer, Burkard; Imkamp, Frank; Opota, Onya; Greub, Gilbert; Keller, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Pneumonia is a severe infectious disease. In addition to common viruses and bacterial pathogens (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae), fastidious respiratory pathogens like Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella spp. can cause severe atypical pneumonia. They do not respond to penicillin derivatives, which may cause failure of antibiotic empirical therapy. The same applies for infections with B. pertussis and B. parapertussis, the cause of pertussis disease, that may present atypically and need to be treated with macrolides. Moreover, these fastidious bacteria are difficult to identify by culture or serology, and therefore often remain undetected. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia is crucial. We performed a retrospective method evaluation study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the new, commercially available Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay that detects these fastidious bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia. In this retrospective study, 368 clinical respiratory specimens, obtained from patients suffering from atypical pneumonia that have been tested negative for the presence of common agents of pneumonia by culture and viral PCR, were investigated. These clinical specimens have been previously characterized by singleplex RT-PCR assays in our diagnostic laboratory and were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the respiratory multiplex Lightmix ® RT-PCR. The multiplex RT-PCR displayed a limit of detection between 5 and 10 DNA copies for different in-panel organisms and showed identical performance characteristics with respect to specificity and sensitivity as in-house singleplex RT-PCRs for pathogen detection. The Lightmix ® multiplex RT-PCR assay represents a low-cost, time-saving and accurate diagnostic tool with high throughput potential. The time-to-result using an automated DNA extraction device for respiratory specimens followed by multiplex RT-PCR detection was

  14. Azithromycin, fluoroquinolone and chloramphenicol resistance of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria in rural community of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayeh Abera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine profiles of non-chlamydia conjunctival bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility from adults who underwent trachomatous trichiasis surgery in rural areas of Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural districts in West Gojjam administrative zone. Conjunctival swabs were collected during surgery and transported using Stuart transport broth (Oxoid, UK. Antibiotic susceptibility of conjunctival isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc-diffusion method. Results: Non-chlamydia pathogenic bacteria were recovered from conjunctiva of 438 (31% participants before treatment. The isolated conjunctival bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus group (A, C, F and G, Enterococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella spp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter spp. Overall, resistance rates of 57.8% to azithromycin and 68.5% to chloramphenicol were found. However, 86-94.4% sensitivity was demonstrated to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Moderate sensitivity rates (61.8-78.4% were observed to ceftriaxone, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones that have activity against the majority of bacterial isolates were potent at in vitro. However, unacceptably high levels of resistance to azithromycin and chloramphenicol in rural community indicated a need for further study and antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

  15. Brain biopsy for diagnosis of chlamydia encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Voznyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of encephalitis associated with chlamydia infection of central nervous system. The diagnostic protocol of the patient included: a careful observation of somatic and neurological status, laboratory tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, neurovisualization. The results of the diagnostic protocol suggest that laboratory tests blood and cerebrospinal fluid possess low sensitivity and specificity. The MRI study has revealed the localization and inflammatory character of the changes in brain tissue; it has also helped to choose the most favorable area for the stereotaxic biopsy. The obtained tissue was evaluated by means of light (immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. The active chlamydia infection was estimated. The subsequent antibacterial etiotropic therapy resulted in the regression of the neurologic symptoms and remission.The intravitalpathomorphology study of the brain could be recommended for the management of the severe encephalitis of the unknown origin. 

  16. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  18. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis immunoglobulin G3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z; Diamond, Michael P; Legro, Richard S; Schlaff, William D; Barnhart, Kurt T; Casson, Peter R; Christman, Gregory M; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R; Geisler, William M; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-12-01

    To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) seropositivity, as detected by the C. trachomatis elementary body (EB)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EB ELISA] predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Cohort study. Outpatient clinics. In all, 1,250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II; and the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations From Ovarian Stimulation. Sera were analyzed for anti-C. trachomatis immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG3 antibodies, using a research C. trachomatis EB ELISA. The optical density (OD)405 readings of ≥ 0.35 and ≥ 0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. A total of 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-C. trachomatis IgG3. They tended to be nonwhite and smokers. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (risk ratio [RR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of hysterosalpingography-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had a ×2.7 risk (95% CI 1.40-5.34) of ectopic pregnancy. Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is associated with a lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-C. trachomatis IgG3 seropositive women have as high as 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PPCOSII: NCT00719186 and AMIGOS: NCT01044862. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Pneumonia a Varicella zoster Varicella zoster pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ferreira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A varicela é uma doença infecto contagiosa comum na infância, ocorrendo pouco mais de 2% dos casos em adultos. Desde a década de 80 que a sua incidência nos adultos tem vindo a aumentar, dos quais apenas 7% são seronegativos¹. A pneumonia a Varicella zoster, se bem que rara, constitui a complicação mais grave e mais frequente no adulto. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico ilustrativo de pneumonia a Varicella zoster num adulto fumador e imunocompetente e fazem uma breve revisão teórica sobre o tema.Varicella (chickenpox is a common contagious infection of childhood, with fewer than 2% of the cases occurring in adults. Since the early 1980s the incidence of chickenpox in adults has been increasing and only 7% of them are seronegative for Varicella zoster antibodies. Pneumonia, although rare, is the most common and serious complication of chickenpox infection in adults. The authors present an illustrative case of varicella pneumonia in an immunocompetent adult with smoking habits and make a brief thematic review.

  1. Computed tomographic study on Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Koba, Hiroyuki; Mori, Takuji; Mori, Masaki; Tsunematsu, Kazunori; Natori, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Akira; Doi, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    Serologically proven 21 patients with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia that showed infiltrative shadows on chest radiograms were studied by computed tomography (CT). Localization of the lesion and the fashion of its progression through the lung were analyzed. Following 3 loci were defined on the basis of the investigations of critical analysis of the chest radiograms, and of radiopathological analysis of the experimental animal model of mycoplasmal pneumonia with soft X-ray image. I: Peribronchial and periarterial interstitium. II: Bronchiole and its surroundings. III: Lung parenchyma, on hilar area as IIIh, on marginal area as IIIm. Even in the early phase of this disease, radiopathological findings on CT have been distributed in all loci mentioned above. The Shadow disappeared from locus III approximately 14th day from the onset. The shadow have remained, however, loci I, II for a long period. Those findings suggest that locus I and II are one of the major focus of Mycoplasma neumoniae pneumonia. Volume loss in the locus III was observed 78 % of the cases at 28th day from the onset. The shadow on locus IIIh was more prominent than locus IIIm. Reported analytical method with CT could be widely applied to disclose a radiopathological details in other infectious diseases of the lung. (author)

  2. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of Chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M.E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...... chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results...

  3. A case of IgG4-related lung disease complicated by asymptomatic chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotetsu, Yasuaki; Ikegame, Satoshi; Takebe-Akazawa, Keiko; Koga, Takaomi; Okabayashi, Kan; Takata, Shohei

    2017-11-01

    IgG4-related disease is characterized by IgG4-positive plasmacyte infiltration into various organs, but its etiology is not unknown. To elucidate the etiology of IgG4-related disease. We experienced an interesting case of IgG4-related lung disease complicated by chronic EB virus infection. A 70-year-old male visited our hospital due to failure of pneumonia treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed consolidation in the right middle field and slight mediastinal lymphadenopathy in the subcarinal region. Lung consolidation improved with antibiotics; subcarinal lymphadenopathy progressed after 4 months. Malignant lymphoma was suspected given elevated sIL2-R levels (1862 U/mL). Patchy ground glass opacities appeared in the bilateral lung field just before surgical biopsy. He was diagnosed with IgG4-related lung disease after inspection of a pathological specimen obtained from the right upper lung and right hilar lymph node. EB virus-infected cells were also detected in the lymph node. Blood examination revealed EB virus viremia, but the patient did not present with symptoms or organ involvement. This led to a diagnosis of asymptomatic chronic EB virus infection. Recent studies have suggested an association between EB virus infection and IgG4-related diseases in the pathological exploration of surgically resected lymph nodes. Our case is the first case of IgG4-related lung disease in which EB virus infection was both pathologically and clinically proved. The present case is of particular interest in view of this newly reported association, and may serve as a fundamental report for future studies connecting EB virus infection with IgG4-related diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  5. The production of labelled gammaglobulin for the detection of chlamydia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.; Dimitrova, Zl.; Martinov, Sv.

    1981-01-01

    It was concluded that the main condition for the production of high titer labelled gammaglobulins was to obtain purified and concentrated Chlamydial antigens and use these with an adjuvant. To indicate Chlamydia in testing the conjugates it is essential to prepare standart test lamellas infected at high multiplicity of purified and concentrated Chlamydia. (authors)

  6. [Mycoplasma pneumoniae meningoencephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambonie, G; Sarran, N; Leboucq, N; Luc, F; Bongrand, A F; Slim, G; Lassus, P; Fournier-Favre, S; Montoya, F; Astruc, J; Rieu, D

    1999-03-01

    Severe central nervous system diseases, such as encephalitis, have been reported in association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. After an ENT infection, a 9-year-old boy with Down's syndrome developed encephalitis revealed by an acute alteration in consciousness. Head computed tomography showed, after 2 weeks, an infiltration in the basal ganglia region. The diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae encephalitis was made; recovery was complete in a few weeks. Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection should be considered in all cases of acute encephalopathy; yet the pathogenesis of the disorder is unknown and the treatment uncertain.

  7. Republished: Fibrosing organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Brooke; Rassl, Doris

    2014-08-01

    Organising pneumonia (otherwise referred to as bronchiolitis obliterans organising pneumonia) is characterised histologically by plugs of granulation tissue, which are present predominantly within small airways, alveolar ducts and peri-bronchiolar alveoli. This pattern is not specific for any disorder or cause, but is one type of inflammatory response to pulmonary injury, which may be seen in a wide variety of clinical conditions. Typically, organising pneumonia responds very well to corticosteroid treatment; however, a small percentage of patients appear to develop progressive fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Diagnosis and follow-up of genital chlamydial infection by direct methods and by detection of serum IgG, IgA and secretory IgA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresse A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a high-risk population by direct and indirect methods and to evaluate the diagnosis of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA. Patients and Methods: Urethral or endocervical specimens from 78 patients (48 females and 30 males were examined by cell culture, direct fluorescence assay, PCR Cobas Amplicor (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, and sIgA was detected by the recombinant lipopolysaccharide (LPS-enzyme-linked immunoassay (rELISA. Serum from each patient was also obtained and analysed for the presence of IgG and IgA antibody by in-house microimmunofluorescence (MIF and by the rELISA method (Medac, Hamburg, Germany. Results: The overall C. trachomatis prevalence determined by direct methods was 28%. The detection of sIgA antibodies was significantly higher in the group of patients with a positive direct detection (50% than in the group of negative direct detection (10.7%. The Chlamydia-specific IgA antibodies were detected by the rELISA in 40.9 and 53.6% of group I (positive direct detection and group II patients (negative direct detection, respectively. The species-specific IgA antibodies were detected by the MIF method in 18.2 and 16.1% of group I and II patients, respectively. Chlamydia genus-specific IgG antibodies were detected by the rELISA in 86.4 and 83.9% of group I and group II patients and, C. trachomatis specific IgG were present in 81.8 and 73.2% of group I and group II patients, respectively, as assessed by the MIF test. Conclusion: Combining the positive direct methods and/or positive sIgA antibody results from cervical or urethral specimens had an indication of current C. trachomatis infection.

  9. Immunochemical characteristics of IgG4 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Although a small part of the IgG4 subclass probably can bind to basophils (and mast cells), IgG4 antibodies usually do not behave as anaphylactic antibodies. Therefore, detection of IgG4 antibodies in serum is not a suitable in vitro assay for IgG-S-TS activity. Furthermore, differences between IgG4

  10. Bortezomib-Induced Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vandeix

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma patients. The most frequent side effects are gastrointestinal and neurological. Serious pulmonary complications have been described rarely. Observation. This case involves a 74-year-old man suffering from IgG Kappa myeloma treated with bortezomib, melphalan, and dexamethasone. After administering chemotherapy, the patient developed an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. A surgical pulmonary biopsy proved the existence of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP lesions. Systemic corticotherapy led to a rapid improvement in the patient’s condition. Conclusion. This is the first reported histologically confirmed case of bortezomid-induced BOOP. Faced with severe respiratory symptoms in the absence of other etiologies, complications due to bortezomid treatment should be evoked and corticotherapy considered.

  11. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  12. On the role of IgG4 in inflammatory conditions: lessons for IgG4-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trampert, David C.; Hubers, Lowiek M.; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and its most common manifestations, IgG4-associated (sclerosing) cholangitis and autoimmune pancreatitis, remains largely unknown, but IgG4 is presumably involved. IgG4 is a promiscuous antibody, which could be directly pathogenic,

  13. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  14. Pneumonia a Varicella zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ferreira Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A varicela é uma doença infecto contagiosa comum na infância, ocorrendo pouco mais de 2% dos casos em adultos. Desde a década de 80 que a sua incidência nos adultos tem vindo a aumentar, dos quais apenas 7% são seronegativos1. A pneumonia a Varicella zoster, se bem que rara, constitui a complicação mais grave e mais frequente no adulto.Os autores apresentam um caso clínico ilustrativo de pneumonia a Varicella zoster num adulto fumador e imunocompetente e fazem uma breve revisão teórica sobre o tema. Abstract: Varicella (chickenpox is a common contagious infection of childhood, with fewer than 2% of the cases occurring in adults. Since the early 1980s the incidence of chickenpox in adults has been increasing and only 7% of them are seronegative for Varicella zoster antibodies. Pneumonia, although rare, is the most common and serious complication of chickenpox infection in adults.The authors present an illustrative case of varicella pneumonia in an immunocompetent adult with smoking habits and make a brief thematic review. Palavras-chave: Varicela, pneumonia, ARDS, Key-words: Chickenpox, pneumonia, ARDS

  15. Cholangiocarcinoma with respect to IgG4 Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Harada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 reactions marked by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs occur in cancer patients and in patients with IgG4-related diseases. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas including gall bladder cancer are often accompanied by significant IgG4 reactions; these reactions show a negative correlation with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, suggesting that the evasion of immune surveillance is associated with cytotoxic T cells. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 may induce IgG4-positive plasma cell differentiation or promote B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4. Cholangiocarcinoma cells may function as nonprofessional antigen presenting cells that indirectly induce IgG4 reactions via the IL-10-producing cells and/or these may act as Foxp3-positive and IL-10-producing cells that directly induce IgG4 reactions. Moreover, IgG4-related disease is a high-risk factor for cancer development; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC cases associated with cholangiocarcinoma or its precursor lesion biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN have been reported. IgG4-positive cell infiltration is an important finding of IgG4-SC but is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-SC. For the diagnosis of IgG4-SC, its differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma remains important.

  16. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B M; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P; Roest, Hendrik I J

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  17. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; Goot, van der Jeanet A.; Fijten, Helmi; Giessen, van der Joke W.; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B.M.; Roon, van Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P.; Roest, Hendrik I.J.

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  18. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren

    2006-01-01

    that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  19. Histopathology of IgG4-Related Autoimmune Hepatitis and IgG4-Related Hepatopathy in IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanuma, Yasuni; Ishizu, Yoji; Zen, Yoh; Harada, Kenichi; Umemura, Takeji

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease involving many organs; it includes IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory pseudotumor in the hepatobiliary system. Two types of hepatic parenchymal involvement have been reported in IgG4-RD: IgG4-related autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and IgG4-hepatopathy. Moreover, only three cases of IgG4-related AIH have been reported. Immunoglobulin G4-related AIH is clinicopathologically similar to AIH, except for an elevated serum IgG4 level and heavy infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the liver tissue. Interestingly, IgG4-related AIH can be complicated by well-known IgG4-RD(s). Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy, which includes various histopathological lesions encountered in the liver of patients with type I autoimmune pancreatitis, is classified into five histological categories: portal inflammation, large bile duct damage, portal sclerosis, lobular hepatitis, and cholestasis. Immunoglobulin G4-hepatopathy is currently a collective term covering hepatic lesions primarily or secondarily related to IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis and type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the liver is not immune to IgG4-RD, and at least two types of hepatic involvement in IgG4-RD have been reported: IgG4-related AIH and IgG4-hepatopathy. Additional studies are required to clarify their precise clinical significance with respect to IgG4-RD and inherent liver diseases. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostaric-Zuckermann, Ivan C; Borel, Nicole; Kaiser, Carmen; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Pospischil, Andreas

    2011-09-09

    There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  1. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  2. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  3. Type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in old lymphogranuloma venerum determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, O.; Terho, P.; Sonck, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) using egg-grown purified Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serotypes L1, L2, and L3 as antigen was used to measure type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in sera of 36 patients who had contracted LGV infection about 40 years ago. The RIA test gave compatible results with the standard microimmunofluorescence test, and by RIA it was possible to identify the infecting serotype in 30 out of 36 patients studied. In 28 cases this was L2 and in two cases L1. Each patient had IgG antibodies and most of them (80%) IgA antibodies to at least one of the LGV serotypes. The antibody titers were still high 40 years after the acute infection, being higher than in male patients with a recent chlamydial urethritis. Highest antibody titers were detected in LGV patients who had a severe disease with intestinal involvement.

  4. Type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in old lymphogranuloma venerum determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, O.; Terho, P.; Sonck, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) using egg-grown purified Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serotypes L1, L2, and L3 as antigen was used to measure type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in sera of 36 patients who had contracted LGV infection about 40 years ago. The RIA test gave compatible results with the standard microimmunofluorescence test, and by RIA it was possible to identify the infecting serotype in 30 out of 36 patients studied. In 28 cases this was L2 and in two cases L1. Each patient had IgG antibodies and most of them (80%) IgA antibodies to at least one of the LGV serotypes. The antibody titers were still high 40 years after the acute infection, being higher than in male patients with a recent chlamydial urethritis. Highest antibody titers were detected in LGV patients who had a severe disease with intestinal involvement. (orig.)

  5. IgG4-related kidney disease – an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues such as sarcoidosis. The kidney is a frequently affected organ with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the representative lesion of IgG4-RD. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Recent findings A wide range of renal manifestations of IgG4-RD, that is TIN, membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) and other glomerular lesions, and pyelitis, are collectively referred to as IgG4-RKD. Clinically, decreased renal function, or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography or diffuse thickening of the renal pelvic wall, are typical presenting features. Although a rapid response to corticosteroid therapy is a very important feature of IgG4-TIN, in cases in which renal function is moderately to severely decreased before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. Summary TIN with characteristic imaging findings is a typical manifestation of IgG4-RKD in the interstitium, while MGN is a representative manifestation of the glomerular lesions. Although IgG4 is a central feature of IgG4-RD, the recent discovery of IgG4-negative IgG4-RD raises questions about the causative role of the IgG4 molecule in this context. PMID:25594543

  6. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J H; McDonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-12-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Streptoccocus pneumoniae. In adults, pneumonia can be broadly classified, on the basis of chest radiographic appearance, into lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia producing an interstitial pattern. Lobar pneumonia is most commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia, bronchopneumonia with hospital acquired infection and an interstitial pattern with the so called atypical pneumonias, which can be caused by viruses or organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Most cases of pneumonia can be managed with chest radiographs as the only form of imaging, but CT can detect pneumonia not visible on the chest radiograph and may be of value, particularly in the hospital setting. Complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion, empyema and lung abscess. The chest radiograph may initially indicate an effusion but ultrasound is more sensitive, allows characterisation in some cases and can guide catheter placement for drainage. CT can also be used to characterise and estimate the extent of pleural disease. Most lung abscesses respond to medical therapy, with surgery and image guided catheter drainage serving as options for those cases who do not respond.

  7. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  8. The added value of chlamydia screening between 2008-2010 in reaching young people in addition to chlamydia testing in regular care; an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liere, Geneviève; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole; van Bergen, Jan; Götz, Hannelore M.; Stals, Frans; Hoebe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission through annual testing and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in young people

  9. IgG4-Related Perineural Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Inoue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To elucidate characteristics of IgG4-related disease involving the peripheral nervous system. Methods. Retrospective review of 106 patients with IgG4-related disease identified 21 peripheral nerve lesions in 7 patients. Clinicopathological and radiological features were examined. Results. Peripheral nerve lesions were commonly identified in orbital or paravertebral area, involving orbital (=9, optic (=4, spinal (=7, and great auricular nerves (=1. The predominant radiological feature was a distinct perineural soft tissue mass, ranging 8 to 30 mm in diameter. Histologically, the epineurium was preferentially involved by massive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4+ plasma cells. All lesions were neurologically asymptomatic and steroid-responsive at the first presentation, but one recurrent lesion around the optic nerve caused failing vision. Conclusion. IgG4-related disease of the peripheral nervous system is characterized by orbital or paravertebral localization, perineural mass formation, and rare neurologic symptoms. The term “IgG4-related perineural disease” seems appropriate to describe this entity.

  10. [Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Solas, V; Pérez Benito, A; Domingo Puiggros, M; Larramona Carrera, H; Segura Porta, F; Fontanals Aymerich, D

    2002-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumonia is the most common bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. The reference standard for etiological diagnosis is isolation of S. pneumoniae from blood Since the advent of conjugate vaccines, disease caused by this organism can now be prevented. Many studies have been performed of the global incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections and of pneumococcal meningitis but few studies investigated bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and its complications in children. To determine the incidence, patient characteristics, clinical signs, laboratory data, percentage and days of hospitalization, response to antibiotic treatment, antibiotic resistance, complications and causal serogroups of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in our environment in order to estimate requirements for systematic vaccination programs. From January 1990 to May 2001, data on all pediatric cases of invasive pneumococcal infections diagnosed in our hospital were collected. Several characteristics of patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia were analyzed. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia was diagnosed in patients with positive blood or pleural fluid cultures for S. pneumoniae and radiographically evident pulmonary infiltrate. The incidence of both types of pneumonia were determined according to population census data. All S. pneumonia strains were sent to the Pneumococci Reference Laboratory of the Instituto Carlos III in Madrid for serotyping. We estimated the serotype coverage of the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine according to the serotypes included in this vaccine and their distribution. Forty cases of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia were diagnosed, yielding an incidence of 17,10 and 5 cases per 10(5) children aged less than 2, 4 and 15 years old respectively. The mean age was 50 months and 43% were aged less than 4 years. Peaks occurred in January, March, April and May. A total of 77.5% of the patients were admitted to hospital and the

  11. Corticosteroids for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Anat; Skalsky, Keren; Avni, Tomer; Carrara, Elena; Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2017-12-13

    Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials. We also searched three trials registers for ongoing and unpublished trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed systemic corticosteroid therapy, given as adjunct to antibiotic treatment, versus placebo or no corticosteroids for adults and children with pneumonia. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We estimated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and pooled data using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model when possible. We included 17 RCTs comprising a total of 2264 participants; 13 RCTs included 1954 adult participants, and four RCTs included 310 children. This update included 12 new studies, excluded one previously included study, and excluded five new trials. One trial awaits classification.All trials limited inclusion to inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with or without healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We assessed the risk of selection bias and attrition bias as low or unclear overall. We assessed performance bias risk as low for nine trials, unclear for one trial, and high for seven trials. We assessed reporting bias risk as low for three trials and high for the remaining 14 trials.Corticosteroids significantly reduced mortality in adults with severe pneumonia (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40 to 0

  12. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. Pediatric Round Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yen-Lin; Wu, Ping-Sheng; Tsai, Li-Ping; Tsai, Wen-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    “Round pneumonia” or “spherical pneumonia” is a well-characterized clinical entity that seems to be less addressed by pediatricians in Taiwan. We herein report the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with prolonged fever, cough, and chest X-rays showing a well-demarcated round mass measuring 5.9 × 5.6 × 4.3 cm in the left lower lung field, findings which were typical for round pneumonia. The urinary pneumococcal antigen test was positive, and serum anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody titer...

