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Sample records for chlamydia abortus live

  1. High-resolution melt PCR analysis for rapid identification of Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain 1B among C. abortus strains and field isolates.

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    Vorimore, Fabien; Cavanna, Noémie; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Willems, Hermann; Rodolakis, Annie; Siarkou, Victoria I; Laroucau, Karine

    2012-09-01

    We describe a novel high-resolution melt assay that clearly differentiates Chlamydia abortus live vaccine strain 1B from field C. abortus strains and field wild-type isolates based on previously described single nucleotide polymorphisms. This modern genotyping technique is inexpensive, easy to use, and less time-consuming than PCR-RFLP.

  2. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

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    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported.

  3. Identification and characterization of Chlamydia abortus isolates from yaks in Qinghai, China.

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    Li, Zhaocai; Cao, Xiaoan; Fu, Baoquan; Chao, Yilin; Cai, Jinshan; Zhou, Jizhang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the yak population has exhibited reproductive disorders, which are considered to be associated with Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) in Qinghai, China. In this study, a total of 9 aborted fetuses (each from a different herd) and 126 vaginal swab samples from the 9 herds were collected and analyzed. C. abortus DNA was detected from all of the 9 aborted fetuses and 30 of the 126 vaginal swab samples (23.81%) from yak cows in the selected herds. Four C. abortus strains were isolated from embryonated egg yolk sacs inoculated with foetal organ suspensions. The isolated C. abortus strains were further identified, which showed identical restriction profiles with the C. abortus reference strain using AluI restriction enzyme in the RFLP test. Moreover, the isolated C. abortus strains and C. abortus-positive vaginal swab samples were genotyped by multiple loci variable number tandem repeat analysis and all belonged to the genotype 2 group. These findings suggested that C. abortus played a substantial role in yak abortion in Qinghai, China.

  4. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

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    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  5. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

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    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection.

  6. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA.

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    Siarkou, Victoria I; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previously identified sequence types (STs) ST19, ST25, ST29 and ST30, plus ST86, a recently-assigned type on the Chlamydiales MLST website and ST87, a novel type harbouring the hemN_21 allele, whereas MLVA recognized seven types (MT1 to MT7). Minimum-spanning-tree analysis suggested that all STs but one (ST30) belonged to a single clonal complex, possibly reflecting the short evolutionary timescale over which the predicted ancestor (ST19) has diversified into three single-locus variants (ST86, ST87 and ST29) and further, through ST86 diversification, into one double-locus variant (ST25). ST descendants have probably arisen through a point mutation evolution mode. Interestingly, MLVA showed that in the ST19 population there was a greater genetic diversity than in other STs, most of which exhibited the same MT over time and geographical distribution. However, the evolutionary pathways of C. abortus STs seem to be diverse across geographic distances with individual STs restricted to particular geographic locations. The ST30 singleton clone displaying geographic specificity and represented by the Greek strains LLG and POS was effectively distinguished from the clonal complex lineage, supporting the notion that possibly two separate host adaptations and hence independent bottlenecks of C. abortus have occurred through time. The combination of MLST and MLVA assays provides an additional level of C. abortus discrimination and may prove useful for the investigation and surveillance of

  7. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA.

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    Victoria I Siarkou

    Full Text Available Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previously identified sequence types (STs ST19, ST25, ST29 and ST30, plus ST86, a recently-assigned type on the Chlamydiales MLST website and ST87, a novel type harbouring the hemN_21 allele, whereas MLVA recognized seven types (MT1 to MT7. Minimum-spanning-tree analysis suggested that all STs but one (ST30 belonged to a single clonal complex, possibly reflecting the short evolutionary timescale over which the predicted ancestor (ST19 has diversified into three single-locus variants (ST86, ST87 and ST29 and further, through ST86 diversification, into one double-locus variant (ST25. ST descendants have probably arisen through a point mutation evolution mode. Interestingly, MLVA showed that in the ST19 population there was a greater genetic diversity than in other STs, most of which exhibited the same MT over time and geographical distribution. However, the evolutionary pathways of C. abortus STs seem to be diverse across geographic distances with individual STs restricted to particular geographic locations. The ST30 singleton clone displaying geographic specificity and represented by the Greek strains LLG and POS was effectively distinguished from the clonal complex lineage, supporting the notion that possibly two separate host adaptations and hence independent bottlenecks of C. abortus have occurred through time. The combination of MLST and MLVA assays provides an additional level of C. abortus discrimination and may prove useful for the investigation and

  8. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

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    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines.

  9. Comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of two formulations of a recombinant Chlamydia abortus subunit candidate vaccine in a mouse model.

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    Pan, Qing; Pais, Roshan; Ohandjo, Adaugo; He, Cheng; He, Qing; Omosun, Yusuf; Igietseme, J U; Eko, F O

    2015-04-08

    Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is the causative agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and poses a zoonotic risk to pregnant women. Current live attenuated 1B vaccines are efficacious but cause disease in vaccinated animals and inactivated vaccines are only marginally protective. We tested the ability of a new C. abortus subunit vaccine candidate based on the conserved and immunogenic polymorphic membrane protein D (Pmp18D) formulated in CpG1826+FL (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 Ligand; Flt3L) or Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) to induce innate and cross protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection. We found that delivery of rPmp18D with VCG was more effective than with CpG+FL in up-regulating the expression of molecules critically involved in T cell activation and differentiation, including MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86, activation of TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome engagement, and secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α but not IL-10 and IL-4. rVCG-Pmp18D-immunized mice elicited more robust antigen-specific IFN-γ, IgA and IgG2c antibody responses compared to CpG+FL-delivered rPmp18D. Based on the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures, length of vaginal shedding, and number of inclusion forming units recovered following challenge with the heterologous C. abortus strain B577, vaccine delivery with VCG induced superior protective immunity than delivery with a combination of CpG1826 and FL, a nasal DC-targeting adjuvant. These results demonstrate that the ability of VCG to enhance protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection is superior to that of CpG+FL adjuvants.

  10. Intranasal infection with Chlamydia abortus induces dose-dependent latency and abortion in sheep.

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    David Longbottom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3 were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×10(3, 5×10(5 and 5×10(7 inclusion forming units (IFU, respectively prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×10(6 IFU C. abortus (group 5. Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50-67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and

  11. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

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    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100 % detection for ≥ 10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(- 1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100 % and a negative predictive value of 88 %. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks.

  12. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay Targeting the MOMP Gene for Rapid Detection of Chlamydia psittaci Abortus Strain

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    Guo-Zhen Lin, Fu-Ying Zheng, Ji-Zhang Zhou, Guang-Hua Wang, Xiao-An Cao, Xiao-Wei Gong and Chang-Qing Qiu*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For rapid detection of the Chlamydia psittaci abortus strain, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed and evaluated in this study. The primers for the LAMP assay were designed on the basis of the main outer membrane protein (MOMP gene sequence of C. psittaci. Analysis showed that the assay could detect the abortus strain of C. psittaci with adequate specificity. The sensitivity of the test was the same as that of the nested-conventional PCR and higher than that of chick embryo isolation. Testing of 153 samples indicated that the LAMP assay could detect the genome of the C. psittaci abortus strain effectively in clinical samples. This assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of C. psittaci infection in sheep, swine and cattle.

  13. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

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    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-10-27

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages.

  14. Prevalence and molecular identification of Chlamydia abortus in commercial dairy goat farms in a hot region in Mexico.

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    Campos-Hernández, Eleuterio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, Jorge Antonio; Escalante-Ochoa, Cristina; López-Heydeck, Sandra M; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and presence of Chlamydia abortus in Saanen breed female goats from commercial dairy goat farms under intensive production in the municipality of Guanajuato, Mexico. Sera were collected to determine the prevalence of anti-C. abortus IgG antibodies using recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and cell culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to prove the presence of the pathogen in swab samples collected from the vagina and rectum of selected animals. Additionally, foetal tissue samples from a sudden abortion were collected. C. abortus prevalence in female goats of commercial milking farms sampled in Guanajuato, Mexico, was 4.87% (n = 246). Seropositive animals were found in six out of nine (66.6%) dairy goat farms sampled, and prevalence among animals in individual farms ranged between 3.44 and 13.51%. C. abortus was detected using PCR in spleen tissue from the aborted foetus. PCR-based detection, as well as isolation from vaginal and rectal swabs, was not possible in the present study. Isolation through cell culture was also unsuccessful from aborted foetal tissue samples. In conclusion, the results from rELISA and PCR show that C. abortus is present in dairy goat farms in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  15. Effect of Preventive Chlamydia abortus Vaccination in Offspring Development in Sheep Challenged Experimentally

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    García-Seco, Teresa; Pérez-Sancho, Marta; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Alejandro; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; García, Nerea; Pozo, Pilar; Goyache, Joaquín; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Ovine enzootic abortion, caused by Chlamydia abortus, leads to important economic losses worldwide. In addition to reproductive failures, infection may impact lamb growth during the first weeks after birth, yet this effect has not been well characterized. Vaccination can help to control the disease but variable efficacy values have been described, possibly related with factors associated with the host, the vaccine, the parameter used for efficacy determination, and the challenge conditions. In this context, we evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated standard commercial vaccine and a 1/2 diluted dose in pregnant sheep challenged with C. abortus by examining multiple indicators of vaccine effect (including incidence of reproductive failures, bacterial excretion, and evolution of weight gain of viable lambs during the first month of life). Three groups of ewes [control non-vaccinated, C (n = 18); vaccinated with standard dose, SV (n = 16); and vaccinated with 1/2 dose, DV (n = 17)], were challenged approximately 90 days post-mating and tested using direct PCR (tissue samples and vaginal swabs) and ELISA (serum) until 31 days post-reproductive outcome. There were not significant differences in the proportions of reproductive failures or bacterial shedding after birth/abortion regardless the vaccination protocol. However, a beneficial effect of vaccination on offspring growth was detected in both vaccinated groups compared with the controls, with a mean increase in weight measured at 30 days of life of 1.5 and 2.5 kg (p = 0.056) and an increase in the geometric mean of the daily gain of 8.4 and 9.7% in lambs born from DV and SV ewes compared with controls, respectively. Our results demonstrate the effect of an inactivated vaccine in the development of the offspring of C. abortus-infected ewes at a standard and a diluted dose, an interesting finding given the difficulty in achieving sufficient antigen concentration in the production of enzootic

  16. Seroprevalence and molecular characterization of Chlamydia abortus in frozen fetal and placental tissues of aborting ewes in northeastern Algeria.

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    Hireche, Sana; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed Kheir; Bouaziz, Omar; Boussena, Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes is one of the most serious health problems in sheep flocks worldwide. It has a significant economic impact because abortion, decrease in milk production and weak lambs. Besides, the bacteria is zoonotic. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia abortus infection in 552 ewes in Constantine using a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA kit. Chlamydial DNA was investigated in ten ovine fetuses and eight placentas using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. The study concluded that 7.2 % of ewes were seropositive and 33.3 % of sheep flocks had at least one seropositive ewe. Adjacent farmworker visits (OR = 7.667, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.307; 27.203) was defined as a risk factor. Deliveries of weak lambs (OR = 2.920, 95 % CI (OR) = 1.022; 8.342) and septicemia in lambs (OR = 9.971, 95 % CI (OR) = 2.383; 41.713) were significantly associated with chlamydial infection. PCR-RFLP analysis revealed positive signals to C. abortus in six fetuses and four placentas. Sequencing of the omp2 gene revealed that the Algerian strain is 96 % similar with C. abortus FAS strain. C. abortus plays a major role in abortion in northeastern Algeria. Appropriate control measures must be implemented to reduce economic losses and to avoid human contamination.

  17. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia abortus in camel in the western region of Libya

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    Rabia Elzlitne

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings signify the C. abortus as a potential agent to cause abortion in Libyan camel (C. dromedarius. Besides, the persons who handle camels in Libya are at risk of infecting with C. abortus. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 178-183

  18. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

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    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  19. "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae" (Chlamydiae: Parachlamydiaceae), a novel chlamydia parasite of free-living amoebae.

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    Corsaro, Daniele; Müller, Karl-Dieter; Wingender, Jost; Michel, Rolf

    2013-02-01

    Vannella sp. isolated from waterweed Elodea sp. was found infected by a chlamydia-like organism. This organism behaves like a parasite, causing the death through burst of its host. Once the vannellae degenerated, the parasite was successfully kept in laboratory within a Saccamoeba sp. isolated from the same waterweed sample, which revealed in fine through electron microscopy to harbor two bacterial endosymbionts: the chlamydial parasite we introduce and another endosymbiont initially and naturally present in the host. Herein, we provide molecular-based identification of both the amoeba host and its two endosymbionts, with special focus on the chlamydia parasite. High sequence similarity values of the 18S rDNA permitted to assign the amoeba to the species Saccamoeba lacustris (Amoebozoa, Tubulinea). The bacterial endosymbiont naturally harbored by the host belonged to Sphingomonas koreensis (Alpha-Proteobacteria). The chlamydial parasite showed a strict specificity for Saccamoeba spp., being unable to infect a variety of other amoebae, including Acanthamoeba, and it was itself infected by a bacteriophage. Sequence similarity values of the 16S rDNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain is a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae, for which we propose the name "Candidatus Mesochlamydia elodeae."

  20. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

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    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China.

  1. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis and Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Egypt

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    Jakeen K. El-Jakee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results reveal that 96.4%, 81.8%, 89.1%, 80.0% and 58.2% of the examined samples were positive for chlamydiosis using PCR, Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, FA, and CFT respectively among Hoopoe. The percentages were 90.6%, 77.4%, 83.0%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively for the previous tests among Cattle Egret birds. The results suggest that Cattle Egret and Hoopoe may be reservoir of Chlamydiaceae species and thus shed the organisms in their excreta. The shedding of chlamydiae by free living birds in Egypt may expose humans that come in contact with these birds to zoonotic risks.

  2. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  3. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

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    Selma Samiko Miyazaki ONUMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2% jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01. All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  4. 9 CFR 113.65 - Brucella Abortus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65... Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella Abortus Vaccine. Brucella Abortus Vaccine shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine from smooth colonial forms of the Brucella abortus...

  5. Chlamydophila abortus em animais de produção Chlamydophila abortus in production animals

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    Francielle Gibson da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A Chlamydophila abortus (anteriormente classificada como Chlamydia psittaci sorotipo 1 tem sido descrita em muitos países, associada principalmente com distúrbios reprodutivos em ovinos, bovinos e caprinos. O aborto enzoótico dos ovinos e caprinos e o aborto epizoótico dos bovinos são as doenças mais importantes causadas por esta bactéria. No Brasil, as pesquisas com C. abortus são praticamente inexistentes. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar informações sobre modificações taxonômicas, ciclo de vida, epidemiologia, patogenia, sinais clínicos e diagnóstico da infecção por C. abortus principalmente em ovinos, bovinos e caprinos.Chlamydophila abortus (previously known as Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 has been reported in many countries, associated with reproductive disorders in sheep, cattle, and goats. The enzootic abortion of sheep and goats and the epizootic bovine abortion are the most important diseases produced by this bacterium. In Brazil, there is scarce information about C. abortus. The objective of this review is to show information about taxonomic changes, life cycle, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs and diagnosis of C. abortus in sheep, cattle and goats.

  6. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) and Hoopoe (Upupa epops) in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Jakee, Jakeen K.; Osman, Kamelia M; Nashwa A. Ezzeldeen; Hadia A. Ali; Eman R. Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe) in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results...

  7. A Live Vaccine from Brucella abortus Strain 82 for Control of Cattle Brucellosis in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the first half of the 20th century, widespread regulatory efforts to control cattle brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics were essentially nonexistent, and control was limited to selective test and slaughter of serologic agglutination reactors. By the 1950...

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas.

  9. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

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    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. RESULTS: A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  10. Chlamydia Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the infection. A woman ... to prevent chlamydia is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but ...

  11. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

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    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  12. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

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    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  13. Booster vaccination with safe, modified, live-attenuated mutants of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine confers protective immunity against virulent strains of B. abortus and Brucella canis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Kim, Kiju; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2015-11-01

    Brucella abortus attenuated strain RB51 vaccine (RB51) is widely used in prevention of bovine brucellosis. Although vaccination with this strain has been shown to be effective in conferring protection against bovine brucellosis, RB51 has several drawbacks, including residual virulence for animals and humans. Therefore, a safe and efficacious vaccine is needed to overcome these disadvantages. In this study, we constructed several gene deletion mutants (ΔcydC, ΔcydD and ΔpurD single mutants, and ΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD double mutants) of RB51 with the aim of increasing the safety of the possible use of these mutants as vaccine candidates. The RB51ΔcydC, RB51ΔcydD, RB51ΔpurD, RB51ΔcydCΔcydD and RB51ΔcydCΔpurD mutants exhibited significant attenuation of virulence when assayed in murine macrophages in vitro or in BALB/c mice. A single intraperitoneal immunization with RB51ΔcydC, RB51ΔcydD, RB51ΔcydCΔcydD or RB51ΔcydCΔpurD mutants was rapidly cleared from mice within 3 weeks, whereas the RB51ΔpurD mutant and RB51 were detectable in spleens until 4 and 7 weeks, respectively. Vaccination with a single dose of RB51 mutants induced lower protective immunity in mice than did parental RB51. However, a booster dose of these mutants provided significant levels of protection in mice against challenge with either the virulent homologous B. abortus strain 2308 or the heterologous Brucella canis strain 26. In addition, these mutants were found to induce a mixed but T-helper-1-biased humoral and cellular immune response in immunized mice. These data suggest that immunization with a booster dose of attenuated RB51 mutants provides an attractive strategy to protect against either bovine or canine brucellosis.

  14. Immune response triggered by Brucella abortus following infection or vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Araújo, Márcio S S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-07-17

    Brucella abortus live vaccines have been used successfully to control bovine brucellosis worldwide for decades. However, due to some limitations of these live vaccines, efforts are being made for the development of new safer and more effective vaccines that could also be used in other susceptible species. In this context, understanding the protective immune responses triggered by B. abortus is critical for the development of new vaccines. Such understandings will enhance our knowledge of the host/pathogen interactions and enable to develop methods to evaluate potential vaccines and innovative treatments for animals or humans. At present, almost all the knowledge regarding B. abortus specific immunological responses comes from studies in mice. Active participation of macrophages, dendritic cells, IFN-γ producing CD4(+) T-cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells are vital to overcome the infection. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of the immune responses triggered by vaccination versus infection by B. abortus, in different hosts.

  15. A combined vaccine against Brucella abortus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the immune response in calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) vaccines in monovalent form and combined vaccine containing both antigen. The seroconversion of monovalent and combined vaccines was tested in seronegative cattle calves. IBR vaccine alone and combination with live Brucella abortus S19 vaccine elicited an anamnestic response on day 60 post booster but started declining from day 90 onwards ...

  16. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Cervicitis - chlamydia; STI - chlamydia; STD - chlamydia; Sexually transmitted - chlamydia; ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydial infections in adolescents and adults. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc. ...

  17. Vaccination of koalas with a recombinant Chlamydia pecorum major outer membrane protein induces antibodies of different specificity compared to those following a natural live infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females) would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a) natural live infection or (b) administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD) four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations.

  18. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better.

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  20. Efficacy of Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 compared to the reference vaccine Brucella abortus strain 19 in water buffalo

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    Vincenzo Caporale

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 250 000 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis live in the Campania region of southern Italy where the breeding of this species is very popular. Of these animals, almost 150 000 are concentrated in the Caserta province where the prevalence of Brucella abortus in this species represents approximately 20% at herd level. The Italian brucellosis eradication programme provides a slaughter and vaccination strategy for this province. B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51 has become the official vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in cattle in several countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RB51 in water buffalo compared to the B. abortus S19 vaccine (S19. The study was performed in accordance with a protocol described in mice. Female buffalo aged five months were inoculated. Five received a RB51 dosage on two occasions that was three times greater than that approved for use in cattle and a booster after one month, five received B. abortus S19 vaccine at the standard dosage and three controls received a phosphate buffer solution. Buffalo were then challenged with a virulent B. abortus strain 544 thirty days post vaccination. Antibodies that developed in the five animals vaccinated with RB51 were not detected by the Rose Bengal test or complement fixation test (CFT and were also tested by CFT prepared with RB51 antigen. After culling, B. abortus was cultured from the spleen, retropharyngeal and supra-mammary lymph nodes. A statistical evaluation was performed to assess the immunogenicity values obtained in buffalo vaccinated with S19, compared to those obtained in buffalo vaccinated with the RB51 vaccine and in the unvaccinated control group.

  1. Detection and genotyping of Chlamydia species responsible for reproductive disorders in Algerian small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdja, Salah-Eddine; Khaled, Hamza; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Bertin, Claire; Dahmani, Ali; Bouyoucef, Abdallah; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydiosis in small ruminants is a zoonotic disease mainly related to Chlamydia abortus. This bacterium is responsible for abortions and reproductive disorders in sheep and goats. Stillbirth and infertility, leading to important economic losses, are also associated with this pathology. In Algeria, abortion cases are frequently reported by veterinarians but, except for brucellosis which is a notifiable disease in this country, abortive diseases are in general poorly studied. In order to detect and genotype Chlamydia species in small ruminants in different areas of Algeria, a study was conducted on samples collected from females (164 blood samples and 199 vaginal swabs) between October 2011 and March 2013. Serum samples were tested with a C. abortus-specific indirect ELISA test. Fourteen samples (8.5 %), from six farms (6/20, 30 %) were tested positive. Vaginal swabs were analysed with a real-time PCR targeting all Chlamydiaceae spp. Thirty samples (15 %) were diagnosed positive in 16 farms (16/25, 64 %). Positive samples were all re-tested with a C. abortus- and a C. pecorum-specific real-time PCR. Finally, 13/30 (43.3 %) and 6/30 (20 %) were identified as C. abortus and C. pecorum, respectively. Enough concentrated C. abortus samples were genotyped by multi-loci variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), and all were related to the genotype [2] group which mainly includes French C. abortus isolates. C. pecorum-positive samples were genotyped by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Interestingly, two of them were successfully genotyped and showed identical MLST sequences to VB2, AB10, E58 and SBE, a group which includes C. pecorum isolates considered as highly pathogenic. These findings suggest a possible role of C. abortus and C. pecorum strains in the aetiology of abortion in Algerian small ruminants.

  2. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  3. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis.

  4. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species.

  5. LAPORAN KASUS ABORTUS IMINENS JUNI 2015 FAKTOR RESIKO, PATOGENESIS, DAN PENATALAKSANAAN

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    Kiki Sanjaya Dharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the most complications in pregnancy it was a bleeding , that could happen to any the gestational age .Young in pregnancy , often connected with abortus , miscarriage , and loss of early pregnancy .Abortus is defined as the threat or spending the products of conception before a fetus can live outside the utery. Constitutes gestational age is less than 20 weeks or fetus weight less than 500 grams .Abortus imminens is pervaginam bleeding in pregnancy before 20 weeks without accompanied the release of the products of conception and dilatation of the uterus. Cases: Female patient , 31 years , the balinese ethnic coming to the emergency room the hospital with complaints pervaginam bleeding. Said to be initially were bleeding spots that its color red .Then there are black coloured bloodlump, there is no tissue. Kata Kunci :Abortus imminens, pregnancy, bleeding.

  6. Chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, N; Thoma, R; Spaeni, P; Weilenmann, R; Teankum, K; Brugnera, E; Zimmermann, D R; Vaughan, L; Pospischil, A

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the first case of bovine chlamydial abortion was reported in canton Graubunden, Switzerland. In this region, Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus is endemic in small ruminants. Hence, we aimed to investigate the incidence of chlamydia-related abortions in cattle from Graubunden. During breeding seasons of 2003-2004, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded placenta specimens (n = 235) from late-term abortions in cattle were analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry with a Chlamydiaceae-specific monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and 2 different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods (16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid [rRNA] PCR, intergenic spacer [IGS-S] PCR), followed by PCR product sequencing. In 149 of 235 cases (63.4%), histopathologic lesions such as purulent and/or necrotizing placentitis were observed. Chlamydial antigen was clearly demonstrated in immunohistochemistry in only 1 of 235 cases (0.4%). Cp. abortus or Cp. psittaci was found in 12 of 235 (5.1%) and 10 of 235 cases (4.2%) by 16 S rRNA PCR and IGS-S PCR, respectively. However, we detected, by 16 S rRNA PCR, 43 of 235 cases (18.3%) to be positive for chlamydia-like organisms. In contrast to the situation in small ruminants in the canton Graubunden, bovine abortion from Cp. abortus seems not to play an important role. Nevertheless, zoonotic potential should be taken into account when handling abortion material from cattle. The significance of chlamydia-like isolates other than Waddlia chondrophila remains an open question in abortion and needs further investigation.

  7. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia.

  8. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats.

  9. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  10. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Chlamydia can also cause a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy that occurs outside the womb). How is ... pain, inability to get pregnant, and potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus). Men rarely have health ...

  11. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2010-09-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure.

  12. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  13. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dorneles, Elaine Maria S.; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Andrey P. Lage

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species ...

  14. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susce...

  15. Increasing effect of a high dose of PG-1 peptide on the infectivity of Chlamydophila abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Gennaro, Renato; Benincasa, Monica; Di Paolo, Maria; Shurdhi, Alisa; Ostanello, Fabio; Baldelli, Raffaella; Cevenini, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides, stored by mammalian leukocytes, showing an antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and enveloped viruses. In accordance with other authors, we reported in a previous study that the protegrin-1 (PG-1), at 80 microg mL(-1), inhibited the in vitro growth of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D, H and L2; however, we observed an increased infectivity of some animal chlamydial species after their treatment with the same PG-1 concentration. In this study, the treatment of LLC-MK2 cells with PG-1 before chlamydial infection resulted in an increased infectivity of Chlamydophila abortus probably due to their easier entry into the host cells, whereas no increase in S26/3 infectivity was detected in LLC-MK2 cells treated with PG-1 postchlamydial infection.

  16. Recent advances in Brucella abortus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine M S; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-07-08

    Brucella abortus vaccines play a central role in bovine brucellosis control/eradication programs and have been successfully used worldwide for decades. Strain 19 and RB51 are the approved B. abortus vaccines strains most commonly used to protect cattle against infection and abortion. However, due to some drawbacks shown by these vaccines much effort has been undertaken for the development of new vaccines, safer and more effective, that could also be used in other susceptible species of animals. In this paper, we present a review of the main aspects of the vaccines that have been used in the brucellosis control over the years and the current research advances in the development of new B. abortus vaccines.

  17. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilma AN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abebayehu N Yilma, Shree R Singh, Saurabh Dixit, Vida A DennisCenter for Nanobiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin (IL-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86 and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilma, Abebayehu N; Singh, Shree R; Dixit, Saurabh; Dennis, Vida A

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86) and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) inflammatory signaling pathways by downregulating their messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcript expressions as induced by C. trachomatis in macrophages

  20. Analysis of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Expression in Cultured Cells Identifies PmpA and PmpH of Chlamydia psittaci as Candidate Factors in Pathogenesis and Immunity to Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; De Vos, Winnok H.; Huot Creasy, Heather; Marques, Patricia X.; Ravel, Jacques; Vanrompay, Daisy; Bavoil, Patrik; Hsia, Ru-ching

    2016-01-01

    The polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) paralogous families of Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus are putative targets for Chlamydia vaccine development. To determine whether this is also the case for Pmp family members of C. psittaci, we analyzed transcription levels, protein production and localization of several Pmps of C. psittaci. Pmp expression profiles were characterized using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), immunofluorescence (IF) and immuno-electron microscopy (IEM) under normal and stress conditions. We found that PmpA was highly produced in all inclusions as early as 12 hpi in all biological replicates. In addition, PmpA and PmpH appeared to be unusually accessible to antibody as determined by both immunofluorescence and immuno-electron microscopy. Our results suggest an important role for these Pmps in the pathogenesis of C. psittaci, and make them promising candidates in vaccine development. PMID:27631978

  1. Brucella abortus-infected B cells induce osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2016-09-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that establishes lifelong infections in livestock and humans although the mechanisms of its chronicity are poorly understood. Activated B cells have long lifespan and B. abortus infection activates B cells. Our results indicate that the direct infection of B cells with B. abortus induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), receptor activator for NF κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected B cells induced bone marrow-derived monocytes to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using osteoprotegerin, RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that RANKL is involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected B cells. The results presented here shed light on how the interactions of B. abortus with B cells may have a role in the pathogenesis of brucellar osteoarticular disease.

  2. A case of unusual septic knee arthritis with Brucella abortus after arthroscopic meniscus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun Hwa; Kang, Hyunseong; Kim, Taejung; Choi, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    We present a 51-year-old male patient with Brucella abortus septic arthritis in the right knee following arthroscopic meniscus surgery. He had eaten a traditional dish of raw minced cattle conceptus (bovine fetus) that was prepared after the cow was slaughtered. Despite treatment with empirical antibiotics and debridement of the postoperative surgical wound, the infection persisted without improvement. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing identified Brucella abortus from tissue samples obtained from the patient. After confirmation of the diagnosis of brucellar infection, antibiotics were replaced with doxycycline and rifampin, which were used for 4 months. In patients with a non-specific arthralgia who eat raw meat or live close to animals, it is important to consider the possibility of septic arthritis due to infection with Brucella spp.

  3. Chlamydia cell biology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Cherilyn; Mirrashidi, Kathleen; Engel, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia spp. are important causes of human disease for which no effective vaccine exists. These obligate intracellular pathogens replicate in a specialized membrane compartment and use a large arsenal of secreted effectors to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the host. In this Review, we summarize the progress in decoding the interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts that has been made possible by recent technological advances in chlamydial proteomics and genetics. The field is now poised to decipher the molecular mechanisms that underlie the intimate interactions between Chlamydia spp. and their hosts, which will open up many exciting avenues of research for these medically important pathogens.

  4. Recovery of an environmental Chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingro, Astrid; Poppert, Sven; Heinz, Eva; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Essig, Andreas; Schweikert, Michael; Wagner, Michael; Horn, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are a unique group of obligate intracellular bacteria comprising important pathogens of vertebrates as well as symbionts of free-living amoebae. Although there is ample molecular evidence for a huge diversity and wide distribution of chlamydiae in nature, environmental chlamydiae are currently represented by only few isolates. This paper reports the recovery of a novel environmental chlamydia strain from activated sludge by co-cultivation with Acanthamoeba sp. The recovered environmental chlamydia strain UV-7 showed the characteristic morphology of chlamydial developmental stages as revealed by electron microscopy and was identified as a new member of the family Parachlamydiaceae (98.7 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Parachlamydia acanthamoebae). Infection studies suggested that Parachlamydia sp. UV-7 is not confined to amoeba hosts but is also able to invade mammalian cells. These findings outline a new straightforward approach to retrieving environmental chlamydiae from nature without prior, tedious isolation and cultivation of their natural host cells, and lend further support to suggested implications of environmental chlamydiae for public health.

  5. Brief Report: Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing Increasing but Still Lagging in HIV Clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Stephen A; Ghanem, Khalil G; Mathews, William Christopher; Korthuis, Philip Todd; Yehia, Baligh R; Agwu, Allison L; Lehmann, Christoph U; Moore, Richard D; Allen, Sara L; Gebo, Kelly A

    2015-11-01

    Screening persons living with HIV for gonorrhea and chlamydia has been recommended since 2003. We compared annual gonorrhea/chlamydia testing to syphilis and lipid testing among 19,368 adults (41% men who have sex with men, 30% heterosexual men, and 29% women) engaged in HIV care. In 2004, 22%, 62%, and 70% of all patients were tested for gonorrhea/chlamydia, syphilis, and lipid levels, respectively. Despite increasing steadily [odds ratio per year (95% confidence interval): 1.14 (1.13 to 1.15)], gonorrhea/chlamydia testing in 2010 remained lower than syphilis and lipid testing (39%, 77%, 76%, respectively). Interventions to improve gonorrhea/chlamydia screening are needed. A more targeted screening approach may be warranted.

  6. Infection of C57BL/6 mice by Trypanosoma musculi modulates host immune responses during Brucella abortus cocolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Jake E; Leonhardt, Jack A; Yao, Chaoqun; Belden, E Lee; Andrews, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, which results in fetal abortions in domestic and wildlife animal populations, is of major concern in the US and throughout much of the world. The disease, caused by Brucella abortus, poses an economic threat to agriculture-based communities. A moderately efficacious live attenuated vaccine (B. abortus strain RB51) exists. However, even with vaccine use, outbreaks occur. Evidence suggests that elk (Cervus canadensis), a wild host reservoir, are the source of recent outbreaks in domestic cattle herds in Wyoming, USA. Brucella abortus establishes a chronic, persistent infection in elk. The molecular mechanisms allowing the establishment of this persistent infective state are currently unknown. A potential mechanism could be that concurrent pathogen burdens contribute to persistence. In Wyoming, elk are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cervi, which may modulate host responses in a similar manner to that documented for other trypanosomes. To identify any synergistic relationship between the two pathogens, we simulated coinfection in the well-established murine brucellosis model using Trypanosoma musculi and B. abortus S19. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) were infected with either B. abortus strain 19 (S19) or T. musculi or both. Sera were collected weekly; spleens from euthanized mice were tested to determine bacterial load near the end of normal brucellosis infection. Although changes in bacterial load were observed during the later stages of brucellosis in those mice coinfected with T. musculi, the most significant finding was the suppression of gamma interferon early during the infection along with an increase in interleukin-10 secretion compared with mice infected with either pathogen alone. These results suggest that immune modulatory events occur in the mouse during coinfection and that further experiments are warranted to determine if T. cervi impacts Brucella infection in elk.

  7. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results and Discussion: In this study, i...

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis: avances y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Ostos Ortiz, Olga Lucia; Sánchez, Ruth Mélida

    2003-01-01

    La Chlamydia es una bacteria Gram negativa, no móvil, de vida parasitaria intracelular obligada porque carece de habilidad para sintetizar ATP, son parásitos energéticos, no tienen vida libre y colonizan el citoplasma de las células susceptibles

  9. Medición de respuesta inmune humoral y celular frente a antígenos de Brucella abortus RB51 en bovinos (Evaluation of Humoral and cellular immune response evaluation against Brucella abortus strain RB51 antigens in bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Montaña S.

    1998-01-01

    ninguno de los grupos experimentales. IS superiores se encontraron al emplear antígeno soluble crudo de B. abortus RB51, los cuales evidenciaron diferencias significativas (pg más altos en los grupos vacunados con cepas vivas, especialmente en el grupo cepa 19. Al analizar la relación CD4/CD8, ésta se mantuvo estable durante todo el tiempo de observación y no se detectó predominio ni disminución de ninguna subpoblación linfoide. Los resultados anteriores, unidos al nivel de protección a descarga encontrado favorable a las cepas vivas, permiten, a su vez, concluir que la cepa B. abortus RB51 induce igual nivel de protección al de la cepa de vacuna tradicional C19, superando la limitante en diagnóstico diferencial. Los antígenos purificados de membrana externa, OMP-II y OMP-II-Cadena O, aunque presentan un nivel inferior de protección, en los parámetros inmunológicos medidos en este estudio, en general, se comportan en forma semejante a las cepas vivas, indicando que son antigénicos e inducen una memoria de corta duración probablemente necesitando administración de dosis repetidas para alcanzar niveles eficientes de protección. Se plantea que la protección observada en los animales vacunados con B. abortus RB51 ante desafío patógeno es el resultado de la estimulación de linfocitos T CD4+ Th1 y linfocitos T CD8+ ante la presentación de péptidos de proteínas de membrana externa.In order to comparatively evaluate the type of immune response induced by purified structural Brucella abortus antigens as well as live vaccines, 14 criollo heifers, 19 months old, were randomly distributed in five experimental groups and immunised subcutaneously with: B. abortus purified outer membrane proteins (OMP-II, B. abortus OMP-II coupled to O-chain, viable B. abortus strain RB51, viable B. abortus strain 19 (C19. A sterile saline solution was used for the control group. Two months after vaccination the animals were challenged intramuscularly with reference virulent

  10. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, T P; Miceli, M; Silverman, J A

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [35S]methionine and [35S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and...

  11. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  12. Brucella abortusΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD double-mutants are highly attenuated and confer long-term protective immunity against virulent Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Kim, Kiju; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-01-04

    We constructed double deletion (ΔcydCΔcydD and ΔcydCΔpurD) mutants from virulent Brucella abortus biovar 1 field isolate (BA15) by deleting the genes encoding an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter (cydC and cydD genes) and a phosphoribosylamine-glycine ligase (purD). Both BA15ΔcydCΔcydD and BA15ΔcydCΔpurD double-mutants exhibited significant attenuation of virulence when assayed in murine macrophages or in BALB/c mice. Both double-mutants were readily cleared from spleens by 4 weeks post-inoculation even when inoculated at the dose of 10(8) CFU per mouse. Moreover, the inoculated mice showed no splenomegaly, which indicates that the mutants are highly attenuated. Importantly, the attenuation of in vitro and in vivo growth did not impair the ability of these mutants to confer long-term protective immunity in mice against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308. Vaccination of mice with either mutant induced humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, and provided significantly better protection than commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. These results suggest that highly attenuated BA15ΔcydCΔcydD and BA15ΔcydCΔpurD mutants can be used effectively as potential live vaccine candidates against bovine brucellosis.

  13. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Vandahl, Brian; Larsen, Martin Røssel;

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D......-PAGE profiles of whole lysates of infected cells but absent from purified Chlamydia. CPAF was recently identified by Zhong and colleagues as a secreted protease which cleaves host cell transcription factors essential for MHC class I and II antigen presentation. The identification of CPAF in this paper verifies...

  14. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... prevalence. Estimates of chlamydia positivity in surveys with low response rates should not be interpreted as estimates of population prevalence. Only two population-based surveys in EU/EEA Member States in this review had a response rate of >70%. The highest response rates were seen when specimens...

  15. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkelund, S

    1992-08-01

    coli DnaK protein. Also the GroEL-like protein is antigenic and very conserved. Factors of importance for pathogenicity of chlamydia have not yet been found. The adhesin(s) is unknown, and no factor of importance for the inhibition of fusion between phagosome and host cell lysosomes has been described. A protein similar to the mip gene product of Legionella pneumofila may be a possible candidate for a pathogenicity factor. Diagnosis of C. trachomatis infections has been done by chlamydia cultivation in tissue culture cells, by immunofluorescence and by ELISA. A new method based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed. As primers sequences from the common plasmid were used. This method has high sensitivity and specificity and does not require live chlamydia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  16. Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-1 and -2 Play No Role in Controlling Brucella abortus Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs are modular cytoplasmic proteins implicated in the recognition of peptidoglycan-derived molecules. Further, several in vivo studies have demonstrated a role for Nod1 and Nod2 in host defense against bacterial pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that macrophages from NOD1-, NOD2-, and Rip2-deficient mice produced lower levels of TNF-α following infection with live Brucella abortus compared to wild-type mice. Similar reduction on cytokine synthesis was not observed for IL-12 and IL-6. However, NOD1, NOD2, and Rip2 knockout mice were no more susceptible to infection with virulent B. abortus than wild-type mice. Additionally, spleen cells from NOD1-, NOD2-, and Rip2-deficient mice showed unaltered production of IFN-γ compared to C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, this study demonstrates that NOD1, NOD2 and Rip2 are dispensable for the control of B. abortus during in vivo infection.

