Sample records for chiyoda thoroughbred ct-121

  1. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, D.P. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)


    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  2. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  3. Process of Levee Breach by Overflow at the Full Scale Chiyoda Experimental Channel (United States)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.


    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Previous studies on overflow-induced levee breaches have not revealed the mechanisms of these issues on a full-scale 3D basis (i.e., side-overflow taking river flow on the riverside land into consideration). It is important to clarify these mechanisms in terms of disaster prevention and for the purpose of bringing progress in future studies on overflow-induced failure. Levees (levee crown width is 3m in 2010 and 6m in 2011, levee height is 3m, levee length is 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. And in case of 6m of the levee crown width, that time in becomes long. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  4. Monitoring surface conditions of a Thoroughbred racetrack. (United States)

    Clanton, C; Kobluk, C; Robinson, R A; Gordon, B


    During a pilot study at a Thoroughbred racetrack, information was collected to include weather conditions and track surface properties (moisture content, composition, strength, and coefficient of friction between surface and hoof). Measured weather variables did not correlate to any pattern of horse injuries of breakdowns. Surface moisture content was variable, whereas the moisture content of the compacted cushion was constant. Track surfaces around the starting chutes were more compacted than were other areas of the track. Next to the rail, track surface was softer than the surface toward the middle of the track. The coefficient of friction between a hoof and the surface was not affected by location or surface moisture content.

  5. A genome scan for positive selection in thoroughbred horses.

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    Jingjing Gu

    Full Text Available Thoroughbred horses have been selected for exceptional racing performance resulting in system-wide structural and functional adaptations contributing to elite athletic phenotypes. Because selection has been recent and intense in a closed population that stems from a small number of founder animals Thoroughbreds represent a unique population within which to identify genomic contributions to exercise-related traits. Employing a population genetics-based hitchhiking mapping approach we performed a genome scan using 394 autosomal and X chromosome microsatellite loci and identified positively selected loci in the extreme tail-ends of the empirical distributions for (1 deviations from expected heterozygosity (Ewens-Watterson test in Thoroughbred (n = 112 and (2 global differentiation among four geographically diverse horse populations (F(ST. We found positively selected genomic regions in Thoroughbred enriched for phosphoinositide-mediated signalling (3.2-fold enrichment; P<0.01, insulin receptor signalling (5.0-fold enrichment; P<0.01 and lipid transport (2.2-fold enrichment; P<0.05 genes. We found a significant overrepresentation of sarcoglycan complex (11.1-fold enrichment; P<0.05 and focal adhesion pathway (1.9-fold enrichment; P<0.01 genes highlighting the role for muscle strength and integrity in the Thoroughbred athletic phenotype. We report for the first time candidate athletic-performance genes within regions targeted by selection in Thoroughbred horses that are principally responsible for fatty acid oxidation, increased insulin sensitivity and muscle strength: ACSS1 (acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1, ACTA1 (actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle, ACTN2 (actinin, alpha 2, ADHFE1 (alcohol dehydrogenase, iron containing, 1, MTFR1 (mitochondrial fission regulator 1, PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 and TNC (tenascin C. Understanding the genetic basis for exercise adaptation will be crucial for the identification of genes

  6. Coat color and gestation length in thoroughbred mares. (United States)

    Dring, L A; Hintz, H F; Van Vleck, L D


    Average gestation periods for bay, chestnut, dark bay, gray, and black Thoroughbred mares were compared. A total of 1359 gestation periods were used. A linear model including factors for age of mare, sex of foal, month and year of breeding, and sire effects was used in the analysis. Dam and sire coat-color combinations were also investigated in a similar manner. No significant differences in gestation length could be attributed to coat color of the mare of to dam and sire coat-color combinations. Heritability of gestation length was estimated to be 0.38. The results of this study strongly suggest that coat color is not associated with gestation length in Thoroughbred mares.

  7. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal


    YAMADA, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIGUCHI, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo


    ABSTRACT Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conven...

  8. Severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a thoroughbred horses from Venezuela


    Villoria, D.; Andrea, J.; Leal, L.; García, Francisco; Morales Briceño, Abelardo


    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is the disease caused by protozoan hemoparasites Babesia caballi and/or B. (Theileria equi). The aim of this study was to report of case of severed hemoparasitosis complicated in a Thoroughbred horse from Venezuela. The equine present acute abdominal pain in 24 hours and complicated post 48 hours and death in the 72 hours. Temperature oscillate 41;2°C. Icterus and hematury severed. We realized a multidisciplinary study clinical, laboratory, biochemistry, necropsy, hi...

  9. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal (United States)

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIGUCHI, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo


    ABSTRACT Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death. PMID:27703406

  10. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal. (United States)

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Higuchi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo


    Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death.

  11. Live weight and body measurement of Hungarian Thoroughbred broodmares

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    Szabolcs Bene


    Full Text Available Live weights and 21 body measurements of 110 adult brood mares from Thoroughbred breed were evaluated in Hungary. Body measurements and some body measure indices were determined. One way ANOVA was used to compare the studs. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Population genetic parameters of the examined traits were estimated. Only few differences among studs, concerning evaluated body measurements, were presented - firstly: body measurements, related to the kilter and nutritional status (hearth girth - were significant. Between the mentioned traits and the live weight medium positive correlation (r = 0.47 - 0.79; P<0.01 was found. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and diagonal length of body. The determination coefficient was 0.80 (P<0.01. Height at withers, of back and at rump (h2 = 0.66, 0.67 and 0.51 showed medium heritability values. The heritability of depth of chest and height of bieler-point were 0.32 and 0.48, respectively. Quite small differences were found between the stallions in most of the body measurements. The live weight and height measurements were exceptions, as here the differences between the sires were slightly higher. As a conclusion it can be stated that the Thoroughbred population in Hungary is quite homogenous in terms of the most important body measurements.

  12. Thoroughbred racehorse mitochondrial DNA demonstrates closer than expected links between maternal genetic history and pedigree records. (United States)

    Bower, M A; Whitten, M; Nisbet, R E R; Spencer, M; Dominy, K M; Murphy, A M; Cassidy, R; Barrett, E; Hill, E W; Binns, M


    The potential future earnings and therefore value of Thoroughbred foals untested in the racing arena are calculated based on the performance of their forebears. Thus, lineage is of key importance. However, previous research indicates that maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) does not correspond to maternal lineage according to recorded pedigree, casting doubt on the voracity of historic pedigrees. We analysed mtDNA of 296 Thoroughbred horses from 33 maternal lineages and identified an interesting trend. Subsequent to the founding of the Thoroughbred breed in the 16th century, well-populated maternal lineages were divided into sub-lineages. Only six in 10 of the Thoroughbreds sampled shared mitochondrial haplotype with other members of their maternal lineage, despite having a common maternal ancestor according to pedigree records. However, nine in 10 Thoroughbreds from the 103 sub-lineages sampled shared mtDNA with horses of their maternal pedigree sub-lineage. Thus, Thoroughbred maternal sub-lineage pedigree represents a more accurate breeding record than previously thought. Errors in pedigrees must have occurred largely, though, not exclusively, at sub-lineage foundation events, probably due to incomplete understanding of modes of inheritance in the past, where maternal sub-lineages were founded from individuals, related, but not by female descent.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and Intestinal Barrier-protective Activities of Commensal Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in Thoroughbreds: Role of Probiotics in Diarrhea Prevention in Neonatal Thoroughbreds. (United States)

    Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya; Wasano, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Tomonori; Nagamine, Natsuko; Tsurumachi, Takashi; Sugaya, Kiyoshi; Akita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Misako; Takagi, Kunihiko; Inoue, Yoshinobu; Asai, Yo; Morita, Hidetoshi


    We previously isolated the commensal bacteria lactobacilli and bifidobacteria from the Thoroughbred intestine and prepared the horse probiotics LacFi(TM), consisting of Lactobacillus ruminis KK14, L. equi KK 15, L. reuteri KK18, L. johnsonii KK21, and Bifidobacterium boum HU. Here, we found that the five LacFi(TM) constituent strains remarkably suppressed pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 production in mouse splenocytes stimulated with interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-β. The protective effects of the probiotic on impaired intestinal barrier function were evaluated in Caco-2 cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-α. Evaluation of transepithelial resistance showed that all the strains exhibited intestinal barrier protective activity, with significant suppression of barrier impairment by L. reuteri KK18. The LacFi(TM) constituent strains were detected in neonatal LacFi(TM)-administered Thoroughbred feces using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and culture methods. These five strains were found to be the predominant lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the intestinal microbiota of LacFi(TM)-administered Thoroughbreds. Administration of LacFi(TM) to neonatal Thoroughbreds decreased diarrhea incidence from 75.9% in the control group (n=29 neonatal Thoroughbreds) to 30.7% in the LacFi(TM)-administered group (n=101 neonatal Thoroughbreds) immediately after birth to 20 weeks after birth. LacFi(TM) treatment also prevented diarrhea especially at and around 4 weeks and from 10 to 16 weeks. The duration of diarrhea was also shorter in the probiotics-administered group (7.4 ± 0.8 days) than in the control group (14.0 ± 3.2 days). These results indicate that the LacFi(TM) probiotics regulates intestinal function and contributes to diarrhea prevention.

  14. Factors affecting gestation length in the Thoroughbred mare. (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Holland, S J


    In order to assist in the accurate prediction of the timing of parturition in the mare true gestation length, along with the potential effect of a number of factors, was investigated. Data from 433 Thoroughbred foal pregnancies were used. Sequential ultrasonic scanning allowed the true gestation length (fertilisation-parturition) to be ascertained, as apposed to previous work, which used the mating-parturition interval. An average gestation length of 344.1 +/- 0.49 days was evident. Colt foal pregnancies were significantly (P gestation length in all foals (P gestation length range (315-388 days), all resulting in viable foals is noteworthy and of clinical importance when considering the classification of dysmaturity in foals, (ii) mares carrying colt foals due to be born in the middle of the breeding season (April) are likely to have the longer gestation lengths.

  15. Exercise-induced metacarpophalangeal joint adaptation in the Thoroughbred racehorse. (United States)

    Muir, P; Peterson, A L; Sample, S J; Scollay, M C; Markel, M D; Kalscheur, V L


    Repetitive bone injury and development of stress fracture is a common problem in humans and animals. The Thoroughbred racehorse is a model in which adaptive failure and associated development of stress fracture is common. We performed a histologic study of the distal end of the third metacarpal bone in two groups of horses: young Thoroughbreds that were actively racing (n = 10) and a group of non-athletic horses (n = 8). The purpose of this study was to determine whether development of articular microcracks was associated with specific alterations to subchondral plate osteocytes. Morphometric measurements were made in five regions of the joint surface: lateral condyle, lateral condylar groove, sagittal ridge, medial condylar groove, and medial condyle. The following variables were quantified: hyaline cartilage width; calcified cartilage width; the number of tidemarks; microcrack density at the articular surface; blood vessel density entering articular cartilage; the presence of atypical bone matrix in the subchondral plate; bone volume fraction; and osteocyte density. Adaptation of articular cartilage was similar in both groups of horses. Vascularization of articular cartilage was increased in the group of non-athletic horses. Microcracks, which typically had an oblique orientation to the joint surface, were co-localized with blood vessels, and resorption spaces. Microcracking was increased in the condylar grooves of athletic horses compared with the other joint regions and was also increased compared with the condylar groove regions of non-athletic horses. Coalescence of microcracks also led to development of an intracortical articular condylar stress fracture in some joints and targeted remodeling of affected subchondral plate. The subchondral plate of the condyles in athletic horses was sclerotic, and contained atypically stained bone matrix with increased numbers of osteocytes with atypical morphology. However, osteocyte numbers were not significantly different

  16. Is the Thoroughbred race-horse under chronic stress?

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    G.P. Nogueira


    Full Text Available Thoroughbred fillies were divided into three groups according to age: group 1, 7 fillies aged 1 to 2 years (G1 starting the training program; group 2, 9 fillies aged 2 to 3 years (G2 in a full training program; group 3, 8 older fillies 3 to 4 years of age (G3 training and racing. Blood samples were collected weekly from July to December. Cortisol was quantified using a solid phase DPC kit. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 12.5% and 15.65% and sensitivity was 1.9 ± 0.2 nmol/l. The semester average of cortisol levels varied between groups: G1 = 148.8 ± 6.7, G2 = 125.7 ± 5.8, G3 = 101.1 ± 5.4 nmol/l, with G3 differing statistically from the other groups. The lower cortisol levels observed in the older fillies lead us to propose that the stress stimulus, when maintained over a long period of time, may become chronic and result in a reduction of hypophyseal corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. The secretion of endogenous opioids may also lead to low serum cortisol levels.

  17. Glucocorticoid-induced laminitis with hepatopathy in a Thoroughbred filly. (United States)

    Ryu, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Sun; Lee, Chang Woo; Yoon, Junghee; Lee, Yonghoon Lyon


    A 3-year-old Thoroughbred filly was referred to the Equine Hospital, Korea Racing Association for evaluation of hematuria, inappetite, weight loss and depression. From 25 days prior to admission, the horse was treated for right carpal lameness with 20 mg intramuscular administration of triamcinolone acetonide per day for consecutive 10 days by a local veterinarian. Clinical and laboratory findings included vaginal hyperemia, flare in bladder wall, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, polyuria, polydipsia and laminitis in the end. High activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma glutamyltransferase and high concentration of total bilirubin indicated hepatopathy. Further hematology, serum biochemistry and urinalysis did not reveal any abnormalities. Medical history, physical and clinicopathologic findings suggest that the laminitis and hepatopathy in this horse were most likely induced by repeated administration of exogenous corticosteroid. However, guarded prognosis of treating laminitis undermined the benefit of improvement of hematuria following electroacupuncture stimulation. The combined stimulation of kidney related acupoints (Shen Peng, Shen Shu), lumber related acupoints (Yao Qian, Yao Zhong) and associate acupoints (Guan Yuan Shu, Bai Hui) at 5Hz, 1-2V, for 40 minutes was of value in the treatment of hematuria. This case shows that horses under steroids may exhibit laminitis and steroid hepatopathy. Early recognition and good management of laminitis are important in the limitation of complications.

  18. Morphometrical variations of the carpal bones in thoroughbreds and ponies. (United States)

    Abdunnabi, A H; Ahmed, Y A; Philip, C J; Davies, H M S


    There is scant morphological data for equine carpal bones despite the frequent pathology in Thoroughbreds (TB). This study aimed to identify morphological and morphometrical variations and similarities in carpal bones between and within TB and Ponies (Po). Carpal bones from nine TB and 13 Po were prepared by boiling and drying. Lateromedial width, dorsopalmar depth, proximodistal height, relative density and volume of each bone were measured. Normalized measurements of the radial (Cr) and third (C3) carpal bones were significantly different in all dimensions, and there were significant variations in relative sizes of articular facets of the ulnar (Cu), C3 and fourth (C4) carpal bones between the groups. Bilaterally, the proportionate volume of the intermediate carpal bone (Ci) was significantly greater in Po while that of Cu and C4 were significantly greater in TB. Relative density of most bones was greater in Po. The palmar tuberosity of the proximal surface of Ci and palmar tubercle on the palmar surface of Cu were more prominent and relatively larger in TB. In the second carpal bone (C2), the distal extent of the proximal articular surface on the palmar surface was greater in Po. The inconsistent first carpal bone (C1) was relatively larger in Po. Morphometrical similarities and differences in carpal bones between TB and Po indicate potential effects of selection for body size or fast exercise.

  19. Prevalence of latent alpha-herpesviruses in Thoroughbred racing horses. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; David Wilson, W


    The objective of this study was to detect and characterize latent equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 and -4 from the submandibular (SMLN) and bronchial lymph (BLN) nodes, as well as from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 70 racing Thoroughbred horses submitted for necropsy following sustaining serious musculoskeletal injuries while racing. A combination of nucleic acid precipitation and pre-amplification steps was used to increase analytical sensitivity. Tissues were deemed positive for latent EHV-1 and/or -4 infection when found PCR positive for the corresponding glycoprotein B (gB) gene in the absence of detectable late structural protein gene (gB gene) mRNA. The EHV-1 genotype was also determined using a discriminatory real-time PCR assay targeting the DNA polymerase gene (ORF 30). Eighteen (25.7%) and 58 (82.8%) horses were PCR positive for the gB gene of EHV-1 and -4, respectively, in at least one of the three tissues sampled. Twelve horses were dually infected with EHV-1 and -4, two carried a latent neurotropic strain of EHV-1, six carried a non-neurotropic genotype of EHV-1 and 10 were dually infected with neurotropic and non-neurotropic EHV-1. The distribution of latent EHV-1 and -4 infection varied in the samples, with the TG found to be most commonly infected. Overall, non-neurotropic strains were more frequently detected than neurotropic strains, supporting the general consensus that non-neurotropic strains are more prevalent in horse populations, and hence the uncommon occurrence of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

  20. Lactobacillus hayakitensis, L. equigenerosi and L. equi, predominant lactobacilli in the intestinal flora of healthy thoroughbreds. (United States)

    Morita, Hidetoshi; Nakano, Akiyo; Shimazu, Mitsuharu; Toh, Hidehiro; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Nagayama, Masahiro; Hisamatsu, Shin; Kato, Yukio; Takagi, Misako; Takami, Hideto; Akita, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Minoru; Masaoka, Toshio; Murakami, Masaru


    To detect the predominant lactobacilli in the intestinal flora of healthy thoroughbreds, we isolated lactobacilli from the feces of nine thoroughbreds (five males and four females; 0-15-year-old). The isolated lactobacilli comprise 17 species (37 strains), and they were classified into five groups: Lactobacillus salivarius (6 species), L. reuteri (6 species), Lactobacillus delbrueckii (3 species), L. buchneri (1 species) and L. vitulinus (1 species). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, we identified 3 other phylogenetic relatives belonging to the genus Lactobacillus. These results suggest that the intestinal flora of thoroughbreds may comprise many species of the genus Lactobacillus. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the 340-bp fragments of the 16S rRNA genes from the same nine fecal samples showed that L. hayakitensis, L. equigenerosi and L. equi are contained in all the samples, suggesting that these species are predominant lactobacilli in the intestinal flora of thoroughbreds.

  1. Population study and validation of paternity testing for Thoroughbred horses by 15 microsatellite loci. (United States)

    Tozaki, T; Kakoi, H; Mashima, S; Hirota, K; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, N; Miura, N; Choi-Miura, N H; Tomita, M


    Microsatellite 15 TKY System was characterized for parentage verification of horse registry. The Microsatellite 15 TKY System was constructed by using 15 microsatellites, TKY279, TKY287, TKY294, TKY297, TKY301, TKY312, TKY321, TKY325, TKY333, TKY337, TKY341, TKY343, TKY344, TKY374, and TKY394, to provide stringent PCR-based microsatellite typing specifically optimized for multicolor fluorescence detection. The Microsatellite 15 TKY System showed good resolutions for 250 unrelated Thoroughbred horses, and the probability of exclusion (PE) at each microsatellite ranged from 0.437 to 0.621, resulting in a total PE value of 99.998% for Thoroughbred horses. These results indicated that the Microsatellite 15 TKY System is useful for paternity testing of Thoroughbred horses. A paternity testing case for a Thoroughbred horse family, in which candidate sires had close relations, was analyzed using the Microsatellite 15 TKY System. In this case, the Microsatellite 15 TKY System excluded paternity of a false sire. We concluded that the Microsatellite 15 TKY System can give sufficient and reliable information for paternity testing.

  2. Reference range of blood biomarkers for oxidative stress in Thoroughbred racehorses (2–5 years old) (United States)

    KUSANO, Kanichi; YAMAZAKI, Masahiko; KIUCHI, Masataka; KANEKO, Kouki; KOYAMA, Katsuhiro


    ABSTRACT The oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium is known to play an important role in equine medicine and equine exercise physiology. There are abundant findings in this field; however, not many studies have been conducted for reference ranges of oxidative stress biomarkers in horses. This study was conducted to determine the reference values of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) using blood samples from 372 (191 males, 181 females) Thoroughbred racehorse aged 2 to 5 (3.43 ± 1.10 (mean ± SD)) years old. There were obvious gender differences in oxidative biomarkers, and growth/age-related changes were observed especially in females. Gender and age must be considered when interpreting obtained oxidative stress biomarkers for diagnosis of disease or fitness alterations in Thoroughbred racehorses. PMID:27703408

  3. MSTN genotypes in Thoroughbred horses influence skeletal muscle gene expression and racetrack performance. (United States)

    McGivney, Beatrice A; Browne, John A; Fonseca, Rita G; Katz, Lisa M; Machugh, David E; Whiston, Ronan; Hill, Emmeline W


    Myostatin, encoded by the MSTN gene, is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that regulates skeletal muscle development. A MSTN SNP significantly associated with Thoroughbred horse racing phenotypes has recently been identified as well as significant reductions in Thoroughbred skeletal muscle gene expression for three transcripts 400-1500 base pairs downstream of the MSTN gene following a period of training. Together, these findings indicate that MSTN genotypes may influence MSTN gene expression. To investigate this, MSTN mRNA expression was measured in biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle from 60 untrained yearling Thoroughbreds (C/C, n = 15; C/T, n = 28; T/T, n = 17) using two independent real-time qRT-PCR assays. MSTN gene expression was also evaluated in a subset (N = 33) of these animals using samples collected after a ten-month period of training. A significant association was observed between genotype and mRNA abundance for the untrained horses (assay I, P = 0.0237; assay II, P = 0.003559), with the C/C cohort having the highest MSTN mRNA levels, the T/T group the lowest levels and the C/T group intermediate levels. Following training, there was a significant decrease in MSTN mRNA (-3.35-fold; P = 6.9 × 10(-7) ), which was most apparent for the C/C cohort (-5.88-fold, P = 0.001). These data demonstrate the tight relationship between phenotype, genotype and gene expression at the MSTN gene in Thoroughbred racehorses.

  4. Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses. (United States)

    Hill, Emmeline W; Ryan, Donal P; MacHugh, David E


    Variation at the myostatin (MSTN) gene locus has been shown to influence racing phenotypes in Thoroughbred horses, and in particular, early skeletal muscle development and the aptitude for racing at short distances. Specifically, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of MSTN (g.66493737C/T) is highly predictive of best race distance among Flat racing Thoroughbreds: homozygous C/C horses are best suited to short distance races, heterozygous C/T horses are best suited to middle distance races, and homozygous T/T horses are best suited to longer distance races. Patent applications for this gene marker association, and other linked markers, have been filed. The information contained within the patent applications is exclusively licensed to the commercial biotechnology company Equinome Ltd, which provides a DNA-based test to the international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding industry. The application of this information in the industry enables informed decision making in breeding and racing and can be used to assist selection to accelerate the rate of change of genetic types among distinct populations (Case Study 1) and within individual breeding operations (Case Study 2).

  5. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Endo, Yoshiro; Kikkawa, Lisa; Korosue, Kenji; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Kitauchi, Akira; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Torisu, Shidow


    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (Phorses.

  6. Effects of aluminum hinged shoes on the structure of contracted feet in Thoroughbred yearlings. (United States)

    Tanaka, Kousuke; Hiraga, Atsushi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Morrison, Scott Edward


    We applied aluminum hinged shoes (AHSs) to the club foot-associated contracted feet of 11 Thoroughbred yearlings to examine the effects of the shoes on the shape of the hoof and third phalanx (P III). After 3 months of AHS use, the size of the affected hooves increased significantly, reaching the approximate size of the healthy contralateral hooves with respect to the maximum lateral width of the foot, the mean ratio of the bearing border width to the coronary band width, and the mean ratio of the solar surface width to the articular surface width. These results suggest that the AHSs corrected the contracted feet in these yearling horses.

  7. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    J.D. Grewar


    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  8. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

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    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  9. Investigation of de novo unique differentially expressed genes related to evolution in exercise response during domestication in Thoroughbred race horses.

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    Woncheoul Park

    Full Text Available Previous studies of horse RNA-seq were performed by mapping sequence reads to the reference genome during transcriptome analysis. However in this study, we focused on two main ideas. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified by de novo-based analysis (DBA in RNA-seq data from six Thoroughbreds before and after exercise, here-after referred to as "de novo unique differentially expressed genes" (DUDEG. Second, by integrating both conventional DEGs and genes identified as being selected for during domestication of Thoroughbred and Jeju pony from whole genome re-sequencing (WGS data, we give a new concept to the definition of DEG. We identified 1,034 and 567 DUDEGs in skeletal muscle and blood, respectively. DUDEGs in skeletal muscle were significantly related to exercise-induced stress biological process gene ontology (BP-GO terms: 'immune system process'; 'response to stimulus'; and, 'death' and a KEGG pathways: 'JAK-STAT signaling pathway'; 'MAPK signaling pathway'; 'regulation of actin cytoskeleton'; and, 'p53 signaling pathway'. In addition, we found TIMELESS, EIF4A3 and ZNF592 in blood and CHMP4C and FOXO3 in skeletal muscle, to be in common between DUDEGs and selected genes identified by evolutionary statistics such as FST and Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH. Moreover, in Thoroughbreds, three out of five genes (CHMP4C, EIF4A3 and FOXO3 related to exercise response showed relatively low nucleotide diversity compared to the Jeju pony. DUDEGs are not only conceptually new DEGs that cannot be attained from reference-based analysis (RBA but also supports previous RBA results related to exercise in Thoroughbred. In summary, three exercise related genes which were selected for during domestication in the evolutionary history of Thoroughbred were identified as conceptually new DEGs in this study.

  10. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

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    Chee Kin Lim


    Full Text Available A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report. Introduction

  11. Basilar skull fracture in a Thoroughbred colt: Radiography or computed tomography?

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    Chee Kin Lim


    Full Text Available A two-year-old Thoroughbred colt was presented to the Equine Clinic, Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital for head trauma after rearing and falling backwards, hitting his head on the ground. Following medical therapy for acute onset neurological impairment secondary to a suspected basilar skull fracture, the horse was anaesthetised and computed tomography of the skull was performed. A diagnosis of a comminuted basilar skull fracture was made and skull radiographs were taken for comparison. The horse was subsequently euthanased owing to the poor prognosis; necropsy findings were compatible with imaging findings. The value and limitation of computed tomography versus radiography for the diagnosis of basilar skull fracture are discussed in this report.

  12. Clonal Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus post breeding endometritis in thoroughbred broodmares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Söderlind, Maja; Rydemann Rudefalk, Sofia;

    was to investigate whether clonal or genetically distinct S. zooepidemicus strains isolated from mares with endometritis were associated with mare risk factors and the outcome of natural cover. Uterine swabs were obtained from mares with intrauterine fluid after natural cover (n=31) at thoroughbred stud farms....... zooepidemicus infection was associated with increased age, high parity and poor vulvar conformation. Mares with clonal infection had a low pregnancy rate (38%) compared with mares with two strains isolated (80%). In conclusion, the results indicate that clonal S. zooepidemicus endometritis is associated...... further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total S. zooepidemicus isolates from 18 mares were analyzed. The isolates from 13 mares showed a high genetic relatedness within each individual mare, whereas two genetically distinct strains were isolated in five mares. A clonal S...