  14. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-19

    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  16. In vivo activities of Baicalin against Chlamydia trachomatis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Rasmussen et al., 1997). The infectivity of the chlamydia was expressed as the number of inclusion forming units. Baicalin (HPLC Content > 98.0%) from Chongqing Green Valley. Bio-tech Co. LTD. (Chongqing, China).

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  18. Influenza B pneumonia with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection associated with parvovirus B19 and concomitant agranulocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, S; Adams, I; Arnold, U; Kalinski, T; Aumann, V; König, W; König, B

    2003-10-01

    An 11-year-old patient with anamnestic fever for 3 days and signs of upper respiratory tract infection underwent fulminant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia with concomitant agranulocytosis. From autopsia influenza B virus and parvovirus B19 were detected by nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT). Specific IgG but no IgM points to preexisting parvovirus B19 infection. Whether in this case agranulocytosis can be interpreted as early manifestation of reactivated parvovirus B19 infection is under discussion. Therefore, parvovirus B19 could have provoked a foudroyant course of influenza B pneumonia which was superinfected with S. aureus.

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy in Chlamydia Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Peripheral neuropathy (PNP in urogenital chlamydia reactive arthritis (CRA is described as single observations, and many clinical and pathogenetic aspects of this lesion of the nervous system remain unclear. Objective of the study: to evaluate the incidence and nature of the clinical course of PNP in CRA, the connection of the nerve and joint injuries, to explore the questions of pathogenetic constructions of this neuropathy, to identify risk factors. Material and methods. We observed 101 patients with CRA, mean age of them was 32 years, disease duration — 4 years, and the male to female ratio — 1 : 1. In 90 % of CRA cases, Chlamydia trochamatis was found in prostatic secretions, in scraps from the urethra, the cervix, the vaginal wall, in 83 % — positive serologic tests for chlamydia infection. Results. Signs of PNP in CRA were in 19 % of patients in the ratio of mononeuropathy to polyneuropathy as 1 : 1, with motor, sensory and mixed disorders in a ratio of 1 : 3 : 6, the presence of autonomic changes in every second patient and more frequent distal localization of the process in the hands, which is influenced by the severity of the articular syndrome, high levels of antichlamydia antibodies in the blood, and the axonal and demyelinating indicators of electroneuromyography — by the severity of urogenital lesions and the presence of Guillain-Barre syndrome. A high rate of arthritis progression is a prognosis-negative sign of PNP course in patients with CRA. The pathogenic constructions of PNP involve the inflammatory immune proteins, disturbances of vascular endothelial function and physicochemical surface rheological pro­perties of the serum. Conclusion. PNP takes place in every fifth patient with CRA, correlates with clinical and laboratory signs of joint disease, and in the future will be useful to identify actively this pathology of the nervous system for the subsequent timely rehabilitation, and CRA

  20. Inflammasome activation in ruminant cells infected with Chlamydia abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Doull, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus is the most common known infectious cause of ovine abortion worldwide but is rarely linked with bovine abortion. The reasons for this differential pathogenesis are unknown but may involve differences in innate immune recognition and immune responsiveness. This is supported by the observation that chlamydial abortion in sheep is associated with an inflammatory cytokine/chemokine cascade that is not commonly observed in cattle. Studies with other Chlamydia speci...

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis’ struggle to keep its host alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Sixt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiae infect a diverse range of eukaryotic host species, including vertebrate animals, invertebrates, and even protozoa. Characteristics shared by all Chlamydiae include their obligate intracellular lifestyle and a biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form, the elementary body (EB, invades a host cell and differentiates into the replicative form, the reticulate body (RB, which proliferates within a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. After several rounds of division, RBs retro-differentiate into EBs that are then released to infect neighboring cells. The consequence of this obligatory transition between replicative and infectious forms inside cells is that Chlamydiae absolutely depend on the viability and functionality of their host cell throughout the entire infection cycle. We recently conducted a forward genetic screen in Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted human pathogen, and identified a mutant that caused premature death in the majority of infected host cells. We employed emerging genetic tools in Chlamydia to link this cytotoxicity to the loss of the protein CpoS (Chlamydia promoter of survival that normally localizes to the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole. CpoS-deficient bacteria also induced an exaggerated type-1 interferon response in infected cells, produced reduced numbers of infectious EBs in cell culture, and were cleared faster from the mouse genital tract in a transcervical infection model in vivo. The analysis of this CpoS-deficient mutant yielded unique insights into the nature of cell-autonomous defense responses against Chlamydia and highlighted the importance of Chlamydia-mediated control of host cell fate for the success of the pathogen.

  2. Chlamydial serum IgG, IgA and local IgA antibodies in patients with genital-tract infections measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terho, P.; Meurman, O.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) for IgG and IgA class antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was developed with C. trachomatis serotype L2 as antigen. The assay was sensitive, reproducible and correlated well with an immunofluorescence test (r = 0.85). Serum IgG antibodies were detected in 79% of Chlamydia isolation-positive versus 43% of isolation-negative male patients with urethritis and serum IgA antibodies in 53% and 21%, respectively. Urethral IgA antibodies, measured from specimens taken for chlamydial isolation, could be detected in 94% and 38%, respectively. From 737 male urethral and 909 female cervical secretions screened for the presence of IgA antibodies, about half were isolation and IgA negative. Only 4% (6/151) of male and 5.4% (2/37) of female isolation-positive specimens were IgA negative. The determination of local IgA antibodies may be used as a screening test in chlamydial genital infections. (author)

  3. Exogenous lipid pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, A.; Gavelli, G.; Zompatori, M.; Galleri, C.; Zanasi, A.; Fabbri, M.; Bazzocchi, F.

    1988-01-01

    Exogenous lipid pneumonia (ELP) is caused by the aspiration of animal, vegetal or, more often, mineral oils. Even though it may also be acute, ELP is most frequently a chronic disease, affecting people with predisposing factors, such as neuromuscular disorders, structural abnormalities and so on; very often exogenous lipid pneumonia is found in tracheotomized patients. The pathology of lipid pneumonia is a chronic inflammatory process evolving in foreign-body-like reaction, and eventually in ''end-stage lung'' condition. Clinically, most patients are asymptomatic; few cases only present with cough, dyspnea and chest pain. Eight cases of ELP, studied over the past 3 years, are described in this paper. All the patients were examined by chest radiographs and standard tomograms; 3 patients underwent CT. X-ray features were mono/bilateral consolidation of the lower zones, with air bronchogram and variable reduction in volume. CT density was not specific for fat tissue. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed at biopsy. In 5 patients, followed for at least one year, clinical-radiological features showed no change. Thus, complications of ELP (especially malignant evolution) could be excluded. The authors conclude that lipid pneumonia must be considered in differential diagnosis of patients with history of usage of oils and compatible X-ray findings. The usefulness of an accurate follow-up is stressed

  4. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based cohort study among adult patients with first-time Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (SPB) from 2000 through 2008. Patients were identified in a population-based bacteremia database and followed up for mortality through the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS...

  5. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Postabortal endometritis and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacci, M B; Spence, M R; Kappus, E W; Burkman, R C; Rao, L; Quinn, T C

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 505 unselected women presenting for induced abortion was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to determine if cervical isolation of C trachomatis before abortion increases the risk of postabortal endometritis. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody (slide) test with tissue culture for diagnosing C trachomatis infection also was evaluated in this population. C trachomatis was identified by culture in 89 patients (17.6%) and by direct slide test in 85 patients (16.8%). Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive for C trachomatis, with a significant correlation between C trachomatis infection and development of endometritis observed (P less than .05). These data suggest C trachomatis may play an important role in postabortal endometritis.

  7. IgG4-related Disease of the Genitourinary Tract

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    Mukul K. Divatia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently established albeit well recognized fibro-inflammatory condition with distinctive features including a characteristic histopathological appearance; a propensity to develop tumefactive lesions in multiple body sites; and oft elevated serum IgG4 levels. The consensus statement on IgG-4 RD equips practicing pathologists with a set of working guidelines for the diagnosis of pathologic lesions identified in a host of different organ system affected with this disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-RD requires the combined presence of the characteristic histopathological appearance and increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The essential histopathological features include a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. Tissue IgG4-positive plasma cell counts and IgG4: IgG ratios are significant ancillary aids in establishing the diagnosis. The spectrum of IgG4-RD continues to expand and involve multiple body sites. The genitourinary system comprising of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, prostate gland, testes and penis is one of the multiple organ systems to be affected by IgG4-RD. This review describes the clinical and histopathologic patterns of involvement of the genitourinary system by IgG4-RD, in association with serologic and radiological features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 3-18

  8. Inhibition of complement activation by IgG4 antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; van Swieten, P.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to antigens may result in high IgG4 antibody titres as was shown in a previous paper (Aalberse et al., 1983b). In novice bee keepers, a shift in the IgG1/IgG4 ratio of the response against phospholipase-A (PLA; a major component of bee venom) occurred. This resulted in an

  9. Impact of antiseptics on Chlamydia trachomatis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párducz, L; Eszik, I; Wagner, G; Burián, K; Endrész, V; Virok, D P

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a frequent dysbiosis, where the normal lactobacillus-dominated flora is replaced by an anaerob/aerob polymicrobial flora. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STI) including the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Intravaginal antiseptics are part of the bacterial vaginosis treatment, and ideally they should also inhibit the bacterial vaginosis-related STI. Therefore, we tested the antichlamydial activity of four antiseptics: iodine aqueous solution, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine and borax. First, we measured the impact of antiseptics on the viability of the HeLa cervical epithelial cells, and calculated the maximum nontoxic concentrations. Next, we infected the cells with C. trachomatis preincubated for 1 h with the particular antiseptic. The chlamydial growth was measured by direct quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the infected cells. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were 3·91 and 97 μg ml(-1) respectively; however, the MIC of chlorhexidine was close to its maximum nontoxic concentration. The iodine aqueous solution and the borax showed no antichlamydial activity. Our in vitro studies showed that chlorhexidine and particularly povidone-iodine are potentially able to limit the bacterial vaginosis-related C. trachomatis infection. We measured the antichlamydial effects of various antiseptics. These antiseptics are being used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, but their effect on the bacterial vaginosis-related sexually transmitted infections, particularly the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections has not been investigated. We showed that povidone-iodine (Betadine) inhibited the chlamydial growth in concentrations that was not toxic to the epithelial cells. We concluded that due to its additional antichlamydial effect, povidone-iodine could be a preferable antiseptic in bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  10. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Chlamydia trachomatis y anti-Neisseria gonorrhoeae en grupos de individuos de la población mexicana Prevalence of antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Mexican populations

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    María del Carmen Cravioto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis (CT y Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG en grupos de individuos con diferente riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal multicéntrico efectuado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, de la Ciudad de México, de enero de 1992 a diciembre de 1993, en el que se estudiaron 945 individuos en edad reproductiva, 585 mujeres y 360 hombres. Según su riesgo para infecciones de transmisión sexual se clasificaron en grupos de alto y bajo riesgo. Los de alto riesgo incluyeron mujeres infértiles con daño tubario, mujeres con embarazo ectópico o aborto, hombres infértiles, pacientes con VIH/SIDA, hombres homo o bisexuales y trabajadoras del sexo comercial (TSC. Los de bajo riesgo: mujeres primigestas, hombres fértiles y mujeres infértiles sin daño tubario. Se determinó en duplicado IgG e IgA anti-NG y anti-CT en suero, por análisis inmunoenzimático, utilizando como antígeno el pili de NG y la fracción L1 de CT. Se calcularon porcentajes. RESULTADOS: En mujeres la prevalencia para NG fue IgG 13.7% e IgA 14.3%, y para CT fue IgG 11.4% e IgA 4.4%. En hombres, NG 3.3% y 13.3%, respectivamente, y para CT 7.2% y 5.5%, respectivamente. En TSC se encontró NG en 31.2 % y 28.4%, respectivamente, y para CT 25.0% y 5.7%, respectivamente. En mujeres con infertilidad por daño tubario, NG 5.6% y 9.8%, respectivamente, y CT 8.4% y 1.4%, respectivamente. En 110 primigestas jóvenes, NG 4.5% y 10.0%, respectivamente, y CT 3.6% y 9.1%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Estos datos confirman la prevalencia elevada de Neisseria gonorrhoeae y Chlamydia trachomatis en trabajadoras del sexo comercial y en hombres homo/bisexuales, pero no en otros grupos de alto riesgo como las mujeres infértiles, con aborto o embarazo ectópico.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

  11. Asma y deficiencia de subclases de IgG Asthma and IgG subclases deficiency

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    Lucía Santamaría Ortiz

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudiaron 45 pacientes asmáticos adultos de difícil manejo, de más de 5 años de evolución, 37 de ellos esteroide dependientes y 8 no dependientes, con asma alérgica o intrínseca y algunos con Infecciones respiratorias recurrentes de predominio viral. Por nefelometría se midieron los niveles séricos de las IgsG, M y A, y por ELISA se determinó la IgE total. Se encontraron 4 pacientes con deficiencia de IgG total, en el grupo de los esteroide dependientes. Mediante ELISA tipo sandwich y con anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para las sub clases de IgG se investigaron los niveles sé ricos de IgG1, 2, 3 y 4. En el 55.6% de los enfermos se encontraron una O más deficiencias de sub clases. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos esteroide y no esteroide dependientes, ni entre los asmáticos alérgicos e intrínsecos, ni entre los con infección recurrente o sin ella. predominó la deficiencia de IgG1; en total el 46.7% de los pacientes tenían deficiencia aislada o combinada de IgG1, el 31.1% de IgG2, el 24.4% de IgG3 y el 17.8% de Igd4. La alta incidencia de deficiencia de sub clases podría deberse a la acción de los esteroides o a una alteración en la regulación de la síntesis de Igs producida por un defecto Inmune primario. Esta deficiencia sería la responsable del comportamiento agresivo de la enfermedad.

    We studied 45 adult asthmatic patients with difficult to care disease and who had more than five years of evolution; they suffered from elther allergic or intrinsic asthma and some had experienced recurrent respiratory tract infections. predominantly of viral etiology. Serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by nephelometry and total lgE was determined by an Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Total lg

  12. High seroprevalence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.

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    Chung-Hsu Lai

    Full Text Available Q fever is serologically cross-reactive with other intracellular microorganisms. However, studies of the serological status of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae during Q fever are rare. We conducted a retrospective serological study of M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, a method widely used in clinical practice, in 102 cases of acute Q fever, 39 cases of scrub typhus, and 14 cases of murine typhus. The seropositive (57.8%, 7.7%, and 0%, p<0.001 and seroconversion rates (50.6%, 8.8%, and 0%, p<0.001 of M. pneumoniae IgM, but not M. pneumoniae IgG and C. pneumoniae IgG/IgM, in acute Q fever were significantly higher than in scrub typhus and murine typhus. Another ELISA kit also revealed a high seropositivity (49.5% and seroconversion rate (33.3% of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever. The temporal and age distributions of patients with positive M. pneumoniae IgM were not typical of M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Comparing acute Q fever patients who were positive for M. pneumoniae IgM (59 cases with those who were negative (43 cases, the demographic characteristics and underlying diseases were not different. In addition, the clinical manifestations associated with atypical pneumonia, including headache (71.2% vs. 81.4%, p=0.255, sore throat (8.5% vs. 16.3%, p=0.351, cough (35.6% vs. 23.3%, p=0.199, and chest x-ray suggesting pneumonia (19.3% vs. 9.5%, p=0.258, were unchanged between the two groups. Clinicians should be aware of the high seroprevalence of M. pneumoniae IgM in acute Q fever, particularly with ELISA kits, which can lead to misdiagnosis, overestimations of the prevalence of M. pneumoniae pneumonia, and underestimations of the true prevalence of Q fever pneumonia.

  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

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    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age {>=}18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: CT features in 16 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Yoon, Hye-Kyung

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the computed tomography (CT) features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings of 16 patients (M:F=9:7, age range 1-74 years, median 9 years) with serologically proven Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and with chest CT scan available. Two distinctive patterns of CT features of M. pneumoniae pneumonia were noted between the paediatric (age <18 years) and the adult (age ≥18 years) groups. The pediatric group (n=11) showed lobar or segmental consolidation (100%) with frequent pleural effusion (82%) and regional lymphadenopathy (82%) and mild volume decrease of the involved lobe (73%), while four of the five adult patients showed diffuse and/or multifocal, centrilobular or peribronchovascular areas of ground-glass attenuation (80%) with a lobular distribution, and frequent thickening of interlobular septa (60%) and the bronchial walls (40%) were also detected at high-resolution CT. The CT finding of a lobar or segmental consolidation with a parapneumonic effusion seen in our children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia was similar to that of bacterial lobar pneumonia. In contrast, the CT findings noted in our adult patients consisted of a mixture of a bacterial bronchopneumonia pattern and a viral interstitial pneumonia pattern. (orig.)

  15. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  16. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in mother and child; the importance of a complete history and efficient interdisciplinary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, Jolanda C; Kleinhout, Mirjam Y

    2016-01-01

    General practitioners and paediatricians are frequently confronted with coughing infants. The age of the infant, the history of both mother and child, as well as the current maternal condition may provide important diagnostic information. A 4-week-old male infant was referred to the paediatrician with a persistent cough. He was admitted to hospital with dyspnoea and need for supplemental oxygen. Meanwhile, his mother was admitted with unexplained abdominal pain and elevated laboratory inflammation markers. Her history revealed an ectopic pregnancy. The infant's condition, for which the initial differential diagnosis was viral bronchiolitis or whooping cough, deteriorated. His medical history revealed a purulent conjunctivitis. Chlamydia trachomatis PCR turned out to be positive in both mother and child. C. trachomatis pneumonia is a common, yet often overlooked cause of cough in infants. This clinical lesson emphasises the importance of a complete history and efficient communication between medical specialists.

  17. Detection of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients with IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenqiong; Wu, Xuefen; Miao, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Bai, Lin; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but can also be observed in other diseases. This study aimed to compare two different testing methods for IgG4: ELISA and nephelometric assay. Both assays were used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations, and to assess the prevalence of high serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD diseases. Methods A total of 80 serum samples were tested using the nephelometric assay and ELISA method that we established. Serum IgG4 concentrations were determined by ELISA for 957 patients with distinct diseases, including 12 cases of IgG4-RD and 945 cases of non-IgG4-RD. Results IgG4 levels from 80 selected serum samples examined by ELISA were in agreement with those detected using the nephelometry assay. Meanwhile, the serum IgG4 concentrations measured by ELISA were also consistent with the clinical diagnoses of patients with IgG4-RD during the course of disease. The Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35 g/L) were detected in all IgG4-RD (12/12) patients, and the prevalence of high IgG4 serum levels was 3.39% in non-IgG4-RD cases. Among them, the positive rates of serum IgG4 were 2.06% in patients with carcinoma and 6.3% in patients with other non-IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Conclusion Our established ELISA method is a reliable and convenient technique, which could be extensively used in the clinic to measure serum IgG4 levels. High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, this phenomenon could also be observed in other diseases, such as carcinomas and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease cannot only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels. PMID:25885536

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in free-ranging white yaks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is gram-negative obligate bacteria which causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. To date, there are a few reports about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in yaks in the world. In this study, 974 blood samples were collected from white yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwest China from June 2013 to April 2014. Results Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus wer...

  19. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

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    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  20. IgG4-Related Disease of Bilateral Temporal Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lilun; Ward, Bryan; Cocks, Margaret; Kheradmand, Amir; Francis, Howard W

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that causes pseudotumor formation in single or multiple organs, including those of the head and neck. Temporal bone involvement is rare, with only 3 cases of unilateral temporal bone IgG4-RD described in the literature. We report the first known case of IgG4-RD of bilateral temporal bones and describe its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. The patient was a 52-year-old man with latent tuberculosis (TB) who presented with a 10-year history of bilateral profound hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral labyrinthine destruction with invasion of the posterior fossa. Immunoglobulin level testing showed elevated total serum IgG levels with normal IgG4 levels. Bilateral mastoidectomies were performed, with biopsy samples demonstrating IgG4 staining with IgG4-positive plasma cells up to 40/HPF (high power field) on the right and 20/HPF on the left, consistent with bilateral IgG4-RD. IgG4-RD of bilateral temporal bones presents with chronic and progressive bilateral hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Clinical presentation and radiologic findings are nonspecific, and definitive diagnosis must be made with histopathology and immunostaining. Corticosteroids are therapeutic, but surgical resection may be necessary for temporal bone IgG4-RD to improve long-term remission.

  1. IgG4 Aortitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marketkar, Shivali; LeGolvan, Mark

    2017-04-03

    IgG4 aortitis is one of the entities seen in the spectrum of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). It is characterized by serologic (elevated serum IgG4) and histologic features including a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Some studies have described a correlation between infections and IgG4 aortitis. We describe a patient with an aneurysm of the infrarenal descending abdominal aorta with features of IgG4-RD, as well as culture evidence of Streptococcus sanguis. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-04.asp].

  2. IgG4-related disease in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Annick A J M; Seidl, Maximilian; Drendel, Vanessa; Schmitt-Graeff, Annette; Voll, Reinhard E; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Warnatz, Klaus; Kollert, Florian

    2017-07-01

    A patient with autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder (ALPS) developed IgG4-related disease. In retrospect, he had high levels of serum IgG4 for several years prior to presenting with IgG4-related pancreatitis. These high IgG4 levels were masked by hypergammaglobulinemia, a common feature of ALPS. We next screened 18 ALPS patients; four of them displayed increased levels of IgG4. Hence, IgG4-related disease should be considered in ALPS patients, especially in those manifesting lymphocytic organ infiltration or excessive hypergammaglobulinaemia. Screening of IgG4-related disease patients for ALPS-associated mutations would provide further information on whether this disease could be a late-onset atypical presentation of ALPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae Invasive Syndrome

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    Vasco Evangelista

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae invasive syndrome (KPIS is a rare clinical condition characterized by primary liver abscess associated with metastatic infection. Most case reports are from Southeast Asia, with only one case described in Portugal. The Authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with a history of fever, dry cough and cervicalgia. A thoracic computed tomography (CT scan showed multiple pulmonary and hepatic nodules, suggestive of metastatic malignancy. Both blood cultures and bronchoalveolar lavage were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Imaging studies were repeated during his hospital stay, showing a reduction in both number and volume of identified lesions, thus revealing their infectious nature. This case illustrates how much this entity can mimic other illnesses.

  4. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  5. [IgG4 immunohistochemistry in Riedle thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Luo, Y F; Cao, J L; Zhang, H; Shi, X H; Liang, Z Y; Feng, R E

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To observe the histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of IgG4 in Riedle thyroiditis (RT) and to study the relationship between RT and IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). Methods: A total of 5 RT patients were collected from the Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during April 2012 to August 2014. The clinical and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in the 5 patients. Histopathologic analysis was performed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Results: There were one male and four female patients, aged 52 to 78 years (median 59 years). Five cases were characterized by multiple nodules of thyroid, which increased year by year. All patients were found to have surrounding tissue compression symptoms and signs. Two female patients were found to have hypothyroidism. The serum concentration of IgG was elevated in 2 cases, and the serum concentration of IgG was not tested before operation in the remaining patients. By ultrasound, all presented as low echo or medium low echo. Strong echo occasionally appeared in hypoechoic nodules. Microscopically, fibrous tissue hyperplasia was infiltrated with varying numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The occlusion of phlebitis was found in 4 cases and eosinophils were found in 3 cases. IgG4 counts and IgG4/IgG ratios in 5 cases were 20/HPF, 16%; 60/HPF, 82%; 22/HPF, 28%; 400/HPF, 266% and 33/HPF, 71%, respectively. Conclusions: With the similar pathological manifestations between RT and IgG4-RD, immunohistochemical staining shows that the number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio of RT are increased in varying degrees. Some cases meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, and speculate that some cases of RT belong to IgG4-RD.