  17. Outer membrane vesicles from Brucella abortus promote bacterial internalization by human monocytes and modulate their innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora N Pollak

    Full Text Available Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs released by some gram-negative bacteria have been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects that favor the establishment of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the interaction of OMVs from Brucella abortus with human epithelial cells (HeLa and monocytes (THP-1, and the potential immunomodulatory effects they may exert. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, FITC-labeled OMVs were shown to be internalized by both cell types. Internalization was shown to be partially mediated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Pretreatment of THP-1 cells with Brucella OMVs inhibited some cytokine responses (TNF-α and IL-8 to E. coli LPS, Pam3Cys or flagellin (TLR4, TLR2 and TLR5 agonists, respectively. Similarly, pretreatment with Brucella OMVs inhibited the cytokine response of THP-1 cells to B. abortus infection. Treatment of THP-1 cells with OMVs during IFN-γ stimulation reduced significantly the inducing effect of this cytokine on MHC-II expression. OMVs induced a dose-dependent increase of ICAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells and an increased adhesion of these cells to human endothelial cells. The addition of OMVs to THP-1 cultures before the incubation with live B. abortus resulted in increased numbers of adhered and internalized bacteria as compared to cells not treated with OMVs. Overall, these results suggest that OMVs from B. abortus exert cellular effects that promote the internalization of these bacteria by human monocytes, but also downregulate the innate immune response of these cells to Brucella infection. These effects may favor the persistence of Brucella within host cells.

  18. Detection of Chlamydophila abortus in Sheep (Ovis aries in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Jiménez-Estrada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus is one of the pathogens which induce abortion in small ruminants; this pathogen has a tropism for ruminant placenta and causes the disease commonly referred to as Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA. In Europe are estimated economic losses of around 20 million pounds a year by OEA. In the American Continent the disease has been reported only in Canada, the United States, Colombia and Chile while in Mexico it is unknown whether OEA is common and it is causing abortions in flocks of sheep from “Estado de Mexico”. The objective of this study was investigating the prevalence of anti-Chlamydophila abortus IgG antibodies and detection of C. abortus DNA in sheep with clinical abort history by mean of ELISA assay (C. abortus ELISA, Institute Pourquier, Montpellier, France and molecular identification of the principal outer membrane protein (POMP 90-91B gene by PCR, respectively. A cross-sectional study was carried out to enroll and random sample of ewes from november 2003 until march 2005. A total of 349 sera and vaginal swabs samples were collected from 35 flocks of sheep from Xalatlaco. The results showed that the seropositive rate was 31.1% (14/45 for healthy and 21.3% (65/304 for sheep with history clinical of abort. In vaginal swabs, the PCR showed 0% (0/45 for healthy animals and 0.65% (2/304 for aborted sheep. Samples from the lungs and liver of the fetus of one of these animals were also positive for C. abortus. In conclusion, these results confirmed that infection with C. abortus is common and is affecting sheep flocks in the Mexican highlands. Therefore, is necessary that the authorities responsible for animal welfare in Mexico (SAGARPA to set up appropriate epidemiological surveillance and control programs to eradicate this disease.

  19. Characterization and Immunogenicity of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Singh, Satparkash; Sunil Kumar, B V; Mahajan, Kanika; Verma, Ramneek

    2016-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic disease. The objectives of this study were characterization of outer membrane vesicles from B. abortus and to evaluate their immunogenicity in mice. For this purpose, OMVs were derived from B. abortus strain 99 using ultracentrifugation method. Isolated OMVs were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy which revealed spherical 20-300 nm structures rich in proteins. OMVs also showed immuno-reactivity with mice antisera in Western blot. Further, indirect ELISA showed specific and high-titer immune responses against the antigens present in OMVs suggesting their potential for a safe acellular vaccine candidate.

  20. Risk factors associated with chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, O; Strathdee, S A; Martinez, G A; Lozada, R; Ojeda, V D; Staines-Orozco, H; Patterson, T L

    2010-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea was 13.0% and 6.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with chlamydia were younger age, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhoea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection were more closely associated with FSWs' drug use behaviours and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviours. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

  1. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, A G; Banner, Jytte; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were exam...

  2. Activity of Cathelicidin Peptides against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Leo, Korinne; Benincasa, Monica; Cavrini, Francesca; Accardo, Silvia; Moroni, Alessandra; Gennaro, Renato; Cevenini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of six cathelicidin peptides against 25 strains of Chlamydia was investigated. SMAP-29 proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion numbers of all 10 strains of Chlamydia trachomatis tested by ≥50% at 10 μg/ml. This peptide was also active against C. pneumoniae and C. felis. PMID:15728927

  3. Advances in sampling and screening for chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jane S; Guy, Rebecca; Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the developed world, with diagnosis rates continuing to increase each year. As chlamydia is largely asymptomatic, screening and treatment is the main way to detect cases and reduce transmission. Recent advances in self-collected specimens and laboratory tests has made chlamydia screening easier to implement as well as possible in nonclinical settings. This review will discuss new approaches to specimen collection and how these have expanded opportunities for reaching target populations for chlamydia screening. Furthermore, it will discuss how advanced molecular microbiological methods can be used with self-collected specimens to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of chlamydia and the dynamics of transmission.

  4. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jegaveera Pandian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals.

  5. Brucella abortus RB51 in milk of vaccinated adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Resende, Thiago Magalhães; Vaz, Adil Knackfuss; Ferraz, Sandra Maria; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the shedding of Brucella abortus in the milk of cows vaccinated with a full dose of RB51 during lactation. Eighteen cows, nine previously vaccinated with S19 as calves and nine non-vaccinated, were immunized subcutaneously with 1.3×10(10)CFU of B. abortus RB51, 30-60days after parturition. Milk samples from all animals were collected daily until day 7, and at weekly interval for the next 9 weeks after vaccination. To evaluate the shedding of B. abortus, milk samples were submitted for culture and PCR. No B. abortus was isolated from any sample tested. Only one sample, collected on first day after vaccination from a cow previously vaccinated, was faintly positive in the PCR. In conclusion, the public health hazard associated with milk consumption from cows vaccinated with RB51 in post-partum is very low, despite vaccination with the full dose and regardless of previous S19 vaccination.

  6. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R Brucella abortus Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa.The case of a 36-year-old patient from a rural area is presented. He came with an 8 month history of fever, myalgias, arthralgias, weight loss and lower back pain; who also had an aortic insufficiency murmur detected. The diagnosis of aortic valve endocarditis was made by echocardiography, and had 4 positive blood cultures for Brucella abortus biotype 3, and negative serologic test for brucellosis. He was started on antibiotics and later on underwent aortic valve replacement, with a late coronary cardioembolism as a complication.

  7. DNA vaccine encoding L7/L12-P39 of Brucella abortus induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO De-yan; LI Peng; XING Li; ZHAO Guang-yu; SHI Wei; ZHANG Song-le; WANG Xi-liang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Brucella abortus is a gram-negative, facultative, intracellular bacterium that infects both cattle and humans, causing abortion and infertility in the former and undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. Resistance to Brucella depends on acquired cell-mediated immunity (CMI).1 Live attenuated vaccines can stimulate strong CMI response, which are usually very effective against brucellosis and are used to control brucellosis in domestic animals. However, there is no safe and effective vaccine available for human because the vaccine strains used for animals are considered too virulent for humans. A vaccine that will be noninfectious to humans but effective in stimulating a broad protective immune response is needed.2

  8. Biology and intracellular life of chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranin Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chlamydiae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. The developmental cycle of Chlamydiae is specific and different from other bacteria. The elementary body is the infectious form of the organism, responsible for attaching to the target host cell and promoting its entry. The reticulate body is the larger, metabolically active form of the organism, synthesizing deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and proteins. The elementary body and reticulate body represent evolutionary adaptations to extracellular and intracellular environments. Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia. Predisposition of Chlamydia to persist within the host cell has been recognized as a major factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease. The persistence implies a long-term association between chlamydiae and their host cell that may not manifest as clinically recognizable disease. The ability of chlamydia to remain within one morphological state for a long time in response to exogenous factors suggests an innate ability of these organisms to persist intracellulary in a unique developmental form. Chlamydiae induce interferon γ and exhibit growth inhibition in their presence. While the high levels of interferon γ completely restrict the development of chlamydia, its low levels induce the development of morphologically aberrant intracellular forms. The persistent forms contain reduced levels of major outer membrane protein but high levels of chlamydial heat shock protein. Conclusion. Immunopathogenesis of chlamydial infection is one of the main focal points of current research into Chlamydia. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent, usually asymptomatic and associated with serious sequelae. Screening programmes are the most important in the prevention of a long-term sequele.

  9. Pneumonia grave por "Chlamydia psittaci"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOSCHIONI CRISTIANE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A psitacose, também conhecida como ornitose, é causada pela Chlamydia psittaci; caracteriza-se por doença de início insidioso, sintomas brandos e inespecíficos, lembrando infecção de vias aéreas superiores. Acomete principalmente o pulmão, sendo raramente doença sistêmica e fatal. Descreve-se um caso raro de pneumonia por Chlamydia psittaci que evoluiu para insuficiência respiratória aguda, necessitando de ventilação mecânica. Destaca-se a importância em considerar o diagnóstico, especialmente em casos de pneumonia comunitária que evolui de modo insatisfatório, que não responde à terapia antimicrobiana e cuja epidemiologia é positiva para exposição às aves. O diagnóstico precoce é fundamental devido à excelente resposta terapêutica. O diagnóstico tardio pode levar a curso grave e fatal da doença.

  10. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...

  11. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  12. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  14. [Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix uteri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas Arceo, J; Toca Porraz, L; Díaz Esponda, C; Nava Flores, J

    1993-11-01

    We studied 93 gynecological samples of uterine cervix of patients at Hospital de Gineco Obstetricia No. 3, Centro Médico La Raza, IMSS, Health Promotion and Family Medicine Unit No. 5 with monoclonal antibodies. We found Chlamydia trachomatis in 28.4% in women where the infection was suspected. We should think in infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in women with acute cervicitis, acute salpingitis, cervical abnormalities, and to run the specific tests for its detection.

  15. Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Xavier; Crosson, Sean; Matroule, Jean-Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection.

  16. Brucella abortus: pathogenicity and gene regulation of virulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rivas-Solano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a zoonotic intracellular facultative pathogen belonging to the subdivision α2 of class Proteobacteria. It causes a worldwide distributed zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The main symptoms are abortion and sterility in cattle, as well as an undulant febrile condition in humans. In endemic regions like Central America, brucellosis has a high socioeconomic impact. A basic research project was recently conducted at the ITCR with the purpose of studying gene regulation of virulence, structure and immunogenicity in B. abortus. The present review was written as part of this project. B. abortus virulence seems to be determined by its ability to invade, survive and replicate inside professional and non-professional phagocytes. It reaches its intracellular replicative niche without the activation of host antimicrobial mechanisms of innate immunity. It also has gene regulation mechanisms for a rapid adaptation to an intracellular environment such as the two-component signal transduction system BvrR/BvrS and the quorum sensing regulator called Vjbr, as well as other transcription factors. All of them integrate a complex gene regulation network.

  17. Mutant Brucella abortus membrane fusogenic protein induces protection against challenge infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Filho, Job Alves; de Paulo Martins, Vicente; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Alves-Silva, Juliana; Santos, Nathalia V; de Oliveira, Fernanda Souza; Menezes, Gustavo B; Azevedo, Vasco; Cravero, Silvio Lorenzo; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-04-01

    Brucella species can cause brucellosis, a zoonotic disease that causes serious livestock economic losses and represents a public health threat. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not yet fully understood. Therefore, it is crucial to identify new molecules that serve as virulence factors to better understand this host-pathogen interplay. Here, we evaluated the role of the Brucella membrane fusogenic protein (Mfp) and outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) in bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we showed that B. abortus Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan deletion mutant strains have reduced persistence in vivo in C57BL/6 and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) knockout (KO) mice. Additionally, 24 h after macrophage infection with a Δmfp::kan or Δomp19::kan strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) approximately 80% or 65% of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) retained the late endosomal/lysosomal marker LAMP-1, respectively, whereas around 60% of BCVs containing wild-type S2308 were found in LAMP-1-negative compartments. B. abortus Δomp19::kan was attenuated in vivo but had a residual virulence in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, whereas the Δmfp::kan strain had a lower virulence in these same mouse models. Furthermore, Δmfp::kan and Δomp19::kan strains were used as live vaccines. Challenge experiments revealed that in C57BL/6 and IRF-1 KO mice, the Δmfp::kan strain induced greater protection than the vaccine RB51 and protection similar that of vaccine S19. However, a Δomp19::kan strain induced protection similar to that of RB51. Thus, these results demonstrate that Brucella Mfp and Omp19 are critical for full bacterial virulence and that the Δmfp::kan mutant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate in future studies.

  18. Overexpression of Brucella putative glycosyltransferase WbkA in B. abortus RB51 leads to production of exopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha eDabral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis in mammals. Brucella strains containing the O-polysaccharide in their cell wall structure exhibit a smooth phenotype whereas the strains devoid of the polysaccharide show rough phenotype. B. abortus strain RB51 is a stable rough attenuated mutant which is used as a licensed live vaccine for bovine brucellosis. Previous studies have shown that the wboA gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for the synthesis of O-polysaccharide, is disrupted in B. abortus RB51 by an IS711 element. Although complementation of strain RB51 with a functional wboA gene results in O-polysaccharide synthesis in the cytoplasm, it does not result in smooth phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine if overexpression of Brucella WbkA or WbkE, two additional putative glycosyltransferases essential for O-polysaccharide synthesis, in strain RB51 would result in the O-polysaccharide synthesis and smooth phenotype. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of wbkA or wbkE gene in RB51 does not result in O-polysaccharide expression as shown by Western blotting with specific antibodies. However, wbkA, but not wbkE, overexpression leads to the development of a clumping phenotype and the production of exopolysaccharide(s containing mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. Moreover, we found that the clumping recombinant strain displays increased adhesion to polystyrene plates. The recombinant strain was similar to strain RB51 in its attenuation characteristic and in its ability to induce protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in mice.

  19. Overexpression of Brucella putative glycosyltransferase WbkA in B. abortus RB51 leads to production of exopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, Neha; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Seleem, Mohamed N; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis in mammals. Brucella strains containing the O-polysaccharide in their cell wall structure exhibit a smooth phenotype whereas the strains devoid of the polysaccharide show rough phenotype. B. abortus strain RB51 is a stable rough attenuated mutant which is used as a licensed live vaccine for bovine brucellosis. Previous studies have shown that the wboA gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for the synthesis of O-polysaccharide, is disrupted in B. abortus RB51 by an IS711 element. Although complementation of strain RB51 with a functional wboA gene results in O-polysaccharide synthesis in the cytoplasm, it does not result in smooth phenotype. The aim of this study was to determine if overexpression of Brucella WbkA or WbkE, two additional putative glycosyltransferases essential for O-polysaccharide synthesis, in strain RB51 would result in the O-polysaccharide synthesis and smooth phenotype. Our results demonstrate that overexpression of wbkA or wbkE gene in RB51 does not result in O-polysaccharide expression as shown by Western blotting with specific antibodies. However, wbkA, but not wbkE, overexpression leads to the development of a clumping phenotype and the production of exopolysaccharide(s) containing mannose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Moreover, we found that the clumping recombinant strain displays increased adhesion to polystyrene plates. The recombinant strain was similar to strain RB51 in its attenuation characteristic and in its ability to induce protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in mice.

  20. Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Brucella abortus Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance (Ohr) Protein Protects Against a Virulent Brucella abortus 544 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Brucella abortus ohr gene coding for an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system (pMAL), inserted into Escherichia coli, and purified, and its immunogenicity was evaluated by western blot analysis using Brucella-positive mouse sera. The purified recombinant Ohr (rOhr) was treated with adjuvant and injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. A protective immune response analysis revealed that rOhr induced a significant increase in both the IgG1 and IgG2a titers, and IgG2a reached a higher level than IgG1 after the second and third immunizations. Additionally, immunization with rOhr induced high production of IFN-γ as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, MCP-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6, but a lesser amount of IL-10, suggesting that rOhr predominantly elicited a cell-mediated immune response. In addition, immunization with rOhr caused a significantly higher degree of protection against a virulent B. abortus infection compared with a positive control group consisting of mice immunized with maltose-binding protein. These findings showed that B. abortus rOhr was able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice, which suggested that this recombinant protein could be a potential vaccine candidate for animal brucellosis.

  1. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  2. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth is the most common cause of infant death and can lead to long-term health and ... or babies born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Premature birth is the most common cause of infant death and can lead to long-term health and ...

  3. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eNol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosytransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk

  4. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nol, Pauline; Olsen, Steven C; Rhyan, Jack C; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; McCollum, Matthew P; Hennager, Steven G; Pavuk, Alana A; Sprino, Phillip J; Boyle, Stephen M; Berrier, Randall J; Salman, Mo D

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health of the Greater Yellowstone Area elk populations. In two studies, we evaluated the efficacy of B. abortus strain RB51 over-expressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase for protecting elk from infection and disease caused by B. abortus after experimental infection with a virulent B. abortus strain. Our data indicate that the recombinant vaccine does not protect elk against brucellosis. Further, work is needed for development of an effective brucellosis vaccine for use in elk.

  5. Infecção em cão por Brucella abortus: relato de caso Brucella abortus infection in dog: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Megid

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus infection is reported in a dog from a rural area that presented at clinical evaluation left testicular enlargement and right testicular decrease. Serum resulted negative to rapid agglutination test and agar gel immunodifusion with Brucella ovis antigen but positive to buffered plate agglutination test, tube agglutination test and 2- Mercapthoetanol with B. abortus antigen. Brucella isolation was negative in blood, testicular material, semen and urine. Brucella DNA was detected in PCR from urine and blood.

  6. Immunogenicity of a Multi-Epitope DNA Vaccine Encoding Epitopes from Cu–Zn Superoxide Dismutase and Open Reading Frames of Brucella abortus in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Emilia; Sáez, Darwin; Oñate, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease affecting several mammalian species that is transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. In cattle, brucellosis is almost invariably caused by Brucella abortus. Live, attenuated Brucella vaccines are commonly used to prevent illness in cattle, but can cause abortions in pregnant animals. It is, therefore, desirable to design an effective and safer vaccine against Brucella. We have used specific Brucella antigens that induce immunity and protection against B. abortus. A novel recombinant multi-epitope DNA vaccine specific for brucellosis was developed. To design the vaccine construct, we employed bioinformatics tools to predict epitopes present in Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase and in the open reading frames of the genomic island-3 (BAB1_0260, BAB1_0270, BAB1_0273, and BAB1_0278) of Brucella. We successfully designed a multi-epitope DNA plasmid vaccine chimera that encodes and expresses 21 epitopes. This DNA vaccine induced a specific humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice. It induced a typical T-helper 1 response, eliciting production of immunoglobulin G2a and IFN-γ particularly associated with the Th1 cell subset of CD4+ T cells. The production of IL-4, an indicator of Th2 activation, was not detected in splenocytes. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the vaccine induced a predominantly Th1 response. The vaccine induced a statistically significant level of protection in BALB/c mice when challenged with B. abortus 2308. This is the first use of an in silico strategy to a design a multi-epitope DNA vaccine against B. abortus. PMID:28232837

  7. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend;

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  8. Chlamydia Peritonitis and Ascites Mimicking Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macer, Matthew; Azodi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) rarely results in diffuse ascites. Severe adhesive disease secondary to PID may lead to the formation of inclusion cysts and even pelvic peritoneal nodularity due to postinflammatory scarring and cause an elevation of serum CA-125 levels. The constellation of these findings may mimic an ovarian neoplasm. Case. We report a case of a 22-year-old female who presented with multiple pelvic cysts and diffuse ascites due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The initial gynecologic exam did not reveal obvious evidence of PID; however, a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test, pathologic findings, and the exclusion of other etiologies facilitated the diagnosis. Conclusion. Chlamydia trachomatis and other infectious agents should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a young sexually active female with abdominal pain, ascites, and pelvic cystic masses. Thorough workup in such a population may reduce the number of more invasive procedures as well as unnecessary repeat surgical procedures. PMID:27747116

  9. Progress in genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Yong; Xiong Likuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the common genotyping techniques of Chlamydia trachomatis in terms of their principles,characteristics,applications and limitations.Data sources Data used in this review were mainly from English literatures of PubMed database.The search terms were "Chlamydia trachomatis" and "genotyping".Meanwhile,data from World Health Organization were also cited.Study selection Original articles and reviews relevant to present review's theme were selected.Results Different genotyping techniques were applied on different occasions according to their characteristics,especially in epidemiological studies worldwide,which pushed the study of Chlamydia trachomatis forward greatly.In addition,summaries of some epidemiological studies by genotyping were also included in this work for reference and comparison.Conclusions A clear understanding of common genotyping techniques could be helpful to genotype C.trachomatis more appropriately and effectively.Furthermore,more studies on the association of genotypes of Ch/amydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations should be performed.

  10. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the aetiological agent of trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. The C. trachomatis genome sequence revealed an organism adapted to the intracellular habitat with a high coding ratio and a small genome consisting of 1.042-kilobase (kb) with 895 annotated protein...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  11. A dual-targeting approach to inhibit Brucella abortus replication in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Daniel M.; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Shuman, Howard A.; Crosson, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and an etiological agent of the zoonotic disease known as brucellosis. Brucellosis can be challenging to treat with conventional antibiotic therapies and, in some cases, may develop into a debilitating and life-threatening chronic illness. We used multiple independent assays of in vitro metabolism and intracellular replication to screen a library of 480 known bioactive compounds for novel B. abortus anti-infectives. Eighteen non-cytotoxic compounds specifically inhibited B. abortus replication in the intracellular niche, which suggests these molecules function by targeting host cell processes. Twenty-six compounds inhibited B. abortus metabolism in axenic culture, thirteen of which are non-cytotoxic to human host cells and attenuate B. abortus replication in the intracellular niche. The most potent non-cytotoxic inhibitors of intracellular replication reduce B. abortus metabolism in axenic culture and perturb features of mammalian cellular biology including mitochondrial function and receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. The efficacy of these molecules as inhibitors of B. abortus replication in the intracellular niche suggests “dual-target” compounds that coordinately perturb host and pathogen are promising candidates for development of improved therapeutics for intracellular infections. PMID:27767061

  12. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci in sputum samples by PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, C Y; Sillis, M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaci in sputum samples. METHODS--A nested PCR was developed, the first stage of which amplified DNA from both C pneumoniae and C psittaci while the second stage targeted specifically at C pneumoniae, allowing the two species to be differentiated. The primers were designed not to amplify sequences from C trachomatis. A panel of 26 sputum samples from patients with community acquired pneumonia eval...

  13. Assessment of the role in protection and pathogenesis of the Chlamydia muridarum V-type ATP synthase subunit A (AtpA) (TC0582).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunmei; Jain, Pooja; Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia; Sun, Guifeng; Teng, Andy A; Liang, Xiaowu; Felgner, Philip L; de la Maza, Luis M

    2014-02-01

    A novel Chlamydia muridarum antigen (TC0582) was used to vaccinate BALB/c mice. Mice were also immunized with other components of the ATP synthase complex (TC0580, TC0581, and TC0584), or with the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). TC0582 was also formulated in combination with TC0580, TC0581 or MOMP. TC0582 alone, or in combination with the other antigens, elicited strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Vaccinated animals were challenged intranasally and the course of the infection was followed for 10 days. Based on percentage change in body weight, lung weight, and number of Chlamydia inclusion forming units recovered from the lungs, mice immunized with TC0582, TC0581 or MOMP, as single antigens, showed significant protection. Mice immunized with combinations of two antigens were also protected but the level of protection was not additive. TC0582 has sequence homology with the eukaryotic ATP synthase subunit A (AtpA). Therefore, to determine if immunization with TC0582, or with Chlamydia, elicited antibodies that cross-reacted with the mouse AtpA, the two proteins were printed on a microarray. Sera from mice immunized with TC0582 and/or live Chlamydia, strongly reacted with TC0582 but did not recognize the mouse AtpA. In conclusion, TC0582 may be considered as a Chlamydia vaccine candidate.

  14. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Pneumonia: An Evolving Clinical Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Megran

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is a recently recognized respiratory tract pathogen. It accounts for 6 to 10% of all cases of community acquired pneumonia requiring admission to hospital. Two patients hospitalized with C pneumoniae pneumonia are presented to illustrate its range of severity and the extrapulmonary manifestations.

  15. Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia: An evolving clinical spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megran, David; Peeling, Rosanna W; Marrie, Thomas J

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a recently recognized respiratory tract pathogen. It accounts for 6 to 10% of all cases of community acquired pneumonia requiring admission to hospital. Two patients hospitalized with C pneumoniae pneumonia are presented to illustrate its range of severity and the extrapulmonary manifestations. PMID:22514396

  16. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniaeis a fastidious microorganism with a characteristic biphasic lifecycle causing a variety of human respiratory tract infections. There is limited knowledge about the molecular biology of C. pneumoniae, and only a few genes have been sequenced. The structure of the chlamydial...

  17. Polarized Cell Division of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Yasser; Ouellette, Scot P; Belland, Robert J; Cox, John V

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial cell division predominantly occurs by a highly conserved process, termed binary fission, that requires the bacterial homologue of tubulin, FtsZ. Other mechanisms of bacterial cell division that are independent of FtsZ are rare. Although the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, lacks FtsZ, it has been assumed to divide by binary fission. We show here that Chlamydia divides by a polarized cell division process similar to the budding process of a subset of the Planctomycetes that also lack FtsZ. Prior to cell division, the major outer-membrane protein of Chlamydia is restricted to one pole of the cell, and the nascent daughter cell emerges from this pole by an asymmetric expansion of the membrane. Components of the chlamydial cell division machinery accumulate at the site of polar growth prior to the initiation of asymmetric membrane expansion and inhibitors that disrupt the polarity of C. trachomatis prevent cell division. The polarized cell division of C. trachomatis is the result of the unipolar growth and FtsZ-independent fission of this coccoid organism. This mechanism of cell division has not been documented in other human bacterial pathogens suggesting the potential for developing Chlamydia-specific therapeutic treatments.

  18. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS: TRANSMISION VERTICAL CON MEMBRANAS INTEGRAS

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Se presenta un caso clínico de transmisión vertical de Chlamydia trachomatis con membranas amniocoriónicas íntegras. Se discute esta rara vía de contagio realizando una revisión actualizada de su diagnóstico y tratamiento

  19. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department ...

  20. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  1. Detection of Brucella abortus in Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Gomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Zimbabwe caused by the genus Brucella. Brucella seroprevalence was recently reported to be high in the wildlife-livestock interface in the Chiredzi district and the neighbouring Gonarezhou National Park (GNP in Zimbabwe, and higher amongst communal cattle with an abortion history and access to grazing in GNP than amongst communal cattle with no abortion history or access to grazing in GNP. The aim of this study was to investigate Brucella species in brucellosis seropositive cattle in the Chiredzi district with access to GNP using isolation and identification. Isolation of Brucella species from whole blood (n = 18 and milk samples (n = 10 from seropositive animals with an abortion history was based on the rose Bengal test (RBT and enzyme-linked immunoassays (enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]; indirect ELISA and complement ELISA, using microbiology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods. Brucella abortus was cultured and identified from blood and milk collected from seropositive cows in both communal areas. The Brucella-specific 16-23S intergenic spacer (ITS PCR and multiplex AMOS-PCR assays verified the identification of the cultures. Our results confirmed that B. abortus is present in cattle on communal farms in the Chiredzi district in Zimbabwe and might cause cattle abortions. The need for implementing control measures and raising public awareness on zoonotic transmission of brucellosis are recommended.

  2. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored

  3. Immunogenicity and protective effect of recombinant Brucella abortus Ndk (rNdk) against a virulent strain B. abortus 544 infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we particularly evaluated the protective effect of recombinant protein encoded by Brucella abortus 544 ndk (nucleoside diphosphate kinase) gene against B. abortus infection in the BALB/c mice. Cloning and expression of B. abortus Ndk was accomplished by PCR amplification into a pMAL expression system, and purification of a recombinant Ndk (rNdk). As for the determination of IgG responses, rNdk induced vigorous IgG production, especially higher in IgG2a compared to IgG1 with titers of 5.2 and 4.8, respectively, whereas titers of these in mice immunized with MBP were 2.4 of IgG2a and 2.6 of IgG1. The analysis of cytokine has revealed that rNdk can strongly induce production of IFN-γ as well as proinflammatory cytokines (TNF, MCP1 and IL-6) but not much IL-10, suggesting rNdk elicited predominantly cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, the spleen proliferation and bacterial burden in the spleen of rNdk immunized mice were significantly lower than those of MBP-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus challenge (P abortus might be a useful candidate for subunit vaccine for brucellosis in animals.

  4. Confirmation of Chlamydophila abortus in infected cell culture using Indirect Immunofluorescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Nair G

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus is an important abortifacient agent in bovines and ovines. Clinical diagnosis of the disease is often difficult. An early diagnosis can be achieved based on direct demonstration of the organism in clinical material and through the cultural recovery of the organism in embryonated chicken egg. For confirmatory diagnosis antigen detection methods or serological techniques can be adopted. The present study is aimed at the confirmatory diagnosis of C. abortus infection by indirect immunofluorescence technique following the isolation of the organism in cell culture. Specific apple green fluorescing inclusions of C. abortus in McCoy cell lines was detected from 72 h to 96 h post infection employing anti-chlamydial group specific monoclonal antibodies. Thus, a confirmatory diagnosis of the infection was possible with this study. [Vet. World 2011; 4(10.000: 473-474

  5. Biotyping and genotyping (MLVA16 of Brucella abortus isolated from cattle in Brazil, 1977 to 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Minharro

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis that causes important economic losses to animal production. In Brazil, information on the distribution of biovars and genotypes of Brucella spp. is scarce or unavailable. This study aimed (i to biotype and genotype 137 Brazilian cattle isolates (from 1977 to 2008 of B. abortus and (ii to analyze their distribution. B. abortus biovars 1, 2 and 3 (subgroup 3b were confirmed and biovars 4 and 6 were first described in Brazil. Genotyping by the panel 1 revealed two groups, one clustering around genotype 40 and another around genotype 28. Panels 2A and 2B disclosed a high diversity among Brazilian B. abortus strains. Eighty-nine genotypes were found by MLVA16. MLVA16 panel 1 and 2 showed geographic clustering of some genotypes. Biotyping and MLVA16 genotyping of Brazilian B. abortus isolates were useful to better understand the epidemiology of bovine brucellosis in the region.

  6. Genome Sequences of 11 Brucella abortus Isolates from Persistently Infected Italian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis, typically caused by Brucella abortus, has been eradicated from much of the developed world. However, the disease remains prevalent in southern Italy, persisting as a public and livestock health concern. We report here the whole-genome sequences of 11 isolates from cattle (Bos taurus) and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) that are representative of the current genetic diversity of B. abortus lineages circulating in Italy.

  7. A dual-targeting approach to inhibit Brucella abortus replication in human cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and an etiological agent of the zoonotic disease known as brucellosis. Brucellosis can be challenging to treat with conventional antibiotic therapies and, in some cases, may develop into a debilitating and life-threatening chronic illness. We used multiple independent assays of in vitro metabolism and intracellular replication to screen a library of 480 known bioactive compounds for novel B. abortus anti-infectives. Eighteen non-cytotoxi...

  8. Survival of Brucella abortus in milk fermented with a yoghurt starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga Estrada, Armida; Mota de la Garza, Lydia; Sánchez Mendoza, Miroslava; Santos López, Eva María; Filardo Kerstupp, Santiago; López Merino, Ahidé

    2005-01-01

    In countries such as Mexico, brucellosis is still an important public health problem due to the consumption of non-pasteurized milk and dairy products, contaminated with Brucella spp. The aim of this study was to look into the survival of Brucella abortus during fermentation of milk with a yoghurt starter culture and storage at refrigeration temperature. Sterile skim milk was inoculated with B. abortus at two concentrations, 10(5) and 10(8) CFU/ml simultaneously with a yoghurt starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecie bulgaricus). Inoculated flasks were incubated at 42 degrees C, followed by refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken during fermentation and during storage and viable count of B. abortus and lactic acid bacteria and pH were determined. Results showed that after 10 days of storage at 4 degrees C, B. abortus was recovered in fermented milk at a level of 10(5) CFU/ml, despite the low pH below 4.0. Therefore B. abortus is able to survive in fermented milk. This finding may imply that non-pasteurized fermented milk contaminated with Brucella abortus could be a means of transmission of these bacteria.

  9. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  11. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections.

  13. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-11-13

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection.

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    OpenAIRE

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immuno...

  15. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclrerosis: pathogenic ways

    OpenAIRE

    Woolcott, Orison; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Sánchez, Luis; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process in which macrophages, smooth muscle cells, T lymphocytes, and several chemical mediators intervene. In recent years, the finding of Chlamydia pneumoniae in arterial atherosclerotic plaques has suggested an etiological role; however, whether C. pneumoniae causes atherosclerosis or precipitates or favors atheroesclerosis progression remains uncertain. We review studies published on-line or available in Lima specialized libraries regarding C. pne...

  17. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole.

  19. Evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Alexandra; Gomes, João P

    2014-04-01

    The Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular bacteria characterized by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. It encompasses the single genus Chlamydia, which involves nine species that affect a wide range of vertebral hosts, causing infections with serious impact on human health (mainly due to Chlamydia trachomatis infections) and on farming and veterinary industries. It is believed that Chlamydiales originated ∼700mya, whereas C. trachomatis likely split from the other Chlamydiaceae during the last 6mya. This corresponds to the emergence of modern human lineages, with the first descriptions of chlamydial infections as ancient as four millennia. Chlamydiaceae have undergone a massive genome reduction, on behalf of the deletional bias "use it or lose it", stabilizing at 1-1.2Mb and keeping a striking genome synteny. Their phylogeny reveals species segregation according to biological properties, with huge differences in terms of host range, tissue tropism, and disease outcomes. Genome differences rely on the occurrence of mutations in the >700 orthologous genes, as well as on events of recombination, gene loss, inversion, and paralogous expansion, affecting both a hypervariable region named the plasticity zone, and genes essentially encoding polymorphic and transmembrane head membrane proteins, type III secretion effectors and some metabolic pathways. Procedures for molecular typing are still not consensual but have allowed the knowledge of molecular epidemiology patterns for some species as well as the identification of outbreaks and emergence of successful clones for C. trachomatis. This manuscript intends to provide a comprehensive review on the evolution, phylogeny, and molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye...

  1. Brucella abortus uses a stealthy strategy to avoid activation of the innate immune system during the onset of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To unravel the strategy by which Brucella abortus establishes chronic infections, we explored its early interaction with innate immunity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brucella did not induce proinflammatory responses as demonstrated by the absence of leukocyte recruitment, humoral or cellular blood changes in mice. Brucella hampered neutrophil (PMN function and PMN depletion did not influence the course of infection. Brucella barely induced proinflammatory cytokines and consumed complement, and was strongly resistant to bactericidal peptides, PMN extracts and serum. Brucella LPS (BrLPS, NH-polysaccharides, cyclic glucans, outer membrane fragments or disrupted bacterial cells displayed low biological activity in mice and cells. The lack of proinflammatory responses was not due to conspicuous inhibitory mechanisms mediated by the invading Brucella or its products. When activated 24 h post-infection macrophages did not kill Brucella, indicating that the replication niche was not fusiogenic with lysosomes. Brucella intracellular replication did not interrupt the cell cycle or caused cytotoxicity in WT, TLR4 and TLR2 knockout cells. TNF-alpha-induction was TLR4- and TLR2-dependent for live but not for killed B. abortus. However, intracellular replication in TLR4, TLR2 and TLR4/2 knockout cells was not altered and the infection course and anti-Brucella immunity development upon BrLPS injection was unaffected in TLR4 mutant mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that Brucella has developed a stealth strategy through PAMPs reduction, modification and hiding, ensuring by this manner low stimulatory activity and toxicity for cells. This strategy allows Brucella to reach its replication niche before activation of antimicrobial mechanisms by adaptive immunity. This model is consistent with clinical profiles observed in humans and natural hosts at the onset of infection and could be valid for those intracellular pathogens phylogenetically

  2. Critical role of ASC inflammasomes and bacterial type IV secretion system in caspase-1 activation and host innate resistance to Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R; Campos, Priscila C; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Corsetti, Patricia P; Bortoluci, Karina R; Cunha, Larissa D; Zamboni, Dario S; Oliveira, Sergio C

    2013-04-01

    Pathogens are detected by innate immune receptors that, upon activation, orchestrate an appropriate immune response. Recent studies revealed the intracellular signaling cascades involved in the TLR-initiated immune response to Brucella abortus infection. However, no report has elucidated the role of inflammasome receptors in Brucella recognition. Therefore, we decided to investigate the function of NLRC4, NLRP3, and AIM2 in sensing Brucella. In this study, we showed that NLRC4 is not required to induce caspase-1 activation and further secretion of IL-1β by B. abortus in macrophages. In contrast, we determined that AIM2, which senses Brucella DNA, and NLRP3 are partially required for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Additionally, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species induced by Brucella were implicated in IL-1β production. Furthermore, AIM2, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 knockout mice were more susceptible to B. abortus infection than were wild-type animals, suggesting that multiple ASC-dependent inflammasomes contribute to host protection against infection. This protective effect is due to the inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than pyroptosis, because we observed augmented bacterial burden in IL-1R and IL-18 knockout mice. Finally, we determined that bacterial type IV secretion system VirB and live, but not heat-killed, Brucella are required for full inflammasome activation in macrophages during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response.

  3. Vaccination of elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus strain RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and glycosyltransferase genes does not induce adequate protection against experimental brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA). In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the d...

  4. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine specimens by using the amplified Chlamydia trachomatis test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Mouton (Johan); R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); T.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); S.D.A. Deelen (Sabine); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe amplified Chlamydia trachomatis test (AMP-CT; Gen-Probe), a new diagnostic test for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, was evaluated with urine specimens from 1,000 patients visiting the outpatient department for sexually transmitted diseases at the

  5. Chlamydia pneumoniae e doença aterosclerótica = Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnem, Luciele

    2010-01-01

    Conclusões: a infecção por Chlamydia pneumoniae pode constituir achado de importância etiopatogênica na ateromatose. Entretanto, a relevância clínica dessa associação, como mostram os estudos epidemiológicos e ensaios clínicos aqui revisados, ainda é incerta

  6. Literatuuronderzoek naar gegevens betreffende de betekenis van een aantal verwekkers van zoonosen in verband met de vleesconsumptie. VIII: Brucella abortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos; J.M.; Engel; H.W.B.; Groothuis; D.G.; Knapen; F. van; Weiss; J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Brucellose bij de mens heeft meestal een weinig specifiek, griepachtig beeld. In Nederland is de voornaamste verwekker Brucella abortus, waar toe het literatuuronderzoek zich dan ook beperkt. Bij dieren is het rund de voornaamste gastheer en leidt een infectie bij drachtige dieren tot abortus.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H. C.; Chandel, B. S.; Patel, Kirit B.; Patel, A. C.; Shrimali, M. D.; Patel, S. S.; Bhagat, A. G.; Rajgor, Manish; Patel, Mitul A.; Patel, Maulik; Kala, Jitendra; Patel, Bhumika

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains. PMID:27789633

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13 Isolated from Placenta of Aborted Cattle in Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus is generally known to cause brucellosis in cattle and buffalo. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Brucella abortus SKN 13, isolated from aborted cattle placenta in the area of Gujarat, India, providing precious resources for comparative genomic analyses of Brucella field strains.

  9. Characterization of the immunogenicity and pathogenicity of malate dehydrogenase in Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangan; Tong, Yongliang; Tian, Mingxing; Sun, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shaohui; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-07-01

    Brucella abortus is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes brucellosis, a chronic zoonotic disease resulting in abortion in pregnant cattle and undulant fever in humans. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, plays important metabolic roles in aerobic energy producing pathways and in malate shuttle. In this study, the MDH-encoding gene for malate dehydrogenase mdh of B. abortus S2308 was cloned, sequenced and expressed. Western blot analysis demonstrated that MDH is an immunogenic membrane-associated protein. In addition, recombinant MDH showed sero-reactivity with 30 individual bovine B. abortus-positive sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indicates that MDH may be used as a candidate marker for sero-diagnosis of brucellosis. Furthermore, MDH exhibits fibronectin and plasminogen-binding ability in immunoblotting assay. Inhibition assays on HeLa cells demonstrated that rabbit anti-serum against MDH significantly reduced both bacterial adherence and invasion abilities (p < 0.05), suggesting that MDH play a role in B. abortus colonization. Our results indicated that MDH is not only an immunogenic protein, but is also related to bacterial pathogenesis and may act as a new virulent factor, which will benefit for further understanding the MDH's roles in B. abortus metabolism, pathogenesis and immunity.