  13. Distance exercised during submaximal training on race winnings for Thoroughbred racehorses

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    Carolina Berkman


    Full Text Available Evaluations of the physical fitness of Thoroughbred racehorses have been correlated with race earnings, but few reports exist about the influence of the distance exercised during training on both physical conditioning indices and financial productivity. During one training season sixteen claiming Thoroughbred horses were subjected to submaximal training and monitored by a global positioning system (GPS coupled to a heart rate monitor. After initial and single monitoring, the horses were distributed into two groups of eight individuals each; one group exercised short distances (SD between 1600 and 1900m, while the other exercised long distances (LD between 2000 and 2350m. The duration (min and mean and maximal velocities (ms-1attained during each session were determined, as well as the difference in distances exercised (m between official races and each training session. Blood lactate concentration ([LA] during recovery was also determined. Student's t-test was used for a non-paired analysis, with P≤0.05 considered significant. The winnings (USD of each horse were correlated with the peak heart rate (HRpeak attained during the training session. The distances exercised in the training sessions were greater in relation to the official races distances by 24.7% and 40% for SD and LD, respectively. Lactatemia did not differ between the groups. The HRpeak obtained during the training session was lower in LD group. The velocity at which the heart rate reached 200 bpm (V200 was higher in LD group. There was a moderate correlation (r= 0.42 between the highest winnings and lowest HRpeak. The horses that ran longer distances during their submaximal training session had better cardiac conditioning and tendency to increase financial productivity

  14. Effects of intensity and duration of exercise on muscular responses to training of thoroughbred racehorses. (United States)

    Rivero, José-Luis L; Ruz, Antonio; Martí-Korff, Silvia; Estepa, José-Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico; Werkman, Jutta; Sobotta, Mathias; Lindner, Arno


    This study examined the effects of the intensity and duration of exercise on the nature and magnitude of training adaptations in muscle of adolescent (2-3 yr old) racehorses. Six thoroughbreds that had been pretrained for 2 mo performed six consecutive conditioning programs of varying lactate-guided intensities [velocities eliciting blood lactate concentrations of 2.5 mmol/l (v2.5) and 4 mmol/l (v4), respectively] and durations (5, 15, 25 min). Pre- and posttraining gluteus muscle biopsies were analyzed for myosin heavy chain content, fiber-type composition, fiber size, capillarization, and fiber histochemical oxidative and glycolytic capabilities. Although training adaptations were similar in nature, they varied greatly in magnitude among the different training protocols. Overall, the use of v4 as the exercise intensity for 25 min elicited the most consistent training adaptations in muscle, whereas the minimal training stimulus that evoked any significant change was identified with exercises of 15 min at v2.5. Within this range, muscular adaptations showed significant trends to be proportional to the exercise load of specific training programs. Taken together, these data suggest that muscular adaptations to training in horses occur on a continuum that is based on the exercise intensity and duration of training. The practical implications of this study are that exercises for 15 to 25 min/day at velocities between v2.5 and v4 can improve in the short term (3 wk) the muscular stamina in thoroughbreds. However, exercises of 5-15 min at v4 are necessary to enhance muscular features related to strength (hypertrophy).

  15. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014 (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry


    Simple Summary This paper documents the dynamics of Australian thoroughbred jump racing in the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with the aim of informing debate about risks to horses and the future of this activity. We conclude that the safety of Australian jump racing has improved in recent years but that steeplechases are considerably riskier for horses than hurdle races. Abstract Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety. PMID:26506396

  16. Whole transcriptome analyses of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise using RNA-Seq

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    Park Kyung-Do


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thoroughbred horses are the most expensive domestic animals, and their running ability and knowledge about their muscle-related diseases are important in animal genetics. While the horse reference genome is available, there has been no large-scale functional annotation of the genome using expressed genes derived from transcriptomes. Results We present a large-scale analysis of whole transcriptome data. We sequenced the whole mRNA from the blood and muscle tissues of six thoroughbred horses before and after exercise. By comparing current genome annotations, we identified 32,361 unigene clusters spanning 51.83 Mb that contained 11,933 (36.87% annotated genes. More than 60% (20,428 of the unigene clusters did not match any current equine gene model. We also identified 189,973 single nucleotide variations (SNVs from the sequences aligned against the horse reference genome. Most SNVs (171,558 SNVs; 90.31% were novel when compared with over 1.1 million equine SNPs from two SNP databases. Using differential expression analysis, we further identified a number of exercise-regulated genes: 62 up-regulated and 80 down-regulated genes in the blood, and 878 up-regulated and 285 down-regulated genes in the muscle. Six of 28 previously-known exercise-related genes were over-expressed in the muscle after exercise. Among the differentially expressed genes, there were 91 transcription factor-encoding genes, which included 56 functionally unknown transcription factor candidates that are probably associated with an early regulatory exercise mechanism. In addition, we found interesting RNA expression patterns where different alternative splicing forms of the same gene showed reversed expressions before and after exercising. Conclusion The first sequencing-based horse transcriptome data, extensive analyses results, deferentially expressed genes before and after exercise, and candidate genes that are related to the exercise are provided in this

  17. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones. (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N; Wisner, Erik R; Prutton, Jamie W; Madigan, John E


    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae.

  18. An epizoological study of wastage in Thoroughbred racehorses in Gauteng, South Africa

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    A. Olivier


    Full Text Available Wastage is the term used to describe the phenomenon of the loss of racehorses from conception to adulthood due to death or injuries (i.e. they never reach a race-track, or the days lost by racehorses due to not training or being withdrawn from a race. This epizoological study was conducted to investigate wastage in Thoroughbred horses used for flat racing in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Data from 6 racing stables were recorded from 1 March 1993 to 28 February 1994. Each trainer completed a daily training record of the horses in his stable. This questionnaire included reasons why a horse failed to train on a specific day, or was withdrawn from a race. During the year, 8480 days (8.1 % of the 105 108 total potential training days were lost by horses in the stables investigated. Of the days lost, 72.1 % were due to lameness, 8.6 % to respiratory problems, and 19.3 % to other causes. The lost training days for the individual trainers ranged from 5.4 to 12.6 %. Of the 579 horses included in the study, 291 horses (50.3 % lost one or more training days; 541 problems resulting in wastage were found in these 291 horses; 263 (48.6 % cases were due to lameness and 49 (9.0 % were caused by coughing. The balance were caused by poor weather conditions (11.3 %, vaccinations (7.2 %, wounds (4.6 %, abnormal haematology results (1.8 %, inappetence (2.2 %, nasal discharge (2.0 %, epistaxis (1.8 %, babesiosis (1.8 %, miscellaneous other conditions (7.9 % and unknown causes (1.8 %. An attempt was made to continue the study for a 2nd year but too few questionnaires were returned. However, it was evident that the percentage of lost training days (8.2 % was similar to that of the previous year. The training days lost due to lameness (66.9 % and respiratory problems (8.4 % were also similar to those of the previous year. From the findings of the present study, it was concluded that lameness and respiratory disorders were the major causes of wastage in

  19. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012–2014

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    Karen Ruse


    Full Text Available Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%. There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075% and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%. Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  20. Temporal effects of inhaled histamine and methacholine aerosols on the pulmonary mechanics of thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Guthrie, A J; Beadle, R E; Bateman, R D; White, C E


    This paper presents a method for on-line determination of pulmonary mechanics in standing, non-sedated horses during and following inhalation of aerosolized drug solutions. This method was used to evaluate the temporal effects of inhaled histamine and methacholine aerosols on pulmonary mechanics in 18 Thoroughbred horses. The following were concluded from this study. The extremely large between-breath variation, for all variables used to evaluate pulmonary mechanics in the horse, limits the usefulness of these variables for modeling the non-specific pulmonary responses to inhaled stimulants on a breath-by-breath basis. Following the implementation of averaging techniques to control the variation of these response variables, respiratory rate appears to be affected most predictably by inhalation of non-specific bronchoconstrictors. In the 18 subjects studied, the response of respiratory rate to inhaled histamine and methacholine aerosols was well described by a complex function consisting of exponential treatment and post-treatment phases in 10 and six of the subjects, respectively. Large intra-individual variation of the non-specific response to these stimulants in repeated studies of some subjects, suggests that differences in responses on a particular day may be due to inter-day variations in minute ventilation or baseline airway caliber.

  1. Jump Horse Safety: Reconciling Public Debate and Australian Thoroughbred Jump Racing Data, 2012-2014. (United States)

    Ruse, Karen; Davison, Aidan; Bridle, Kerry


    Thoroughbred jump racing sits in the spotlight of contemporary welfare and ethical debates about horse racing. In Australia, jump racing comprises hurdle and steeplechase races and has ceased in all but two states, Victoria and South Australia. This paper documents the size, geography, composition, and dynamics of Australian jump racing for the 2012, 2013, and 2014 seasons with a focus on debate about risks to horses. We found that the majority of Australian jump racing is regional, based in Victoria, and involves a small group of experienced trainers and jockeys. Australian jump horses are on average 6.4 years of age. The jump career of the majority of horses involves participating in three or less hurdle races and over one season. Almost one quarter of Australian jump horses race only once. There were ten horse fatalities in races over the study period, with an overall fatality rate of 5.1 fatalities per 1000 horses starting in a jump race (0.51%). There was significant disparity between the fatality rate for hurdles, 0.75 fatalities per 1000 starts (0.075%) and steeplechases, 14 fatalities per 1000 starts (1.4%). Safety initiatives introduced by regulators in 2010 appear to have significantly decreased risks to horses in hurdles but have had little or no effect in steeplechases. Our discussion considers these Animals 2015, 5 1073 data in light of public controversy, political debate, and industry regulation related to jump horse safety.

  2. Genetic parameters of racing merit of Thoroughbred horses in steeplechase races

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    József Stefler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate variance components of racing ability in Thoroughbreds involved in steeplechase races. Race results were collected from steeplechase races in France (n=9041, in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n=8314 and contained the results of overall 106 020 runs from 1998 to 2003. Performance was measured by two criteria: earnings and ranks after mathematical transformation. The effects of year, sex, age, and race were considered as fixed, animal, permanent environment and maternal as random. Maternal environmental component for ranks were 0.021 in France and 0.000 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Estimated heritabilities for the ranking criteria were 0.18 (repeatability 0.33 in France and 0.06 (repeatability 0.19 in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The high genetic correlation between the two traits (0.94 and 0.97 gives the opportunity to find out the most suitable criteria for breeding value estimation.

  3. A comparative stereological study of the term placenta in the donkey, pony and Thoroughbred. (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Villani, M; Wilsher, S; Contri, A; Carluccio, A


    The aim of the study was to compare horse and donkey placentae using stereological techniques. Term placentae were collected at spontaneous foaling from seven Thoroughbred mares, seven pony mares, and six jenny donkeys. Maternal and foal weights were recorded and the mass, volume, and gross area of each allantochorion was also recorded. Ten random biopsies were recovered and processed for light microscopy from which the surface density of the microcotyledons (S(v)) and the total microscopic area of fetomaternal contact were calculated stereologically. Gestation length was longer in the donkeys than the other two groups (median values: 371 vs. 327 and 341 days, P donkey placenta than the other groups (median values: 0.05 vs. 0.03 and 0.04 microm(-1), P donkeys (median values: 0.87 vs. 1.33 and 1.32 kg/m2, P donkey, that of the donkey develops more complex microcotyledons, as judged stereologically, and exhibits a lower placental efficiency. These differences may be related to maternal genotype and/or the longer gestation length shown by the donkey compared to the horse, but a negative correlation (rho = -0.92, P donkeys.

  4. Comparison of some blood parameters, serum vitamin E and mineral concentrations of Arabian and English thoroughbred race horses

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    Bilal Tarik


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine some blood parameters, serum vitamin E and mineral concentrations of Arabian and English thoroughbred racehorses fed the same diets. The diet was formulated to provide 2.31 Mcal DE/kg, and 10.96% crude protein. Total protein, lactate, calcium, phosphorus, potassium copper, cobalt and zinc were determined in serum obtained from 40 Arabian and 40 English healthy racing thoroughbred horses aged 2-3. The copper, cobalt and zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption, vitamin E by HPLC and the other biochemical parameters by a spectrophotometer. Mean values were 6.77 and 6.86 g/dl for total protein, 1.88 and 2.16 mg/dl for lactate 13.18 and 12.80 mg/dl for calcium, 4.35 and 4.39 mmol/l for phosphorus, 2.64 and 3.14 mmol/l for potassium, 129 and 166 μg/dl for copper, 36 and 44 μg/dl for cobalt and, 160 and 58 μg/dl for zinc in Arabian and English horses respectively, and Mean serum vitamin E levels were 2.65 and 2.81 μg/ml respectively. This study did not demonstrate a significant effect of breed on serum total protein, lactate, calcium, phosphorus, copper, cobalt and vitamin E. However, breed may have an effect on potassium and zinc concentration in Arabian and English thoroughbred racehorses (p<0.05.

  5. Effects of racetrack exercise on third metacarpal and carpal bone of New Zealand thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Firth, E C; Rogers, C W; Jopson, N


    The response of equine bone to training has not been quantified in racetrack trained horses, only in treadmill exercised horses. Seven two-year-old thoroughbred fillies were trained on sand and grass at a racetrack, in a typical New Zealand flatrace training regime. The horses were exercised 6 days per week for up to 13 weeks. During the day the horses were confined in 4 x 4m sand yards, and were stalled at night. Another 7 fillies of the same age were allowed free exercise in grass yards. The bones of the animals were available after the 13 week experimental period, and were examined using a Siemens Somatom AR CT scanner. To quantify the response of epiphyseal bone, 3mm thick sagittal plane images of the carpus (through the middle of the medial condyle of distal radius) and the distal third metacarpal bone (Mc3) (immediately lateral and medial to the junction of the condyle and the median sagittal ridge) were studied. Appropriate areas of interest were chosen, and the mean tissue density equivalent (Houndsfield Units) was determined. In the carpus, there was a significant effect of exercise in the dorso-distal aspect of the radius (p<0.01), dorsal aspect of radial and third carpal bones (p<0.01 and p<0.001 respectively). In palmaro-distal subchondral bone of Mc3, there was a significant effect on the medial/lateral site (p<0.01), which differed between right and left legs, probably due to the effect of the horses having been trained in one direction around the training track. The mean tissue density of the Mc3 epiphysis of the exercised group was 36.8% greater than that of the non-exercised group (p<0.001). The study demonstrates that bone response is both rapid and substantial, which should prompt the use of non-invasive diagnostic aids to determine the stage of training in which tissue density changes occur.

  6. Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses by RNA-seq to Elucidate Differentially Expressed Genes in the Muscle of Korean Thoroughbred Horses. (United States)

    Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jeong-Woong; Choi, Jae-Young; Chung, Young-Hwa; Sharma, Neelesh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kim, Nam Eun; Mongre, Raj Kumar; Huynh, Do; Jiao, Zhang Jiao; Do, Kyoung Tag; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Song, Ki-Duk; Cho, Byung-Wook; Jeong, DongKee


    The athletic abilities of the horse serve as a valuable model to understand the physiology and molecular mechanisms of adaptive responses to exercise. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in triceps brachii muscle tissues collected from Eonjena Taeyang and Jigusang Seryeok Thoroughbred horses and their co-expression networks in a large-scale RNA-sequence dataset comparing expression before and after exercise. High-quality horse transcriptome data were generated, with over 22 million 90-bp pair-end reads. By comparing the annotations, we found that MYH3, MPZ, and PDE8B genes in Eonjena Taeyang and PDE8B and KIF18A genes in Jigusang Seryeok were upregulated before exercise. Notably further, we observed that PPP1R27, NDUFA3, TNC, and ANK1 in Eonjena Taeyang and HIF1A, BDNF, ADRB2, OBSCN, and PER3 in Jigusang Seryeok have shown upregulation at the postexercise period. This investigation suggested that genes responsible for metabolism and oxidative phosphorylations associated with endurance and resistance exercise were highly expressed, whereas genes encoding structural proteins were generally suppressed. The expression profile of racehorses at pre- and postexercise will provide credible reference for further studies on biological effects such as responses to stress and adaption of other Thoroughbred horse, which might be useful for selective breeding for improvement of traits in commercial production.

  7. Intravenous infusion of H2-saline suppresses oxidative stress and elevates antioxidant potential in Thoroughbred horses after racing exercise. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masahiko; Kusano, Kanichi; Ishibashi, Toru; Kiuchi, Masataka; Koyama, Katsuhiro


    Upon intensive, exhaustive exercise, exercise-induced reactive oxygen species may exceed the antioxidant defence threshold, consequently resulting in muscular damage or late-onset chronic inflammation. Recently, the therapeutic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) for human rheumatoid arthritis have been demonstrated. However, it is also important to clarify the effects of administrating H2 in large animals other than humans, as H2 is thought to reach the target organ by passive diffusion upon delivery from the blood flow, indicating that the distance from the administration point to the target is critical. However, data on the effects of H2 on oxidative stress in real-life exhaustive exercise in large animals are currently lacking. We here investigated 13 Thoroughbred horses administered intravenous 2-L saline with or without 0.6-ppm H2 (placebo, N = 6; H2, N = 7) before participating in a high-intensity simulation race. Intravenous H2-saline significantly suppressed oxidative stress immediately, 3 h, and 24 h after the race, although the antioxidant capability was not affected throughout the study. The serum creatine kinase, lactate, and uric acid levels were increased in both groups. Taken together, these results indicate that intravenous H2-saline can significantly and specifically suppress oxidative stress induced after exhaustive racing in Thoroughbred horses.

  8. Prevalence of stereotypies in thoroughbred race horses at Club Hípico Concepción, Chile

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    Lisandro Muñoz A.


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of classic stereotypies in Thoroughbred racehorses at the Club Hípico Concepción (CHC in Chile and its association with sex and age. Materials and methods. The entire population of resident horses at the CHC was studied (n=341. Each horse trainer (n=23 was asked for the name, sex and age of the horses under his/her supervision. After that, all the animals were continuously observed inside their stalls for 8 hours by only one person, to record the absence or presence of classic stereotypies (cribbing, weaving, stall-walking. To analyze the data, the animals were divided by sex into 3 groups: stallions, geldings and mares. According to age, they were divided into 2 groups: < 5 years old and 5 years old or more. Descriptive statistics were used and association was tested using the chi square test using p≤0.05. Results. 13.2% of all CHC’s horses displayed stereotypies: cribbing (4.99%, weaving (2.93% and stall-walking (5.28%. No association was found between the presence of stereotypies and sex or age. Conclusions. Thoroughbred race horses at the CHC showed a high prevalence of classic stereotypies, especially stall-walking.

  9. Comparison of Fecal Microbiota of Mongolian and Thoroughbred Horses by High-throughput Sequencing of the V4 Region of the 16S rRNA Gene. (United States)

    Zhao, Yiping; Li, Bei; Bai, Dongyi; Huang, Jinlong; Shiraigo, Wunierfu; Yang, Lihua; Zhao, Qinan; Ren, Xiujuan; Wu, Jing; Bao, Wuyundalai; Dugarjaviin, Manglai


    The hindgut of horses is an anaerobic fermentative chamber for a complex and dynamic microbial population, which plays a critical role in health and energy requirements. Research on the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses has not been reported until now as far as we know. Mongolian horse is a major local breed in China. We performed high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes V4 hypervariable regions from gut fecal material to characterize the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and compare them to the microbiota in Thoroughbred horses. Fourteen Mongolian and 19 Thoroughbred horses were used in the study. A total of 593,678 sequence reads were obtained from 33 samples analyzed, which were found to belong to 16 phyla and 75 genera. The bacterial community compositions were similar for the two breeds. Firmicutes (56% in Mongolian horses and 53% in Thoroughbred horses) and Bacteroidetes (33% and 32% respectively) were the most abundant and predominant phyla followed by Spirochaete, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. Of these 16 phyla, five (Synergistetes, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, TM7, and Chloroflexi) were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. At the genus level, Treponema was the most abundant genus (43% in Mongolian horses vs 29% in Thoroughbred horses), followed by Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Anaeroplasma, which were detected in higher distribution proportion in Mongolian horses than in Thoroughbred horses. In contrast, Oscillibacter, Fibrobacter, Methanocorpusculum, and Succinivibrio levels were lower in Mongolian horses. Among 75 genera, 30 genera were significantly different (p<0.05) between the two breeds. We found that the environment was one of very important factors that influenced horse gut microbiota. These findings provide novel information about the gut microbiota of Mongolian horses and a foundation for future investigations of gut bacterial factors that may influence the development and

  10. Partial Results Regarding the Genetic Analysis of Thoroughbred Horse from Cislău Studfarm: Reproductive Isolation and Age Structure

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    Marius Maftei


    Full Text Available This study is a part of an ample research concerning the genetic analysis (history of Thoroughbred horses from Cislău studfarm. The genetic analysis studies are a part of Animal Genetic Resources Management because just start of them we elaborate the strategies for inbreeding management. This study has as purpose to present two important aspects of genetic analysis: reproductive isolation level and age structure.This parameters has a capital importance in animal breeding because there has a directly influence in animal population evolution. The reproductive isolation situation was quantified using the relation elaborated by S. Wright in 1921. The age structure situation is based on the age distribution histogram. The analysis showed that the Nonius horse from Izvin stud is a reproductively isolated population and have its own evolutionary path. Age structure is not balanced with negative repercurssions on generation interval.

  11. NaHCO(3) does not affect arterial O(2) tension but attenuates desaturation of hemoglobin in maximally exercising Thoroughbreds. (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Goetz, Thomas E; Hassan, Aslam S


    The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of preexercise NaHCO(3) administration to induce metabolic alkalosis on the arterial oxygenation in racehorses performing maximal exercise. Two sets of experiments, intravenous physiological saline and NaHCO(3) (250 mg/kg i.v.), were carried out on 13 healthy, sound Thoroughbred horses in random order, 7 days apart. Blood-gas variables were examined at rest and during incremental exercise, leading to 120 s of galloping at 14 m/s on a 3.5% uphill grade, which elicited maximal heart rate and induced pulmonary hemorrhage in all horses in both treatments. NaHCO(3) administration caused alkalosis and hemodilution in standing horses, but arterial O(2) tension and hemoglobin-O(2) saturation were unaffected. Thus NaHCO(3) administration caused a reduction in arterial O(2) content at rest, although the arterial-to-mixed venous blood O(2) content gradient was unaffected. During maximal exercise in both treatments, arterial hypoxemia, desaturation, hypercapnia, acidosis, hyperthermia, and hemoconcentration developed. Although the extent of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia was similar, there was an attenuation of the desaturation of arterial hemoglobin in the NaHCO(3)-treated horses, which had higher arterial pH. Despite these observations, the arterial blood O(2) content of exercising horses was less in the NaHCO(3) experiments because of the hemodilution, and an attenuation of the exercise-induced expansion of the arterial-to-mixed venous blood O(2) content gradient was observed. It was concluded that preexercise NaHCO(3) administration does not affect the development and/or severity of arterial hypoxemia in Thoroughbreds performing short-term, high-intensity exercise.

  12. Transcriptional adaptations following exercise in Thoroughbred horse skeletal muscle highlights molecular mechanisms that lead to muscle hypertrophy

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    Park Stephen DE


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection for exercise-adapted phenotypes in the Thoroughbred racehorse has provided a valuable model system to understand molecular responses to exercise in skeletal muscle. Exercise stimulates immediate early molecular responses as well as delayed responses during recovery, resulting in a return to homeostasis and enabling long term adaptation. Global mRNA expression during the immediate-response period has not previously been reported in skeletal muscle following exercise in any species. Also, global gene expression changes in equine skeletal muscle following exercise have not been reported. Therefore, to identify novel genes and key regulatory pathways responsible for exercise adaptation we have used equine-specific cDNA microarrays to examine global mRNA expression in skeletal muscle from a cohort of Thoroughbred horses (n = 8 at three time points (before exercise, immediately post-exercise, and four hours post-exercise following a single bout of treadmill exercise. Results Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the gluteus medius before (T0, immediately after (T1 and four hours after (T2 exercise. Statistically significant differences in mRNA abundance between time points (T0 vs T1 and T0 vs T2 were determined using the empirical Bayes moderated t-test in the Bioconductor package Linear Models for Microarray Data (LIMMA and the expression of a select panel of genes was validated using real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. While only two genes had increased expression at T1 (P 2 932 genes had increased (P P 2 revealed an over-representation of genes localized to the actin cytoskeleton and with functions in the MAPK signalling, focal adhesion, insulin signalling, mTOR signaling, p53 signaling and Type II diabetes mellitus pathways. At T1, using a less stringent statistical approach, we observed an over-representation of genes involved in the stress response, metabolism and intracellular signaling

  13. Association between the purchase price of Thoroughbred yearlings and their performance during the 2- and 3-year-old racing seasons. (United States)

    Jackson, Ma; Vizard, Al; Anderson, Ga; Clarke, Af; Whitton, Rc


    OBJECTIVES Describe the association between the purchase price of Thoroughbred yearlings sold in Australia and racing performance as 2- and 3-year-olds. METHODS Race performance data of 2773 Thoroughbred yearlings sold at auction during 2003 were collected. Associations between purchase price and the probability of starting, the number of race starts and the prize money earned were examined. RESULTS In total, 2206 (79.6%) horses started a race. The mean number of race starts was six and the mean prize money earned was A$24,420. A total of 1711 (61.5%) horses earned prize money, 402 (14.4%) earned more than their purchase price, 312 (11.2%) earned more than A$40,000, the estimated cost of training, and 142 (5.1%) earned A$40,000 more than their purchase price. There was a positive association between purchase price category and the probability of starting, number of starts, earning prize money and earning greater than A$40,000 (P Purchase price category was negatively associated with the probability of earning greater than the purchase price (P purchase price plus $40,000 was significantly different (P = 0.03) among the five price categories. CONCLUSION Yearling purchase price was positively associated with all race performance outcomes measured and researchers examining the race performance of yearlings purchased at sales should consider including purchase price when modelling. The Thoroughbred yearling market in Australia behaves in a similar manner to the United States market; owners pay a premium to enter the sport of racing and an additional premium in the quest to own a champion.

  14. 辽宁省林木良种基地建设技术%Construction of Forest Thoroughbred Base in Liaoning Province

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    尹晓芬; 贾斌; 贾斌英; 王晓鸣


    A set of scientific and integrated construction system for thoroughbred base was summed up after 40 years of studies on the construction of forest thoroughbred base in Liaoning Province. And some acquired experiences and existing problems were discussed in detail. The key techniques and process graph of the construction of forest thoroughbred were put forward. By the end of 2009, 80 forest thoroughbred bases with an area of 7 535 hm2 had been built, among which there were 967 hm2 of seed orchard with an annual seed yield of 57 400 kg, 4 612 hm2 of parent trees with an annual output of 200000 kg, 874 hm2 of seed orchard with annual cutting yield of 34. 53 million individuals, 159 hm2 of test plantation, 395 hm2 of tree plus nursery, 358 hm2 of demonstration forest, and 170 hm2 of other forests. A total of 144 forest tree fine varieties were obtained, with wood gain of more than 39. 3% and fruit gain of over 43. 6% .%经过40多a的林木良种基地建设研究,系统地总结出一套科学、完整的良种基地建设技术体系,并针对林木良种基地建设取得的经验和发展中的问题进行了深入剖析,提出了林木良种建设中的关键技术和林木良种基地建设进程图.到2010年底,共建设林木良种基地80处,面积7 535 hm2,其中包括种子园967 hm2,年产种子5.74万kg、母树林4612 hm2,年产种子20万kg、采穗圃874 hm2,年采穗条3453万条、测定林159 hm2,优树收集圃395 hm2,展示林358 hm2,其它170 hm2.林木良种144个,木材增益为39.3%以上,果品增益达43.6%以上.

  15. Effects of pre-shipping marbofloxacin administration on fever and blood properties in healthy Thoroughbreds transported a long distance. (United States)

    Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Omura, Takaya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Ishikawa, Yuhiro; Hobo, Seiji


    The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ≤1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation.

  16. Passive and active mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of anesthetized Thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Swanstrom, Michael D; Zarucco, Laura; Stover, Susan M; Hubbard, Mont; Hawkins, David A; Driessen, Bernd; Steffey, Eugene P


    The superficial (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles are critical for equine forelimb locomotion. Knowledge of their mechanical properties will enhance our understanding of limb biomechanics. Muscle contractile properties derived from architectural-based algorithms may overestimate real forces and underestimate shortening capacity because of simplistic assumptions regarding muscle architecture. Therefore, passive and active (=total - passive) force-length properties of the SDF and DDF muscles were measured directly in vivo. Muscles from the right forelimbs of four Thoroughbred horses were evaluated during general anesthesia. Limbs were fixed to an external frame with the muscle attached to a linear actuator and load cell. Each muscle was stretched from an unloaded state to a range of prefixed lengths, then stimulated while held at that length. The total force did not exceed 4000 N, the limit for the clamping device. The SDF and DDF muscles produced 716+/-192 and 1577+/-203 N maximum active isometric force (F(max)), had ascending force-length ranges (R(asc)) of 5.1+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.4 cm, and had passive stiffnesses of 1186+/-104 and 1132+/-51 N/cm, respectively. The values measured for F(max) were much smaller than predicted based on conservative estimates of muscle specific tension and muscle physiological cross-sectional area. R(asc) were much larger than predicted based on muscle fiber length estimates. These data suggest that accurate prediction of the active mechanical behavior of architecturally complex muscles such as the equine DDF and SDF requires more sophisticated algorithms.