  6. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  7. Pneumonia in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Dysuria in the Emergency Department: Missed Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan D. Wilbanks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical presentation of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in women is often indistinguishable from a urinary tract infection. While merited in the setting of dysuria, emergency department (ED clinicians do not routinely test for chlamydia in women. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydia testing among women presenting to the ED with dysuria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women 19-25 years of age presenting with dysuria to an urban ED and who had been coded with urinary tract infection (UTI as their primary diagnosis (ICD-9 599.0 from October 2005 to March 2011. We excluded women who were pregnant, had underlying anatomical or neurological urinary system pathology, had continuation of symptoms from UTI or a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosed elsewhere, or were already on antibiotics for a UTI or STI. We identified the rates of sexual history screening, pelvic examination and chlamydia assay testing and evaluated predictors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 280 women with dysuria and a UTI diagnosis, 17% were asked about their sexual history, with 94% reporting recent sexual activity. Pelvic examination was performed in 23%. We were unable to determine the overall chlamydia prevalence as only 20% of women in the cohort were tested. Among the 20% of women tested for chlamydia infection, 21% tested positive. Only 42% of chlamydia-positive women were prescribed treatment effective for chlamydia (azithromycin or doxycycline at their visit; the remaining were prescribed UTI treatment not effective against chlamydia. Predictors of sexual history screening included vaginal bleeding (OR 5.4, 95% CI=1.5 to 19.6 and discharge (OR 2.8, 95% CI=1.1 to 6.9. Predictors of a pelvic examination being performed included having a complaint of vaginal discharge (OR 11.8, 95% CI=4.2 to 32.9, a sexual history performed (OR 2.5, 95% CI=1.1 to 5

  9. Clinicoroentgenological control in chronic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive clinicoroentgenological study was used to examine 494 patients with chronic pneumonia. Morphological and functional changes observed in the pulmonary pare and functional changes observed in the pulmonary parenchyma and bronchial tree were studied. Types of pneumosclerosis, tigns of exacerbation of chronic pneumonia and abscess formation, morphological and functional disorders of bronchial penetrability in the pneumonic zone were described. Three forms of chronic pneumonia: bronchial, bronchiectatic and abscessing are signled out. The bronchial form is subdivided into chronic pneumonia with chronic bronchitis without deformity and wi.th deforming chronic bronchitis. In the bronchiectatic form pneumonia can be with cylindrical, saccular and cyst-like bronchiectasia. The general diagnosis of chronic pneumonia is established clinically depending on type and variants in 89-94% of cases, by X-ray and sonographic findings in all patients; types and variants of disease are most frequently defined after bronchography

  10. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMONIA (FRIEDLANDER TYPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, W R; Walker, I C

    1915-12-01

    The foregoing experiments show that in cats a definite lobar pneumonia may be caused by Bacillus mucosus capsulatus. Judging both from the clinical course and from the pathological findings, this form of pulmonary infection differs from the usual pneumococcus types of pneumonia and closely resembles the so called Friedländer's bacillus or Bacillus pneumonioe in man. In all instances in which a lobar pneumonia was found after the injection of the bacillus, a similar organism was recovered from the lung, and in no case was this associated with other organisms. The course of the disease in cats is very short, the animals developing early symptoms of profound toxemia. In 87 per cent of the animals showing a lobar pneumonia positive blood cultures were obtained. The pathological findings, judging from the early stages of the disease, are subject to considerable variation. In some instances the process may suggest a pseudolobar or confluent lobular distribution. In these cases the lung has a mottled, marble-like appearance. In the majority of cases, however, the process gave a more homogeneous appearance, suggesting a diffuse and uniform distribution. Foci of hemorrhage were not uncommon in both. Such areas cause the mottled appearance sometimes found. In all instances the consolidated lung presents a greater infiltration of tissue than is usually seen in other types of experimental pneumonia. Although the exudate as seen on the cut surface may be abundant and especially viscid in character, this is not present in most cases. The cut surface of the consolidated lung does not present a granular appearance. The histological findings are also subject to considerable variation. In most instances the infundibular and alveolar spaces are completely filled with an exudate made up chiefly of polymorphonuclear cells. Associated with these are the capsulated bacilli, large vacuolated mononuclear phagocytic cells, and red blood cells, and occasionally small amounts of fibrin. The

  12. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  13. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3-3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31-0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49-0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92-119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India's pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our results

  14. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Farooqui

    Full Text Available The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3-3.9 million episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31-0.40 million all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths, and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths. Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49-0.64 million severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92-119 thousand pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India's pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  15. Burden of Severe Pneumonia, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Pneumonia Deaths in Indian States: Modelling Based Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Habib; Jit, Mark; Heymann, David L.; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The burden of severe pneumonia in terms of morbidity and mortality is unknown in India especially at sub-national level. In this context, we aimed to estimate the number of severe pneumonia episodes, pneumococcal pneumonia episodes and pneumonia deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2010. We adapted and parameterized a mathematical model based on the epidemiological concept of potential impact fraction developed CHERG for this analysis. The key parameters that determine the distribution of severe pneumonia episode across Indian states were state-specific under-5 population, state-specific prevalence of selected definite pneumonia risk factors and meta-estimates of relative risks for each of these risk factors. We applied the incidence estimates and attributable fraction of risk factors to population estimates for 2010 of each Indian state. We then estimated the number of pneumococcal pneumonia cases by applying the vaccine probe methodology to an existing trial. We estimated mortality due to severe pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from multi-centric hospital-based studies. Our results suggest that in 2010, 3.6 million (3.3–3.9 million) episodes of severe pneumonia and 0.35 million (0.31–0.40 million) all cause pneumonia deaths occurred in children younger than 5 years in India. The states that merit special mention include Uttar Pradesh where 18.1% children reside but contribute 24% of pneumonia cases and 26% pneumonia deaths, Bihar (11.3% children, 16% cases, 22% deaths) Madhya Pradesh (6.6% children, 9% cases, 12% deaths), and Rajasthan (6.6% children, 8% cases, 11% deaths). Further, we estimated that 0.56 million (0.49–0.64 million) severe episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia and 105 thousand (92–119 thousand) pneumococcal deaths occurred in India. The top contributors to India’s pneumococcal pneumonia burden were Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in that order. Our

  16. Human IgG4: a structural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna M; Sutton, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    IgG4, the least represented human IgG subclass in serum, is an intriguing antibody with unique biological properties, such as the ability to undergo Fab-arm exchange and limit immune complex formation. The lack of effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity, is desirable for therapeutic purposes. IgG4 plays a protective role in allergy by acting as a blocking antibody, and inhibiting mast cell degranulation, but a deleterious role in malignant melanoma, by impeding IgG1-mediated anti-tumor immunity. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between IgG4 and Fcγ receptors. Despite a wealth of structural information for the IgG1 subclass, including complexes with Fcγ receptors, and structures for intact antibodies, high-resolution crystal structures were not reported for IgG4-Fc until recently. Here, we highlight some of the biological properties of human IgG4, and review the recent crystal structures of IgG4-Fc. We discuss the unexpected conformations adopted by functionally important Cγ2 domain loops, and speculate about potential implications for the interaction between IgG4 and FcγRs. © 2015 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie N. Carruthers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG. The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician’s global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure.

  18. Crazy-paving sign in high-resolution computed tomography in parainfluenza virus pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Osamu [Department of Respiratory Disease, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano City, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan)], E-mail: matsuno@ommc-hp.jp; Hayama, Yoshitomo; Honda, Hidehiro; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Suguru; Ueno, Kiyonobu [Department of Respiratory Disease, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano City, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan); Saeki, Yukihiko [Department of Clinical Research, NHO National Osaka Minami Medical Center, Kido higashi machi 2-1, Kawachinagano city, Osaka 586-8521 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    The crazy-paving sign is the appearance of a smooth linear pattern superimposed on an area of ground-glass opacity on thin-section computed tomography (CT). A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for treatment of pneumonia. Thoracic CT showed a crazy-paving sign in the right lung field on admission. She received ceftriaxone and clarithromycin, and the symptoms and infiltration shadow promptly disappeared. Serologic testing revealed a greater than 4-fold increase in the IgG titer for parainfluenza virus I. To our knowledge, there is no previous report of the crazy-paving sign in associated with viral pneumonia in a non-immunocompromised host or with parainfluenza pneumonia.

  19. Bronchiolitis Obliterans with Organizing Pneumonia (BOOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you tell me about cryptogenic organizing pneumonia? Answers from Teng Moua, M.D. Previously called bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a rare lung ...

  20. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

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    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  1. IgG4 plasma cell myeloma: new insights into the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Julia T; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jayabalan, David S; Mathew, Susan; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Geyer, Alexander I; Orazi, Attilio; Ely, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly described systemic fibroinflammatory process, characterized by increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Its pathogenesis, including the role of IgG4, remains poorly understood. Plasma cell myeloma is typically associated with a large monoclonal serum spike, which is frequently of IgG isotype. We sought to identify and characterize a subset of IgG4-secreting myeloma, as it may provide a biological model of disease with high serum levels of IgG4. Six out of 158 bone marrow biopsies (4%) from patients with IgG myeloma expressed IgG4. Four patients were men and two were women, with a mean age of 64 (range 53-87) years. Imaging showed fullness of pancreatic head (1), small non-metabolic lymphadenopathy (1), and bone lytic lesions (6). Two patients developed necrotizing fasciitis. All had elevated serum M-protein (mean 2.4, range 0.5-4.2 g/dl), and none had definite signs or symptoms of IgG4-related disease. Four myelomas had plasmablastic morphology. Four had kappa and two had lambda light chain expression. Three cases expressed CD56. Two patients had a complex karyotype. In conclusion, the frequency of IgG4 myeloma correlates with the normal distribution of IgG4 isoform. The patients with IgG4 myeloma appear to have a high rate of plasmablastic morphology and could be predisposed to necrotizing fasciitis. Despite high serum levels of IgG4, none had evidence of IgG4-related disease. These findings suggest that the increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells is not the primary etiologic agent in IgG4-related disease. Elevated serum levels of IgG4 is not sufficient to produce the typical disease presentation and should not be considered diagnostic of IgG4-related disease.

  2. Pneumonia aguda fibrinosa e organizante

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    Cláudia Santos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O padrão histológico de Pneumonia Aguda Fibrinosa e Organizante (AFOP – Acute Fibrinous And Organizing Pneumonia, descrito por Beasley em 2002, caracteriza-se pela existência de fibrina intra-alveolar sob a forma de bolas de fibrina e pneumonia organizativa difusa. A apresentação clínica desta doença intersticial pulmonar pode ser aguda ou subaguda, diferindo no entanto dos outros padrões histológicos habitualmente associados a lesão pulmonar aguda – Lesão Alveolar Difusa (DAD, Pneumonia Organizativa (OP e Pneumonia Eosinofílica (EP.A propósito deste tema, os autores fazem uma revisão da literatura e descrevem o caso clínico de um doente de 44 anos, com aspectos imagiológicos e evolução pouco habituais. Abstract: The histologic pattern of Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP, described by Beasley in 2002, is characterized by the existence of intra alveolar fibrin in the form of fibrin “balls” and diffuse organizing pneumonia. Presenting symptoms of this interstitial pulmonary disease can be acute or subacute. However, it differs from the well-recognized histologic patterns of acute pulmonary lesion – Diffuse Alveolar Damage (DAD, Organizing Pneumonia (OP and Eosinophilic Pneumonia (EP.The authors carry out a review of the literature concerning this topic and describe the clinical case of a 44-year-old patient with unusual imaging features and outcome. Palavras-chave: AFOP, bolas de fibrina, pneumonia organizativa, Key-word: AFOP, fibrin balls, organizing pneumonia

  3. Falsely low immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 in routine analysis: how not to miss IgG4 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, W; Swallow, K; Lock, R J; Patel, D

    2016-10-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 disease can have apparently 'normal' levels of IgG4 due to antigen excess conditions. IgG4 measurement therefore appears falsely low. UK National External Quality Assurance Scheme (UK NEQAS) data and other reports have suggested that this problem occurred despite pre-existing antigen excess detection steps. To determine the clinical relevance of the problem, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of prozoning in our laboratory and patient cohorts. We establish that the prevalence of raised IgG4 in routine IgG4 analysis is low (IgG4 samples in our patients. This may explain the previous reports of low sensitivity of raised IgG4 for IgG4RD, and predictive values should be re-evaluated in this disease using modified prozone-resistant protocols. All laboratories providing IgG4 measurements should verify that their assays are fit for the clinical quality requirement of detection raised IgG4 levels and must verify the upper limit of their reference ranges and freedom from prozoning. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Monovalent IgG4 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian C.; Fowler, Susan B.; Machiesky, LeeAnn; Miller, Kenneth; Hayes, David B.; Adib, Morshed; Her, Cheng; Borrok, M. Jack; Tsui, Ping; Burrell, Matthew; Corkill, Dominic J.; Witt, Susanne; Lowe, David C.; Webster, Carl I.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments. PMID:23567207

  5. Pneumonia caused by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent: radiologic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muder, R.R.; Reddy, S.C.; Yu, V.L.; Kroboth, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using an objective scoring system, chest radiographs were reviewed in 23 cases of pneumonia due to the Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA, Tatlockia micdadei, Legionella micdadei), including six cases of pneumonia with simultaneous isolation of PPA and L pneumophila (Legionnaires' disease). Infiltrates were typically segmental to lobar; nodular infiltrates were noted in three cases. Spread to additional lobes after presentation occurred in four of 17 PPA infections. Pneumonia caused by both PPA and L pneumophila was unusually severe, with involvement of all lobes occurring in four of six cases, compared with one of 17 cases of PPA infection (p>0.02). Radiographic severity did not correlate with underlying disease, immune status, or outcome. The majority of patients receiving erythromycin demonstrated objective radiologic improvement. In a patients, population that included nonimmunosuppressed patient, nodule formation and rapid radiologic progression were not found to be characteristic of PPA pneumonia

  6. Overview of IgG4 - Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriţă, R; Opriţă, B; Berceanu, D; Diaconescu, I B

    2017-01-01

    Rationale (hypothesis): IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a pathological entity recently recognized by the medical world that can affect any organ or system. However, there is insufficient data about this disease in medical literature. Aim (objective): A more extensive clarification of the IgG4 molecule, the diversified aspects of IgG4-related disease, and the response of this disease to treatment, will provide a crucial understanding of the immune system and other diseases now known to be associated with IgG4. The MEDLINE online medical database was used, and, after a comprehensive review of medical articles regarding IgG4-RD, published after 2003, using the search words "IgG4- related disease" and "IgG4 molecule", we have described the clinical, pathological and therapeutic features of IgG4-RD, as well as the presence of the IgG4 molecule in the evolution, diagnosis and management of this syndrome. We characterized the potential disease mechanisms and discussed early observations related to treatment. Given the response to immunosuppressive therapy, it is hypothesized that IgG4-related disease is most likely an autoimmune disease. Therefore, IgG4-related disease is a fibro-inflammatory condition that can affect any organ and can lead to the formation of pseudotumoral lesions requiring differential diagnosis with various malignancies. Positive diagnostic criteria are histopathological and require at least two features out of the following three: dense limphoplasmocitary infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis.

  7. IgG4-Associated Cholangitis Can Mimic Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydfudim, Victor M; Wang, Andrew Y; de Lange, Eduard E; Zhao, Zimin; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Bauer, Todd W; Adams, Reid B

    2015-07-01

    IgG4-associated cholangitis can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Previously reported patients with IgG4-associated cholangitis mimicking cholangiocarcinoma had elevated serum IgG4 levels and long-segment biliary strictures. However, in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for malignancy, IgG4-associated cholangitis should remain a consideration among patients with normal serum IgG4 and a hilar mass suspicious for cholangiocarcinoma. The presence of a hilar mass and a malignant-appearing biliary stricture in two patients with normal serum IgG4 prompted further evaluation and subsequent concomitant liver and bile duct resection and reconstruction. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated cholangitis was established during the pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens. IgG4-associated cholangitis is a known imitator of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even among serologically IgG4-negative patients with a hilar mass prior to operative resection.

  8. Intrathoracic Manifestations of IgG4-Related Disease

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    Sian Yik Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic involvement with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is frequently overlooked in IgG4-related disease patients. In this article we review the intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD which are variable and protean. IgG4-related disease has been reported to affect the lung parenchyma, pleura, mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes, vasculature, and pericardium within the thorax. Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy is the most common intrathoracic manifestation of IgG4-RD. Four main patterns of pulmonary disease have been described, including the solid nodular type, the bronchovascular type, the alveolar interstitial type, and the round shaped ground glass type. When feasible, a biopsy should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Most lesions show characteristic pathologic findings of IgG4-RD: dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. While this helps establish the diagnosis, the interpretation of pathology findings in the clinical context is key in making an accurate diagnosis. Mimickers of IgG4-RD should be ruled out, before making a diagnosis. The intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD can be treated effectively with prednisone, but may require additional immunosuppressive therapies, including rituximab.

  9. Diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Simizu, Shuya; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is often associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. However, the diffuse cholangiographic abnormalities observed in IgG4-SC may resemble those observed in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the presence of segmental stenosis suggests cholangiocarcinoma (CC). IgG4-SC responds well to steroid therapy, whereas PSC is only effectively treated with liver transplantation and CC requires surgical intervention. Since IgG4-SC was first described, it has become a third distinct clinical entity of sclerosing cholangitis. The aim of this review was to introduce the diagnostic methods for IgG4-SC. IgG4-SC should be carefully diagnosed based on a combination of characteristic clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features after cholangiographic classification and targeting of a disease for differential diagnosis. When intrapancreatic stenosis is detected, pancreatic cancer or CC should be ruled out. If multiple intrahepatic stenoses are evident, PSC should be distinguished on the basis of cholangiographic findings and liver biopsy with IgG4 immunostaining. Associated inflammatory bowel disease is suggestive of PSC. If stenosis is demonstrated in the hepatic hilar region, CC should be discriminated by ultrasonography, intraductal ultrasonography, bile duct biopsy, and a higher cutoff serum IgG4 level of 182 mg/dL. PMID:24282356

  10. Elevated plasma surfactant protein D (SP-D) levels and a direct correlation with anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-specific IgG antibody in SARS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Y P; Liu, Z H; Wei, R

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary SP-D is a defence lectin promoting clearance of viral infections. SP-D is recognized to bind the S protein of SARS-CoV and enhance phagocytosis. Moreover, systemic SP-D is widely used as a biomarker of alveolar integrity. We investigated the relation between plasma SP-D, SARS-type pneum......Pulmonary SP-D is a defence lectin promoting clearance of viral infections. SP-D is recognized to bind the S protein of SARS-CoV and enhance phagocytosis. Moreover, systemic SP-D is widely used as a biomarker of alveolar integrity. We investigated the relation between plasma SP-D, SARS......-type pneumonia and the SARS-specific IgG response. Sixteen patients with SARS, 19 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (Streptococcus pneumonia) and 16 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Plasma SP-D and anti-SARS-CoV N protein IgG were measured using ELISA. SP-D was significantly...... elevated in SARS-type pneumonia [median (95% CI), 453 (379-963) ng/ml versus controls 218 (160-362) ng/ml, P protein IgG (r(2) = 0.5995, P = 0.02). The possible re-emergence of SARS or SARS-like infections suggests a need...

  11. Pneumoniae in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, Volkmar; Lehnert, Thomas; Thalhammer, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Due to the large surface area, heat, high humidity and high oxygen supply in the lung makes an ideal environment for the propagation of germs. The purpose of the immune system is to establish and maintain the balance between saprophytes and immune defense so as to depress and ultimately kill germs as they infiltrate the body. This usually is achieved by the use of a highly complex immune system. It is a perfect combination of non-specific, cellular and humoral immune mechanisms with very specific immune cells and antibodies, which are specialized on particular pathogens. The specific defenses potentiate the effect of the nonspecific defense in a large extent so as to prevent re-infection and ultimately eliminate recognized pathogens. The causes of immune deficiency can be related to either the cellular or humoral level and affect both the specific and nonspecific defenses. There is a different excitation spectrum depending on the type of immune deficiency. Immune deficiency can prevalently cause complications in the course of infections, decelerate the healing and allow the occurrence of rare pathogens. In particular, the radiological characteristics of typical and atypical pneumonia in immunocompromised patients will be discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the appearance of bacterial infections, mycobacterioses, PCP, CMV, and laid fungual pneumonia. Even it is not possible to identify certain pathogens radiologically, it is often possible to narrow the spectrum of germs causing pulmonary infections significantly by comparing with other pulmonary complications such as lymphoma or kaposisarcomas. (orig.)

  12. Ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael Jan

    2005-05-01

    This review summarises some of the notable papers on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) from January 2003 to October 2004. Ventilator-associated pneumonia remains an important drain on hospital resources. All population groups are affected, but patients with VAP are more likely to be older, sicker, and male, with invasive medical devices in situ. Early VAP diagnosis is desirable to reduce VAP mortality and to retard emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. This may be possible using preliminary culture results or intracellular organism in polymorphonuclear cells. In most intensive care units, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii are the commonest organisms isolated in VAP. However, causative organisms vary between and within hospitals. Consequently, individual intensive care units should develop empirical antibiotic policies to target the pathogenic bacteria prevalent in their patient populations. Preventative strategies aimed at reducing aerodigestive tract colonisation by pathogenic organisms, and also their subsequent aspiration, are becoming increasingly important. Educating medical staff about these simple measures is therefore pertinent. To reduce the occurrence of multidrug-resistant organisms, limiting the duration of antibiotic treatment to 8 days and antimicrobial rotation should be contemplated. Empirical therapy with antipseudomonal penicillins plus beta-lactamase inhibitors should be considered. If methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus VAP is a possibility, linezolid may be better than vancomycin. Prevention remains the key to reducing VAP prevalence.

  13. Novel structurally designed vaccine for S. aureus α-hemolysin: protection against bacteremia and pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan P Adhikari

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a human pathogen associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI and life threatening sepsis and pneumonia. Efforts to develop effective vaccines against S. aureus have been largely unsuccessful, in part due to the variety of virulence factors produced by this organism. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla is a pore-forming toxin expressed by most S. aureus strains and reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SSTI and pneumonia. Here we report a novel recombinant subunit vaccine candidate for Hla, rationally designed based on the heptameric crystal structure. This vaccine candidate, denoted AT-62aa, was tested in pneumonia and bacteremia infection models using S. aureus strain Newman and the pandemic strain USA300 (LAC. Significant protection from lethal bacteremia/sepsis and pneumonia was observed upon vaccination with AT-62aa along with a Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE that is currently in clinical trials. Passive transfer of rabbit immunoglobulin against AT-62aa (AT62-IgG protected mice against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with USA300 and produced significant reduction in bacterial burden in blood, spleen, kidney, and lungs. Our Hla-based vaccine is the first to be reported to reduce bacterial dissemination and to provide protection in a sepsis model of S. aureus infection. AT62-IgG and sera from vaccinated mice effectively neutralized the toxin in vitro and AT62-IgG inhibited the formation of Hla heptamers, suggesting antibody-mediated neutralization as the primary mechanism of action. This remarkable efficacy makes this Hla-based vaccine a prime candidate for inclusion in future multivalent S. aureus vaccine. Furthermore, identification of protective epitopes within AT-62aa could lead to novel immunotherapy for S. aureus infection.