  10. Rapid and specific identification of Brucella abortus using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Il; Her, Moon; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin Ju; Lee, Kichan; Sung, So-Ra; Jung, Suk Chan

    2015-06-01

    A rapid and accurate diagnosis of brucellosis is required to reduce and prevent the spread of disease among animals and the risk of transfer to humans. In this study, a Brucella abortus-specific (Ba) LAMP assay was developed, that had six primers designed from the BruAb2_0168 region of chromosome I. The specificity of this LAMP assay was confirmed with Brucella reference strains, B. abortus vaccine strains, B. abortus isolates and phylogenetically or serologically related strains. The detection limit of target DNA was up to 20 fg/μl within 60 min. The sensitivity of the new LAMP assay was equal to or slightly higher than other PCR based assays. Moreover, this Ba-LAMP assay could specifically amplify all B. abortus biovars compared to previous PCR assays. To our knowledge, this is the first report of specific detection of B. abortus using a LAMP assay. The Ba-LAMP assay can offer a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the field.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase negatively regulates Th1 response during Brucella abortus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahel, Júlia Silveira; de Souza, Mariana Bueno; Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Corsetti, Patricia P; Carvalho, Natalia B; Marinho, Fabio A V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Caliari, Marcelo V; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-03-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects humans and cattle, causing a chronic inflammatory disease known as brucellosis. A Th1-mediated immune response plays a critical role in host control of this pathogen. Recent findings indicate contrasting roles for lipid mediators in host responses against infections. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an enzyme required for the production of the lipid mediators leukotrienes and lipoxins. To determine the involvement of 5-LO in host responses to B. abortus infection, we intraperitoneally infected wild-type and 5-LO-deficient mice and evaluated the progression of infection and concomitant expression of immune mediators. Here, we demonstrate that B. abortus induced the upregulation of 5-LO mRNA in wild-type mice. Moreover, this pathogen upregulated the production of the lipid mediators leukotriene B4 and lipoxin A4 in a 5-LO-dependent manner. 5-LO-deficient mice displayed lower bacterial burdens in the spleen and liver and less severe liver pathology, demonstrating an enhanced resistance to infection. Host resistance paralleled an increased expression of the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during the course of infection. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5-LO downregulated the expression of IL-12 in macrophages during B. abortus infection. Our results suggest that 5-LO has a major involvement in B. abortus infection, by functioning as a negative regulator of the protective Th1 immune responses against this pathogen.

  12. The role of TREM-2 in internalization and intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pan; Lu, Qiang; Cui, Guimei; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Changjiang; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-02-15

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2) is a cell surface receptor primarily expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. TREM-2 functions as a phagocytic receptor for bacteria as well as an inhibitor of Toll like receptors (TLR) induced inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of TREM-2 in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. To investigate whether TREM-2 is involved in Brucella intracellular survival, we chose bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), in which TREM-2 is stably expressed, as cell model. Colony formation Units (CFUs) assay suggests that TREM-2 is involved in the internalization of Brucella abortus (B. abortus) by macrophages, while silencing of TREM-2 decreases intracellular survival of B. abortus. To further study the underlying mechanisms of TREM-2-mediated bacterial intracellular survival, we examined the activation of B. abortus-infected macrophages through determining the kinetics of activation of the three MAPKs, including ERK, JNK and p38, and measuring TNFα production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Brucella (BrLPS) or B. abortus stimulation. Our data show that TREM-2 deficiency promotes activation of Brucella-infected macrophages. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that macrophage activation promotes killing of Brucella by enhancing nitric oxygen (NO), but not reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, macrophage apoptosis or cellular death. Taken together, these findings provide a novel interpretation of Brucella intracellular growth through inhibition of NO production produced by TREM-2-mediated activated macrophages.

  13. N-Formyl-Perosamine Surface Homopolysaccharides Hinder the Recognition of Brucella abortus by Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Jiménez, Cristina; Gurdián-Murillo, Stephany; Lomonte, Bruno; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Moreno, Edgardo

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular pathogen of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and placental trophoblasts. This bacterium causes a chronic disease in bovines and in humans. In these hosts, the bacterium also invades neutrophils; however, it fails to replicate and just resists the killing action of these leukocytes without inducing significant activation or neutrophilia. Moreover, B. abortus causes the premature cell death of human neutrophils. In the murine model, the bacterium is found within macrophages and dendritic cells at early times of infection but seldom in neutrophils. Based on this observation, we explored the interaction of mouse neutrophils with B. abortus In contrast to human, dog, and bovine neutrophils, naive mouse neutrophils fail to recognize smooth B. abortus bacteria at early stages of infection. Murine normal serum components do not opsonize smooth Brucella strains, and neutrophil phagocytosis is achieved only after the appearance of antibodies. Alternatively, mouse normal serum is capable of opsonizing rough Brucella mutants. Despite this, neutrophils still fail to kill Brucella, and the bacterium induces cell death of murine leukocytes. In addition, mouse serum does not opsonize Yersinia enterocolitica O:9, a bacterium displaying the same surface polysaccharide antigen as smooth B. abortus Therefore, the lack of murine serum opsonization and absence of murine neutrophil recognition are specific, and the molecules responsible for the Brucella camouflage are N-formyl-perosamine surface homopolysaccharides. Although the mouse is a valuable model for understanding the immunobiology of brucellosis, direct extrapolation from one animal system to another has to be undertaken with caution.

  14. High Rate of Partner Treatment Among Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Pregnant Women in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh; Cabeza, Jeanne; Segura, Eddy; García, Patricia J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    This was a substudy of 60 Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women from a larger study of pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Participants were encouraged to bring their partners in for concurrent patient-partner treatment. The alternative partner treatment was expedited partner therapy. Partner treatment uptake was 91.7%. Twenty-one partners (38.2%) received treatment through concurrent patient-partner treatment, and 34 (61.8%) through expedited partner therapy. Living with the partner was significantly associated with having the partner treated (P=0.0028).

  15. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom.

  16. [Demonstration of Chlamydia from an equine abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, K; Sachse, K; Sting, R

    2000-02-01

    The isolation and identification of a chlamydial agent from an equine fetus is reported. The fetus was aborted by a mare with respiratory disease and fever in the 9th month of pregnancy. The serum of the mare was investigated by the compliment fixation test. Specific antibodies were detected for chlamydial antigen in a titer of > 1:40 and for equine herpes virus 1 antigen in a titer of 1:32. Pathological lesions were not found in the organs of the fetus. Chlamydiae were detected in the placenta by ELISA and subsequently isolated by cell culture. Using PCR technique the agent was identified as Chlamydophila psittaci.

  17. Brucella abortus is Prevalent in Both Humans and Animals in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A K M A; Saegerman, C; Berkvens, D; Melzer, F; Neubauer, H; Fretin, D; Abatih, E; Dhand, N; Ward, M P

    2017-01-09

    To determine the role of different Brucella (B.) spp. in Bangladesh, 62 animal samples and 500 human sera were tested. Animal samples from cattle, goats and sheep (including milk, bull semen, vaginal swabs and placentas) were cultured for Brucella spp. Three test-positive human sera and all animal samples were screened by Brucella genus-specific real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and positive samples were then tested by IS711 RT-PCR to detect B. abortus and B. melitensis DNA. Only B. abortus DNA was amplified from 13 human and six animal samples. This is the first report describing B. abortus as the aetiological agent of brucellosis in occupationally exposed humans in Bangladesh. Of note is failure to detect B. melitensis DNA, the species most often associated with human brucellosis worldwide. Further studies are required to explore the occurrence of Brucella melitensis in Bangladesh.

  18. Intermediate rough Brucella abortus S19Δper mutant is DIVA enable, safe to pregnant guinea pigs and confers protection to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Gogia, Neha; Goswami, Tapas K; Singh, R K; Chaudhuri, Pallab

    2015-05-21

    Brucella abortus S19 is a smooth strain used as live vaccine against bovine brucellosis. Smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for its residual virulence and serological interference. Rough mutants defective of LPS are more attenuated but confers lower level of protection. We describe a modified B. abortus S19 strain, named as S19Δper, which exhibits intermediate rough phenotype with residual O-polysaccharide (OPS). Deletion of perosamine synthetase gene resulted in substantial attenuation of S19Δper mutant without affecting immunogenic properties. It mounted strong immune response in Swiss albino mice and conferred protection similar to S19 vaccine. Immunized mice produced higher levels of IFN-γ, IgG2a and thus has immune response inclined towards Th1 cell mediated immunity. Sera from immunized animals did not show agglutination reaction with RBPT antigen and thus could serve as DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine. S19Δper mutant displayed more susceptibility to serum complement mediated killing and sensitivity to polymyxin B. Pregnant guinea pigs injected with S19Δper mutant completed full term of pregnancy and did not cause abortion, still birth or birth of weak offspring. S19Δper mutant with intermediate rough phenotype displayed remarkable resemblance to S19 vaccine strain with improved properties of safety, immunogenicity and DIVA capability for control of bovine brucellosis.

  19. Epidemiology of brucellosis in domestic animals caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Aparicio, E

    2013-04-01

    Brucellosis is a disease that causes severe economic losses for livestock farms worldwide. Brucella melitensis, B. abortus and B. suis, which are transmitted between animals both vertically and horizontally, cause abortion and infertility in their primary natural hosts - goats and sheep (B. melitensis), cows (B. abortus) and sows (B. suis). Brucella spp. infect not only their preferred hosts but also other domestic and wild animal species, which in turn can act as reservoirs of the disease for other animal species and humans. Brucellosis is therefore considered to be a major zoonosis transmitted by direct contact with animals and/or their secretions, or by consuming milk and dairy products.

  20. Murine and bovine γδ T cells enhance innate immunity against Brucella abortus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod A Skyberg

    Full Text Available γδ T cells have been postulated to act as a first line of defense against infectious agents, particularly intracellular pathogens, representing an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Human γδ T cells expand in the blood of brucellosis patients and are active against Brucella in vitro. However, the role of γδ T cells in vivo during experimental brucellosis has not been studied. Here we report TCRδ(-/- mice are more susceptible to B. abortus infection than C57BL/6 mice at one week post-infection as measured by splenic colonization and splenomegaly. An increase in TCRγδ cells was observed in the spleens of B. abortus-infected C57BL/6 mice, which peaked at two weeks post-infection and occurred concomitantly with diminished brucellae. γδ T cells were the major source of IL-17 following infection and also produced IFN-γ. Depletion of γδ T cells from C57BL/6, IL-17Rα(-/-, and GMCSF(-/- mice enhanced susceptibility to B. abortus infection although this susceptibility was unaltered in the mutant mice; however, when γδ T cells were depleted from IFN-γ(-/- mice, enhanced susceptibility was observed. Neutralization of γδ T cells in the absence of TNF-α did not further impair immunity. In the absence of TNF-α or γδ T cells, B. abortus-infected mice showed enhanced IFN-γ, suggesting that they augmented production to compensate for the loss of γδ T cells and/or TNF-α. While the protective role of γδ T cells was TNF-α-dependent, γδ T cells were not the major source of TNF-α and activation of γδ T cells following B. abortus infection was TNF-α-independent. Additionally, bovine TCRγδ cells were found to respond rapidly to B. abortus infection upon co-culture with autologous macrophages and could impair the intramacrophage replication of B. abortus via IFN-γ. Collectively, these results demonstrate γδ T cells are important for early protection to B. abortus infections.

  1. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against brucellosis in bison.

  2. Simultaneous subcutaneous and conjunctival administration of the influenza viral vector based Brucella abortus vaccine to pregnant heifers provides better protection against B. abortus 544 infection than the commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Orynbayev, Mukhit; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2016-09-30

    In this study, we explored possibility of increasing the protective efficacy of our novel influenza viral vector based B. abortus vaccine (Flu-BA) in pregnant heifers by adapting an innovative method of vaccine delivery. We administered the vaccine concurrently via the conjunctival and subcutaneous routes to pregnant heifers, and these routes were previously tested individually. The Flu-BA vaccination of pregnant heifers (n=9) against a challenge B. abortus 544 infection provided protection from abortion, infection of heifers and fetuses/calves by 88.8%, 100% and 100%, respectively (alpha=0.004-0.0007 vs. negative control; n=7). Our candidate vaccine using this delivery method provided slightly better protection than the commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine in pregnant heifers (n=8), which provided protection from abortion, infection of heifers and fetuses/calves by 87.5%, 75% and 87.5%, respectively. This improved method of the Flu-BA vaccine administration is highly recommended for the recovery of farms which has high prevalence of brucellosis.

  3. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  4. Risk of reproductive complications following chlamydia testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M E; Frølund, Maria;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainty in the risk of reproductive complications (pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor infertility) following chlamydia infection and repeat infection hampers the design of evidence-based chlamydia control programmes. We estimate the association between......, ectopic pregnancy, or tubal factor infertility. FINDINGS: The 516 720 women (103 344 positive, 182 879 negative, 230 497 never-tested) had a mean follow-up of 7·96 years. Compared with women with only negative tests, the risk of each complication was 30% higher in women with one or more positive tests...... (pelvic inflammatory disease, adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1·50 [95% CI 1·43-1·57]; ectopic pregnancy, AHR 1·31 [1·25-1·38]; tubal factor infertility, AHR 1·37 [1·24-1·52]) and 60% lower in women who were never-tested (pelvic inflammatory disease, AHR 0·33 [0·31-0·35]; ectopic pregnancy, AHR 0·42 [0...

  5. Failure to demonstrate Chlamydia pneumoniae in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Ostergård, L; Henneberg, E W;

    1998-01-01

    To investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).......To investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is present in symptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)....

  6. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-19

    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  7. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Low-Risk Obstetric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Gribble

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in our rural obstetric population and assess the appropriateness of selective vs. universal prenatal screening.

  8. Caspase-2-dependent dendritic cell death, maturation, and priming of T cells in response to Brucella abortus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinna Li

    Full Text Available Smooth virulent Brucella abortus strain 2308 (S2308 causes zoonotic brucellosis in cattle and humans. Rough B. abortus strain RB51, derived from S2308, is a live attenuated cattle vaccine strain licensed in the USA and many other countries. Our previous report indicated that RB51, but not S2308, induces a caspase-2-dependent apoptotic and necrotic macrophage cell death. Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen presenting cells critical for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. In contrast to Brucella-infected macrophages, here we report that S2308 induced higher levels of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in wild type bone marrow-derived DCs (WT BMDCs than RB51. The RB51 and S2308-induced BMDC cell death was regulated by caspase-2, indicated by the minimal cell death in RB51 and S2308-infected BMDCs isolated from caspase-2 knockout mice (Casp2KO BMDCs. More S2308 bacteria were taken up by Casp2KO BMDCs than wild type BMDCs. Higher levels of S2308 and RB51 cells were found in infected Casp2KO BMDCs compared to infected WT BMDCs at different time points. RB51-infected wild type BMDCs were mature and activated as shown by significantly up-regulated expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II. RB51 induced the production of cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL12/IL23p40 in infected BMDCs. RB51-infected WT BMDCs also stimulated the proliferation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells compared to uninfected WT BMDCs. However, the maturation, activation, and cytokine secretion are significantly impaired in Casp2KO BMDCs infected with RB51 or Salmonella (control. S2308-infected WT and Casp2KO BMDCs were not activated and could not induce cytokine production. These results demonstrated that virulent smooth strain S2308 induced more apoptotic and necrotic dendritic cell death than live attenuated rough vaccine strain RB51; however, RB51, but not its parent strain S2308, induced caspase-2-mediated DC maturation, cytokine production, antigen

  9. Vaccination of Elk (Cervus canadensis) with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 Overexpressing Superoxide Dismutase and Glycosyltransferase Genes Does Not Induce Adequate Protection against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, elk (Cervus canadensis) have been implicated as the source of Brucella abortus infection for numerous cattle herds in the Greater Yellowstone Area. In the face of environmental and ecological changes on the landscape, the range of infected elk is expanding. Consequently, the development of effective disease management strategies for wild elk herds is of utmost importance, not only for the prevention of reintroduction of brucellosis to cattle, but also for the overall health...

  10. Study on Drug Resistance and Relative Mechanisms of Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯淑萍; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Chlamydia Trachomatis (C.T.) is one of the most common pathogens of human sexually transmitted diseases. Treatment of C.T. infection primarily depends on Tetracyclines, Macrolides and Quinolones, but with the wide use of antibiotics an increasing number of drug-resistant Chlamydia trachomatis cases have been reported. This review summarizes the resistant conditions and the possible resistance mechanisms of C.T..

  11. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus in Northern Ireland-1991 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Allen

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus has far reaching animal health and economic impacts at both the local and national levels. Alongside traditional veterinary epidemiology, the use of molecular typing has recently been applied to inform on bacterial population structure and identify epidemiologically-linked cases of infection. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat VNTR analysis (MLVA was used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a well-characterised Brucella abortus epidemic in Northern Ireland involving 387 herds between 1991 and 2012.MLVA identified 98 unique B. abortus genotypes from disclosing isolates in the 387 herds involved in the epidemic. Clustering algorithms revealed the relatedness of many of these genotypes. Combined with epidemiological information on chronology of infection and geographic location, these genotype data helped to identify 7 clonal complexes which underpinned the outbreak over the defined period. Hyper-variability of some VNTR loci both within herds and individual animals led to detection of multiple genotypes associated with single outbreaks. However with dense sampling, these genotypes could still be associated with specific clonal complexes thereby permitting inference of epidemiological links. MLVA- based epidemiological monitoring data were congruent with an independent classical veterinary epidemiology study carried out in the same territory.MLVA is a useful tool in ongoing disease surveillance of B. abortus outbreaks, especially when combined with accurate epidemiological information on disease tracings, geographical clustering of cases and chronology of infection.

  13. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  14. On the link between cell cycle and infection of the Alphaproteobacterium Brucella abortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Deghelt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the Brucella genus are responsible for brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis. These bacteria are known to have a peculiar intracellular trafficking, with a first long and non-proliferative endosomal stage and a second proliferation stage, often associated with its localization of the bacteria in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. However, the status of the bacterial cell cycle during the non-proliferative phase was still unknown. In a recent study [Nat. Communic. 5:4366], we followed the cell cycle of B. abortus in culture and inside the host cells. In culture, B. abortus initiates the replication of its large chromosome before the small chromosome. The origin and terminator regions of these two chromosomes display distinct localization and dynamics within B. abortus. In HeLa cells and RAW264.7 macrophages, the bacteria in G1 (i.e. before the initiation of chromosomes replication are preferentially found during the endosomal stage of the infection. During this period, growth is also arrested. The cell cycle arrest and resume during the B. abortus trafficking in host cell suggest that like the model Alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, these bacteria are able to block their cell cycle at the G1 phase when starvation is sensed.

  15. Simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis by combinatorial PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Reza Hosseini Doust; Reza Kachuei; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Ali Ahamadi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate simultaneous detection and differentiates of Brucella abortus(B. abortus) and Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) through the combinatorial PCR method. Methods:This study was designed using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate two major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Identification and differentiation of each species using the size of the PCR product were determined. To determine the specificity of the method, bacteria close to the genus Brucella were used. Finally, to confirm PCR products, In addition to the products sequence, RFLP was performed on PCR products using restriction enzymes. Results:The method of optimized combinatorial PCR in this study could simultaneously detect and differentiate B. abortus and B. melitensis with high specificity and sensitivity in clinical samples. Differentiation of species is based on the resulting bands;therefore, the band 494 bp for B. abortus and 733 bp for B. melitensis were obtained. RFLP and sequencing results confirmed PCR results. Conclusions:The results of this study shows that without routine diagnostic methods such as culture and serology tests, using the molecular method of combinatorial PCR, important species of Brucella can be simultaneously identified and differentiated in clinical samples.

  16. Genetic characterization of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus geographical clusters in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massis, Fabrizio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Cammà, Cesare; Ippoliti, Carla; Candeloro, Luca; Ancora, Massimo; Calistri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains isolated in 199 cattle and sheep from 156 brucellosis outbreaks which occurred in 8 regions of Southern Italy in 2011, was determined using a Multiple-Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis approach. The existence of possible genetic clusters was verified through a hierarchical cluster analysis based on 'single link', which is closely related to the minimum spanning tree. The Hamming weighted distance matrix was adopted in the analysis. All calculations were performed using R and the additional libraries phangorn and Cluster. For a number of clusters, ranging from 2 to 15, the average silhouette width was calculated. The number of clusters adopted was identified according to the maximum average silhouette width. For B. abortus and B. melitensis, 6 and 11 genetic clusters were identified, respectively. Three out of 6 B. abortus clusters included the 96.7% of all B. abortus isolates. Clusters were clearly geographically separated, and this highlighted the known epidemiological links among them. Brucella melitensis genotypes resulted more heterogeneous; the 3 more representative genetic clusters included 79.7% of all B. melitensis isolates. A clear geographical clusterization of genotypes is recognizable only for 1 cluster, whereas the others are more widespread across Southern Italy. The genetic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from animals may be a useful tool to better understand the epidemiology and dissemination patterns of this pathogen through host populations.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed. PMID:22514397

  18. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  19. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W;

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial infar...... individuals who are or are not infected with C. pneumoniae. The latter are needed in order to clarify the impact of the presence of C. pneumoniae and to avoid indiscriminate use of antimicrobials....... of viable organisms. However, the pathogenicity is unknown, and the significance of detecting the organism is unresolved. In two minor controlled clinical trials, patients with ischaemic heart disease were randomised into antibiotic-treated and placebo groups. Both trials showed a significant reduction...

  20. Role of Chlamydia in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, M V; Kolkova, N I; Morgunova, E Yu; Pashko, Yu P; Zigangirova, N A; Zakharova, M N

    2015-09-01

    Chlamydia and antibodies to them were detected by serological, molecular biological, and culture methods in the sera and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and in the reference groups of subjects without neurological diseases. Correlations between the agent presence in the biological fluids of patients and clinical characteristics of the disease were analyzed. C. pneumoniae were more incident in the biological liquids of patients with multiple sclerosis than in healthy volunteers. On the other hand, the incidence of the agent in the patients was not high and its presence did not correlate with the clinical manifestations. C. trachomatis was equally rare in the patients and volunteers. The studies indicated the existence of a group of patients infected by C. pneumoniae in the cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis, but the impact of this agent for the disease course remains unclear.

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Atherosclerosis: The End?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Nicolle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Journal, Patrick et al (pages 298-300 report on the results of a pilot study testing the hypothesis that seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae together with a specific bacteriophage protein is associated with first-episode myocardial infarction or unstable angina. The study evolved from an earlier report suggesting that C pneumoniae with phage seropositivity was strongly associated with the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm. The phage association suggested a potential explanation for some of the variability in previous studies exploring C pneumoniae as a cause for atherosclerosis (ie, only selected strains of C pneumoniae were pathogenic. Patrick et al found no significant association or trend, and the authors concluded that the negative findings in their pilot study did not support further studies to address this potential association.

  2. The humoral immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with acute reactive arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Birkelund, Svend; Mordhorst, CH;

    1994-01-01

    Sera from 25 patients with clinical signs of reactive arthritis were analysed for antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis by immunoblotting. Purified elementary bodies, purified Chlamydia outer membrane complexes, and purified recombinant subcomponents were used as antigens. Antibodies against C...

  3. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil extracts from M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon, C. verum and M. fragrans were extracted. Human macrophages were cultured at a density of 2×105 cells per well in sterile 96-well microtiter plates, and infected with B. abortus 544 at a ratio of 1:100 bacteria/cell. Then essential volatile oil extracts were added at a concentration of 1%. At specified times; cells were washed, lysed with 0.1% Triton, and plated on 2YT agar to determine the number of intracellular bacteria. Results: Cinnamomum verum volatile oil at a concentration of 1% had the highest antibacterial activity against B. abortus 544 inside human macrophages. Its inhibitory effect observed from 24 h and continued till 144 h after the infection. Moreover, C. verum (0.1% in combination with 1% concentration of M. piperita, O. majorana, C. lemon or M. fragrans volatile oil extracts produced a synergistic inhibitory effect against B. abortus 544. Conclusion: The results indicate that, among the five selected oil extracts, C. verum volatile oil applied either separately or in combination with other oil extracts had the most effective antimicrobial activity against Brucella.

  4. Genetic diversity of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis in Kazakhstan using MLVA-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Alexandr; Ramanculov, Erlan; Shevtsova, Elena; Kairzhanova, Alma; Tarlykov, Pavel; Filipenko, Maxim; Dymova, Maya; Abisheva, Gulzada; Jailbekova, Aygul; Kamalova, Dinara; Chsherbakov, Andrei; Tulegenov, Samat; Akhmetova, Assel; Sytnik, Igor; Karibaev, Talgat; Mukanov, Kasim

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Central Asia characterized by high infection rates in humans and animals. Currently, little is known about the genetic diversity of Brucella spp. circulating in the region, despite the high prevalence of brucellosis. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains circulating in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We genotyped 128 B. melitensis and 124 B. abortus strains collected in regions with the highest prevalence of brucellosis. Genotyping was performed using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA). Analysis of a subset of 8 loci (MLVA-8) of 128 B. melitensis strains identified genotypes 42 (n=108), 43 (n=2), and 63 (n=19) related to the 'East Mediterranean' group. An MLVA-16 assay sorted 128 B. melitensis strains into 25 different genotypes. Excluding one variable locus, MLVA-15 of B. melitensis was distinct from strains originating in the Mediterranean region; however, 77% of them were identical to strains isolated in China. A minimum spanning tree for B. melitensis using MLVA-15 analysis clustered the local strains together with strains previously collected in China. MLVA-8 analysis of 124 B. abortus strains identified them as genotype 36, suggesting Eurasian distribution of this lineage. Complete MLVA-16 assay analysis clustered the strains into five genotypes, revealing little diversity of B. abortus when compared on the global scale. A minimum spanning tree for B. abortus obtained using MLVA-15 analysis clustered the 2 most prevalent genotypes (n=117) together with strains previously collected in China. Thus, MLVA analysis was used to characterize 252 strains of Brucella collected in Kazakhstan. The analysis revealed genetic homogeneity among the strains. Interestingly, identical MLVA-15 profiles were found in seemingly unrelated outbreaks in China, Turkey, and Kazakhstan. Further analysis is needed for better understanding of the epidemiology of

  5. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  6. Structural, functional and immunogenic insights on Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase pathogenic virulence factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and he...

  7. Molecular typing of isolates obtained from aborted foetuses in Brucella-free Holstein dairy cattle herd after immunisation with Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Böttcher, Denny; El-Diasty, Mohamed; El-Beskawy, Mohamed; Rasheed, Nesma; Schmoock, Gernot; Roesler, Uwe; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Egypt in spite of application of surveillance and control measures. An increase of abortions was reported in a Holstein dairy cattle herd with 600 animals in Damietta governorate in Egypt after immunisation with Brucella (B.) abortus RB51 vaccine. Twenty one (10.6%) of 197 vaccinated cows aborted after 3 months. All aborted cows had been tested seronegative for brucellosis in the past 3 years. B. abortus was isolated from four foetuses. Conventional biochemical and bacteriological identification and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed two B. abortus biovar (bv.) 1 smooth and two B. abortus rough strains. None of the B. abortus isolates were identified as RB51. Genotyping analysis by multiple locus of variable number tandem repeats analysis based on 16 markers (MLVA-16) revealed two different profiles with low genetic diversity. B. abortus bv1 was introduced in the herd and caused abortions.

  8. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  9. Characterizing the intracellular distribution of metabolites in intact Chlamydia-infected cells by Raman and two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaszák, Márta; Chang, Jiun Chiun; Leng, Weinan; Rupp, Jan; Ojcius, David M; Kelley, Anne Myers

    2013-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that proliferate only within infected cells. Currently, there are no known techniques or systems that can probe the spatial distribution of metabolites of interest within intact Chlamydia-infected cells. Here we investigate the ability of Raman microscopy to probe the chemical composition of different compartments (nucleus, inclusion, and cytoplasm) of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. The overall intensity of the Raman spectrum is greatest in the inclusions and lowest in the cytoplasm in fixed cells. Difference spectra generated by normalizing to the intensity of the strong 1004 cm(-1) phenylalanine line show distinct differences among the three compartments. Most notably, the concentrations of adenine are greater in both the inclusions and the nucleus than in the cytoplasm, as seen by Raman microscopy. The source of the adenine was explored through a complementary approach, using two-photon microscopy imaging. Autofluorescence measurements of living, infected cells show that the adenine-containing molecules, NAD(P)H and FAD, are present mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that these molecules are not the source of the additional adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Experiments of infected cells stained with a DNA-binding dye, Hoechst 33258, reveal that most of the DNA is present in the nucleus and the inclusions, suggesting that DNA/RNA is the main source of the additional Raman adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Thus, Raman and two-photon microscopy are among the few non-invasive methods available to investigate cells infected with Chlamydia and, together, should also be useful for studying infection by other intracellular pathogens that survive within intracellular vacuoles.

  10. Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the provinces of Novara and VCO: one year of observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Andreoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the most common sexually transmitted diseases.The lack of growth of these microorganisms on common media and the roundabout research by immunofluorescence, has meant that, until now, these special-lived intracellular microorganisms have played a role probably underestimated in cases of infections affecting the sexual organs.The introduction of molecular biology has made possible their research in a much more simple, reliable and standardized methods. The study was carried out on endocervical samples, male urethral swabs and urine samples of men and women, determining the C. trachomatis DNA amplified using the BD ProbeTec ET system. This system uses technology SDA (Strand Displacement Amplification - Elongationcrowding of the blanks. The study was conducted from June 2008 to june 2009. Symptomatic and asyntptomatic patients residents in the provinces of Novara and the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola were considered. In this period 784 determinations were made in molecular biology. Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 26 cases equal to a percentage of 3.32%. While considering these preliminary data, however, we can estimate the rate of detection of C. trachomatis as a good starting point, because we have the impression that improved procedures particularly relate to the techniques for sampling and for storage and transport of the sample, can undoubtedly lead to much higher percentages.

  11. Pesquisa de anticorpos anti-Brucella abortus e anti-Brucella ovis em ovinos no município de Uberlândia, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The first epidemiologic inquiry to Brucella abortus (B. abortus and Brucella ovis (B. ovis was carried out in sheep from Uberlândia county, MG. A total of 334 blood serum samples of sheep from both sexes and different ages and breeds were collected in 12 farms. An epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm. Tests for B. abortus and B. ovis antibodies were Buffered Acidified Antigen and Complement Fixation, respectively. None of the sheep was reactive to B. abortus and B. ovis; however, the adoption of sanitary measures is important to avoid the introduction of infections caused by these bacteria.

  12. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur.

  13. Brucella abortus: inmunidad, vacunas y estrategias de prevención basadas en ácidos nucleicos Brucella abortus: immunity, vaccines and prevention strategies based on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rivers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Brucelosis, enfermedad causada por la bacteria intracelular facultativa Brucella abortus, es una zoonosis ampliamente distribuida a nivel mundial que afecta principalmente al ganado bovino, causando esterilidad en machos y abortos en hembras en gestación. La resistencia depende del desarrollo de una inmunidad mediada por células, con la participación de células T CD4+ de tipo Th1, que secreten interferón gama (-INF, citosina que estimula la actividad bactericida por macrófagos y la actividad citotóxica de linfocitos T CD8+, que son capaces de matar células infectadas con Brucella. Brucella posee como componentes antigénicos importantes el lipopolisacárido (LPS y las proteínas, entre las que se destaca por su demostrada capacidad inmune la superóxido dismutasa (SOD. La prevención de la diseminación de la brucelosis se fundamenta en el desarrollo de vacunas eficientes contra B. abortus, utilizándose cepas atenuadas de Brucella abortus como la cepa 19, cepa 45/20 y la cepa RB51; vacunas subcelulares en base a antígenos que forman parte de la estructura de la bacteria y vacunas basadas en moléculas de ácidos nucleicos, como las vacunas ADN y las vacunas ARN. En la presente revisión se pretende dar una visión actualizada sobre la brucelosis, su patogenia y cuadro clínico. Se hace un análisis de las características genéticas, antigénicas e inmunológicas de Brucella. Luego, una exposición de las vacunas actualmente en uso para su prevención y los estudios con vacunas subcelulares para finalizar con las nuevas tendencias en la generación de vacunas, como las vacunas ADN y ARN para Brucella.Brucellosis, a disease caused by the intracellular facultative bacteria Brucella abortus, is a widely distributed zoonosis throughout the world, affecting mainly cattle and causing sterility in males and abortion in pregnant females. Protection against B. abortus relies on the activation of cellular immunity involving lymphocytes T CD4

  14. Valutazione dell’efficacia del vaccino Brucella abortus ceppo RB51 rispetto al vaccino di referenza Brucella abortus ceppo 19 nel bufalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Il patrimonio zootecnico della specie bufalina (Bubalus bubalis della regione Campania, è di 250 000 capi, di questi 150 000 allevati in aziende zootecniche della provincia di Caserta. In queste aziende, nel 2007, l’infezione da Brucella abortus ha avuto la prevalenza media, per allevamento, del 20%. Complessivamente, i 2/3 degli allevamenti positivi hanno evidenziato una prevalenza superiore al 10% e, di questi, i 3/4 una prevalenza superiore al 20%. Prendendo il 20% come valore di riferimento, la metà degli allevamenti infetti (22% degli allevamenti casertani ha evidenziato prevalenze inferiori o uguali al 20%, la restante metà (un altro 22% del totale prevalenze comprese tra il 20 e il 56%. In questo contesto epidemiologico è stato adottato un piano di eradicazione della brucellosi che prevedeva l’abbattimento dei capi infetti e la vaccinazione del restante patrimonio bufalino delle zone con più alta incidenza. Per la profilassi vaccinale della brucellosi, il Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (OIE prevede l’utilizzo del vaccino B. abortus S19 (S19. Purtroppo, l’utilizzo del vaccino negli animali adulti non è privo di possibili effetti indesiderati. Per superare questo aspetto negativo è stato ipotizzato l’impiego del vaccino di B. abortus RB51 (RB51 anche se in letteratura scientifica, sono risultati disponibili pochi dati relativi alla corretta dose vaccinale, all’efficacia e all’innocuità del vaccino nel bufalo. A tale scopo è stato condotto uno studio comparativo tra i due vaccini. Sono state utilizzate 13 femmine di bufalo di 5 mesi di età provenienti da un allevamento ufficialmente indenne da brucellosi. Un gruppo di 5 animali è stato vaccinato due volte, a distanza di un mese, con una dose di RB51 tre volte superiore a quella prevista per i bovini; un secondo gruppo di 5 bufale con S19 rispettando il dosaggio raccomandato per i bovini e un terzo gruppo, di 3 animali di controllo

  15. Prime-booster vaccination of cattle with an influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces a long-term protective immune response against Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Yespembetov, Bolat; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Zinina, Nadezhda; Kydyrbayev, Zhailaubay; Kozhamkulov, Yerken; Inkarbekov, Dulat; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2016-01-20

    This study analyzed the duration of the antigen-specific humoral and T-cell immune responses and protectiveness of a recently-developed influenza viral vector Brucella abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing Brucella proteins Omp16 and L7/L12 and containing the adjuvant Montadine Gel01 in cattle. At 1 month post-booster vaccination (BV), both humoral (up to 3 months post-BV; GMT IgG ELISA titer 214±55 to 857±136, with a prevalence of IgG2a over IgG1 isotype antibodies) and T-cell immune responses were observed in vaccinated heifers (n=35) compared to control animals (n=35, injected with adjuvant/PBS only). A pronounced T-cell immune response was induced and maintained for 12 months post-BV, as indicated by the lymphocyte stimulation index (2.7±0.4 to 10.1±0.9 cpm) and production of IFN-γ (13.7±1.7 to 40.0±3.0 ng/ml) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post-BV. Prime-boost vaccination provided significant protection against B. abortus infection at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (study duration) post-BV (7 heifers per time point; alpha=0.03-0.01 vs. control group). Between 57.1 and 71.4% of vaccinated animals showed no signs of B. abortus infection (or Brucella isolation) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-BV; the severity of infection, as indicated by the index of infection (P=0.0003 to Brucella colonization (P=0.03 to abortus infection was also observed among pregnant vaccinated heifers (alpha=0.03), as well as their fetuses and calves (alpha=0.01), for 12 months post-BV. Additionally, 71.4% of vaccinated heifers calved successfully whereas all pregnant control animals aborted (alpha=0.01). Prime-boost vaccination of cattle with Flu-BA induces an antigen-specific humoral and pronounced T cell immune response and most importantly provides good protectiveness, even in pregnant heifers, for at least 12 months post-BV.

  16. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... since it is highly cross-linked by S-S bridges. There are, however, also similarities to gram-negative cell walls. The chlamydial major outer membrane protein, Omp1, forms pores and is closely associated with lipopolysaccharide, LPS. LPS, however, is more loosely associated with Omp1 than in other gram...

  17. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-08

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered.

  18. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B

    2015-01-01

    indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44......%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention...... activities and case management guidelines addressing partner management, compared with 44% (11/25) of countries in 2007. Conclusion: Overall, chlamydia control activities in EU/EEA countries strengthened between 2007 and 2012. Several countries still need to develop essential chlamydia control activities...

  19. Chlamydophila abortus infection in the mouse: a useful model of the ovine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M R; Buendía, A J; Del Rio, L; Ortega, N; Gallego, M C; Cuello, F; Navarro, J A; Sanchez, J; Salinas, J

    2009-03-16

    Chlamydophila (C.) abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium able to colonize the placenta of several species of mammals, which may induce abortion in the last third of pregnancy. The infection affects mainly small ruminants resulting in major economic losses in farming industries worldwide. Furthermore, its zoonotic risk has been reported in pregnant farmers or abattoir workers. Mouse models have been widely used to study both the pathology of the disease and the role of immune cells in controlling infection. Moreover, this animal experimental model has been considered a useful tool to evaluate new vaccine candidates and adjuvants that could prevent abortion and reduce fetal death. Future studies using these models will provide and reveal information about the precise mechanisms in the immune response against C. abortus and will increase the knowledge about poorly understood issues such as chlamydial persistence.

  20. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Goy, Genevieve; Jaton, Katia; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Blumer, Serafin; Borel, Nicole; Vial, Yvan; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Pospischil, Andreas; Greub, Gilbert

    2011-09-01

    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis-positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of sex partners (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.9). C. trachomatis DNA was more frequently amplified from products of conception or placenta from women who had a miscarriage (4%) than from controls (0.7%; p = 0.026). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed C. trachomatis in placenta from 5 of 7 patients with positive PCR results, whereas results of immunohistochemical analysis were negative in placenta samples from all 8 negative controls tested. Associations between miscarriage and serologic/molecular evidence of C. trachomatis infection support its role in miscarriage.

  1. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Donati

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C and tetR(C gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11 were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C and tetR(C transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  2. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  3. [Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections and contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, T; Rullo, F; Smeraglia, R; Giorgio, A; Lettieri, G; Sannino, F; Martinelli, A

    1988-01-01

    330 women with a median age of 30.15 (+- 9.5) years sought gynecological consultation for advice on contraception and for cervical carcinoma screening. Anamnesis explored the presence of dysuria, dyspareunia, secretions, and pelvic pain, the number of partners, and type of contraceptive used. Endocervical samples were collected by means of tampon and the specimens were analyzed for 48 to 120 hours to find antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis (C.T.) by a solid phase immunoenzymatic test. Peripheral blood samples were also taken from all women to look for antibodies of C.T. and also the indirect immunoperoxidase test was used to search for specific antibodies of C.T. (IgM, IgA, IgE, IgG). The chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. None of the women who used oral hormonal contraceptives or condoms were infected (presence of antigens and positivity for IgM and/or IgE and/or IgA), however, 36 of 90 IUD users (40%) were infected, 18 of 132 women who used no contraceptives whatsoever (13.7%) were also infected. 91% of the subjects had a single partner. In view of these findings the use of the condom and oral contraceptives is recommended with proper instruction about their potential side effects.