  17. Dextromethorphan and debrisoquine metabolism and polymorphism of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 in Thoroughbreds. (United States)

    Corado, Carley R; McKemie, Daniel S; Knych, Heather K


    OBJECTIVE To characterize polymorphisms of the gene for cytochrome P450 isozyme 2D50 (CYP2D50) and the disposition of 2 CYP2D50 probe drugs, dextromethorphan and debrisoquine, in horses. ANIMALS 23 healthy horses (22 Thoroughbreds and 1 Standardbred). PROCEDURES Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP2D50 were identified. Disposition of dextromethorphan (2 mg/kg) and debrisoquine (0.2 mg/kg) were determined after oral (dextromethorphan) or nasogastric (debrisoquine) administration to the horses. Metabolic ratios of plasma dextromethorphan and total dextrorphan (dextrorphan plus dextrorphan-O-β-glucuronide) and 4-hydroxydebrisoquine concentrations were calculated on the basis of the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve extrapolated to infinity for the parent drug divided by that for the corresponding metabolite. Pharmacokinetic data were used to categorize horses into the phenotypic drug-metabolism categories poor, extensive, and ultrarapid. Disposition patterns were compared among categories, and relationships between SNPs and metabolism categories were explored. RESULTS Gene sequencing identified 51 SNPs, including 27 nonsynonymous SNPs. Debrisoquine was minimally detected after oral administration. Disposition of dextromethorphan varied markedly among horses. Metabolic ratios for dextromethorphan ranged from 0.03 to 0.46 (mean, 0.12). On the basis of these data, 1 horse was characterized as a poor metabolizer, 18 were characterized as extensive metabolizers, and 3 were characterized as ultrarapid metabolizers. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that CYP2D50 is polymorphic and that the disposition of the probe drug varies markedly in horses. The polymorphisms may be related to rates of drug metabolism. Additional research involving more horses of various breeds is needed to fully explore the functional implication of polymorphisms in CYP2D50.

  18. Disposition of isoflupredone acetate in plasma, urine and synovial fluid following intra-articular administration to exercised Thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Knych, Heather K; Harrison, Linda M; White, Alexandria; McKemie, Daniel S


    The use of isoflupredone acetate in performance horses and the scarcity of published pharmacokinetic data necessitate further study. The objective of the current study was to describe the plasma pharmacokinetics of isoflupredone acetate as well as time-related urine and synovial fluid concentrations following intra-articular administration to horses. Twelve racing-fit adult Thoroughbred horses received a single intra-articular administration (8 mg) of isoflupredone acetate into the right antebrachiocarpal joint. Blood, urine and synovial fluid samples were collected prior to and at various times up to 28 days post drug administration. All samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Plasma data were analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic compartmental model. Maximum measured plasma isoflupredone concentrations were 1.76 ± 0.526 ng/mL at 4.0 ± 1.31 h and 1.63 ± 0.243 ng/mL at 4.75 ± 0.5 h, respectively, for horses that had synovial fluid collected and for those that did not. The plasma beta half-life was 24.2 h. Isoflupredone concentrations were below the limit of detection in all horses by 48 h and 7 days in plasma and urine, respectively. Isoflupredone was detected in the right antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints for 8.38 ± 5.21 and 2.38 ± 0.52 days, respectively. Results of this study provide information that can be used to regulate the use of intra-articular isoflupredone in the horse.

  19. Effect of feeding thoroughbred horses a high unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet for 6 months following a 10 month fat acclimation. (United States)

    Harris, P A; Pagan, J D; Crandell, K G; Davidson, N


    This study looked at the effect of feeding diets supplemented with either a predominantly saturated or unsaturated vegetable oil over a prolonged period to exercising horses. Eight Thoroughbred horses were assigned to 2 diet treatments and for 10 months were fed Timothy hay and oats, together with a fortified sweet feed supplemented with either a predominantly unsaturated (Un) or a saturated (S) vegetable oil so that approximately 19% DE (Digestible Energy) came from dietary fat and approximately 12% from either the Un or S source (AC). An increased amount of Un or S fortified sweet feed, replacing the oats, was then fed for a further 6 months (HF) so that approximately 27% DE came from fat and approximately 20% from the Un or S vegetable oil. Standardised incremental treadmill exercise (8-12 m/s) tests (STEP) and duplicate oral glucose tolerance tests (TOL) were carried out after 3, 6 and 9 months of the AC diet and after 3 and 6 months on the HF diet. There was no significant effect of dietary treatment or when the tests were undertaken (time) on the insulin or lactate responses to the STEP tests. Overall there was a significant (P supplemented with either an unsaturated or saturated vegetable oil for 6 months at approximately 20% DE after 10 months at approximately 12% DE were identified and there were no apparent disadvantages of feeding a saturated vegetable oil supplemented diet compared with an unsaturated one.

  20. Computed tomographic imaging of subchondral fatigue cracks in the distal end of the third metacarpal bone in the thoroughbred racehorse can predict crack micromotion in an ex-vivo model.

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    Marie-Soleil Dubois

    Full Text Available Articular stress fracture arising from the distal end of the third metacarpal bone (MC3 is a common serious injury in Thoroughbred racehorses. Currently, there is no method for predicting fracture risk clinically. We describe an ex-vivo biomechanical model in which we measured subchondral crack micromotion under compressive loading that modeled high speed running. Using this model, we determined the relationship between subchondral crack dimensions measured using computed tomography (CT and crack micromotion. Thoracic limbs from 40 Thoroughbred racehorses that had sustained a catastrophic injury were studied. Limbs were radiographed and examined using CT. Parasagittal subchondral fatigue crack dimensions were measured on CT images using image analysis software. MC3 bones with fatigue cracks were tested using five cycles of compressive loading at -7,500N (38 condyles, 18 horses. Crack motion was recorded using an extensometer. Mechanical testing was validated using bones with 3 mm and 5 mm deep parasagittal subchondral slots that modeled naturally occurring fatigue cracks. After testing, subchondral crack density was determined histologically. Creation of parasagittal subchondral slots induced significant micromotion during loading (p<0.001. In our biomechanical model, we found a significant positive correlation between extensometer micromotion and parasagittal crack area derived from reconstructed CT images (SR = 0.32, p<0.05. Correlations with transverse and frontal plane crack lengths were not significant. Histologic fatigue damage was not significantly correlated with crack dimensions determined by CT or extensometer micromotion. Bones with parasagittal crack area measurements above 30 mm2 may have a high risk of crack propagation and condylar fracture in vivo because of crack micromotion. In conclusion, our results suggest that CT could be used to quantify subchondral fatigue crack dimensions in racing Thoroughbred horses in-vivo to

  1. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

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    C. Meyer


    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  2. Effect of a booster vaccination against influenza and equine herpes virus on cardio-respiratory adjustments to strenuous exercise and training in thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Art, T; Lekeux, P


    This study was conducted in order to assess whether exercise- and training-induced cardio-respiratory adjustments are modified during the 10-day period which follows a booster vaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and equine herpesvirus-1 (Equiffa). Nine healthy vaccinated thoroughbred horses were used. Six were revaccinated and three were kept as control. All the horses completed a standardised exercise test (SET) that was repeated 4 times, i.e. 10 (SET1) and 2 (SET2) days before revaccination, and 2 (SET3) and 10 (SET4) days after revaccination. During the whole experimental period the horses were trained 6 days per week according to an interval training schedule. Respiratory airflow, tidal volume, respiratory rate and expired minute volume (VE) were measured using a face mask and 2 ultra-sonic pneumotachographs. The oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were obtained on a breath-by-breath basis, using a mass spectrometer. Heart rate (HR) was continuously measured with a polar horse tester. Venous blood was sampled before and after the test and analysed for biochemical determinations. Blood was also sampled before and 21 days after the booster vaccination for circulating antibody titration. The peak VO2, VCO2, ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO2) and oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) were significantly improved by the 3-week training period. The other cardio-respiratory parameters as well as most of the blood parameters remained unchanged throughout the 4 SETs. The revaccination did not impair any of the parameters measured before, during, or after the SETs. All revaccinated horses showed a rise in antibodies against influenza virus type A1 and A2 and EVH-1 compared to the control horses. It was concluded that, in our horses, revaccination with an oily adjuvanted inactivated vaccine against influenza and EVH-1 did not impair their cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments to strenuous exercise and intense training, and that

  3. Sedative and antinociceptive effects of romifidine and xylazine in Thoroughbred mares Efeito sedativo e antinociceptivo da romifidina e xilazina em éguas Puro Sangue Inglês

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    F.G. Christovão


    Full Text Available The sedative and antinociceptive effects of romifidine (0.1mg/kg and of xylazine (1.0mg/kg on Thoroughbred mares were studied. Sedation was evaluated by quantifying spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and head height (HH in animals placed in automated individual behaviour stalls. Antinociception was determined utilizing a heat irradiation lamp recording the latency time for the hoof withdrawal reflex (HWRL and the latency time for the skin twitch reflex (STRL in a randomised block design with 10 replicates. Comparison of the sedative effects of romifidine and of xylazine on SLA showed a faster effect for xylazine. Regarding the sedative effect of the substances based on HH, romifidine caused a longer-lasting effect. Romifidine caused an increase in HWRL and STRL, and xylazine, an agent known for its analgesic effect, did not have an antinociceptive effect based on STRL result. The antinociceptive effect of romifidine was more pronounced than the xylazine effect.Compararam-se os efeitos sedativos e antinociceptivos da romifidina (0,1mg/kg e da xilazina (1,0mg/kg em éguas da raça Puro Sangue Inglês. A sedação foi quantificada por meio da atividade locomotora espontânea (ALE e altura da cabeça (AC em baias individuais automatizadas para o estudo do comportamento. A antinocicepção foi avaliada utilizando uma lâmpada de irradiação de calor registrando-se a latência para o reflexo de retirada do membro (LRRM e a latência para o reflexo do frêmito cutâneo (LRFC, em delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com 10 repetições. O efeito sedativo sobre a ALE foi de aparecimento mais rápido no grupo exposto à xilazina, ao passo que a ptose da cabeça foi mais prolongada no grupo que recebeu romifidina. A romifidina promoveu aumento da LRRM e LRFC e a xilazina não causou efeito antinociceptivo medido pela LRFC. O efeito antinociceptivo da romifidina foi mais pronunciado que o da xilazina.

  4. Parasite field study in central Kentucky on thoroughbred foals (born in 2004) treated with pyrantel tartrate daily and other parasiticides periodically. (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Rathgeber, R A; Collins, S S


    Foals (79), born in 2004 on three thoroughbred horse farms (C, M, and S) in central Kentucky, were fed pyrantel tartrate daily, beginning at about 3 months of age. In addition, other parasiticides [fenbendazole (FBZ), ivermectin (IVM) alone or with praziquantel (PRAZ), oxibendazole (OBZ), pyrantel pamoate (PRT), and moxidectin (MOX)] were given periodically. All treatments were administered by farm personnel. Over a 14-month period, from May 2004 to July 2005, collections (n=989) of feces were made from the foals for determination of presence of internal parasite eggs/oocysts by qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Conclusions on drug activity are based necessarily on considering the combined effect of pyrantel tartrate and the other compounds. For small strongyles, this was related to which specific additional compound was given. Based on the percentage of foals with strongyle-egg-positive feces and/or the level of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) counts for the foals after treatment, drug activity on small strongyles was highest to lowest for MOX, IVM and IVM/PRAZ, FBZ, OBZ, PRT, and FBZ (2x for 5 days). The macrocyclic lactones (MOX and IVM) were highly superior to the other compounds. Some of the strongyle counts were high (over 2,000), especially on one farm (S), during periods when foals received only pyrantel tartrate, but a few days after administration of therapeutic dose rates of the drugs IVM or MOX, they were negative or very low. Ascarid eggs were present in feces of three foals after treatment with a combination of IVM and PRAZ. The qualitative method was more efficient than the quantitative method in detection of ascarid and strongyle eggs in the feces. Prevalence of eggs of ascarids (Parascaris equorum) was low (0, 4, and 31%), of strongyles high (80, 100, and 100%), of Strongyloides westeri very low (only one infected foal), and oocysts of Eimeria leuckarti medium to high (36, 41, and 85%) for the three farms, C, M, and S, respectively. It is

  5. Relevância da ultra-sonografia dos tendões flexores em cavalos Puro Sangue de corrida na adaptação ao treinamento Significance of flexor tendon ultrasonography in training thoroughbred horses

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    Carolina Roxana Greig


    Full Text Available Vinte e quatro potros Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, com dois anos de idade foram avaliados ultra-sonograficamente, durante o período final da doma e início de treinamento, através da imagem transversal dos tendões flexor digital superficial (TFDS e profundo (TFDP. As avaliações foram realizadas com intervalos de 15 dias. A área transversal (AT, a textura dos ecos e a ecogenicidade dos tendões foram avaliadas nas sete zonas da região metacarpiana através de um programa de mensuração de imagens do próprio aparelho de ultra-sonografia. Durante a doma e treinamento, houve diminuição da AT na zona IA e IIIA (PThe cross-sectional area (CSA of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT of twenty four thoroughbreds was ultrasonographically evaluated before and during their initial training to determine the effect of exercise on the tendon CSA, texture and echogenicity to characterize the response to training. Ultrasonographic transverse images of the left forelimb were obtained every fifteen days. The SDFT CSA of zones IA and IIIA showed a decrease (P<0.05, f=0.010 e f=0.023 res. during the breaking and training period and an increase (P< 0.05 of zone IIIC (f=0.039. Evaluating just the training period, SDFT CSA results of zones IA, IIIA and IIIC were similar. The DDFT showed no variation during the breaking phase but when the training phase was evaluated there was a decrease (P<0.05 in zones IA (f=0.006 and IIIA (f=0.006. Evaluating both breaking and training periods the DDFT showed a decrease (P<0.05 in zones IA (f=0.027, IIIA (f=0.0001 and IIIB (f=0.0031. Fiber texture and tendon echogenicity showed no significant difference between breaking and last reading during training. This study provides evidence of variation of adaptation among the ultrasonographic zones of both SDFT and DDFT to exercise during training of thoroughbred horses. Ultra-sonography is not the most indicated method to evaluate the

  6. Field test data on small strongyles in evaluation of activity of fenbendazole given once a day for 5 consecutive days to thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in Kentucky in 2002 and 2003. (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C


    Fenbendazole (FBZ) suspension was administered intraorally at the dose rate of 7.0-10.3 mg/kg once a day for 5 consecutive days to 58 thoroughbred yearlings on two farms in central Kentucky in April, 2002. The average dose rates of drug given to groups of colts and fillies on each farm were 7.8-8.5 mg/kg. Only 3 of the yearlings had negative counts of strongyle eggs per gram of feces (EPGs) after treatment which was at 8.4, 8.7, or 9.4 mg/kg; the pretreatment EPG counts were low (10-30). Reduction of EPG values at the highest dose rates was 0% (at 9.5 mg/kg) and 78% (at 10.3 mg/kg). This study was repeated in April, 2003 in 38 thoroughbred yearlings on one of the two same farms used in the 2002 research, but all horses were treated at the same dose rate (10 mg/kg) of FBZ paste once daily for 5 consecutive days. Only 1 of these yearlings had a negative EPG count after treatment, but this value was also negative before treatment. Reductions of EPG counts after treatment ranged from 0% to 85% (mean =22%) for the colts and from 0 to 63% (mean =14%) for the fillies. Examination of cultures of fecal samples from these yearlings revealed that only small strongyle larvae were present. There was obvious FBZ-resistance of the small strongyles in yearlings on both farms at the dose rates used.

  7. The relationship between consecutive pregnancies in Thoroughbred mares. Does the location of one pregnancy affect the location of the next, is this affected by mare age and foal heat to conception interval or related to pregnancy success. (United States)

    Davies Morel, M C G; Newcombe, J R; Hinchliffe, J


    Delayed uterine involution is a major cause of early reproductive failure in mares. Involution is affected by mare age, and foaling to covering interval. Involution rates vary between the previously non-gravid horn (PNGH), which recovers the quicker, and the previously gravid horn (PGH). Location of a pregnancy and its likely success may, therefore, be affected by its location relative to the previous pregnancy. This study aimed to determine: (i) the location of concepti in consecutive pregnancies; (ii) whether this varies with mare age or foaling to conception interval; (iii) whether location in relation to the previous pregnancy affects success. 1383 Thoroughbred mares were monitored by ultrasonic scanning during oestrus and early pregnancy. Significantly (psuccess are greatest. The larger number of pregnancies locating in the PGH in older mares and those with shorter foaling to conception intervals may in part account for the higher conceptus mortality rates in such mares. Hence breeding older mares on alternate years and maximising foaling to conception interval may improve reproductive success. Alternatively termination of pregnancies located in the PGH followed by timely recovering may be justifiable as might ET in older mares covered close to foaling.

  8. Nitrogenous metabolism in Thoroughbred and Arabian foals from birth to five months of age Metabolismo do nitrogênio em potros PSI e Árabe do nascimento aos cinco meses de idade

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    G. Piccione


    Full Text Available The maturation of nitrogen metabolism was studied in six Thoroughbred and six Arabian foals. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates and serum concentration of several hematochemical parameters (total protein, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and albumine were monitored from birth to 5 months of age. In both breeds, all the parameters except albumine showed significant differences over time (PA maturação do metabolismo do nitrogênio foi estudada em seis potros da raça Puro-Sangue Inglês e seis da raça Árabe. A temperatura retal, batimento cardíaco e concentração sérica de várias características hematoquímicos (proteína total, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina e albumina foram investigadas do nascimento aos cinco meses de idade. Em ambas as raças, todas as características, exceto a albumina, mostraram diferenças significativas ao longo da maturação (P<0,05. As duas raças não diferiram uma da outra durante os períodos de vida equivalentes. Reduções significativas das concentrações de uréia e creatinina mostraram as necessidades de crescimento dos potros durante esse período crítico de desenvolvimento.

  9. Fatores de risco associados a doenças respiratórias em potros Puro Sangue Inglês do nascimento ao sexto mês de vida Risk factors associated the respiratory diseases in Thoroughbred foals, from birth to six months of life

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    Leandro do Monte Ribas


    Full Text Available Foram avaliados fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de doenças respiratórias em 349 potros Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI monitorados do nascimento ao sexto mês de vida na região de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brasil. A partir da avaliação clínica e laboratorial pôde-se registrar a frequência de 9,5% (33 casos respiratórios, com mortalidade de 0,57% (2. A ocorrência de casos foi mais elevada nos meses de verão, e potros com idade entre quatro e seis meses foram mais suscetíveis (PRisk factors associated the occurrence of respiratory diseases they were evaluated between 349 Thoroughbred foals, monitored of the birth to the sixth month of life in the region of Bagé-RS-Brazil. From the laboratory and clinical evaluation, the frequency of 9.5% (33 of respiratory cases with mortality of 0.57% (2 was recorded. The occurrence of cases was higher in months of summer and foals with age between four and six months were more susceptible (P<0.001. The development of the diseases was influenced (P<0.001 by the breeding system of and management practices that increased the environmental contamination potential. In the evaluation microbiological, , the highest frequency of isolated was of Streptococcus equi (57%, followed by the Rhodococcus equi (17%, lethal in 50% of the cases. No clinic case was associated to the equine influenza virus (EIV and to the equine herpesvirus (EHV-1-4. The results suggest that connected factors to the management in the breeding of thoroughbred equine are going to contribute decisively for the manifestation of the respiratory disease and alert for the morbidity caused by the equine adenitis and the lethality related to rodococosis.

  10. The cross-sectional area of the superficial digital flexor tendon of trained and untrained Thoroughbred racehorses Área transversal do tendão flexor digital superficial de cavalos Puro Sangue Inglês de corrida em treinamento e sem treinamento

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    Ana Guiomar Matos Santiago Reis


    Full Text Available Twenty Thoroughbred racehorses were ultrasonographically evaluated to determine the relation between normal values of the cross-sectional area (CSA of the right and left forelimbs superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT in the metacarpal region for trained and untrained Thoroughbreds racehorses. Ultrasonography revealed that CSA at 26cm distal to the accessory carpal bone is larger than other proximal levels, for either left or right forelimbs. In addition, the CSA at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14cm distal to the accessory carpal bone of the left forelimb are larger (P0.05 between left and right forelimb for CSA of the SDFT, at any level, for either trained or untrained horses, and there was no significant difference between untrained or trained horses for the CSA of right forelimb. In conclusion, the CSA of the left forelimb SDFT for horses that had been in continuous race training remains larger when they were trained anticlockwise, contrary to horses that had not been training for more than one year.Vinte cavalos da raça Puro Sangue Inglês de corrida foram submetidos a exame ultrassonográfico, com o intuito de determinar a relação entre os valores normais da área do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS na região metacarpiana dos membros torácicos direito e esquerdo, em cavalos com e sem treinamento. O exame ultrassonográfico revelou que a área do tendão 26cm distal ao osso acessório do carpo é maior em comparação com as alturas proximais, tanto nos membros torácicos esquerdos, como nos membros torácicos direitos. Além disso, a área do TFDS nas alturas 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 14cm, no membro torácico esquerdo, é maior (P0,05 nas áreas do TFDS entre os membros torácicos direito e esquerdo, tanto para os animais em treinamento, como para os animais sem treinamento. Também não foi encontrada diferença significativa em comparação com o membro direito dos cavalos em treinamento e sem treinamento. Conclui-se que os cavalos

  11. Concentração de progesterona e de estradiol 17-beta e características ultra-sonográficas da vesícula embrionária no início da gestação em éguas Puro Sangue Inglês Progesterone and estradiol 17-beta concentration, and ultrasonic images of the embryonic vesicle during the early pregnancy in Thoroughbred mares

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    L.E.S. Ferraz


    Full Text Available Associaram-se dosagens séricas de progesterona e estradiol 17-beta, realizadas durante os primeiros 36 dias de prenhez em 30 éguas PSI, com exames ultra-sonográficos, para verificar fenômenos que ocorrem com a vesícula embrionária. As éguas foram divididas em dois grupos de 15 animais, o primeiro constituído por éguas paridas e o segundo por éguas virgens ou vazias na estação anterior. Por meio da ultra-sonografia foram verificados fenômenos de mobilidade, fixação e orientação da vesícula embrionária. As concentrações séricas de progesterona e estradiol 17-B variaram (PMeasurements of progesterone and estradiol 17-beta concentrations within the first 36 days of pregnancy were taken in order to study the relationship between their concentrations and the ultrasound embryonic vesicle examination in 30 Thoroughbred mares. Two groups of 15 animals each were used, one consisting of maiden or barren mares from the previous breeding season, and the other one of foaling mares. The phenomena of mobility, fixation and orientation of the embryonic vesicle were studied, and no relationship between hormone concentration and the development of the concept was found. The concentration of oestrogens was higher (P<0.01 in the foaling mares.

  12. Assessement of glycaemia and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinekinase, gamma glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in thoroughbred horses submitted to exercise of different intensities/ Avaliação da glicemia e da atividade sérica de aspartato aminotransferase, creatinoquinase, gama-glutamiltransferase e lactato desidrogenase em eqüinos puro sangue inglês (PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades

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    Joandes Henrique Fonteque


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the influence of exercise of different intensities on biochemical parameters in Thoroughbred horses blood was collected from 60 animals, 30 males and 30 females.The animals were subdivided in two groups : 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 24 to 36 months of age and not in training, and after 12 months of training; 30 horses, 15 males and 15 females with 36 to 48 months of age in training. Blood samples were collected before and after trot and gallop. Plasmatic glucose was analyzed through a colorimetric method, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT were analyzed through kinetic methods. Results show a statistically significant increase in plasmatic glucose after trot and gallop independent of gender, while the increases in CK and LDH were different for males and females. Variations for AST and GGT were not statistically significant.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as alterações na bioquímica sérica em eqüinos PSI submetidos a exercícios de diferentes intensidades. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 60 eqüinos PSI, distribuídos nos seguintes grupos: 30 animais sendo 15 machos e 15 fêmeas, com idade de 24 a 36 meses, não submetidos a treinamento e após um período de 12 meses de treinamento e 30 eqüinos de 36 a 48 meses, em fase de treinamento, antes e após o trote . Dos animais de 36 a 48 meses foram selecionados 20 machos e 10 fêmeas e colhido sangue antes e após o galope. Determinou-se, por métodos colorimétricos, os valores da glicose plasmática e, por métodos cinéticos, as enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatinoquinase (CK, lactato desidrogenase (LDH e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. A análise estatística dos resultados comprovou a ocorrência de aumento significativo (p < 0,05 dos valores da glicose plasmática após o trote e galope para ambos os sexos. Para as enzimas CK e LDH ocorreram

  13. 日本邮船扩张海工业务

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    日本邮船近期将扩张海工业务作为目标,并计划收购海底工程公司Emas Chiyoda Subsea的25%股份。Emas Chiyoda Subsea是新加坡运营商Ezra Holdings和日本千代田化工建设株式会社(Chiyoda Corporation)的合资公司。

  14. Oxidative stress markers in Thoroughbred horses after castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia. (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Sasaki, Naoki; Kusano, Kanichi; Endo, Yoshiro; Torisu, Shidow


    Oxidative stress has been reported to occur during surgery. It is important to reduce intraoperative oxidative stress to improve the postoperative prognosis. However, there are no reports regarding oxidative stress related to surgery in horses. In the present study, we measured pre and postsurgical diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP); the oxidative stress index (OSI) was then calculated (OSI=d-ROMs/BAP × 100). d-ROMs were not significantly different between the pre and postsurgical periods. However, BAP significantly decreased after surgery (P=0.02), and OSI significantly increased after surgery (P=0.02). Based on these results, it suggested that castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia decreases the antioxidant potential and causes oxidative stress in horses.

  15. Effect of starch source in pelleted concentrates on fecal bacterial communities in Thoroughbred mares (United States)

    High starch concentrates are often added to equine diets to meet digestible energy requirements of some horses, such as broodmares. Starch source has been shown to affect fecal bacterial communities of horses when fed cereal grains with little to no processing. Others suggest that grain processing, ...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen enantiomers following intravenous and oral administration to exercised Thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Knych, Heather K; Arthur, Rick M; Steinmetz, Stacy; McKemie, Dan S


    Ketoprofen (KTP) is currently only available as an injectable formulation for intravenous administration to horses. The primary goal of the study reported here was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of KTP, including determination of bioavailability following oral administration of the currently available injectable formulation as well as a paste formulation. KTP was administered intravenously and orally, and blood and urine samples were collected at various time points up to 96 h. KTP enantiomer concentrations were determined using LC–MS/MS, and pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. Mean ± standard error values for systemic clearance, steady state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life were 0.345 ± 0.033 [R(−) KTP] and 0.167 ± 0.016 [S(+) KTP] L/kg/h, 0.344 ± 0.044 [R(−) KTP] and 0.298 ± 0.025 [S(+) KTP] L/kg, and 2.49 ± 0.077 [R(−) KTP] and 2.86 ± 0.102 [S(+) KTP] h, respectively. Oral bioavailability was calculated as 69.5 ± 10.3% and 88.2 ± 15.9% for R(−) KTP and S(+) KTP, respectively, following administration of the injectable formulation and 53.0 ± 6.0 and 53.0 ± 16.0% for the R(−) KTP and S(+) KTP, respectively, following administration of KTP paste.

  17. Epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in South African Thoroughbreds

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    H. Weideman


    Full Text Available This study investigated if environmental factors had an effect on the incidence of epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH among racehorses in southern Africa. Data covering the period 1986-2001 and involving 778 532 race runs were analysed. This included the following information : date of race, age, sex, name of breeder, trainer, distance, jockey, state of going, weight carried, racing centre and altitude. Veterinarians employed by the Jockey Club suspended officially entered horses that presented with epistaxis (frank bleeding from the nostrils after racing. On-course endoscopy is not performedas a standard practice at any southern African racetrack. Epistaxis was identified in 1287 horses (0.165 %. More horses presented with EIPH-related epistaxis (a at sea level, (b from May to October, (c when older (> 3 years, (d after 1995, (e on Fridays and Sundays, and (f more in geldings than in mares or entire males. No association could be established between epistaxis and breeder, trainer, distance run, jockey, state of going and weight carried. It is concluded that the frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis is associated with altitude, winter and spring, sex and age. It is suggested that racing at lower altitudes may increase the probability of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage.