  14. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  15. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months......: The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. METHODS: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2017-01-01

    It is critical to differentiate IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) from malignant tumor and similar disease of the affected organ to apply appropriate therapy and avoid unnecessary surgery. IgG4-RD is diagnosed on combination of typical radiological findings; elevation of serum IgG4 levels; histopathological findings of abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes, storiform fibrosis , and obliterative phlebitis ; association with other IgG4-related diseases; and response to steroids. Histopathological approach is particularly recommended. Systemic glucocorticoids are currently the first-line approach for IgG4-RD, and the indications are symptoms. The initial recommended dose of oral prednisolone for induction of remission is 0.6 mg/kg/day, administered for 2-4 weeks. This dose is gradually tapered to a maintenance dose of 2.5-5 mg/day over a period of 2-3 months. As IgG4-RD sometimes relapses after steroids, maintenance therapy is usually performed in Japan. However, as IgG4-RD patients are typically elderly and are at high risk of developing steroid-related complications, cessation of the medication should be attempted at least within 3 years. For relapsed IgG4-RD, re-administration or dose up of steroid is effective, but the addition of immunomodulatory drugs such as azathioprine has been considered to be appropriate. B cell depletion with rituximab (an anti-CD20 antibody) is effective, even in many patients in whom treatment with immunomodulatory drugs was unsuccessful. The short-term clinical, morphological, and functional outcomes of most IgG4-RD patients treated with steroid therapy are good, but the long-term outcomes are less clear due to several unknown factors such as relapse, developed fibrosis, and associated malignancy.

  18. The autoimmune IgG4 -associated endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Yu. Yukina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G4-associated diseases (IgG4-AD arethe group of chronic progressive autoimmune fibro-inflammatory pathology of various organs and tissues, characterized by their enlargement and abundant infiltration of immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells, as well as an increase in the level of serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4.In most patients, the disease is characterized by a mild course.However, there is evidence of a high incidence of malignancies in patients with IgG4-AD.Among endocrine IgG4-associated pathologies, pancreatitis with outcome in diabetes mellitus, hypophysitis and thyroiditis are described. Laboratory examination usually reveals an increased level of IgG4. However, the concentration of IgG4 could not be used as the only diagnostic criterion.The possibility of plasmablastsdetermining as a marker of the disease is discussed.Among the imaging techniques CT, MRI and 18F-FDG-PET/CT are used.However, the most informative method of diagnosis is biopsy. Randomized clinical trials to determine clear recommendations for the treatment of IgG4-AD were not conducted.In most cases, glucocorticoids are prescribed, and immunosuppressive therapy is sometimes used.According to the results of recent studies, the genetically engineered drug rituximab is relatively effective in inducing remission of the disease.Given the high recurrence rate and the risk of malignancy, patients with IgG4-AD require careful long-term follow-up. Thus, the review describes the clinical manifestations of IgG4-AD, examines the possibilities of their diagnosis and presents the existing methods of treatment.However, given the fact that IgG4-AD became a separate group of autoimmune pathology less than 20 years ago, there are insufficient data on these diseases. Researches related to epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and effective treatment of IgG4-AD are actual.

  19. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  20. Primary endosymbiosis: have cyanobacteria and Chlamydiae ever been roommates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deschamps

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes acquired the ability to process photosynthesis by engulfing a cyanobacterium and transforming it into a genuine organelle called the plastid. This event, named primary endosymbiosis, occurred once more than a billion years ago, and allowed the emergence of the Archaeplastida, a monophyletic supergroup comprising the green algae and plants, the red algae and the glaucophytes. Of the other known cases of symbiosis between cyanobacteria and eukaryotes, none has achieved a comparable level of cell integration nor reached the same evolutionary and ecological success than primary endosymbiosis did. Reasons for this unique accomplishment are still unknown and difficult to comprehend. The exploration of plant genomes has revealed a considerable amount of genes closely related to homologs of Chlamydiae bacteria, and probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Several studies have proposed that these transferred genes, which are mostly involved in the functioning of the plastid, may have helped the settlement of primary endosymbiosis. Some of these studies propose that Chlamydiae and cyanobacterial symbionts coexisted in the eukaryotic host of the primary endosymbiosis, and that Chlamydiae provided solutions for the metabolic symbiosis between the cyanobacterium and the host, ensuring the success of primary endosymbiosis. In this review, I present a reevaluation of the contribution of Chlamydiae genes to the genome of Archaeplastida and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this tripartite model for primary endosymbiosis.

  1. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  2. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    among Chlamydia positive men was 6. The frequency of earlier VD was 7.5% and 10% among men and women, respectively. Treatment with tetracycline was effective, which makes control of eradication unnecessary. We conclude that genital chlamydial infection among young asymptomatic people is common...

  3. Chlamydia control in Europe - a survey of Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; van Bergen, J; Ward, H

    ), contributed to the design and interpretation of the survey, commented on the draft report and approved the final report. Shelagh Redmond (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland) provided technical support. Nicola Low (University of Bern) led the Chlamydia Control...

  4. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  6. Association of Chlamydia serology with HIV in Nigerian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For an infection that is largely asymptomatic but has devastating effects on populations, only a preventive approach would have beneficial effects in controlling the disease and its effects on women's health in the country. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, HIV, pregnant women, gynaecologic patients, co-infection ...

  7. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  8. Association of anti-Chlamydia antibodies with ectopic pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy remains a major public health problem especially in many developing countries where it is a significant contributor to pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between prior Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: ...

  9. A condition closely mimicking IgG4-related disease despite the absence of serum IgG4 elevation and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Satoshi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamada, Kazunori; Fujita, Kentaro; Harada, Kenichi; Matsumura, Masami; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Sato, Yasuharu; Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Nakanuma, Yasuni; Nagata, Michio

    2016-09-01

    We describe a 74-year-old Japanese man with systemic fibroinflammatory conditions closely resembling those of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Radiology and histology showed characteristics of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis, despite normal serum IgG4 value and scanty IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in each organ. This case suggests that a condition closely mimicking IgG4-RD may develop without IgG4-positive plasma cells and those exceptional cases should also be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of IgG4-RD.

  10. Chlamydiae in the ejaculate: their influence on the quality and morphology of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veznik, Zdenek; Pospisil, Leopold; Svecova, Drahomira; Zajicova, Atanaska; Unzeitig, Vit

    2004-07-01

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male fertility, the aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the quality of Chlamydiae-positive and -negative semen. Sperm count was performed according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, and sperm survival was assessed by a 120-min test. The evaluation of the morphological examination of ejaculates was carried out using the sasmo (strict morphological analysis of ejaculates) computer program. Chlamydiae were detected by immunofluorescent reaction using the Progen Biotechnik GmbH diagnostic set. Fisher's exact test and the chi-quadrate test were used for statistical analysis. Of the total of 627 sperm samples examined, Chlamydiae were detected in 136 cases (21.7%). Sperm analysis showed significant differences between Chlamydiae-positive and -negative samples. The Chlamydiae-contaminated group showed normal sperm morphology 14.4% lower, volume 6.4% lower, concentration 8.3% lower, motility 7.8% and velocity 9.3% lower than in Chlamydiae-negative samples. The average values for normal spermatozoa and motility in the Chlamydiae-positive group were also significantly reduced. Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be a possible factor in sperm pathology. These results could help to elucidate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility.

  11. Radiographic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia: differential diagnosis and performance timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Naoyuki; Sugiu, Tadaaki; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Oda, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Oka, Mikio

    2009-01-01

    The Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines propose a differential diagnosis for atypical pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia using a scoring system for the selection of appropriate antibiotic. In order to improve this scoring system, the guidelines are seeking new specific parameter. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pattern of abnormalities with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia on chest computed tomography (CT) and whether the radiographic findings could distinguish M. pneumoniae pneumonia from Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. A retrospective review was performed of the CT findings of 64 cases and 68 cases where M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae, respectively, were the only pathogen identified by the panel of diagnostic tests used. Of the 64 patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia, bronchial wall thickening was observed most frequently (81%), followed by centrilobular nodules (78%), ground-glass attenuation (78%), and consolidation (61%). Bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules were observed more often in M. pneumoniae patients than in S. pneumoniae patients (p < 0.0001). The presence of bilateral bronchial wall thickening or centrilobular nodules was only seen in patients with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Using the scoring system of the Japanese Respiratory Society guidelines and chest CT findings, 97% of M. pneumoniae patients were suspected to be M. pneumoniae pneumonia without serology. When comparing the CT findings between early stage and progressed stage in the same patients with severe pneumonia, the radiographic features of early stage M. pneumoniae pneumonia were not observed clearly in the progressed stage. The present results indicate that the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia would appear to be reliable when found with a combination of bronchial wall thickening and centrilobular nodules in the CT findings. However, these CT findings are not observed in progressed severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients

  12. Flexibility and conformational change of IgG molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, Y.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-12-01

    The dynamic behaviour of pig anti-Dnp-immunoglobulin (IgG) investigated by the neutron spin echo technique gave evidence of internal motion of a biological macromolecule. It is suggested that this motion belongs to the wobbling of the Fab parts of the investigated IgG molecule around its so called hinge region. (author)

  13. The emerging mysteries of IgG4-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Wouter; Barnes, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is increasingly recognised in Western societies as a multi-system, inflammatory, fibrosing disease of unknown aetiology that typically, though not exclusively, presents in older men. The clinical manifestations are diverse and almost any organ may be affected. The

  14. Seropositivity and determinants of immunoglobulin-G (IgG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study is the first documented prevalence of IgG antibody against HSV-1&-2 in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and thus provides baseline data for future in-depth studies on HSV infection in South-South, Nigeria. Objective: This study determined the seropositivity and determinants of serum IgG antibody against ...

  15. The Histopathology of IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avincsal, Mehmet Ozgur; Zen, Yoh

    2017-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a multi-organ immune-mediated chronic fibroinflammatory condition characterized by elevated serum IgG4 concentrations, tumefaction, and tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. The exact etiology of IgG4-related disease remains unclear with no known role of the IgG4 molecule itself being identified. Although the pancreas and salivary glands are the main organs affected, the involvement of other organs has also been reported. This multi-organ disease mimics a large number of malignant, infectious, and inflammatory disorders; therefore, a prompt differential diagnosis is important for selecting the right therapeutic strategy. Early steroid therapy assists in preventing tissue fibrosis, parenchymal extinction, and severe functional impairments in the affected organs. The definitive and prompt diagnosis of IgG4-related disease requires both histopathological confirmation and clinicopathological correlations. A histopathological examination is mandatory to exclude neoplastic or inflammatory conditions that mimic IgG4-related disease. The histological changes that occur are basically similar in any organ manifestation, with several site-specific findings being recognized. This chapter summarizes general rules for the pathological examination of IgG4-related disease, as well as the histopathological features and differential diagnoses of major organ manifestations.

  16. Current Concept of IgG4-Related Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Kazuichi; Umehara, Hisanori

    2017-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disease of unknown etiology, which is characterized by a tendency to form tumefactive lesions, increased serum levels of IgG4, and massive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells with storiform fibrosis and/or obliterative phlebitis. Patients with IgG4-RD have frequently multiorgan involvements such as the pancreas, biliary tree, salivary glands, periorbital tissues, kidneys, lungs, lymph nodes, and retroperitoneum. IgG4-RD mainly affects middle-aged to elderly men except for involvement in lachrymal and salivary glands, so-called Mikulicz's disease. The clinical manifestations of IgG4-RD depend on individually involved organs and respond well to steroid, but the prognosis still remains unclear. Some patients develop serious complications such as obstructive jaundice due to hepatic, gallbladder, or pancreatic lesions; hydronephrosis due to retroperitoneal fibrosis; or respiratory symptoms due to pulmonary lesions. Nomenclatures of individual organ manifestation of IgG4-RD have been internationally consented.

  17. IgG4-Related Disease: A Multispecialty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Usêda Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently recognized group of conditions, characterized by tumor-like swelling of involved organs, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, variable degrees of fibrosis, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Currently IgG4-RD is recognized as a systemic condition that can affect several organs and tissues. Herein we report the case of a 34-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, and painful stiffness in his neck. He had a history of tumoral mass of the left maxillary region, right palpebral ptosis with protrusion of the eyeball, and chronic dry cough for about 6 years. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum IgG4 levels. Immunohistochemical staining of the maxillary biopsy was compatible with IgG4-RD. He had an excellent response to corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights that IgG4-RD should be included in the differential diagnosis with multisystem diseases.

  18. Persistent Lymphadenopathy due to IgG4-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    capsid IgM negative), CMV (IgM negative, IgG negative), parvovirus B19 (IgM negative, IgG negative), Hepatitis (HBs Ag negative, HBc Ab negative, HBs...lymphadenopathy). Figure 2: Hematoxylin and eosin stain of a resected lymph node, 2x magnification. This preparation shows nonspecific reactive follicular

  19. IgG4-Associated Cholangitis--A Mimic of PSC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, Ulrich; Hubers, Lowiek M.; Doorenspleet, Marieke; Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; Boonstra, Kirsten; Ponsioen, Cyriel; Rauws, Erik; de Vries, Niek

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC) is an inflammatory disorder of the biliary tract representing a major manifestation of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) often with elevation of serum IgG4 levels, infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells in the affected tissue and good response to immunosuppressive

  20. Clinical features of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Machiko; Kammisawa, Terumi; Koizumi, Satomi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kikuyama, Masataka; Shirakura, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Taro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2017-09-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease that affects various organs of the body. Aim of this study is to elucidate the clinical characteristics of IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. Clinical features, laboratory findings, radiological and endoscopic findings, associated disease, treatment and prognosis were retrospectively examined in 10 patients with IgG4-related rhinosinusitis. The age was 59.1±11.3 years old and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The chief nasal complaints were hyposmia (n=4), nasal obstruction (n=3), and nothing (n=3). Serum IgG4 levels were elevated in all patients and the value was 740.4±472.4mg/dl. Other IgG4-related diseases were associated in all 10 patients, including IgG4-related sialadenitis (n=6), IgG4-related dacryoadenitis (n=5), and autoimmune pancreatitis (n=5). Imaging findings on CT/MRI were obstruction of the way of elimination (n=10), thickening of the sinus mucous membrane (n=10), and fluid in the sinus (n=6). All of the cases had bilateral findings. Nasal endoscopic findings were chiefly deviated nasal septum (n=5), polyps (n=4), edema of the mucous membrane (n=3). Histologically, abundant infiltration of IgG4 positive plasma cell and lymphocyte and an elevated IgG4+/IgG+ cell ration was detected in all 8 patients and 5 patients, respectively. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 8 patients. Eight patients were treated with steroid therapy for other associated IgG4-related diseases. Symptoms improved in all 6 patients after an initial treatment (endoscopic surgery (n=5) and steroids (n=1)), but one patient suffered relapse. IgG4-related rhinosinusitis is a distinct entity of IgG4-related disease, and is associated in patients with multiple IgG4-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Riedel's thyroiditis association with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Marius N; Sonawane, Vikram; Sebo, Thomas J; Thapa, Prabin; Bahn, Rebecca S

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-positive (+) plasma cells have been reported in both Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). These cells are the hallmark of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). We sought to determine whether RT is part of IgG4-RD spectrum. This was a case-control study performed at a tertiary medical centre. We included RT cases from the period 1958 to 2008 that had sufficient paraffin-embedded tissue for IgG4 immunostaining. Controls were patients with HT, age and gender matched, with similar pathology criteria. The main outcome measures were the intensity of the IgG4 staining and the clinical and histological correlates with IgG4-RD. Six pairs of RT and HT were analysed. The mean age was 44·7 years. In both groups, 5/6 cases had positive IgG4 staining. The mean number of IgG4 + cells/ HPF, normalized to the degree of inflammation, was 3·2 ± 3·0 SD (RT) vs 0·9 ± 0·7 (HT), P = 0·15, for fibrotic areas and 2·1 ± 2·3 SD vs 1·0 ± 0·8 (P = 0·39) for areas with lymphoid aggregates. We found the number of IgG4 +  cells in RT to be inversely correlated with the duration of disease (P = 0·046). Three RT cases had associated comorbidities from the IgG4-RD spectrum while none of the HT cases had such conditions. Riedel's thyroiditis is a component of IgG4-RD with the density of the IgG4 +  lymphocytic infiltrate being time dependent. In this small study, we did not identify differences in IgG4 infiltration between RT and HT, minimizing the utility of this marker in RT diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Ventilator associated pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, S; Nesci, M; Celotto, S; Lampati, L; Lucchini, A

    2003-04-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial lower respiratory tract infection that ensues in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The reported incidence of VAP varies between 9% and 68% with a mortality ranging between 33% and 71%. Two key factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of VAP: bacterial colonization of the upper digestive-respiratory tract and aspiration of oral secretions into the trachea. Preventive measurements are advocated to reduce the incidence of VAP, such as selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), supraglottic aspiration and positioning. Prompt recognition and treatment of established VAP has also been demostrated to affect outcome. Therefore, the knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of VAP and the implementation of strategies to prevent, diagnose and treat VAP are mainstems in the nursing of mechanically ventilated patients.

  3. A case of chemical pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Eun, Choung Ki; Choi, Byung Soo; Park, Soo Sung [Chungang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    A case of chemical pneumonia due to the fumes of nitric acid and chemical compounds was encountered, and it is reported with a review of the literatures. A 19 year old Korean male working in an electric materials manufacturing factory of poor facilities dealing with chemical compounds showed initial symptoms closely similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis of hematogenous disseminating type, and a roentgenogram was hardly helpful for differentiating chemical pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculous of hematogenous disseminating type. The clinical course in this case was very favourable as compared with those of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia.

  4. A case of chemical pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Woo; Eun, Choung Ki; Choi, Byung Soo; Park, Soo Sung

    1974-01-01

    A case of chemical pneumonia due to the fumes of nitric acid and chemical compounds was encountered, and it is reported with a review of the literatures. A 19 year old Korean male working in an electric materials manufacturing factory of poor facilities dealing with chemical compounds showed initial symptoms closely similar to those of pulmonary tuberculosis of hematogenous disseminating type, and a roentgenogram was hardly helpful for differentiating chemical pneumonia from pulmonary tuberculous of hematogenous disseminating type. The clinical course in this case was very favourable as compared with those of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia

  5. TREATMENT OF IgG4-RELATED DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sokol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a fibroinflammatory condition characterized by the occurrence of tumor-like foci in different organs with a unique histological pattern (moirо-like fibrosis, obvious lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with large numbers of IgG4+ plasma cells, and obliterating phlebitis and elevated serum IgG4 levels in the majority of patients. Its first-line therapy is glucocorticoids at a starting dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day (equivalent to prednisolone; however, this treatment entails a great number of adverse events and high recurrence rates. The paper provides a review of today's literature on the treatment of IgG4-RD; particular emphasis is laid on the description of therapy with glucocorticoids and rituximab.

  6. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Isolated Scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Berkowitz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD manifesting as nodular scleritis is presented in a 20-year-old female. Patient complained of left eye pain and redness for one week. Ocular examination together with ancillary testing led to the diagnosis of nodular scleritis. Since the patient did not show apparent improvement after one week of systemic steroidal treatment, she underwent a biopsy of the affected area revealing histopathological characteristics of IgG4-RD. Long-term treatment with corticosteroids and a steroid-sparing agent (methotrexate led to significant improvement in signs and symptoms. This case highlights the significance of IgG4-RD in the differential diagnosis of scleritis and raises the question as to whether various organs affected by IgG4-RD may have different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in which pathogenic T cells play a role.

  7. IgG4-Seronegative Autoimmune Pancreatitis and Sclerosing Cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allon Kahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a relatively novel clinical entity whose gastrointestinal manifestations include type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP and IgG4-associated sclerosing cholangitis. The presence of elevated serum IgG4 is suggestive but not essential for the diagnosis of type 1 AIP and is a pervasive feature of the proposed diagnostic criteria. The differential diagnosis of type 1 AIP includes malignant conditions, emphasizing the importance of a deliberate, comprehensive evaluation. Management of patients with a suggestive clinical presentation, but without serum IgG4 elevation, is difficult. Here we present three cases of IgG4-seronegative AIP and sclerosing cholangitis that responded to empiric steroid therapy and discuss approach considerations. These cases demonstrate the value of meticulous application of existing diagnostic algorithms to achieve a clinical diagnosis and avoid surgical intervention.

  8. IgG4-related Disease and the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H; Deshpande, Vikram

    2017-06-01

    Pathologists are likely to encounter IgG4-related disease in several organ systems. This article focuses on helping pathologists diagnose IgG4-related disease in the hepatobiliary system. Missing the diagnosis can result in unnecessary organ damage and/or unnecessary surgical and cancer therapy. In the liver, tumefactive lesion(s) involving the bile ducts with storiform fibrosis and an IgG4-enriched lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate are highly concerning for IgG4-related disease. The recent identification of oligoclonal populations of T cells and B cells in IgG4-related disease may lead to molecular tests, new therapeutics, and a greater mechanistic understanding of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  10. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  11. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  12. Recombinant major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum, and Chlamydia suis as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Hoelzle, Katharina; Wittenbrink, Max M

    2004-10-05

    Recombinant major outer membrane proteins (rMOMP) of Chlamydophila (Ch.) abortus, Ch. pecorum, and Chlamydia (C.) suis were used as antigens to distinguish chlamydial species-specific antibodies in (i) immune sera from six rabbits and three pigs raised against native purified elementary bodies, (ii) serum samples from 25 sows vaccinated with Ch. abortus, and (iii) 40 serum samples from four heifers experimentally infected with Ch. abortus. All post-exposition sera contained chlamydial antibodies as confirmed by strong ELISA seroreactivities against the chlamydial LPS. For the rMOMP ELISA mean IgG antibody levels were at least 5.8-fold higher with the particular rMOMP homologous to the chlamydial species used for immunisation or infection than with heterologous rMOMPs (P <0.001). Preferential rMOMP ELISA reactivities of sera were confirmed by Western blotting. The results suggest that the entire chlamydial rMOMP could provide a species-specific serodiagnostic antigen.

  13. IgG4-producing lymphoma arising in a patient with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Takuro; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Ishiguro, Kazuya; Maruyama, Yumiko; Takeuchi, Mai; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi; Sato, Yasuharu

    2016-12-01

    We herein report a case in which an IgG4-producing lymphoma arose in a patient with a previous diagnosis consistent with an IgG4-related disease. A 43-year-old man presented with enlarged cervical lymph nodes and was treated with steroids and radiation for what was initially assumed to be Kimura's disease, although the lesions were later histologically re-diagnosed as IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. Fourteen years later, when the patient was 58-years-old, he presented with retroperitoneal fibrosis and swollen lymph nodes. The suspicious lesions were not histologically examined as the patient did not give consent. However, the serum IgG4 concentration was high (1400 mg/dL) and he was clinically diagnosed with systemic IgG4-related disease. Although steroid administration reduced the size of the lesions, tapering the dose finally resulted in systemic, prominently enlarged lymph nodes. Analysis of the biopsy specimen revealed that these multiple lymph node lesions were marginal zone B cell lymphomas that themselves expressed IgG4. Complete remission was achieved after a total of six courses of chemotherapy including rituximab. This case suggests that the infiltrating IgG4-expressing cells observed in IgG4-related disease can clonally expand to malignant lymphomas.