  4. Tetracycline Susceptibility in Chlamydia suis Pig Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Balboni, Andrea; Laroucau, Karine; Aaziz, Rachid; Vorimore, Fabien; Borel, Nicole; Morandi, Federico; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of Chlamydia suis in an Italian pig herd, determine the tetracycline susceptibility of C. suis isolates, and evaluate tet(C) and tetR(C) gene expression. Conjunctival swabs from 20 pigs were tested for C. suis by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 55% (11) were positive. C. suis was then isolated from 11 conjunctival swabs resampled from the same herd. All positive samples and isolates were positive for the tet(C) resistance gene. The in vitro susceptibility to tetracycline of the C. suis isolates showed MIC values ranging from 0.5 to 4 μg/mL. Tet(C) and tetR(C) transcripts were found in all the isolates, cultured both in the absence and presence of tetracycline. This contrasts with other Gram-negative bacteria in which both genes are repressed in the absence of the drug. Further investigation into tet gene regulation in C. suis is needed.

  5. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; Black, Carolyn M

    2003-02-01

    The clinically relevant pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis. The major complications and sometimes debilitating evolutionary outcomes of these infections include: trichiasis and cicatrizing trachoma, endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease and involuntary tubal factor infertility and bronchopulmonary pneumonia. These diseases, in addition to other chlamydia-associated chronic syndromes (e.g., artherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease), pose serious public healthcare and huge budgetary concerns. The current medical opinion is that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is a sine qua non--to control the morbidity of chiamydial infection in the human population. The research goal for an efficacious human chlamydial vaccine has faced key challenges to define the elements of protective immunity to facilitate vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of appropriate vaccine candidates that possess stable antigenic and immunologic properties and the development of effective delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost immune effectors to achieve long-term protective immunity. Progress in the functional immunobiology of Chlamydia has established the essential immunologic paradigms for vaccine selection and evaluation, including the obligatory requirement for a vaccine to induce T-helper Type 1 immune response that controls chlamydiae. Recent advances in chlamydial genomics and proteomics should enhance the identification of likely chlamydial gene products that fulfill the antigenic requirements of putative vaccine candidates. Major inroads are however needed in the construction and development of novel and effective delivery systems, such as vectors and adjuvants. This review summarizes the status of contemporary chlamydial vaccine research and promising trends fueling the growing optimism for an efficacious vaccine. The

  6. Overview of the activity of a Brucella abortus preparation, Bru-Pel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngner, J S; Feingold, D S; Keleti, G

    1978-11-01

    The properties of a nonviable, aqueous ether-extracted Brucela abortus preparation, Bru-Pel, are described. In addition to inducing a "virus-type" interferon response and protecting mice against challenge with otherwise lethal doses of Semliki Forest virus, Bru-Pel is demonstrated to have potent antitumor properties in mice. These antitumor effects appear to be mediated by an increase in nonspecific resistance similar to that seen with other experimental antitumor agents.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation and azathioprine on Brucella abortus infection in BALB/c mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzer, P.H.; Rowe, G.E.; Enright, F.M.; Winter, A.J. (Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Sublethal irradiation of BALB/c mice 4 hours prior to inoculation with 5 {times} 10(4) virulent Brucella abortus, caused significant (P less than 0.01) reductions in bacterial numbers in comparison with numbers in unirradiated controls. Numbers of brucellae in the spleen were significantly lower by 5 days after inoculation and decreased thereafter, so that at 2 and 3 weeks after inoculation, there were up to 1,000-fold fewer organisms in the spleen of irradiated mice. The number of brucellae in the spleen increased in irradiated mice thereafter. The course of events in the liver was similar, but developed more slowly, and peak differences in bacterial numbers were about 1 log less. These phenomena were not attributable to differences in implantation of brucellae in the liver or spleen, nor to an abnormal distribution of organisms in other organs of irradiated mice. Irradiation of mice during the plateau phase of infection also resulted in significant (P less than 0.05) reductions in bacterial counts in the spleen during the succeeding 4 weeks. Macrophage activation in the spleen, measured by a Listeria monocytogenes-killing assay, was significantly (P less than 0.01) increased by irradiation alone at 1 week after inoculation and at that time was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater in B abortus-infected, irradiated mice than in B abortus-infected controls. Histologic, cytologic, and immunologic studies revealed that the decrease in numbers of organisms between 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation in irradiated mice occurred at a time when their immune response to B abortus was suppressed and when numbers of neutrophils and monocytes infiltrating the spleen were significantly (P less than 0.01) diminished.

  8. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs, enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN.

  9. Epidemiology of Brucellosis and Genetic Diversity of Brucella abortus in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Elena; Shevtsov, Alexandr; Mukanov, Kasim; Filipenko, Maxim; Kamalova, Dinara; Sytnik, Igor; Syzdykov, Marat; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Assel; Zharova, Mira; Karibaev, Talgat; Tarlykov, Pavel; Ramanculov, Erlan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a major zoonotic infection in Kazakhstan. However, there is limited data on its incidence in humans and animals, and the genetic diversity of prevalent strains is virtually unstudied. Additionally, there is no detailed overview of Kazakhstan brucellosis control and eradication programs. Here, we analyzed brucellosis epidemiological data, and assessed the effectiveness of eradication strategies employed over the past 70 years to counteract this infection. We also conducted multiple loci variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Brucella abortus strains found in Kazakhstan. We analyzed official data on the incidence of animal brucellosis in Kazakhstan. The records span more than 70 years of anti-brucellosis campaigns, and contain a brief description of the applied control strategies, their effectiveness, and their impact on the incidence in humans. The MLVA-16 method was used to type 94 strains of B. abortus and serial passages of B. abortus 82, a strain used in vaccines. MLVA-8 and MLVA-11 analyses clustered strains into a total of four and seven genotypes, respectively; it is the first time that four of these genotypes have been described. MLVA-16 analysis divided strains into 28 distinct genotypes having genetic similarity coefficient that varies from 60 to100% and a Hunter & Gaston diversity index of 0.871. MST analysis reconstruction revealed clustering into "Kazakhstani-Chinese (Central Asian)", "European" and "American" lines. Detection of multiple genotypes in a single outbreak confirms that poorly controlled trade of livestock plays a crucial role in the spread of infection. Notably, the MLVA-16 profile of the B. abortus 82 strain was unique and did not change during 33 serial passages. MLVA genotyping may thus be useful for epidemiological monitoring of brucellosis, and for tracking the source(s) of infection. We suggest that countrywide application of MLVA genotyping would improve the control of brucellosis in Kazakhstan. PMID

  10. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-05-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN.

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Brucella abortus Strains Isolated from Cattle and Pig

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Brucella abortus strains LMN1 and LMN2 isolated from cattle and pig. The LMN1 and LMN2 have the genome size of 3,395,952 bp and 3,334,792 bp, respectively. In addition to the conserved genes of Brucella, few novel regions showing similarity to the phages were identified in both strains.

  12. A rapid cycleave PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus A19 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Xu, Zouliang; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Immunization with attenuated vaccines has proved to be an effective method of prevention; however, it may also interfere with diagnosis. Brucella abortus strain A19, which is homologous to B. abortus strain S19, is widely used for the prevention of bovine brucellosis in China. For effective monitoring of the control of brucellosis, it is essential to distinguish A19 from field strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based assays offer a new approach to such discrimination studies. In the current study, we developed a cycleave PCR assay that successfully distinguished attenuated vaccine strains A19 and S19 from 22 strains of B. abortus and 57 strains of 5 other Brucella species. The assay gave a negative reaction with 4 non-Brucella species. The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 7.6 fg for the A19 strain and 220 fg for the single non-A19/non-S19 Brucella strain tested (B. abortus 104M). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation: 0.003-0.01 and 0.004-0.025, respectively). The cycleave assay gave an A19/S19-specific reaction in 3 out of 125 field serum samples, with the same 3 samples being positive in an alternative A19/S19-specific molecular assay. The cycleave assay gave a total of 102 Brucella-specific reactions (3 being the A19/S19-specific reactions), whereas an alternative Brucella-specific assay gave 92 positive reactions (all also positive in the cycleave assay). Therefore, this assay represents a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for use in brucellosis control.

  13. Is there a Relation between Chlamydia Infection and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Park, Ogyi; Matsumura, Shuji; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have failed to provide direct evidence of specific microbial chronic infection in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, a recent report suggests that there is a specific association of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with PBC and that C. pneumoniae or similar antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. To determine if Chlamydia infection is associated with PBC, we applied a combination of immunological and molecular approaches to investigate (a) the serological reactivity against two common Chlamydia human pathogens, C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, by immunoblotting, (b) the presence of Chlamydia in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by PCR amplification of Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA and (c) the presence of Chlamydia proteins in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by immunohistochemical staining. By immunoblotting, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae specific serological antibodies were found in 52/57 (91.2%) AMA positive PBC, 7/33 (21/2%) of AMA negative PBC, 1/25 (4%) PSC, 0/15 (0%) Sjorgen's syndrome and 0/20 (0%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 0/20 (0%) healthy volunteers at 1:200 sera dilution. PBC sera reacted to Chlamydia and E. coli lysates in western blots up to a maximum of 10-4 dilution. However, PCR amplification of the Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA gene was negative in 25/25 PBC livers but positive in 1/4 PSC liver, 3/6 in other liver disease controls and 1/4 normal liver samples. While two commercially available specific monoclonal antibodies stained positive controls (Chlamydia infected HEp-2 cells) they failed to detect Chlamydia antigens in PBC livers. The detection of Chlamydia specific antibodies but not Chlamydia rRNA gene and Chlamydia antigens in PBC suggests that Chlamydia infection is not involved in PBC. PMID:14768955

  14. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Harrell W Chesson; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia sc...

  15. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Boiko

    Full Text Available Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE, to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection.Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI. The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically.All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05.This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components.

  16. Chlamydia genomics: providing novel insights into chlamydial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Polkinghorne, Adam; Timms, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host-pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the 'post-genomics' era.

  17. Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia in North West zone of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbonlahor DE; Okoror LE; Esumeh FI

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Chlamydia is made of organism responsible for respiratory as well as genital infections with very se-rious sequelae.In Nigeria there is paucity of information regards relative frequencies of Chlamydia infection of which this study reports in North West zone of Nigeria.Methods:Three hundred and thirty three (333)blood samples were collected from individuals attending various clinics in North West zone of Nigeria and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing antibody.Swabs collected from positive patients were re-tested using the Ro-manowsky-Giemsa staining technique.Statistical analysis were carried out in epi-info epidemiological software package.Results:From the total of 333 samples collected and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing anti-body (CCFA)only 287 (86%)were positive.The culture showed that 215 (75%)were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis while only 135 (47%)were positive for Chlamydia pneumoniae.Seventy-one (71)fe-males had symptomatic infection while 31 males were symptomatic.Of the 104 individuals who were asympto-matic 67 were females while 92 were males.Of the 31 symptomatic males were 22 positive to Chlamydia pneu-moniae and the symptoms being that of respiratory syndrome while 9 had difficulty urinating.All the symptom-atic women had symptoms resembling that of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)and vaginal discharge. Age groups 31-35 had the highest positive samples while the extreme ages had the lowest number of positive in-dividuals and also the lowest number of samples.The number of samples as well as the positive results were validated using the epi-info statistical package version 3.4.1.There was no significant difference in the num-ber of samples from both males and females (χ2 =1.360,CI =99%).Conclusion:A high percentage of pos-itive result as validated by statistical analysis shows that Chlamydia infections are endemic in the population and efforts should be made to screen for the organism to avoid the "silent epidemics".

  18. Simultaneous differential detection of Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila pecorum and Coxiella burnetii from aborted ruminant's clinical samples using multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolakis Annie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiosis and Q fever, two zoonosis, are important causes of ruminants' abortion around the world. They are caused respectively by strictly intracellular and Gram negative bacterium Chlamydophila abortus (Cp. abortus and Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii. Chlamydophila pecorum (Cp. pecorum is commonly isolated from the digestive tract of clinically inconspicuous ruminants but the abortive and zoonotic impact of this bacterium is still unknown because Cp. pecorum is rarely suspected in abortion cases of small ruminants. We have developed a multiplex PCR (m-PCR for rapid simultaneous differential detection of Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii in clinical samples taken from infected animals. Results Specific PCR primers were designed and a sensitive and specific m-PCR was developed to detect simultaneously, in one tube reaction, three specific fragments of 821, 526 and 687-bp long for Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii respectively. This m-PCR assay was performed on 253 clinical samples taken from infected ruminant's flocks that have showed problems of abortion diseases. Thus, 67 samples were infected by either one of the three pathogens: 16 (13 vaginal swabs and 3 placentas were positive for Cp. abortus, 2 were positive for Cp. pecorum (1 vaginal swab and 1 placenta and 49 samples (33 vaginal swabs, 11 raw milks, 4 faeces and 1 placenta were positive for C. burnetii. Two vaginal swabs were m-PCR positive of both Cp. abortus and C. burnetii and none of the tested samples was shown to be infected simultaneously with the three pathogens. Conclusion We have successfully developed a rapid multiplex PCR that can detect and differentiate Cp. abortus, Cp. pecorum and C. burnetii; with a good sensitivity and specificity. The diagnosis of chlamydiosis and Q fever may be greatly simplified and performed at low cost. In addition, the improvement in diagnostic techniques will enhance our knowledge regarding the prevalence and

  19. Purification and properties of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase extracted from Brucella abortus strain 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, L.B. (ARS-USDA, Ames, IA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Recent work showed that a recombinant 20 kDa protein from Brucella abortus expressed in E. coli is a Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Western blot and ELISA results indicated that cattle with brucellosis have antibody to SOD. Here the authors report the purification and properties of the native B. abortus Cu-Zn SOD. SOD was extracted from methanol-killed Brucella abortus strain 19 with 0.1 M sodium citrate-1.0 M sodium chloride solution. The extract was dialyzed and protein precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 70-100% saturation was collected. The SOD was purified by HPLC anion exchange chromatography. SOD activity was assayed with a coupled enzyme assay using xanthine oxidase-cytochrome C reduction assay. The authors determined that the Brucella SOD is present in two molecular forms both inhibitable with KCN with Ki's of 0.32 mM and 4.98 mM, respectively. No other form of SOD was identified in the extract. Polyclonal antibody to SOD and polyclonal antibody to SOD synthetic peptide residues 134-143 inhibited SOD activity by 50% and 13%, respectively. Both SOD and the synthetic peptide inhibited binding of anti-SOD antibody to SOD by 60% and 20%, respectively. Based on these results the SOD and its amphipathic peptide will be considered as candidates for the design of synthetic multiple peptide vaccines and diagnostic reagents for bovine brucellosis.

  20. Living in Living Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and overview of current and potential applications of living technology to urban problems. Living technology can be described as technology that exhibits the core features of living systems. These features can be useful to solve dynamic problems. In particular, urban problems concerning mobility, logistics, telecommunications, governance, safety, sustainability, and society and culture are presented, while solutions involving living technology are reviewed. Finally, the usefulness of describing cities as living systems is discussed.

  1. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee

    2016-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis. PMID:26726017

  2. Inhibitory effect of red ginseng acidic polysaccharide from Korean red ginseng on phagocytic activity and intracellular replication of Brucella abortus in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-09-30

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) has long been used in traditional Korean and Oriental medicine. However, the anti-bacterial mechanism and therapeutic efficiency of KGR for intracellular Brucella infection are still unclear. In this study, the bactericidal activity of Korean red ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) on Brucella (B.) abortus and its cytotoxic effects on RAW 264.7 cells were evaluated. In addition, B. abortus internalization and intracellular replication in macrophages were investigated after RGAP treatment. RGAP-incubated cells displayed a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of B. abortus in macrophages. Furthermore, decreased F-actin fluorescence was observed relative to untreated B. abortus-infected cells. Western blot analysis of intracellular signaling proteins revealed reduced ERK, JNK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGAP-treated cells compared to the control. Moreover, elevated co-localization of B. abortus-containing phagosomes with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were observed in RGAP-treated cells compared with the control. Overall, the results of this study suggest that RGAP can disrupt phagocytic activity of B. abortus via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling proteins ERK, JNK and p38 levels and inhibit intracellular replication of B. abortus by enhancing phagolysosome fusion, which may provide an alternative control of brucellosis.

  3. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliven, Kimberly A; Fisher, Derek J; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine. In contrast, most Chlamydia trachomatis serovars carry a missense or nonsense mutation in aaxB abrogating activity. The G115R missense mutation was not predicted to impact AaxB functionality, making it unclear whether AaxB variations in other Chlamydia species also result in enzyme inactivation. To address the impact of gene polymorphism on functionality, we investigated the activity and production of the Chlamydia AaxB variants. Because ArgDC plays a critical role in the Escherichia coli acid stress response, we studied the ability of these Chlamydia variants to complement an E. coli ArgDC mutant in an acid shock assay. Active AaxB was detected in four additional species: Chlamydia caviae, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia muridarum. Of the C. trachomatis serovars, only E appears to encode active enzyme. To determine when functional enzyme is present during the chlamydial developmental cycle, we utilized an anti-AaxB antibody to detect both uncleaved and cleaved enzyme throughout infection. Uncleaved enzyme production peaked around 20 h postinfection, with optimal cleavage around 44 h. While the role ArgDC plays in Chlamydia survival or virulence is unclear, our data suggest a niche-specific function.

  4. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and emerging Chlamydia-related bacteria in ectopic pregnancy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornung, S; Thuong, B C; Gyger, J; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C; Vasilevsky, S; Greub, G; Baud, D

    2015-09-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the seroprevalence and molecular evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Waddlia chondrophila in ectopic pregnancies (EP) and uneventful control pregnancies in 343 women from Vietnam. Whereas presence of C. trachomatis IgG was strongly associated with EP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5·41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·58-11·32], its DNA remained undetected in all tubal lesions. We confirmed an independent association between antibodies against Waddlia and previous miscarriage (aOR 1·87, 95% CI 1·02-3·42). Further investigations are needed to understand the clinical significance of Waddlia's high seroprevalence (25·9% in control pregnancies) in this urban population.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  6. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  7. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  8. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  9. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van Gils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  11. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species.

  12. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  13. Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine immunogenicity test: Evaluation of three mice (BALB/c, Swiss and CD-1) and two challenge strains (544 and 2308).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina Leite; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Pauletti, Rebeca Barbosa; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of different mouse strains (BALB/c, Swiss and CD-1) and different challenge strains (Brucella abortus 544 and 2308) in the study of B. abortus vaccine (S19 and RB51) immunogenicity test in the murine model. No significant difference in B. abortus vaccine potency assay was found with the use of B. abortus 544 or B. abortus 2308 as challenge strain. Results of variance analysis showed an interaction between treatment and mouse strain; therefore these parameters could not be compared separately. When CD-1 groups were compared, those vaccinated showed significantly lower counts than non-vaccinated ones (Pabortus strains 544 and 2308, can be used in immunogenicity tests of S19 and RB51 vaccines.

  14. Research on the PCR Method to Detect Ovine Chlamydia abortus%羊流产衣原体的PCR检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 王英珍; 鄢明华; 李秀丽

    2009-01-01

    根据羊流产衣原体16S rRNA基因保守序列,设计合成一对引物,通过优化PCR反应条件,成功地扩增出预期的523bp片段,而沙眼农原体、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌及健康鸡胚的卵黄囊膜均未扩增出相应的片段.敏感性试验表明,该体系可检测到2 pg的衣原体DNA.

  15. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  16. Soroepidemiologia da brucelose canina causada por Brucella canis e Brucella abortus na cidade de Alfenas, MG Seroepidemiology of canine brucellosis caused by Brucella canis and Brucella abortus in Alfenas, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Almeida

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of canine brucellosis was evaluated in the city of Alfenas, MG through the technique of agarose gel imunodifusion for Brucella canis and slow serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoetanol for Brucella abortus. The prevalence was of 14.2% and 2.8%, respectively, for B. canis and B. abortus. The positives, characterized by animals above one year of age (77.8%, and mongrel dogs (56.2%, showed a prevalence of 50 and 48% for males and females, respectively. The canine brucellosis was prevalent in the city principally in dogs of outskirts.

  17. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

  18. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B. species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  19. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-04-30

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  20. A T4SS Effector Targets Host Cell Alpha-Enolase Contributing to Brucella abortus Intracellular Lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, María I.; Morrone Seijo, Susana M.; Guaimas, Francisco F.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2016-01-01

    Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, invades and replicates within cells inside a membrane-bound compartment known as the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV). After trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways, BCVs mature into endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartments permissive for bacterial replication. Brucella Type IV Secretion System (VirB) is a major virulence factor essential for the biogenesis of the replicative organelle. Upon infection, Brucella uses the VirB system to translocate effector proteins from the BCV into the host cell cytoplasm. Although the functions of many translocated proteins remain unknown, some of them have been demonstrated to modulate host cell signaling pathways to favor intracellular survival and replication. BPE123 (BAB2_0123) is a B. abortus VirB-translocated effector protein recently identified by our group whose function is yet unknown. In an attempt to identify host cell proteins interacting with BPE123, a pull-down assay was performed and human alpha-enolase (ENO-1) was identified by LC/MS-MS as a potential interaction partner of BPE123. These results were confirmed by immunoprecipitation assays. In bone-marrow derived macrophages infected with B. abortus, ENO-1 associates to BCVs in a BPE123-dependent manner, indicating that interaction with translocated BPE123 is also occurring during the intracellular phase of the bacterium. Furthermore, ENO-1 depletion by siRNA impaired B. abortus intracellular replication in HeLa cells, confirming a role for α-enolase during the infection process. Indeed, ENO-1 activity levels were enhanced upon B. abortus infection of THP-1 macrophagic cells, and this activation is highly dependent on BPE123. Taken together, these results suggest that interaction between BPE123 and host cell ENO-1 contributes to the intracellular lifestyle of B. abortus. PMID:27900285

  1. Identificación de la cepa vacunal Brucella abortus S19 en muestras de leche de vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Luary Carolina Martínez Chavarría; Antonio Verdugo Rodríguez; Rigoberto Hernández Castro

    2006-01-01

    La brucelosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa de origen bacteriano que afecta tanto al humano como a diferentes especies animales domésticas y silvestres. En la década pasada, la vacuna que se usaba ampliamente en los bovinos era la cepa vacunal B. abortus S19, que tiene una deleción en dos de los genes del operón ery que participa en el catabolismo del eritritol. En México, desde 1997 se aprobó la cepa B. abortus RB51 como vacuna para el ganado. Esta cepa presenta una secuencia de inserc...

  2. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  3. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M;

    1990-01-01

    Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0.......04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs...

  4. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  5. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women: relationship to history, contraception, and cervicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, J; Vavilis, D; Panidis, D; Theodoridis, T; Konstantinidis, T; Sidiropoulou, A

    1994-12-01

    The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen was examined in 400 endocervical samples collected from an equal number of asymptomatic sexually active women. The overall prevalence was found to be 4%, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chlamydia infection was correlated with younger age (5.8%, p 0.05), condom (0%, p Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with younger age, intense sexual life, and use of oral contraceptives. Given that the majority of infected women revealed cervical pathology, the detection of chlamydia in the high-risk female population with cervical changes seems to be essential.

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  7. Identification of new IS711 insertion sites in Brucella abortus field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriyón Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp., a group of highly homogeneous bacteria. The insertion sequence IS711 is characteristic of these bacteria, and occurs in variable numbers and positions, but always constant within a given species. This species-associated polymorphism is used in molecular typing and identification. Field isolates of B. abortus, the most common species infecting cattle, typically carry seven IS711 copies (one truncated. Thus far, IS711 transposition has only been shown in vitro and only for B. ovis and B. pinnipedialis, two species carrying a high number of IS711 copies, but never in other Brucella species, neither in vitro nor in field strains. Results We found several B. abortus strains isolated from milk and aborted fetuses that carried additional IS711 copies in two hitherto undescribed insertion sites: one in an intergenic region near to the 3' end of a putative lactate permease gene and the other interrupting the sequence of a marR transcriptional regulator gene. Interestingly, the second type of insertion was identified in isolates obtained repeatedly from the same herd after successive brucellosis outbreaks, an observation that proves the stability and virulence of the new genotype under natural conditions. Sequence analyses revealed that the new copies probably resulted from the transposition of a single IS711 copy common to all Brucella species sequenced so far. Conclusions Our results show that the replicative transposition of IS711 can occur under field conditions. Therefore, it represents an active mechanism for the emergence of genetic diversity in B. abortus thus contributing to intra-species genetic polymorphism.

  8. Molecular structure of the Brucella abortus metalloprotein RicA, a Rab2-binding virulence effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrou, Julien; Crosson, Sean

    2013-12-17

    The Gram-negative intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus is the causative agent of brucellosis, which is among the most common zoonoses globally. The B. abortus RicA protein binds the host-expressed guanosine nucleotide-binding protein, Rab2, and modulates B. abortus infection biology. We have solved the first X-ray crystal structure of RicA to 2.7 Å resolution and have quantified the affinity of RicA binding to human Rab2 in its GDP-bound and nucleotide-free forms. RicA adopts a classic γ-carbonic anhydrase (γ-CA) fold containing a left-handed β-helix followed by a C-terminal α-helix. Two homotrimers of RicA occupy the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Though no zinc was included in the purification or crystallization buffers, zinc is contained within the RicA crystals, as demonstrated by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Electron density for a Zn(2+) ion coordinated by three histidine residues is evident in the putative active site of RicA. However, purified RicA preparations do not exhibit carbonic anhydrase activity, suggesting that Zn(2+) may not be the physiologically relevant metal cofactor or that RicA is not a bona fide carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements of purified RicA binding to purified human Rab2 and GDP-Rab2 revealed similar equilibrium affinities (Kd ≈ 35 and 40 μM, respectively). This study thus defines RicA as a Zn(2+)-binding γ-carbonic anhydrase-like protein that binds the human membrane fusion/trafficking protein Rab2 with low micromolar affinity in vitro. These results support a model in which γ-CA family proteins may evolve unique cellular functions while retaining many of the structural hallmarks of archetypal γ-CA enzymes.

  9. MLVA16 typing of Portuguese human and animal Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Cristina; Chambel, Lélia; Tenreiro, Tania; Cardoso, Regina; Flor, Lídia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Pacheco, Teresa; Garin-Bastuji, Bruno; Le Flèche, Philippe; Vergnaud, Gilles; Tenreiro, Rogério; de Sá, Maria Inácia Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates from different Portuguese geographical regions and to assess the diversity among isolates, the MLVA16(Orsay) assay (panels 1, 2A and 2B) was performed with a collection of 126 Brucella melitensis (46 human and 80 animal isolates) and 157 B. abortus field isolates, seven vaccine strains and the representative reference strains of each species. The MLVA16(Orsay) showed a similar high discriminatory power (HGDI 0.972 and 0.902) for both species but panel 1 and 2A markers displayed higher diversity (HGDI 0.693) in B. abortus compared to B. melitensis isolates (HGDI 0.342). The B. melitensis population belong to the "Americas" (17%) and "East Mediterranean" (83%) groups. No isolate belonged to the "West Mediterranean" group. Eighty-five percent of the human isolates (39 in 46) fit in the "East-Mediterranean" group where a single lineage known as MLVA11 genotype 116 is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in humans. B. abortus isolates formed a consistent group with bv1 and bv3 isolates in different clusters. Four MLVA11 genotypes were observed for the first time in isolates from S. Jorge and Terceira islands from Azores. From the collection of isolates analysed in this study we conclude that MLVA16(Orsay) provided a clear view of Brucella spp. population, confirming epidemiological linkage in outbreak investigations. In particular, it suggests recent and ongoing colonisation of Portugal with one B. melitensis lineage usually associated with East Mediterranean countries.

  10. MLVA16 typing of Portuguese human and animal Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ferreira

    Full Text Available To investigate the epidemiological relationship of isolates from different Portuguese geographical regions and to assess the diversity among isolates, the MLVA16(Orsay assay (panels 1, 2A and 2B was performed with a collection of 126 Brucella melitensis (46 human and 80 animal isolates and 157 B. abortus field isolates, seven vaccine strains and the representative reference strains of each species. The MLVA16(Orsay showed a similar high discriminatory power (HGDI 0.972 and 0.902 for both species but panel 1 and 2A markers displayed higher diversity (HGDI 0.693 in B. abortus compared to B. melitensis isolates (HGDI 0.342. The B. melitensis population belong to the "Americas" (17% and "East Mediterranean" (83% groups. No isolate belonged to the "West Mediterranean" group. Eighty-five percent of the human isolates (39 in 46 fit in the "East-Mediterranean" group where a single lineage known as MLVA11 genotype 116 is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in humans. B. abortus isolates formed a consistent group with bv1 and bv3 isolates in different clusters. Four MLVA11 genotypes were observed for the first time in isolates from S. Jorge and Terceira islands from Azores. From the collection of isolates analysed in this study we conclude that MLVA16(Orsay provided a clear view of Brucella spp. population, confirming epidemiological linkage in outbreak investigations. In particular, it suggests recent and ongoing colonisation of Portugal with one B. melitensis lineage usually associated with East Mediterranean countries.

  11. Different resistance patterns of reference and field strains of Brucella abortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina L. Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of the B. abortus reference strains and field isolates on media containing different inhibitor agents. Reference strains were seeded on tryptose agar containing: i-erythritol (1.0 mg/mL, fuchsin (20 μg/mL and 80 μg/mL, thionin (2.5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, rifampicin (200 μg/mL and safranin O (200 μg/mL. Field isolates were tested only on media containing i-erythritol, rifampicin and thionin. Furthermore, each suspension was also inoculated on tryptose agar incubated in air, to test its ability to grow without CO2. Sensitivity to fuchsin was similar among reference strains evaluated. Growth of S19, 544 and 2308 but not RB51 were inhibited on media containing rifampicin. Medium with safranin O showed no inhibition for RB51, 544 and 2308, but it partially inhibited the S19 growth as well as medium containing i-erythritol. Treatment/control growth ratio for 2308 on tryptose agar containing thionin (2.5 μg/mL was approximatelly 1.0, whereas S19 and RB51 showed 0.85 and 0.89 ratios, respectively. Growth of 544, S19 and RB51 but not 2308 was completely inhibited on medium with thionin (10 μg/mL. All field strains grew on medium containing i-erythritol, but were completelly inhibited by rifampicin. With exception of A1 (B. abortus biovar 3 all field isolates grew on medium with thionin, although some strains showed a treatment/control growth ratio of 0.75–0.80 (10 μg/mL. These results showed that tryptose agar with thionin, i-erythritol or rifampicin could be useful for differentiating vaccine, challenge and field strains of B. abortus.

  12. Different resistance patterns of reference and field strains of Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Karina L; Dorneles, Elaine M S; Poester, Fernando P; Martins Filho, Paulo S; Pauletti, Rebeca B; Lage, Andrey P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of the B. abortus reference strains and field isolates on media containing different inhibitor agents. Reference strains were seeded on tryptose agar containing: i-erythritol (1.0 mg/mL), fuchsin (20 μg/mL and 80 μg/mL), thionin (2.5 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL), rifampicin (200 μg/mL) and safranin O (200 μg/mL). Field isolates were tested only on media containing i-erythritol, rifampicin and thionin. Furthermore, each suspension was also inoculated on tryptose agar incubated in air, to test its ability to grow without CO 2 . Sensitivity to fuchsin was similar among reference strains evaluated. Growth of S19, 544 and 2308 but not RB51 were inhibited on media containing rifampicin. Medium with safranin O showed no inhibition for RB51, 544 and 2308, but it partially inhibited the S19 growth as well as medium containing i-erythritol. Treatment/control growth ratio for 2308 on tryptose agar containing thionin (2.5 μg/mL) was approximatelly 1.0, whereas S19 and RB51 showed 0.85 and 0.89 ratios, respectively. Growth of 544, S19 and RB51 but not 2308 was completely inhibited on medium with thionin (10 μg/mL). All field strains grew on medium containing i-erythritol, but were completelly inhibited by rifampicin. With exception of A1 ( B. abortus biovar 3) all field isolates grew on medium with thionin, although some strains showed a treatment/control growth ratio of 0.75-0.80 (10 μg/mL). These results showed that tryptose agar with thionin, i-erythritol or rifampicin could be useful for differentiating vaccine, challenge and field strains of B. abortus.

  13. Proinflammatory Response of Human Trophoblastic Cells to Brucella abortus Infection and upon Interactions with Infected Phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Andrea G; Ferrero, Mariana C; Hielpos, M Soledad; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2016-02-01

    Trophoblasts are targets of infection by Brucella spp. but their role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy complications of brucellosis is unknown. Here we show that Brucella abortus invades and replicates in the human trophoblastic cell line Swan-71 and that the intracellular survival of the bacterium depends on a functional virB operon. The infection elicited significant increments of interleukin 8 (IL8), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and IL6 secretion, but levels of IL1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) did not vary significantly. Such proinflammatory response was not modified by the absence of the Brucella TIR domain-containing proteins BtpA and BtpB. The stimulation of Swan-71 cells with conditioned medium (CM) from B. abortus-infected human monocytes (THP-1 cells) or macrophages induced a significant increase of IL8, MCP-1 and IL6 as compared to stimulation with CM from non-infected cells. Similar results were obtained when stimulation was performed with CM from infected neutrophils. Neutralization studies showed that IL1beta and/or TNF-alpha mediated the stimulating effects of CM from infected phagocytes. Reciprocally, stimulation of monocytes and neutrophils with CM from Brucella-infected trophoblasts increased IL8 and/or IL6 secretion. These results suggest that human trophoblasts may provide a local inflammatory environment during B. abortus infections either through a direct response to the pathogen or through interactions with monocytes/macrophages or neutrophils, potentially contributing to the pregnancy complications of brucellosis.

  14. A zebrafish model for Chlamydia infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Waddlia chondrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fehr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obligate intracellular chlamydial bacteria of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC superphylum are important pathogens of terrestrial and marine vertebrates, yet many features of their pathogenesis and host specificity are still unknown. This is particularly true for families such as the Waddliacea which, in addition to epithelia, cellular targets for nearly all Chlamydia, can infect and replicate in macrophages, an important arm of the innate immune system or in their free-living amoebal counterparts. An ideal pathogen model system should include both host and pathogen, which led us to develop the first larval zebrafish model for chlamydial infections with Waddlia chondrophila. By varying the means and sites of application, epithelial cells of the swimbladder, endothelial cells of the vasculature and phagocytosing cells of the innate immune system became preferred targets for infection in zebrafish larvae. Through the use of transgenic zebrafish, we could observe recruitment of neutrophils to the infection site and demonstrate for the first time that W. chondrophila is taken up and replicates in these phagocytic cells and not only in macrophages. Furthermore, we present evidence that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 mediated signalling plays a role in the innate immune reaction to W. chondrophila, eventually by Toll-like receptor (TLRs recognition. Infected larvae with depleted levels of MyD88 showed a higher infection load and a lower survival rate compared to control fish. This work presents a new and potentially powerful non-mammalian experimental model to study the pathology of chlamydial virulence in vivo and opens up new possibilities for investigation of other members of the PVC superphylum.

  15. Outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus in Brazil: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Calixto Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human brucellosis is an occupational disease affecting workers in slaughterhouses, butcher shops and the milk and dairy product industry as well as individuals who work in clinical or research laboratories. We report the first outbreak of a Brucella abortus infection in a Brazilian laboratory and compare the data obtained with reports available in the literature. Exposure was a result of damage to a biological safety cabinet and failure of the unidirectional airflow ventilation system. An epidemiological investigation identified 3 seroconverted individuals, 1 of whom had clinical manifestations and laboratory results compatible with infection at the time of exposure (n=11; attack rate=9.1%.

  16. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners: a cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Morré, S.A.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care professionals,

  17. TLR7 and TLR3 Sense Brucella abortus RNA to Induce Proinflammatory Cytokine Production but They Are Dispensable for Host Control of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Priscila C.; Gomes, Marco Túlio R.; Guimarães, Erika S.; Guimarães, Gabriela; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2017-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes brucellosis, a worldwide zoonotic disease leading to undulant fever in humans and abortion in cattle. The immune response against this bacterium relies on the recognition of microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and DNA; however, the immunostimulatory potential of B. abortus RNA remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that dendritic cells (DCs) produce significant amounts of IL-12, IL-6, and IP-10/CXCL10, when stimulated with purified B. abortus RNA. IL-12 secretion by DCs stimulated with RNA depends on TLR7 while IL-6 depends on TLR7 and partially on TLR3. Further, only TLR7 plays a role in IL-12 production induced by B. abortus infection. Moreover, cytokine production in DCs infected with B. abortus or stimulated with bacterial RNA was reduced upon pretreatment with MAPK/NF-κB inhibitors. By confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that TLR7 is colocalized with B. abortus in LAMP-1+ Brucella-containing vacuoles. Additionally, type I IFN expression and IP-10/CXCL10 secretion in DCs stimulated with bacterial RNA were dependent on TLR3 and TLR7. Our results suggest that TLR3 and TLR7 are not required to control Brucella infection in vivo, but they play an important role on sensing B. abortus RNA in vitro. PMID:28167945

  18. The Effector Protein BPE005 from Brucella abortus Induces Collagen Deposition and Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Downmodulation via Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Rey Serantes, Diego; Herrmann, Claudia Karina; Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Vanzulli, Silvia; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Comerci, Diego José; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-12-14

    The liver is frequently affected in patients with active brucellosis. In the present study, we identified a virulence factor involved in the modulation of hepatic stellate cell function and consequent fibrosis during Brucella abortus infection. This study assessed the role of BPE005 protein from B. abortus in the fibrotic phenotype induced on hepatic stellate cells during B. abortus infection in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the fibrotic phenotype induced by B. abortus on hepatic stellate (LX-2) cells was dependent on BPE005, a protein associated with the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB from B. abortus. Our results indicated that B. abortus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion through the activity of the BPE005-secreted protein and induces concomitant collagen deposition by LX-2 cells. BPE005 is a small protein containing a cyclic nucleotide monophosphate binding domain (cNMP) that modulates the LX-2 cell phenotype through a mechanism that is dependent on the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Altogether, these results indicate that B. abortus tilts LX-2 cells to a profibrogenic phenotype employing a functional T4SS and the secreted BPE005 protein through a mechanism that involves the cAMP and PKA signaling pathway.

  19. Investigation of the possible role of Chlamydophila abortus in reproductive failures in nrazilian herds of domestic ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Gibson da Silva-Zacarias

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus infection is related to reproductive failure in domestic ruminants. Although it has not been well characterized worldwide, this pathogen has already been identified in some European countries and in the USA. In Brazil, preliminary studies have shown serological evidence of C. abortus infection in herds with low antibody prevalence. Until now, the identification of C. abortus in biological samples from females presenting reproductive failures has not been described in Brazilian herds of domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the C. abortus in a collection of abortions from cattle (n=85, sheep (n=12, and goats (n=8, in samples of vaginal mucus from cows (n=13, sheep (n=90, and goats (n­=20, and in semen from sheep (n=10 and goats (n=5. The specimens (n=243 were evaluated using a PCR assay developed to amplify the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic space of C. abortus. A PCR assay with an internal control, which amplifies a fragment from the ND5 gene of bovine mitochondrial DNA, was used in order to evaluate the efficiency of the DNA extraction and of the PCR reaction. All biological samples (n=243 included in this study were negative for C. abortus in the PCR assay. The internal control enabled the amplification of a product from the bovine mitochondrial ND5 gene in all cattle abortion samples (n=85. Given the serological evidence indicating the presence of C. abortus infection in Brazilian herds of domestic ruminants, and considering the wide sampling evaluated, the failure to identify C. abortus in this survey suggests that the frequency of clinical signs in infected animals may be low or even absent.A infecção pela Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus em ruminantes domésticos está relacionada com distúrbios reprodutivos. Apesar de ainda pouco estudada em todo o mundo, a infecção já foi identificada em alguns países europeus e também nos EUA. No Brasil, estudos preliminares

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Brucella abortus recombinant protein cocktail (rOmp19+rP39) against B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M infection in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadepalli, Ganesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Balakrishna, Konduru; Murali, Harishchandra Sripathy; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins Omp19 (rO) and P39 (rP) from Brucella abortus were evaluated individually and compared with the cocktail protein (rO+rP) against B. abortus 544 and Brucella melitensis 16M infection in BALB/c mouse model. Intra-peritoneal (I.P.) immunization with rO+rP cocktail developed substantially higher antibody titers predominant with Th1 mediated isotypes (IgG2a/2b). Western blot analysis using anti-rO+rP antibodies showed specific reactivity with native Omp19 (19 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa) among whole cell proteins of B. abortus and B. melitensis. Splenocytes extracted from rO+rP immunized mice induced significantly (Pabortus 544 (72.27%) and B. melitensis 16M (68.57%). On the other hand, individual anti-rO and anti-rP polysera resulted in relatively lesser protection against the pathogens (64.79%, 54.45% and 47.13%, 45.11%, respectively). Immunized group of mice when I.P. challenged with 5 × 10(4) CFU of B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M were found significantly (PBrucella vaccine.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in female genital tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty cases of female genital tract infection were investigated for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen. Endocervical swabs obtained were subjected to antigen detection by enzyme immunoassay. Rabbit antiserum to chlamydial lipopolysaccharide was used in a card test. Anti rabbit immunoglobulin G conjugated to alkaline phosphatase with a chromogenic substrate 5 bromo-4 chloro-3-indolyl phosphate and nitro blue tetrazolium were used for the enzymatic reaction. Chlamydial antigen could be detected in four out of thirty samples (13.3%. In contrast direct immunofluorescence detected 5 cases (16.6%. Although less sensitive, enzyme immunoassay can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in genital infections.