  18. Whip use by jockeys in a sample of Australian Thoroughbred races--an observational study.

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    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available The use of whips by jockeys is an issue. The current study viewed opportunistic high-speed footage of 15 race finishes frame-by-frame to examine the outcomes of arm and wrist actions (n = 350 on 40 horses viewed from the left of the field. Any actions fully or partially obscured by infrastructure or other horses were removed from the database, leaving a total of 104 non-contact sweeps and 134 strikes. For all instances of arm actions that resulted in fully visible whip strikes behind the saddle (n = 109, the outcomes noted were area struck, percentage of unpadded section making contact, whether the seam made contact and whether a visible indentation was evident on impact. We also recorded use of clockwise or counter-clockwise arm action from each jockey's whip, whether the whip was held like a tennis racquet or a ski pole, whether the hind leg on the side of the impact was in stance or swing phase and whether the jockey's arm was seen traveling above shoulder height. The goal of the study was to characterize the area struck and the visual impact of whip use at the level of the horse. We measured the ways in which both padded and unpadded sections of the whip made impact. There was evidence of at least 28 examples, in 9 horses, of breaches of the whip rules (one seam contact, 13 contacts with the head, and 14 arm actions that rose above the height of the shoulder. The whip caused a visible indentation on 83% of impacts. The unpadded section of the whip made contact on 64% of impacts. The results call into question the ability of Stewards to effectively police the rules concerning whip use and, more importantly, challenge the notion that padding the distal section of whips completely safeguards horses from any possible whip-related pain.

  19. Detection and pharmacokinetics of salbutamol in thoroughbred racehorses following inhaled administration. (United States)

    Wieder, M E; Paine, S W; Hincks, P R; Pearce, C M; Scarth, J; Hillyer, L


    Salbutamol sulphate (Ventolin Evohaler) was administrated via the inhalation route to six horses at a dose of 0.5 mg every 4 h during the day for 2 days (total dose 4 mg). Urine and blood samples were taken up to 92 h postadministration. Hydrolyzed plasma and urine were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE). A sensitive tandem mass spectrometric method was developed in this study, achieving a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for salbutamol of 10 pg/mL in plasma and urine. The parent drug was identified using UPLC-MS/MS. Most of the determined salbutamol plasma concentrations, post last administration, lie below the LLOQ of the method and so cannot be used for plasma PK analysis. Urine PK analysis suggests a half-life consistent with the pharmacological effect duration. An estimate of the urine average concentration at steady-state was collected by averaging the concentration measurements in the dosing period from -12 to 0 h relative to the last administered dose. The value was averaged across the six horses and used to estimate an effective urine concentration as a marker of effective lung concentration. The value estimated was 9.6 ng/mL and from this a number of detection times were calculated using a range of safety factors.

  20. Fodder quality influence on thorough-bred horses’ health and sport skills



    The purpose of this study was: - To investigate jumping sport horses health conditions influence on sport skills; - To investigate blood parameters in Lithuanian jumping sport horses before and after an active training period. Eight healthy horses ranging in age from 6 to 8 with a mean body weight o 607 +/- 86,9 kg were used in experiment. Blood samples were collected from well trained Lithuanian sport horses and tested before and after an intensive period of competition of 2006. Bi...

  1. Oral single dose of allopurinol in thoroughbred foals born from mares with placentitis

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    Luciana Oliveira de Araujo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Allopurinol in foals born from mares with placentitis. Twenty foals were assigned into two groups: Healthy foals (n=10, born from healthy mares and Placentitis foals (n=10, born from mares with placentitis. Five foals from each group were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Treatment groups received Allopurinol (40mg kg-1 orally six hours after birth. Blood samples were collected for estimation of hematological variables and serum concentration of calcium, chloride, creatinine, phosphorus, glucose, lactate and magnesium. Placentitis foals presented leukopenia and neutropenia when compared with Healthy foals, at birth. The white blood cell (WBC count was lower in the Placentitis foals untreated at 12 hours. No adverse effects related to the use of Allopurinol were detected. Treated Placentitis foals showed higher serum calcium and glucose levels within 12 hours than untreated Placentitis foals. Administration of Allopurinol PO in foals born from mares with placentitis did not result in adverse effects and can help in stabilizing serum calcium and glucose levels.

  2. The Effect of Different Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries on Blood Concentration of Serum Amyloid A in Thoroughbred Racehorses.

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    Agnieszka Turło

    Full Text Available Training-induced muscle, skeletal and joint trauma may result in acute phase response reflected by the changes in the blood concentration of serum amyloid A (SAA in racehorses. It remains yet unclear if such systemic reaction could be triggered by sport injuries and what is the impact of different types of musculoskeletal trauma on SAA concentrations in racehorses. This study aimed to determine changes in the SAA blood concentration in racehorses with different types of injuries of musculoskeletal system.The study involved 28 racehorses diagnosed after the race with bone fractures (n = 7, dorsal metacarpal disease (n = 11, joint trauma (n = 4 or tendon and muscle trauma (n = 6 and 28 healthy control racehorses. Serum samples were collected twice, between 1 and 4 days of the injury or succesful completion of the race. SAA concentration was measured using the commercial ELISA kit. Differences between mean SAA concentration in respective groups were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test.Mean SAA concentration within the first 4 days of the injury of muscle and tendon was significantly higher than in bone fractures, dorsal metacarpal disease, joint trauma or in the healthy horses (p<0,001. There were no significant differences between the other groups.Strain injuries of muscle and tendons can cause a moderate increase in SAA blood concentration in racehorses, reflecting the occurrence of the acute phase response. Similar reaction is not observed in the stress-related bone injuries.

  3. Study of Morphological Indices of English Thoroughbred (E.T.H. Adult Equine Material Bred to Izvin Stud, Timis County

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    Ioan Tapalaga


    Full Text Available This research was conducted in order to establish very clearly the morphological indices of the E.T.H. race bred to Izvin Stud, and also to highlight its strengths, weaknesses and sports skills. Based on these assessments and morphological indices calculation we can give guidance on the improvement direction of this population of horses, usage of breeders and correct some deficiencies. The study was carried out on a number of 83 individuals of ETH race (7 satllions and and 76 mares belonging to Izvin Stud, Timis county and considered parameters were: height at withers, height at croup, height at the base of tail, diagonal length of the trunk, chest depth, chest width, torax width, croup width at hips, forearm length, flute length, thoracic perimeter, whistle perimeter, body weight. Obtained morphological index values show the superiority of breeding adults with 1.74% for the character height at withers and with 3.41% for the character body mass compared with data obtained from other locations in the country. Instead, the character chest depth recorded lower values with 0.75% and the character chest perimeter with 2.11% in the same conditions.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and effects on thromboxane B2 production following intravenous administration of flunixin meglumine to exercised thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S; Chapman, N


    Flunixin meglumine is commonly used in horses for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The current ARCI threshold recommendation is 20 ng/mL when administered at least 24 h prior to race time. In light of samples exceeding the regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration, the primary goal of the study reported here was to update the pharmacokinetics of flunixin following intravenous administration, utilizing a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An additional objective was to characterize the effects of flunixin on COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition when drug concentrations reached the recommended regulatory threshold. Sixteen exercised adult horses received a single intravenous dose of 1.1 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected up to 72 h postadministration and analyzed using LC-MS. Blood samples were collected from 8 horses for determination of TxB(2) and PGE(2) concentrations prior to and up to 96 h postflunixin administration. Mean systemic clearance, steady-state volume of distribution and terminal elimination half-life was 0.767 ± 0.098 mL/min/kg, 0.137 ± 0.12 L/kg, and 4.8 ± 1.59 h, respectively. Four of the 16 horses had serum concentrations in excess of the current ARCI recommended regulatory threshold at 24 h postadministration. TxB(2) suppression was significant for up to 24 h postadministration.

  5. The effect of consignment to broodmare Sales on physiological stress measured by faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in pregnant Thoroughbred mares.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin; Becker, Annet; Ganswindt, Stefanie; Guthrie, Alan; Stout, Tom; Ganswindt, Andre


    BACKGROUND: Validation of a method for the minimally-invasive measurement of physiological stress will help understanding of risk factors that may contribute to stress-associated events including recrudescence of Equid herpesvirus (EHV), which is anecdotally associated with sales consignment of preg

  6. 76 FR 71602 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Telemanagement Forum (United States)


    ... REPUBLIC; BaseN,Helsinki, FINLAND; Bintel Ltd, Dubai, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES; Blue Buffalo Group, Lafayette..., Dubai, UNITED ARAB EMIRATES; Fusion Communications Corporation, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, JAPAN; Futuro...

  7. Assessing quality of life in the treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration: clinical research findings and recommendations for clinical practice


    Yuzawa M; Fujita K; Tanaka E; Wang ECY


    Mitsuko Yuzawa,1 Kyoko Fujita,1 Erika Tanaka,2 Edward C Y Wang21Department of Ophthalmology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The importance of incorporating quality-of-life (QoL) assessments into medical practice is growing as health care practice shifts from a “disease-based” to a “patient-centered&rdquo...

  8. Lottery Effects on Pari-Mutuel Tax Revenues



    Addresses the issue of substitution among the two most prominent forms of gambling, lotteries and thoroughbred racing. Focuses on the impact of lotteries on the demand for wagering at thoroughbred racetracks because thoroughbred horseracing generates more tax revenue than other non-lottery types of gambling.

  9. Epidemiology of racing injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses with special reference to bone fractures: Japanese experience from the 1980s to 2000s (United States)

    MAEDA, Yousuke; HANADA, Michiko; OIKAWA, Masa-aki


    ABSTRACT This report describes the descriptive epidemiology of racing fractures that occurred from the 1980s to 2000s on racetracks of the Japan Racing Association (JRA). The incidence of racehorse fractures during flat racing was approximately 1–2%. Fractures occurring during a race are more likely to occur in a forelimb. Fractures mostly occur at the third and fourth corners of oval tracks and on the home stretch. They also occur more frequently at the time of changing the leading limb. Comparison of the incidence of racing fracture between before and after reconstruction of the geometrical configuration of a racetrack revealed that there was an outstanding reduction in the number of serious fractures in the year before and after reconstruction. It was postulated that the improvement in racing time, possibly influenced by reconstructing the geometrical configuration of the racetrack, was connected to the reduction in the number of fractures. Of non-biological race- and course-related factors, type of course (dirt or turf), track surface condition, differences between racecourses, and racing distance significantly influence racing time. By using an instrumented shoe, vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs) on the forelimb during galloping and the relationships between a rough dirt and woodchip track surface and a smooth dirt and woodchip surface were measured. Relating the incidence of racing fractures with track conditions in general showed that track surface has significant effects on the incidence of fracture, with the incidence of fractures increasing as track conditions on dirt worsen and a tendency for the incidence of fractures to decrease as track conditions on turf worsen. It seems probable that track condition in general may affect the incidence of fracture. The incidence of fracture in horses during both racing and training decreased as the years progressed. PMID:27703403

  10. Comparison of the Occurrence of Transportation-associated Fever in 2 Years Old Thoroughbreds before and after Introduction of Prophylactic Marbofloxacin Administration. (United States)

    Endo, Yoshiro; Tsuchiya, Takeru; Akiyama, Kentaro; Takebe, Naoya; Nakai, Kenji; Korosue, Kenji; Ishimaru, Mutsuki; Tsuzuki, Nao; Hobo, Seiji


    In order to reveal the preventive effect of marbofloxacin (MRFX) administration just before transportation, we compared the occurrence of transportation-associated fever before and after introduction of MRFX administration. After the introduction of prophylactic MRFX administration, the rectal temperatures of horses after transportation were significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P<0.01) and the number of febrile horses was significantly lower than before the introduction of MRFX administration (P<0.01). In conclusion, these results show that prophylactic MRFX administration just before transportation is clinically effective at preventing transportation-associated fever.

  11. The Effectiveness of Anti-R. equi Hyperimmune Plasma against R. equi Challenge in Thoroughbred Arabian Foals of Mares Vaccinated with R. equi Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Erganis


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a pregnant mare immunization of a Rhodococcus equi (R. equi vaccine candidate containing a water-based nanoparticle mineral oil adjuvanted (Montanide IMS 3012 inactive bacterin and virulence-associated protein A (VapA, as well as the administration of anti-R. equi hyperimmune (HI plasma against R. equi challenge in the mares’ foals. The efficacy of passive immunizations (colostral passive immunity by mare vaccination and artificial passive immunity by HI plasma administration was evaluated based on clinical signs, complete blood count, blood gas analysis, serological response (ELISA, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ, total cell count of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF samples, reisolation rate of R. equi from BALF samples (CFU/mL, lung samples (CFU/gr, and lesion scores of the organs and tissue according to pathological findings after necropsy in the foals. The vaccination of pregnant mares and HI plasma administration in the foals reduced the severity of R. equi pneumonia and lesion scores of the organs and tissue by 3.54-fold compared to the control foals. This study thus indicates that immunization of pregnant mares with R. equi vaccine candidate and administration of HI plasma in mares’ foals effectively protect foals against R. equi challenge.

  12. High-speed gallop locomotion in the Thoroughbred racehorse. II. The effect of incline on centre of mass movement and mechanical energy fluctuation. (United States)

    Parsons, K J; Pfau, T; Ferrari, M; Wilson, A M


    During locomotion on an incline, mechanical work is performed to move an animal up the slope and increase the potential energy (PE) of the trunk and hence the centre of mass (CoM). Thus, at a given speed the total net mechanical work increases with the PE of the animal. In this study we investigate the mechanical energy (ME) fluctuations and the mechanical cost of transport (MCT) in six horses galloping up a range of gradients. We captured trunk movement with a six degrees-of-freedom inertial sensor mounted over the dorsal spinous process of the fourth to sixth thoracic vertebrae of the horse. Footfall timings were measured using a previously validated system of limb-mounted accelerometers. Speed was measured using a Global Positioning System (GPS) data logger. A track survey provided detailed incline information for the track. Linear (craniocaudal, mediolateral and dorsoventral) and rotational (roll, pitch and heading) kinematic parameters (displacement, velocity and acceleration) were calculated at speeds ranging from 9.0 to 12.0 m s(-1) during routine training over a range of inclines. Estimates of ME fluctuations and the MCT were made. Results showed the effect of incline on trunk motion during galloping was small. Increases in linear mechanical work and MCT were primarily explained by an increase in the work required to move the animal up the slope (and increase the PE of the CoM). Within the stride the majority of the work was performed during hindlimb stance. Our results have provided new insights into how horses power uphill locomotion.

  13. 76 FR 38448 - In the Matter of International Poultry Co., Inc. (n/k/a Carley Enterprises, Inc.), International... (United States)


    ... Thoroughbred Breeders, Inc., Internet Marketing, Inc., Intrepid Technology & Resources, Inc., Ion Technology... accurate information concerning the securities of Internet Marketing, Inc. because it has not filed...

  14. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr


    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  15. Valores bioquímicos séricos em potros da raça puro sangue inglês suplementados com diferentes tipos de gordura Serum biochemical in thoroughbred horses supplemented with fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Locatelli Dittrich


    Full Text Available Determinaram-se as concentrações de glicose, ureia, GGT (gama glutamil transferase, CK (creatino quinase, AST (aspartato aminotransferase e LDH (lactato desidrogenase em equinos alimentados com dietas normal e suplementadas com gorduras. As amostras de sangue foram obtidas após os exercícios físicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi um ensaio rotativo em quadrado latino 4x4. Os quatro tratamentos foram: Tl - dieta normal; T2 - dieta normal, com 10% de óleo de milho (gordura insaturada; T3 - dieta normal, com 10% de gordura de coco (gordura saturada; T4 - dieta normal, com 5% de óleo de milho e 5% de gordura de coco. Os resultados encontrados para glicose, ureia e GGT não apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as dietas. Os resultados para a AST e LDH foram maiores nos equinos alimentados com dietas sem gordura, e os valores da CK, em UI/L. foram de 118,01 (Tl; 84,24 (T2; 60,37 (T3 e 76,28 (T4, sendo significativamente menores (PThis experiment determined lhe concentrations of blood glucose, urea, GGT (gama glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in horses after the exercises, with normal diet and additional dietary fat. It was used the 4x4 Latin square design. The four diets were Tl-normal diet; T2-normal diet with 10% com oil; T3-nonnal diet with 10% coconut oil; T4-nonnal diet with 5% com oil and 5% coconut oil. There were no signifi cam changes in glucose, urea and GGT leveis due to diet. The serum concentrations of AST and LDH were higher in horses fed a diet withoutfat, and the resultsfound to CK (Ul/L were 118.01 (Tl; 84.24 (T2; 60.37 (T3 and 76.28 (T4. Serum leveis ofCK were significantiy smaller (P<0.05 in horses suppiemented with saturated fat, suggesting a smaller damage to the muscle fibers after the exercises.

  16. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies. (United States)


    this present study’s central tendency statistics (monthly means, modes, and medians). The exceptions are OWS ALFA and BRAVO, and to some degree CHARLIE...Seattle 98762 Commanding Officer Superintendent Office of Naval Research U.S. Naval Academy Eastern/ Central Regional Office Library Acquisitions Bldg. 114...Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca

  17. Equine protease inhibitor system as a marker for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam E. Vinocur


    Full Text Available The protease inhibitor system (PI was investigated to ascertain if it can be used as a marker of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in thoroughbred horses. Serum samples were taken from healthy thoroughbreds (n = 13 and those diagnosed as having COPD (n = 24 or inflammatory airway disease (IAD, n = 38 as well as from 3,600 undiagnosed thoroughbred horses. PI allelic and genotypic frequencies were estimated using protein electrophoresis on starch and polyacrylamide gels. The four groups of horses showed high genotypic similarity and none of the observed alleles or genotypes of the equine PI system were found to be associated with COPD.

  18. ONR Far East Scientific Bulletin. Volume 13, Number 2, April - June 1988 (United States)


    a blue -light emitting LED, the door to optoelectronic applications of ZnSe can fairly be said to be wide open. EPITAXIAL GROWTH OF LATTICE- What...B. Wright, director of ONR/ F. Sakurai, " Blue light emission from ZnSe AFOSR/ARO Far East from August 1985, p-n junctions," J. Appl. Phys. 57, 2210...Atomization and Spray Systems 6-5-4 Soto-kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokio !Z! 15-F100-J200 August The 5th Australia-New Zealdnd Sydney, Conference Manager 22-26

  19. Effect of exercise on occurrence of diurnal rhythms of plasma ions and metabolites in Thoroughbred racehorses Efeito do exercício na ocorrência de ritmos diários de íons e metabólitos plasmáticos em cavalos de corrida Puro Sangue Inglês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C.R. Viana


    Full Text Available Records of plasma calcium (Ca++, phosphorus (Pi, potassium (K+, sodium (Na+, chloride (Cl-, magnesium (Mg++, iron (Fe++, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein levels were measured to determine the effects of exercise on occurrence of diurnal rhythms in Throughbred racehorses (n=7 under physical training. Physical activities consisted of gallop on the track and walking. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein every 4h over a 48h period. Plasma Ca++, K+, Mg++ and Na+ levels were obtained by flame photometry; and, Pi, Cl-, Fe++, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein levels were measured by colorimetric tests using visible UV spectrophotometry. The data were analyzed using a 24h period to each exercise performed. Diurnal rhythm of Pi was observed when walking was the physical activity performed, and its acrophase occurred at the light period. Plasma triclycerides showed significant diurnal rhythms, with their acrophases occurring at the dark period, even when walking or gallop were performed. High intensity exercise (gallop decreased triglycerides amplitude. No significant diurnal rhythms of other variables were found. Gallop, as physical activity, masked phosphorus diurnal rhythm. However, physical training did not influence triglycerides diurnal rhythm occurrence. High intensity exercise (gallop just declined triglycerides amplitude.Mensuraram-se as concentrações plasmáticas de cálcio (Ca++, fósforo (Pi, potássio (K+, sódio (Na+, cloreto (Cl-, magnésio (Mg++, ferro (Fe++, glicose, colesterol, triglicerídeos e proteínas totais para determinar os efeitos do exercício sobre a ocorrência dos ritmos diários em cavalos de corrida da raça Puro Sangue Inglês (n=7, em treinamento. A atividade física consistiu de galope na raia e passo. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas da veia jugular a cada 4h durante um período de 48h. As concentrações plasmáticas de Ca++, K+, Mg++ e Na+ foram obtidas por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com chama, e as concentrações de Pi, Cl-, Fe++, glicose, colesterol, triglicerídeos e proteína total foram mensuradas por testes colorimétricos utilizando-se a espectrometria de luz UV visível. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se um período de 24h para cada tipo de exercício desenvolvido. Ritmo diário de Pi foi observado quando o passo foi a atividade física desenvolvida, apresentando sua acrofase no período diurno. A concentração plasmática de triglicerídeos mostrou significante ritmo diário com a acrofase ocorrendo no período noturno, independente se foi desenvolvido o galope ou passo. O exercício de alta intensidade (galope diminuiu a amplitude dos triglicerídeos. Nenhum ritmo diurno foi achado nas outras variáveis. Estes resultados mostram que o galope como atividade física, mascara o ritmo diário do fósforo. Entretanto, o treinamento físico não apresentou nenhum efeito na ocorrência do ritmo diário de triglicerídeos, somente na sua amplitude.

  20. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation (United States)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro


    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  1. Development of steady-state model for MSPT and detailed analyses of receiver (United States)

    Yuasa, Minoru; Sonoda, Masanori; Hino, Koichi


    Molten salt parabolic trough system (MSPT) uses molten salt as heat transfer fluid (HTF) instead of synthetic oil. The demonstration plant of MSPT was constructed by Chiyoda Corporation and Archimede Solar Energy in Italy in 2013. Chiyoda Corporation developed a steady-state model for predicting the theoretical behavior of the demonstration plant. The model was designed to calculate the concentrated solar power and heat loss using ray tracing of incident solar light and finite element modeling of thermal energy transferred into the medium. This report describes the verification of the model using test data on the demonstration plant, detailed analyses on the relation between flow rate and temperature difference on the metal tube of receiver and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate, for solar collector assembly (SCA) development. The model is accurate to an extent of 2.0% as systematic error and 4.2% as random error. The relationships between flow rate and temperature difference on metal tube and the effect of defocus angle on concentrated power rate are shown.

  2. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia associated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole administration in a horse.


    Thomas, H L; Livesey, M A


    A 10-year-old, thoroughbred gelding was administered sulphonamide drugs during surgical treatment of guttural pouch mycosis. The horse became anemic and a diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia was made after other causes of anemia had been ruled out. The anemia resolved after the drugs were withdrawn.

  3. Effect of track maintenance on mechanical properties of a dirt racetrack: a preliminary study. (United States)

    Peterson, M L; McIlwraith, C W


    When Thoroughbred racehorses experience catastrophic injuries, the track surface is often discussed as a factor. The present study investigated the mechanical properties of the surface and found that significant changes in a track occur during routine maintenance. Questions regarding the relative importance of track variability and hardness require further investigation.

  4. Differences in the electrocardiographic QT interval of various breeds of athletic horses during rest and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Juul; Karlsson, Madeleine; Madsen, Mette Flethøj


    athletic horses and to test for differences in the QT interval. ANIMALS: Ten Icelandic horses, 10 Arabian horses, 10 Thoroughbreds, 10 Standardbreds, six Coldblood trotters, 10 Warmbloods (dressage) and 10 Warmbloods (show jumping). All horses were geldings. METHODS: QT intervals were measured from resting...

  5. Harvard's Historic Choice (United States)

    Wilson, Robin


    In this article, the author profiles Drew Gilpin Faust, a career academic who has risen to the top job at Harvard University and has been named president of Harvard after six years as leader of its small Radcliffe Institute. Ms. Faust, who is 59, grew up in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, raised by a father who bred Thoroughbred horses and a…

  6. Estudio comparativo de la eficacia terapéutica de oxitetraciclina, imidocarb y diminazeno, utilizados en el tratamiento de hemoparasitosis en equinos pura sangre de carrera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Arrieta-Mendoza, D.; Morales, A


    It presents a comparative study of the therapeutic efficacy of oxytetracycline, imidocarb and diminaze- ne, used in the treatment of equine hemoparasitosis Thoroughbreds. We studied a total of 105 horses, Tho- roughbreds, all under 2 years old, during the quarantine period November to December 20...

  7. Pulse tube refrigerator; Parusukan reitoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, Yoshikazu [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Shiraishi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)


    In the cryogenic field, high temperature superconductivity and research and development of the peripheral technology are popular. Refrigerating machine development of the very low temperature is also one of the results. Research and development are mainly advanced as a refrigerating machine of the center for the aerospace plane installation. There is special and small very low temperature refrigerating machine called 'the pulse tube refrigerating machine' of which the practical application is also recently being attempted for the semiconductor cooling using high temperature superconductivity. At present, the basic research of elucidation of refrigeration phenomenon of pulse tube refrigerating machine and development of high-performance pulse tube refrigerating machine is carried out by experiment in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry Mechanical Engineering Lab., Agency of Industrial Sci. and Technology and numerical simulation in Chiyoda Corp. In this report, the pulse tube refrigerating machine is introduced, and the application in the chemical engineering field is considered. (NEDO)

  8. Small-aperture corneal inlay in patients with prior radial keratotomy surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseynova T


    Full Text Available Tukezban Huseynova,1,* Tomomi Kanamori,1 George O Waring IV,2 Minoru Tomita1,3,* 1Shinagawa LASIK Center, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Medical University of South Carolina, Storm Eye Institute, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Abstract: This paper describes the 3-month results of two patients who underwent KAMRA™ (AcuFocus, Inc, Irvine, CA, USA inlay implantation surgery with a history of prior radial keratotomy. The refractive error just before KAMRA inlay implantation was corrected in one patient with a laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK procedure. The post-inlay implantation surgery results showed effective uncorrected near visual acuity outcomes with no impact on uncorrected distance visual acuity in both patients. Keywords: KAMRA™, RK, LASIK, uncorrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, uncorrected near visual acuity

  9. Changing Human-Animal Relationships in Sport: An Analysis of the UK and Australian Horse Racing Whips Debates


    Raewyn Graham; Phil McManus


    Simple Summary This paper identifies the various perceptions held by advocates and opponents about the use of the whip in thoroughbred racing, as portrayed in print and social media. Three time periods in two countries were investigated, Australia (2009) and the UK (2011), following the introduction of new whip rules and the period August 2014–August 2015 for both countries to identify whether perceptions had changed. The major area of contention between advocates and opponents was whether th...

  10. Gastroscopic evaluation of gastric ulcer syndrome in sport horses with poor performance


    ÇETİNKAYA, Mehmet Alper; DEMİRUTKU, Alper; KAYA, Mahir


    Gastric ulceration is common in performance horses. More than 90% of thoroughbred horses in the training season and approximately 60% of racing horses from other disciplines have gastric ulcers. Excessive secretion of gastric acid, impairment of gastric mucosal blood flow, weakening of prostaglandin E or the gastric mucus/bicarbonate layer, and gastric emptying disorders are important factors in the onset of ulceration. In this study, 12 horses with poor performance were evaluated using gastr...

  11. After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007) : causes and interventions


    Viljoen, A; M.N. Saulez; C.M. Donnellan; Bester, L; B. Gummow


    Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %), with Thoroughbred, ...

  12. The variability of a horse’s movement at walk in hippotherapy


    Janura, Miroslav; Svoboda, Zdeněk; Dvořáková, Tereza; Cabell, Lee; Elfmark, Milan; Janurová, Eva


    The impulses emitted from the back of a horse during hippotherapy stimulate the rider’s postural reflex mechanisms, resulting in balance and coordination training. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the movement variability of the horse’s back and limbs and to determine significant relationships between the movement of the selected body points on the horse. Two English thoroughbreds and twelve female riders participated in six sessions of hippotherapy. Three-dimensional...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The authors give a short orientation about the age related parameters of incisors based on the literature. They tell about their own investigation of two conventional (cup depth and its yearly abrasion and of two first applied (relative abrasion and area of dental table parameters. The previous literature evaluated the parameters in question in two different ways: time period or frequency analysis. The authors introduced a new method: the linearly-corrected row data which is processed by analysis of variance. Their elaboration reaches altogether 107 individuals, three horse types (English Thoroughbred, English Half-breed and pony, and two genders (mare, stallion + gelding. The cup depth at the levelling is the shallowest in the ponies (2 mm, while it is deeper in the Half-breeds (5 mm and in the Thoroughbreds (4.4 mm. This deviation can be explained by body size differences between breeds. The degree of the absolute and the relative abrasion of the cup can be associated with the early utilisation (racing and with the intensive feeding (concentrate. The area of the dental table is the largest in the pony, and the smallest in the Thoroughbred. The reason for the slowest abrasion observed in the ponies can be explained not only by the more traditional feeding but also by the bigger occlusive surface. The authors assume that the selection for the early utilisation of the English Thoroughbred resulted in an automatic change of the well inherited chronology of dentition; more early matured animals producing, in relation to the chronology of dentition. In this breed the general refinement of the whole organism, but especially of the bone system manifests in the narrowing of the teeth also.