  14. Analysis of IgG4-positive clones in affected organs of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuchi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kazunori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Hara, Satoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We investigated class switch reaction (CSR) in affected organs and evaluated whether the same or genetically related clones exist in IgG4-RD. We studied three patients with IgG4-RD. Total cellular RNA was extracted from salivary glands and peripheral blood and lung tissue. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and immunoglobulin heavy chain third complementarity determining region (IgVH-CDR3) of IgM and IgG4 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We analyzed the clonal relationship of infiltrating IgG4-positive cells, as compared with IgM. We determined the existence of common clones among organs and patients. AID was expressed in salivary glands of all patients and lung tissue in one. Closely related IgVH-CDR3 sequences in infiltrating IgG4-positive cells were detected in salivary glands and lung tissue. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequence between IgM and IgG4 in salivary glands was detected in one patient, indicating CSR in salivary glands. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequences of IgG4-positive cells were detected between salivary glands and peripheral blood in two patients. Four identical sequences of IgVH-CDR3 existed between patients. Interestingly, one of the four sequences was detected in all patients. Our results demonstrate the existence of common antigen(s) shared by patients with IgG4-RD.

  15. Infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with or without radiologically confirmed pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne C. Andrade

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Among children with clinical diagnosis of community‐acquired pneumonia submitted to chest radiograph, those with radiologically confirmed pneumonia present a higher rate of infection by S. pneumoniae when compared with those with a normal chest radiograph.

  16. Anal lymphogranuloma venereum infection screening with IgA anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific major outer membrane protein serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Smelov, Vitaly; Ouburg, Sander; Pleijster, Jolein; Geskus, Ronald B; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; Fennema, Johannes S A; Morré, Servaas A

    2010-12-01

    Anal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L (Ct+/LGV+), are endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal non-LGV biovar Ct infections (Ct+/LGV-) can be eradicated with 1 week doxycycline, whereas Ct+/LGV+ infections require 3-week doxycycline. To differentiate Ct+/LGV+ from Ct+/LGV- infections, biovar-specific Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) are standard, but also expensive and laborious. A chlamydia-specific serological assay could serve as an alternative test. MSM were screened for anal Ct+/LGV+ and Ct+/LGV- infections with a commercial nonspecific NAAT and an in house biovar L-specific NAAT. Serum samples were evaluated with chlamydia-specific anti-Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and antilipopolysaccharide assays of IgA and IgG classes. Asymptomatic patients were identified as: (1) no anal complaints or (2) no microscopic inflammation (i.e., <10 leucocytes per high power field in anal smears). The best differentiating assay was subsequently evaluated in 100 Ct+/LGV+ and 100 Ct+/LGV- MSM using different cut-off points. The anti-MOMP IgA assay was the most accurate to differentiate Ct+/LGV+ (n = 42) from Ct+/LGV- (n = 19) with 85.7% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2-93.3) and 84.2% specificity (95% CI, 62.4-94.5), even among asymptomatic patients. In a population comprising 98 Ct+/LGV+ and 105 Ct+/LGV- patients, the anti-MOMP IgA assay scored most accurate when the cut-off point was set to 2.0 with 75.5% (95% CI, 65.8-83.6) sensitivity and 74.3% (95% CI, 64.8-82.3) specificity. The IgA anti-MOMP assay can identify a considerable proportion of the (asymptomatic) anal LGV infections correctly. Yet, biovar L-specific NAAT are still the preferred diagnostic tests in clinical settings.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of IgG and IgM rheumatoid factors reacting with human IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Lawrance, S.; Catalano, M.A.; Vaughan, J.H.; Abraham, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although IgG rheumatoid factor may play a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, previously there have been no precise methods for its specific measurement in serum and synovial fluid. This paper describes a solid phase radioimmunoassay for the independent quantification of IgM and IgG rheumatoid factor reacting with the Fc fragment of human IgG. As measured by this assay, serum IgG rheumatoid factor levels differed significantly between patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and normal control subjects. In addition, several sera and joint fluids from patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, even without vasculitis, were shown by gel chromatography to have acid-dissociable complexes of IgG rheumatoid factor suggestive of IgG-IgG dimer or trimer formation

  18. CNS Complications of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute central nervous system disease occurring subsequent to infection with M pneumoniae are reported from University College, Institute of Child Health, and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

  19. Radiological alterations in tularemic pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simay, A.; Muennich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Pneumonia of tularemic origin exhibited the following radiological symptoms: confluent oval shaped infiltrations in the lungs, enlarged lymph nodes in the hilus, and in 50-70% of the cases accumulation of intrapleural fluid. (L.E.)

  20. Acquired pneumonia in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo Rodriguez, Hugo Alberto

    2002-01-01

    The pneumonia is an inflammatory process unchained by a pathogen that affects bronchioles, alveoli and interstice causing exudative consolidation and alteration in the gassy exchange. The paper includes epidemiology, physiopathology, etiology and factors of risk among other topics

  1. Evaluation of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisira, J G; Kowalski, R P; Gordon, Y J

    1995-07-01

    The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, a rapid enzyme immunoassay, has been reported to be highly sensitive (93%) and specific (96%) for detecting chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen in conjunctival specimens from infants, but has not been evaluated previously in adult conjunctival specimens. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis. Twenty Chlamydia culture-positive conjunctival specimens from adults (true-positives) and 20 true-negative specimens were tested with the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test. The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test was 40% (8/20) sensitive, 100% (20/20) specific, and 70% (28/40) efficient. This study indicates that the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, though highly specific, is less sensitive in its ability to diagnose chlamydial conjunctivitis in adults than has been reported previously in infants.

  2. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the levels of chlamydia control activities including primary prevention, effective case management with partner management and surveillance were assessed in 2012 across countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), on initiative of the European Centre...... indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44......%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention...

  3. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  4. Pathomorphological characteristic of IgG4-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyadyk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related diseases are a relatively new group of diseases of unknown etiology which are characterized by the development of fibrosis of organs with the presence of big amounts of IgG4-positive plasma-cells in the area of the lesions and increased levels of IgG4 in serum. The organs that may be affected are pancreas, salivary gland, and others, clinical cases of kidney damage are described as well. Renal involvement in IgG4-related diseases most often occurs on the type of tubulointerstitial nephritis, with the further development of acute or chronic kidney injury. The clinic may be represented by the pseudotumor of kidney, renal tissue heterogeneity on the results of CT-studies; acute or chronic renal disease; combination with other organ damage (autoimmune pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing lymphoplasmacytic cholecystitis, colitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, etc.. Laboratory findings include an increased level of IgG4 in the blood serum, hypocomplementemia, eosinophilia. Histologically, there is interstitial inflammation with many plasma cells, interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, thickening of the tubular basement membrane, some cases are a type of membranous glomerulonephritis. The aim of the study is to identify the patients with IgG4-related diseases with renal impairment and widening the pathological database of such patients with renal impairment to determine the classification criteria of this pathological condition. Materials and methods will include the deceased kidney screening, screening of patients with autoimmune and allergic diseases, nephrological patients screening with the lifetime biopsy (in some cases – repeat biopsy with chronic or acute kidney impairment. There will be clinical and pathological comparison in kidney damage and other diseases with the development of criteria for the classification of lesions in the presence of IgG4-positive substrates and further development of practical

  5. Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, J H; Mcdonald, G; Alton, H; Gordon, S B

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors, such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor. The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Strepto...

  6. A novel whole-bacterial enzyme linked-immunosorbant assay to quantify Chlamydia trachomatis specific antibodies reveals distinct differences between systemic and genital compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L Albritton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the leading sexually transmitted bacterial infection. The continued global burden of CT infection strongly predicates the need for a vaccine to supplement current chlamydial control programs. The correlates of protection against CT are currently unknown, but they must be carefully defined to guide vaccine design. The localized nature of chlamydial infection in columnar epithelial cells of the genital tract necessitates investigation of immunity at the site of infection. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive whole bacterial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to quantify and compare CT-specific IgG and IgA in sera and genital secretions from CT-infected women. To achieve this, elementary bodies (EBs from two of the most common genital serovars (D and E were attached to poly-L-lysine-coated microtiter plates with glutaraldehyde. EB attachment and integrity were verified by the presence of outer membrane antigens and the absence of bacterial cytoplasmic antigens. EB-specific IgG and IgA standards were developed by pooling sera with high titers of CT-specific antibodies from infected women. Serum, endocervical and vaginal secretions, and endocervical cytobrush specimens from CT-infected women were used to quantify CT-specific IgG and IgA which were then normalized to total IgG and IgA, respectively. Analyses of paired serum and genital samples revealed significantly higher proportions of EB-specific antibodies in genital secretions compared to sera. Cervical and vaginal secretions and cytobrush specimens had similar proportions of EB-specific antibodies, suggesting any one of these genital sampling techniques could be used to quantify CT-specific antibodies when appropriate normalization methodologies are implemented. Overall, these results illustrate the need to investigate genital tract CT antibody responses, and our assay provides a useful quantitative tool to assess natural immunity in defined

  7. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  8. Development and characterization of highly informative ELISA for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to Сhlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was developing of highly informative an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies against to Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as comparative characterization of developed assay using standardized control materials. The study was conducted using: monoclonal antibodies (McAbs to human IgA and IgG; recombinant Ch. trachomatis proteins – Pgp3, major outer membrane protein (MOMP; two panels of characterized sera and four reference ELISA kits. The study of immunochemical activity of peroxidase conjugates of McAbs was performed in comparison with conjugates of commercial analogues: anti-IgG McAb 2A11 and anti-IgA McAb AD3. About half of the conjugates from the received McAbs panel were more active compared to the reference antibody conjugates. It was quite justified to use the conjugates of antibodies that interact with different antigenic determinants. When IgG antibodies were detected to MOMP, it was justified 1.14-1.56 times more; when IgA antibodies were detected to MOMP, it was justified 1.16-1.37 times more. ELISA for detecting IgG/IgA antibodies to MOMP and Pgp3 of Ch. trachomatis were evaluated using appropriately described serum panels OCO-42-28-313-00 and OCO-42-28-314-00. Comparative studies of the developed ELISA for the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to the MOMP and Pgp3 of Ch. trachomatis showed their prominent advantage over the commercial analogues, which more clearly demonstrates the difference in the ratio of average values of optical density of positive and negative samples of the described panel of sera: this indicator for commercial kits was 1.36-3.59 times less.

  9. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients With IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Chu, Xinmin; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xue; Jin, Li; Tan, Zhen; Li, Xiangpei; Li, Xiaomei

    2017-09-01

    Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) but can also be found and reported in other diseases. The present study intended to compare the serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD and determine the serum IgG4 levels in patients with IgG4-RD before and after glucocorticoid therapy. The study included 323 patients from Anhui Medical University Affiliated Provincial Hospital (China) and was conducted from July 2014-January 2016. A total of 25 patients were eventually diagnosed as having IgG4-RD, according to the IgG4-RD diagnostic criteria. Our study also included 108 patients with connective tissue disease, 94 patients with pancreatic lesions, 66 patients with bile duct lesions, 13 patients with carcinoma of the duodenal papilla and 20 control participants. The assay for serum IgG4 detection was peformed using the nephelometric method. Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35g/L) were detected in all patients with IgG4-RD, and reduced levels of serum IgG4 (IgG4-RD. The serum IgG4 level in patients with IgG4-RD after glucocorticoid therapy was significantly lower than that before glucocorticoid therapy (t = 2.426, P = 0.04). High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease can not only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels but also may need clinical manifestations, serology, histopathology and other comprehensive information for verification. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Importancia clínica de las Chlamydias

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    Digna Llorente Molina

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones por Chlamydia han alcanzado alta incidencia en el mundo. Constituyen importantes patógenos para los animales y el hombre. En la especie humana pueden ocasionar múltiples infecciones en diferentes órganos y sistemas de órganos. Objetivo: resumir los aspectos más novedosos relacionados con las Chlamydias en cuanto a sus características y formas de evitarla. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la importancia clínica de las Chlamydias en la especie humana y su elevada incidencia. Se consultó la base de datos Medline disponible en INFOMED, de donde se extrajeron referencias bibliográficas entre los años 1995 y 2011, acerca de algunos aspectos etiológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de acuerdo a los últimos apuntes más relevantes en la literatura médica sobre Chlamydias y su relación con el hombre. Resultados: la Chlamydia Trachomatis en particular responsable del tracoma, primera causa de ceguera prevenible, provoca un impacto deletéreo en la salud reproductiva, produciendo entidades como abortos espontáneos, rotura prematura de membranas, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, endometritis, conjuntivitis y neumonía del recién nacido. Es responsable además de Linfogranuloma Venéreo, Uretritis no Gonocóccica, Síndrome de Reiter, Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica, Síndrome de Fitz Hugh Curtis, Embarazo Ectópico Crónico, Dolor Pélvico Crónico y más recientemente Carcinoma Cervical, entre otras. Conclusiones: partiendo de la base del impacto social y económico que tiene la infección por Chlamydias en el mundo y en nuestro país, pudimos resumir los aspectos más novedosos en cuanto a los tipos, infecciones que causan y sus características, diagnóstico, terapéutica y medidas generales para evitarlas o reducir su impacto negativo en la sociedad.

  12. Diagnostic Performance of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients With IgG4-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuang-Hui; Chan, Tien-Ming; Tsai, Ping-Han; Chen, Ching-Hui; Chang, Pi-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to study the clinical features and diagnostic performance of IgG4 in Chinese populations with IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs). The medical records of 2901 adult subjects who underwent serum IgG4 level tests conducted between December 2007 and May 2014 were reviewed. Serum concentrations of IgG4 were measured in 2901 cases, including 161 (5.6%) patients with IgG4-RD and 2740 (94.4%) patients without IgG4-RD (non-IgG4-RD group). The mean age of the IgG4-RD patients was 58.4 ± 16.1 years (range: 21–87), and 48 (29.8%) were women. The mean serum IgG4 level was significantly much higher in IgG4-RD patients than in non-IgG4-RD (1062.6 vs 104.3 mg/dL, P IgG4 >135 mg/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratio (LR)+, and LR− were 86%, 77%, 18%, 99%, 3.70, and 0.19, respectively. When the upper limit of normal was doubled for an IgG4 >270 mg/dL, the corresponding data were 75%, 94%, 43%, 98%, 12.79, and 0.26, respectively. For IgG4 >405 mg/dL (tripling the upper limit of normal), the corresponding data were 62%, 98%, 68%, 98%, 37.00, and 0.39, respectively. When calculated according to the manufacturer's package insert cutoff (>201 mg/dL) for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, and LR− were 80%, 89%, 29%, 99%, 7.00, and 0.23, respectively. For IgG4 >402 mg/dL (>2× the upper limit of the normal range), the corresponding data were 62%, 98%, 68%, 98%, 36.21, and 0.39, respectively. For IgG4 >603 mg/dL (>3× the upper limit of the normal range), the corresponding data were 50%, 99%, 84%, 97%, 90.77 and 0.51, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of serum IgG4 (measured by nephelometry using a Siemens BN ProSpec instrument and Siemens reagent) for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD was 248 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.6% and 92.8%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that 2 or

  13. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

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    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  14. The roentgenological study of measles pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, U.; Song, C. H.; Lee, H. Y.; Chung, H. K.; Joo, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    Measles is important infectious disease of pediatrics and pneumonia is the most commonest complication of measles. We have experienced 20 cases of pneumonia among 31 cases of measles in infant nursing home of Chae Chun during of December. 1981. The results a are as follows; 1. The incidence of measles pneumonia is 64.5%. 2. The patterns of pneumonic infiltration is : The pneumonia may have a bronchopneumonia (60%), Lobar pneumonia (15%), or combined form (35%). 3. Both lungs are involved by measles pneumonia: Right lung only (30%), Left lung only (5%), or Bilateral (65%). 4. Hilar lymphadenopathy (51.6%). Hilar lymphadenopathy with pneumonia (82.2%) and hilar lymphadenopathy without pneumonia (17.8%). 5. There is no pulmonary nodule which is noted frequently in atypical measles pneumonia as a seguale

  15. Extrapancreatic findings of IgG4-related disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, T.J.; Ng, Y.L.; Tan, D.; Fong, W.S.; Low, A.S.C.

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic fibro-inflammatory condition, which includes autoimmune pancreatitis as part of the disease spectrum. Imaging has been demonstrated to play a major role in the diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis. Recognizing the wide spectrum of extrapancreatic manifestations of IgG4-related disease coupled with a high clinical index of suspicion will allow for an accurate and timely diagnosis to be made, thus avoiding unnecessary invasive procedures and ensuring that early effective corticosteroid therapy is commenced. This review aims to serve as a concise reference tool for both clinicians and radiologists in the diagnosis of extrapancreatic IgG4-related disease

  16. Serological blind spots for variants of human IgG3 and IgG4 by a commonly used anti-immunoglobulin reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Heather L; Delaney, Meghan; Wang, Xiaohong; Er, Lay See; Vidarsson, Gestur; Stegmann, Tamara C; Kapp, Linda; Lebedev, Jenna N; Wu, Yanyun; AuBuchon, James P; Zimring, James C

    2016-12-01

    Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) includes four different subtypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), and it is also now appreciated that there are genetic variations within IgG subtypes (called isoallotypes). Twenty-nine different isoallotypes have been described, with 7, 4, 15, and 3 isoallotypes described for IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, respectively. The reactivity of anti-IgG with different isoallotypes has not been characterized. A novel monoclonal anti-K antibody (PugetSound Monoclonal Antibody 1 [PUMA1]) was isolated and sequenced, and a panel of PUMA1 variants was expressed, consisting of the 29 known IgG isoallotypes. The resulting panel of antibodies was preincubated with K-positive red blood cells (RBCs) and then subjected to testing with currently approved anti-IgG by flow cytometry, solid phase systems, gel cards, and tube testing. A US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal anti-IgG (gamma-clone) failed to recognize 2 of 15 IgG3 isoallotypes (IgG3-03 and IgG3-13) and 3 of 3 IgG4 isoallotypes (IgG4-01, IgG4-02, and IgG4-03). In contrast, an FDA-approved rabbit polyclonal anti-IgG recognized each of the known human IgG isoallotypes. These findings demonstrate "blind spots" in isoalloantibody detection by a monoclonal anti-IgG. If a patient has anti-RBC antibodies predominantly of an IgG3 subtype (the IgG3-03 and/or IgG3-13 variety), then it is possible that a clinically significant alloantibody would be missed. IgG-03 and IgG-13 have an estimated frequency of 1% to 3% in Caucasian populations and 20% to 30% in certain African populations. Nonreactivity with IgG4 is a known characteristic of this monoclonal anti-IgG, but IgG4 isoallotypes have not been previously reported. © 2016 AABB.

  17. Histopathological Diagnostic Value of the IgG4+/IgG+ Ratio of Plasmacytic Infiltration for IgG4-Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chuiwen; Li, Wenli; Chen, Si; Zhang, Wen; Li, Jing; Hu, Chaojun; Wen, Xiaoting; Zhang, Fengchun; Li, Yongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article aims to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic value of the immunoglobulin G (IgG)4+/IgG+ ratio of plasmacytic infiltration for IgG4-related diseases. Four databases—EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library—were systematically searched. Approximately 200 participants from several studies were included in this research. STATA 11.2 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX) and Meta-DiSc 1.4 (Unit of Clinical Biostatistics, Ramon y Cajal Hospital, Madrid, Spain) were used to perform the meta-analysis. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled diagnostic odds ratio was 18.94 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.89–124.30]. The sensitivity was 58.80% (95% CI, 50.90–66.30) and the specificity was 90.20% (95% CI, 81.20–95.80). The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 3.12 (95% CI, 1.07–9.16) and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.09–0.70), respectively. The area under the curve of the summary receiver-operating characteristic was 0.88. To conclude, the IgG4+/IgG+ ratio of plasmacytic infiltration is modestly effective in diagnosing IgG-related disease. PMID:25738476

  18. Atopy: a risk factor of refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yi-Xiao; Li, Jing; Tian, Ye; Liu, Quang-Hua; Bao, Jun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship of pathogen DNA copies with clinic and laboratory features among children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia. A total of 95 enrolled children with MP pneumonia were assigned into the high-MP-load group (>10 6 /mL) and the low-MP-load group (≤10 6 /mL) according to MP-DNA copies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Clinical characteristics and any allergy history were collected. Aeroallergens and food allergens were detected with a skin test. Serum IgE and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were assessed using enzyme immunoassay. BALF levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α were assessed by ELISA. Compared with the low-MP-load group, 72.7% in the high-MP-load group developed refractory MP pneumonia who failed to respond to at least 1-week treatment with macrolides (72.7% vs 41.9%, P = 0.005). More children in the high-load group than those in the low-load group presented with extrapulmonary manifestations, lung consolidation, pleural effusion and atopic conditions including any allergy history, positive findings of aeroallergen test and increased serum IgE and ECP (P  0.05). Atopy may be a risk factor for the presence and severity of refractory MP pneumonia due to the high pathogen load in airway. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2017-04-03

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Biomarkers of vaccine induced protective immunity are elusive in humans, while a cautionary message on the translatability of data obtained from current animal models has emanated from vaccine research and development efforts against other important human pathogens. In this commentary, we highlight recent advances in Chlamydia vaccine development and discuss their implications in the context of a rational approach to the design of a human C. trachomatis vaccine.

  20. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six?decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Bio...

  1. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. IgG4-RELATED DISEASE. CLINICAL NOTES

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    Vladimir Ivanovich Vasilyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related diseases are a new nosological entity that encompasses a few previously known diseases. IgG4-related systemic disease is diagnosed if two or more affected organs are detected. This group of diseases has two similar signs: serological (elevated serum IgG4 subclass concentrations and histological (organ and tissue infiltration from plasmo-cytes secreting IgG4, and eosinophils, and the development of fibrosclerosis and phlebitis obliterans. The paper describes two cases. In one case, a multisystemic disease was observed virtually at its onset whereas in the other this lesion was diagnosed several years after the natural course of the disease.

  3. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) Molecular Genetic Markers1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart-Waco, Diana; Kuppu, Sundaram; Britt, Anne; Chetelat, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Genetic markers are essential when developing or working with genetically variable populations. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) markers are primer pairs that amplify single-locus sequences that differ in size for two or more alleles. They are attractive for their ease of use for rapid genotyping and their codominant nature. Here, we describe a heuristic algorithm that uses a k-mer-based approach to search two or more genome sequences to locate polymorphic regions suitable for designing candidate IGG marker primers. As input to the IGG pipeline software, the user provides genome sequences and the desired amplicon sizes and size differences. Primer sequences flanking polymorphic insertions/deletions are produced as output. IGG marker files for three sets of genomes, Solanum lycopersicum/Solanum pennellii, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0/Landsberg erecta-0 accessions, and S. lycopersicum/S. pennellii/Solanum tuberosum (three-way polymorphic) are included. PMID:27436831

  4. IgG responses to Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae protein antigens are not impaired in children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertsema, Selma P; Corscadden, Karli J; Mowe, Eva N; Zhang, Guicheng; Vijayasekaran, Shyan; Coates, Harvey L; Mitchell, Timothy J; Thomas, Wayne R; Richmond, Peter C; Kirkham, Lea-Ann S

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines including conserved antigens from Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have the potential to reduce the burden of acute otitis media. Little is known about the antibody response to such antigens in young children with recurrent acute otitis media, however, it has been suggested antibody production may be impaired in these children. We measured serum IgG levels against 4 pneumococcal (PspA1, PspA 2, CbpA and Ply) and 3 NTHi (P4, P6 and PD) proteins in a cross-sectional study of 172 children under 3 years of age with a history of recurrent acute otitis media (median 7 episodes, requiring ventilation tube insertion) and 63 healthy age-matched controls, using a newly developed multiplex bead assay. Children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media had significantly higher geometric mean serum IgG levels against NTHi proteins P4, P6 and PD compared with healthy controls, whereas there was no difference in antibody levels against pneumococcal protein antigens. In both children with and without a history of acute otitis media, antibody levels increased with age and were significantly higher in children colonised with S. pneumoniae or NTHi compared with children that were not colonised. Proteins from S. pneumoniae and NTHi induce serum IgG in children with a history of acute otitis media. The mechanisms in which proteins induce immunity and potential protection requires further investigation but the dogma of impaired antibody responses in children with recurrent acute otitis media should be reconsidered.