  2. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  3. Post-Abortion Syndrome and nursing approachesPost-Abortus Sendromu ve hemşirelik yaklaşımları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılda Arzu Aba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the life outputs, are associated especially with the mental health outputs at Abortus and the period that follows it. Post-Abortus Syndrome (PAS is the concept of abortus trauma management that show up with the chronic or delayed symptoms as a result of the hidden emotional reactions that are experienced because of the post-abortus physical and psychological trauma. The individual, the systemic and the social factors that are existing at post-Abortus women affect PAS development. The interventions, in general, that are oriented towards mental problems of the individual at the PAS period, focused on the  individual’s sufficiency and efficiency for coping with all the problems that are faced in her life. There is no any program that is developed for post-Abortus women or their family in our country. It is important for the individual who is diagnosed with PAS to receive consultancy from a health professional for her recovery from the period.   Özet Abortus ve bunu izleyen süreçte yaşam sonuçları arasındaki ilişki özellikle mental sağlık sonuçlarıyla ilişkilendirilmektedir. Post-Abortus Sendromu (PAS, abortus sonrası fiziksel ve psikolojik travma nedeniyle deneyimlenen gizlenmiş duygusal tepkiler sonucu, kronik ya da gecikmiş belirtilerle ortaya çıkan abortus travmasını yönetebilme kavramıdır. Abortus sonrası kadınlarda var olan bireysel, sistemik ve sosyal faktörler PAS gelişimini etkilemektedir. PAS dönemindeki bireyin ruhsal sorunlarına yönelik yapılan müdahaleler genel olarak, bireyin yaşamında karşılaştığı tüm sorunlarla başetmesinde yeterli ve etkili hale gelmesine odaklanır. Ülkemizde abortus sonrası kadınlara ya da ailelerine yönelik geliştirilen herhangi bir program bulunmamaktadır. PAS tanısı alan bireyin süreci atlatabilmesi için sağlık profesyoneli tarafından danışmanlık alması önemlidir.

  4. Telling partners about chlamydia: how acceptable are the new technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Rhian M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partner notification is accepted as a vital component in the control of chlamydia. However, in reality, many sexual partners of individuals diagnosed with chlamydia are never informed of their risk. The newer technologies of email and SMS have been used as a means of improving partner notification rates. This study explored the use and acceptability of different partner notification methods to help inform the development of strategies and resources to increase the number of partners notified. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people who were recently diagnosed with chlamydia from three sexual health centres and two general practices across three Australian jurisdictions. Results Most participants chose to contact their partners either in person (56% or by phone (44%. Only 17% chose email or SMS. Participants viewed face-to-face as the "gold standard" in partner notification because it demonstrated caring, respect and courage. Telephone contact, while considered insensitive by some, was often valued because it was quick, convenient and less confronting. Email was often seen as less personal while SMS was generally considered the least acceptable method for telling partners. There was also concern that emails and SMS could be misunderstood, not taken seriously or shown to others. Despite these, email and SMS were seen to be appropriate and useful in some circumstances. Letters, both from the patients or from their doctor, were viewed more favourably but were seldom used. Conclusion These findings suggest that many people diagnosed with chlamydia are reluctant to use the new technologies for partner notification, except in specific circumstances, and our efforts in developing partner notification resources may best be focused on giving patients the skills and confidence for personal interaction.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and maternal outcomes in Southern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnancy is known to have grave impact on maternal and neonatal health, routine CT screening in pregnancy is not available in Ghana The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and adverse maternal outcomes of CT infection among pregnant women attending antennal clinic at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital. Methods: Two hundred and thirty two (232) pregnant women screened for CT infection by PCR were pur...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis and oral contraceptive use: a quantitative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Cottingham, J.; Hunter, D.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Chlamydia trachomatis is now recognised as a major sexually transmitted disease; oral contraceptive use is rapidly increasing particularly in developing countries. There are thus important public health implications of the many reports that isolation of C trachomatis is more frequent among users of oral contraceptives. The aim of this analysis was to assess the strength and consistency of this association by summarising published studies between 1972 and 1990. DESIGN--Studies iden...

  7. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiridou, Maria; Vriend, Henrike J.; Lugner, Anna K.; Wallinga, Jacco; Fennema, Johannes S.; Prins, Jan M.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Rijnders, Bart J.A.; Prins, Maria; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Veen, Maaike G.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Sande, Marianne A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and

  8. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins (Mariia); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV a

  9. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is an effective tool for reducing the prevalence of brucellosis in natural hosts. In this study, we characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51) vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (Hand RB51), single pneumatic dart delivery (Dart ...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Intermediate Rough Vaccine Strain Brucella abortus S19Δper Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Pallab; Goswami T, Tapas K.; Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Kaur, Gurpreet; Vishnu, Udayakumar S.; Sankarasubramanian, Jagadesan; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence of the intermediate rough vaccine strain mutant, Brucella abortus S19Δper. The length of the draft genome was 3,271,238 bp, with 57.2% G+C content. A total of 3,204 protein-coding genes and 56 RNA genes were predicted. PMID:26564050

  11. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection.

  12. Development of a dual vaccine for prevention of Brucella abortus infection and Escherichia coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannino, Florencia; Herrmann, Claudia K; Roset, Mara S; Briones, Gabriel

    2015-05-05

    Zoonoses that affect human and animal health have an important economic impact. In the study now presented, a bivalent vaccine has been developed that has the potential for preventing the transmission from cattle to humans of two bacterial pathogens: Brucella abortus and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A 66kDa chimeric antigen, composed by EspA, Intimin, Tir, and H7 flagellin (EITH7) from STEC, was constructed and expressed in B. abortus Δpgm vaccine strain (BabΔpgm). Mice orally immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) elicited an immune response with the induction of anti-EITH7 antibodies (IgA) that clears an intestinal infection of E. coli O157:H7 three times faster (t=4 days) than mice immunized with BabΔpgm carrier strain (t=12 days). As expected, mice immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) strain also elicited a protective immune response against B. abortus infection. A Brucella-based vaccine platform is described capable of eliciting a combined protective immune response against two bacterial pathogens with diverse lifestyles-the intracellular pathogen B. abortus and the intestinal extracellular pathogen STEC.

  13. Comparison of abortion and infection after experimental challenge of pregnant bison and cattle with Brucella abortus strain 2308

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparative study was conducted using data from naive bison (n=45) and cattle (n=46) from 8 and 6 studies, respectively, in which a standardized Brucella abortus strain 2308 experimental challenge was administered. The incidence of abortion, fetal infection, uterine or mammary infection, or infec...

  14. Brucella abortus mutants lacking ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins are highly attenuated in virulence and confer protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Park, Soyeon; Park, Bo-Kyoung; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2016-06-01

    Brucella abortus RB51 is an attenuated vaccine strain that has been most frequently used for bovine brucellosis. Although it is known to provide good protection in cattle, it still has some drawbacks including resistance to rifampicin, residual virulence and pathogenicity in humans. Thus, there has been a continuous interest on new safe and effective bovine vaccine candidates. In the present study, we have constructed unmarked mutants by deleting singly cydD and cydC genes, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, from the chromosome of the virulent Brucella abortus isolate from Korean cow (referred to as IVK15). Both IVK15ΔcydD and ΔcydC mutants showed increased sensitivity to metal ions, hydrogen peroxide and acidic pH, which are mimic to intracellular environment during host infection. Additionally, the mutants exhibited a significant growth defect in RAW264.7 cells and greatly attenuated in mice. Vaccination of mice with either IVK15ΔcydC or IVK15ΔcydD mutant could elicit an anti-Brucella specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass responses as well as enhance the secretion of interferon-gamma, and provided better protection against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308 than with the commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. Collectively, these results suggest that both IVK15ΔcydC and IVK15ΔcydD mutants could be an attenuated vaccine candidate against B. abortus.

  15. Enzymatic Activity Analysis and Catalytic Essential Residues Identification of Brucella abortus Malate Dehydrogenase

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    Xiangan Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malate dehydrogenase (MDH plays important metabolic roles in bacteria. In this study, the recombinant MDH protein (His-MDH of Brucella abortus was purified and its ability to catalyze the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA to L-malate (hereon referred to as MDH activity was analyzed. Michaelis Constant (Km and Maximum Reaction Velocity (Vmax of the reaction were determined to be 6.45×10−3 M and 0.87 mM L−1 min−1, respectively. In vitro studies showed that His-MDH exhibited maximal MDH activity in pH 6.0 reaction buffer at 40°C. The enzymatic activity was 100%, 60%, and 40% inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+, respectively. In addition, six amino acids in the MDH were mutated to investigate their roles in the enzymatic activity. The results showed that the substitutions of amino acids Arg 89, Asp 149, Arg 152, His 176, or Thr 231 almost abolished the activity of His-MDH. The present study will help to understand MDH’s roles in B. abortus metabolism.

  16. Enzymatic activity analysis and catalytic essential residues identification of Brucella abortus malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiangan; Tong, Yongliang; Tian, Mingxing; Zhang, Yuxi; Sun, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shaohui; Qiu, Xusheng; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) plays important metabolic roles in bacteria. In this study, the recombinant MDH protein (His-MDH) of Brucella abortus was purified and its ability to catalyze the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to L-malate (hereon referred to as MDH activity) was analyzed. Michaelis Constant (Km) and Maximum Reaction Velocity (Vmax) of the reaction were determined to be 6.45 × 10(-3) M and 0.87 mM L(-1)min(-1), respectively. In vitro studies showed that His-MDH exhibited maximal MDH activity in pH 6.0 reaction buffer at 40°C. The enzymatic activity was 100%, 60%, and 40% inhibited by Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Pb(2+), respectively. In addition, six amino acids in the MDH were mutated to investigate their roles in the enzymatic activity. The results showed that the substitutions of amino acids Arg 89, Asp 149, Arg 152, His 176, or Thr 231 almost abolished the activity of His-MDH. The present study will help to understand MDH's roles in B. abortus metabolism.

  17. An evaluation of ELISA using recombinant Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) for bovine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-04-01

    To date, detection of antibodies against the lipopolysaccharide portion is the backbone of most serodiagnostic methods for brucellosis screening. However this pose a risk for false positive reactions related to other pathogens especially that of Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 which has the most prominent cross reactivity with Brucella spp. In this study, cloning and expression of Brucella abortus bacterioferritin (Bfr) was accomplished by PCR amplification into an expression vector system, and purification of a recombinant B. abortus Bfr (rBfr). The immunogenicity of rBfr was confirmed by Western blot with Brucella-positive bovine serum. To determine whether rBfr has a potential benefit for use in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis, rBfr-based ELISA was performed. Interestingly, rBfr was able to detect anti-Brucella antibodies in positive sera in a dependent manner of TAT values but did not show an immunoreaction with negative samples. Particularly, average OD492 values at the lowest, medium and highest TAT titer levels were 1.4, 2.2 and 2.6-fold increase compared with the cutoff value, respectively. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of rBfr showed 89.09%, 93.6% and 85.33%, respectively. These findings suggest that rBfr might be a good candidate for serological diagnosis development of bovine brucellosis.

  18. Penicillin kills Chlamydia following the fusion of bacteria with lysosomes and prevents genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an 'inclusion'. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFNγ or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. β-Lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

  19. Quantitative Detection of Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum by High-Sensitivity Real-Time PCR Reveals High Prevalence of Vaginal Infection in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    DeGraves, Fred J.; Gao, Dongya; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Schlapp, Tobias; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Bovine vaginal cytobrush specimens were analyzed for the presence of Chlamydia spp. by a high-sensitivity, high-specificity quantitative PCR. The 53% prevalence of low-level Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum genital infection detected in virgin heifers suggests predominantely extragenital transmission of Chlamydia in cattle and conforms to the high seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia antibodies.

  20. Roles of bovine Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis in human preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis are intracellular bacteria associated with human miscarriage. We investigated their role in human preterm birth. Whereas presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in genital tract was associated with human preterm birth, Waddlia was not, despite being present in women's genital tracts.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections during Pregnancy: Consequences for pregnancy outcome and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Chlamydia is responsible for a significant proportion of genitourinary tract infections in adult males and females, but like STIs in general, it is primarily a woman’s health care issue sin

  2. Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: role of TLRs, NLRs, and the inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2012-11-01

    Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against C. pneumoniae infection.

  3. Enhanced chlamydia surveillance in New South Wales (Australia) prisons, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Garry; Boonwaat, Leng; Douglas, Jenny; Awofeso, Niyi

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia is currently the most frequently notified infectious disease in New South Wales (NSW). Published articles relating to chlamydia prevalence in Australian prison settings are sparse, but studies from the United Kingdom and the United States indicate relatively high chlamydia prevalence among young incarcerated individuals. This article reports on findings from an enhanced chlamydia surveillance programme in NSW prisons between 2005 and 2007. The authors report a relatively low chlamydia prevalence among the general population of NSW prisoners (compared with figures from the United Kingdom and United States), which by the end of 2007 was 4%. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for the NSW prison population during the review period was about four times that of the general NSW community - 716/100,000 during the review period compared with 175/100,000 in the NSW general community. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for Aboriginal prisoners during the review period was 1262/100,000, compared with 1470/100,000 in the general Australian Aboriginal population. The authors grapple with the dilemma of expanding chlamydia screening and treatment services for the sexual health benefits of prison populations with static prison health budgets on one hand, and limited evidence of cost-effectiveness of such an expensive intervention on the other.

  4. Two more species of Chlamydia-does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-02-01

    The recent description of Chlamydia (C.) avium and C. gallinacea as new species of the reunited genus Chlamydia can be expected to have implications on the perception of avian chlamydiosis. We discuss possible effects on epidemiology, diagnosis and our understanding of aetiopathogenesis resulting from this discovery.

  5. High seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.

  6. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K;

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...

  7. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  8. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  9. Differential Translocation of Host Cellular Materials into the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Lumen during Chemical Fixation.

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    Marcela Kokes

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates host cellular pathways to ensure its proliferation and survival. Translocation of host materials into the pathogenic vacuole (termed 'inclusion' may facilitate nutrient acquisition and various organelles have been observed within the inclusion, including lipid droplets, peroxisomes, multivesicular body components, and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. However, few of these processes have been documented in living cells. Here, we survey the localization of a broad panel of subcellular elements and find ER, mitochondria, and inclusion membranes within the inclusion lumen of fixed cells. However, we see little evidence of intraluminal localization of these organelles in live inclusions. Using time-lapse video microscopy we document ER marker translocation into the inclusion lumen during chemical fixation. These intra-inclusion ER elements resist a variety of post-fixation manipulations and are detectable via immunofluorescence microscopy. We speculate that the localization of a subset of organelles may be exaggerated during fixation. Finally, we find similar structures within the pathogenic vacuole of Coxiella burnetti infected cells, suggesting that fixation-induced translocation of cellular materials may occur into the vacuole of a range of intracellular pathogens.

  10. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  11. Risk profile for Chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y; Morse, D L; Lawrence, C E; Murphy, D; Hipp, S

    1993-02-01

    The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. Overall Chlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors for Chlamydia infection included: age oral contraceptives (odds ratio 2.0), a history of having more than one sexual partner (odds ratio 1.7) and, in one clinic where data was available, inflammation on Papanicolaou smears (odds ratio 2.1). These data helped secure funding for Chlamydia preventive services and permitted development of a risk profile (score card) of Chlamydia for each age group. Use of such a score card can be most helpful in assigning which patients could benefit most from Chlamydia cultures, especially in those areas where testing is unavailable or too costly to screen all patients.

  12. Evidence of a conserved role for Chlamydia HtrA in the replication phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pooja; De Boer, Leonore; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina May

    2014-08-01

    Identification of the HtrA inhibitor JO146 previously enabled us to demonstrate an essential function for HtrA during the mid-replicative phase of the Chlamydia trachomatis developmental cycle. Here we extend our investigations to other members of the Chlamydia genus. C. trachomatis isolates with distinct replicative phase growth kinetics showed significant loss of viable infectious progeny after HtrA was inhibited during the replicative phase. Mid-replicative phase addition of JO146 was also significantly detrimental to Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia cavie. These data combined indicate that HtrA has a conserved critical role during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle.

  13. Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report

    OpenAIRE

    Balfe, Myles; Brugha, Ruairi; O'Connell, Emer; Vaughan, Deirdre; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Coleman, Claire; Conroy, Ronán; Cormican, Martin; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Fleming, Catherine; McGee, Hannah; Murphy, Andrew; Ni Fhoghlu, Grainne; O'Neill, Ciaran; Gillespie, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of those transmitting and contracting it: most cases remain undetected and...

  14. TLR9 is required for MAPK/NF-κB activation but does not cooperate with TLR2 or TLR6 to induce host resistance to Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Túlio; Campos, Priscila Carneiro; Pereira, Guilherme de Sousa; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Splitter, Gary; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2016-05-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes a zoonosis of worldwide occurrence, leading to undulant fever in humans and abortion in domestic animals. B. abortus is recognized by several pattern-recognition receptors triggering pathways during the host innate immune response. Therefore, here, we determined the cooperative role of TLR9 with TLR2 or TLR6 receptors in sensing Brucella Furthermore, we deciphered the host innate immune response against B. abortus or its DNA, emphasizing the role of TLR9-MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. TLR9 is required for the initial host control of B. abortus, but this TLR was dispensable after 6 wk of infection. The susceptibility of TLR9(-/-)-infected animals to Brucella paralleled with lower levels of IFN-γ produced by mouse splenocytes stimulated with this pathogen compared with wild-type cells. However, no apparent cooperative interplay was observed between TLR2-TLR9 or TLR6-TLR9 receptors to control infection. Moreover, B. abortus or its DNA induced activation of MAPK/NF-κB pathways and production of IL-12 and TNF-α by macrophages partially dependent on TLR9 but completely dependent on MyD88. In addition, B. abortus-derived CpG oligonucleotides required TLR9 to promote IL-12 and TNF-α production by macrophages. By confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that TLR9 redistributed and colocalized with lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 upon Brucella infection. Thus, B. abortus induced TLR9 traffic, leading to cell signaling activation and IL-12 and TNF-α production. Although TLR9 recognized Brucella CpG motifs, our results suggest a new pathway of B. abortus DNA-activating macrophages independent of TLR9.

  15. Genotipos de aislados de campo de Brucella abortus de distintas regiones geográficas de Chile Genotypes of Brucella abortus field isolates from different geographical regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mancilla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis bovina es una enfermedad zoonótica, endémica de alto impacto económico. La identificación genética de las cepas prevalentes de Brucella abortus, el patógeno, es clave para establecer estrategias epidemiológicas de control de la enfermedad. La secuencia de inserción IS711 ha sido utilizada como un marcador genético para diferenciar entre especies de Brucella, miembros de una misma especie y dentro de un mismo biovar. Hemos analizado los perfiles de IS711-RFLP de 46 aislados de B. abortus, recolectados durante el periodo 1997-2005, provenientes de 16 áreas geográficas diferentes de Chile. Todos los aislados fueron previamente identificados como B. abortus biovar 1, utilizando las técnicas convencionales. De estos, el 87% compartieron el mismo perfil de IS711-RFLP, mientras que el 8,7% correspondió al patrón de la cepa vacuna RB51. En este trabajo se informa el hallazgo de dos cepas indistinguibles por PCR AMOS con perfiles nuevos de IS711-RFLP, no reportados previamente.Bovine brucellosis is an endemic, zoonotic disease of high economic impact. The genetic identification of the prevalent Brucella abortus strains, the pathogen, is key to pursue further epidemiological strategies for disease control. The insertion sequence IS711 has been used as genetic marker to differentiate among Brucella species, members of the same specie and within the same biovar. We have analyzed the IS711-RFLP pattern for 46 B. abortus isolates, collected during the period of 1997-2005 from 16 different geographical areas of Chile. All isolates were previously identified by conventional techniques as B. abortus biovar 1. Of these, 87% sharedthesame IS711 DNA profile, while an 8.7 % corresponded to the pattern of RB51 vaccine strain. We report the finding of two new strains, not differentiated by AMOS PCR, which showed unreported patterns of IS711-RFLP.

  16. Adrenal steroids modulate the immune response during Brucella abortus infection by a mechanism that depends on the regulation of cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilini, María Virginia; Velásquez, Lis Noelia; Barrionuevo, Paula; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Human brucellosis is a protean disease with a diversity of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from infection with Brucella species. Recent reports suggest a cross-regulation between adrenal steroids (cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA]) and the immune system. Monocytes and macrophages are the main replication niche for Brucella. Therefore, we investigated the role of adrenal hormones on the modulation of the immune response mediated by macrophages in B. abortus infection. Cortisol treatment during B. abortus infection significantly inhibits cytokine, chemokine, and MMP-9 secretion. In contrast, DHEA treatment had no effect. However, DHEA treatment increases the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD86), the adhesion molecule CD54, and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II expression on the surface of B. abortus-infected monocytes. It is known that B. abortus infection inhibits MHC-I and MHC-II expression induced by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) treatment. DHEA reverses B. abortus downmodulation of the MHC-I and -II expression induced by IFN-γ. Taken together, our data indicate that DHEA immune intervention may positively affect monocyte activity during B. abortus infection.

  17. The effects of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A) on phagocytosis and intracellular signaling in Brucella abortus infected RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2015-06-01

    This study indicated that RGSF-A caused a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of Brucella abortus in RGSF-A-treated cells. Furthermore, a decline in the intensity of F-actin fluorescence was observed in RGSF-A-treated cells compared with untreated B. abortus-infected cells. In addition, an evaluation of phagocytic signaling proteins by Western blot analysis revealed an apparent reduction of ERK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGSF-A-treated cells compared with the control. Upon intracellular trafficking of the pathogen, a higher number of B. abortus-containing phagosomes colocalized with LAMP-1 in RGSF-A-treated cells compared with control cells. These results strongly suggest that inhibition of B. abortus uptake could be mediated by suppression in the activation of MAPKs signaling proteins phospho-ERK 1/2, and p38 levels. On the other hand, inhibition of intracellular replication results from the enhancement of phagolysosome fusion in host macrophages. This study highlights the phagocytic and intracellular modulating effect of RGSF-A and its potential as an alternative remedy to control B. abortus infection.

  18. Protective immune-response of aluminium hydroxide gel adjuvanted phage lysate of Brucella abortus S19 in mice against direct virulent challenge with B. abortus 544.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Lata; Rawat, Mayank; Prajapati, Awadhesh; Tiwari, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Bablu; Chaturvedi, V K; Saxena, H M; Ramakrishnan, Sarvanan; Kumar, Jatin; Kerketta, Priscilla

    2015-09-01

    The prophylactic efficacies of plain and alum adsorbed lysate were evaluated by direct virulent challenge in mice model. A recently isolated brucellaphage 'ϕLd' was used for generation of lysates. Twenty four h incubated Brucella abortus S19 broth cultures standardized to contain approximately 10(8) CFU/ml were found suitable for generation of lysates. Three lysate batches produced through separate cycles did not show any significant variation with respect to protein and polysaccharide contents, endotoxin level and phage counts, indicating that compositionally stable lysate preparations can be generated through an optimized production process. Three polypeptides of ∼16, 19 and 23 kDa could be identified as immuno-dominant antigens of the lysate which induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a dose dependent manner. Results of efficacy evaluation trial confirmed dose-dependent protective potencies of lysate preparation. The lysate with an antigenic dose of 0.52 μg protein and 60 μg CHO adsorbed on aluminium gel (0.1 percent aluminium concentration) exhibited the highest protective potency which was greater than that induced by standard S19 vaccine. Phage lysate methodology provides a very viable option through which an improved immunizing preparation with all desirable traits can be developed against brucellosis, and integrated with immunization programmes in a more efficient manner.

  19. A diagnostic protocol to identify water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Manuela; Atzeni, Marcello; Calistri, Paolo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Ferri, Nicola; Marchi, Enrico; Martucciello, Alessandra; De Massis, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The use of live vaccine strain RB51 for vaccination of domestic water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) at risk of infection with Brucella abortus is permitted notwithstanding the plans for the eradication and only under strict veterinary control. The antibodies induced by RB51 vaccination are not detectable using conventional diagnostic techniques; therefore, it is necessary to have a specific diagnostic tool able to discriminate vaccinated from unvaccinated animals. The combination of a complement fixation test (CFT) with specific RB51 antigen (RB51-CFT) and a brucellin skin test has been demonstrated to be a reliable diagnostic system to identify single cattle (Bos taurus) vaccinated with RB51. So far, no data are available in the international scientific literature regarding the use of this test association in water buffalo. For this reason the suitability of this test combination has been evaluated in a water buffalo herd. One hundred twenty-seven animals farmed in a herd of Salerno province (Campania, Southern Italy), in the context of a presumptive unauthorized use of RB51 vaccine were chosen for this study. All tested animals resulted negative to Rose Bengal test (RBT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for the detection of specific antibodies against Brucella field strains. Seventy-one animals (56%) developed RB51 antigen-specific CFT (RB51-CFT) antibodies against RB51 vaccine in a first sampling, while 104 animals (82%) gave positive result to a second serum sampling conducted 11 days after the intradermal inoculation of the RB51 brucellin. One hundred and seven animals (84%) showed a positive reaction to the RB51-CFT in at least 1 sampling, while 111 animals (87%) resulted positive to the RB51 brucellin skin test. Thus, analysing the results of the 3 testing in parallel, 119 animals (94%) were positive to at least 1 of the performed tests. The results suggest that the use in parallel of the RB51 brucellin skin test with RB51-CFT may represent a reliable

  20. Brucella abortus Invasion of Osteocytes Modulates Connexin 43 and Integrin Expression and Induces Osteoclastogenesis via Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce Viglietti, Ayelén Ivana; Arriola Benitez, Paula Constanza; Gentilini, María Virginia; Velásquez, Lis Noelia; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo Hernán; Delpino, María Victoria

    2015-10-12

    Osteoarticular brucellosis is the most common localization of human active disease. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells of bone. They secrete factors that regulate the differentiation of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts during bone remodeling. The aim of this study is to determine if Brucella abortus infection modifies osteocyte function. Our results indicate that B. abortus infection induced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL), proinflammatory cytokines, and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) secretion by osteocytes. In addition, supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes induced bone marrow-derived monocytes (BMM) to undergo osteoclastogenesis. Using neutralizing antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL's decoy receptor, we determined that TNF-α and RANKL are involved in osteoclastogenesis induced by supernatants from B. abortus-infected osteocytes. Connexin 43 (Cx43) and the integrins E11/gp38, integrin-α, integrin-β, and CD44 are involved in cell-cell interactions necessary for osteocyte survival. B. abortus infection inhibited the expression of Cx43 but did not modify the expression of integrins. Yet the expression of both Cx43 and integrins was inhibited by supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages. B. abortus infection was not capable of inducing osteocyte apoptosis. However, supernatants from B. abortus-infected macrophages induced osteocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results indicate that B. abortus infection could alter osteocyte function, contributing to bone damage.

  1. Detecção de Brucella abortus em tecidos bovinos utilizando ensaios de PCR e qPCR¹

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrielen A.B. Caitano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no presente estudo avaliar as técnicas reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e PCR em Tempo Real (qPCR para detectar Brucella abortus, a partir de tecidos bovinos com lesões sugestivas de brucelose. Para isto, 21 fragmentos de tecidos bovinos coletados em abatedouros de Mato Grosso do Sul foram processados e submetidos ao cultivo microbiológico e extração do DNA genômico para realização das reações de PCR e qPCR. No cultivo microbiológico, oito amostras apresentaram crescimento bacteriano e cinco foram confirmadas como B. abortus por PCR. Diretamente das amostras de tecido, DNA do gênero Brucella (oligonucleotídeos IS711 foi detectado em 13 (61,9% amostras de tecido e 17 (81% amostras de homogeneizado. Já com os oligonucleotídeos espécie-específicos BruAb2_0168F e BruAb2_0168R, 14 (66% amostras de tecido e 18 (85,7% amostras de homogeneizado foram amplificadas. Seis amostras positivas na PCR espécie-específica foram sequenciadas e o best hit na análise BLASTn foi B. abortus. Na qPCR, 21 (100% amostras de tecidos e 19 (90,5% amostras de homogeneizado foram positivas para B. abortus. Dez amostras de DNA de sangue bovino de rebanho certificado livre foram utilizadas como controle negativo nas análises de PCR e qPCR utilizando-se os oligonucleotídeos BruAb2_0168F e BruAb2_0168R. Na PCR nenhuma amostra amplificou, enquanto que na qPCR 2 (20% amplificaram. Conclui-se que as duas técnicas detectam a presença de B. abortus diretamente de tecidos e homogeneizados, porém a qPCR apresentou maior sensibilidade. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a qPCR pode representar uma alternativa rápida e precisa para a detecção de B. abortus diretamente de tecidos, e ser utilizada em programas de vigilância sanitária, por apresentar sensibilidade e especificidade satisfatórias.

  2. An ecological perspective on the changing face of Brucella abortus in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Paul C.; Maichak, Eric J.; Brennan, Angela; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Henningsen, John C.; Luikart, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    After a hiatus during the 1990s, outbreaks of Brucella abortus in cattle are occurring more frequently in some of the western states of the United States, namely, Montana, Wyoming and Idaho. This increase is coincident with increasing brucellosis seroprevalence in elk (Cervus elaphus), which is correlated with elk density. Vaccines are a seductive solution, but their use in wildlife systems remains limited by logistical, financial, and scientific constraints. Cattle vaccination is ongoing in the region. Livestock regulations, however, tend to be based on serological tests that test for previous exposure and available vaccines do not protect against seroconversion. The authors review recent ecological studies of brucellosis, with particular emphasis on the Greater Yellowstone Area, and highlight the management options and implications of this work, including the potential utility of habitat modifications and targeted hunts, as well as scavengers and predators. Finally, the authors discuss future research directions that will help us to understand and manage brucellosis in wildlife.

  3. Brucella abortus S19 vaccine protects dairy cattle against natural infection with Brucella melitensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, Michael; Bardenstein, Svetlana; Keningswald, Gaby; Banai, Menachem

    2016-11-21

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that can cause severe illness in humans and considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Although small ruminants are the preferential host for Brucella melitensis, this pathogen has emerged as a cause for Brucella outbreaks in cattle. S19 vaccination is implemented in many countries where B. abortus is endemic but its effectiveness against B. melitensis has not been validated. Here we show that vaccine effectiveness in preventing disease transmission between vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, as determined by seroconversion, was 87.2% (95% CI 69.5-94.6%). Furthermore, vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for abortion. Together, our data emphasize the role S19 vaccination could play in preventing B. melitensis outbreaks in areas where this pathogen is prevalent in small ruminant populations.

  4. Milk Ring Test for spot identification of Brucella abortus infection in single cow herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najibullah Mohamand

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, milk samples were collected from 109 dairy cows to detect antibodies against Brucella (B. using Milk Ring Test (MRT. Overall, 18.35% (n=20/109 of the milk samples were positive by MRT. The cows were divided into three groups based on lactation number viz., 1st, 2nd to 4th and ≥5th lactations; the prevalence of brucellosis in the groups were found to be 0.92% (n=1/109, 15.60% (n=17/109 and 1.83% (n=2/109, respectively. Considering simplicity and cost effectiveness, the MRT can be used for the preliminary screening of B. abortus infection especially in single cow herds.

  5. Brucella abortus Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773

  6. Evaluation of Brucella abortus strain RB51 and strain 19 in pronghorn antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzer, P.H.; Smith, J.; Roffe, T.; Kreeger, T.; Edwards, J.; Davis, D.

    2002-01-01

    Free-roaming elk and bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area remain the only wildlife reservoirs for Brucella abortus in the United States, and the large number of animals and a lack of holding facilities make it unreasonable to individually vaccinate each animal. Therefore, oral delivery is being proposed as a possible option to vaccinate these wild ungulates. One of the main problems associated with oral vaccination is the potential exposure of nontarget species to the vaccines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of two Brucella vaccines, strain 19 (S19) and the rough strain RB51 (SRB51), in pregnant pronghorn antelope. We conclude that S19 and SRB51 rarely colonize maternal and fetal tissues of pregnant pronghorn and were not associated with fetal death. Oral delivery of either vaccine at this dose appears to be nonhazardous to pregnant pronghorn.

  7. First report of orchitis in man caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Román, Jorge; Saegerman, Claude; Minda-Aluisa, Elizabeth; Benítez-Ortíz, Washington; Brandt, Jef; Douce, Richard

    2012-09-01

    We present a 44-year-old man from a rural community in northern Ecuador who worked on a cattle farm where he was involved with primary veterinary care, including assistance during births (or calving) and placenta retention and artificial insemination, with minimal precautions. In September of 2009, quite abruptly, he developed asthenia and hypersomnia without any apparent cause or symptoms like fever, chills, or night sweats. On November 14, 2009, he suffered from pain and edema in the right testicle that coincided with pain in the abdomen. Clinical, serological, and bacteriological investigations confirmed the first case of unilateral orchitis in man in Ecuador caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1. Because brucellosis is a neglected disease, special attention should be given to it in the training of medical and veterinary students.

  8. Serology for Brucella abortus in cart horses from an urban area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.A.P. Antunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a infecção por Brucella abortus em cavalos de carroça de Curitiba e São José dos Pinhais-PR. Um total de 123 amostras foi submetido ao teste do antígeno tamponado acidificado (ATA, soroaglutinação lenta em tubos (SAL e prova do 2-mercaptoetanol (2-ME para confirmação dos resultados. Oito (6,5% equinos foram positivos para o ATA e um animal permaneceu positivo ao teste confirmatório. Existem evidências da presença de brucelose entre os cavalos de carroça.

  9. Crystal structure of cyclic nucleotide-binding-like protein from Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zheng; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Jing; Ke, Yuehua; Li, Xuemei; Chen, Zeliang; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2015-12-25

    The cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB)-like protein (CNB-L) from Brucella abortus shares sequence homology with CNB domain-containing proteins. We determined the crystal structure of CNB-L at 2.0 Å resolution in the absence of its C-terminal helix and nucleotide. The 3D structure of CNB-L is in a two-fold symmetric form. Each protomer shows high structure similarity to that of cGMP-binding domain-containing proteins, and likely mimics their nucleotide-free conformation. A key residue, Glu17, mediates the dimerization and prevents binding of cNMP to the canonical ligand-pocket. The structurally observed dimer of CNB-L is stable in solution, and thus is likely to be biologically relevant.

  10. Association between chlamydia pneumoniae infection and carotid atherosclerotic plaques

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    Fereshteh Ashtari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumonia infection and atherosclerosis. This study was designed to investigate the association between this organism and atherosclerotic plaque formation in right and left common carotid arteries (CCAs and extracranial portions of internal carotid arteries (ICAs.
    METHODS: Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (IgA and IgG were measured and compared in 42 patients who had plaque in at least one CCA or ICA (detected by duplex ultrasound and 82 patients without any plaque in these arteries. Cp.IgG and Cp.IgA titers over 1.10 ISR were defined to be positive.
    RESULTS: We found that 6.1% of control subjects and 16.7% of cases were Cp.IgA seropositive. The difference between these two groups was prominent but was not statistically significant (P = 0.104. 4.2% of females without atherosclerotic plaque and 31.6% of females with plaque were Cp.IgA seropositive. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.005. There was no significant difference in seropositivity of Cp.IgG between case and control subjects or in male and female groups with or without plaque.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cp.IgA is a predictor of atherosclerosis in women, but Cp.IgG has no predictive value for plaque formation in either gender.
    KEY WORDS: Atherosclerotic plaque, Chlamydia pneumoniae, serum antibody.

  11. Correlation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with primary biliary cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Ying Liu; An-Mei Deng; Jian Zhang; Ye Zhou; Ding-Kang Yao; Xiao-Qing Tu; Lie-Ying Fan; Ren-Qian Zhong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC).METHODS: Cpn IgG and IgM were determined by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 41 well-established PBC patients and two race-matched control groups (posthepatitis cirrhosis, n = 70; healthy controls, n = 57).RESULTS: The mean level and seroprevalence of Cpn IgG in PBC group and post-hepatitis cirrhosis (PHC) group were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (46.8±43.4 RU/mL, 49.5±45.2 RU/mL vs28.3±32.7 RU/mL;68.3%, 71.4%, 42.1%, respectively; P<0.05). There was a remarkably elevated seroprevalence of Cpn IgM in patients with PBC (22.0%) compared to the PHC and healthy control (HC) groups. For the PBC patients versus the HCs, the odds ratios (ORs) of the presence of Cpn IgG and IgM were 2.7 (95% CI 0.9-6.1) and 5.1 (95% CI 1.4-18.5), respectively. Though there was no correlation in the level of Cpn IgG with total IgG in sera of patients with PBC (r = -0.857, P = 0.344>0.05), Cpn IgM was related with the abnormally high concentrations of total IgM in PBC group.CONCLUSION: The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae may be a triggering agent or even a causative agent in PBC, but suggest that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection probably contributes to the high level of IgM present in most patients with PBC.

  12. Chlamydia screening and positivity in juvenile detention centers, United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterwhite, Catherine Lindsey; Newman, Daniel; Collins, Dayne; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 2.9 million new chlamydia infections occur in the United States each year. Among women, chlamydia can lead to serious adverse outcomes, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Chlamydia prevalence is highest among females aged 15-19 years. Despite long-standing recommendations directed at young, sexually active females, screening remains sub-optimal. Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) are uniquely situated to screen and treat high-risk adolescents. From 2009-2011, performance measure data on chlamydia screening coverage (proportion of eligible females screened) and positivity (proportion of females tested who were positive) were available from 126 geographically-dispersed JDCs in the United States. These facilities reported screening 55.2% of females entering the facilities (149,923), with a facility-specific median of 66.4% (range: 0-100%). Almost half (44.4%) of facilities had screening coverage levels of 75-100%. This screening resulted in the detection of 12,305 chlamydial infections, for an overall positivity of 14.7% (facility-specific median = 14.9%, range: 0-36.9%). In linear regression analysis, chlamydia positivity was inversely associated with screening coverage: as coverage increased, positivity decreased. The burden of chlamydia in JDCs is substantial; facilities should continue to deliver recommended chlamydia screening and treatment to females and identify mechanisms to increase coverage.