  14. Investigation of optimal fluoroglass preheat

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, S; Toyoda, T; Wakamatsu, O; Machida, T


    The regular preheat condition of fluoroglass GD-301 (Chiyoda Technol Co., its size is 1.5 mm phi x 8.5 mm.) is temperature 70 deg C and time 30 minutes. When we measured dose 5.00 Gy at high energy X-ray processed with this condition, we observed build-up phenomenon according to elapsed days. So we investigated the optimal preheat temperature and time by measuring fluoroglass doses daily for several days. Fluoroglasses were irradiated 2.00 Gy of 10 MV X-ray at the reference depth using MEVATRON KD 2/50 PRIMUS (Toshiba Co.). First, we measured doses during 17 days after preheating them for 30 minutes, changing preheat temperatures from 50 deg C to 350 deg C at some intervals. Second, we measured doses during 9 days after preheating them at 70 deg C and at temperatures representing the maximum value and the most frequent value, changing preheat time from 5 minutes to 2 hours at some intervals. Doses increased up to around 115 deg C and decreased after that, and it seemed as if glasses were annealed at 350 deg C...

  15. Levee Breach Experiment by Overflow at the Full Scale Experimental Channel (United States)

    Shimada, T.; Yokoyama, H.


    The increased occurrence of storm disasters caused by typhoons and local downpours in recent years has given rise to concerns over the possibility of large-scale floods resulting from river overflow. Levee breaches cause particularly severe damage, and in Japan, more than 80% of such accidents in the past have been attributed to overflow. Studies on levee breach by overflow have been conducted from various viewpoints using diverse methods. However, the mechanism of three-dimensional levee breach by overflow has not been clarified in past studies. Elucidation of this mechanism is very important for disaster prevention as well as for the future progress of studies on levee breach by overflow. Levees (levee crown width; 3m, levee height; 3m, levee length; 80m) were built in the Chiyoda Experimental Channel (full-scale experimental channel; width is 30m, length is 1,300m, maximum discharge is 170t/s) in Hokkaido Japan in 2010, and a three-dimensional experiment on levee breach by overflow. The findings of the experiment are as follows: After the beginning of overflow, levee breach widening did not begin until after most of the levee section had collapsed. It was also considered that, even if overflow occurred, extremely serious damage (e.g., sudden increase in levee breach width and overflow discharge) was unlikely unless the majority of the levee section collapsed.

  16. Combined nanoindentation testing and scanning electron microscopy of bone and articular calcified cartilage in an equine fracture predilection site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Doube


    Full Text Available Condylar fracture of the third metacarpal bone (Mc3 is the commonest cause of racetrack fatality in Thoroughbred horses. Linear defects involving hyaline articular cartilage, articular calcified cartilage (ACC and subchondral bone (SCB have been associated with the fracture initiation site, which lies in the sagittal grooves of the Mc3 condyle. We discovered areas of thickened and abnormally-mineralised ACC in the sagittal grooves of several normal 18-month-old horses, at the same site that linear defects and condylar fracture occur in older Thoroughbreds and questioned whether this tissue had altered mechanical properties. We embedded bone slices in PMMA, prepared flat surfaces normal to the articular surface and studied ACC and SCB using combined quantitative backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (qBSE and nanoindentation testing: this allowed correlation of mineralisation density and tissue stiffness (E at the micron scale. We studied both normal and affected grooves, and also normal condylar regions. Large arrays of indentations could be visualised as 2-dimensional maps of E with a limit to resolution of indentation spacing, which is much larger than qBSE pixel spacing. ACC was more highly mineralised but less stiff in early linear defects than in control regions, while subchondral bone was more highly mineralised and stiffer in specimens with early linear defects than those without. Thus both ACC and SCB mineralisation may be abnormal in a class of early linear defect in 18-month-old Thoroughbred horses, and this may possibly contribute to later fracture of the Mc3 condyle.

  17. Helminths in horses : use of selective treatment for the control of strongyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matthee


    Full Text Available The current level of anthelmintic resistance in the horse-breeding industry is extremely high and therefore more emphasis is being placed on studies that focus on the judicious use of anthelmintic products. The aims of the study were to: 1 establish if there is variation in the egg excretion pattern of strongyles between the different age classes of Thoroughbred horses in the Western Cape Province (WCP, 2 test if a selective treatment approach successfully reduces the number of anthelmintic treatments and maintains acceptably low helminth burdens in adult Thoroughbred horses, and 3 evaluate the efficacy of subsampling large horse herds for faecal egg counts (FECs to monitor the strongyle burden. In 2001 the FECs of 4 adult mare, 5 yearling and 3 weanling herds from 8 different farms were compared in the WCP. Within the mare herds there were generally fewer eggexcreting individuals with lower mean FECs compared with the younger age classes. Individual faecal samples were collected every 3-4 weeks from 52 adult Thoroughbred mares from 1 farm in the WCP during a 12-month period (2002/2003. Animals with strongyle FECs > 100 eggs per gram (epg were treated with an ivermectin-praziquantel combination drug (Equimax oral paste, Virbac. The mean monthly strongyle FEC for the entire group was < 300 epg throughout the study and the number of treatments was reduced by 50 %. Resampling methods showed that an asymptote to mean FEC was reached at 55 animals for each of the pooled weanling, yearling and mare egg counts. Resampling within 4 different mare herds recorded asymptotes of between 24 and 28 animals. Subsampling entire herds for FECs therefore provided an effective approach to treatment management. This study demonstrates that selective treatment is both a practical and an effective approach to the management of anthelmintic resistance.

  18. Comparison of live weight and body measurements of adult brood mares from different genotypes in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Bene


    Full Text Available Live weight and 21 body measurements of 110 Thoroughbred, 75 Gidran, 109 Nonius, 97 Hungarian Sport Horse, 172 Hungarian Cold Blooded Horse and 20 Murinsulaner type adult brood mares in 28 studs were evaluated in Hungary. One way ANOVA was used to compare the genotypes. Some body measure indices were determined. Phenotypic correlation coefficients between the live weight and body measurements were estimated. Regression equations were developed to estimate the live weight from body measurements. Significant differences were found between the live weight and 21 body measurements of different genotypes. The rank of the investigated genotypes according to live weight was as follows: Hungarian Cold Blooded Horse (742.1 kg, Murinsulaner type (649.3 kg, Nonius (614.9 kg, Hungarian Sport Horse (600.9 kg, Gidran (563.4 kg and Thoroughbred (542.0 kg. The results of girth measurements for the warm blooded breeds were similar to the data found in the literature. Considerable difference was found between the genotypes in body measure indices. The absolute and relative body size values prove clearly and objectively, that there are significant differences in the conformation of Thoroughbred, Gidran, Nonius, Hungarian Sport Horse, Hungarian Cold Blooded Horse and Murinsulaner type adult brood mares. The most close relationship with the live weight (r=0.89-0.92; P<0.01 was shown the body condition and nutritional status related measurements (heart girth, 2nd width of rump. For the estimation of live weight with regression model the necessary data are as follows: hearth girth, 2nd width of rump and length of body (R2=0.91; P<0.01.

  19. Tracheal perforation managed by temporary tracheostomy in a horse : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez


    Full Text Available Tracheal trauma with resultant rupture is uncommonly reported in veterinary literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old Thoroughbred gelding that sustained a 1 cm longitudinal perforation of the dorsal tracheal membrane in the proximal cervical region. The horse subsequently developed dyspnoea due to acute upper respiratory obstruction secondary to severe emphysema of the guttural pouches. A temporary tracheostomy caudal to the site of tracheal perforation was performed under local anaesthesia. This procedure helped relieve the upper airway obstruction and aided resolution of the injury by diverting air away from the site of tracheal perforation. After conservative management, the gelding recovered completely.

  20. Distribución de la variabilidad genética en poblaciones de ponis españoles: resultados preliminares



    The genetic variability has been analyzed through the allelic frequencies distribution of ten STR (Short Tandem Repeat) equine loci of three different horse populations, Asturcón, Pottoka and Thoroughbred (PSI), which is considered as an outgroup. The genetic variability found in the pony breeds is higher than for PSI and only one of the ten loci analyzed is significantly desviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (= 0.01) in Asturcón and Pottoka populations. The FST value (0.054) shows a s...

  1. [Minimum health and sexual requirements for breeding stallions]. (United States)

    Merkt, H; Klug, E


    The rules for the minimal requirements in health and genital potency for stallions formulated by GOTZE (1950) are reformulated, taking into consideration the results achieved by KLUG (1982) and KENNEY (1983). A stallion must be free of phenotypic hereditary faults. Furthermore he has to be in general and genital health and must be fit in both, potentia coeundi and generandi. The figures are based on the examination of thoroughbred and so called "warmblood" stallions. However, they can be adapted to other breeds like draughthorses and ponys.

  2. Nuchal crest avulsion fracture in 2 horses : a cause of headshaking : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voigt


    Full Text Available The medical records of 2 Thoroughbred horses that developed headshaking after blunt trauma to the occipital region are reviewed. The history, signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic methods, diagnosis and treatment were recorded in each case. Both horses displayed headshaking, while one horse repeatedly lifted its upper lip and pawed excessively at the ground. In both horses, diagnostic imaging of the occipital region revealed avulsion fragments of the nuchal crest and a nuchal desmitis in association with hyperfibrinogenaemia. The presence of an avulsion fragment of the nuchal crest with associated nuchal desmitis should be considered in horses presenting with headshaking and may respond favourably to conservative therapy.

  3. Research on the Morphological Characteristics Variability of Three Horse Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Cătălin Prisacaru


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the characterization of some morphological parameters of some horse population improvedwith stallion of Arab, Hucul and English thoroughbred breeds. The biological material was represented by thestallions belonging to the three breeds and the population improved with them. Measurements have been made inorder to determine the height at withers, oblique length of the trunk, cannon girth and weight. The height at witherspresented smaller dimensions at the Arab and English thoroughbred breeds and at the Hucul breed the stallions had aheight at withers of 140 cm and the improved population 143.80 cm. Oblique length of the trunk presented valuesslightly lower at the improved horses in comparison with the stallions used at mount. The English thoroughbredpresented a value of 21.50 cm of the cannon girth at the improved population in comparison with the value of 19.5cm obtained at the mount stallions. The weight has been lower at the improved populations than the one of thestallions. Most of the morphological characteristics of the improved population are close to the ones if the stallionsused at mount.

  4. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H.B. Marlow


    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  5. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  6. 2 obras del arquitecto Shin'Ichi Okada – Japón

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    Editorial, Equipo


    Full Text Available Niigata school of odontology. The five buildings that currently make up the school, although handled in the same way with the same materials, have different shapes and heights, depending on the function; nevertheless, they form a harmonious whole. They are arranged in the shape of an L at one end of which the hospital was located with its various clinical sections and rooms for classes and lectures. Directly joined to the hospital is the main building in which the administrative area, offices, library and reading rooms are distributed. The other three buildings, for practical and theoretical classes, have been linked together by means of outside hall and corridors. The complex is completed with sports facilities and gardened areas which help to create an environment pleasing to the students. Gymnasium of the odontological university of Chiyoda (Tokyo. The premise that guided the project was that the large architectural mass needed would not clash with the smaller surrounding buildings. To this end glass walls were used which reflect the images of its surroundings. The gymnasium, with a rectangular base, has two large blocks of reinforced concrete at its ends which serve as the structural support and service nuclei. The total volume is divided into three well-differentiated spaces: the base, open, which is used as a parking lot; the main gymnasium; and the training hall. Between the latter two, the dressing rooms have been located. The technical stations were situated in the basement.Facultad de odontología de Niigata. Los cinco edificios que actualmente constituyen ia Facultad, aunque tratados de la misma manera y con los mismos materiales, son de distintas formas y alturas, de acuerdo con su función, formando, sin embargo, un conjunto armónico. En su disposición adoptan la forma de una L, en uno de cuyos extremos se situó el hospital, con sus distintas secciones clínicas y aulas para clases y conferencias. Unido directamente a éste se

  7. Assessing quality of life in the treatment of patients with age-related macular degeneration: clinical research findings and recommendations for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzawa M


    Full Text Available Mitsuko Yuzawa,1 Kyoko Fujita,1 Erika Tanaka,2 Edward C Y Wang21Department of Ophthalmology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bayer Yakuhin Ltd, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The importance of incorporating quality-of-life (QoL assessments into medical practice is growing as health care practice shifts from a “disease-based” to a “patient-centered” model. The prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD is increasing in today’s aging population. The purpose of this paper is: (1 to discuss, by reviewing the current literature, the impact of AMD on patients’ QoL and the utility of QoL assessments in evaluating the impact of AMD and its treatment; and (2 to make a recommendation for incorporating QoL into clinical practice.Methods: We conducted a PubMed and an open Internet search to identify publications on the measurement of QoL in AMD, as well as the impact of AMD and the effect of treatment on QoL. A total of 28 articles were selected.Results: AMD has been found to cause a severity-dependent decrement in QoL that is comparable to systemic diseases such as cancer, ischemic heart disease, and stroke. QoL impairment manifests as greater social dependence, difficulty with daily living, higher rates of clinical depression, increased risk of falls, premature admission to nursing homes, and suicide. The National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 is the most widely used eye disease-specific QoL instrument in AMD. It has been shown to correlate significantly with visual acuity (VA. QoL reflects aspects of AMD including psychological well-being, functional capacity, and the ability to perform patients’ valued activities, which are not captured by a single, numerical VA score.Conclusion: The literature shows that the adverse impact of AMD on QoL is comparable to serious systemic disease. Eye disease

  8. Quality assurance of {sup 137}Cs Photons for Vivo Mouse Irradiation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, S. J. [Inje Univ., Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H. J.; Jeong, D. H.; Yang, K. M.; Son, T. G.; Kang, Y. R. [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, S. G.; Kye, Y. U. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    The multi-purpose irradiation apparatus using a {sup 137}Cs, which can be used for the blood test, can be affected by the other components of the experiments such as the size and shape of the beaker and the maximum variation of more than 35% has been reported. The mount of the absorbed dose is determined by the distance between irradiation target and the source and the irradiation time with the irradiator (Gamma Irradiator, Chiyoda Technol Co, Japan) for this experiment. The low-dose irradiation has been used in this study is advantageous for irradiating the cell culture vessel or the small animal. However, radiation is performed by placing the 3-5 mice in each mouse cage (polycarbonate cage). In this case, overlapping often happens to the target during irradiation. Irradiating without considering the geometrical aspect of the irradiation device can occur as well. To solve the problems, the mouse apartment with the 45 mouse cages is built and the device is assessed by being compared with the conventional method in 2 different ways. Firstly, the glass dosimeters were inserted into the head and the body of the lab mice for 2 methods. Secondly, MCNP simulation was performed for absorbed dose and air kerma measurements in each mouse apartment chamber. In this study, the system that allows the accurate irradiation using the {sup 137}Cs gamma irradiator mainly used in Radiation Biology was developed and the accuracy of the system has been confirmed by the experiments. The dose delivery using the conventional system had the variation of 42% at most whereas the variation was less than 6% for the mouse apartment. From the MCNP simulation, the difference between each chamber was less than 0.1% and 0.4% for the air kerma and the absorbed dose respectively. Considering the statistical error of MCNP and the assumption from the simulation, the accuracy of the simulation was matched well with the measurements with the glass dosimeters.

  9. Comparison of DLK incidence after laser in situ keratomileusis associated with two femtosecond lasers: Femto LDV and IntraLase FS60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita M


    Full Text Available Minoru Tomita,1–3 Yuko Sotoyama,1 Satoshi Yukawa,1 Tadayuki Nakamura1 1Shinagawa LASIK Center, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Eye Can Cataract Surgery Center, Manila, Philippines Purpose: To compare the incidence of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with flap creation using the Femto LDV and IntraLase™ FS60 femtosecond lasers. Methods: A total of 818 consecutive myopic eyes had LASIK performed using either Femto LDV or IntraLase FS60 for flap creation. The same excimer laser, the Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q Laser, was used for correcting refractive errors for all patients. In the preoperative examination, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, and manifest refraction spherical equivalent were measured. At the postop examination, the same examinations were performed along with a slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, and patients with DLK were classified into stages. For the statistical analysis of the DLK occurrence rate and the visual and refractive outcomes, the Mann-Whitney’s U-test was used. Results: In the Femto LDV group with 514 eyes, 42 (8.17% had DLK. In the IntraLase FS60 group with 304 eyes, 114 (37.5% had DLK. There was a statistically significant difference in the DLK incidence rate between these groups (P < 0.0001. Both groups had excellent visual and refractive outcomes. Although low levels of DLK were observed for both groups, they did not affect visual acuity. Conclusion: While there were significantly fewer incidences of low level DLK when using Femto LDV, neither femtosecond laser induced high levels of DLK, and any postoperative DLK cleared up within 1 week. Therefore, both lasers provide excellent results, with no clinical differences, and both excel at flap creation for LASIK. Keywords: LASIK, Ziemer, Femto LDV, DLK, IntraLase FS60, femtosecond laser

  10. Linkage disequilibrium between the ELA and the A blood group systems in Standardbred horses. (United States)

    Bailey, E


    The linkage group formed by the ELA and A blood group system in horses was studied in American Standardbred horses. The distance between the ELA locus and the A blood group locus was measured as 1.61 centimorgans, observing only the haplotypes contributed by the sires. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found in pacing Standardbred horses for ELA-W1 with Aa, ELA-W5 with Ab and ELA-W10 with Ab. Linkage disequilibrium was apparent at both the population and family level. Among trotting Standardbred horses, linkage disequilibrium was found for ELA-W1 with Aa and for ELA-W10 with Ab. It was not possible to investigate linkage relationships in Thoroughbred horses because of the high frequency of Aa and low frequency of other A system markers.

  11. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz


    . The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine......The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected...

  12. The genetic structure of Spanish Celtic horse breeds inferred from microsatellite data. (United States)

    Cañon, J; Checa, M L; Carleos, C; Vega-Pla, J L; Vallejo, M; Dunner, S


    Partition of the genetic variability, genetic structure and relationships among seven Spanish Celtic horse breeds were studied using PCR amplification of 13 microsatellites on 481 random individuals. In addition, 60 thoroughbred horses were included. The average observed heterozygosity and the mean number of alleles were higher for the Atlantic horse breeds than for the Balearic Islands breeds. Only eight percentage of the total genetic variability could be attributed to differences among breeds (mean FST approximately 0.08; P Jaca Navarra, Caballo Gallego and Pottoka) are not consistently differentiated. Multivariate analysis showed that Asturcon populations, Losina and Balearic Islands breeds are clearly separated from each other and from the rest of the breeds. In addition to this, the use of the microsatellites proved to be useful for breed assignment.

  13. Evaluation of a multiplex PCR for detection of serotypes K1, K2 and K5 in Klebsiella sp. and comparison of isolates within these serotypes. (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Baklan, Hatice; Siu, L K; Kaufmann, Mary E; Pitt, Tyrone L


    A multiplex PCR using targets within the serotype-specific region of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster of serotypes K1, K2 and K5 was evaluated using the 77 reference serotype strains of Klebsiella, and a panel of clinical isolates subjected previously to conventional serotyping. The PCR was highly specific for these serotypes, which are those most associated with virulence in humans and horses. PCR confirmed that isolates of the K5 serotype had cross-reacted with antiserum for other serotypes, particularly for K7. K5 isolates received by our laboratory were almost exclusively from thoroughbred horses, and were submitted for screening prior to breeding programmes. Most, including a reference strain isolated in 1955, belonged to a cluster of genetically similar isolates of sequence type (ST) 60. K1 isolates, all from humans, belonged to a previously identified cluster of ST 23.

  14. Behavioural and physiological effects of virginiamycin in the diets of horses with stereotypies. (United States)

    Freire, R; Clegg, H A; Buckley, P; Friend, M A; McGreevy, P D


    The effects of dietary supplements of virginiamycin on the behaviour and physiology of 17 thoroughbred geldings (five cribbers, six weavers and six control horses) were compared with the effects of a placebo over a period of 16 weeks. Virginiamycin had no effect on the horses' stereotypic behaviour, but it reduced their explorative behaviour, possibly owing to a reduction in feeding motivation. Virginiamycin increased the water intake of the cribbers and decreased the water intake of the control horses, but it was not possible to eliminate possible confounding factors for this effect. Virginiamycin had no other significant effects on the behaviour or physiology of the horses, and had no effect on the digestibility of their diets.

  15. Mammalian life histories: their evolution and molecular-genetic mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A.


    Survival curves for various species of mammals are discussed and a table is presented to show recorded maximum life spans of about 30 species of mammals. The range of longevities is from one year for shrews and moles up to more than 80 years for the fin whale. The constitutional correlates of longevity are discussed with regard to body size, brain weight,metabolic rates, and body temperature. It is concluded that longevity evolved as a positive trait, associated with the evolution of large body size and brain size. Life table data for man, the thorough-bred horse, beagle dogs, and the laboratory rodents, Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus are discussed. The data show a pattern of exponential increase of death rate with age. A laboratory model using Mus musculus and Peromyscus leucopus for the study of the longevity-assurance mechanisms is described. (HLW)

  16. Equine cryptosporidial infection associated with Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype in Algeria. (United States)

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Aissi, Miriem; Rost, Michael; Kváč, Martin


    Faecal samples from two horse farms in Algeria keeping Arabian, Thoroughbred, and Barb horses were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium in 2010-2011. A total of 138 faecal samples (16 from a farm keeping 50 animals and 122 from a farm with 267 horses) were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. infection using molecular tools. DNA was extracted from all samples. Nested PCR was performed to amplify fragments of the SSU rDNA and gp60 genes to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Sequence analyses of SSU and gp60 genes revealed four animals positive for the presence of subtype XIIIa A22R9 of the Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype. The infections were not associated with diarrhoea. This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Algeria and the first occurrence of the hedgehog genotype in horses. These findings support the potential role of infected horses in sylvatic-domestic transmission of Cryptosporidium.

  17. Conservative treatment of a comminuted cervical fracture in a racehorse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vos NJ


    Full Text Available Abstract The 'classical' or 'Hangman' neck fracture involves the odontoid peg (process of the second cervical vertebra (C2, and is described as an axial, dens or odontoid peg fracture in both the veterinary and human literature. Possible surgical treatment in both foals and adult horses requires a technique that allows decompression, anatomical alignment and stabilisation of the odontoid fracture. A limited number of surgical cases in foals have been reported in literature, but never in an adult horse. A mature Irish Thoroughbred racehorse was diagnosed with a type 2a odontoid peg fracture. Clinical signs included reluctance to move the head and neck, a left hind limb lameness and a neurological status of grade 2. The horse was treated conservatively and raced successfully five months after the diagnosed injury.

  18. Clinical outcomes and virology of equine influenza in a naïve population and in horses infected soon after receiving one dose of vaccine. (United States)

    Kannegieter, N J; Frogley, A; Crispe, E; Kirkland, P D


    As part of the control measures of the equine influenza (EI) outbreak, in addition to the strategic use of vaccination to provide buffer zones around infected populations, approval was obtained to vaccinate Thoroughbred racing horses. We review the clinical expression of the disease and virus excretion in a population of racehorses that were exposed to EI approximately 7 days after administration of a single dose of the canarypox-vectored recombinant compared with a similar unvaccinated population of horses at a nearby racetrack. Although this study was undertaken opportunistically and under the difficult field conditions that prevailed during the outbreak, our observations demonstrate that an appropriate vaccine can be effectively used as a disease control measure, even in the face of an outbreak, and therefore should be rapidly implemented as soon as there is evidence of infection in a naïve population.

  19. A Critical Analysis of the British Horseracing Authority’s Review of the Use of the Whip in Horseracing

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    Bidda Jones


    Full Text Available There is increasing controversy about the use of the whip as a performance aid in Thoroughbred horseracing and its impact on horse welfare. This paper offers a critical analysis of the British Horseracing Authority’s (BHA 2011 Report Responsible Regulation: A Review of the Use of the Whip in Horseracing. It examines the BHA’s process of consultation and use of science and public opinion research through the application of current scientific literature and legal analysis. This analysis suggests that the BHA’s findings on the welfare impact and justification for whip use are insufficiently defended by the report. These findings indicate that the report is an inadequate basis from which to draw any definitive conclusions on the impact of whips on racehorse welfare. Further review is needed, undertaken by an independent scientific body, to advance this debate.

  20. Eficácia de vermífugos à base de avermectinas e milbemicinas utilizados há cinco anos em uma criação de eqüinos Efficacy of avermectins and milbemicins anthelmintics derivatives being used for five years in an equine farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficácia do controle parasitário com anti-helmínticos (AH de largo espectro usados há mais de cinco anos, em um plantel eqüino da raça puro-sangue inglês, sob manejo semi-intensivo. Os animais foram tratados com Ivermectin (Eqvalan® e Moxidectin (Equest®, por via oral. Durante o estudo, o número de ovos por grama de fezes (opg manteve-se zero na maioria dos animais.The efficacy of parasite control with broad spectrum anthelmintics, used for over five years on a Thoroughbred herd was evaluated. The animals were kept on semi-intensive pasture regimen. During this study the horses received Ivermectin (Eqvalan® and Moxidectin (Equest®; both treatments were given orally. The epg number was zero for most animals troughout the trial.

  1. Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of racehorses performed in Japan during the 1930s using recovery rate as an index. (United States)

    Hiraga, Atsushi; Sugano, Shigeru


    The history of research on the exercise physiology of racehorses in Japan dates back to the 1930s. A research report entitled "Studies on exercise physiology and performance testing of the racehorse", published in 1933 by Shigeo Matsuba and Torao Shimamura of The University of Tokyo, was epoch-making and the most important study in the history of equine exercise physiology in Japan. Research results were reported from 92 Thoroughbred racehorses in a large-scale project during the period of 1928 to 1932 at the Shimofusa Imperial Farm and the Koiwai Farm, which were the two greatest racehorse farms at that time. A total of 20 physiological variables were measured to evaluate the fitness of Thoroughbred racehorses before exercise (Pre), just after exercise (Post), 1 hr after exercise (1 hr), 2 hr after exercise (2 hr), and 3 hr after exercise (3 hr) in order to calculate their recovery rates as an index of fitness and performance. The percentage of the Pre value at 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr was calculated. When the percentage of a variable reached 95-105% of the Pre value, the variable was considered to be recovered. The percentage of the total number of variables that were recovered for each time period was calculated, and an overall average was calculated from them; Matsuba and Shimamura proposed calling this overall average the "recovery rate", which could then be applied to evaluate each horse. The effects of training on racehorses were subsequently evaluated by measuring the various physiological variables and the recovery rate.

  2. Ashley Lodge Nursing Home, Tully East, Kildare, Kildare.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A


    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a Quarter Horse mare.

    KAUST Repository

    Doan, Ryan


    BACKGROUND: The catalog of genetic variants in the horse genome originates from a few select animals, the majority originating from the Thoroughbred mare used for the equine genome sequencing project. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs), and copy number variants (CNVs) in the genome of an individual Quarter Horse mare sequenced by next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: Using massively parallel paired-end sequencing, we generated 59.6 Gb of DNA sequence from a Quarter Horse mare resulting in an average of 24.7X sequence coverage. Reads were mapped to approximately 97% of the reference Thoroughbred genome. Unmapped reads were de novo assembled resulting in 19.1 Mb of new genomic sequence in the horse. Using a stringent filtering method, we identified 3.1 million SNPs, 193 thousand INDELs, and 282 CNVs. Genetic variants were annotated to determine their impact on gene structure and function. Additionally, we genotyped this Quarter Horse for mutations of known diseases and for variants associated with particular traits. Functional clustering analysis of genetic variants revealed that most of the genetic variation in the horse\\'s genome was enriched in sensory perception, signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation sequencing and the first genomic sequence of an individual Quarter Horse mare. We have increased the catalog of genetic variants for use in equine genomics by the addition of novel SNPs, INDELs, and CNVs. The genetic variants described here will be a useful resource for future studies of genetic variation regulating performance traits and diseases in equids.