  5. IgG responses to Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae protein antigens are not impaired in children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma P Wiertsema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccines including conserved antigens from Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi have the potential to reduce the burden of acute otitis media. Little is known about the antibody response to such antigens in young children with recurrent acute otitis media, however, it has been suggested antibody production may be impaired in these children. METHODS: We measured serum IgG levels against 4 pneumococcal (PspA1, PspA 2, CbpA and Ply and 3 NTHi (P4, P6 and PD proteins in a cross-sectional study of 172 children under 3 years of age with a history of recurrent acute otitis media (median 7 episodes, requiring ventilation tube insertion and 63 healthy age-matched controls, using a newly developed multiplex bead assay. RESULTS: Children with a history of recurrent acute otitis media had significantly higher geometric mean serum IgG levels against NTHi proteins P4, P6 and PD compared with healthy controls, whereas there was no difference in antibody levels against pneumococcal protein antigens. In both children with and without a history of acute otitis media, antibody levels increased with age and were significantly higher in children colonised with S. pneumoniae or NTHi compared with children that were not colonised. CONCLUSIONS: Proteins from S. pneumoniae and NTHi induce serum IgG in children with a history of acute otitis media. The mechanisms in which proteins induce immunity and potential protection requires further investigation but the dogma of impaired antibody responses in children with recurrent acute otitis media should be reconsidered.

  6. More than classical Chlamydia psittaci in urban pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Kuehlewind, Simone; Ruettger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Rohde, Gernot

    2012-06-15

    In the literature, studies of Chlamydia infection in birds have usually been confined to the search for Chlamydia (C., formerly Chlamydophila) psittaci, so that little is known about the presence of other chlamydial agents. In the present study, cloacal swabs and faeces samples of urban pigeons have been examined by real-time PCR, DNA microarray assays and partial ompA sequencing. Whilst C. psittaci was the predominant chlamydial agent in this pigeon population (75.8% of all Chlamydiaceae positives), the combined use of highly specific and sensitive molecular assays facilitated the detection of atypical serovars of C. psittaci, as well as other species of Chlamydia, such as C. abortus. Detection of C. pecorum and C. trachomatis from an avian host is reported here for the first time. Rather unexpectedly, 19.5% of all Chlamydiaceae-positive cases turned out to be infected with non-classified organisms. The considerable prevalence of these novel agents raises the question of their epidemiological importance and possible role as pathogens. Future surveys in domestic and wild birds will have to take the extended variety of chlamydial organisms into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

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    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  8. Large vessel involvement by IgG4-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Cory A.; Wallace, Zachary S.; Meyersohn, Nandini; Oliveira, George; Stone, James R.; Stone, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated fibroinflammatory condition that can affect multiple organs and lead to tumefactive, tissue-destructive lesions. Reports have described inflammatory aortitis and periaortitis, the latter in the setting of retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF), but have not distinguished adequately between these 2 manifestations. The frequency, radiologic features, and response of vascular complications to B cell depletion remain poorly defined. We describe the clinical features, radiology findings, and treatment response in a cohort of 36 patients with IgG4-RD affecting large blood vessels. Methods: Clinical records of all patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD in our center were reviewed. All radiologic studies were reviewed. We distinguished between primary large blood vessel inflammation and secondary vascular involvement. Primary involvement was defined as inflammation in the blood vessel wall as a principal focus of disease. Secondary vascular involvement was defined as disease caused by the effects of adjacent inflammation on the blood vessel wall. Results: Of the 160 IgG4-RD patients in this cohort, 36 (22.5%) had large-vessel involvement. The mean age at disease onset of the patients with large-vessel IgG4-RD was 54.6 years. Twenty-eight patients (78%) were male and 8 (22%) were female. Thirteen patients (36%) had primary IgG4-related vasculitis and aortitis with aneurysm formation comprised the most common manifestation. This affected 5.6% of the entire IgG4-RD cohort and was observed in the thoracic aorta in 8 patients, the abdominal aorta in 4, and both the thoracic and abdominal aorta in 3. Three of these aneurysms were complicated by aortic dissection or contained perforation. Periaortitis secondary to RPF accounted for 27 of 29 patients (93%) of secondary vascular involvement by IgG4-RD. Only 5 patients demonstrated evidence of both primary and secondary blood vessel involvement. Of those treated with

  9. Increased IgG4-Positive Plasma Cells in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: A Diagnostic Pitfall of IgG4-Related Disease

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    Sing Yun Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s (GPA may mimic IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD on histologic examination of some biopsies, especially those from head and neck sites. IgG4 immunostain is often performed in this context for differential diagnosis with IgG4-RD. However, the prevalence of IgG4+ cells in GPA has not been explored. We examined the IgG4+ cells in 26 cases confirmed as GPA by a thorough clinical and pathologic assessment. Twenty-six biopsies consisted of 14 sinonasal/oral cavity/nasopharynx, 7 orbit/periorbital, 3 lung/pleura, 1 iliac fossa/kidney, and 1 dura specimens. Eight of 26 (31% biopsies revealed increased IgG4+ cells (>30/HPF and >40% in IgG4+/IgG+ ratio. The IgG4+ cells and IgG4+/IgG+ ratio ranged 37–137/hpf and 44–83%, respectively. Eight biopsies with increased IgG4+ cells were from sinonasal (n=4 or orbital/periorbital (n=4 sites. In conclusion, increased IgG4+ cells are not uncommonly seen in sinonasal or orbital/periorbital biopsies of GPA, which could pose as a diagnostic pitfall.

  10. Mannose-binding lectin and l-ficolin polymorphisms in patients with community-acquired pneumonia caused by intracellular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Gijs; Meijvis, Sabine; Endeman, Henrik; Vlaminckx, Bart; Meek, Bob; de Jong, Ben; Rijkers, Ger; Bos, Willem Jan

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading infectious disease requiring hospitalization in the western world. Genetic variability affecting the host response to infection may play a role in susceptibility and outcome in patients with CAP. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and l-ficolin (l-FCN) are two important activators of the complement system and they can enhance phagocytosis by opsonization. In a prospective cohort of 505 Dutch patients with CAP and 227 control participants we studied whether polymorphisms in the MBL (MBL2) and FCN (FCN2) genes influenced susceptibility and outcome. No difference in frequency of these genotypes was found between patients with CAP in general and controls. However, the +6424G>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in FCN2 was more common in patients with a Coxiella burnetii pneumonia (P = 0·014). Moreover, the haplotypes coding for the highest MBL serum levels (YA/YA and YA/XA) predisposed to atypical pneumonia (C. burnetii, Legionella or Chlamydia species or Mycoplasma pneumoniae) compared with controls (P = 0·016). Furthermore, patients with these haplotypes were more often bacteraemic (P = 0·019). It can therefore be concluded that MBL2 and FCN2 polymorphisms are not major risk factors for CAP in general, but that the +6424G>T SNP in the FCN2 gene predisposes to C. burnetii pneumonia. In addition, patients with genotypes corresponding with high serum MBL levels are at risk for atypical pneumonia, possibly caused by enhanced phagocytosis, thereby promoting cell entry of these intracellular bacteria. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mycoplasma Pneumoniae among Children Hospitalized with Community-acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Preeta K; Jain, Seema; Taylor, Thomas H; Bramley, Anna M; Diaz, Maureen H; Ampofo, Krow; Arnold, Sandra R; Williams, Derek J; Edwards, Kathryn M; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Winchell, Jonas M; Schrag, Stephanie J; Hicks, Lauri A

    2018-05-17

    The burden and epidemiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) among U.S. children (<18 years) hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are poorly understood. In the Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, we prospectively enrolled 2254 children hospitalized with radiographically-confirmed pneumonia from January 2010-June 2012 and tested nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs for Mp using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Clinical and epidemiological features of Mp-PCR-positive and -negative children were compared using logistic regression. Macrolide susceptibility was assessed by genotyping isolates. In the EPIC study, 182(8%) children were Mp-PCR-positive (median age: 7 years); 12% required intensive care and 26% had pleural effusion. No in-hospital deaths occurred. Macrolide resistance was found in 6/169(4%) isolates. Of 178(98%) Mp-PCR-positive children tested for co-pathogens, 50(28%) had ≥1 co-pathogen detected. Variables significantly associated with higher odds of Mp detection included age {10-17 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 7.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-13.6)] and 5-9 years [aOR: 4.8 (CI: 2.9-7.8)] vs. 2-4 years}, outpatient antibiotics ≤5 days pre-admission [aOR: 2.3 (CI: 1.5-3.4)], and co-pathogen detection [aOR: 2.1 (CI: 1.3-3.1)]. Clinical characteristics often seen included hilar lymphadenopathy, rales, headache, sore throat, and decreased breath sounds. Usually considered as a mild respiratory infection, M. pneumoniae was the most commonly detected bacteria among children ≥5 years hospitalized with CAP; one-quarter of whom had co-detections. Although associated with clinically non-specific symptoms, there was a need for intensive care support in some cases. M. pneumoniae should be included in the differential diagnosis for school-aged children hospitalized with CAP.

  12. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia induce distinct host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Kevin W; McDunn, Jonathan E; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Dixon, David J; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Dipasco, Peter J; Osberghaus, William F; Sherman, Benjamin; Martin, James R; Walter, Michael J; Cobb, J Perren; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens that cause pneumonia may be treated in a targeted fashion by antibiotics, but if this therapy fails, then treatment involves only nonspecific supportive measures, independent of the inciting infection. The purpose of this study was to determine whether host response is similar after disparate infections with similar mortalities. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratory in a university medical center. Pneumonia was induced in FVB/N mice by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or two different concentrations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from septic animals was assayed by a microarray immunoassay measuring 18 inflammatory mediators at multiple time points. The host response was dependent on the causative organism as well as kinetics of mortality, but the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses were independent of inoculum concentration or degree of bacteremia. Pneumonia caused by different concentrations of the same bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also yielded distinct inflammatory responses; however, inflammatory mediator expression did not directly track the severity of infection. For all infections, the host response was compartmentalized, with markedly different concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the systemic circulation and the lungs. Hierarchical clustering analysis resulted in the identification of five distinct clusters of the host response to bacterial infection. Principal components analysis correlated pulmonary macrophage inflammatory peptide-2 and interleukin-10 with progression of infection, whereas elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor sr2 and macrophage chemotactic peptide-1 were indicative of fulminant disease with >90% mortality within 48 hrs. Septic mice have distinct local and systemic responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Targeting specific host inflammatory responses induced by distinct bacterial infections could represent a

  13. IgG4-Related Disease in a Urachal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Dum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that has the ability to affect nearly every organ system. It is characterized by tumefactive lesions and fibrosis and closely mimics neoplasms. Only one case of IgG4-related bladder mass has been reported in the literature, but there are no reports of IgG4-related disease in a urachal mass. Herein, we report a 26-year-old male who initially presented with symptoms of recurrent UTI. Work-up revealed a 6 cm urachal tumor, a 1.4 cm pulmonary lesion, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy; all metabolically active on PET scan and suspicious for urachal adenocarcinoma. Lung lesion fine needle aspiration and TURBT pathology revealed inflammation but no evidence of malignancy. The patient underwent a partial cystectomy and umbilectomy with pathology demonstrating dense plasmacytic cells, a high rate of immunohistochemistry staining positive for IgG4 plasma cells, a storiform pattern of fibrosis, and an obliterative phlebitis. Furthermore, the patient had an elevated serum IgG4 level of 227 mg/dL (range 2.4–121 mg/dL. IgG4-related disease is a newly recognized fibroinflammatory disorder that can mimic neoplastic processes and a high index of suspicion and accurate tissue pathology is necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins (Mariia); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV

  15. Chest radiographic findings of tuberculous pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seung Hye; Sung, Dong Wook; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon

    1991-01-01

    When tuberculous pneumonia appears as a segmental or loabr consolidation, its is difficult to differentiate tuberculous pneumonia from nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia radiologically. The object of this study was to define the typical radiographic findings of tuberculous pneumonia through comparative analysis of tuberculous and nontuberculous pneumonia. A review of chest radiolograph in 29 patients with tuberculous pneumonia and in 23 patients with nontuberculous bacterial pneumonia was made with regard to homogeneity, volume loss, air-fluid level within the cavities, air-bronchogram, pleural disease, and predilection sites. The characteristic findings of tuberculous pneumonia are a heterogeneous density of infiltration (66%), evidence of volume loss of infiltrative lesion (52%), and cavity formation (48%) without air - fluid level. An associated parameter of analysis is the relative absence of leukocytosis (76%)

  16. Distinct intensity of host-pathogen interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-infected chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Maria; Sachse, Konrad; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-09-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology.

  17. Imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yanwei; Zhang Jingwen; Wu Jianlin; Zhou Yong; Li Mingwu; Lei Zhen; Shi Lifu

    2006-01-01

    Objection: To analyze the imaging appearances of cholesterol pneumonia. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the X-ray and CT findings of 3 patients with cholesterol pneumonia confirmed pathologically and reviewed correlative literature. Results: Lesions similar to mass were found in X-ray and CT imaging of three cases. Two of them appeared cavity with fluid-level and one showed multiple ring enhancement after CT contrast. The course of disease was very. long and it had no respond to antibiotic therapy. Amounts of foam cells rich in cholesterol crystal were detected in pathological examination. Conclusions: Cholesterol pneumonia is a rare chronic pulmonary idiopathic disease, and the radiological findings can do some help to its diagnosis. (authors)

  18. Organising pneumonia due to dronedarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D; Avery, S; Edey, A J; Medford, A R L

    2015-01-01

    Organising pneumonia is one of the responses of the lung to injury and can mimic bacterial pneumonia but importantly it does not respond to antibiotic therapy. We present the case of a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with organising pneumonia secondary to dronedarone. Drug reactions are a common cause and early identification of the culprit is mandatory to prevent further morbidity and ensure a favourable outcome. On chest radiography there may be fleeting peripheral consolidation, while computed tomography can show a range of stereotyped patterns including perilobular consolidation. Bronchoscopic biopsy may not always be possible but response to steroids is often rapid following removal of the culprit drug. Dronedarone should be included in the list of possible drugs and the Pneumotox database remains a useful resource for the clinician when acute drug-related pneumotoxicity is suspected.

  19. [INHALED ANTIBIOTICS IN TREATMENT OF NOSOCOMIAL PNEUMONIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzovlev, A N; Moroz, V V; Golubev, A M

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia is the most common infection in intensive care units. Currently the problem of resistance of noso-comial pathogens to miost of antibiotics is crucial. Using of inhaled antibiotics in combination with intravenous drugs is eff ective and safe method for treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. The literature review describes current opportunities of ihhaled antibiotic therapy of nosocomial pneumonia, descriptions of drugs, the advantages and disadvantages of this treatment. Special attention is paid for using inhaled aminoglycosides for nosocomial pneumonia.

  20. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  1. Usefulness of primary care electronic networks to assess the incidence of chlamydia, diagnosed by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, A.W.M.; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Brouwer, H.J.; Vanrolleghem, A.M.; Joosten, J.H.K.; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Kretzschmar, M.E.E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs). Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening

  2. Population Genomics of Chlamydia trachomatis: Insights on Drift, Selection, Recombination, and Population Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Rothschild, James; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The large number of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular trachoma cases that are caused globally each year by Chlamydia trachomatis has made this organism a World Health Organization priority for vaccine development. However, there is no gene transfer system for Chlamydia to help identify

  3. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  4. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  6. Prevalence and molecular identification of Chlamydia abortus in commercial dairy goat farms in a hot region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Hernández, Eleuterio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, Jorge Antonio; Escalante-Ochoa, Cristina; López-Heydeck, Sandra M; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and presence of Chlamydia abortus in Saanen breed female goats from commercial dairy goat farms under intensive production in the municipality of Guanajuato, Mexico. Sera were collected to determine the prevalence of anti-C. abortus IgG antibodies using recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and cell culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to prove the presence of the pathogen in swab samples collected from the vagina and rectum of selected animals. Additionally, foetal tissue samples from a sudden abortion were collected. C. abortus prevalence in female goats of commercial milking farms sampled in Guanajuato, Mexico, was 4.87% (n = 246). Seropositive animals were found in six out of nine (66.6%) dairy goat farms sampled, and prevalence among animals in individual farms ranged between 3.44 and 13.51%. C. abortus was detected using PCR in spleen tissue from the aborted foetus. PCR-based detection, as well as isolation from vaginal and rectal swabs, was not possible in the present study. Isolation through cell culture was also unsuccessful from aborted foetal tissue samples. In conclusion, the results from rELISA and PCR show that C. abortus is present in dairy goat farms in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  7. IgG and IgG subclasses antibody responses to rK39 in Leishmania donovani infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifalla, N.S.; El Hassan, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Leishmania donovani infection cause a wide spectrum of human diseases ranging from self-healing subclinical infections to severe visceral leishmaniasis, post kal-azar dermal leishmaiasis, and mucosal leishmaiasis. The infection associated with high levels of anti-leishmania antibodies which offer a potential parameter for the serological diagnosis of L. donovani infection replacing the invasive parasitological methods. rK39, a cloned antigen of L. chagasis was reported to have high levels of anti-leishmania antibodies in Sudanese and American visceral leishmaniasis patients. In an assessment of rK39-ELISA in detecting L. donovani infection we found that the antigen detected visceral leishmaniasis, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, and mucosal leismaniasis with the sensitives of 96.6%, 95.91% and 90.91% respectively. The test has the specificity of 96.7%. Further investigation of 25 visceral leishmaniasis patients showed elevated anti-rK39 antibody responses of IgG subclasses with IgG1 and IgG3 significantly higher than IgG4. igG3 showed the highest sensitivity (84.00%) whereas IgG1 showed the highest sensitivity (100%). The dynamics of the serological reactivity to rK39 in l.donovani infections will be discussed in relation to exposure, infection, cure and relapse.(Author)

  8. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol

    2013-01-01

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  9. Enterobacter Asburiae Pneumonia with Cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Heo, Jeong Nam; Park, Choong Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.

  10. CT findings of necrotizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyae Young; Im, Jung Gi; Whang, Sung Il; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Jae Kyo; Song, Jae Woo

    1998-01-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia causes necrosis of pulmonary parenchyma and may lead to pulmonary gangrene. Prior to the antibiotic era, extensive pulmonary involvement was potentially fatal, but the incidence of necrotizing pneumoniais now less common. On contrast-enhanced CT scans, consolidation with contrast enhancement containing necrotic foci with low attenuation and cavities is characteristic. Radiologic findings do not differ according to the causative organism and in most of cases, specific diagnosis may be impossible. Clinical findings and certain characteristic radiologic findings may be helpful for narrowing the differential diagnosis. We illustrate the clinical and radiologic characteristics of necrotizing pneumonia according to causative bacterial organisms

  11. Cisplatin-Induced Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideharu Ideguchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man suffering from esophageal cancer was admitted to our hospital complaining of dyspnea and hypoxemia. He had been treated with cisplatin, docetaxel, and fluorouracil combined with radiotherapy. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral ground-glass opacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed increased eosinophils. Two episodes of transient eosinophilia in peripheral blood were observed after serial administration of anticancer drugs before the admission, and drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test to cisplatin was positive. Thus cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was suspected, and corticosteroid was effectively administered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of cisplatin-induced eosinophilic pneumonia.

  12. Imaging of pneumocystic carinii pneumonia in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Zhang Ke; Ma Daqing; Jia Cuiyu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the X-ray and CT findings of pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS. Methods: Five AIDS patients who had chest abnormalities were analyzed. Results: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia appeared as diffuse infiltrative and interstitial fine nodules. Conclusion: If the diffuse and infiltrative interstitial fine nodule are the appearances in patients with AIDS, the pneumocystic carinii pneumonia should be considered

  13. Polymyositis with elevated serum IgG4 levels and abundant IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Ryusuke; Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Yuko; Kikuchi, Jun; Suzuki, Kazuko; Matsubara, Shiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2017-12-01

    Polymyositis (PM) is a type of autoimmune, inflammatory myopathy. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma-cell infiltration of various organs. However, several reports have described cases of other diseases that present with those features, suggesting the importance of careful differential diagnosis. Herein, we report the first case of PM with elevated serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma cells in the muscles, mimicking IgG4-RD.A 73-year-old woman visited our hospital because of proximal muscle weakness of both thighs. Her blood test showed high levels of serum creatinine kinase, aldolase, and IgG4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thighs showed muscle edema. Needle electromyography showed findings typical of myositis. Histological analysis of her left quadriceps revealed infiltration of IgG4 plasma cells as well as CD8 T cells. Scattered necrotic and regenerating muscle fibers with no specific findings for IgG4-RD (storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis) were typical for PM. We diagnosed her condition as PM and treated her with 40 mg/day of prednisolone that decreased levels of muscle enzymes and improved muscle weakness. Our case indicated that PM could present with high serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma-cell infiltration, mimicking IgG4-RD. Although the mechanism of IgG4 elevation in such PM is unclear, our case highlights the necessity to recognize that high serum IgG4 levels and IgG4 plasma-cell infiltration in organs are not specific for IgG4-RD.

  14. Characteristics of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies specific to Сhlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein (HSP-60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Galkin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to study sensitivity and specificity of the developed ELISA set for the identification of IgG antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis HSP-60 (using biotinylated tyramine-based signal amplification system. The study was conducted using a panel of characterized sera, as well as two reference ELISA sets of similar purpose. According to the results of ELISA informative value parameters, the ELISA we have developed showed the highest specificity and sensitivity parameters (no false negative or false positive results were registered. In 4 out of 15 intralaboratory panel serum samples initially identified as negative, anti-HSP-60 IgG-antibodies test result in reference ELISA sets upon dilution changed from negative to positive. The nature of titration curves of false negative sera and commercial monoclonal antibodies А57-В9 against C. trachomatis HSP-60 after incubation for 24 h was indicative of the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies in these samples. Upon sera dilution, idiotypic-anti-idiotypic complexes dissociated, which caused the change of test result. High informative value of the developed ELISA set for identification of IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis HSP-60 has been proven. Anti-idiotypic antibodies possessing C. trachomatis anti-HSP-60 activity and being one of the causes of false negative results of the relevant ELISA-based tests have been identified in blood sera of individuals infected with chlamydial genitourinary infection agents.

  15. The apparent monovalency of human IgG4 is due to bispecificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, R. C.; Schuurman, J.; van Ree, R.