  13. Comparing two definitions of ethnicity for identifying young persons at risk for chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, A; Koedijk, F D H; Op De Coul, E L M; Götz, H M; van der Sande, M A B; Van Den Broek, I V F

    2012-05-01

    Ethnic disparities in chlamydia infections in The Netherlands were assessed, in order to compare two definitions of ethnicity: ethnicity based on country of birth and self-defined ethnicity. Chlamydia positivity in persons aged 16-29 years was investigated using data from the first round of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI, 2008-2009) and surveillance data from STI centres (2009). Logistic regression modelling showed that being an immigrant was associated with chlamydia positivity in both CSI [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2·3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0-2·6] and STI centres (aOR 1·4, 95% CI 1·3-1·5). In both settings, 60% of immigrants defined themselves as Dutch. Despite the difference, classification by self-defined ethnicity resulted in similar associations between (non-Dutch) ethnicity and chlamydia positivity. However, ethnicity based on country of birth explained variation in chlamydia positivity better, and is objective and constant over time and therefore more useful for identifying young persons at higher risk for chlamydia infection.

  14. Efficacy of single calfhood vaccination of elk with Brucella abortus strain 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Jones, L.C.; Coffin, K.; Drew, M.L.; Sweeney, Steven J.; Hagius, S.D.; Elzer, P.H.; Davis, D.

    2004-01-01

    Brucellosis has been eradicated from cattle in the states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho, USA. However, free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) that use feedgrounds in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks still have high seroprevalence to the disease and have caused loss of brucellosis-free status in Wyoming. Management tools to control or eliminate the disease are limited; however, wildlife vaccination is among the methods currently used by wildlife managers in Wyoming. We conducted a controlled challenge study of single calfhood vaccination. Elk calves, caught in January and February of 1999 and 2000 and acclimated to captivity for 3 weeks, were randomly assigned to control or vaccinate groups. The vaccinate groups received Brucetta abortus vaccine strain 19 (S19) by hand-delivered intramuscular injection. Calves were raised to adulthood and bred at either 2.5 or 3.5 years of age for 2000 and 1999 captures, respectively. Eighty-nine (44 controls, 45 vaccinates) pregnant elk entered the challenge portion of the study. We challenged elk at mid-gestation with pathogenic B. abortus strain 2308 by intraconjunctival instillation. Abortion occurred in significantly more (P = 0.002) controls (42; 93%) than vaccinates (32; 71%), and vaccine protected 25% of the vaccinate group. We used Brucella culture of fetus/calf tissues to determine the efficacy of vaccination for preventing infection, and we found that the number of infected fetuses/calves did not differ between controls and vaccinates (P = 0.14). Based on these data, single calfhood vaccination with S19 has low efficacy, will likely have only little to moderate effect on Brucella prevalence in elk, and is unlikely to eradicate the disease in wildlife of the GYA.

  15. DETECCION DE Brucella abortus POR PCR EN MUESTRAS DE SANGRE Y LECHE DE VACUNOS

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    Xiomara Mosquera C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el uso de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR para la detección de Brucella abortus en muestras de sangre y leche de vacunos. Materiales y métodos. Este estudio de tipo descriptivo fue realizado durante los años 2004 y 2005. Se analizaron 136 animales de tres fincas localizadas en el municipio de Durania, Norte de Santander, Colombia. Se evaluó la presencia de anticuerpos en la leche mediante la prueba del anillo (PAL. Se amplificó el fragmento de 223pb del gen BCSP31. Se emplearon los cebadores B4 y B5 de la región interna de la secuencia del gen BCSP31 (GenBank, número M20404. Resultados. En aquellos animales positivos se obtuvo una muestra de sangre y leche para el análisis por PCR, la sangre no fue analizada por serología. Se evaluaron diferentes métodos de extracción de ADN. Se encontró que un 13.2% (18/136 de las muestras de leche fueron positivas a la PAL. Se analizaron 33 muestras de leche negativas por PAL de las cuales el 30.3% (10/33 resultaron positivas por PCR. Al analizar las muestras de sangre de los animales positivos por PAL el 94.1% (16/17 fueron positivas por PCR, mientras que el 47% (8/17 de las muestras de leche positivas por PAL, fueron positivas por PCR. Conclusiones. Se demostró la amplificación de un fragmento de ADN de Brucella abortus en muestras de sangre y leche de vacunos. Los resultados preliminares demostraron que es posible usar PCR como prueba diagnóstica de brucelosis en Colombia.

  16. The role of NLRP3 and AIM2 in inflammasome activation during Brucella abortus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R.; Miraglia, Maria Cruz; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is essential for detection and elimination of bacterial pathogens. Upon inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature forms IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, and the cell undergoes inflammatory death termed pyroptosis. Here we reviewed recent findings demonstrating that Brucella abortus ligands activate NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes which leads to control of infection. This protective effect is due to inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than cell death. Brucella DNA is sensed by AIM2 and bacteria induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is detected by NLRP3. However, deregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production can lead to immunopathology. Nervous system invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder termed neurobrucellosis. Herein we discuss the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in glial cells infected with B. abortus. Our results demonstrate that the ASC inflammasome is indispensable for inducing the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β upon infection of astrocytes and microglia with Brucella. Moreover, our results demonstrate that secretion of IL-1β by Brucella-infected glial cells depends on NLRP3 and AIM2 and leads to neurobrucellosis. Further, the inhibition of the host cell inflammasome as an immune evasion strategy has been described for bacterial pathogens. We discuss here that the bacterial type IV secretion system VirB is required for inflammasome activation in host cells during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes mainly NLRP3 and AIM2 that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response. PMID:27405866

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the Brucella abortus BvrR/BvrS two-component regulatory system.

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    Cristina Viadas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The two-component BvrR/BvrS system is essential for Brucella abortus virulence. It was shown previously that its dysfunction alters the expression of some major outer membrane proteins and the pattern of lipid A acylation. To determine the genes regulated by BvrR/BvrS, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis using B. abortus RNA obtained from wild type and bvrR mutant cells grown in the same conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 127 differentially expressed genes were found: 83 were over expressed and 44 were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Two operons, the phosphotransferase system and the maltose transport system, were down-regulated. Several genes involved in cell envelope or outer membrane biogenesis were differentially expressed: genes for outer membrane proteins (omp25a, omp25d, lipoproteins, LPS and fatty acid biosynthesis, stress response proteins, chaperones, flagellar genes, and twelve genes encoding ABC transport systems. Ten genes related with carbon metabolism (pckA and fumB among others were up-regulated in the bvrR mutant, and denitrification genes (nirK, norC and nosZ were also regulated. Notably, seven transcriptional regulators were affected, including VjbR, ExoR and OmpR that were less expressed in the bvrR mutant. Finally, the expression of eleven genes which have been previously related with Brucella virulence was also altered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: All these data corroborate the impact of BvrR/BvrS on cell envelope modulation, confirm that this system controls the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and suggest a cross-talk among some regulators to adjust the Brucella physiology to the shift expected to occur during the transit from the extracellular to the intracellular niche.

  18. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul;

    1996-01-01

    (VD) and actual symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis. EIA positive specimens were confirmed by immunofluorescent microscopy. The investigation comprised 831 men and 80 women (17-26 years). The prevalence was 5.7% (95% confidence limits 4.2-7.4%) and 15% (8-25%) for men and women, respectively (p ... among Chlamydia positive men was 6. The frequency of earlier VD was 7.5% and 10% among men and women, respectively. Treatment with tetracycline was effective, which makes control of eradication unnecessary. We conclude that genital chlamydial infection among young asymptomatic people is common...

  19. Chlamydia in women: a case for more action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-19

    The 1985 Communicable Disease Surveillance Center figures for sexually transmitted diseases document over 14,000 confirmed cases of genital chlamydial infection in women. Yet, this figure seriously underestimates the size of the problem as many chlamydial infections are silent. The mainstay of diagnosis until recently has been isolation of C. trachomatis in cell culture, which is time consuming, technically demanding, expensive, and available in only a few centers. A firm diagnosis of chlamydial infection cannot be based on serology alone. Antibodies can be detected in 78-100% of womn with C. trachomatis in the cervix, but in those who are culture negative 31-87% also will have antibodies. More support is given to the diagnosis by demonstration of a rising titre of IgG antibody or by detection of IgM, but because of the late presentation of most women with chlamydia this is seldom possible. Newer tests include direct immunofluorescence statining of genital secretions which is rapid and simple. Results of this method compare favorably with those of cell culture, but screening large numbers of smears is expensive and tedious. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays also give good results. C trachomatis is a well known cause of cervicitis and salpingitis and is consequently a major factor in infertility. The frequency of chlamydial infection is influenced by sexual activity and promiscuity, but the effect of contraceptive choice is more difficult to determine. An IUD can provide a nidus for many infections, but the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) is more controversial. Instrumentation of the endocervical canal provides a route for introduction of infection, which is therefore a frequent and important complication of induced abortion. Westergaard et al. in a study of women having 1st trimester abortions found that 10% had symptomless cervical chlamydia; postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease developed in 28% of these patients by comparison with 10% in culture

  20. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

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    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  1. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  2. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment: Systematic review and retrospective cohort analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella; Yu, B. Nancy; Frølund, Maria; Benfield, Thomas; Blanchard, James; Westh, Henrik; Ward, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment cases of PID at 12-months per 100,000 women in the untreated setting and 13–184 cases of PID per 100,000 tested women in the presence of testing and treatment. Conclusion Testing and treating chlamydia reduced the PEF of chlamydia on PID by 65% compared to the untreated setting. But in the presence of testing and treatment over 90% of PID could not be attributed to a baseline chlamydia infection. More information is needed about the aetiology of PID to develop effective strategies for improving the reproductive health of women. PMID:28199392

  3. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Andrea G.; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Baldi, Pablo C.

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site. PMID:26448160

  4. CCL20 and Beta-Defensin 2 Production by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in Response to Brucella abortus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielpos, M Soledad; Ferrero, Mariana C; Fernández, Andrea G; Bonetto, Josefina; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-01-01

    Both CCL20 and human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) interact with the same membrane receptor and display chemotactic and antimicrobial activities. They are produced by airway epithelia in response to infectious agents and proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas Brucella spp. can infect humans through inhalation, their ability to induce CCL20 and hBD2 in lung cells is unknown. Here we show that B. abortus induces CCL20 expression in human alveolar (A549) or bronchial (Calu-6) epithelial cell lines, primary alveolar epithelial cells, primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages and the monocytic cell line THP-1. CCL20 expression was mainly mediated by JNK1/2 and NF-kB in both Calu-6 and THP-1 cells. CCL20 secretion was markedly induced in A549, Calu-6 and THP-1 cells by heat-killed B. abortus or a model Brucella lipoprotein (L-Omp19) but not by the B. abortus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Accordingly, CCL20 production by B. abortus-infected cells was strongly TLR2-dependent. Whereas hBD2 expression was not induced by B. abortus infection, it was significantly induced in A549 cells by conditioned media from B. abortus-infected THP-1 monocytes (CMB). A similar inducing effect was observed on CCL20 secretion. Experiments using blocking agents revealed that IL-1β, but not TNF-α, was involved in the induction of hBD2 and CCL20 secretion by CMB. In the in vitro antimicrobial assay, the lethal dose (LD) 50 of CCL20 for B. abortus (>50 μg/ml) was markedly higher than that against E. coli (1.5 μg/ml) or a B. abortus mutant lacking the O polysaccharide in its LPS (8.7 ug/ml). hBD2 did not kill any of the B. abortus strains at the tested concentrations. These results show that human lung epithelial cells secrete CCL20 and hBD2 in response to B. abortus and/or to cytokines produced by infected monocytes. Whereas these molecules do not seem to exert antimicrobial activity against this pathogen, they could recruit immune cells to the infection site.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis sigma28 recognizes the fliC promoter of Escherichia coli and responds to heat shock in chlamydiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Li, Maixiang; Zhang, You-Xun

    2004-01-01

    The rpsD gene of Chlamydia trachomatis encodes the alternative sigma factor sigma28, which bears strong homology to many bacterial sigma factors, including Escherichia coli sigma8 and Bacillus subtilis sigmaB and sigmaD. Recently, a sigma28 promoter was identified upstream of the late-cycle-expressed gene hctB, which encodes the Chlamydia-histone-like protein 2 (Yu & Tan, 2003). In this study it is shown that the product of chlamydial rpsD is an E. coli sigma28 homologue. It was found that recombinant chlamydial sigma8, in combination with E. coli core RNA polymerase, initiates transcription in vitro from the E. coli sigma28-dependent promoter of fliC. It was also demonstrated that the recombinant chlamydial sigma28 does not recognize major sigma factor sigma70-consensus-like sequences in vitro. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, two rpsD transcripts were detected with 5' ends located 18 (transcript I) and 54 bp (transcript II) upstream of the translational initiation codon at 16 and 30 h post-infection. When the temperature of cultures infected with C. trachomatis was shifted from 35 to 42 degrees C, the rpsD transcript I increased dramatically. The levels of chlamydial sigma28, relative to EF-Tu, were greater throughout the exponential growth phase of the reticulate body, but lower late in the developmental cycle. These data support the hypothesis that sigma28 plays a role in the regulatory network that allows chlamydiae to survive changes in its environment, enabling it to complete its unique developmental cycle.

  6. Tissue-Resident T Cells as the Central Paradigm of Chlamydia Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond M; Brunham, Robert C

    2016-04-01

    For almost 2 decades, results from Chlamydia pathogenesis investigations have been conceptualized using a cytokine polarization narrative. Recent viral immunity studies identifying protective tissue-resident memory T cells (Trm) suggest an alternative paradigm based on localized immune networks. As Chlamydia vaccines enter the preclinical pipeline and, in the case of an attenuated trachoma vaccine, are given to human subjects, it may be useful to ask whether cytokine polarization is the appropriate framework for understanding and evaluating vaccine efficacy. In this review, we revisit C. trachomatis pathogenesis data from mice and humans using a Trm narrative and note a comfortable concordance with the Chlamydia pathogenesis literature.

  7. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  8. Reporte de primer caso humano de aislamiento y tipificación de Brucella abortus RB 51: first report in Chile Isolation and identification of Brucella abortus RB 51 in human

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    M. Villarroel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Microbiología del Hospital Base de Osorno, se aisló una cepa de Brucella sp, que posteriormente se tipificó en el Laboratorio Regional de Diagnósticos del Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero, SAG Osorno. Esta cepa fue aislada de un hemocultivo realizado a un paciente con sintomatología clínica compatible con Brucelosis. El resultado de la tipificación fue Brucella abortus RB 51, cepa vaccinal que se presumía apatógena para el hombre. Este es el primer reporte a nivel mundial de un aislamiento de B. abortus RB 51 en humanosA Brucella strain was isolated from a haemoculture of a clinically ill veterinarian practitioner, at the Laboratory of Microbiology, Hospital Base Osorno, Chile. This strain was identified as Brucella abortus RB 51 at Laboratorio de Diagnósticos from the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG, Osorno, based mainly in the following characteristics: resistence to Rifampicin, aerobic growth and the production of only rough colonies. The strain RB 51 was confirmed by PCR analysis

  9. 'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Sandra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia' and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0 (n = 55 and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3 (n = 27. Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab (p Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections.

  10. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities.

  11. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal Wareth; Murat Eravci; Christoph Weise; Uwe Roesler; Falk Melzer; Sprague, Lisa D.; Heinrich Neubauer; Jayaseelan Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with ...

  12. Characterization of the Urease Operon of Brucella abortus and Assessment of Its Role in Virulence of the Bacterium▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sangari, Félix J; Seoane, Asunción; Rodríguez, María Cruz; Agüero, Jesús; García Lobo, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    Most members of the genus Brucella show strong urease activity. However, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of Brucella infections is poorly understood. We isolated several Tn5 insertion mutants deficient in urease activity from Brucella abortus strain 2308. The mutations of most of these mutants mapped to a 5.7-kbp DNA region essential for urease activity. Sequencing of this region, designated ure1, revealed the presence of seven open reading frames corresponding to the urease struc...

  13. The alkylation response protein AidB is localized at the new poles and constriction sites in Brucella abortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotreppe Delphine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella abortus is the etiological agent of a worldwide zoonosis called brucellosis. This alpha-proteobacterium is dividing asymmetrically, and PdhS, an essential histidine kinase, was reported to be an old pole marker. Results We were interested to identify functions that could be recruited to bacterial poles. The Brucella ORFeome, a collection of cloned predicted coding sequences, was placed in fusion with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP coding sequence and screened for polar localizations in B. abortus. We report that AidB-YFP was systematically localized to the new poles and at constrictions sites in B. abortus, either in culture or inside infected HeLa cells or RAW264.7 macrophages. AidB is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACAD homolog, similar to E. coli AidB, an enzyme putatively involved in destroying alkylating agents. Accordingly, a B. abortus aidB mutant is more sensitive than the wild-type strain to the lethality induced by methanesulphonic acid ethyl ester (EMS. The exposure to EMS led to a very low frequency of constriction events, suggesting that cell cycle is blocked during alkylation damage. The localization of AidB-YFP at the new poles and at constriction sites seems to be specific for this ACAD homolog since two other ACAD homologs fused to YFP did not show specific localization. The overexpression of aidB, but not the two other ACAD coding sequences, leads to multiple morphological defects. Conclusions Data reported here suggest that AidB is a marker of new poles and constriction sites, that could be considered as sites of preparation of new poles in the sibling cells originating from cell division. The possible role of AidB in the generation or the function of new poles needs further investigation.

  14. Detection of Brucella abortus DNA in aborted goats and sheep in Egypt by real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Tomaso, Herbert; Roesler, Uwe; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a major zoonoses affects wide range of domesticated as well as wild animals. Despite the eradication program of brucellosis in Egypt, the disease is still endemic among cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, and camels. Results In the present study, abortion occurred naturally among 25 animals (10 cows, 5 buffaloes, 9 Egyptian Baladi goats and 1 ewe) shared the same pasture were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). DNA of Brucella (B.) abortus was ...

  15. Chlamydia causes fragmentation of the Golgi compartment to ensure reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Dagmar; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Machuy, Nikolaus; Karlas, Alexander; Wehrens, Andrea; Siedler, Frank; Brinkmann, Volker; Meyer, Thomas F

    2009-02-05

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis survives and replicates within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion, which intercepts host exocytic pathways to obtain nutrients. Like many other intracellular pathogens, C. trachomatis has a marked requirement for host cell lipids, such as sphingolipids and cholesterol, produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. However, the mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens acquire host cell lipids are not well understood. In particular, no host cell protein responsible for transporting Golgi-derived lipids to the chlamydial inclusions has yet been identified. Here we show that Chlamydia infection in human epithelial cells induces Golgi fragmentation to generate Golgi ministacks surrounding the bacterial inclusion. Ministack formation is triggered by the proteolytic cleavage of the Golgi matrix protein golgin-84. Inhibition of golgin-84 truncation prevents Golgi fragmentation, causing a block in lipid acquisition and maturation of C. trachomatis. Golgi fragmentation by means of RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of distinct Golgi matrix proteins before infection enhances bacterial maturation. Our data functionally connect bacteria-induced golgin-84 cleavage, Golgi ministack formation, lipid acquisition and intracellular pathogen growth. We show that C. trachomatis subverts the structure and function of an entire host cell organelle for its own advantage.

  16. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis, but the signifi......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis......, but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......-based questionnaire from 1000 randomly selected Danes (control group) and 1300 young Danes with a laboratory-verified C. trachomatis infection. All respondents were between 15 and 29 years. Using univariate analysis, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) for having had concurrent partners in the group of C. trachomatis...

  17. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  18. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in rural Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkrajai, P; Thongkrajai, E; Pengsaa, P; Pakarasang, M

    1999-03-01

    A cross sectional study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among different groups of rural women in the northeast Thailand. The presence of chlamydial antigens in endocervical swabs was detected by ELISA. The prevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis were 6.8% (31/485), 5.2% (24/466) and 6.7% (12/179) in women attending antenatal, postpartum and family planning clinics respectively. The average prevalences of C. trachomatis among hospital-based and community-based women were 6.1% (67/1,103) and 3.6% (15/411) respectively. In addition, the prevalences of some pathogens including Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum and Neisseria gonorrhoea among hospital-based and community-based women were 14.2, 2.8, 0.7, 0.2 and 10.9, 5.1, 2.7, 0.0% respectively. It was concluded that C. trachomatis was a problem of woman's reproductive health.

  19. Infertility after acute salpingitis with special reference to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1983-09-01

    Of 552 women with laparoscopically verified acute salpingitis (AS), 299 were reviewed 2.5 to 7.5 years later. Cervical secretions from these women had been cultured for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. For 49 of 82 women with visually normal pelvic organs, such cultures were also performed; these women served as control subjects. In women exposing themselves to pregnancy, 50 (23.3%) of 197 AS patients and 2 (6.7%) of 30 control women were infertile for at least 1 year (P less than 0.02). After one episode of AS, women harboring chlamydiae, gonococci, both, or neither of these microorganisms in the cervix on admission seemed to have the same fertility prognosis. Infertility was correlated with the number of AS episodes, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (millimeters per hour) at admission, and the severity of the inflammatory reactions of the tubes. The use of oral contraceptives at admission was found to be a positive prognostic factor regarding fertility. Oral contraceptives might protect the patient from severe tubal inflammatory reactions.

  20. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  1. Typing discrepancy between phenotypic and molecular characterization revealing an emerging biovar 9 variant of smooth phage-resistant B. abortus strain 8416 in China

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    YaoXia eKang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated smooth colony morphology phage-resistant (SPR strain 8416 isolated from a 45-year-old cattle farm cleaner with clinical features of brucellosis in China was reported. The most unusual phenotype was its resistance to two Brucella phages Tbilisi and Weybridge, but sensitive to Berkeley 2, a pattern similar to that of B. melitensis biovar 1. VITEK 2 biochemical identification system found that both strain 8416 and B. melitensis strains shared positive ILATk, but negative in other B. abortus strains. However, routine biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of strain 8416 were most similar to that of B. abortus biovar 9 except CO2 requirement. In addition, multiple PCR molecular typing assays including AMOS-PCR, B. abortus special PCR (B-ab PCR and a novel sub-biovar typing PCR, indicated that strain 8416 may belong to either biovar 3b or 9 of B. abortus. Surprisingly, further MLVA typing results showed that strain 8416 was most closely related to B. abortus biovar 3 in the Brucella MLVA database, primarily differing in 4 out of 16 screened loci. Therefore, due to the unusual discrepancy between phenotypic (biochemical reactions and particular phage lysis profile and molecular typing characteristics, strain 8416 couldn’t be exactly classified to any of the existing B. abortus biovars and might be a new variant of B. abortus biovar 9. The present study also indicates that the present phage typing scheme for Brucella spp. is subject to variation and the routine Brucella biovar typing needs further studies.

  2. Circulating Strains of Brucella abortus in Cattle in Santo Domingo De Los Tsáchilas Province - Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hidalgo, Richar Ivan; Contreras-Zamora, Javier; Benitez Ortiz, Washington; Guerrero-Viracocha, Karina; Salcan-Guaman, Holger; Minda, Elizabeth; Ron Garrido, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    The Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas in Ecuador represents the largest informal cattle market. Because of its strategic position, cattle movement is very high and therefore we selected this region, to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp. Part of the study aimed at the isolation, biotyping, and genotyping of Brucella species from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines, using selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays, and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR, and HOOF-Prints techniques. In total, 656 animals from 12 sero-positive dairy herds and from the provincial slaughterhouse were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright's Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. Amongst these animals, 50 animals were sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were transferred to culture medium. Isolation was possible from 4 (16%) lymph nodes and 9 (36%) milk samples; out of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All four isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, showed biochemically a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  3. Proteomics-based confirmation of protein expression and correction of annotation errors in the Brucella abortus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaki Fadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis affecting domestic livestock and wild mammals, as well as humans around the globe. While conducting proteomics studies to better understand Brucella abortus virulence, we consolidated the proteomic data collected and compared it to publically available genomic data. Results The proteomic data was compiled from several independent comparative studies of Brucella abortus that used either outer membrane blebs, cytosols, or whole bacteria grown in media, as well as intracellular bacteria recovered at different times following macrophage infection. We identified a total of 621 bacterial proteins that were differentially expressed in a condition-specific manner. For 305 of these proteins we provide the first experimental evidence of their expression. Using a custom-built protein sequence database, we uncovered 7 annotation errors. We provide experimental evidence of expression of 5 genes that were originally annotated as non-expressed pseudogenes, as well as start site annotation errors for 2 other genes. Conclusions An essential element for ensuring correct functional studies is the correspondence between reported genome sequences and subsequent proteomics studies. In this study, we have used proteomics evidence to confirm expression of multiple proteins previously considered to be putative, as well as correct annotation errors in the genome of Brucella abortus strain 2308.

  4. Mutation of purD and purF genes further attenuates Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Quang Lam; Cho, Youngjae; Barate, Abhijit Kashinath; Kim, Suk; Watarai, Masahisa; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, transposon mutagenesis was used to further attenuate Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine strain. Two purD and purF mutants were constructed, characterized and evaluated for attenuation via intracellular survival in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 and HeLa cells, and by clearance in BALB/c mice. The purD and purF mutants showed significantly decreased intracellular survival, and complementation of these mutants with intact copies of purD or purF genes of RB51 strain was able to restore these defects. In addition, the pur mutants presented significantly lowered persistence in mice. Immunization with purD and purF mutants protected mice against a challenge with the virulent B. abortus strain 544 at a level similar to that of the parent RB51. These data suggest that genes encoding the early stages of purine biosynthesis (purD and purF) are required for intracellular survival and virulence of B. abortus.

  5. Reduced Susceptibility to Rifampicin and Resistance to Multiple Antimicrobial Agents among Brucella abortus Isolates from Cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Pauletti, Rebeca; Reinato Stynen, Ana Paula; Pinto da Silva Mol, Juliana; Seles Dorneles, Elaine Maria; Alves, Telma Maria; de Sousa Moura Souto, Monalisa; Minharro, Silvia; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the susceptibility profile of Brazilian Brucella abortus isolates from cattle to eight antimicrobial agents that are recommended for the treatment of human brucellosis and to correlate the susceptibility patterns with origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotype of the strains. Screening of 147 B. abortus strains showed 100% sensitivity to doxycycline and ofloxacin, one (0.68%) strain resistant to ciprofloxacin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to streptomycin, two strains (1.36%) resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and five strains (3.40%) resistant to gentamicin. For rifampicin, three strains (2.04%) were resistant and 54 strains (36.73%) showed reduced sensitivity. Two strains were considered multidrug resistant. In conclusion, the majority of B. abortus strains isolated from cattle in Brazil were sensitive to the antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of human brucellosis; however, a considerable proportion of strains showed reduced susceptibility to rifampicin and two strains were considered multidrug resistant. Moreover, there was no correlation among the drug susceptibility pattern, origin, biotype and MLVA16-genotypes of these strains.

  6. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

  7. Immunoproteomic identification of immunodominant antigens independent of the time of infection in Brucella abortus 2308-challenged cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Ju; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Kim, Dae Geun; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, Wongi; Her, Moon; Jung, Suk Chan; Yoo, Han Sang; Kim, Suk

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a vital zoonotic disease caused by Brucella, which infects a wide range of animals and humans. Accurate diagnosis and reliable vaccination can control brucellosis in domestic animals. This study examined novel immunogenic proteins that can be used to detect Brucella abortus infection or as an effective subcellular vaccine. In an immunoproteomic assay, 55 immunodominant proteins from B. abortus 544 were observed using two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and immunoblot profiles with antisera from B. abortus-infected cattle at the early (week 3), middle (week 7), and late (week 10) periods, after excluding protein spots reacting with antisera from Yersinia enterocolitica O:9-infected and non-infected cattle. Twenty-three selected immunodominant proteins whose spots were observed at all three infection periods were identified using MALDI-MS/MS. Most of these proteins identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry were determined by their subcellular localization and predicted function. We suggest that the detection of prominent immunogenic proteins during the infection period can support the development of advanced diagnostic methods with high specificity and accuracy; subsidiarily, these proteins can provide supporting data to aid in developing novel vaccine candidates.

  8. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena; Uvell, Hanna; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki; Elofsson, Mikael; Vuorela, Pia Maarit

    2015-10-01

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  9. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  10. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  11. Uncivil engineers: Chlamydia, Salmonella and Shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joe Dan; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2010-08-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. Like the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella, Chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. Numerous Salmonella and Shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating Rho GTPases and tyrosine kinase signaling cascades and by directly manipulating actin dynamics. Recent studies indicate that similar host-cell alterations occur during Chlamydia invasion, but few effectors are known. The identification of additional Chlamydia effectors and the elucidation of their modes of function are critical steps towards an understanding of how this clinically important pathogen breaches epithelial surfaces and causes infection.

  12. Causality of Chlamydiae in Arthritis and Spondyloarthritis: a Plea for Increased Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2016-02-01

    Current molecular genetic understanding of the metabolically active persistent infection state of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae in the synovium in patients with arthritis and spondyloarthritis favors a causal relationship. Here, we examine how adequately the accepted criteria for that etiologic relationship are fulfilled, emphasizing the situation in which these microorganisms cannot be cultivated by standard or other means. We suggest that this unusual situation of causality by chlamydiae in rheumatic disease requires establishment of a consensus regarding microorganism-specific terminology as well as the development of new diagnostic and classification criteria. Recent studies demonstrate the value of molecular testing for diagnosis of reactive arthritis, undifferentiated spondyloarthritis, and undifferentiated arthritis caused by C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae in clinical practice. Data regarding combination antibiotic therapy is consistent with the causative role of chlamydiae for these diseases. Observations of multiple intra-articular coinfections require more research to understand the implications and to respond to them.

  13. Evaluation of PCR, culture, and serology for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); D. Willemse; S.C. Hiep-van Casteren; S.A. Joulandan; R.J. Snijder; H.P. van Helden; M.F. Peeters; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); J.M. van den Bosch (Jules)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe prospectively studied 156 patients with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission. Several respiratory specimens were obtained for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by cell culture and PCR. Three serum samples were obtained from

  14. Emancipating Chlamydia: Advances in the Genetic Manipulation of a Recalcitrant Intracellular Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas, Robert J; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia species infect millions of individuals worldwide and are important etiological agents of sexually transmitted disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. Historically, the genetic intractability of this intracellular pathogen has hindered the molecular dissection of virulence factors contributing to its pathogenesis. The obligate intracellular life cycle of Chlamydia and restrictions on the use of antibiotics as selectable markers have impeded the development of molecular tools to genetically manipulate these pathogens. However, recent developments in the field have resulted in significant gains in our ability to alter the genome of Chlamydia, which will expedite the elucidation of virulence mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the challenges affecting the development of molecular genetic tools for Chlamydia and the work that laid the foundation for recent advancements in the genetic analysis of this recalcitrant pathogen.

  15. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  16. Intracellular survival and persistence of Chlamydia muridarum is determined by macrophage polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gracey

    Full Text Available Macrophages can display a number of distinct phenotypes, known collectively as polarized macrophages. The best defined of these phenotypes are the classically-activated, interferon gamma (IFNγ/LPS induced (M1 and alternatively-activated, IL-4 induced (M2 macrophages. The goal of this study is to characterize macrophage-Chlamydia interactions in the context of macrophage polarization. Here we use Chlamydia muridarum and murine bone-marrow derived macrophages to show Chlamydia does not induce M2 polarization in macrophages as a survival strategy. Unexpectedly, the infection of macrophages was silent with no upregulation of M1 macrophage-associated genes. We further demonstrate that macrophages polarized prior to infection have a differential capacity to control Chlamydia. M1 macrophages harbor up to 40-fold lower inclusion forming units (IFU than non-polarized or M2 polarized macrophages. Gene expression analysis showed an increase in 16sRNA in M2 macrophages with no change in M1 macrophages. Suppressed Chlamydia growth in M1 macrophages correlated with the induction of a bacterial gene expression profile typical of persistence as evident by increased Euo expression and decreased Omp1 and Tal expression. Observations of permissive Chlamydia growth in non-polarized and M2 macrophages and persistence in M1 macrophages were supported through electron microscopy. This work supports the importance of IFNγ in the innate immune response to Chlamydia. However, demonstration that the M1 macrophages, despite an antimicrobial signature, fail to eliminate intracellular Chlamydia supports the notion that host-pathogen co-evolution has yielded a pathogen that can evade cellular defenses against this pathogen, and persist for prolonged periods of time in the host.

  17. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A Ugboma Henry Arinze; Nwagwu Victor Onyebuchi; Jeremiah Isreal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics...

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoting Ni; Siyuan Qin; Zhilong Lou; Hongrui Ning; Xiaolin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The...

  19. Correlates of chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers: the untold story of Jiangsu, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiming Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG infections with their potential correlates. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. METHODS: 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou, aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. RESULTS: Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. CONCLUSIONS: Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified.

  20. Immunotoxic effect of thiamethoxam in immunized mice with Brucella abortus cultural filtrate antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Salema

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned for determination the toxic effect of thiamethoxam (TMX in immunized mice with Brucella abortus culture filtrate antigen (CFBAgs (as a vaccine and its role of TMX on decrease activity of B. abortus antigen on eliciting of humoral and cellular immunity. Materials and Methods: To achieve these goals 60 female mice were used, 7-8 weeks age, they were divided equally into three groups (20 in each group and treated as follows: 1st group: Mice were immunized with CFBAgs intraperitoneally in two doses, 2 weeks intervals with (protein concentration 2 mg\\ml, 2nd group: Mice immunized as in the 1st group and was administrated orally with 1/10 lethal dose 50% of TMX (83.7 mg/kg B.W. for 4 weeks daily, 3rd group was administrated orally with 0.3 ml normal saline served as a control group. At day 28 post immunization (PI delayed type hypersensitivity (skin test was done, and serum samples were collected at day 30 (PI for detection of passive hemagglutination test (PHA; interferon gamma (IFN-γ which was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in addition to phagocytes assay. Results: The results of skin test post injection with soluble antigen of B. abortus intradermally showed a high significantly mean values at p≤0.05 of footpad skin thickness in the 1st group of mice which recorded (0.51±0.002 mm as compared with the 2nd group of mice which showed (0.08±0.002 mm after 24 h; the mean values of skin thickness were declined in the 1st mice (0.46±0.002 and 2nd mice (0.070±0.001 at 48 h; control group showed a negative results. These results were agreed with results of serum levels of IFN-γ (pg/ml that showed that a significant increase the vaccinated 1st group (406.36±1.52, than those values in the 2nd group (151.61±0.89 and negative result in 3rd group (46.47±0.60, in addition to results of PHA test which showed a significant increase in antibody titer in the 1st group (139±12.16 with low level of serum antibody

  1. Immunotoxic effect of thiamethoxam in immunized mice with Brucella abortus cultural filtrate antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salema, L. H.; Alwan, M. J.; Yousif, Afaf Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned for determination the toxic effect of thiamethoxam (TMX) in immunized mice with Brucella abortus culture filtrate antigen (CFBAgs) (as a vaccine) and its role of TMX on decrease activity of B. abortus antigen on eliciting of humoral and cellular immunity. Materials and Methods: To achieve these goals 60 female mice were used, 7-8 weeks age, they were divided equally into three groups (20 in each group) and treated as follows: 1st group: Mice were immunized with CFBAgs intraperitoneally in two doses, 2 weeks intervals with (protein concentration 2 mg\\ml), 2nd group: Mice immunized as in the 1st group and was administrated orally with 1/10 lethal dose 50% of TMX (83.7 mg/kg B.W.) for 4 weeks daily, 3rd group was administrated orally with 0.3 ml normal saline served as a control group. At day 28 post immunization (PI) delayed type hypersensitivity (skin test) was done, and serum samples were collected at day 30 (PI) for detection of passive hemagglutination test (PHA); interferon gamma (IFN-γ) which was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in addition to phagocytes assay. Results: The results of skin test post injection with soluble antigen of B. abortus intradermally showed a high significantly mean values at p≤0.05 of footpad skin thickness in the 1st group of mice which recorded (0.51±0.002 mm) as compared with the 2nd group of mice which showed (0.08±0.002 mm) after 24 h; the mean values of skin thickness were declined in the 1st mice (0.46±0.002) and 2nd mice (0.070±0.001) at 48 h; control group showed a negative results. These results were agreed with results of serum levels of IFN-γ (pg/ml) that showed that a significant increase the vaccinated 1st group (406.36±1.52), than those values in the 2nd group (151.61±0.89) and negative result in 3rd group (46.47±0.60), in addition to results of PHA test which showed a significant increase in antibody titer in the 1st group (139±12.16) with low level of serum antibody

  2. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  3. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias

  4. Survival of Brucella abortus aqpX mutant in fresh and ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodríguez, María Del Rosario; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; García-Lobo, Juan M; Gimeno, Miquel; Palomares-Reséndiz, Erika G; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival of a Brucella abortus aqpX mutant during the elaboration and conservation of fresh and ripened cheeses at 4 °C and 24 °C. The pH values and water activity were monitored for each type of cheese. The fresh cheese was elaborated with raw milk inoculated with 6×10⁸ colony-forming units (CFU)/mL each of parental and mutant strain. Ripening cheeses were elaborated with both raw and pasteurized milk and inoculated with 12×10⁸ CFU/mL each of parental and mutant strains. In fresh cheese, survival was observed during elaboration and conservation for 7 days at 4 °C in mutant and parental strains. The number of survivors of the mutant strain was 10 times lower compared with the parental strain at pH 5 and a(w) of 0.930. In the cheese elaborated with raw milk and ripened at 24 °C, both strains survived until day 17 at pH 4.0 and a(w) of 0.89. However, when the cheese was elaborated with pasteurized milk, the parental strain survived until day 31 of ripening, and the mutant strain survived 24 days at pH 4 and a(w) of 0.886. The survival of the mutant strain showed a diminution of one logarithm during elaboration and ripening of cheese as compared with the parental strain. When the cheese was elaborated with raw milk and ripened at 4 °C, survival of the parental strain was 24 days, whereas the mutant strain survived only 17 days (pH 5 and a(w) 0.90). Regarding the cheese elaborated with pasteurized milk and maturated at 4 °C, both strains survived 31 days (pH 5 and a(w) 0.90), with the same survival diminution during elaboration and ripening. Our results show that in both types of cheese, the mutated aqpX strain survived 10 times less than the parental strain, which shows that the aqpX gene can be related to the survival of Brucella abortus in this type of cheese.

  5. Natural cross chlamydial infection between livestock and free-living bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available The study of cross-species pathogen transmission is essential to understanding the epizootiology and epidemiology of infectious diseases. Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease whose effects have been mainly investigated in humans, poultry and pet birds. It has been suggested that wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for this disease. During a comparative health status survey in common (Falco tinnunculus and lesser (Falco naumanni kestrel populations in Spain, acute gammapathies were detected. We investigated whether gammapathies were associated with Chlamydiaceae infections. We recorded the prevalence of different Chlamydiaceae species in nestlings of both kestrel species in three different study areas. Chlamydophila psittaci serovar I (or Chlamydophila abortus, an ovine pathogen causing late-term abortions, was isolated from all the nestlings of both kestrel species in one of the three studied areas, a location with extensive ovine livestock enzootic of this atypical bacteria and where gammapathies were recorded. Serovar and genetic cluster analysis of the kestrel isolates from this area showed serovars A and C and the genetic cluster 1 and were different than those isolated from the other two areas. The serovar I in this area was also isolated from sheep abortions, sheep faeces, sheep stable dust, nest dust of both kestrel species, carrion beetles (Silphidae and Orthoptera. This fact was not observed in other areas. In addition, we found kestrels to be infected by Chlamydia suis and Chlamydia muridarum, the first time these have been detected in birds. Our study evidences a pathogen transmission from ruminants to birds, highlighting the importance of this potential and unexplored mechanism of infection in an ecological context. On the other hand, it is reported a pathogen transmission from livestock to wildlife, revealing new and scarcely investigated anthropogenic threats for wild and endangered species.

  6. [A child with iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Tsumura, N; Nagai, K; Yamada, T; Sakata, Y; Tominaga, K; Kato, H; Motohiro, T; Masunaga, N; Mochizuki, M

    1994-12-01

    A case of uncommon iritis due to Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is reported. The patient was a 9-year-old boy who had suffered from cough, pharyngeal pain, and low grade fever. The symptoms persisted for more than 1 month in spite of an oral cephem antibiotic. Ophthalmalgia, congestion around the iris and cough had lasted with alleviation and exacerbation. A diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection was made by specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and microimmunofluorescence test (MIF). The symptoms subsided with administration of clarithromycin (CAM: 300 mg/day) for 2 weeks. Because of the simultaneous alleviation of iritis, C. pneumoniae infection was considered to introduce the iritis. Much remains to be clarified about this pathogenesis of iritis and more detailed evaluations are required.