  4. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A


    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  5. Characterization of viral loads, strain and state of equine herpesvirus-1 using real-time PCR in horses following natural exposure at a racetrack in California. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Wilson, W David; Mapes, Samantha; Finno, Carrie; Isbell, Diane; Arthur, Rick M; Ferraro, Gregory L


    The objective of this study was to determine viral loads, strain (neuropathogenic versus non-neuropathogenic) and state (lytic, non-replicating, latent) of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the blood and nasopharyngeal secretions of adult horses following natural exposure. The index case, a 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with confirmed EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy, as well as potentially exposed horses, were sampled over a period of 3 weeks. The study population comprised of 39 adult Thoroughbred horses and 35 adult "pony" and outrider horses of various breeds housed at a racetrack in Northern California. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS) from all horses were tested on several occasions for EHV-1 DNA viral loads, targeting the glycoprotein B (gB) gene, viral strain, targeting the ORF 30 gene, and transcriptional activity of EHV-1, targeting the gB gene and latency-associated transcripts (LATs). Viral loads and transcriptional activity of the gB gene declined rapidly in the index case following antiviral treatment. The prevalence of EHV-1 infection in NPS determined by PCR slowly decreased over the 22 day study period from 25% to 14%. The initial surveillance showed multiple clusters of exposure, one associated with the index case and two related to horses that had recently returned from a different racetrack. Viral strain differentiation showed that only two horses (the index case and a neighboring horse) were infected with only a neuropathogenic strain, while all other horses were infected with either a non-neuropathogenic strain or were dually infected with both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains. In most cases, the virus was present in either a lytic or a non-replicating form, while latent virus was found in blood and NPS much less frequently. The molecular approach used in this study showed promise for assessing the risk of exposing other horses to EHV-1 and for studying viral kinetics in

  6. Role of endochondral ossification of articular cartilage and functional adaptation of the subchondral plate in the development of fatigue microcracking of joints. (United States)

    Muir, P; McCarthy, J; Radtke, C L; Markel, M D; Santschi, E M; Scollay, M C; Kalscheur, V L


    The mechanisms that regulate functional adaptation of the articular ends of long bones are poorly understood. However, endochondral ossification of articular cartilage and modeling/remodeling of the subchondral plate and epiphyseal trabeculae are important components of the adaptive response. We performed a histologic study of the distal end of the third metacarpal/metatarsal bone of Thoroughbreds after bones were bulk-stained in basic fuchsin and calcified sections were prepared. The Thoroughbred racehorse is a model of an extreme athlete which experiences particularly high cyclic strains in distal limb bones. The following variables were quantified: microcrack boundary density in calcified cartilage (N.Cr/B.Bd); blood vessel boundary density in calcified cartilage (N.Ve/B.Bd); calcified cartilage width (Cl.Cg.Wi); duplication of the tidemark; and bone volume fraction of the subchondral plate (B.Ar/T.Ar). Measurements were made in five joint regions (lateral condyle and condylar groove; sagittal ridge; medial condylar and condylar groove). N.Cr/B.Bd was site-specific and was increased in the condylar groove region; this is the joint region from which parasagittal articular fatigue (condylar) fractures are typically propagated. Formation of resorption spaces in the subchondral plate was co-localized with microcracking. N.Ve/B.Bd was also site-specific. In the sagittal ridge region, N.Ve/B.Bd was increased, Cl.Cg.Wi was decreased, and B.Ar/T.Ar was decreased, when compared with the other joint regions. Multiple tidemarks were seen in all joint regions. Cumulative athletic activity was associated with a significant decrease in B.Ar/T.Ar in the condylar groove regions. N.Cr/B.Bd was positively correlated with B.Ar/T.Ar (P condylar fatigue (stress) fracture. Functional adaptation of the joint likely protects hyaline cartilage from injury in the short-term but may promote joint degeneration and osteoarthritis with ongoing athleticism.

  7. Efficacy of omeprazole paste in the treatment and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses. (United States)

    Andrews, F M; Sifferman, R L; Bernard, W; Hughes, F E; Holste, J E; Daurio, C P; Alva, R; Cox, J L


    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is very common among performance horses, with a reported prevalence of approximately 90% in racehorses, and also > 50% in foals. Omeprazole, an acid pump inhibitor 5 times more potent than ranitidine, has been used with great success to treat EGUS. This multicentre study of Thoroughbred racehorses with endoscopically verified gastric ulcers was designed to demonstrate the efficacy of an equine oral paste formulation of omeprazole in the treatment and prevention of recurrence of EGUS. Of the 100 horses entered into the study, 25 were sham-dosed for the full 58 days of the study. The remaining 75 horses all received omeprazole paste, 4 mg/kg bwt/day once daily for 28 days. At Day 28, 25 of treated horses continued on this dosing regimen while 25 received a half dose (2 mg/kg bwt once daily) and 25 horses were sham-dosed. By Day 28, gastric ulcers were completely healed in 77% of omeprazole-treated horses, while 92% were significantly (P < 0.01) improved. In contrast, 96% of the sham-dosed horses still had gastric ulcers at Day 28. The improvement was maintained in horses that continued on either a full dose or half dose of omeprazole paste until Day 58. However, in those horses that were removed from omeprazole treatment at Day 28, the incidence and severity of the gastric ulcers at the end of the study were similar to those horses that did not receive the omeprazole paste. This study demonstrates that omeprazole paste, 4 mg/kg bwt per os, once daily, is highly effective in healing gastric ulcers in Thoroughbred racehorses and that either a full dose or half dose of omeprazole paste effectively prevents the recurrence of EGUS. The study also indicates that gastric ulcers in untreated horses did not demonstrate a significant rate of spontaneous healing.

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by An Breacadh Nua, Wexford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A


    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  9. Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling. (United States)

    Chan, George Ho Man; Ho, Emmie Ngai Man; Leung, David Kwan Kon; Wong, Kin Sing; Wan, Terence See Ming


    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. In addition, AASs with fast elimination times render the direct detection approach ineffective as the detection window is short. A targeted metabolomics approach is a plausible alternative to the conventional direct detection approach for controlling the misuse of AAS in sports. Because the administration of AAS of the same class may trigger similar physiological responses or effects in the body, it may be possible to detect such administrations by monitoring changes in the endogenous steroidal expression profile. This study attempts to evaluate the viability of using the targeted metabolomics approach to detect the administration of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, namely androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (6-OXO) and androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD), in horses. Total (free and conjugated) urinary concentrations of 31 endogenous steroids were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for a group of 2 resting and 2 in-training thoroughbred geldings treated with either 6-OXO or ATD. Similar data were also obtained from a control (untreated) group of in-training thoroughbred geldings (n = 28). Statistical processing and chemometric procedures using principle component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) have highlighted 7 potential biomarkers that could be used to differentiate urine samples obtained from the control and the treated groups

  10. Molecular Detection of Equine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 4 Infection in Healthy Horses in Isfahan Central and Shahrekord Southwest Regions, Iran

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    Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani


    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate molecularly the occurrence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection among equine population in regions, Iran. Blood samples from 53 and 37 randomly selected horses settled in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran, respectively, were collected. Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 genes in the blood samples was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Out of 53 and 37 samples from Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (18.18% and 3 (8.10% were positive for PCR of EHV-1, respectively. Nine (16.98% and 6 (16.21% were positive for PCR of EHV-4, while 6 (11.32% and 3 (8.10% were positive for PCR of both EHV-1 and EHV-4, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Of the 7 blood samples positive for EHV-1, 4 (16.66% and 3 (8.10% were from horses >3 years old while 2 (18.18% and 1 (16.66% were from 2-3 years old horses, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Out of the 7 and 3 samples positive for PCR of EHV-1 in Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (22.2% and 1 (7.69% were Standardbred, while 3 (14.28% and 2 (13.33% were Thoroughbreds, respectively. EHV-4 was detected in blood of 4 (22.22% and 2 (15.83% Standardbreds and from 4 (19.04% and 4 (26.66% Thoroughbred horses in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. This study has shown that horses settled in Isfahan central and Shahrekord southwest regions, Iran, are infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 and thus serve as potential reservoirs and disseminators of the viruses.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by RehabCare, Leitrim

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A


    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  12. Identification of genetic variation on the horse y chromosome and the tracing of male founder lineages in modern breeds.

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    Barbara Wallner

    Full Text Available The paternally inherited Y chromosome displays the population genetic history of males. While modern domestic horses (Equus caballus exhibit abundant diversity within maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA, no significant Y-chromosomal sequence diversity has been detected. We used high throughput sequencing technology to identify the first polymorphic Y-chromosomal markers useful for tracing paternal lines. The nucleotide variability of the modern horse Y chromosome is extremely low, resulting in six haplotypes (HT, all clearly distinct from the Przewalski horse (E. przewalskii. The most widespread HT1 is ancestral and the other five haplotypes apparently arose on the background of HT1 by mutation or gene conversion after domestication. Two haplotypes (HT2 and HT3 are widely distributed at high frequencies among modern European horse breeds. Using pedigree information, we trace the distribution of Y-haplotype diversity to particular founders. The mutation leading to HT3 occurred in the germline of the famous English Thoroughbred stallion "Eclipse" or his son or grandson and its prevalence demonstrates the influence of this popular paternal line on modern sport horse breeds. The pervasive introgression of Thoroughbred stallions during the last 200 years to refine autochthonous breeds has strongly affected the distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in modern horse breeds and has led to the replacement of autochthonous Y chromosomes. Only a few northern European breeds bear unique variants at high frequencies or fixed within but not shared among breeds. Our Y-chromosomal data complement the well established mtDNA lineages and document the male side of the genetic history of modern horse breeds and breeding practices.

  13. Cardiac Mean Electrical Axis in Thoroughbreds—Standardization by the Dubois Lead Positioning System (United States)

    da Costa, Cássia Fré; Samesima, Nelson; Pastore, Carlos Alberto


    Background Different methodologies for electrocardiographic acquisition in horses have been used since the first ECG recordings in equines were reported early in the last century. This study aimed to determine the best ECG electrodes positioning method and the most reliable calculation of mean cardiac axis (MEA) in equines. Materials and Methods We evaluated the electrocardiographic profile of 53 clinically healthy Thoroughbreds, 38 males and 15 females, with ages ranging 2–7 years old, all reared at the São Paulo Jockey Club, in Brazil. Two ECG tracings were recorded from each animal, one using the Dubois lead positioning system, the second using the base-apex method. QRS complex amplitudes were analyzed to obtain MEA values in the frontal plane for each of the two electrode positioning methods mentioned above, using two calculation approaches, the first by Tilley tables and the second by trigonometric calculation. Results were compared between the two methods. Results There was significant difference in cardiac axis values: MEA obtained by the Tilley tables was +135.1° ± 90.9° vs. -81.1° ± 3.6° (p<0.0001), and by trigonometric calculation it was -15.0° ± 11.3° vs. -79.9° ± 7.4° (p<0.0001), base-apex and Dubois, respectively. Furthermore, Dubois method presented small range of variation without statistical or clinical difference by either calculation mode, while there was a wide variation in the base-apex method. Conclusion Dubois improved centralization of the Thoroughbreds' hearts, engendering what seems to be the real frontal plane. By either calculation mode, it was the most reliable methodology to obtain cardiac mean electrical axis in equines. PMID:28095442

  14. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage: where are we now?

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    Poole DC


    Full Text Available David C Poole,1,2 Howard H Erickson1 1Department of Anatomy and Physiology, 2Department of Kinesiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: As the Thoroughbreds race for the final stretch, 44 hooves flash and thunder creating a cacophony of tortured air and turf. Orchestrated by selective breeding for physiology and biomechanics, expressed as speed, the millennia-old symphony of man and beast reaches its climax. At nearly 73 kilometers per hour (45 mph over half a ton of flesh and bone dwarfs its limpet-like jockey as, eyes wild and nostrils flaring, their necks stretch for glory. Beneath each resplendent livery-adorned, latherin-splattered coat hides a monstrous heart trilling at 4 beats per second, and each minute, driving over 400 L (105 gallons of oxygen-rich blood from lungs to muscles. Matching breath to stride frequency, those lungs will inhale 16 L (4 gallons of air each stride moving >1,000 L/min in and out of each nostril – and yet failing. Engorged with blood and stretched to breaking point, those lungs can no longer redden the arterial blood but leave it dusky and cyanotic. Their exquisitely thin blood–gas barrier, a mere 10.5 μm thick (1/50,000 of an inch, ruptures, and red cells invade the lungs. After the race is won and lost, long after the frenetic crowd has quieted and gone, that blood will clog and inflame the airways. For a few horses, those who bleed extensively, it will overflow their lungs and spray from their nostrils incarnadining the walls of their stall: a horrifically poignant canvas that strikes at horse racing’s very core. That exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH occurs is a medical and physiological reality. That every reasonable exigency is not taken to reduce/prevent it would be a travesty. This review is not intended to provide an exhaustive coverage of EIPH for which the reader is referred to recent reviews, rather, after a brief reminder of its

  15. Genetic diversity of Brazilian Pantaneiro horse and relationships among horse breeds Diversidade genética do cavalo Pantaneiro e relações com outras raças de eqüinos

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    Fabiana Tavares Pires de Souza Sereno


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Brazilian Pantaneiro horse by microsatellite markers, investigate the effect of genetic bottlenecks and estimate genetic differentiation among four horse breeds. Genetic variation was estimated through allele frequencies and mean breed heterozygosity. Nei's genetic distances among the breeds Pantaneiro, Thoroughbred, Arabian, Spanish Pure Breed (Andalusian, and Uruguay Creole were calculated, and it was used to construct an UPGMA dendrogram. Clustering at different K values was calculated to infer population structure and assign individuals to populations. Nei's distances showed a minimum distance between Pantaneiro horse and Spanish Pure Breed (0.228, and similar distances from Spanish Pure Breed to Thoroughbred and to Arabian (0.355 and 0.332. It was observed a great level of diversity, clear distance from Pantaneiro horse to other breeds, and genetic uniformity within breed. It was verified a certain level of substructure of Pantaneiro horse showing no influences from the other studied breeds.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a variabilidade genética do cavalo Pantaneiro, por meio de marcadores microssatélites, investigar o efeito genético de "bottlenecks" e estimar a variação genética entre quatro raças de cavalo. A diversidade genética foi estimada por meio da freqüência de alelos e da média de heterozigosidade por raças. A distância genética de Nei foi calculada para as raças Pantaneiro, Puro Sangue Inglês, Árabe, Puro Sangue Espanhol e Crioulo Uruguaio. O agrupamento em diferentes valores de K foi calculado para inferir a estrutura da população e determinar indivíduos às populações. A distância de Nei mostrou distância mínima entre o cavalo Pantaneiro e o Puro Sangue Espanhol (0,228, e entre o Puro Sangue Espanhol e o Puro Sangue Inglês e o Árabe (0,355 e 0,332, respectivamente. Foi observada grande diversidade genética dentro da ra

  16. Macrocyclic lactone-resistant Parascaris equorum on stud farms in Canada and effectiveness of fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate. (United States)

    Slocombe, J Owen D; de Gannes, Rolph V G; Lake, Mary C


    The aims of studies in 2002 and 2003 on three farms with 76 foals naturally infected with Parascaris equorum were to (i) identify if the nematode was resistant to ivermectin and moxidectin, and (ii) confirm the effectiveness of fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate for the parasite. Twelve clinical trials, each with a Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test, were conducted on two Thoroughbred and one Standardbred farms in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In each trial, Parascaris eggs/g feces were estimated for each foal pre- and post-treatment using the Cornell-Wisconsin double flotation and Cornell-McMaster dilution techniques. On each farm and for each trial, foals were randomized into treatment groups. Treatments were ivermectin, moxidectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate administered at the manufacturers' recommended dosages, and some foals were untreated. The overall efficacy for ivermectin was 33.5% (19 foals) and for moxidectin 47.2% (28 foals). Fenbendazole (16 foals) and pyrantel pamoate (21 foals) were highly effective for P. equorum each at 97.6%. For fenbendazole, 15 foals had 100% and for pyrantel pamoate 17 foals had >97% with 14 at 100%.

  17. Circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of stallions before and after short road transport: stress effect of different distances

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    Grasso Loredana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since transport evokes physiological adjustments that include endocrine responses, the objective of this study was to examine the responses of circulating β-endorphin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels to transport stress in stallions. Methods Forty-two healthy Thoroughbred and crossbred stallions were studied before and after road transport over distances of 100, 200 and 300 km. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein: first in a single box immediately before loading (pre-samples, then immediately after transport and unloading on arrival at the breeding stations (post-samples. Results An increase in circulating β-endorphin levels after transport of 100 km (P P P P P > 0.05 between horses of different ages and different breeds were observed for β-endorphin, ACTH and cortisol levels. Conclusion The results obtained for short term transportation of stallions showed a very strong reaction of the adrenocortical system. The lack of response of β-endorphin after transport of 200–300 km and of ACTH after transport of 300 km seems to suggest a soothing effect of negative feedback of ACTH and cortisol levels.

  18. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia

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    Barbara Padalino


    Full Text Available Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km in 2013–2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650 of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%; gastrointestinal problems (27%; pyrexia (19%; traumatic injuries (15%; and death (12%. Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p < 0.05; with a marked increase of the proportion of the most severe problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress.

  19. The effect of physical exercise on the daily rhythm of platelet aggregation and body temperature in horses. (United States)

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta


    The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the daily rhythm of platelet aggregation and body temperature in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body temperature was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values Temperature rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the daily rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.

  20. Toxicological evaluation of long-term intravenous administration of amitraz in horses

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    Queiroz-Neto A.


    Full Text Available With the aim of determining the possible toxicity of amitraz after its prolonged use in horses, six English Thoroughbred horses received intravenous injections of amitraz (0.05, 0.10 or 0.15 mg/kg weekly for four months, constituting the experimental group. Eight other animals (control group, via the same route following the same drug administration schedule and period of time, received the vehicle, dimethylformamide. At the end of this period, blood was collected from all the animals, and a comparison was made of the means of the values obtained for the various blood analyses: complete hemogram, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, albumin, total protein, creatinine, Na+ , K+, Cl- and CO2. The results for the biochemical characteristics showed that only the mean value for urea of the animals submitted to treatment with amitraz was significantly different than the mean value obtained for the control group. The analyses of the hematological characteristics showed that no significant differences between groups were observed. Similarly, the measurement of blood electrolyte levels demonstrated that long-term treatment with amitraz did not cause significant changes in the variables analyzed. The results indicate that amitraz, given in the doses employed in this study, did not show signs of inducing toxic effects in vital organs, even after prolonged administration.

  1. Neurologic signs and hyperammonemia in a horse with colic. (United States)

    Sharkey, Leslie C; DeWitt, Shane; Stockman, Cheryl


    A 23-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was referred for the evaluation of acute onset of ataxia and depression, and a 2-day history of fever. On physical examination, the gelding was profoundly depressed and 10-12% dehydrated. The horse appeared very unstable, with a wide-based stance in the hind limbs, severe symmetric ataxia in all 4 limbs, and proprioceptive deficits in both hind limbs. Nasogastric intubation produced 4 L of brown, fetid reflux, and rectal examination revealed mild small intestinal and cecal distention. Hematologic abnormalities included neutropenia with toxic change, compatible with acute inflammation and endotoxemia, and prolonged coagulation times. Serum biochemical abnormalities included prerenal azotemia. metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte abnormalities consistent with enteritis. Blood ammonia concentration was markedly increased (406 micromol/L; reference interval 4-49 micromol/L), however, serum bile acids concentration and hepatic enzyme activities were within reference intervals. Histopathologic examination of a liver biopsy revealed no abnormalities and results of tests for several infectious agents were negative. Clinical signs resolved with correction of the dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities and with antibiotic therapy. The horse was diagnosed with hyperammonemic neuropathy associated with gastrointestinal disease. In such cases, hyperammonemia is caused by increased production of ammonia by organisms in the gastrointestinal tract in combination with increased gut permeability that facilitates ammonia absorption.

  2. The Fermented Condiment and Environmental Beneficial Microorganisms%发酵调味品与环境有益微生物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      我国发酵调味品在世界调味品之林中首屈一指,酿造微生物的作用功不可没,其中霉菌的纯种普及率一枝独秀。但是霉菌必须与酵母菌、乳酸菌等微生物共酵才能实现产品品质。目前对酿造环境中有益微生物的作用及生存条件,多数企业重视不足,给发酵调味品的质量造成很大影响。%The fermented condiment in China come first on the list in the world condiment forest, function of brew-ing microorganisms are very important, the mold thoroughbred popularity rate outshines. But the mold must and mi-crobial yeast, lactic acid bacteria fermentation to achieve product quality. At present, the beneficial microorganism brewing environment effect and living conditions, the majority of enterprises lack of attention, which affects the quality of fermented condiment.

  3. Cine Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club


    Wednesday 18 November 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Johnny Got His Gun Directed by Dalton Trumbo USA, 1971, 111 minutes Joe, a young American soldier, is hit by a mortar shell on the last day of World War I. He lies in a hospital bed in a fate worse than death - a quadruple amputee who has lost his arms, legs, eyes, ears, mouth and nose. He remains conscious and able to think, thereby reliving his life through strange dreams and memories, unable to distinguish whether he is awake or dreaming. He remains frustrated by his situation, until one day he discovers a unique way to communicate with his caregivers. Original version english; french subtitles   Wednesday 25 November 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber War Horse Directed by JSteven Spielberg USA, 2011, 146 minutes Dartmoor 1914: To his wife's dismay farmer Narracott buys a thoroughbred horse rather than a plough animal, but when his teenage son Albert trains the horse and calls him Joey, the two become inseparable. When harvest...

  4. Changing Human-Animal Relationships in Sport: An Analysis of the UK and Australian Horse Racing Whips Debates

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    Raewyn Graham


    Full Text Available Changing social values and new technologies have contributed to increasing media attention and debate about the acceptable use of animals in sport. This paper focuses on the use of the whip in thoroughbred horse racing. Those who defend its use argue it is a necessary tool needed for safety, correction and encouragement, and that it does not cause the horse any pain. For those who oppose its use, it is an instrument of cruelty. Media framing is employed to unpack the discourses played out in print and social media in the UK (2011 and Australia (2009 during key periods of the whip debate following the introduction of new whip rules. Media coverage for the period August 2014–August 2015 for both countries is also considered. This paper seeks to identify the perceptions of advocates and opponents of the whip as portrayed in conventional and social media in Australia and the UK, to consider if these perceptions have changed over time, and whose voices are heard in these platforms. This paper contributes to discussions on the impacts that media sites have either in reinforcing existing perspectives or creating new perspectives; and importantly how this impacts on equine welfare.

  5. Changing Human-Animal Relationships in Sport: An Analysis of the UK and Australian Horse Racing Whips Debates. (United States)

    Graham, Raewyn; McManus, Phil


    Changing social values and new technologies have contributed to increasing media attention and debate about the acceptable use of animals in sport. This paper focuses on the use of the whip in thoroughbred horse racing. Those who defend its use argue it is a necessary tool needed for safety, correction and encouragement, and that it does not cause the horse any pain. For those who oppose its use, it is an instrument of cruelty. Media framing is employed to unpack the discourses played out in print and social media in the UK (2011) and Australia (2009) during key periods of the whip debate following the introduction of new whip rules. Media coverage for the period August 2014-August 2015 for both countries is also considered. This paper seeks to identify the perceptions of advocates and opponents of the whip as portrayed in conventional and social media in Australia and the UK, to consider if these perceptions have changed over time, and whose voices are heard in these platforms. This paper contributes to discussions on the impacts that media sites have either in reinforcing existing perspectives or creating new perspectives; and importantly how this impacts on equine welfare.

  6. After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007 : causes and interventions

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    A. Viljoen


    Full Text Available Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %, with Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Warmbloods representing 46 %, 10 % and 7 % of horses. Horses had a median age of 7 years and were predominantly male (60 %. Gastrointestinal (64 % and musculoskeletal (19 % disorders were the primary reasons for admission. Anti-inflammatories, sedation and antibiotics were given in 51 %, 20 % and 15 % of cases respectively prior to referral. On admission, 23 % of horses had surgical intervention. Intravenous catheterisation (64 %, rectal examination (61 %, nasogastric intubation (56 %, abdominocentesis (33 % and ultrasonography (19 % were the procedures performed most frequently. Surgical and medical colics constituted 28 % and 27 % respectively of the overall diagnoses, while piroplasmosis was diagnosed in 5 % of horses. Post-admission complications occurred in <2 % of horses. The median length of stay was 4 days (95 % CI: 1 to 21 days. Overall survival to discharge was 74 %. This study demonstrates that the majority of after-hours equine admissions to a university referral hospital required medical intervention and were mostly due to gastrointestinal disorders. Information obtained from this study can be used in emergency referral planning.

  7. Effects of racetrack surface and nail placement on movement between heels of the hoof and horseshoes of racehorses. (United States)

    Dahl, Vanessa E; Hitchens, Peta L; Stover, Susan M


    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of racetrack surface and shoe characteristics on formation of wear grooves in the horseshoes of racehorses. SAMPLES 1,121 horseshoes from 242 Thoroughbred racehorses collected during routine horseshoeing procedures at 4 racetracks with dirt or synthetic surfaces. PROCEDURES Data for 1,014 horseshoes from 233 racehorses were analyzed. Horseshoes were photographed, and length and width of grooves formed at the heels of the solar surface of horseshoes were measured on the photographs. Effects of racetrack, racetrack surface, and shoe characteristics (eg, shoe size, clips, and nails) on length and width of grooves were assessed by use of a mixed-model anova. RESULTS Length and width of wear grooves differed significantly on the basis of racetrack, nail placement, and limb side (left vs right). Differences in groove dimensions between types of racetrack surface (dirt vs synthetic) were less apparent than differences among racetracks. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Measurements of the length and width of wear grooves in the horseshoes of racehorses may be useful for understanding some aspects of hoof interactions with various racetrack surfaces. Interpretation of differences in wear grooves for various racetrack surfaces will likely require quantitation of the mechanical behavior of the surfaces.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence testing of five commercial formulations of omeprazole in the horse. (United States)

    Sykes, B W; Underwood, C; Greer, R; McGowan, C M; Mills, P C


    Omeprazole is widely used in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome. To date, little is known about the relative pharmacokinetics of the different formulations making comparisons between products difficult. The objectives of the study were to investigate the relative pharmacokinetics of five commercially available formulations of omeprazole in the horse and to test for bioequivalence of four of the formulations using one of the formulations as a reference standard. Twelve mature Thoroughbred horses were fasted for 16 h then administered 2 g of each formulation in a cross-over design. Serial blood samples were collected and plasma omeprazole concentration was determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). No significant differences were present between three of the formulations and the reference formulation, while the fourth formulation had a lower Cmax and longer Tmax than the reference formulation. Bioequivalence against the reference formulation could not be demonstrated for any of the formulations tested. The findings of the study suggested that the method of protection utilised by different formulations of omeprazole (enteric-coated granules vs. buffering) does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of the drug. Further work to establish bioequivalence is needed before direct comparisons can be drawn between different formulations.

  9. Concentrações de creatino quinase, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase lática em potros do nascimento até os seis meses de idade Concentration of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in foals from birth up to sixth month

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    Elisiane Lourdes Da Cás


    Full Text Available Dez potros da raça Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, de ambos os sexos, foram avaliados quanto à concentração das enzimas séricas creatino quinase (CK, aspartato aminotransferase (AST e deshidrogenase lática (DHL. Foram colhidas amostras sangüíneas diariamente do 1º ao 7ºdia de vida e depois aos 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 e 180 dias de idade. A concentração da CK mostrou um decréscimo significativo (pTen Thoroughbred foals, male and female, had the seric concentration of creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH determined. Blood samples were collected every day from days 1 to 7 and on days 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 of age. CK activity decreased significantly (p< 0.0003 in the first week and showed significant variation between day 15 and 6 months of age. AST showed a significant (p< 0.0001 increase in its values until 102 days of age, decreasing subsequently until 6 months of age. LDH values decreased significantly (p< 0.0002 between days 15 and 120, increasing subsequently until 6 months of age. At 6 months of age CK, AST and LDH activities were close to those of adult horses.