    1999-01-01

    A hypothesis is put forward to explain the apparent monovalency of human IgG4. It is based upon the known instability of the IgG4 hinge. IgG4 is secreted as a regular bivalent antibody, but after secretion interacts with another IgG4 molecule. This interaction results in the exchange of half

  16. Value of serum IgG4 in the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease and in differentiation from rheumatic diseases and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Motohisa; Tabeya, Tetsuya; Naishiro, Yasuyoshi; Yajima, Hidetaka; Ishigami, Keisuke; Shimizu, Yui; Obara, Mikiko; Suzuki, Chisako; Yamashita, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Sugaya, Toshiaki; Ishida, Tadao; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Himi, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Honda, Saho; Takahashi, Hiroki; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2012-06-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a novel disease entity that includes Mikulicz's disease, autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), and many other conditions. It is characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and abundant IgG4-bearing plasmacyte infiltration of involved organs. We postulated that high levels of serum IgG4 would comprise a useful diagnostic tool, but little information is available about IgG4 in conditions other than IgG4-RD, including rheumatic diseases. Several reports have described cutoff values for serum IgG4 when diagnosing IgG4-RD, but these studies mostly used 135 mg/dL in AIP to differentiate from pancreatic cancer instead of rheumatic and other common diseases. There is no evidence for a cutoff serum IgG4 level of 135 mg/dL for rheumatic diseases and common diseases that are often complicated with rheumatic diseases. The aim of this work was to re-evaluate the usual cutoff serum IgG4 value in AIP (135 mg/dL) that is used to diagnose whole IgG4-RD in the setting of a rheumatic clinic by measuring serum IgG4 levels in IgG4-RD and various disorders. We therefore constructed ROC curves of serum IgG4 levels in 418 patients who attended Sapporo Medical University Hospital due to IgG4-RD and various rheumatic and common disorders. The optimal cut-off value of serum IgG4 for a diagnosis of IgG4-RD was 144 mg/dL, and the sensitivity and specificity were 95.10 and 90.76%, respectively. Levels of serum IgG4 were elevated in IgG4-RD, Churg-Strauss syndrome, multicentric Castleman's disease, eosinophilic disorders, and in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, chronic hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. The usual cut-off value of 135 mg/dL in AIP is useful for diagnosing whole IgG4-RD, but high levels of serum IgG4 are sometimes observed in not only IgG4-RD but also other rheumatic and common diseases.

  17. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  18. Increased incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in Greenland 1990-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mila Broby; Koch, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, Greenland has presented the highest reported incidence rates of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) gonorrhoea and chlamydia in the Arctic regions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe sex- and age-specific incidence rates of gonorrhoea and chlamydia from 1990...... to 2012 in Greenland, and to evaluate if changes in case definitions, diagnostic procedures and implementation of STI interventions during the period coincide with rate changes. DESIGN: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases were identified from the national STI surveillance. For 1990-2008, STI cases were...... to sex, age and calendar period. RESULTS: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia incidence rates have increased since 1995 to reach 2,555 per 100,000 person-years (PY) for gonorrhoea and 6,403 per 100,000 PY for chlamydia in 2012. From 2006 to 2012, the incidence rates among young adults aged 15-19 years were 8...

  19. Immunology of IgG4-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Torre, E; Lanzillotta, M; Doglioni, C

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory condition that derives its name from the characteristic finding of abundant IgG4+ plasma cells in affected tissues, as well as the presence of elevated serum IgG4 concentrations in many patients. In contrast to fibrotic disorders, such as systemic sclerosis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in which the tissues fibrosis has remained largely intractable to treatment, many IgG4-RD patients appear to have a condition in which the collagen deposition is reversible. The mechanisms underlying this peculiar feature remain unknown, but the remarkable efficacy of B cell depletion in these patients supports an important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration. In particular, aberrant T helper type 2 (Th2)/regulatory T cells sustained by putative autoreactive B cells have been proposed to drive collagen deposition through the production of profibrotic cytokines, but definitive demonstrations of this hypothesis are lacking. Indeed, a number of unsolved questions need to be addressed in order to fully understand the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD. These include the identification of an antigenic trigger(s), the implications (if any) of IgG4 antibodies for pathophysiology and the precise immunological mechanisms leading to fibrosis. Recent investigations have also raised the possibility that innate immunity might precede adaptive immunity, thus further complicating the pathological scenario. Here, we aim to review the most recent insights on the immunology of IgG4-RD, focusing on the relative contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses to the full pathological phenotype of this fibrotic condition. Clinical, histological and therapeutic features are also addressed. PMID:25865251

  20. [IgG4-related disease - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek-Banach, Justyna; Brodzińska, Kinga; Jankowska, Anna; Ambroziak, Urszula; Szczepankiewicz, Benedykt; Nałęcz-Janik, Jolanta; Miśkiewicz, Piotr

    2017-09-29

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a comparatively new condition that may involve more than one organ. The lack of characteristic, pathognomonic clinical symptoms may delay the diagnosis of this disease. The diagnosis is based upon clinical manifestation, elevated serum levels of IgG4 and histopathologic examination with immunohistochemical staining to reveal infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells. The first line treatment is oral glucocorticoids. 38-year-old woman with Hashimoto disease, chronic sinusitis and chronic hepatitis of unknown etiology was admitted to the Department of Endocrinology because of moderate eyelids swelling accompanied by redness for 3 years. Graves' orbitopathy and systemic vasculitis were suspected, however both were excluded (negative antibodies results: anty-TSHR, ANCA, ANA). Serologic investigation of Sjögren's syndrome was also negative. In Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of orbits there were described bilateral mild extension of lateral rectus muscles, normal signal of adipose tissue and bilateral lacrimal glands enlargement. Moreover, increased IgG4 serum levels were detected. The material derived from perinasal sinuses surgery was analyzed in histopathology examination with immunohistochemical staining, which revealed characteristic features of chronic inflammatory process and increased numbers of IgG4 - positive plasma cells (>50 in a large field of view). The diagnosis of IgG4-RD was established. Because of non-effective oral methylprednisolone therapy in the past, the patient was referred to Clinic of Rheumatology for further treatment. After the therapy with methylprednisolone and azathioprine there were observed the significant reduction of symptoms. Because of lack of characteristic symptoms of IgG4- RD, it should be always considered in differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases of various organs.

  1. Characteristic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yutaka; Kanetsuna, Yukiko; Honda, Kazuho; Yamanaka, Nobuaki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Nagata, Michio

    2012-04-01

    Nephropathy associated with IgG4-related disease is characterized by tubulointerstitial nephritis. To better identify its pathology, the present study analyzed clinicopathologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis cases from across Japan. Sixteen cases were identified as IgG4-related nephropathy using the criterion of high serum IgG4 levels (>135 mg/dL) with abnormal kidney computed tomography or elevated serum creatinine levels. Male predominance (75%) and advanced age (average, 62.0 years) were noted. Eight cases displayed no autoimmune pancreatitis. Renal computed tomography abnormalities were found in 12 of 13 cases examined. Renal dysfunction was found in 15 of 16 cases at biopsy. Distinctive features of tubulointerstitial lesions included (1) well-demarcated borders between involved and uninvolved areas; (2) involvement of the cortex and medulla, often extending beyond the renal capsule and with occasional extension to retroperitoneal fibrosis; (3) interstitial inflammatory cells comprising predominantly plasma cells and lymphocytes, with a high prevalence of IgG4-positive cells often admixed with fibrosis; (4) peculiar features of interstitial fibrosis resembling a "bird's-eye" pattern comprising fibrosis among inter-plasma cell spaces; and (5) deposits visible by light and immunofluorescent microscopy in the tubular basement membrane, Bowman capsule, and interstitium that are restricted to the involved portion, sparing normal parts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of myofibroblasts with intracellular/pericellular collagen accompanied by plasma cell accumulation from an early stage. Histology could not discriminate between IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with and without autoimmune pancreatitis. In conclusion, the distinctive histologic features of IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis can facilitate the differential diagnosis of tubulointerstitial nephritis, even without autoimmune pancreatitis or an abnormal

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant MOMP encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles triggers primarily T helper 1 cellular and antibody immune responses in mice: a desirable candidate nanovaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairley SJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stacie J Fairley, Shree R Singh, Abebayehu N Yilma, Alain B Waffo, Praseetha Subbarayan, Saurabh Dixit, Murtada A Taha, Chino D Cambridge, Vida A Dennis Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA Abstract: We recently demonstrated by in vitro experiments that PLGA (poly D, L-lactide-co-glycolide potentiates T helper 1 (Th1 immune responses induced by a peptide derived from the recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP of Chlamydia trachomatis, and may be a promising vaccine delivery system. Herein we evaluated the immune-potentiating potential of PLGA by encapsulating the full-length rMOMP (PLGA-rMOMP, characterizing it in vitro, and investigating its immunogenicity in vivo. Our hypothesis was that PLGA-rMOMP triggers Th1 immune responses in mice, which are desirable prerequisites for a C. trachomatis candidate nanovaccine. Physical-structural characterizations of PLGA-rMOMP revealed its size (approximately 272 nm, zeta potential (−14.30 mV, apparent spherical smooth morphology, and continuous slow release pattern. PLGA potentiated the ability of encapsulated rMOMP to trigger production of cytokines and chemokines by mouse J774 macrophages. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with PLGA-rMOMP had elevated numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, and secreted more rMOMP-specific interferon-gamma (Th1 and interleukin (IL-12p40 (Th1/Th17 than IL-4 and IL-10 (Th2 cytokines. PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice produced higher serum immunoglobulin (IgG and IgG2a (Th1 than IgG1 (Th2 rMOMP-specific antibodies. Notably, sera from PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice had a 64-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, whereas mice immunized with rMOMP in Freund's adjuvant had only a four-fold higher Th1 than Th2 antibody titer, suggesting primarily induction of a Th1 antibody response in PLGA-rMOMP-immunized mice. Our data underscore PLGA as an effective delivery system for a C

  3. Evaluation of the microparticle enzyme immunoassay Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia and the importance of urethral site sampling to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brokenshire, M K; Say, P J; van Vonno, A H; Wong, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women and to compare its performance with endocervical cell culture. Also, to determine whether sampling the urethral site is an important part of chlamydial diagnosis in women. SETTING: The Auckland, Manukau, and Waitakere Sexual Health Clinics, Auckland, New Zealand and the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, ...

  4. Does the Maternal Serum IgG Level during Pregnancy in Primary Antibody Deficiency Influence the IgG Level in the Newborn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha Nagendran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To find out if the serum IgG level in the newborn baby was affected by low maternal serum IgG during pregnancy in two newly diagnosed primary antibody deficient patients. Method. Infant cord blood IgG level was compared with maternal IgG level in 2 mothers with newly diagnosed primary antibody deficiency, who declined replacement IgG treatment during pregnancy. Results. Both mothers delivered healthy babies with normal IgG levels at birth. Conclusions. The normal IgG levels and sound health in these 2 babies in spite of low maternal IgG throughout pregnancy raise interesting discussion points about maternofoetal immunoglobulin transport mechanisms in primary antibody deficiency.

  5. Potential of Murine IgG1 and Human IgG4 to Inhibit the Classical Complement and Fcγ Receptor Activation Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina-Maria Lilienthal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available IgG antibodies (Abs mediate their effector functions through the interaction with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs and the complement factors. The main IgG-mediated complement activation pathway is induced through the binding of complement C1q to IgG Abs. This interaction is dependent on antigen-dependent hexamer formation of human IgG1 and IgG3 to increase the affinity for the six-headed C1q molecule. By contrast, human IgG4 fails to bind to C1q. Instead, it has been suggested that human IgG4 can block IgG1 and IgG3 hexamerization required for their binding to C1q and activating the complement. Here, we show that murine IgG1, which functionally resembles human IgG4 by not interacting with C1q, inhibits the binding of IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 to C1q in vitro, and suppresses IgG2a-mediated complement activation in a hemolytic assay in an antigen-dependent and IgG subclass-specific manner. From this perspective, we discuss the potential of murine IgG1 and human IgG4 to block the complement activation as well as suppressive effects of sialylated IgG subclass Abs on FcγR-mediated immune cell activation. Accumulating evidence suggests that both mechanisms seem to be responsible for preventing uncontrolled IgG (autoAb-induced inflammation in mice and humans. Distinct IgG subclass distributions and functionally opposite IgG Fc glycosylation patterns might explain different outcomes of IgG-mediated immune responses and provide new therapeutic options through the induction, enrichment, or application of antigen-specific sialylated human IgG4 to prevent complement and FcγR activation as well.

  6. Structural characterization of the Man5 glycoform of human IgG3 Fc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Ishan S.; Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan; Battaile, Kevin P.; Tolbert, Thomas J. (Kansas); (HWMRI)

    2017-12-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) consists of four subclasses in humans: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4, which are highly conserved but have unique differences that result in subclass-specific effector functions. Though IgG1 is the most extensively studied IgG subclass, study of other subclasses is important to understand overall immune function and for development of new therapeutics. When compared to IgG1, IgG3 exhibits a similar binding profile to Fcγ receptors and stronger activation of complement. All IgG subclasses are glycosylated at N297, which is required for Fcγ receptor and C1q complement binding as well as maintaining optimal Fc conformation. We have determined the crystal structure of homogenously glycosylated human IgG3 Fc with a GlcNAc2Man5 (Man5) high mannose glycoform at 1.8 Å resolution and compared its structural features with published structures from the other IgG subclasses. Although the overall structure of IgG3 Fc is similar to that of other subclasses, some structural perturbations based on sequence differences were revealed. For instance, the presence of R435 in IgG3 (and H435 in the other IgG subclasses) has been implicated to result in IgG3-specific properties related to binding to protein A, protein G and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). The IgG3 Fc structure helps to explain some of these differences. Additionally, protein-glycan contacts observed in the crystal structure appear to correlate with IgG3 affinity for Fcγ receptors as shown by binding studies with IgG3 Fc glycoforms. Finally, this IgG3 Fc structure provides a template for further studies aimed at engineering the Fc for specific gain of function.

  7. Organizing pneumonia: the many morphological faces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Anastasia; Hansell, David M.

    2002-01-01

    Organizing pneumonia is a non-specific response to various forms of lung injury and is the pathological hallmark of the distinct clinical entity termed cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. The typical imaging features of this syndrome have been widely documented and consist of patchy air-space consolidation, often subpleural, with or without ground-glass opacities. The purpose of this article is to highlight the less familiar imaging patterns of organizing pneumonia which include focal organizing pneumonia, a variety of nodular patterns, a bronchocentric distribution, band-like opacities, a perilobular pattern and a progressive fibrotic form of organizing pneumonia. (orig.)

  8. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuzheng; Wang Mingzhi; Chen Jianjiang; Wang Zhongxiang; Mao Yongjie

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  9. Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Tsolaki, A G; Miller, Raymonde

    1998-01-01

    Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence...

  10. Noninfectious differential diagnoses of pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielandner, A.; Toelly, A.; Agarwal, P.; Bardach, C.

    2017-01-01

    In patients with a clinical suspicion of pneumonia, typical clinical and laboratory features along with the detection of infiltrates on chest X-ray are as a rule considered diagnostic and therapy is immediately initiated; however, studies have shown that in up to 5% of patients with an initial suspicion of pneumonia, another noninfectious pulmonary disease was the underlying cause. Early recognition and differentiation of diseases mimicking pneumonia are prerequisites for an adequate therapy. The aim of this review is to present the important noninfectious differential diagnoses of pneumonia and to provide the reader with tools for a systematic diagnostic approach. A literature search was carried out. As alterations in the lungs often result in similar imaging appearances and a differentiation between transudates, exsudates, blood and cells is not feasible by chest X-ray or CT, a systematic approach is essential to make an appropriate diagnosis. Hence, consideration of the temporal course, predominant pattern, distribution of findings, additional findings and clinical presentation are indispensable. (orig.) [de

  11. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  12. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  13. Establishment of a serum IgG4 cut-off value for the differential diagnosis of IgG4-related disease in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Chen, Hua; Deng, Chuiwen; Wu, Ziyan; Lin, Wei; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Fengchun; Li, Yongzhe

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to better know diagnosis associated with serum IgG4 concentration, and to explore the possibility for development of a serum IgG4 for IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in Chinese populations. We studied retrospectively 497 IgG4 serum subclass measurements from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the four-year period, including 242 IgG4-RD, 130 other diseases and 125 healthy individuals. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in IgG4-RD than in other pathologies (1662.9 ± 3760.9 mg/L, p IgG4 level between other pathologies group and healthy individuals (p = 0.075). Among the 242 IgG4-RD patients analyzed, serum IgG4 concentrations were normal in 46 patients (19.0%). We found 32 patients (24.6%) with elevated serum IgG4 levels among the 130 patients who suffered from other pathologies. There were seven (5.6%) with serum IgG4 over 1350 mg/L in healthy individuals. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the optimal sensitivity and specificity were 80.0% and 88.2%, respectively, at the concentration of 1575 mg/L for Chinese patients. Our study demonstrated that serum IgG4 elevation was not specific of IgG4-RD. Further studies are needed to define the sensibility and specificity of IgG4 values for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD.

  14. Pelvic inflammatory disease risk following negative results from chlamydia nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) versus non-NAATs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katy M E; Benfield, Thomas; Frølund, Maria

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are the recommended test type for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia). However, less sensitive diagnostic methods-including direct immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)-remain in use in lower resourced settings...... with a chlamydia test, just under half (44.78%, n = 121,857) were tested using NAATs. Overall, 6.38% (n = 17,353) tested positive for chlamydia and 0.64% (n = 1,732) were diagnosed with PID within 12 months. The risk of PID following a positive chlamydia test did not differ by test type (NAAT 0.81% [95% CI 0....... We estimate the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) following undiagnosed infection in women tested with non-NAATs and estimate the health gain from using accurate diagnostic tests. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Denmark's national Chlamydia Study dataset to extract all chlamydia tests performed...

  15. No diagnostic utility of antibody patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes in patients with axial spondyloarthritis vs. patients with non-specific low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, L T; Loft, A G; Christiansen, A A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether antibody response patterns against Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotypes can discriminate patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) from patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). METHOD: Immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA antibodies against K. pneumoniae...... capsular serotypes K2, K26, K36, and K50 were measured, and antibody seropositivity compared between groups and analysed for patient correlation in five different groups: (a) 96 patients fulfilling the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axSpA; (b) 38...... ankylosing spondylitis (AS) served as the negative and positive control groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in IgG and IgA seropositivity against all serotypes between the axSpA, non-axSpA, and LBP groups. No significant correlations were found between anti-Klebsiella antibodies and age, gender, HLA-B27...

  16. Bacterial Pneumonia in Elderly Japanese Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Miyashita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases in terms of incidence, effect on quality of life, mortality, and impact on society. Pneumonia was the third leading cause of death in Japan in 2011. In 2016, 119 650 Japanese people died of pneumonia, 96% of whom were aged 65 years and above. The symptoms of pneumonia in elderly people are often atypical. Aspiration pneumonia is seen more frequently than in young people because of swallowing dysfunction in the elderly. The mortality rate is also higher in the elderly than in young people. In Japan, the population is aging at an unprecedented rate, and pneumonia in the elderly will be increasingly important in medicine and medical economics in the future. To manage pneumonia in the elderly, it is important to accurately evaluate its severity, administer appropriate antibiotic treatment, and implement effective preventive measures.

  17. Hybrid IgG4/IgG4 Fc antibodies form upon 'Fab-arm' exchange as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE or size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Theo; den Bleker, Tamara H.; Aalberse, Rob C.

    2010-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibodies are dynamic molecules that in vivo exchange half-molecules to become bispecific antibodies. Here we show that IgG4 antibodies and IgG4 Fc fragments similarly exchange resulting in hybrid antibodies (a single Fab + Fc) with a molecular weight of ca. 100 kDa. These antibodies can

  18. Serologic aspects of IgG4 antibodies. II. IgG4 antibodies form small, nonprecipitating immune complexes due to functional monovalency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; van Swieten, P.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibodies directed against phospholipase A, the P1 antigen from Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus extracts, and cat albumin were found unable to cross-link antigen. Previously, it was demonstrated that IgG4 antibodies, in contrast to IgG1 antibodies, did not cross-link Sepharose-bound

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

    2013-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bidirectional Relationship between Cognitive Function and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faraaz Ali; Pike, Francis; Alvarez, Karina; Angus, Derek; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar; Tate, Judith; Kapur, Vishesh; Wilsdon, Anthony; Krishnan, Jerry A.; Hansel, Nadia; Au, David; Avdalovic, Mark; Fan, Vincent S.; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Relationships between chronic health conditions and acute infections remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies suggest crosstalk between nervous and immune systems. Objectives: To determine bidirectional relationships between cognition and pneumonia. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses of a population-based cohort over 10 years. We determined whether changes in cognition increase risk of pneumonia hospitalization by trajectory analyses and joint modeling. We then determined whether pneumonia hospitalization increased risk of subsequent dementia using a Cox model with pneumonia as a time-varying covariate. Measurements and Main Results: Of the 5,888 participants, 639 (10.9%) were hospitalized with pneumonia at least once. Most participants had normal cognition before pneumonia. Three cognition trajectories were identified: no, minimal, and severe rapid decline. A greater proportion of participants hospitalized with pneumonia were on trajectories of minimal or severe decline before occurrence of pneumonia compared with those never hospitalized with pneumonia (proportion with no, minimal, and severe decline were 67.1%, 22.8%, and 10.0% vs. 76.0%, 19.3%, and 4.6% for participants with and without pneumonia, respectively; P pneumonia, even in those with normal cognition and physical function before pneumonia (β = −0.02; P pneumonia were subsequently at an increased risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 2.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.62–3.11]; P = 0.01). Associations were independent of demographics, health behaviors, other chronic conditions, and physical function. Bidirectional relationship did not vary based on severity of disease, and similar associations were noted for those with severe sepsis and other infections. Conclusions: A bidirectional relationship exists between pneumonia and cognition and may explain how a single episode of infection in well-appearing older individuals accelerates decline in chronic health conditions and loss of

  1. A case of urticarial vasculitis in a female patient with lupus: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection or lupus reactivation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diplomatico, Mario; Gicchino, Maria Francesca; Ametrano, Orsola; Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Olivieri, Alma Nunzia

    2017-05-01

    A 17-year-old female patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (who had been taking 300 mg/die of hydroxychloroquine for 3 years), Graves' disease (treated with 10 mg/die of tapazole), and celiac disease came to our attention for urticarial vasculitis. She had been taking prednisone (25 mg/die) for 3 days, and her blood tests showed high levels of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies. The association between urticaria and M. pneumoniae infections can be present in up to 7% of the cases and, to the best of our knowledge, only two reports of urticarial vasculitis and M. pneumoniae in adults are available in the literature. Urticarial vasculitis can also be a rare cutaneous manifestation of SLE (affecting 2% of the patients), and our case is the first in the literature describing the coexistence of M. pneumoniae infection, SLE, and urticarial vasculitis in a pediatric patient, a case that rises an important differential diagnosis issue about the origin of urticarial vasculitis: SLE reactivation or urticarial vasculitis due to M. pneumoniae infection?

  2. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-01-01

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations......, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems...