  7. Quinolones for the Treatment of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia Trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Faro

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly sexually transmitted bacteria are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The quinolones ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin have been shown to have activity against both of these bacteria in vitro and in vivo. Ofloxacin is particularly well suited for the treatment of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis cervical infection, which can be considered the earliest manifestation of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID. Not only can ofloxacin be effectively used as a single agent, it is also useful in treating urinary tract infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. Although it has moderate activity against anaerobes in general, ofloxacin does have activity against the anaerobes commonly isolated from female patients with soft tissue pelvic infections. Thus, ofloxacin has the potential for being utilized to treat early salpingitis.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis causing neonatal conjunctivitis in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakar S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is considered a major aetiological agent of conjunctivitis in newborns. The objective of the present study was to determine the aetiology of neonatal conjunctivitis and clinico-epidemiological correlates of chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. Fifty-eight newborns with signs and symptoms of conjunctivitis were studied. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to Gram staining, routine bacteriological culture, culture for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and direct fluorescent antibody (DFA staining for diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis was detected in 18 (31% neonates. Findings suggest that since C. trachomatis is the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, routine screening and treatment of genital C. trachomatis infection in pregnant women and early diagnosis and treatment of neonatal Chlamydial conjunctivitis may be considered for its prevention and control.

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M; Corey, Lawrence

    2002-03-27

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompetent patients; however, its role as a respiratory pathogen in immunocompromised hosts has been infrequently recognized. We describe C. pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection in a 19-year-old male after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient developed fever on day +14, and a subsequent computed tomography scan of the chest revealed a right lateral pleural-based opacity, which was then resected during thoracoscopy. Diagnosis was made by culture and staining of the resected tissue with C. pneumoniae-specific monoclonal antibodies, and azithromycin was administered. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. pneumoniae respiratory infection after stem cell or marrow transplantation. C. pneumoniae often coexists with other etiologic agents of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Considering the infrequency of infections from this organism in this clinical setting, one must still rule out other more likely respiratory pathogens.

  10. Cloning of Omp1 Gene from Chlamydia trachomatis F Genotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Manli(齐蔓莉); LIU Quanzhong(刘全中); JIAO Wenling(缴稳苓); TIAN Jingqun(田敬群); CHEN Jinying(陈锦英)

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To directionally clone the omp1 gene fromChlamydia trachomatis (Ct) F genotype onto a plasmid vectorfor constructing a rudimentary DNA vaccine.Methods: The complete omp1 gene from genomic DNA of CtF genotype wild species was amplified with primers designedby computer. The recombinant gene was obtained byrestriction enzyme cutting, linking the gene with the plasmidvector in vitro, transforming the recombinant gene intobacteria, and extracting the DNA from the bacteria.Results: DNA extracted from the bacteria was composed ofthe omp1 gene and plasmid, which is identified by threemethods of singular restrictive enzyme cutting, doublerestrictive enzyme cutting and PCR.Conclusion: Cloning of the omp1 gene from the Ct Fgenotype means that a rudimentary DNA vaccine wassuccessfully constructed.

  11. Effects of interferon gamma on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A and L2 protein expression investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium causing human ocular and genital disease. The lymphokine interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is an important immune effector exerting antimicrobial effects towards several intracellular parasites, the chlamydia included. IFN-gamma has been...

  12. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) methods

    OpenAIRE

    Owens Chantelle J; Owusu-Edusei Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, g...

  13. Neutrophils Exert a Suppressive Effect on Th1 Responses to Intracellular Pathogen Brucella abortus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Rueda, Diana; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Lepidi, Hubert; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i) comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii) augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs); iii) higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv) significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v) increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:23458832

  14. Endocarditis por Brucella abortus: Reporte del primer caso en C.R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Villalobos-Zúñiga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente masculino de 36 años de edad, proveniente de la zona rural de Costa Rica, con un cuadro clínico de 8 meses de evolución de fiebre, mialgias, artralgias, pérdida de peso y lumbalgia; referido por la detección de un soplo de insuficiencia aórtica. El ecocardiograma reveló endocarditis de la válvula aórtica, y se obtuvieron 4 hemocultivos positivos por Brucella abortus biotipo 3, con serologías negativas por brucelosis. Se inició tratamiento con antibióticos y luego se le realizó un reemplazo valvular aórtico; 4 meses después ingresó con dolor torácico que se atribuyó a una oclusión de la arteria descendente anterior, demostrada angiográficamente, por posible embolismo. En la actualidad cursa clínicamente estable con manejo médico para su cardiopatía, sin recaída infecciosa.

  15. Improvement of the Brucella abortus B19 vaccine by its preparation in a glycerol based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangari, F J; Agüero, J; García-Lobo, J M

    1996-03-01

    The Brucella abortus B19 vaccine strain differs from other Brucella strains in its sensitivity to erythritol. However, erythritol tolerant (Eri(t)) mutants arise from sensitive cultures of B19 at high rate, and may cause persistence and/or abortion when the vaccine is inoculated on adult cattle. Twelve different batches of B19 have been examined for the presence of Eri(t) mutants. All contained Eri(t) variants at a proportion ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-6). In order to eliminate these mutants from the vaccine cultures, we have developed a minimal medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, named MMG30. Growth of the parental strain B19 (erythritol sensitive) in this medium was fairly good compared with the growth of its Eri(t) derivatives. Culture of the 12 different batches of B19 in liquid MMG30 produced up to a thousandfold decrease in the proportion of Eri(t) mutants present in the vaccine cultures. Use of this medium to grow B19 could represent an easy and considerable improvement of the vaccine, by the reduction of the presence of potentially dangerous Eri(t) mutants.

  16. Immune Modulation of Recombinant OmpA against Brucella abortus 544 Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Wongi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis affects a wide range of host species, including humans and many livestock animals. Chronic infections of the disease make antibiotic treatment costly, and the current vaccine used in livestock has not been approved for human use. This study investigated the possible use of the Brucella abortus outer membrane protein A (OmpA) as a candidate subunit vaccine in an infected mouse model. The ompA gene was cloned and overexpressed, and the recombinant OmpA (rOmpA) protein fused to maltose binding protein (MBP) was purified in Escherichia coli. Immunogenicity was verified through western blotting, and mice were immunized and challenged to evaluate its protective effect. Mice treated with rOmpA exhibited induced humoral and host cell-mediated responses, with a significant increase in immunoglobulin G (IgG1 and IgG2a) and cytokine levels, especially TNF-α and IL-12, compared with the control groups treated with either MBP or PBS. In conclusion, rOmpA should be highly considered as a future subunit vaccine for brucellosis, and further studies regarding rOmpA and its protective ability are suggested.

  17. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Marchesini

    Full Text Available Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24 is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  18. Neutrophils exert a suppressive effect on Th1 responses to intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs; iii higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. Comparison of Buffered, Acidified Plate Antigen to Standard Serologic Tests for the Detection of Serum Antibodies to Brucella abortus in Elk (Cervus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P Ryan; Edwards, William H; Hennager, Steven G; Block, Jean F; Yates, Angela M; Ebel, Eric; Knopp, Douglas J; Fuentes-Sanchez, Antonio; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Kientz, Rebecca L; Simunich, Marilyn

    2015-07-01

    Brucellosis (caused by the bacterium Brucella abortus) is a zoonotic disease endemic in wild elk (Cervus canadensis) of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, US. Because livestock and humans working with elk or livestock are at risk, validated tests to detect the B. abortus antibody in elk are needed. Using the κ-statistic, we evaluated the buffered, acidified plate antigen (BAPA) assay for agreement with the results of the four serologic tests (card test [card], complement fixation test [CF], rivanol precipitation plate agglutination test [RIV], standard plate agglutination test [SPT]) that are approved by the US Department of Agriculture for the detection of the B. abortus antibody in elk. From 2006 to 2010, serum samples collected from elk within B. abortus-endemic areas (n = 604) and nonendemic areas (n = 707) and from elk culture-positive for B. abortus (n = 36) were split and blind tested by four elk serum diagnostic laboratories. κ-Values showed a high degree of agreement for the card (0.876), RIV (0.84), and CF (0.774) test pairings and moderate agreement for the SPT (0.578). Sensitivities for the BAPA, card, RIV, CF, and SPT were 0.859, 0.839, 0.899, 1.00, and 0.813, whereas specificities were 0.986, 0.993, 0.986, 0.98, and 0.968, respectively. The positive predictive values and the negative predictive values were calculated for 2.6%, 8.8%, and 16.2% prevalence levels. These findings suggest the BAPA test is a suitable screening test for the B. abortus antibodies in elk.

  20. Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis Load Is Similar in Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women Reporting Anal Sex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève A F S van Liere

    Full Text Available Anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia is frequently diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM and in women, but it is unknown whether these infections are comparable in clinical impact and transmission potential. Quantifying bacterial load and identifying determinants associated with high bacterial load could provide more insight.We selected a convenience sample of MSM who reported anal sex (n = 90 and women with concurrent urogenital/anorectal chlamydia who reported anal sex (n = 51 or did not report anal sex (n = 61 from the South Limburg Public Health Service's STI unit. Bacterial load (Chlamydia/ml was quantified for all samples and log transformed for analyses. Samples with an unquantifiable human leukocyte antigen (n = 9 were excluded from analyses, as they were deemed inadequately sampled.The mean log anorectal chlamydia load (3.50 was similar for MSM and women who reported having anal sex (3.80, P = 0.21. The anorectal chlamydia load was significantly higher in these groups than in women who did not report having anal sex (2.76, P = 0.001. Detectable load values ranged from 1.81-6.32 chlamydia/ml for MSM, 1.74-7.33 chlamydia/ml for women who reported having anal sex and 1.84-6.31 chlamydia/ml for women who did not report having anal sex. Symptoms and several other determinants were not associated with anorectal chlamydia load.Women who did not report anal sex had lower anorectal loads, but they were within a similar range to the other two groups. Anorectal chlamydia load was comparable between MSM and women who reported anal sex, suggesting similar transmission potential.

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Land, Jolande A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Morré, Servaas A; van der Sande, Marianne A B

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia antib

  2. Evaluation of Clearview and Magic Lite tests, polymerase chain reaction, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluytmans, J A; Goessens, W H; Mouton, J W; van Rijsoort-Vos, J H; Niesters, H G; Quint, W G; Habbema, L; Stolz, E; Wagenvoort, J H

    1993-01-01

    The Clearview Chlamydia test (CV; Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom), the Magic Lite Chlamydia test (ML; CIBA Corning, Medfield, Mass.), a polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and cell culture (CC) were evaluated for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital specimens. Specimens were collecte

  3. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  4. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis incidence and re-infection among young women--behavioural and microbiological characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. METHODS: 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9. Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1], being employed [RR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9] and having two or more new sex partners [RR = 5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6. The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01 and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia.

  6. Defining species-specific immunodominant B cell epitopes for molecular serology of Chlamydia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Poudel, Anil; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Urgently needed species-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antibodies against Chlamydia spp. have been elusive due to high cross-reactivity of chlamydial antigens. To identify Chlamydia species-specific B cell epitopes for such assays, we ranked the potential epitopes of immunodominant chlamydial proteins that are polymorphic among all Chlamydia species. High-scoring peptides were synthesized with N-terminal biotin, followed by a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer, immobilized onto streptavidin-coated microtiter plates, and tested with mono-specific mouse hyperimmune sera against each Chlamydia species in chemiluminescent ELISAs. For each of nine Chlamydia species, three to nine dominant polymorphic B cell epitope regions were identified on OmpA, CT618, PmpD, IncA, CT529, CT442, IncG, Omp2, TarP, and IncE proteins. Peptides corresponding to 16- to 40-amino-acid species-specific sequences of these epitopes reacted highly and with absolute specificity with homologous, but not heterologous, Chlamydia monospecies-specific sera. Host-independent reactivity of such epitopes was confirmed by testing of six C. pecorum-specific peptides from five proteins with C. pecorum-reactive sera from cattle, the natural host of C. pecorum. The probability of cross-reactivity of peptide antigens from closely related chlamydial species or strains correlated with percent sequence identity and declined to zero at Chlamydia spp. We anticipate that these peptide antigens will improve chlamydial serology by providing easily accessible assays to nonspecialist laboratories. Our approach also lends itself to the identification of relevant epitopes of other microbial pathogens.

  7. Estudio bacteriológico y serológico de brucelosis en vacas revacunadas con dosis reducida de cepa 19 de brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Bustamante Sánchez; Fernando Israel Salazar Hernández; Efrén Díaz Aparicio; Carlos Manzano Cañas; Rafael Pérez González; Laura Hernández Andrade

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar mediante pruebas diagnósticas, si los anticuerpos que se presentan en bovinos revacunados con dosis reducida de cepa 19 de Brucella abortus son debidos a infección o a vacunación, e intentar el aislamiento para determinar su especie y biotipo. El muestreo se realizó en 25 establos de Tizayuca, Hidalgo. Se utilizaron 100 vacas Holstein positivas a la prueba de tarjeta (PT), que habían sido vacunadas de tres a seis meses de edad con cepa 19 de B. abortus a dosis clási...

  8. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  9. Circulating strains of Brucella abortus in cattle in the province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas - Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richar Ivan Rodríguez Hidalgo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, the Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas represents the largest informal market of livestock due to its strategic position in the country; thus, given the high mobility of cattle in this region, the aim of this study was to determine the strain variation of Brucella sp.. Part of the study was the isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species isolated from milk and supra-mammary lymph nodes of sero-positive bovines. Protocols used for isolation, biotyping and genotyping of Brucella species were selective Farrell medium, biochemical assays and IS711-PCR, AMOS-PCR and HOOF-Prints techniques, respectively. In total, 656 animals from sero-positive dairy herds and from the slaughterhouse of the province were diagnosed by Rose Bengal and Wright’s Slow Agglutination test with EDTA. From these animals, 50 animals were found sero-positive for brucellosis. Twenty-five lymph nodes and 25 milk samples from each group of positive reactors were cultured and growth. Isolation was possible in 4 (16% and 9 (36%, respectively; and of these, 10 isolates were diagnosed as Brucella sp. All 4 isolates of lymphatic tissue corresponded to Brucella abortus biotype 1, confirmed as field strains by molecular analysis. Milk isolations, biochemically showed a more dispersed pattern in which B. abortus biotypes 1 and 4 were found; yet four samples gave a pattern similar to B. abortus biotype 2; however, only biotypes 1 and 4 were confirmed by molecular analysis. The concordance between biochemical and molecular diagnostic tests reached 76.9%.

  10. ANTI-Lentivirus, Brucella abortus AND B. ovis ANTIBODIES IN SMALL RUMINANTS RAISED IN PERNAMBUCO AND BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO DE MORAES PEIXOTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goat and sheep production in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil has shown great economic potential. However, health problems can compromise the productivity of these animals. Given the scarcity of studies about the occurrence of these diseases, the aim of the present study was to analyze the serological diagnosis of anti-Brucella and anti-lentivirus antibodies among small ruminants in municipalities located in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Pernambuco. The samples were collected from local slaughterhouses and dairy farms. In total, 997 serum samples from animals in slaughterhouses and dairy herds were collected. In order to diagnose the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV, the samples underwent agarose gel immunodiffusion (AGID testing. The buffered acidified antigen test (goats and agarose gel immunodiffusion test (sheep were used to detect anti-Brucella abortus and B. ovis antibodies following the methodology recommended by the Institute of Technology of Paraná (TECPAR. With anti-CAEV antibodies, seropositivity rates of 4.1% and 2.2% were recorded for animals from the slaughterhouses and dairy farms, respectively. None of the animals (goats or sheep were positive for anti-B. abortus antibodies. With B. ovis, a seropositivity rate of 6.5% (n = 13 was recorded among the 199 sheep serum samples. Results of the present study confirmed the presence of the CAE virus in the meat and dairy herds studied, although the prevalence was low. Natural infection by B. abortus did not occur in the goat and sheep herds assessed. Seropositivity for B. ovis was confirmed, although prevalence was low. Direct tests are required to diagnose ovine brucellosis.

  11. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  12. Survey of Omp19 immunogenicity against Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis: influence of nanoparticulation versus traditional immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Morteza; Lotfi, Abbas Sahebghadam; Amani, Jafar; Eskandari, Khadijeh; Ramandi, Mehdi Fasihi; Salimian, Jafar; Brujeni, Gholamreza Nikbakht; Alamian, Saeed; Kamali, Mehdi; Koushki, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic bacterial disease. Prevention of human brucellosis is achieved through pasteurization of dairy products, appropriate sanitation and vaccination of domestic animals against the Brucella species. B. abortus unlipidated 19 kDa outer membrane protein (U-Omp19) is a promising candidate for a subunit vaccine against brucellosis. This study investigates immunogenicity of Omp19 alone and with Freund's adjuvant (Omp19-IFA) and N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC/Omp19) nanoparticles, as well as the effect of Omp19 administration route on immunological responses and protection. The omp19 gene was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). After purification, the recombinant Omp19 was loaded onto TMC nanoparticles by ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Particle size and loading efficiency of the nanoparticles were determined. Omp19-IFA was administered intraperitoneally while TMC/Omp19 nanoparticles were administered orally and intraperitoneally. The results indicated that intraperitoneal (i.p.) immunization by Omp19-IFA and TMC/Omp19 nanoparticles induced Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively, whereas oral immunization of TMC/Omp19 nanoparticles induced a mixed Th1/Th17 immune response. Moreover, oral immunization increased IgA levels in feces. Immunized mice were challenged with virulent B. melitensis 16 M and B. abortus 544. Oral immunization with TMC/Omp19 nanoparticles induced a remarkably high protection level against B. melitensis and B. abortus. The results showed that immunization route has a pivotal role in immune response polarization and protective efficiency of Omp19 antigen. Also, it was deduced that the higher protection level achieved through oral administration of TMC/Omp19 nanoparticles may be due to the elicited Th17 response.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Patrick J.; Craig, Rachel; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Murphy, Gary; McClure, Myra O.; Soldan, Kate; Nardone, Anthony; Johnson, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody. Methods Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE) were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16–44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey) (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men). Seroprevalence trends among 16–24 year-old women (n = 3,361) were investigated over ten time points from 1994–2012. Results In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16–44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0–27.1) in women and 13.9% (11.8–16.2) in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5–40.2] in 30–34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4–25.6] in 35–39 year-old men); years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16–24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16–24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008–2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84–1.05]). Conclusion Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes. PMID:28129328

  14. Knowledge and acceptability of Chlamydia trachomatis screening among pregnant women and their partners; A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T.R. Pereboom (Monique T.); E.R. Spelten (Evelien); J. Manniën (Judith); G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); S.A. Morré (Servaas A); F.G. Schellevis (François); E.K. Hutton (Eileen K)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chlamydia trachomatis infections in pregnancy can cause maternal disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes and neonatal disease, which is why chlamydia screening during pregnancy has been advocated. The effectiveness of a screening program depends on the knowledge of health care pr

  15. Genital forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos abortsøgende--korrelerer med ung alder og nulliparitet, men ikke tidligere underlivsbetoendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Out of 432 women applying for termination of pregnancy, 7.9% (34/428) had cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and 0.7% (3/431) genital Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The prevalence of Chlamydia was 19.2% among the women applying for termination who were under 20 years and 12.8% among those aged 21-25 years...

  16. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...

  17. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  18. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Ful-Term Deliveries and Women with Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are some documents which support the role of some certain infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis in spontaneous abortion. As there were not data about role this bacterium in abortion in this area of IRAN, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with abortion and compare it with healthy women with no previous history of abortion. Approach: This case-control study was carried out in Shariatee hospital of Hormozgan University of medical sciences, during 2004-2005. A number of 220 women with definite diagnosis of previous abortion and 200 matched women with normal full term delivery and negative history of miscarriage as controls were studied as case and control groups. All obtained PAP smears from the case and the control groups were then tested using Immunoflourescent method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis. Data was analyzed, using SPSS software (chi square and t-test. Results: The prevalence of positive direct immunofluorescent test on PAP smears indicating the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was 56 (25.45% in women with abortion comparing to 13 (5.20% in women in control group, the difference was significant (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: This study showed Chlamydia trachomatis is an important causative agent for abortion in this area of IRAN.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Zaeimi Yazdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI recognized throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statistical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 endocervical samples were taken from women suffering from cervicitis attending to Mirzakoochakkhan Women Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA and PCR techniques were used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical samples. Twenty two (15.5% [95% CI, 9.54-21.4] of 142 samples were diagnosed as Chlamydia positive according to PCR results, while DFA diagnosed 20 (14.1% positive cases [95% CI, 8.37-19.8]. No statistically significant difference was found between two diagnosis methods applied in this study. The prevalence was the highest (25% among women aged 25 to 29 yr and 35 to 39 yr. The x 2 test showed a significant relationship between positive test result and bearing a history of STI (P= 0. The results of this study showed high prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women suffering from cervicitis and suggested that patients diagnosed with genital Chlamydia infection should be referred to the genitourinary medicine clinic for further STI screening and partner notification.

  2. Detection of Brucella abortus by alkB and IS711 based primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Hosseini Doust

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease, which involves both animals and human. Although the conventional methods have been widely used for its laboratory diagnosis, the PCR techniques have proved to be useful due to specificity, sensitivity and the rapidness. Various target sequences of brucella bacterium such as OMP2, 16s RNA and IS711 have been used for the primer designing.. All primer sets have shown different sensitivities and specificities. In present investigation, PCR protocol and primer designated based on IS711 and a fragment of chromosomal DNA all were optimized with standard genome and clinical samples.

    METHODS: Numerous tissue samples (liver, kidney, lymph node, and uterus were prepared and were cultured by the bacteriological standard methods along with the serology positive human samples. PCR protocol was optimized and the primer's sensitivity and the specificity were checked using pure genome of B. abortus. All samples were tested by the standard bacteriological methods. The samples were then subject to PCR amplification and the PCR product was confirmed using the RFLP technique.

    RESULTS: The culture results indicated a poor sensitivity as it was previously reported. The PCR product 157 bp was observed on the agarose gel indicating that significant number of clinical samples (human brucellosis cases were positive by PCR but not by the

  3. Isolation of two biologically active cell surface proteins from Brucella abortus by chromatofocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, L.B.; Deyoe, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Brucella abortus contains a group of immunogenic cell surface proteins which have potential value as a vaccine or as a diagnostic reagent for the prevention and diagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Under nondenaturing conditions, these proteins range in molecular weight from 10,000-124,000, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on TSK 3000sw. By analytical isoelectrofocusing, 6 major protein bands could be distinguished with pI's ranging from 4.0 to 6.0 and 3 additional major proteins with pI's of 7.5, 9.5, and 10. By chromatofocusing on Polybuffer Exchanger 94 with a pH gradient from 6-4, two of the six proteins from pI 4-6 were separated, a pI 4.9 and a pI 4.7 protein; a third fraction contained the high pI proteins. The former two proteins were homogeneous by analytical isoelectrofocusing, and a molecular weight of 54,000 daltons was found for both protein species by HPLC on TSK 3000sw. The pI 4-6 and not the pI 9.5 and 10 proteins, could be radiolabeled when intact cells were radioiodinated with diazotized (/sup 125/I)-iodosulfanilic acid. Biological activity of the proteins as assessed in lemmings indicated that immunization with the pI 4.7 and 4.9 proteins afforded better protection against experimental brucellosis than immunization with the high pI proteins. These results support our view that a single surface protein may be sufficient for the prevention of experimental brucellosis.

  4. Prediction of T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluation of their protective role in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afley, Prachiti; Dohre, Sudhir K; Prasad, G B K S; Kumar, Subodh

    2015-09-01

    Brucellae are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that cause an important zoonotic disease called brucellosis. The animal vaccines are available but have disadvantage of causing abortions in a proportion of pregnant animals. The animal vaccines are also pathogenic to humans. Recent trend in vaccine design has shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are safe and specific. In this study, efforts were made to identify MHC-I- and MHC-II-restricted T cell epitopes of Brucella abortus and evaluate their vaccine potential in mice. The peptides were designed using online available immunoinformatics tools, and five MHC-I- and one MHC-II-restricted T cell peptides were selected on the basis of their ability to produce interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in in vivo studies. The selected peptides were co-administered with poly DL-lactide-co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles and evaluated for immunogenicity and protection in BALB/c mice. Mice immunized with peptides either entrapped in PLG microparticles (EPLG-Pep) or adsorbed on PLG particles (APLG-Pep) showed significantly higher splenocyte proliferation and IFN-γ generation to all selected peptides than the mice immunized with corresponding irrelevant peptides formulated PLG microparticles or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A significant protection compared to PBS control was also observed in EPLG-Pep and APLG-Pep groups. A plasmid DNA vaccine construct (pVaxPep) for peptides encoding DNA sequences was generated and injected to mice by in vivo electroporation. Significant protection was observed (1.66 protection units) when compared with PBS and empty vector control group animals. Overall, the MHC-I and MHC-II peptides identified in this study are immunogenic and protective in mouse model and support the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine for brucellosis.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul;

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR......) and odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  6. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Taylor B; Gottlieb, Sami L; Darville, Toni

    2017-01-19

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection globally. Ascension of chlamydial infection to the female upper genital tract can cause acute pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Shortcomings of current chlamydia control strategies, especially for low- and middle-income countries, highlight the need for an effective vaccine. Evidence from animal models, human epidemiological studies, and early trachoma vaccine trials suggest that a C. trachomatis vaccine is feasible. Vaccine development for genital chlamydial infection has been in the preclinical phase of testing for many years, but the first Phase I trials of chlamydial vaccine candidates are underway, and scientific advances hold promise for additional candidates to enter clinical evaluation in the coming years. We describe the clinical and public health need for a C. trachomatis vaccine, provide an overview of Chlamydia vaccine development efforts, and summarize current vaccine candidates in the development pipeline.

  7. [Cervicitis--epidemiological and clinical risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, A; Stevenson, M

    1994-01-01

    Fifty volunteer, asymptomatic sexually active university female students were examined and inquired, in order to find risk factors predictive of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Epidemiologic and behavioral factors (age, number of sexual partners, oral contraceptives use and history of previous sexually transmitted diseases) were found to be similar among the studied group and published data for North American female college students, but barrier contraceptive methods use was found to be different. Twenty two per cent of the sample had clinical cervicitis, and 30% had subclinical. If the screening models proposed by different authors would have been applied, between a 32% and 72% of the sample would have been selectively for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is concluded that international sugerences about Chlamydia trachomatis screening should be adopted until national experiences are made.

  8. [THE ROLE OF SYSTEM QUORUM SENSING UNDER CHRONIC UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is established that system quorum sensing (QS) assure social behavior of bacteria in regulation of genes of virulence and generalization of inflectional inflammatory process under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection. The techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry were applied to detect molecular markers of generalization of infectious process under urogenital chlamydiasis--activators of QS microbes (lactones, quinolones, furan ethers). The developed diagnostic gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry criteria of indexation of molecular markers under chronic urogenital chlamydia infection have high level of diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of positive and negative result. The application of techniques of gas chromatography and mass-spectrometry permits enhancing effectiveness of diagnostic of chronic inflectional inflammatory diseases of urogenital system of chlamydia etiology with identification of prognostic criteria of generalization of infectious process and subsequent prescription of timely and appropriate therapy

  9. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in pigs in Jiangxi province, South-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H H; Huang, S Y; Zhang, W B; Zhao, L; Xu, C M; Deng, S Z; Zhu, X Q

    2013-12-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative obligate bacteria that cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. To assess the risk of zoonosis posed by pigs, a total of 920 serum samples were collected from pigs in 11 administrative cities in Jiangxi province, south-eastern China, and the seroprevalence of Chlamydia antibodies was investigated by an indirect haemagglutination assay. The pathogen-specific antibodies were detected in 539 (58.59 %) pigs with seroprevalence ranging from 33.33 % (Jingdezhen) to 90.91 % (Pingxiang) among different cities (PChlamydia infection among different categories of pigs was also significantly different (PChlamydia is highly prevalent in pigs in Jiangxi province and our results indicate that the presence of Chlamydia exposure in pigs may pose a potential threat to human health.

  10. [MEDICAL AND SOCIAL STATE OF HEALTH IN FAMILIES WITH THE FOCUS OF RESPIRATORY CHLAMYDIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V; Belova, E V; Kin, T I

    2015-01-01

    Medical and social state of health in family persons was assessed on the basis of a questionnaire. Developed by the author's questionnaire included two sections, reflecting the state of health, health risk factors and social characteristics of the family members of ENT patients. In the article there is presented an analysis of the medical and social state of 44 families of patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract associated with chlamydial infection. The comparison was performed with 43 families of ENT patients with unconfirmed respiratory chlamydia. Diagnosis of Chlamydia infection complex was carried out with the use of laboratory methods (direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, polymerase chain reaction). The health and social status of families with hearth respiratory chlamydia were shown to be significantly worse compared with families with the lack of the latter

  11. The Assessment of Cytokine and Antibody Responses to Recombinant 31kDa Brucella Cell-Surface Protein in Brucella Abortus Infected Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khoramabadi

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that specific humoral and cell-mediated responses to BCSP31 is formed during murine host infection with B. abortus. Based on these findings, rBCSP31 can be used in further design of immunogenic strategies for vaccination against brucellosis.

  12. The efficacy of the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity using a brucellin prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus to detect brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.; Muskens, J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight-hundred-and-ninety-six cattle belonging to herds officially designated Brucella-free, and 190 cattle belonging to infected herds were tested with the skin delayed-type hypersensitivity (SDTH) test, using brucellin (273) prepared from a rnucoid strain of Brucella abortus. An increase in skinfol

  13. The Dutch Brucella abortus monitoring programme for cattle: the impact of false-positive serological reactions and comparison of serological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerzaal, A.; Wit, de J.J.; Dijkstra, T.; Bakker, D.; Ziiderveld, van F.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the progra

  14. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Vejarano, M P; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Ferreira Neto, J S

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pprotocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol.

  15. Immune responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strains RB51 or RB51 overexpressing superoxide dismutase and Glycosyltransferase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccination is a tool that could be beneficial in managing the high prevalence of brucellosis in free-ranging bison in Yellowstone National Park. In this study, we characterized immunologic responses and protection against experimental challenge after vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus stra...

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Brucella strains isolated from autochthonous livestock reveals the dominance of B. abortus biovar 3a in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertu, Wilson J; Ducrotoy, Marie J; Muñoz, Pilar M; Mick, Virginie; Zúñiga-Ripa, Amaia; Bryssinckx, Ward; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kabir, Junaid; Welburn, Susan C; Moriyón, Ignacio; Ocholi, Reuben A

    2015-10-22

    Brucellosis is a worldwide widespread zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella. Control of this disease in a given area requires an understanding of the Brucella species circulating in livestock and humans. However, because of the difficulties intrinsic to Brucella isolation and typing, such data are scarce for resource-poor areas. The paucity of bacteriological data and the consequent imperfect epidemiological picture are particularly critical for Sahelian and Sub-Sahara African countries. Here, we report on the characterization of 34 isolates collected between 1976 and 2012 from cattle, sheep and horses in Nigeria. All isolates were identified as Brucella abortus by Bruce-ladder PCR and assigned to biovar 3 by conventional typing. Further analysis by enhanced AMOS-ERY PCR showed that all of them belonged to the 3a sub-biovar, and MLVA analysis grouped them in a cluster clearly distinct from that formed by European B. abortus biovar 3b strains. Nevertheless, MLVA detected heterogeneity within the Nigerian biovar 3a strains. The close genetic profiles of the isolates from cattle, sheep and horses, suggest that, at least in some parts of Nigeria, biovar 3a circulates among animal species that are not the preferential hosts of B. abortus. Consistent with previous genetic analyses of 7 strains from Ivory Cost, Gambia and Togo, the analysis of these 34 Nigerian strains supports the hypothesis that the B. abortus biovar 3a lineage is dominant in West African countries.

  17. Pseudorabies Virus and Brucella abortus from an Expanding Wild Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Population in Southern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskamp, Joshua A; Gee, Kenneth L; Campbell, Tyler A; Silvy, Nova J; Webb, Stephen L

    2016-04-28

    Wild pigs ( Sus scrofa ) are causing increasing ecologic and economic damage at a global scale. Because wild pigs can carry ≥65 diseases that affect livestock, their widespread expansion threatens native wildlife and livestock. We screened wild pigs from south-central Oklahoma, US for antibodies against Brucella abortus , pseudorabies virus (PRV), and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRS). These pathogens were chosen because they are part of eradication programs in the US and could have large economic impacts on domestic livestock if transmitted from wild animals. We tested 282 serum samples during spring 2010 (n=149) and 2011 (n=133) and found an overall exposure rate to PRV of 24.1% (n=68); PRV was detected at two of three study sites. Two wild pigs had detectable antibody to B. abortus , and one had detectable antibody to PRRS. On average, 27% of wild pigs within a sounder were positive for PRV antibody, with 44% of the sounders (16/36) having at least one positive individual. These data highlight that wild pigs could carry pathogens that affect domestic livestock. Because the US is free of these pathogens in commercial livestock operations, continued surveillance and vaccination of domestic livestock are needed. Commercial livestock producers at the wildlife-livestock interface may benefit from spatial prioritization of risk zones to facilitate strategic control efforts.

  18. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and occurrence of bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; ZHENG Wen; XIA Xi-rong; ZHANG Xi-long; TONG Mao-rong; FENG Gen-bao; ZHAO Bei-lei; HU Lan-ping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. Pneumoniae) infection and asthma exacerbation. Methods: A prospective study of C. Pneumoniae infection was conducted in 75 patients with asthma and 63 patients with respiratory tract infection, and 100 blood donors served as controls.The presence of infection was convinced by the polymerase chain reaction and direct immunofluorescence assay for C. Pneumoniae DNA from throat swab specimens and micro-immunofluorescence testing for C. Pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. Results: Prevalence of specific IgG in asthma patients (81.3%) was higher than that of the blood donors (68. 0%, P<0. 05) and was not significantly different from respiratory tract infection patients (68. 0%, P>0. 05). The acute C. Pneumoniae infection rate of symptomatic asthma patients (59.4%) was markedly higher than that of respiratory tract infection patients (34.9%, P<0. 05). The average titer of C. Pneumoniae IgG instead of IgA in asthma patients (48. 38±6. 94)was significantly higher than respiratory tract infection patients (24. 70±8. 77, P<0. 05). Other pathogens were identified in 12 of 21 (57. 1%) asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae. The symptoms of 7 asthma patients with C. Pneumoniae infection were improved through antibiotic treatment. Conclusion: The findings suggest a possible role of C. Pneumoniae infection in asthma.

  19. Effects of Mentha suaveolens essential oil on Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; De Santis, Fiorenzo; Filardo, Simone; Ragno, Rino; Angiolella, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS) can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  20. The pathogenesis of Chlamydia pneumoniae-type pneumonitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施毅; 印洁; 詹化文; 冯根宝; 张希龙; 苏欣; 宋勇; 夏锡荣; 周晓军; 申萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate mice as experimental animals for Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumoniae) infection and investigate the pathogenesis of C.pneumoniae derived pneumonitis.Methods Icr mice were inoculated with the C.pneumoniae strain, CWL-029, either intranasally or intravenously. After a single dose inoculation, mice were killed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 60th days. The pathological changes in lung tissue were analyzed.Results The Icr mice were shown to be susceptible to C.pneumoniae. Inoculation into mice with C.pneumoniae induced a prolonged course of lung infection, as demonstrated by persistence of lung pathology (up to 60 days). Via intranasal inoculation of mice, lung pathology was characterized by patchy interstitial pneumonitis with predominately neutrophil leukocyte infiltration early (within the first 7 days) and lymphocyte infiltration in the later stages (14 days later) of infection. After intravenous inoculation, a similarly developed interstitial pneumonitis was observed, but it was milder and patchier, especially in early stages. C.pneumoniae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) intermittently in the lung tissue. Inoculated mice developed serum IgG antibody responses.Conclusion The Icr mice were susceptible to C.pneumoniae, resulting in a pulmonary infection characterized by interstitial pneumonitis, occurring most strongly via intranasal inoculation.

  1. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (plactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (plactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms.

  2. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans.

  3. Seropositivity for Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae in Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tutanc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infections may trigger acute asthma attacks and may be held responsible for etiopathogenesis in children with asthma. Although bacterial infections attract a limited amount of attention, recently Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP, in particular, are reported to be the possible factors. IgM and IgG seroprevalence was investigated in 66 children patients with bronchial asthma (between the ages of 3 and 14 for CP and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. In a total of 66 cases, 18 (27.2% patients were detected with IgG positivity for CP whereas 27 of them (40.9% were detected with IgG positivity for MP. IgG positivity was determined in 6 patients (13.0% in the control group for CP, and in 6 patients (10.8% in the control group for MP. The rate of the asthma patients with IgG seropositivity for MP was 4 times higher than that of the control group. It was seen that IgG antibody seropositivity for CP was higher in those with more frequent attacks. No such difference was observed in terms of IgG antibody seropositivity for M. pneumoniae. There are many studies indicating that CP and MP infections take an importance place in the etiology of bronchial asthma and asthma attacks in children. The results obtained reveal the effect of both microorganisms on the etiopathogenesis of the bronchial asthma and the increased number of asthma attacks.

  4. [Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: Chlamydia trachomatis and other co-factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Troconis, J T

    1995-09-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in patients with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) was studied in one hundred eighty patients. The Chlamydiazyme test was performed in all of them. Endocervical samples were taken from 103 patients with CIN and 77 women who sought medical attention for different gynecological reasons (CG). Twenty three tests (12.8%) were positive; 15 of them had CIN (14.6%) and 8 were from the control group (10.4%). It was found a statistical significant difference between NIC III and early intercourse, NIC III and age, NIC and vaginal douches and, among NIC and number of pregnancies and deliveries. There was not a significant difference among Ct and early intercourse, number of sexual partners, pregnancies, deliveries, vaginal douches, oral contraceptives (OC), and vaginal discharge. No statistically significant differences were found between NIC and number of sexual partners, and OC and vaginal discharge. The low incidence of Ct in patients with CIN does not mean that Ct does not play a role in the origin and development of the cervical pathology.

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervicitis and urethritis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, J; Vesterinen, E

    1982-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries today, Chlamydia trachomatis seems to be the most important cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is most prevalent in symptomatic women and in persons visiting venereal disease clinics, the asymptomatic carrier rate, particularly in young women, appears to be surprisingly high. In addition to young age and level of sexual activity, the use of oral contraceptives and the presence of cervical ectopy are important risk factors for chlamydial infection. Chlamydial cervicitis often is characterized by a hypertrophic follicular appearance, with severe edema, erythema, friability, and endocervical mucopurulent discharge. On colposcopy, an atypical transformation zone is frequently observed. Papanicolaou smears taken from C. trachomatis culture-positive patients often reveal benign atypias and dyskaryotic changes. C. trachomatis, therefore, being a venereally transmitted intracellular organism, may well play a role in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Future studies on patients with cytological atypias, therefore, also should include tests for C. trachomatis. Prospective studies are needed to determine the natural history and outcome of C. trachomatis-associated atypias and their behavior after adequate therapy. A large proportion of C. trachomatis-infected women also are culture-positive from the urethra. The demonstration that C. trachomatis is a common causative agent of acute urethral syndrome (also called abacterial urethritis, dysuria-pyuria syndrome) in women has been a valuable contribution. The diagnosis of pyuria in a patient with abacterial dysuria is of critical importance, since it suggests a chlamydial etiology and thus is a potentially treatable condition.