  10. Interovulatory intervals in mares receiving deslorelin implants in Ireland (2009 to 2010). (United States)

    Henderson, I S F; Brama, P; Osborne, M; Beltman, M E


    Deslorelin acetate implants, recently licensed in Ireland and the UK for ovulation induction in mares, have been associated with prolonged interovulatory intervals in USA studies, leading to the practice of removing implants postovulation. Trial data in Australia indicate a less pronounced effect on interovulatory intervals, suggesting possible geographical variation. Objectives of the current study were to assess the effect of deslorelin implants, with and without removal on oestrous cycle length in Irish- and UK-based Thoroughbred broodmares. Data were collected retrospectively from 88 oestrous cycles. A statistically significant difference (P=0.02) was found between interovulatory intervals in mares in which the deslorelin implant was not removed, compared with administration and removal of the implant or the use of human chorionic gonadotrophin. The results suggest that implant removal when possible is advisable. The delay in subsequent ovulations was less marked than that reported in some studies from the USA. This information is useful in deciding when to schedule subsequent breeding for mares which received a deslorelin implant during the previous oestrous period and provides evidence to counter-concerns that mares treated with deslorelin implants may experience a long delay in return to oestrus if the implant is not removed.

  11. Hepatic encephalopathy in a pregnant mare: identification of histopathological changes in the brain of a mare and fetus. (United States)

    Johns, I C; Del Piero, F; Wilkins, P A


    An 11-year-old Thoroughbred broodmare was evaluated for suspected hepatic dysfunction. Clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy were evident at admission. Hepatic ultrasonographic evaluation revealed an increase in hepatic size, rounded borders and normal echogenicity. There was no evidence of cholelithiasis or bile duct distention. Increased activity of hepatic enzymes, increased bile acid and bilirubin concentration and an increased ammonia concentration were supportive of a diagnosis of hepatic disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Histopathological evaluation of a liver biopsy specimen was consistent with chronic active hepatitis. The mare was treated with intravenous fluids and antimicrobials, pentoxyfilline, branched-chain amino acids and dietary manipulation. Clinical improvement was observed initially; however, 3 weeks later, deterioration in the mare's condition necessitated euthanasia. Pathological lesions at necropsy were restricted to the liver and brain. The liver was diffusely firm with a prominent reticular pattern on the cut surface. A large choledocholith was present in the main bile duct of the left liver lobe. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed severe fibrosis, with hyperplastic bile ducts and mononuclear and neutrophilic inflammation. Pathological changes consistent with hepatic encephalopathy, (Alzheimer type II cells), were evident in the cerebrum of both the mare and the fetus.

  12. Health Problems and Risk Factors Associated with Long Haul Transport of Horses in Australia. (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Hall, Evelyn; Raidal, Sharanne; Celi, Pietro; Knight, Peter; Jeffcott, Leo; Muscatello, Gary


    Equine transportation is associated with a variety of serious health disorders causing economic losses. However; statistics on horse transport are limited and epidemiological data on transport related diseases are available only for horses transported to abattoirs for slaughter. This study analysed reports of transport related health problems identified by drivers and horse owners for 180 journeys of an Australian horse transport company transporting horses between Perth and Sydney (~4000 km) in 2013-2015. Records showed that 97.2% (1604/1650) of the horses arrived at their destination with no clinical signs of disease or injury. Based on the veterinary reports of the affected horses; the most common issues were respiratory problems (27%); gastrointestinal problems (27%); pyrexia (19%); traumatic injuries (15%); and death (12%). Journey duration and season had a significant effect on the distribution of transport related issues ( p problems ( i.e. , gastrointestinal; respiratory problems and death) in spring and after 20 h in transit. Although not statistically significant; elevated disease rate predictions were seen for stallions/colts; horses aged over 10 years; and Thoroughbreds. Overall; the data demonstrate that long haul transportation is a risk for horse health and welfare and requires appropriate management to minimize transport stress.

  13. Classification of Horse Gaits Using FCM-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier from the Transformed Data Information of Inertial Sensor (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Neung; Lee, Myung-Won; Byeon, Yeong-Hyeon; Lee, Won-Sik; Kwak, Keun-Chang


    In this study, we classify four horse gaits (walk, sitting trot, rising trot, canter) of three breeds of horse (Jeju, Warmblood, and Thoroughbred) using a neuro-fuzzy classifier (NFC) of the Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) type from data information transformed by a wavelet packet (WP). The design of the NFC is accomplished by using a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm that can solve the problem of dimensionality increase due to the flexible scatter partitioning. For this purpose, we use the rider’s hip motion from the sensor information collected by inertial sensors as feature data for the classification of a horse’s gaits. Furthermore, we develop a coaching system under both real horse riding and simulator environments and propose a method for analyzing the rider’s motion. Using the results of the analysis, the rider can be coached in the correct motion corresponding to the classified gait. To construct a motion database, the data collected from 16 inertial sensors attached to a motion capture suit worn by one of the country’s top-level horse riding experts were used. Experiments using the original motion data and the transformed motion data were conducted to evaluate the classification performance using various classifiers. The experimental results revealed that the presented FCM-NFC showed a better accuracy performance (97.5%) than a neural network classifier (NNC), naive Bayesian classifier (NBC), and radial basis function network classifier (RBFNC) for the transformed motion data. PMID:27171098

  14. Equine fetal sex determination using circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA). (United States)

    de Leon, Priscila Marques Moura; Campos, Vinicius Farias; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Deschamps, João Carlos; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Collares, Tiago


    In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reamplification of the first PCR product (2nd-PCR) and a qPCR assay were used to detect the sex determining region Y (SRY) gene from circulating cell-free fetal DNA (ccffDNA) in blood plasma of pregnant mares to determine fetal sex. The ccffDNA was isolated from plasma of 20 Thoroughbred mares (5-13 y old) in the final 3 mo of pregnancy (fetal sex was verified after foaling). For controls, plasma from two non-pregnant mares and two virgin mares were used, in addition to the non-template control. The 182 bp nucleotide sequence corresponding to the SRY-PCR product was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Based on SRY/PCR, 8 of 11 male and 9 of 9 female fetuses were correctly identified, resulting in a sensitivity of 72.7% (for male fetuses) and an overall accuracy of 85%. Furthermore, using SRY/2nd-PCR and qPCR techniques, sensitivity and accuracy were 90.9 and 95%, respectively. In conclusion, this study is apparently the first report of fetal sex determination in mares using ccffDNA.

  15. Improving the Understanding of Psychological Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accident and Injury: Context, Loss of Focus, Cognitive Errors and Rigidity

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    Jodi DeAraugo


    Full Text Available While the role of the horse in riding hazards is well recognised, little attention has been paid to the role of specific theoretical psychological processes of humans in contributing to and mitigating risk. The injury, mortality or compensation claim rates for participants in the horse-racing industry, veterinary medicine and equestrian disciplines provide compelling evidence for improving risk mitigation models. There is a paucity of theoretical principles regarding the risk of injury and mortality associated with human–horse interactions. In this paper we introduce and apply the four psychological principles of context, loss of focus, global cognitive style and the application of self as the frame of reference as a potential approach for assessing and managing human–horse risks. When these principles produce errors that are combined with a rigid self-referenced point, it becomes clear how rapidly risk emerges and how other people and animals may repeatedly become at risk over time. Here, with a focus on the thoroughbred racing industry, veterinary practice and equestrian disciplines, we review the merits of contextually applied strategies, an evolving reappraisal of risk, flexibility, and focused specifics of situations that may serve to modify human behaviour and mitigate risk.

  16. Equine influenza: An overview

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    S. P. Waghmare


    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus is a leading cause of respiratory disease in the horses. The disease is the OIE listed disease of equines, ponies, mules and donkeys and spreads very fast. The sporadic outbreaks of the disease have occurred all over the country. Many cases have been reported in Delhi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Jaipur, Hisar, Calcutta, Ahmedabad. Nearly all the horses at Matheran (Hill station were infected with influenza. The disease has spread like wildfire at the stables of Royal Western India Turf Club (RWITC at Pune and suspended the Mumbai racing season for prolonged period of time resulting in marked economic losses. After affecting racing in Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi, the dreaded equine influenza has spread to Karnataka and Mysore. An outbreak of disease has marred the racing season across the country. The disease was first detected in Jammu & Kashmir before entering the central region Horses at the army polo clubs and Delhi equestrian center were also affected. As per the recent survey conducted by the army across India, it has been found that 5400 horses are infected so far, especially thoroughbred most severely. Nearly, 95 % of horses on a major farm in India are suspected of suffering from equine influenza. The government also banned inter-state movement of horses for three months to contain the disease. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 194-197

  17. [Electrophoretic studies of serum protein fractions in horses with laminitis]. (United States)

    Edinger, H; Miller, I; Stanek, C; Gemeiner, M


    The spectrum of serum proteins was evaluated in 46 horses affected with spontaneous laminitis and correlations between the severity of the disease and changes of the protein pattern were analyzed. The investigation was made in two groups; group A consisted of 21 horses of various breeds (warmblood, thoroughbred, standardbred) and group B of 25 ponys. Each group was subdivided according to the severity of the disease, using the OBEL-grade (OG) classification system. Serum proteins were separated by different one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic methods. Sera analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fraction between OG II and OG IV affected horses. An increasing severity of the disease was correlated with a decrease of the alpha 1-globulins. The other protein fractions didn't show a uniform tendency. In group B there was a significant difference in the alpha 1-globulin fractions of OG II and OG III and in the beta 2-globulin fractions of OG I and OG II affected ponys. The acute phase proteins C3c, C4, Hp and fibronectin could be determined in a preliminary study in horse serum using the cross-reactivity of antibodies against the homologous human proteins.

  18. Intra-uterine exposure of horses to Sarcocystis spp. antigens

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    A.M. Antonello


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens, determining the number of foals with detectable concentrations of antibodies against these agents in the serum, before colostrum ingestion and collect data about exposure of horses to the parasite. Serum samples were collected from 195 thoroughbred mares and their newborns in two farms from southern Brazil. Parasite specific antibody responses to Sarcocystis antigens were detected using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and immunoblot analysis. In 84.1% (159/189 of the pregnant mares and in 7.4% (14/189 of foals we detected antibodies anti-Sarcocystis spp. by IFAT. All samples seropositive from foals were also positive in their respective mares. Serum samples of seropositive foals by IFAT, showed no reactivity on the immunoblot, having as antigens S. neurona merozoites. In conclusion, the intra-uterine exposure to Sarcocystis spp. antigens in horses was demonstrated, with occurrence not only in mares, but also in their foals, before colostrum ingestion these occurrences were reduced.

  19. Causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa (1998 - 2007

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    A. Voigt


    Full Text Available The most common causes of gastrointestinal colic at an equine referral hospital in South Africa were determined following retrieval of the medical records of horses admitted during a 10-year study period. The study included 935 horses of which 28 % were admitted after hours. Most horses were Thoroughbreds (54 %, male (57 %, with a mean age of 8.2 years and originated from the Gauteng Province (81 %. Heart rate (98 %, mucous membrane colour (95 % and auscultation of the abdomen (91 % were the clinical data commonly obtained at admission. Packed cell volume, total serum protein and white cell count were recorded in 78 %, 75 % and 44 % of horses respectively. Transrectal palpation (93 %, nasogastric intubation (84 %, intravenous catheterisation (74 % and abdominocentesis (53 % were the most frequently performed procedures. Medical intervention was performed in 558 horses (60 %. The common causes of medical colic were impactions (39 %, tympany (7 % and displacement of the large colon (6 %. An exploratory laparotomy was performed in 331 horses (36 %. The common causes of surgical colic were displacement (29 %, impaction (22 % and small intestinal strangulating lesions (18 %. Death occurred in 3 % of horses, while euthanasia before medical intervention was performed in 4 %. Overall, medical intervention was successful in 93 % of horses and 67 % in horses managed surgically. In conclusion, 55 % of all the equine admissions responded to medical intervention and the recovery rate for horses receiving both medical and surgical intervention was comparable to that reported in other studies.

  20. Skeletal muscle histology and biochemistry of an elite sprinter, the African cheetah. (United States)

    Williams, T M; Dobson, G P; Mathieu-Costello, O; Morsbach, D; Worley, M B; Phillips, J A


    To establish a skeletal muscle profile for elite sprinters, we obtained muscle biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius and soleus of African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Muscle ultrastructure was characterized by the fiber type composition and mitochondrial volume density of each sample. Maximum enzyme activity, myoglobin content and mixed fiber metabolite content were used to assess the major biochemical pathways. The results demonstrate a preponderance of fast-twitch fibers in the locomotor muscles of cheetahs; 83% of the total number of fibers examined in the vastus lateralis and nearly 61% of the gastrocnemius were comprised of fast-twitch fibers. The total mitochondrial volume density of the limb muscles ranged from 2.0 to 3.9% for two wild cheetahs. Enzyme activities reflected the sprinting capability of the cheetah. Maximum activities for pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase in the vastus lateralis were 1519.00 +/- 203.60 and 1929.25 +/- 482.35 mumol min-1.g wet wt-1, respectively, and indicated a high capacity for glycolysis. This study demonstrates that the locomotor muscles of cheetahs are poised for anaerobically based exercise. Fiber type composition, mitochondrial content and glycolytic enzyme capacities in the locomotor muscles of these sprinting cats are at the extreme range of values for other sprinters bred or trained for this activity including greyhounds, thoroughbred horses and elite human athletes.

  1. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds. (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M


    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters.

  2. Analysis of upstream promoter region and corresponding 5’ UTR of glucokinase (GCK gene in horse breeds

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    L. Minieri


    Full Text Available A region of glucokinase (GCK gene was sequenced in 14 horses of 14 different breeds. The resulting GCK nucleotide sequence (GenBank number EF136885 showed 77% homology with human GCK gene portion containing the upstream promoter region and the corresponding 5’ UTR of the exon 1. Conserved regulatory sequences near the putative transcriptional start site were identified. The obtained sequences were aligned to detect polymorphism. A new C>T transition within the 5’ UTR of exon 1 was found. Allele frequencies of this polymorphism were studied by PCR-RFLP in 193 horses of 14 breeds (Bardigiano, 21; Esperia Pony, 5; Haflinger, 10; Italian Heavy Draught Horse, 28; Italian Saddle, 25; Italian Trotter, 16; Lipizzan, 12; Maremmano, 15; Murgese, 14; Norico, 10; Salernitano, 12; Thoroughbred, 10; Tolfetano, 7 and Ventasso Horse, 8. The polymorphism was found in all breeds and differences in allelic frequencies among the breeds were observed. The new SNP identified within a regulative region of GCK gene, which plays an important role in insulin secretion and feeding behaviour, could be used for association studies with performance traits of the horses.

  3. Measurement of radiocesium concentration in trees using cumulative gamma radiation dose rate detection systems - A simple presumption for radiocesium concentration in living woods using glass-badge based gamma radiation dose rate detection system

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    Yoshihara, T.; Hashida, S.N. [Plant Molecular Biology, Laboratory of Environmental Science, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 1646 Abiko, Chiba 270-1194 (Japan); Kawachi, N.; Suzui, N.; Yin, Y.G.; Fujimaki, S. [Radiotracer Imaging Gr., Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Nagao, Y.; Yamaguchi, M. [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)


    Radiocesium from the severe accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant on 11 March 2011 contaminates large areas. After this, a doubt for forest products, especially of mushroom, is indelible at the areas. Pruned woody parts and litters are containing a considerable amount of radiocesium, and generates a problem at incineration and composting. These mean that more attentive survey for each subject is expected; however, the present survey system is highly laborious/expensive and/or non-effective for this purpose. On the other hand, we can see a glass-badge based gamma radiation dose rate detection system. This system always utilized to detect a personal cumulative radiation dose, and thus, it is not suitable to separate a radiation from a specific object. However, if we can separate a radiation from a specific object and relate it with the own radiocesium concentration, it would enable us to presume the specific concentration with just an easy monitoring but without a destruction of the target nature and a complicated process including sampling, pre-treatment, and detection. Here, we present the concept of the measurement and results of the trials. First, we set glass-badges (type FS, Chiyoda Technol Corp., Japan) on a part of bough (approximately 10 cm in diameter) of Japanese flowering cherry trees (Prunus x yedoensis cv. Somei-Yoshino) with four different settings: A, a direct setting without any shield; B, a setting with an aluminum shield between bough and the glass-badge; C, a setting with a lead shield between bough and the glass-badge; D, a setting with a lead shield covering the glass-badge to shut the radiation from the surrounding but from bough. The deduction between the amount of each setting should separate a specific radiation of the bough from unlimited radiation from the surrounding. Even if the hourly dose rate is not enough to count the difference, a moderate cumulative dose would clear the difference. In fact, results demonstrated a

  4. Effect of molecular weight of polyethyleneimine on loading of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides onto flake-shell silica nanoparticles for enhanced TLR9-mediated induction of interferon-α

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    Manoharan Y


    Full Text Available Yuvaraj Manoharan,1,* Qingmin Ji,2,* Tomohiko Yamazaki,2,3 Shanmugavel Chinnathambi,1 Song Chen,2,4 Ganesan Singaravelu,1 Jonathan P Hill,2 Katsuhiko Ariga,2,5 Nobutaka Hanagata3,6 1Department of Medical Physics, Anna University, Chennai, India; 2Research Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibarak, 3Graduate School of Life Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 4JSPS Research Fellow, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 5JST and CREST, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan; 6Nanotechnology Innovation Station, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Class B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides primarily interact with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 in B cells and enhance the immune system through induction of various interleukins including interleukin-6 in these immune cells. Although free class B CpG oligodeoxynucleotides do not induce interferon (IFN-α production, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide molecules have been reported to induce IFN-α when loaded onto nanoparticles. Here, we investigated the in vitro induction of IFN-α by a nanocarrier delivery system for class B CpG oligodeoxynucleotide molecules.Methods: For improving the capacity to load CpG oligodeoxynucleotide molecules, flake-shell SiO2 nanoparticles with a specific surface area approximately 83-fold higher than that of smooth-surfaced SiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by coating SiO2 nanoparticles with polyethyleneimine (PEI of three different number-average molecular weights (Mns 600, 1800, and 10,000 Da.Results: The capacity of the flake-shell SiO2 nanoparticles to load CpG oligodeoxynucleotides was observed to be 5.8-fold to 6.7-fold higher than that of smooth-surfaced SiO2 nanoparticles and was found to increase with an increase in the Mn of the PEI because the Mn contributed to the positive surface charge density of the nanoparticles. Further

  5. Difference Analysis of Body Proportion in Different Uses Horse Breeds%不同用途马肢体各部位比例差异性分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林玲; 麦尔旦江; 玛依拉; 孟军; 王建文; 曾亚琦; 姚新奎; 任海帆; 王欢; 吐尔逊江·吾木尔艾力; 姚芳芳


    本试验通过测定纯血马×伊犁马、奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马、俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马和汉诺威马4个类型马细分体尺,并计算各体尺比例及体尺指数等指标,分析各体尺、体尺指数及各比例差异性。结果表明,在体高、体长、胸围、管围、颈长、肱骨长、背长、腰椎长、尻长、尻高、股骨长和胫骨长等体尺方面,纯血马×伊犁马、奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马、俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马均极显著低于汉诺威马(P <0.01);体躯指数方面,纯血马×伊犁马显著高于奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马(P <0.05);肱骨长/背长、股骨长/背长和胫骨长/背长方面,纯血马×伊犁马、奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马、俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马均极显著低于汉诺威马(P <0.01);奥尔洛夫马×伊犁马和俄罗斯速步马×伊犁马之间所有指标差异均不显著(P >0.05)。本试验结果表明不同用途马匹体型结构具有一定差异性,为不同用途马匹的培育提供数据参考。%Measuring subsection body measurements of Thoroughbred × Yili horses,Orlov trotter×Yili horses,Russia trotter×Yili horses and Hanoverian horse,and calculated the propor-tion and index,analysing differences in each body measurement,index and proportion.The results showed that the body height,body length,chest circumference,cannon bone circumference,neck length,humerus length,back length,lumbar spine,rump length,rump high,thighbone length and tibiae length of Thoroughbred×Yili horses,Orlov trotter×Yili horses and Russia trotter×Yili horses were extremely significantly lower than Hanoverian horse (P 0.05).The experiment results showed that the difference in body structure of horses for different uses could provide data reference for breeding these horses.

  6. Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases

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    Brooks Wynse S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (≤ 5 ppm in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON, and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201 were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare. DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

  7. Genome-wide association study implicates testis-sperm specific FKBP6 as a susceptibility locus for impaired acrosome reaction in stallions.

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    Terje Raudsepp

    Full Text Available Impaired acrosomal reaction (IAR of sperm causes male subfertility in humans and animals. Despite compelling evidence about the genetic control over acrosome biogenesis and function, the genomics of IAR is as yet poorly understood, providing no molecular tools for diagnostics. Here we conducted Equine SNP50 Beadchip genotyping and GWAS using 7 IAR-affected and 37 control Thoroughbred stallions. A significant (PA and g.11040379C>A (p.166H>N in exon 4 that were significantly associated with the IAR phenotype both in the GWAS cohort (n = 44 and in a large multi-breed cohort of 265 horses. All IAR stallions were homozygous for the A-alleles, while this genotype was found only in 2% of controls. The equine FKBP6 was exclusively expressed in testis and sperm and had 5 different transcripts, of which 4 were novel. The expression of this gene in AC/AG heterozygous controls was monoallelic, and we observed a tendency for FKBP6 up-regulation in IAR stallions compared to controls. Because exon 4 SNPs had no effect on the protein structure, it is likely that FKBP6 relates to the IAR phenotype via regulatory or modifying functions. In conclusion, FKBP6 was considered a susceptibility gene of incomplete penetrance for IAR in stallions and a candidate gene for male subfertility in mammals. FKBP6 genotyping is recommended for the detection of IAR-susceptible individuals among potential breeding stallions. Successful use of sperm as a source of DNA and RNA propagates non-invasive sample procurement for fertility genomics in animals and humans.

  8. Antifungal activity of tea tree oil from Melaleuca alternifolia against Trichophyton equinum: an in vivo assay. (United States)

    Pisseri, F; Bertoli, A; Nardoni, S; Pinto, L; Pistelli, L; Guidi, G; Mancianti, F


    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic molds, some of which are responsible for ringworm. Among them Trichophyton equinum, which mostly infects equids, can cause extensive outbreaks in stud farms. The conventional treatment of equine trichophytosis is topic, based upon medicated shampoos to reduce the spread of infection among the animals. Nevertheless the popularity of phytotherapy is at an all-time peak, and the interest for natural alternatives or complements to conventional drug therapy is challenging both in human and veterinary field. Among herbal remedia Tea Tree Oil (TTO) shows a wide range of antimicrobial activities. A randomized open clinical trial was carried out on 60 thoroughbred breeding horses affected by equine ringworm. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 subjects. Diagnostic criteria were the presence of clinical signs and positive T. equinum culture. Specificity control using TTO mixture in 5 not dermatophyte affected animals was achieved also. The antimycotic activity against T. equinum of a mixture containing 25% TTO in sweet almond oil, was evaluated in vivo treating 30 subjects, the others were administered enilconazole 2% solution. The animals of both groups were topically treated twice a day for 15 days with a 25% mixture of TTO diluted in sweet almond oil and every 3 days, four times with enilconazole rinses, respectively. The clinical and mycological outcome were evaluated at day 30 from the start of the treatments. Data analysis was performed by chi square test. All the treated animals showed complete clinical and aetiological healing. Part of control subjects also, showed an improvement and none of them exacerbate the lesions. This therapeutic protocol appears to be effective and versatile, being applicable immediately after physical examination, prior to have the laboratory response. It could be an alternative for practitioners interested in herbal medicines, contributing to fulfill the gap

  9. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse. (United States)

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG


    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  10. Concentrations of oxytocin in the intercavernous sinus of mares during luteolysis: temporal relationship with concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha. (United States)

    Vanderwall, D K; Silvia, W J; Fitzgerald, B P


    The reproductive tracts of nine thoroughbred mares were examined by ultrasound to determine the day of ovulation (day 0). Mares were fitted with intercavernous sinus cannulae on the day before the start of sample collection of pituitary venous effluent rich in oxytocin. Intercavernous sinus blood samples were collected for at least 36 h at 5 min intervals beginning at noon on day 13 (n = 2), day 15 (n = 5) or day 16 (n = 2) after ovulation. Concentrations of oxytocin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGFM) in plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. Three high-magnitude surges of PGFM (> 1 ng ml-1) were found in these samples. Three high magnitude pulses of oxytocin (> 200 pg ml-1) were also observed, one associated with each of the PGFM surges. In each of these cases, the oxytocin pulse appeared to follow or coincide with the onset of the PGFM surge. Lower magnitude pulses of both hormones were detected throughout the bleeding period in every mare. The average interval between these pulses was 122.3 min for oxytocin and 121.0 min for PGFM. The interval between pulses for individual mares varied from 90 to 199 min for oxytocin, and from 87 to 213 min for PGFM. However, there was no correlation between PGFM and oxytocin pulse intervals among mares. Within each mare, there was no discernable association between low magnitude pulses of oxytocin and PGFM. From these data, it was concluded that high-magnitude surges of PGF2 alpha are associated with similar surges of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland, and that PGF2 alpha may induce their secretion. The posterior pituitary gland also appears to secrete oxytocin in a pulsatile manner at a frequency of approximately 1 pulse every 2 h but these pulses do not appear to be associated with the low magnitude pulses of PGF2 alpha secreted from the uterus.

  11. The common equine class I molecule Eqca-1*00101 (ELA-A3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and T cell epitope repertoires. (United States)

    Bergmann, Tobias; Moore, Carrie; Sidney, John; Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca; Harman, Rebecca M; Oseroff, Carla; Wriston, Amanda; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Peters, Bjoern; Antczak, Douglas F; Sette, Alessandro


    Here we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I allele Eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of Thoroughbred horses. We determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. Subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (PSCL) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. Using this motif, we selected and tested 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) proteome for their capacity to bind Eqca-1*00101. PSCL predictions were very efficient, with an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance of 0.877, and 87 peptides derived from 40 different EHV-1 proteins were identified with affinities of 500 nM or higher. Quantitative analysis revealed that Eqca-1*00101 has a narrow peptide-binding repertoire, in comparison to those of most human, non-human primate, and mouse class I alleles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six EHV-1-infected, or vaccinated but uninfected, Eqca-1*00101-positive horses were used in IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. When we screened the 87 Eqca-1*00101-binding peptides for T cell reactivity, only one Eqca-1*00101 epitope, derived from the intermediate-early protein ICP4, was identified. Thus, despite its common occurrence in several horse breeds, Eqca-1*00101 is associated with a narrow binding repertoire and a similarly narrow T cell response to an important equine viral pathogen. Intriguingly, these features are shared with other human and macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules with a similar specificity for D in position 2 or 3 in their main anchor motif.

  12. Diversity of seM in Streptococcus equi subsp. equi isolated from strangles outbreaks. (United States)

    Libardoni, Felipe; Vielmo, Andréia; Farias, Luana; Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Pötter, Luciana; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna


    Strangles is the main upper respiratory tract disease of horses. There are currently no studies on the changes in alleles of the M protein gene (seM) in Brazilian isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (S. equi). This study aimed to analyze and differentiate molecularly S. equi isolates from equine clinical specimens from southern Brazil, between 1994 and 2010. seM alleles were analyzed in 47 isolates of S. equi obtained from clinical cases of strangles (15 Thoroughbred horses, 29 Crioulo breed horses and three Brasileiro de Hipismo--BH). seM alleles characterization was performed by comparing variable region sequences of the seM gene. The alleles were also phylogenetically grouped by Neighbor-joining analysis, which demonstrated the geographic distribution of those in properties from southern Brazil. Fifteen alleles of the gene seM were found among the 47 S. equi isolates analyzed. Among these, only one allele (seM-61), which was identified in seven isolates (14.9%), was found in the database PubMLST-seM. Within the new alleles, allele seM-115 was the most prevalent, having been found in 13 isolates (27.7%), followed by allele seM-117 in 10 isolates (21.3%). In the Brazilian horse population studied, there is greater diversity of M protein alleles in S. equi isolates compared to worldwide data deposited in PubMLST-seM. Among the 15 seM alleles identified, only one allele sequence was previously published. The alleles identification is important to control the disease by guiding selection of strains for the manufacture of commercial and autogenous vaccines.

