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Sample records for chitosan hydrochloride carboxymethyl

  1. FORMULATION AND IN VITRO STUDY OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE CONTROLLED RELEASE FROM CARBOXYMETHYL CHITOSAN-BASED MATRIX TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation and in vitro study of propranolol hydrochloride controlled release from carboxymethyl chitosan-based matrix tablets have been conducted. Formulations with various concentrations of carboxymethyl chitosan 2% (F1, 4% (F2, 6% (F3 were done by wet granulation method. Compatibility test was conducted by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy to determine interaction between propranolol hydrochloride and polymer excipients. Dissolution profiles was obtained through in vitro tests release using simulated gastric fluid (without enzymes, pH 1.2 for the first 2 h and followed by simulated intestinal fluid (phosphate buffer solution without enzyme, pH 7.2 for 2 h remaining. The dissolution profile of each formulation was fitted with five kinetics modeling of drug release (zero order, first order, Higuchi, Peppas-Korsmeyer, and Hixson-Crowell. The compatibility test results showed that formulation caused physical interactions between propranolol hydrochloride and polymer excipient but doesn't make crystallinity nature of propranolol hydrochloride disturbed even after formulation. Dissolution profiles of each formulation showed that controlled release of propranolol hydrochloride from the tablet followed Peppas-Korsmeyer model. It is concluded that carboxymethyl chitosan in appropriate proportions is suitable for formulating propranolol hydrochloride controlled release tablets which exhibit Peppas-Korsmeyer release kinetics.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 35; Issue 7. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel: Application as site specific delivery for lercanidipine hydrochloride. Subhash S Vaghani Madhabhai M Patel C S Satish Kandarp M Patel N P Jivani. Volume 35 Issue 7 December 2012 pp ...

  3. Sodium Carboxymethyl Chitosan as a Fixative for Eau de Cologne

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mater. Sci. 2010; 55: 675–709. 9. Liu XF, Guan YL, Yang DZ, Li Z, Yao KD. Antibacterial action of chitosan and carboxymethylated chitosan. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2001; 79(7): 1324–1335. 10. Zhang C, Ding Y, Ping Q, (Lucy) Lu L. Novel chitosan- derived nanomaterials and their micelle-forming properties. J. Agric. Food Chem ...

  4. Sodium Carboxymethyl Chitosan as a Fixative for Eau de Cologne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... °C. However, products containing benzyl alcohol, ethyl acetoacetate and 94085 floral-fruity showed precipitation after 21 days. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that SCM-chitosan could be used as a potential fixative for eau de cologne products. Keywords: Biopolymer, carboxymethyl chitosan, cologne, fixative, ...

  5. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: baoqinh@ouc.edu.cn [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  6. Formation of Biocompatible Nanoparticles by Self-Assembly of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Chitosan and Carboxymethyl Cellulose

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ICHIKAWA, Sosaku; IWAMOTO, Satoshi; WATANABE, Jun

    2005-01-01

    ... %) by self-assembly of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysates was developed. Chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose were hydrolyzed beforehand with chitosanase and cellulase respectively to make fragments having lower molecular weights...

  7. Optimizing Conditions to Cholesterol Adsorbed with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyah Kurniasih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A research on optimizing conditions to cholesterol adsorbed have been performed. Optimization was performed by varying: contact time, adsorbent weight and temperature of the system's. A full factorial experimental design was used in this study. Characterization performed on the synthesized chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan including FTIR, water content, ash content, solubility, porosity, and swelling effect. The results showed that carboxymethyl chitosan able to adsorb cholesterol under conditions optimal adsorbent with cholesterol ratio (1:200 with a contact time of 90 minutes at temperature of 40 °C. Meanwhile, at a temperature of 55 °C carboxymethyl chitosan capable of adsorb cholesterol under conditions optimal adsorbent with cholesterol ratio (1:300 with a contact time of 30 minutes. Chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan synthesized has a water content of 7.4 and 10.2%, ash content of 0.14 and 2.29%, solubility in distilled water at 1.10-5and 1.98.10-3%, solubility in acetic acid 0.02 and 0.04%, porosity at 88.3% and 88.8%, and swelling at 163.13 and 182.98%.

  8. Radiation Synthesis and Application of Carboxymethylated Chitosan Hydrogels

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    Noh, Young Chang

    2007-08-15

    This research proposal is to investigate radiation effect of carboxymethylated chitosan in order to obtain the crosslinked carboxymethylated chitosan. The application studies on CM-chitosan- based intelligent hydrogels will be tried too. Chitin is the most abundant natural amino polysaccharide and estimated to be produced annually almost as much as cellulose. Chitosan is the deacetylated product of chitin showing the enhanced solubility in dilute acids, further, carboxymethylated chitosan (CM-chitosan) can solve in both acidic and basic physiological media, which might be good candidates as a kind of biomedical materials. Radiation technique is an important method for modification of chitin derivatives. It includes radiation-induced degradation, grafting, and crosslinking. It was found that CM-chitosan degraded in solid state or dilute aqueous solution under irradiation, but crosslinked at paste-like sate when the concentration of CM-chitosan is more than 10%. Both degraded and crosslinked CM-chitosan have antibacterial activity, so it is essential to investigate in detail the radiation effect of CM-chitosan. Study on radiation effect of CM-chitosan in different condition is beneficial to modification of CM-chitosan by irradiation technique. However, little study was reported on radiation crosslinking and application of CM-chitosan. The radiation-closslinked CM-chitosan synthesized from chitosan was characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. A kinetic swelling in water and the mechanical properties such as a gelation, water absorptivity, and gel strength were also investigated. For the preparation of crosslinked CM-chitosan by using gamma irradiation, the concentration of an aqueous CM-chitosan is above 10wt%. We confirmed that the gel contents was in the range of 15-63%, and when the irradiation dose was increased, the degree of gelation was decreased by disintegration of the CM-chitosan. In conclusion, we developed a new