  6. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum Transmission Between Regular Sexual Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全中; 齐蔓莉; 缴稳苓

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the transmission ratio and epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) between regular sexual partners. Methods: We collected secretion specimens of geni-tourinary tract from sexual partners who attended our clinic during the period from May 1, 1999 to May 31,2000 and then detected Ct and Uu in the specimens. Results: The inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu infected between sexual partners was 59.22% and 38.92% respectively. There were no correlations between pa-tients' age and the inconsistent rate of Ct and Uu in-fected (P>0.05). The most common inconsistency be-tween regular partners was seen in man with Ct infec-tion while in female with Uu infection; and in man with concurrent infection of Ct while in female only with Uu; or in man with Ct infection while in female no Ct and Uu were detected. Conclusion: The sexual transmitting ability of Ct and Uu is not as active as we have expected.

  7. Effects of Mentha suaveolens Essential Oil on Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sessa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae.

  8. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  9. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  10. Glial Cell-Elicited Activation of Brain Microvasculature in Response to Brucella abortus Infection Requires ASC Inflammasome-Dependent IL-1β Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraglia, M Cruz; Costa Franco, Miriam M; Rodriguez, Ana M; Bellozi, Paula M Q; Ferrari, Carina C; Farias, Maria I; Dennis, Vida A; Barrionuevo, Paula; de Oliveira, Antonio C P; Pitossi, Fernando; Kim, Kwang Sik; Delpino, M Victoria; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2016-05-01

    Blood-brain barrier activation and/or dysfunction are a common feature of human neurobrucellosis, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. In this article, we describe an immune mechanism for inflammatory activation of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in response to infection with Brucella abortus Infection of HBMEC with B. abortus induced the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, and the upregulation of CD54 (ICAM-1), consistent with a state of activation. Culture supernatants (CS) from glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) infected with B. abortus also induced activation of HBMEC, but to a greater extent. Although B. abortus-infected glial cells secreted IL-1β and TNF-α, activation of HBMEC was dependent on IL-1β because CS from B. abortus-infected astrocytes and microglia deficient in caspase-1 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD failed to induce HBMEC activation. Consistently, treatment of CS with neutralizing anti-IL-1β inhibited HBMEC activation. Both absent in melanoma 2 and Nod-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 are partially required for caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion, suggesting that multiple apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD-dependent inflammasomes contribute to IL-1β-induced activation of the brain microvasculature. Inflammasome-mediated IL-1β secretion in glial cells depends on TLR2 and MyD88 adapter-like/TIRAP. Finally, neutrophil and monocyte migration across HBMEC monolayers was increased by CS from Brucella-infected glial cells in an IL-1β-dependent fashion, and the infiltration of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma upon intracranial injection of B. abortus was diminished in the absence of Nod-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 and absent in melanoma 2. Our results indicate that innate immunity of the CNS set in motion by B. abortus contributes to the activation of the blood-brain barrier in neurobrucellosis and IL-1β mediates

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, Pcompared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases.

  12. Performance of three microimmunofluorescence assays for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae immunoglobulin M, G, and A antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mette; Berthelsen, Lene; Lind, Inga

    2002-01-01

    Labsystems (LAB) and MRL Diagnostics (MRL) by investigation of sera from three groups of patients: group I, 83 sera from 28 patients with atypical pneumonia; group II, 37 sera from 16 patients with acute C. pneumoniae or Chlamydia psittaci respiratory tract infection confirmed by PCR or culture; group III......The microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test is considered the "gold standard" for laboratory diagnosis of acute and chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The performance of a MIF test based on C. pneumoniae antigen from Washington Research Foundation (WRF) was compared with those of assays from...

  13. Mathematical analysis of a Chlamydia epidemic model with pulse vaccination strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, G P

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have considered a dynamical model of Chlamydia disease with varying total population size, bilinear incidence rate and pulse vaccination strategy. We have defined two positive numbers R₀ and (R₁≤ R₀). It is proved that there exists an infection-free periodic solution which is globally attractive if R₀ 1 The important mathematical findings for the dynamical behaviour of the Chlamydia disease model are also numerically verified using MATLAB. Finally epidemiological implications of our analytical findings are addressed critically.

  14. Prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, J J; Rettig, P J; Kaplan, D W

    1983-03-01

    The prevalence of cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was examined in 125 girls receiving primary gynecologic care in a general adolescent clinic. C trachomatis was isolated in 8% of the patients using a microtiter tissue-culture method, and N gonorrhoeae was found in 12%. A significant association was found between the use of oral contraceptives and positive chlamydial cultures. Patients with Chlamydia-positive cultures were frequently asymptomatic and exhibited no positive findings on physical examination. Three of ten women with cervical chlamydial infection developed pelvic inflammatory disease. These results support the use of cervical screening for both of these pathogens in sexually active adolescents.

  15. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  16. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term care and institutional living. Sheltered Housing Sheltered housing is often in a home that offers personal-care support, housekeeping services, and meals. Social work services and coordination for activities can be ...

  17. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . HIV Treatment Works Get In Care HIV 101 Locate a ... Sharing Your Status Stay In Care Understanding Care HIV Treatment Cost of HIV Treatment Related Health Conditions Live ...

  18. Non-detection of Chlamydia species in carotid atheroma using generic primers by nested PCR in a population with a high prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamford Kathleen B

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis is controversial. We investigated the presence of C. pneumoniae and other Chlamydia spp. in atheromatous carotid artery tissue. Methods Forty elective carotid endarterectomy patients were recruited (27 males, mean age 65 and 13 females mean age 68, 4 had bilateral carotid endarterectomies (n= 44 endarterectomy specimens. Control specimens were taken from macroscopically normal carotid artery adjacent to the atheromatous lesions (internal controls, except in 8 cases where normal carotid arteries from post mortem (external controls were used. Three case-control pairs were excluded when the HLA DRB gene failed to amplify from the DNA. Genus specific primers to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP gene were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR in 41 atheromatous carotid specimens and paired controls. PCR inhibition was monitored by spiking with target C. trachomatis. Atheroma severity was graded histologically. Plasma samples were tested by microimmunofluorescence (MIF for antibodies to C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci and the corresponding white cells were tested for Chlamydia spp. by nPCR. Results C. pneumoniae was not detected in any carotid specimen. Twenty-five of 38 (66% plasma specimens were positive for C. pneumoniae IgG, 2/38 (5% for C. trachomatis IgG and 1/38 (3% for C. psittaci IgG. Conclusions We were unable to show an association between the presence of Chlamydia spp. and atheroma in carotid arteries in the presence of a high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae antibodies in Northern Ireland.

  19. Membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH are major constituents of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Per H; Christiansen, Gunna; Roepstorff, P;

    2000-01-01

    The outer membrane complex of Chlamydia is involved in the initial adherence and ingestion of Chlamydia by the host cell. In order to identify novel proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2, proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis....... By silver staining of the protein profile, a major protein doublet of 100-110 kDa was detected. In-gel tryptic digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry identified these proteins as the putative outer membrane proteins PmpG and PmpH....

  20. Evidence for the existence of two new members of the family Chlamydiaceae and proposal of Chlamydia avium sp. nov. and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Laroucau, Karine; Riege, Konstantin; Wehner, Stefanie; Dilcher, Meik; Creasy, Heather Huot; Weidmann, Manfred; Myers, Garry; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Ruettger, Anke; Bavoil, Patrik M; Hufert, Frank T; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Marz, Manja

    2014-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae with the recombined single genus Chlamydia currently comprises nine species, all of which are obligate intracellular organisms distinguished by a unique biphasic developmental cycle. Anecdotal evidence from epidemiological surveys in flocks of poultry, pigeons and psittacine birds have indicated the presence of non-classified chlamydial strains, some of which may act as pathogens. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA and ompA genes, as well as multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 field isolates were conducted. All independent analyses assigned the strains into two different clades of monophyletic origin corresponding to pigeon and psittacine strains or poultry isolates, respectively. Comparative genome analysis involving the type strains of currently accepted Chlamydiaceae species and the designated type strains representing the two new clades confirmed that the latter could be classified into two different species as their average nucleotide identity (ANI) values were always below 94%, both with the closest relative species and between themselves. In view of the evidence obtained from the analyses, we propose the addition of two new species to the current classification: Chlamydia avium sp. nov. comprising strains from pigeons and psittacine birds (type strain 10DC88(T); DSMZ: DSM27005(T), CSUR: P3508(T)) and Chlamydia gallinacea sp. nov. comprising strains from poultry (type strain 08-1274/3(T); DSMZ: DSM27451(T), CSUR: P3509(T)).

  1. Comparative proteome analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar A, D and L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Gevaert, Kris; Demol, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis represents a group of human pathogenic obligate intracellular and gram-negative bacteria. The genome of C. trachomatis D comprises 894 open reading frames (ORFs). In this study the global expression of genes in C. trachomatis A, D and L2, which are responsible for different ...

  2. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  3. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars;

    1991-01-01

    after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...... insemination before the inoculation takes place. Udgivelsesdato: 1991...

  4. Impact of Mass Distribution of Azithromycin on the Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Mohammed, Zeena; Massae, Patrick A.; Shao, John F.; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David C. W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2005-01-01

    In a community of Tanzania where trachoma is endemic, we cultured conjunctival swabs from all residents who had active trachoma and were PCR positive for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, both before (43 isolates) and 2 months after (9 isolates) mass antibiotic treatment. No clinically or programmatically significant increase in azithromycin or tetracycline resistance was observed. PMID:16251338

  5. Impact of Mass Distribution of Azithromycin on the Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Anthony W.; Mohammed, Zeena; Massae, Patrick A.; Shao, John F.; Foster, Allen; Mabey, David C.W.; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2005-01-01

    In a community of Tanzania where trachoma is endemic, we cultured conjunctival swabs from all residents who had active trachoma and were PCR positive for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis, both before (43 isolates) and 2 months after (9 isolates) mass antibiotic treatment. No clinically or programmatically significant increase in azithromycin or tetracycline resistance was observed.

  6. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Powell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ;

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  8. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    1995-01-01

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of t

  9. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent Winding;

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  10. Chlamydia psittaci : a relevant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in two Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoorenberg, S M C; Bos, W J W; van Hannen, E J; Dijkstra, F; Heddema, E R; van Velzen-Blad, H; Heijligenberg, R; Grutters, J C; de Jongh, B M; Meijvis, SCA

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Of all hospitalised community-acquired pneumonias (CAPs) only a few are known to be caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Most likely the reported incidence, ranging from of 0% to 2.1%, is an underestimation of the real incidence, since detection of psittacosis is frequently not incorporated in

  11. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); N. den Toom; T.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; E. Stolz (Ernst); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.G.V. Quint (Wim); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least

  12. Detection of infections of the eye with Chlamydia trachomatis by the polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Fan (Jun); W.Y. Zhang (Wen); Y.Y. Wu (Yu); X.Y. Jing (Xiou); E.C.J. Claas (Eric)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to test the diagnostic feasibility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in eye swabs from patients with conjunctivitis, and to establish the basic technique of the PCR for epidemiological survey. The resul

  13. Quantitative Detection of Respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection by Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Kuoppa, Yvonne; Boman, Jens; Scott, Lena; Kumlin, Urban; Eriksson, Iréne; Allard, Annika

    2002-01-01

    Real-time PCR was evaluated as a quantitative diagnostic method for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection using different respiratory samples. Real-time PCR had efficiency equal to or better than that of nested touchdown PCR. This study confirmed sputum as the best sampling material to detect an ongoing C. pneumoniae infection.

  14. One-tube nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cribb Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a one-tube nested PCR test, which allows the detection of minimal quantities of Chlamydia trachomatis in human fluids. This assay includes the use of an internal control to avoid false negative results due to the presence of inhibitors. The results obtained show that this assay is robust enough to be used for clinical diagnosis.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy: knowledge, test practices, and attitudes of Dutch midwives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Rours, G.I.J.G.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnancy may lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. In the Netherlands, testing for C. trachomatis is based on risk assessment. We assessed midwives' knowledge, test practices, assessment of risk behavior, and attitudes regarding testing for C. trachomati

  16. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  17. Risk Factors for Incident and Redetected Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Elise; Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in women, including the role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: In this population-based, prospective cohort study conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark, 10,729 women aged 20 to 29 y...

  18. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis From Patients With Different Degrees of Clinical Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, L.; de Vries, H.J.C.; Klint, M.; Herrmann, B.; Morré, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In the past, contradictory results have been obtained linking Chlamydia trachomatis serovars (ompA gene) to different clinical courses of infection. Methods: A high resolution multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system was used to genotype 6 genetic regions, including ompA, in 70 Dutch uro

  19. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis and cap...... the contribution of the MOMP variable segments to the topographical interactions which determine the antigenic structure responsible for human immune response....

  20. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands. Oppo

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assa

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rours, G I J G; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar Anne; Ditkowsky, Jared; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Verkooyen, R P; de Groot, R.; Verbrugh, H A; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis screening durin

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis screening in Dutch pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.J.G. Rours (Ingrid); Smith-Norowitz, T.A. (Tamar Anne); Ditkowsky, J. (Jared); M.R. Hammerschlag; R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); de Groot, R.; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.J. Postma (Maarten)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChlamydia trachomatis infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for women and their offspring. Chlamydial infections are largely asymptomatic. Hence, prevention is based on screening. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of C. trachomatis scr

  4. Low prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.S.; Westh, Henrik T.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Fifty consecutive C trachomatis urine samples from each of the 14 regional microbiology laboratories were initially tested and re-analysed with a real-time C trachomatis PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene...

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel Chlamydia trachomatis reticulate body protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Allan C; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis comprises 894 genes predicted by computer-based analysis. As part of a large-scale proteome analysis of C. trachomatis, a small abundant protein encoded by a previously unrecognized novel 204-bp open reading frame was identi...

  6. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  7. Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in screening infertile women for tubal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, S. P.; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C.; Land, J. A.; Ouburg, S.; Morre, S. A.; Greub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Since Waddlia chondrophila is closely related to Chlamydia trachomatis, we hypothesise that W. chondrophila may also be associated with tubal factor infertility (TFI) in women, a major complication of chronic C. trachomatis infection. Five hundred twenty serum samples were tested for anti-Waddlia an

  8. Immunoglobulin A antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J.S; Juul, Svend; Vammen, S

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between the progression of small abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. METHODS: Patients from a hospital-based mass screening programme for AAA with annual follow-up (mean 2.7 years....... pneumoniae. Aneurysm progression correlated with evidence of chronic C. pneumoniae infection....

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis.

  10. Sexual behavior and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic students in Germany and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Guillén-Grima, F; Prüfer-Krämer, L; Serrano-Monzo, I; Marin-Fernandez, B; Aguinaga-Ontoso, I; Krämer, A

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to assess patterns of sexual activity, preventive behaviors, contraceptive use, and the prevalence of chlamydia infection in student populations from two countries. 188 asymptomatic students of the University of Bielefeld, Germany and 590 students of the Navarra Public University, Spain were surveyed using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Urine samples were analyzed by ligase chain reaction technique for chlamydia infection. Compared to German students, Spanish students were less likely to have more than one sex partner within the last 12 months (OR: 0.62; CI: 0.46-0.83), to have sexual intercourse more than one time per week (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.52-0.93) and to use oral contraceptives (OR: 0.16; CI: 0.10-0.26). They reported a higher use of condoms (OR: 2.93; CI: 2.01-4.27) and were more likely to always use condoms with a new sex partner (OR: 2.47; CI: 1.72-3.53). The prevalence of chlamydia infection was considerably higher in German students (5.8% [corrected] in females; 2.2% in males) than in Spanish students, where no case was found. The higher frequency of sexual activity, a higher engagement in risk-taking sexual behavior and the lower use of barrier contraceptives may contribute to the higher prevalence of chlamydia infection in German students.

  11. Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L3: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Er-xun; GAO Xing; YIN Yue-ping; WANG Fu-sheng; YAO Wei-dong; GONG Xiang-qian; CHEN Xiang-sheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a systemic sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) L1, L2 and L3, the organism gains entrance through skin breaks and abrasions and travels via the lymphatics to multiply within mononuclear phagocytes in regional lymph nodes.

  12. 衣原体质粒研究进展%Progress in Research of Chlamydia Plasmid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭菁; 刘良专; 吴移谋

    2013-01-01

    质粒是染色体外的遗传物质,大部分衣原体中存在隐蔽性质粒,其特有的基因组学和编码的蛋白对衣原体的生长周期、毒力、致病性和免疫性等起着十分重要的作用,对衣原体质粒的研究有助于了解其生物学作用,从而更好的预防与治疗衣原体感染的感染.%Plasmids are extrachromosomal genetic material. There are cryptic plasmids in most of Chlamydia, whose unique genomics and proteins encoded by the genomics play an important role in the growth cycle, virulence, pathogenicity and immunity of chlamydia. The studying of chlamydia plasmid is benefit of understanding their biological roles and base the prevention and treatment of Chlamydia infection.

  13. Serology for Brucella abortus in cart horses from an urban area in Brazil Sorologia para Brucella abortus em cavalos de carroça de área urbana do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M.A.P. Antunes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a infecção por Brucella abortus em cavalos de carroça de Curitiba e São José dos Pinhais-PR. Um total de 123 amostras foi submetido ao teste do antígeno tamponado acidificado (ATA, soroaglutinação lenta em tubos (SAL e prova do 2-mercaptoetanol (2-ME para confirmação dos resultados. Oito (6,5% equinos foram positivos para o ATA e um animal permaneceu positivo ao teste confirmatório. Existem evidências da presença de brucelose entre os cavalos de carroça.

  14. Diagnóstico sorológico da brucelose bovina em animais adultos vacinados com dose reduzida da cepa 19 de Brucella abortus Serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in adult herd vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 reduced dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Jardim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente trabalho avaliou-se o uso de dose reduzida da vacina produzida com a amostra 19 de Brucella abortus, em rebanho adulto negativo para a enfermidade, por meio de técnicas de diagnóstico sorológico preconizadas pelo Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose Animal e por um ensaio indireto de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA ID. A prova de fixação de complemento detectou 46,77% de positivos, o antígeno acidificado tamponado 67,74%, o 2-mercaptoetanol com soroaglutinação lenta 87,09% e o ELISA ID 100%. A dose reduzida interferiu no diagnóstico sorológico. Nenhuma das técnicas apresentou especificidade adequada para uso em rebanho nestas condições, até 3 meses após a vacinação.The study evaluated the use of a reduced dose of the Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine, in an adult herd negative for the disease, by serological diagnostic techniques, advocated by the Brazilian Program for Animal Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Control and Eradication, and by an indirect ELISA. The complement fixation test detecteed 46.77% positives, the rose bengal test 67.74%, the mercaptoethanol with standard agglutination test 87.09% and the ELISA ID 100%. The reduced dose influenced the serological diagnosis. None of the techniques reached a suitable specificity for use in the herd under those conditions, up to 3 months after vaccination.

  15. Construction of a highly flexible and comprehensive gene collection representing the ORFeome of the human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Christina J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn is the leading intracellular human pathogen responsible for respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis. Basic and applied research in pathogen biology, especially the elaboration of new mechanism-based anti-pathogen strategies, target discovery and drug development, rely heavily on the availability of the entire set of pathogen open reading frames, the ORFeome. The ORFeome of Cpn will enable genome- and proteome-wide systematic analysis of Cpn, which will improve our understanding of the molecular networks and mechanisms underlying and governing its pathogenesis. Results Here we report the construction of a comprehensive gene collection covering 98.5% of the 1052 predicted and verified ORFs of Cpn (Chlamydia pneumoniae strain CWL029 in Gateway® ‘entry’ vectors. Based on genomic DNA isolated from the vascular chlamydial strain CV-6, we constructed an ORFeome library that contains 869 unique Gateway® entry clones (83% coverage and an additional 168 PCR-verified ‘pooled’ entry clones, reaching an overall coverage of ~98.5% of the predicted CWL029 ORFs. The high quality of the ORFeome library was verified by PCR-gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing, and its functionality was demonstrated by expressing panels of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli and by genome-wide protein interaction analysis for a test set of three Cpn virulence factors in a yeast 2-hybrid system. The ORFeome is available in different configurations of resource stocks, PCR-products, purified plasmid DNA, and living cultures of E. coli harboring the desired entry clone or pooled entry clones. All resources are available in 96-well microtiterplates. Conclusion This first ORFeome library for Cpn provides an essential new tool for this important pathogen. The high coverage of entry clones will enable a systems biology approach for Cpn or host–pathogen analysis. The high yield of

  16. Staff views of an opportunistic chlamydia testing pilot in a primary health organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKernon S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The Auckland chlamydia pilot was one of three pilots funded by the Ministry of Health to trial implementation of the 2008 Chlamydia Management Guidelines prior to national roll-out. AIM: To assess what elements in the testing programme pilot worked best for staff and to determine how an opportunistic testing programme could be better configured to meet staff needs and preferences. METHODS: A staff survey listed key chlamydia testing tasks in chronological order, and service interventions supporting these tasks. Staff were asked to rate each task on its difficulty prior to the pilot, and then on the difference the pilot had made to each task. They were also asked to rate service interventions on their usefulness during the pilot implementation. RESULTS: The survey had a response rate of 94%. The testing tasks posing the greatest difficulties to staff were those involving patient interactions (41% and management of follow-up (52%. About 70% of staff felt tasks were improved by the pilot. Staff considered the three most useful service interventions to be a chlamydia-specific template created for the practice management system, provision of printed patient resources, and regular team discussions with other staff. DISCUSSION: A significant proportion of staff reported difficulties with routine tasks required for opportunistic testing for chlamydia, highlighting the need to involve staff during programme design. Practice nurse-led approaches to future opportunistic testing programmes should be considered as nurses had a more positive response to the pilot and nurse-led approaches have been shown to be successful overseas.

  17. Effects of population based screening for Chlamydia infections in the Netherlands limited by declining participation rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16-29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level

  18. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g. FtsZ and late (e.g. FtsI/Pbp3 components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with E. coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

  19. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation.

  20. Phosphoproteomic analysis of the Chlamydia caviae elementary body and reticulate body forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Derek J; Adams, Nancy E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria responsible for significant diseases in humans and economically important domestic animals. These pathogens undergo a unique biphasic developmental cycle transitioning between the environmentally stable elementary body (EB) and the replicative intracellular reticulate body (RB), a conversion that appears to require extensive regulation of protein synthesis and function. However, Chlamydia possess a limited number of canonical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation of proteins in bacteria has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of post-translational control of protein function. We utilized 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with phosphoprotein staining and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis to map the phosphoproteome of the EB and RB forms of Chlamydia caviae. Forty-two non-redundant phosphorylated proteins were identified (some proteins were present in multiple locations within the gels). Thirty-four phosphorylated proteins were identified in EBs, including proteins found in central metabolism and protein synthesis, Chlamydia-specific hypothetical proteins and virulence-related proteins. Eleven phosphorylated proteins were identified in RBs, mostly involved in protein synthesis and folding and a single virulence-related protein. Only three phosphoproteins were found in both EB and RB phosphoproteomes. Collectively, 41 of 42 C. caviae phosphoproteins were present across Chlamydia species, consistent with the existence of a conserved chlamydial phosphoproteome. The abundance of stage-specific phosphoproteins suggests that protein phosphorylation may play a role in regulating the function of developmental-stage-specific proteins and/or may function in concert with other factors in directing EB-RB transitions.

  1. Chlamydia muridarum infection subverts dendritic cell function to promote Th2 immunity and airways hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiko, Gerard E; Phipps, Simon; Hickey, Danica K; Lam, Chuan En; Hansbro, Philip M; Foster, Paul S; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2008-02-15

    There is strong epidemiological evidence that Chlamydia infection can lead to exacerbation of asthma. However, the mechanism(s) whereby chlamydial infection, which normally elicits a strong Th type 1 (Th1) immune response, can exacerbate asthma, a disease characterized by dominant Th type 2 (Th2) immune responses, remains unclear. In the present study, we show that Chlamydia muridarum infection of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) modulates the phenotype, cytokine secretion profile, and Ag-presenting capability of these BMDC. Chlamydia-infected BMDC express lower levels of CD80 and increased CD86 compared with noninfected BMDC. When infected with Chlamydia, BMDC secrete increased TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-13. OVA peptide-pulsed infected BMDC induced significant proliferation of transgenic CD4(+) DO11.10 (D10) T cells, strongly inhibited IFN-gamma secretion by D10 cells, and promoted a Th2 phenotype. Intratracheal transfer of infected, but not control noninfected, OVA peptide-pulsed BMDC to naive BALB/c mice, which had been i.v. infused with naive D10 T cells, resulted in increased levels of IL-10 and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Recipients of these infected BMDC showed significant increases in airways resistance and decreased airways compliance compared with mice that had received noninfected BMDC, indicative of the development of airways hyperreactivity. Collectively, these data suggest that Chlamydia infection of DCs allows the pathogen to deviate the induced immune response from a protective Th1 to a nonprotective Th2 response that could permit ongoing chronic infection. In the setting of allergic airways inflammation, this infection may then contribute to exacerbation of the asthmatic phenotype.

  2. Chlamydia pneumoniae and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque: a prospective study Chlamydia pneumoniae e placa aterosclerótica sintomática de carótida: um estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens J. Gagliardi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible link between symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque and Chlamydia pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Recently, several studies have demonstrated that there may be a possible link between Chlamydia pneumonia and carotid atherosclerosis, however the real role of Chlamydia pneumoniae is not completely understood. METHOD: This is a prospective study with a total of 52 patients analyzed. All patients had been submitted to endarterectomy, and had suffered thrombotic ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack up to 60 days prior to the surgery. Every patient presented carotid stenosis over 70%. The plaque was removed during the surgery and the laboratory exams were immediately done. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The PCR analyses of all 52 patients were negative for Chlamydia pneumoniae. CONCLUSION: These initial results do not show a relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae and symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque.OBJETIVO: Investigar a possível relação entre placa sintomática de carótidas e Chlamydia pneumoniae. INTRODUÇÃO: Vários estudos têm demonstrado uma possível relação entre Chlamydia pneumonia e aterosclerose carotídea, entretanto o papel definitivo da bactéria não é totalmente conhecido. Há muita especulação: poderia iniciar o processo aterosclerótico, agravá-lo ou desestabilizá-lo. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com um total de 52 pacientes, endarterectomizados e previamente acometidos de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico ou crise isquêmica transitória, em até 60 dias antes da cirurgia. Todos os pacientes apresentavam estenose carotídea superior a 70%. Os testes laboratoriais foram realizados imediatamente após a endarterectomia. A Chlamydia pneumoniae foi pesquisada através de exame de DNA com reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR. RESULTADOS: O PCR dos 52 pacientes foram negativos para Chlamydia

  3. Seminal vesiculitis and orchitis caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in young bison bulls from South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyan, J C; Holland, S D; Gidlewski, T; Saari, D A; Jensen, A E; Ewalt, D R; Hennager, S G; Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F

    1997-10-01

    Specimens of blood, lymph nodes, spleens, and genitalia were collected at slaughter from seven 3- and 4-year-old male bison that had recently become seropositive for brucellosis. The animals were from a captive herd of approximately 3,500 bison located in central South Dakota. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from 2 or more specimens from each of 6 bison. Severe necrotizing and pyogranulomatous orchitis was present in 1 testicle from 1 bull, and 4 animals had mild to marked seminal vesiculitis. Immunohistochemical staining labeled organisms in seminal vesicles and the testicle with orchitis. Ultrastructurally, intact bacilli were present in cytoplasmic vacuoles of some macrophages; other macrophages contained intracytoplasmic aggregates of calcified coccobacilli.

  4. Viabilidade da Brucella abortus durante a cura de queijo parmesão fabricado com leite experimentalmente contaminado

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A legislação brasileira permite o uso de leite cru na fabricação de queijos curados se o período de cura for superior a 60 dias (a 5°C ou mais). Entretanto, não há evidência científica sólida de que durante a cura ocorre suficiente inativação de Brucella abortus, sob a perspectiva da segurança dos alimentos. Além disso, não há metodologia oficial para quantificação de brucelas em matriz alimentar. Desta forma este projeto propõe um protocolo para estudos da curva de decaimento de Brucella abo...

  5. Living language

    CERN Document Server

    Shuttleworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Living Language 3rd edition' has been devised to meet all the new specifications for AS and A level English Language. The best-selling previous edition has been comprehensively revised to ensure full assessment objectives coverage and fulfilment, and delivery of the new four-unit courses from 2008 onwards. 'Living Language 3rd edition' provides linguistic theory, information and ideas which are easily accessed via supported activities and investigations. The text will actively develop students' skills in reading, listening and responding to an extensive range of text genres and data. Building

  6. Sensitivities of PCR, MicroTrak, ChlamydiaEIA, IDEIA, and PACE 2 for purified Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in urine, peripheral blood, peripheral blood leukocytes, and synovial fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, J G; Scharmann, K; Wollenhaupt, J; Nettelnbreker, E; Hopf, S.; Zeidler, H

    1995-01-01

    Routine microbiological diagnosis of Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis is based mainly on the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis with urogenital swabs or in urine. Because chlamydial antigen, rRNA, and DNA are present in low quantities in the inflamed joint, highly sensitive assays are needed to detect C. trachomatis not only at the primary site of infection but also in peripheral blood and peripheral blood leukocytes, which are suspected carriers for dissemination, and in synovial fluid. ...

  7. Killing of diverse eye pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Fusarium solani, and Chlamydia trachomatis) with alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Blindness is caused by eye pathogens that include a free-living protist (Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. byersi, and/or other Acanthamoeba spp.), a fungus (Fusarium solani), and a bacterium (Chlamydia trachomatis). Hand-eye contact is likely a contributor to the spread of these pathogens, and so hand washing with soap and water or alcohol–based hand sanitizers (when water is not available) might reduce their transmission. Recently we showed that ethanol and isopropanol in concentrations present in hand sanitizers kill walled cysts of Giardia and Entamoeba, causes of diarrhea and dysentery, respectively. The goal here was to determine whether these alcohols might kill infectious forms of representative eye pathogens (trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba, conidia of F. solani, or elementary bodies of C. trachomatis). Methodology/Principal findings We found that treatment with 63% ethanol or 63% isopropanol kills >99% of Acanthamoeba trophozoites after 30 sec exposure, as shown by labeling with propidium iodide (PI) and failure to grow in culture. In contrast, Acanthamoeba cysts, which contain cellulose fibers in their wall, are relatively more resistant to these alcohols, particularly isopropanol. Depending upon the strain tested, 80 to 99% of Acanthamoeba cysts were killed by 63% ethanol after 2 min and 95 to 99% were killed by 80% ethanol after 30 sec, as shown by PI labeling and reduced rates of excystation in vitro. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 30 sec) kill >99% of F. solani conidia, which have a wall of chitin and glucan fibrils, as demonstrated by PI labeling and colony counts on nutrient agar plates. Both ethanol and isopropanol (63% for 60 sec) inactivate 96 to 99% of elementary bodies of C. trachomatis, which have a wall of lipopolysaccharide but lack peptidoglycan, as measured by quantitative cultures to calculate inclusion forming units. Conclusions/Significance In summary, alcohols kill infectious forms of Acanthamoeba, F. solani, and

  8. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young

  9. Crystallographic and kinetic study of riboflavin synthase from Brucella abortus, a chemotherapeutic target with an enhanced intrinsic flexibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serer, María I.; Bonomi, Hernán R. [IIBBA–CONICET, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina); Guimarães, Beatriz G. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Rossi, Rolando C. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 956, C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Klinke, Sebastián, E-mail: sklinke@leloir.org.ar [IIBBA–CONICET, Avenida Patricias Argentinas 435, C1405BWE Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-05-01

    This work reports crystal structures of trimeric riboflavin synthase from the pathogen B. abortus both as the apo protein and in complex with several ligands of interest. It is shown that ligand binding drives the assembly of the unique active site of the trimer, and these findings are complemented by a detailed kinetic study on this enzyme, in which marked inhibition by substrate and product was observed. Riboflavin synthase (RS) catalyzes the last step of riboflavin biosynthesis in microorganisms and plants, which corresponds to the dismutation of two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine to yield one molecule of riboflavin and one molecule of 5-amino-6-ribitylamino-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedione. Owing to the absence of this enzyme in animals and the fact that most pathogenic bacteria show a strict dependence on riboflavin biosynthesis, RS has been proposed as a potential target for antimicrobial drug development. Eubacterial, fungal and plant RSs assemble as homotrimers lacking C{sub 3} symmetry. Each monomer can bind two substrate molecules, yet there is only one active site for the whole enzyme, which is located at the interface between two neighbouring chains. This work reports the crystallographic structure of RS from the pathogenic bacterium Brucella abortus (the aetiological agent of the disease brucellosis) in its apo form, in complex with riboflavin and in complex with two different product analogues, being the first time that the structure of an intact RS trimer with bound ligands has been solved. These crystal models support the hypothesis of enhanced flexibility in the particle and also highlight the role of the ligands in assembling the unique active site. Kinetic and binding studies were also performed to complement these findings. The structural and biochemical information generated may be useful for the rational design of novel RS inhibitors with antimicrobial activity.

  10. Performance of skin tests with allergens from B. melitensis B115 and rough B. abortus mutants for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; De Miguel, M J; Marín, C M; Barberán, M; Conde-Álvarez, R; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M

    2014-01-10

    Swine brucellosis by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease whose control is based on serological testing and culling. However, current serological tests detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O/PS) moiety of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), and thus lack specificity when infections by Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 and other gram-negative bacteria carrying cross-reacting O/PS occur. The skin test with the protein-rich brucellin extract obtained from rough B. melitensis B115 is assumed to be specific for discriminating these false positive serological reactions (FPSR). However, B115 strain, although unable to synthesize S-LPS, accumulates O/PS internally, which could cause diagnostic problems. Since the brucellin skin test has been seldom used in pigs and FPSR are common in these animals, we assessed its performance using cytosoluble protein extracts obtained from B. abortus rough mutants in manBcore or per genes (critical for O/PS biosynthesis) and B. melitensis B115. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were determined in B. suis biovar 2 culture positive and brucellosis free sows, and apparent prevalence in sows of unknown individual bacteriological and serological status belonging to B. suis biovar 2 naturally infected herds. Moreover, the specificity in discriminating brucellosis from FPSR was assessed in brucellosis free boars showing FPSR. The skin test with B. abortus ΔmanBcore and B. melitensis B115 allergens performed similarly, and the former one resulted in 100% specificity when testing animals showing FPSR in indirect ELISA, Rose Bengal and complement fixation serological tests. We conclude that O/PS-free genetically defined mutants represent an appropriate alternative to obtain Brucella protein extracts for diagnosing swine brucellosis.

  11. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  12. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  13. Delivery of chlamydia screening to young women requesting emergency hormonal contraception at pharmacies in Manchester, UK: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More women are requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC at pharmacies where screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake of free postal chlamydia screening by women under 25 years who requested EHC at pharmacies in Manchester, UK. Methods Six Primary Care Trusts (PCTs that had contracted with pharmacies to provide free EHC, requested the largest EHC providers (≥ 40 doses annually to also offer these clients a coded chlamydia home testing kit. Pharmacies kept records of the ages and numbers of women who accepted or refused chlamydia kits. Women sent urine samples directly to the laboratory for testing and positive cases were notified. Audit data on EHC coverage was obtained from PCTs to assess the proportion of clients eligible for screening and to verify the uptake rate. Results 33 pharmacies participated. Audit data for 131 pharmacy months indicated that only 24.8% (675/2718 of women provided EHC were also offered chlamydia screening. Based on tracking forms provided by pharmacies for the whole of the study, 1348/2904 EHC clients (46.4% who had been offered screening accepted a screening kit. 264 (17.6% of those who accepted a kit returned a sample, of whom 24 (9.1% were chlamydia-positive. There was an increase in chlamydia positivity with age (OR: 1.2 per year; 1.04 to 1.44; p = 0.015. Conclusion Chlamydia screening for EHC pharmacy clients is warranted but failure of pharmacists to target all EHC clients represented a missed opportunity for treating a well defined high-risk group.

  14. Improving the prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) : a study using Chlamydia trachomatis as a model infection

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Despite the current preventive strategies sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising. This thesis presents a model with the aim of improving the prevention of STIs. Chlamydia being the most common STI in Sweden serves as a model infection. The presented model is based on five performed studies. First we evaluated the feasibility of taking a urine sample at home and sending it with mail for Chlamydia analysis. Postal screening was thereafter analyzed for cost effectiveness estimating th...

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Vellinga Akke; O'Donovan Diarmuid; Glacken Marita; Cormican Martin; Brennan Wendy; O'Connell Emer; Cahill Niall; Lysaght Fionnguala; O'Donnell Joan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting duri...

  16. Detection of Chlamydia in the peripheral blood cells of normal donors using in vitro culture, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Chester

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp are medically significant infectious agents associated with various chronic human pathologies. Nevertheless, specific roles in disease progression or initiation are incompletely defined. Both pathogens infect established cell lines in vitro and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has detected Chlamydia DNA in various clinical specimens as well as in normal donor peripheral blood monocytes (PBMC. However, Chlamydia infection of other blood cell types, quantification of Chlamydia infected cells in peripheral blood and transmission of this infection in vitro have not been examined. Methods Cp specific titers were assessed for sera from 459 normal human donor blood (NBD samples. Isolated white blood cells (WBC were assayed by in vitro culture to evaluate infection transmission of blood cell borne chlamydiae. Smears of fresh blood samples (FB were dual immunostained for microscopic identification of Chlamydia-infected cell types and aliquots also assessed using Flow Cytometry (FC. Results ELISA demonstrated that 219 (47.7% of the NBD samples exhibit elevated anti-Cp antibody titers. Imunofluorescence microscopy of smears demonstrated 113 (24.6% of samples contained intracellular Chlamydia and monoclonals to specific CD markers showed that in vivo infection of neutrophil and eosinophil/basophil cells as well as monocytes occurs. In vitro culture established WBCs of 114 (24.8% of the NBD samples harbored infectious chlamydiae, clinically a potentially source of transmission, FC demonstrated both Chlamydia infected and uninfected cells can be readily identified and quantified. Conclusion NBD can harbor infected neutrophils, eosinophil/basophils and monocytes. The chlamydiae are infectious in vitro, and both total, and cell type specific Chlamydia carriage is quantifiable by FC.

  17. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  18. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  19. Pilot prevalence evaluation of Chlamydia Trachomatis by PCR in female infertile referred to study center of infertility in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Goshayeshi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common diseases as sexually transferred in world. According to the World Health Organization statistics, approximately 92 million new Chlamydia trachomatis infection occur in the world. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is the cause of tubal obstruction, ectopic pregnancy and infertility in women. The aim of this study is prevalence evaluation of Chlamydia Trachomatis by PCR in female infertile referred to Montasarieh study center of infertility in Mashhad. Materials and Methods: The cervical swab specimens were collected from 100 infertile (as case and 30 fertile (as control group women attending to the infertility center of Mash-had Medical University. DNA extraction was performed from clinical specimens using DNA extraction kit. In this study, in addition to PCR reaction by commercial kit, PCR test was performed using specific primers and probe for CTCP gene. Results: The results of PCR reaction using the kit was match with PCR test and showed that the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is 21% in infertile women and 3.3% in normal fertile women that was statistically significant (p=0.024. Conclusion: Considering the high sensitivity of PCR method for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, this method can be useful for routine screening.

  20. Isolation of a field strain of Brucella abortus from RB51-vaccinated- and brucellosis-seronegative bovine yearlings that calved normally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Estrada, Félix Mejía; Michel-GómezFlores, Fernando; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Acosta, Rómulo Beltrán; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2013-02-01

    A study was carried out in Pichucalco, Chiapas (Mexico) to determine whether recently calved cows or those that aborted shed Brucella. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis was made in all animals (209). Six of the cows that calved normally and two that aborted underwent a bacteriological study of milk and vaginal exudate. Brucella abortus was isolated from vaginal exudate samples in two 3- to 4-year-old seronegative first-birth cows that had calved normally. This was confirmed through bacteriological identification and PCR as a field strain and smooth phenotypes. We conclude that seronegative cows vaccinated with RB51 which calved normally and shed B. abortus in the vaginal exudate after calving could be a serious problem because these cows are overlooked in routine diagnoses and are a source of Brucella infection.