  3. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunoradiometric assay for cytomegalovirus-specific IgG antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, P.E.; Cleator, G.M.; Prinja-Wolks, D.; Morris, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (radio-immunosorbent test; RIST) for the detection of IgG antibodies to human herpesvirus 4 [human cytomegalovirus (CMV)] has been developed. The technique utilizes CMV antigen passively adsorbed to a polyvinyl microtitration plate and a radiolabelled murine monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody to detect binding of human antibody to the 'solid phase' reagent. The assay was optimized, and its specifity confirmed by testing paired acute and convalescent sera from patients with acute CMV or other human herpesvirus infections. To determine the assay's sensitivity 1433 blood donor sera were examined. The RIST was more sensitive than a standard complement fixation (CFT). Use of a monoclonal anti-human IgG antibody in the RIST reduced non-specific binding to the control uninfected cell antigen such that blood donor sera could be tested in the assay using only a CMV antigen without generating an unacceptable false positive rate. (author). 23 refs.; 1 tab

  5. IgG4-related disease-experience of 100 consecutive cases from a specialist centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adrian C; Culver, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    To describe the features of 100 consecutive cases referred to a single UK institution in which a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) was under consideration. The histological features were reviewed by a single histopathologist, and cases were categorized according to the 2012 Boston criteria: Category 1-histologically highly suggestive of IgG4-RD; Category 2-probable histopathological features of IgG4-RD; and Category 3-insufficient histopathological evidence of IgG4-RD. A 'global assessment' was performed with the available clinical information: Assessment group 1-'definite/very likely IgG4-RD'; Assessment group 2-'possible IgG4-RD'; Assessment group 3-'not IgG4-RD'; and Assessment group 4-insufficient information. The mean IgG4+ plasma cell count and IgG4+/IgG+ ratio were highest in Category 1 [134/high-power field (HPF); 57%] and Assessment group 1 (113/HPF; 52%), and lowest in Category 3 (11/HPF; 18%) and Assessment group 3 (43/HPF; 31%) (Category comparison of IgG4+ count and ratio, both P IgG4+ count, P IgG4-RD diagnosis was rare in Category 1 (7%) but common in Category 2 (60%) and Category 3 (47%). Stromal reactions to neoplasia and chronic oral ulceration were simulants of IgG4-RD. The Boston criteria are linked to the likelihood of IgG4-RD. Other conditions may show some histological features of IgG4-RD. The likelihood of IgG4-RD is much greater when the histological features reach the threshold for Category 1 than when they reach the thresholds for Categories 2 and 3. Despite the utility of the Boston criteria, this study highlights the crucial importance of careful clinicopathological correlation when a diagnosis of IgG4-RD is under consideration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Anti-dog IgG secondary antibody successfully detects IgG in a variety of aquatic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark D.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2016-01-01

    Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter (Enhydra lutris), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.

  7. Atypical Pneumonia: Updates on Legionella, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lokesh; Losier, Ashley; Tolbert, Thomas; Dela Cruz, Charles S; Marion, Chad R

    2017-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has multiple causes and is associated with illness that requires admission to the hospital and mortality. The causes of atypical CAP include Legionella species, Chlamydophila, and Mycoplasma. Atypical CAP remains a diagnostic challenge and, therefore, likely is undertreated. This article reviews the advancements in the evaluation and treatment of patients and discusses current conflicts and controversies of atypical CAP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pneumonia aguda fibrinosa e organizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Damas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: A designação acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP foi proposta por Beasley et al para os casos em que as características histopatológicas das lesões não se enquadravam em outras situações clínicas (agu-das ou subagudas conhecidas. A presença de fibrina intra alveolar e de pneumonia organizativa, com distribuição difusa, é a principal alteração histológica associada a esta entidade.Os autores descrevem o caso de um doente do sexo masculino, com o diagnóstico de AFOP, por bióp-sia pulmonar cirúrgica. O doente teve uma apresentação subaguda, apresentando por queixas principais tosse, dor torácica e febre. TAC torácica mostrou infiltrados bilaterais, difusos. Após início de corticoterapia sistémica e ciclofosfamida, o doente apresentou melhoria clínica significativa. Ao elaborar este caso, os autores esperam acrescentar mais alguns dados sobre esta nova entidade.Rev Port Pneumol 2006; XII (5: 615-620 Abstract: The term Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia (AFOP has been proposed by Beasley et al for cases that not fit into the histopathologic criteria of the recognized entities described as acute or subacute clinical presentations. The presence of intra-alveolar fibrin in the form of fibrin ‘balls’ and organizing pneumonia with patchy distribution are the main histological features of this entity. We describe the case of a male patient with the diagnostic of AFOP made by surgical lung biopsy. He had a subacute presentation of symptoms consisting of productive cough, chest pain and fever. Bilateral infiltrates with patchy and diffuse distribution were the predominant features in his chest HRCT scan. The patient had a good clinical course after a treatment with prednisone and cyclophosphamide. Our hope in reporting this case study is to add some more data to the discussion of this new entity.Rev Port Pneumol 2006; XII (5: 615-620 Palavras

  9. Deteccion de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras uretrales mediante inmunofluorescencia directa Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis em amostras uretrais mediante imunofluorescência direta Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral samples by means of direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Wilson Schuster

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 82 pacientes con uretritis para la búsqueda de Chlamydia trachomatis mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, Neisscria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplastna y Ureaplasma mediante métodos estándar. Se encontró un 19,5% de Chlamydia trachomatis y en 11 de ellos (68,8% se encontró asociada a otras bacterias y estos pacientes presentó una secreción escasa-gelatinosa.Em 82 doentes com uretrite foi pesquisada a presença de Chlamydia trachomatis, utilizando a prova da imunofluorescência direta, e de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma e Ureaplasma, utilizando os métodos padrões. Ch. trachomatis foi encontrada em 19,5% dos casos, sendo que em 11 deles (68,8% observou-se associação entre Chlamydia e as outras bactérias pesquisadas. Nesses pacientes observou-se presença de secreção uretral escassa e de aspecto gelatinoso.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16 of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8% there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  12. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  13. What is IgG4? A review of the biology of a unique immunoglobulin subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ajay; Glaser, Scott M; Kalled, Susan L; Taylor, Frederick R; Taylora, Frederick R

    2011-01-01

    Recent descriptions of the group of clinical disorders collectively defined as IgG4-related systemic disease (IgG4-RSD) have prompted this review of the unique biology of the IgG4 antibody. This article will discuss IgG4 structure and function, the unique phenomenon of half-antibody exchange, and the implications of IgG4 biology for its proposed role in immunologic diseases. IgG4 antibodies have unique structural and functional properties and undergo 'half-antibody exchange' in vivo, resulting in recombined antibodies composed of two different binding specificities. The production of IgG4 antibodies appears to be driven in part by T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines that mediate allergic responses and IgE production. Although serum IgG4 levels in healthy individuals vary significantly, data from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suggest tight regulation of individual IgG4 levels over time. IgG4-RSD represents a diverse group of clinical disorders unified by elevated IgG4 levels and specific histopathologic findings. A key unanswered question is whether IgG4, a relatively weak activator of effector cells, is pathogenic in these disorders. IgG4 is a unique antibody biologically and structurally. Increased understanding of its precise role in the clinical syndromes that comprise IgG4-RSD may ultimately elucidate the underlying pathogenesis.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae Drugs Resistance in Acute Rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Jie Hao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute rhinosinusitis that usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae becomes the reason why patients seek for medical care. Drugs resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. This study was conducted to determine drugs resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia from acute rhinosinusitis in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: A descriptive laboratory study was conducted in June–October 2014 at the Laboratory of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran. The sample was taken using nasopharyngeal swabbing from 100 acute rhinosinusitis patients in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital and planted on tryptic soy agar containing 5% sheep blood and 5 μg/ml of gentamicin sulphate and then incubated in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The identification of Streptococcus pneumonia was performed by optochin test. The susceptibility test against Streptococcus pneumoniae was done using disk diffusion method.The antibiotic disks were trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxacillin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline. Results: Out of 100 samples, 8 of them were tested positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Three of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates died with unknown reason after it were stored at -80 .The drugs resistance test showed the resistance of Streptococcus pneumonia to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim were 6, whereas levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4. Conclusions: Streptococcus pneumonia drugs resistance in acute rhinosinusitis shows the resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to oxacillin, azithromycin and trimethoprim are 6, whereas the resistance to levofloxacin and doxycycline are 4.

  15. Aspiration pneumonia: a review of modern trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBardino, David M; Wunderink, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The purpose was to describe aspiration pneumonia in the context of other lung infections and aspiration syndromes and to distinguish between the main scenarios commonly implied when the terms aspiration or aspiration pneumonia are used. Finally, we aim to summarize current evidence surrounding the diagnosis, microbiology, treatment, risks, and prevention of aspiration pneumonia. Medline was searched from inception to November 2013. All descriptive or experimental studies that added to the understanding of aspiration pneumonia were reviewed. All studies that provided insight into the clinical aspiration syndromes, historical context, diagnosis, microbiology, risk factors, prevention, and treatment were summarized within the text. Despite the original teaching, aspiration pneumonia is difficult to distinguish from other pneumonia syndromes. The microbiology of pneumonia after a macroaspiration has changed over the last 60 years from an anaerobic infection to one of aerobic and nosocomial bacteria. Successful antibiotic therapy has been achieved with several antibiotics. Various risks for aspiration have been described leading to several proposed preventative measures. Aspiration pneumonia is a disease with a distinct pathophysiology. In the modern era, aspiration pneumonia is rarely solely an anaerobic infection. Antibiotic treatment is largely dependent on the clinical scenario. Several measures may help prevent aspiration pneumonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Change of Serum IgG4 in Patients with Ocular Adnexal Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma Associated with IgG4-Related Ophthalmic Disease After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuan-Hung; Wang, Lei-Chi; Yen, Sang-Hue; Yu, Wei-Kuang; Kao, Shu-Ching; Kau, Hui-Chuan; Tsai, Chieh-Chih; Liu, Catherine Jui-Ling

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the change of serum IgG4 concentrations correlated with clinical evolution in patients with ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with IgG4-related ophthalmic disease (IgG4-ROD). Three consecutive patients with histopathologically confirmed ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with IgG4-ROD were evaluated. Two patients received radiotherapy and 1 patient received steroid therapy. Treatment outcome was evaluated by clinical symptoms, radiologic examination, and change of serum IgG4 level in these patients. All patients had elevated serum IgG4 before treatment (462, 338, and 780 mg/dL respectively.) The 2 patients who received radiotherapy achieved complete remission and the serum IgG4 decreased to 345 and 92 mg/dL, respectively. The patient who underwent systemic steroid achieved partial remission and the serum IgG4 decrease to 161 mg/dL. Our study showed elevated serum IgG4 in all patients with ocular adnexal marginal zone B cell lymphoma associated with IgG4-ROD. In addition, the elevated serum IgG4 may decrease or keep stable after treatment, accompanied by improvement in clinical symptoms and reduction of lesions.

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  18. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  19. A small subgroup of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokisch, Friedrich; Kleinlein, Irene; Haller, Bernhard; Seehaus, Tanja; Fuerst, Heinrich; Kremer, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly identified syndrome characterized by high serum IgG4 levels and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in involved organs. The incidence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in the Caucasian population of Europe is unknown. We investigated formalin-fixed thyroid gland samples of 216 patients (191 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 Riedel's thyroiditis, and 20 goiters, as controls), morphologically, and immunohistochemically. Cases were divided into two groups: IgG4-related Hashimoto's thyroiditis (24 cases) together with Riedel thyroiditis (1 case) and 171 non-IgG4-related thyroiditis. Compared to the non-IgG4-related cases, IgG4-related thyroiditis showed a higher IgG4/IgG ratio (0.6 vs. 0.1, p thyroiditis was diagnosed in 23 of the 24 IgG4-related cases (96 %) and in 13 of 167 (18 %, p > 0.001) non-IgG4-related cases. The single case of IgG4-related Riedel's thyroiditis also showed a higher median IgG4 plasma cell count (56.3 vs. 14.3) and a higher IgG4/IgG ratio (0.5 vs. 0.2) than the four cases of non-IgG4-related Riedel's thyroiditis. Our data suggests the incidence of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) of the thyroid gland in Europe is considerably lower than that observed in other studies. A significant elevation of IgG4-positive plasma cells was only found in a small group of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and then accompanied by intense fibrosis, indicating an association with IgG4-RD. Morphologically, IgG4-RD of the thyroid gland differs from that in other organ systems, exhibiting a dense fibrosis without intense eosinophilia or obliterative phlebitis.

  20. Estimation of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Elizabeth; Lock, Emma; Ward, Douglas G; Cook, Alexander; Harding, Stephen; Wallis, Gregg L F

    2014-07-01

    The in vivo or in vitro formation of IgG4 hybrid molecules, wherein the immunoglobulins have exchanged half molecules, has previously been reported under experimental conditions. Here we estimate the incidence of polyclonal IgG4 hybrids in normal human serum and comment on the existence of IgG4 molecules with different immunoglobulin light chains. Polyclonal IgG4 was purified from pooled or individual donor human sera and sequentially fractionated using light-chain affinity and size exclusion chromatography. Fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting, ELISA, immunodiffusion and matrix-assisted laser-desorption mass spectrometry. Polyclonal IgG4 purified from normal serum contained IgG4κ, IgG4λ and IgG4κ/λ molecules. Size exclusion chromatography showed that IgG4 was principally present in monomeric form (150 000 MW). SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting and ELISA showed the purity of the three IgG4 samples. Immunodiffusion, light-chain sandwich ELISA and mass spectrometry demonstrated that both κ and λ light chains were present on only the IgG4κ/λ molecules. The amounts of IgG4κ/λ hybrid molecules ranged from 21 to 33% from the five sera analysed. Based on the molecular weight these molecules were formed of two IgG4 heavy chains plus one κ and one λ light chain. Polyclonal IgG (IgG4-depleted) was similarly fractionated according to light-chain specificity. No evidence of hybrid IgG κ/λ antibodies was observed. These results indicate that hybrid IgG4κ/λ antibodies compose a substantial portion of IgG4 from normal human serum. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  2. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  3. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  4. Increased IgG4 responses to multiple food and animal antigens indicate a polyclonal expansion and differentiation of pre-existing B cells in IgG4-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culver, Emma L.; Vermeulen, Ellen; Makuch, Mateusz; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Sadler, Ross; Cargill, Tamsin; Klenerman, Paul; Aalberse, Rob C.; van Ham, S. Marieke; Barnes, Eleanor; Rispens, Theo

    2015-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic fibroinflammatory condition, characterised by an elevated serum IgG4 concentration and abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells in the involved organs. An important question is whether the elevated IgG4 response is causal or a reflection of immune-regulatory

  5. Miliary pattern in neonatal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, J.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have seen 10 newborn babies who developed respiratory distress and whose chest radiographs showed a miliary nodular pattern of disease. Of these infants only 3 had blood cultures that were positive for staphylococcus aureus. Of the remaining 7, 2 had conjunctivitis from which staphylococcus aureus was cultured, 4 had negative cultures and 1 did not have a blood culture done. All patients were diagnosed as having bacterial pneumonia and appeared to respond favourably to antibiotic therapy. The pulmonary abnormalities resolved. The children were clinically well in less than 3 weeks. The author suggests that the miliary pattern is one of the radiological patterns of neonatal pneumonia possibly produced by hematogenous bacterial dissemination. (orig.)

  6. Using Multiple Outcomes of Sexual Behavior to Provide Insights Into Chlamydia Transmission and the Effectiveness of Prevention Interventions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.

  7. Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João Rocha; Marques, Ricardo; Serra, Paula; Cardoso, Leila

    2017-09-07

    Acute fibrinous and organising pneumonia (AFOP) is a rare histological pattern of interstitial lung disease. The authors describe a 60-year-old woman admitted to the hospital for sustained fever, presenting with an alveolar opacity on chest X-ray, with the presumed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and the onset of antibiotics. Since serological results suggested that Legionella pneumophila was the infectious agent, she was discharged on levofloxacin. A week later, she was again admitted with fever. CT scan showed opacities with crescentic morphology and a central ground-glass area suggestive of cryptogenic organising pneumonia. Microbiological, serological and autoimmunity tests were negative. She underwent surgical lung biopsy that revealed inflammatory infiltrate, macrophage desquamation, fibroblasts proliferation and fibrin deposition in the alveolar spaces, consistent with AFOP. She started corticotherapy with good response. Disease relapsed after prednisolone discontinuation, 10 months later. Currently, the patient is on prednisolone 5 mg/day without clinical and radiological recurrence. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE RUBELLA IgG ANTIBODY AMONG NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    capable of causing a spectrum of birth defects described as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Despite the availability of safe and effective ... designed to determine the prevalence of anti- rubella IgG among pregnant women in order to ..... Vyse A.J., Gay N.J., White J.M., Ramsay. M.E., Brown D.W., Cohen B.J. Evolution.

  9. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Honma, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Masahiko; Honda, Yasuhito; Abe, Shosaku; Igarashi, Tomofumi; Sekine, Kyuichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author)

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women, heterosexual men and MSM visiting HIV counselling institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany - should Chlamydia testing be scaled up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lallemand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia infection in patients seeking HIV testing at local public health authorities (LPHA in order to evaluate whether Chlamydia testing should be routinely offered to them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients (≥18 years attending 18 LPHA in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 2012 to September 2013. LPHA collected information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and HIV testing behaviours, previous STI history and clinical symptoms. Self-collected vaginal swabs and urine (men were analysed by Transcription-Mediated Amplification. We assessed overall and age-stratified Chlamydia prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. Using univariate and multivariable binomial regression, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR to identify factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Results The study population comprised 1144 (40.5 % women, 1134 (40.1 % heterosexual men and 549 (19.4 % men who have sex with men (MSM; median age was 30 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 5.3 % (95 % CI: 4.1–6.8 % among women, 3.2 % (95 % CI: 2.2–4.4 in heterosexual men and 3.5 % (95 % CI: 2.1–5.4 in MSM. Prevalence was highest among 18–24 year-old women (9 %; 95 % CI: 5.8–13 and heterosexual men (5.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.0–9.8 %, respectively. Among MSM, the prevalence was highest among 30–39 year-olds (4.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.9–8.5 %. Among those who tested positive, 76.7 % of women, 75.0 % of heterosexual men and 84.2 % of MSM were asymptomatic. Among women, factors associated with Chlamydia infection were young age (18–24 years versus ≥ 40 years, aPR: 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.2–7.8, having had more than 2

  11. Meningitis, spondylodiscitis, pneumonia and septic shock with Streptococcus pneumoniae in a previously healthy woman with isolated IgG2-, IgG3-, IgA-deficiency and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Gudnason, David; Steig, Bjarni

    2018-01-01

    A 66 years old Caucasian woman with pneumococcal meningitis was treated and discharged after an uncomplicated course. Five months later she was readmitted with fever and right side abdominal pain and diagnosed with pneumococcal spondylodiscitis. One year later she was treated for a severe chest X...... not respond serologically on vaccination with 13-valent conjugate and 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Further evaluations revealed a positive M-component in her blood and a bone marrow biopsy diagnosed her to have monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. To protect her against...... significance in an apparently healthy woman with at least three life threatening documented pneumococcal infections in a two-year period and poor pneumococcal vaccine response....

  12. Severe community-acquired pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in young female patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milačić Nena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is common agent causing community acquired pneumonia in younger population. However, the course of illness is usually benign and is rarely associated with pulmonary complications. We report a 27 years old female patient with unilateral pneumonia followed by pleural effusion and adhesions on the same side. This potential source of infection should be considered in young patients where resolution of symptoms from pneumonia is delayed.

  13. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Bousbia

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs. During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls. Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93. Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.

  14. IgG4-related disease of the biliary tract and pancreas: clinical and experimental advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubers, Lowiek M; Beuers, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated disease of unknown cause. It predominantly affects the biliary tract [IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC)] and pancreas [autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP)] of mostly elderly men. Accurate diagnostic tests are lacking. Patients benefit from predniso(lo)ne treatment. However, disease relapse is often seen. This review will address pathophysiological aspects and advances in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The role of IgG1 and IgG4 in the pathophysiology of IgG4-RD was studied in mice which showed more intense organ damage of pancreas and salivary glands when IgG1 rather than IgG4 of patients with IgG4-RD was injected. Coadministration of IgG1+IgG4 led to dampening of IgG1-mediated injury supporting the view that IgG4 exerts immune-dampening effects. IgG4+ B-cell receptor clones identified by next-generation sequencing and the IgG4/IgG RNA ratio in human blood assessed by quantitative PCR were able to accurately distinguish IAC/AIP from primary sclerosing cholangitis or pancreatobiliary malignancies. Long-term treatment with low-dose prednisolone was safe and reduced the number of flare-ups in patients with AIP. Early diagnosis by a novel accurate and easy-to-use qPCR test may prevent life-threatening complications, unnecessary interventions and fatal course because of misdiagnosis. Prednisolone treatment remains the standard of care in patients with IgG4-RD.

  15. IgG4-related sialadenitis and Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, G E; Zampeli, E; Moutsopoulos, H M

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has emerged as a new entity in the last decade. It comprises numerous conditions previously thought to be unrelated. Macroscopically, these diseases cause diffuse organ swelling and formation of pseudotumorous masses. Histopathologically, they are characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with increased IgG4+ plasma cells and storiform fibrosis. Despite rapid progress within the last years, our knowledge on these conditions is still fragmented. To date, more than forty organs have been reported to be included in IgG4-RD, and salivary gland involvement is amongst the most common organs affected [IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS)]. Interestingly, IgG4-RS shares commonalities with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), like glandular enlargement, sicca symptoms, arthralgias, hypergammaglobulinemia, hypocomplementemia, and circulating antinuclear antibodies. Nonetheless, they differ in that the incidence of anti-Ro and anti-La reactivity is not frequently found in patients with IgG4-RS, their salivary glands are infiltrated by a large number of IgG4+ plasma cells and IgG4-RS symptoms respond promptly to steroids. The aim of this review was to describe the clinical, serological, histopathological and pathophysiological aspects of IgG4-RS in the context of IgG4-RD and highlight the differences between IgG4-RS and SS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group.

  17. Aspiration pneumonia in patients with cleft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Ki; Uhm, Ki Il

    2003-01-01

    To assess the incidence of aspiration pneumonia in infants with cleft palate and to compare the incidence between complete and incomplete types of cleft palate. A review of medical records revealed 100 infants who had undergone initial surgery to repair cleft palate in our hospital during a recent three-year period. Aspiration pneumonia was defined as the coexistence of pneumonia at chest radiography with a history of frequent choking during feeding. The anatomic distribution of aspiration pneumonia was analyzed, and the incidences of aspiration pneumonia in infants with complete and incomplete cleft palate were compared. Among 100 children, aspiration pneumonia was found in 35 (35%). Those with complete and incomplete cleft palate showed similar incidences of the condition (27 of 70 [39%] vs 8 of 30 [27%], p=0.36). Pneumonia was most commonly seen in the left lower lobe (11 of 35), followed by the right upper and lower lobes. Aspiration pneumonia is frequently associated with infants with cleft palate. There is no statistical difference in the incidence of aspiration pneumonia between the complete and the incomplete cleft palate group

  18. Klebsiella pneumoniae inoculants for enhancing plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Eric W [Middleton, WI; Kaeppler, Shawn M [Oregon, WI; Chelius, Marisa K [Greeley, CO

    2008-07-01

    A biological inoculant for enhancing the growth of plants is disclosed. The inoculant includes the bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101, Pantoea agglomerans P102, Klebsiella pneumoniae 342, Klebsiella pneumoniae zmvsy, Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z152, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PA15, with or without a carrier. The inoculant also includes strains of the bacterium Pantoea agglomerans and K. pneumoniae which are able to enhance the growth of cereal grasses. Also disclosed are the novel bacterial strains Herbaspirillum seropedicae 2A, Pantoea agglomerans P101 and P102, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 342 and zmvsy.

  19. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  20. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.