  13. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses. (United States)

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro


    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  14. Disposition and metabolic profile of the weak androgen Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) following administration as part of a nutritional supplement to exercised horses. (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Stanley, S D; McKemie, D S


    In order to ensure the welfare of performance horses and riders as well as the integrity of the sport, the use of both therapeutic and illegal agents in horse racing is tightly regulated. While Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is not specifically banned from administration to racehorses in the United States and no screening limit or threshold concentration exists, the metabolic conversion of DHEA to testosterone make its presence in nutritional supplements a regulatory concern. The recommended regulatory threshold for total testosterone in urine is 55 and 20 ng/mL for mares and geldings, respectively. In plasma, screening and confirmation limits for free testosterone (mares and geldings), of no greater than 0.1 and 0.025 ng/mL, respectively are recommended. DHEA was administered orally, as part of a nutritional supplement, to 8 exercised female thoroughbred horses and plasma and urine samples collected at pre-determined times post administration. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), plasma and urine samples were analyzed for DHEA, DHEA-sulfate, testosterone, testosterone-sulfate, pregnenolone, androstenedione, and androstenediol. DHEA was rapidly absorbed with maximal plasma concentrations reaching 52.0 ± 43.8 ng/mL and 32.1 ± 12.9 ng/mL for DHEA and DHEA sulfate, respectively. Free testosterone was not detected in plasma or urine samples at any time. Maximum sulfate conjugated testosterone plasma concentrations were 0.98 ± 1.09 ng/mL. Plasma testosterone-sulfate concentrations did not fall below 0.1 ng/mL and urine testosterone-sulfate below 55 ng/mL until 24-36 h post DHEA administration. Urine testosterone sulfate concentrations remained slightly above baseline levels at 48 h for most of the horses studied.

  15. Genome-wide detection of copy number variations among diverse horse breeds by array CGH. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Shenyuan; Hou, Chenglin; Xing, Yanping; Cao, Junwei; Wu, Kaifeng; Liu, Chunxia; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yanru; Zhou, Huanmin


    Recent studies have found that copy number variations (CNVs) are widespread in human and animal genomes. CNVs are a significant source of genetic variation, and have been shown to be associated with phenotypic diversity. However, the effect of CNVs on genetic variation in horses is not well understood. In the present study, CNVs in 6 different breeds of mare horses, Mongolia horse, Abaga horse, Hequ horse and Kazakh horse (all plateau breeds) and Debao pony and Thoroughbred, were determined using aCGH. In total, seven hundred CNVs were identified ranging in size from 6.1 Kb to 0.57 Mb across all autosomes, with an average size of 43.08 Kb and a median size of 15.11 Kb. By merging overlapping CNVs, we found a total of three hundred and fifty-three CNV regions (CNVRs). The length of the CNVRs ranged from 6.1 Kb to 1.45 Mb with average and median sizes of 38.49 Kb and 13.1 Kb. Collectively, 13.59 Mb of copy number variation was identified among the horses investigated and accounted for approximately 0.61% of the horse genome sequence. Five hundred and eighteen annotated genes were affected by CNVs, which corresponded to about 2.26% of all horse genes. Through the gene ontology (GO), genetic pathway analysis and comparison of CNV genes among different breeds, we found evidence that CNVs involving 7 genes may be related to the adaptation to severe environment of these plateau horses. This study is the first report of copy number variations in Chinese horses, which indicates that CNVs are ubiquitous in the horse genome and influence many biological processes of the horse. These results will be helpful not only in mapping the horse whole-genome CNVs, but also to further research for the adaption to the high altitude severe environment for plateau horses.

  16. Copy number variation in the horse genome. (United States)

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G; Lear, Teri L; Adelson, David L; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Raudsepp, Terje


    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.

  17. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds. (United States)

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve


    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  18. Faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses in New Zealand and the population dynamics of microbial communities following dietary change.

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    Karlette A Fernandes

    Full Text Available The effects of abrupt dietary transition on the faecal microbiota of forage-fed horses over a 3-week period were investigated. Yearling Thoroughbred fillies reared as a cohort were exclusively fed on either an ensiled conserved forage-grain diet ("Group A"; n = 6 or pasture ("Group B"; n = 6 for three weeks prior to the study. After the Day 0 faecal samples were collected, horses of Group A were abruptly transitioned to pasture. Both groups continued to graze similar pasture for three weeks, with faecal samples collected at 4-day intervals. DNA was isolated from the faeces and microbial 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicons were generated and analysed by pyrosequencing. The faecal bacterial communities of both groups of horses were highly diverse (Simpson's index of diversity > 0.8, with differences between the two groups on Day 0 (P < 0.017 adjusted for multiple comparisons. There were differences between Groups A and B in the relative abundances of four genera, BF311 (family Bacteroidaceae; P = 0.003, CF231 (family Paraprevotellaceae; P = 0.004, and currently unclassified members within the order Clostridiales (P = 0.003 and within the family Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.006. The bacterial community of Group A horses became similar to Group B within four days of feeding on pasture, whereas the structure of the archaeal community remained constant pre- and post-dietary change. The community structure of the faecal microbiota (bacteria, archaea and ciliate protozoa of pasture-fed horses was also identified. The initial differences observed appeared to be linked to recent dietary history, with the bacterial community of the forage-fed horses responding rapidly to abrupt dietary change.

  19. Simulation of turbulent airflow using a CT based upper airway model of a racehorse. (United States)

    Rakesh, Vineet; Datta, Ashim K; Ducharme, Normand G; Pease, Anthony P


    Computational model for airflow through the upper airway of a horse was developed. Previous flow models for human airway do not hold true for horses due to significant differences in anatomy and the high Reynolds number of flow in the equine airway. Moreover, models that simulate the entire respiratory cycle and emphasize on pressures inside the airway in relation to various anatomical diseases are lacking. The geometry of the airway was created by reconstructing images obtained from computed tomography scans of a thoroughbred racehorse. Different geometries for inhalation and exhalation were used for the model based on the difference in the nasopharynx size during the two phases of respiration. The Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved for the isothermal flow with the standard k-epsilon model for turbulence. Transient pressure boundary conditions for the entire breathing cycle were obtained from past experimental studies on live horses. The flow equations were solved in a commercial finite volume solver. The flow rates, computed based on the applied pressure conditions, were compared to experimentally measured flow rates for model validation. Detailed analysis of velocity, pressure, and turbulence characteristics of the flow was done. Velocity magnitudes at various slices during inhalation were found to be higher than corresponding velocity magnitudes during exhalation. The front and middle parts of the nasopharynx were found to have minimum intraluminal pressure in the airway during inhalation. During exhalation, the pressures in the soft palate were higher compared to those in the larynx, epiglottis, and nasopharynx. Turbulent kinetic energy was found to be maximum at the entry to the airway and gradually decreased as the flow moved inside the airway. However, turbulent kinetic energy increased in regions of the airway with abrupt change in area. Based on the analysis of pressure distribution at different sections of the airway, it was concluded

  20. Third metacarpal condylar fatigue fractures in equine athletes occur within previously modelled subchondral bone. (United States)

    Whitton, R Christopher; Trope, Gareth D; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Anderson, Garry A; Parkin, Timothy D H; Mackie, Eleanor J; Seeman, Ego


    Bone modelling and remodelling reduce the risk of fatigue fractures; the former by adapting bone to its loading circumstances, the latter by replacing fatigued bone. Remodelling transiently increases porosity because of the normal delay in onset of the formation phase of the remodelling sequence. Protracted intense loading suppresses remodelling leaving modelling as the only means of maintaining bone strength. We therefore hypothesized that race horses with fatigue fractures of the distal third metacarpal bone (MC3) will have reduced porosity associated with suppressed remodelling while continued adaptive modelling will result in higher volume fraction (BV/TV) at this site. Using high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), we measured the distal aspect of the MC3 obtained at postmortem from 13 thoroughbred race horses with condylar fractures of the MC3 (cases), 8 horses without fractures (training controls), 14 horses with a fracture at another site (fractured controls) and 9 horses resting from training (resting controls). Porosity of the subchondral bone of MC3 was lower in cases than resting controls (12±1.4% vs. 18±1.6%, P=0.017) although areas of focal porosity were observed adjacent to fractures in 6/13 horses. BV/TV of the distal metacarpal epiphysis tended to be higher in horses with condylar fractures (0.79±0.015) than training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.070), but also higher in controls with a fracture elsewhere (0.79±0.014) than the training controls (0.74±0.019, P=0.040). BV/TV was higher in horses over three years of age than those aged two or three years (0.79±0.01 vs. 0.74±0.01, P=0.016). All metacarpal condylar fractures occurred within focal areas of high BV/TV. We infer that intense training in equine athletes suppresses remodelling of third metacarpal subchondral bone limiting damage repair while modelling increases regional bone volume in an attempt to minimise local stresses but may fail to offset bone

  1. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations. (United States)

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H


    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  2. Clinical Trials during Late Pregnancy in Mares: Prevention of Abortion

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    Full Text Available The paper observed the influence of the integrated treatment of abortion in mares with the supplement Haemobalans® to replace high-turnover vitamins, amino acids and minerals; and probiotics BF-15® which contains Bifidobacterium bifidum. The aims of this study were to prove the application of Haemobalans and BF-15 as adaptogens during late gestation. We examined 60 healthy adult Thoroughbred mares that were divided into four equal groups (n=15 on the 270 - 300th days of gestation. Test animals received the following treatment: 1 intramuscular injection of Haemobalans in 3 days, in a dose of 1 ml per 45 kg of body weight. BF-15 was also given for 10 days: 20 ml of the oral solution with oats two times per day. Reflex-1 group was treated with the same dose of Haemobalans. Reflex-2 group was treated with the same dose of BF-15. Control animals were also examined. Blood samples were taken before the treatment and two weeks after it. First examination showed the basic level of investigated sources, the last one showed the result of the treatment. The difference between the data (which were obtained before and after treatment was compared in each group. In case of significant differences between the data of the test group relative to the other three groups, we talked about the reliability of the outcomes. Tissue of placentae were taken after delivery, fixed with neutral formalin and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Zones of pathological changes were identified. Database of categorical data was created in placental study. Number of cases for markers of placental insufficiency (PI was determined. In the personal database of one animal the presence of a pathological case was marked (1 and the absence was marked (0. The objective excess of (1 was regarded as PI. The concentrations of glucose, total protein, creatinine, hemoglobin, vitamin B12, ESR, count of lymphocyte and MCHC in the test group were significantly higher: 16.4%; 10.78%; 17.87%; 11

  3. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community. (United States)

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A


    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; phorses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the relation of age of the horses and structure of the strongylid communities revealed that foals (horses (>16years old) were significantly less infected by large strongyles as compared to other horses. Species from the

  4. Validation of computerized diagnostic information in a clinical database from a national equine clinic network

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    Egenvall Agneta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized diagnostic information offers potential for epidemiological research; however data accuracy must be addressed. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness and correctness of diagnostic information in a computerized equine clinical database compared to corresponding hand written veterinary clinical records, used as gold standard, and to assess factors related to correctness. Further, the aim was to investigate completeness (epidemiologic sensitivity, correctness (positive predictive value, specificity and prevalence for diagnoses for four body systems and correctness for affected limb information for four joint diseases. Methods A random sample of 450 visits over the year 2002 (nvisits = 49,591 was taken from 18 nation wide clinics headed under one company. Computerized information for the visits selected and copies of the corresponding veterinary clinical records were retrieved. Completeness and correctness were determined using semi-subjective criteria. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with correctness for diagnosis. Results Three hundred and ninety six visits had veterinary clinical notes that were retrievable. The overall completeness and correctness were 91% and 92%, respectively; both values considered high. Descriptive analyses showed significantly higher degree of correctness for first visits compared to follow up visits and for cases with a diagnostic code recorded in the veterinary records compared to those with no code noted. The correctness was similar regardless of usage category (leisure/sport horse, racing trotter and racing thoroughbred or gender. For the four body systems selected (joints, skin and hooves, respiratory, skeletal the completeness varied between 71% (respiration and 91% (joints and the correctness ranged from 87% (skin and hooves to 96% (respiration, whereas the specificity was >95% for all systems. Logistic regression showed that

  5. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle. (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K


    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( SEL immediately following exercise. Muscle expression of was unchanged at 6 h but increased ( = 0.005) 2.8-fold 24 h after exercise, whereas muscle TrxR activity remained unchanged. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased in plasma (P impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes varied. Furthermore, changes in enzyme activity did not necessarily align with enzyme gene expression following exercise. A higher level of Se intake elevated Se status of untrained horses, increased GPx activity, and lessened lipid peroxidation following exercise, suggesting that Se may be beneficial for mitigating oxidative muscle damage and aiding in postexercise recovery.

  6. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis as a systemic disorder characterized by proteoglycan accumulation

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    Yoon Jung


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD is a debilitating disorder thought to be limited to suspensory ligaments of Peruvian Pasos, Peruvian Paso crosses, Arabians, American Saddlebreds, American Quarter Horses, Thoroughbreds, and some European breeds. It frequently leads to persistent, incurable lameness and need to euthanize affected horses. The pathogenesis remains unclear, though the disease appears to run in families. Treatment and prevention are empirical and supportive, and not effective in halting the progression of the disease. Presently, the presumptive diagnosis of DSLD is obtained from patient signalment and history, clinical examination, and ultrasonographic examination of clinically affected horses, and is confirmed at post mortem examination. Presently, there are no reliable methods of diagnosing DSLD in asymptomatic horses. The goal of this study was to characterize and define the disorder in terms of tissue involvement at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Results We examined tissues and organs from 28 affected horses (22 Peruvian Pasos, 6 horses of other breeds and from 8 control horses. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of excessive amounts of proteoglycans in the following tissues removed from DSLD-affected horses: suspensory ligaments, superficial and deep digital flexor tendons, patellar and nuchal ligaments, cardiovascular system, and sclerae. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in diameters of collagen fibrils in the tendon, and in smooth muscle cells of the media of the aorta compatible with increased cell permeability in DSLD-affected cells. Separation of tendon extracts by gel chromatography revealed the presence of additional proteoglycan(s in extracts from affected, but not control extracts. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that DSLD, a disease process previously thought to be limited to the suspensory ligaments of the distal limbs of


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    Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira


    Full Text Available

    In this case report, methods to accomplish differential diagnosis for Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy with other diseases with similar symptomatology are described. Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy is an affection characterized by the narrowing of the cervical vertebrae canal, causing a spinal cord compression. This abnormality usually results of a cervical vertebral malformation during the development of the animal. Nutritional imbalances are straightly related to the development of this syndrome. Genetic influence is also described as an etiologic factor. In spite of being an orthopedic disease, it appears through nervous symptomatology, as a result of the spinal cord compression. Thus, the accomplishment of differential diagnosis is necessary for traumatic lesions, Equine Protozoal Mieloencephalitis, Equine Herpesvirus Mieloencephalitis and Equine Degenerative Mieloencephalitis. In this study diagnosis methods, like radiography and myelogram, were used to detect Cervical Stenotic Myelopathy in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The simple radiological examination showed disorders at the bone conformation, while the myelogram was important in the recognition of the site of spinal cord compression. The histopathological examination was conclusive on the detection of spinal cord compressive lesions.

    KEY WORDS: Cervical stenosis, equine, myelopathy, spinal cord, Wobbler.

    Keywords: Equine, Spinal Cord, Myelopathy, Cervical Stenosis, Wobbler

    Neste relato são descritos métodos para a realização do diagnóstico diferencial de mielopatia cervical estenótica com outras doenças que cursam com sinais clínicos semelhantes. A mielopatia cervical estenótica é uma afecção caracterizada pelo estreitamento do canal medular das vértebras cervicais, causando compressão na medula espinhal. Essa altera

  8. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky (United States)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  9. Incidencia y caracterización de las regurgitaciones valvulares fisiológicas en el caballo Incidence and characterization of the physiological valvular regurgitations in the horse

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    G Pidal


    sexes and ages between 2 and 14 years, was studied and discriminated in the following way: 138 crossbreed, 89 thoroughbred, 51 Arabs and 48 jumping type. We determined that the physiological regurgitations without clinical signification were characterized by: to show low degree of aliasing; the color area generated by the "anomalous" flow did not extend beyond 40 mm within the receiving camera; that the flow have fusiform morphology and its diameter did not exceed 10 mm; they appear early in diastole in the case of the sigmoid valves and early in systole in the case of the atrioventricular valves, in both cases during a brief lapse.

  10. Parâmetros eletrocardiográficos de equinos Puro Sangue Árabe submetidos a exercício prolongado de enduro Electrocardiographic parameters of Arabian horses submitted to prolonged exercise of endurance

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    Cinthia Beatriz da Silva Dumont


    Full Text Available Foram estabelecidos os parâmetros eletrocardiográficos de 20 equinos Puro Sangue Árabe em repouso e após exercício prolongado de enduro. A frequência cardíaca média foi de 35,85bpm em repouso, com predominância do ritmo sinusal, e de 53,78bpm, com taquicardia sinusal após o exercício. Como variação fisiológica, observou-se marcapasso migratório, e como não fisiológica, complexo ventricular prematuro. No pós-exercício, ocorreu aumento da amplitude das ondas P, R, S e T, com onda P tendendo a se tornar única em 35% dos animais e bífida positiva em 65%, e a onda T monofásica positiva. Houve redução da duração das ondas, dos intervalos e dos segmentos, e alongamento do QTc; porém, o complexo QRS quase não se alterou. O eixo elétrico, no plano frontal, apresentou desvios à direita e à esquerda em repouso sugestivo de aumento de câmara e hipertrofia secundárias ao treinamento, ao passo que, após o exercício, demonstrou desvio extremo para a direita, indicando alterações eletrolíticas. O escore cardíaco médio foi de 128,45ms, o que caracteriza os animais como atletas, sendo reduzido a 118,60ms após o exercício.Electrocardiographic parameters of 20 Thoroughbred Arabian horses were established at rest and after prolonged endurance exercise. The mean heart rate was 35.85bpm at rest with predominant sinus rhythm, and 53.78bpm with sinus tachycardia after exercise. As physiological variation, wandering pacemaker was observed, and as non physiological, premature ventricular complex was noted. At post-exercise there was an increase of the amplitude of waves P, R, S and T, with P wave tending to become single in 35% of the animals and bifid positive in 65%, and with monophase positive T wave. There was a reduction in the duration of the waves, intervals and segments, and elongation of QTc, but the QRS complex hardly changed. The electrical axis in the frontal plane showed deviations to the right and to the left at rest

  11. Genetic Diversity of Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences in Ningqiang Pony%宁强矮马线粒体DNA D-loop区的遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 路宏朝


    [目的]研究宁强矮马线粒体DNA (mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA) D-loop区的遗传多样性及其母系起源进化,为其遗传资源保护提供理论数据.[方法]采用PCR和测序技术分析12匹宁强矮马mtDNA D-loop区的600 bp核酸序列,并基于mtDNA D-loop区序列将宁强矮马和NCBI公布的其它马种进行系统树构建.[结果]宁强矮马群体存在9种单倍型,检测到34处SNP位点,占所分析位点总数的5.67%,各单倍型间的遗传距离为0.002-0.035,单倍型多样性为0.978±0.054,核苷酸多性为0.01988±0.00818.聚类分析表明宁强矮马分布在4个支系中,与胡克尔马、设特兰马、德保马、蒙古马和车巨马亲缘关系较近,与纯血马、云南马和韩国济州岛本土马的亲缘关系较远.[结论]宁强矮马具有比较丰富的遗传多样性,在进化的历史过程中受到其它马种的影响较大.%[ Objective ] In order to provide a scientific and theoretical basis for genetic resource protection of Ningqiang pony, the genetic diversity of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop and maternal origin of Ningqiang pony was investigated. [ Method ] Twelve 600 bp mtDNA D-loop sequences were analyzed by PCR and sequencing techniques, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the mtDNA D-loop sequences of Ningqiang pony samples and other equine D-loop sequence available from NCBI. [Result] There were 9 unique haplotypes with 34 polymorphic sites in Ningqiang pony, which account for 5.67% of 600 bp sequence analyzed. The haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (tc) were 0.978?.054 and 0.01988?.00818, respectively. Moreover, Ningqiang pony distributed in four branches, and are closely related to Hucul, Shetlan, Debao horse, Cheju horse and Mongolian horse , whereas they are less related to Thoroughbred, Yunnan horse and Jeju native horse. [Conclusion] Ningqiang pony have rather abundant genetic diversity and were greatly affected by other horse breeds in history.

  12. Efeito do estresse térmico e do exercício sobre parâmetros fisiológicos de cavalos do exército brasileiro Effect of heat stress and exercise on physiological parameters of horses of the Brazilian army

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    Giane Regina Paludo


    was to determine what is the effect of thermal and exercise stress on four groups of stabled horses in the savanna region. 40 Adult horses (4 to 13 years of age from the 1st Mounted Guard Regiment (10 of each breed Thoroughbred ¾ PSC, Crossbred ¾ M and Brazilian Showjumper ¾ BH as well as 10 Bretãs from the 32nd Campaign Artillery Group, were used. All horses were kept in the Urban Military Sector in the Federal District. The measurements made on the animals included heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature and blood samples were taken at four opportunities during the day, in the morning and afternoon, before and after exercise. Genetic group influenced all traits except VCM, HCM e CHCM. Animals of the PSC group had higher means for leukocytes (7.83 ± 1.59, hematocytes (9.21 ± 1.27, VG (40.75 ± 4.58 and hemoglobin (14.34 ± 1.67, while crossbreds had higher total plasmatic protein levels (6,93 ± 0,66. The Breton breed had lowest levels for the majority traits examined. Exercise increased all traits except VCM, HCM and CHCM. The correlations between traits vary greatly, the highest being between hematocytes, hemoglobin and VG (>0.58, while with total plasma protein they were low (<0.26. The present work allows us to conclude that in terms of exercise of horses of the Brazilian army PSC are worst adapted and Bretã best adapted to the conditions of this study.


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    Concepta Margaret McManus


    Full Text Available

    Hanoverian, Brazilian Showjumper, English Thoroughbred and Crossbred horses reared by the Brazilian Army were weighed and measured from six months of age to adult. In total 4,860 measurements on 1,445 horses were available. General curves were estimated as a function of time by the Gompertz, Brody, Logistic, Weibull and Richards curves, using PROC NLIN procedures of SAS ®. The Richards Curve did not converge for weight or height of any of the genetic groups or sexes. The logistic curve did not converge for any of the weight traits while the Gompertz also did not converge for height in several groups. R2 varied between 0.55 for weight in females of the crossbred group to 0.92 for males of the same group. For the height traits the highest R2 (0.66 was found for female Hanovarian horses and lowest for males of the same breed (0.12. In general the curves estimated similar values for asymptotic height and weight, except for Logistic curve, which also showed lowest R2 and highest error. Results for the Weibull and Brody curves were similar in all cases so where possible the Brody curve was selected as the best curve as it had less parameters. The Gompertz curve tended to underestimate mature weights and height. Estimates for both weight and height were in general higher in males than for females. In most cases the b parameter was shown to account for < 0.0001% of the variation in the curve shape. The k parameters, which indicate maturity, were of similar magnitude for the Brody, Gompertz and Weibull curves, for both height and weight within breed. This parameter indicated that there is little difference in maturation rates between males and females.

    KEY WORDS: Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Richards, Weibull.

    Cavalos das raças Hanoveriana (HA, Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH, Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI e mestiços (PSIxBH criados pelo Exército brasileiro foram pesados e medidos de seis meses de idade até adulto. Realizaram-se 4.860 medidas em


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芳; 盛军庆; 洪一江; 王军花; 刘田欣; 桂建芳


    萍乡肉红鲫(Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp,Carassius auratus L.)是在江西省萍乡地区分布的天然三倍体鲫突变体经人工选育后获得的遗传性状基本稳定的后代,具有两性生殖和雌核生殖两种生殖方式.研究以F5代萍乡肉红鲫为材料,自孵化后每满1个月开始取性腺,观察了其卵巢1周年性成熟和精巢的发育过程,结果表明萍乡肉红鲫的性腺为1年成熟类型.卵巢发育进程町以分为6个时期,卵母细胞发育相应可分为6个时相.统计了卵巢成熟系数周年变化,体重为95 g左右的雌性萍乡肉红鲫,其成熟卵巢的成熟系数约为(11.73±2.8)%,成熟的卵母细胞内充满卵黄,相对怀卵量为(3018±310)粒/g.萍乡肉红鲫精巢属于小叶型,在精小叶中可观察到不同发育阶段的生殖细胞.由精原细胞分裂而来的仞级精母细胞经分裂增殖,产生次级精母细胞并最终发育成为精子.萍乡肉红鲫的精巢发育程序与普通鲫鱼和鲤鱼相似,卵巢和精巢的发育过程基本同步,孵化后50日龄内性腺分化不明显,到70日龄左右开始出现雌雄分化,3月龄发育为第1期,4-5月龄发育为第2期,6-7月龄发育至第3期,7-10月龄可见第4期卵巢,1年即可成熟产卵,精巢可排出精液.结果表明,该鲫鱼突变体的性腺发育与普通二倍体鲤(鲫)鱼的性腺发育方式类似.%The Pingxiang red-transparent crucian carp, Carassius auratus ( L. ) , which was approved for a new kind of breed by the National Fisheries thoroughbred Examining Committee in January 2008, is a wildness natural triplod crucian carp mutant distributed in the area of Pingxiang in Jiangxi Province. It takes bi-sexual and gynogenetic reproduction mode which is similar to the Silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch). In response to this particular genetic traits of the species, this study aimed to master its gonadal development process and understand its gonadal development rules

  15. Does the rider influence the horse's movement in hippotherapy? [Ovlivňuje jezdec pohyb koně v hipoterapii?

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    Miroslav Janura


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In hippotherapy, in comparison to equitation, it is assumed that the rider is a passive element, only stimulated by mechanical impulses produced by the moving horse's back. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the rider on the horse's movement in hippotherapy. METHODS: Two sound thoroughbreds with a similar body shape and size (age: 19 and 14 years, withers height: 1.65 m both, weight: 548 and 500 kg participated in the study. The test group of riders consisted of twelve healthy young women (age: 23.3 ± 2.8, weight: 59.2 ± 5.3, height: 167.3 ± 4.2 without any previous horse riding experience. For each rider 36 trials in total (6 strides in 6 hippotherapy sessions held during the course of five weeks were evaluated. The movement was recorded by 4 videocameras (frequency 50 Hz. Spatiotemporal variables, the vertical displacement of selected points on the horse's limbs and the back and angle displacement of tarsus joint were analyzed by the APAS programme. Statistical processing was performed by the Statistica programme (one way ANOVA. RESULTS: In our study, we didn't find any statistically significant difference (p CONCLUSIONS: In hippotherapy, basic spatiotemporal variables of a horse's natural walking aren't influenced by the rider. As for the vertical displacement of points on the limbs and the horse's back, the results are not explicit. A larger number of horses is necessary for future study. The patient and the horse in hippotherapy are to be rather considered as interactive elements than as passive and active elements.[VÝCHODISKA: V hipoterapii je, na rozdíl od jezdectví, jezdec považován za pasivní prvek, který je stimulován impulsy, které vycházejí z pohybujícího se hřbetu koně. CÍLE: Cílem studie bylo zjistit, zda jezdec ovlivňuje pohyb koně v hipoterapii. METODIKA: Do studie byli zařazeni dva angličtí plnokrevníci podobné tělesné konstituce (věk: 19 a 14 let, v

  16. Uso de óleo na dieta de eqüinos submetidos ao exercício Use of oil in diet of equine under exercise

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    Fernando Mattos


    vegetal oil (250 and 500 g/day. Eighteen castrated thoroughbred horses aging from 4 and 8 years old and averaging body weight of 456±2.90 kg were alloted to a split plot approach with repeated measures over time in a completely randomized design, with the collection times in the sub-plots and the soybean oil levels (0, 250 and 500 g per horse per day in the plots. During 30 days, the horses were fed 8.40, 7.95, and 7.30 kg/day of diets with 0, 250 and 500 g of oil, respectively, divided in three daily feeds. At the end of 30 days, the exercise test was performed with all horses, during 2 hours, at large trot. At the beginning and at the end of the exercise, the levels of glucose, lactate, haematocrit, body temperature were estimated. The heart and respiratory rates were taken at the beginning, 1 and 2 hours of exercise and 15 minutes after the end of the exercise. Interaction of collection times ´ dietary oil levels on the levels of glucose, lactate, and haematocrit, body temperature, and heart and respiratory frequencies was observed. The supplementation of 250 and 500 g of oil in the diet of equines under exercise of mid intensity increased haematophysiological performance, that can improve horse athletic performance. The horses daily fed 500 g of oil showed better recovery post-trial, and that is verified by the values of heart rate and of haematocrit.