  9. Rheological and structural studies of carboxymethyl derivatives of chitosan

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    Winstead, Cherese; Katagumpola, Pushpika [Delaware State University, Department of Chemistry, 1200 N. Dupont Highway, Dover, DE 19901 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The degrees of substitution of chitosan derivatives were varied and the viscoelastic behavior of these biopolymer solutions was studied using rheology. Chitosan is a cationic copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its inherent non-toxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability, chitosan has gained much interest. However, the poor solubility of the biopolymer in water and most common organic solvents limits its applications. Therefore, the focus of this work is the chemical modification of chitosan via carboxymethylation as well as studying the viscoelastic behavior of these polymer solutions. Varying degrees of substitution (DS) of carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives were synthesized by treating chitosan with monochloroacetic acid under alkylated medium varying the reaction time and temperature. The effect of degree of substitution on the rheology of these polymer solutions was studied as a function of concentration. The viscosity of chitosan derivatives sharply increased with increase in degree of substitution. G' and G' dependence on strain and angular frequency were studied and were found to exhibit predominantly viscous behavior. Additional characterization of the derivatized products were further studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), {sup 1}H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis as well as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Degree of substitution (DS) was calculated by titrimetric method.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chitosan, entrapment of drug and its interaction in prepared hydrogels were checked by FTIR, 1H-NMR, DSC and p-XRD studies, which confirmed formation of CMCS from chitosan and absence of any significant chemical change in LERH after being entrapped in crosslinked hydrogel formulations. The surface morphology ...

  11. Nanofibrous membranes from aqueous electrospinning of carboxymethyl chitosan

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    Du Jian; Hsieh, Y-L [Fiber and Polymer Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: ylhsieh@ucdavis.edu

    2008-03-26

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with varying molecular weights (M{sub v} = 40-405 kDa) and degrees of substitution (DS = 0.25-1.19) has been synthesized by alkalization of chitosan, followed by carboxymethylation with monochloroacetic acid. At DS up to 1.19, the locations where carboxymethylation took place were influenced by the alkalization temperature, i.e., both C2 and C6 substitution at ambient temperature (N,O-carboxymethylated) and mainly C6 substitution at the lower temperature, -15 deg. C (O-carboxymethylated). Generally, carboxymethylation was more favorable at the primary C6 hydroxyl than the C2 position with increasing DS. CMCS synthesized from 405 kDa CS was soluble in water at DS{>=}0.73 whereas those from 40 and 89 kDa became water-soluble at lower DS of 0.25 and 0.36, respectively. Electrospinning of aqueous solutions of CMCS was facilitated with the addition of water-soluble polymers, including PEO, PAA, PAAm and PVA. The optimal fiber formation was observed at equal mass composition of O-CMCS (89 kDa at 0.36 DS) and PVA, producing nanofibers with an average diameter of 130 nm. Heat-induced esterification (at 140 deg. C for 30 min) produced inter-molecular covalent cross-links within and among fibers, rendering the fibrous membrane water-insoluble. Membranes containing higher CMCS carboxyl to PVA hydroxyl ratio retained better fiber morphology upon extended water exposure, indicating more favorable inter-molecular cross-links. The fibrous membranes generated with less substituted CMCS were more hydrophilic and retained a greater extent of the desirable amine functionality.

  12. Nanofibrous membranes from aqueous electrospinning of carboxymethyl chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Hsieh, You-Lo

    2008-03-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with varying molecular weights (Mv = 40-405 kDa) and degrees of substitution (DS = 0.25-1.19) has been synthesized by alkalization of chitosan, followed by carboxymethylation with monochloroacetic acid. At DS up to 1.19, the locations where carboxymethylation took place were influenced by the alkalization temperature, i.e., both C2 and C6 substitution at ambient temperature (N,O-carboxymethylated) and mainly C6 substitution at the lower temperature, -15 °C (O-carboxymethylated). Generally, carboxymethylation was more favorable at the primary C6 hydroxyl than the C2 position with increasing DS. CMCS synthesized from 405 kDa CS was soluble in water at DS>=0.73 whereas those from 40 and 89 kDa became water-soluble at lower DS of 0.25 and 0.36, respectively. Electrospinning of aqueous solutions of CMCS was facilitated with the addition of water-soluble polymers, including PEO, PAA, PAAm and PVA. The optimal fiber formation was observed at equal mass composition of O-CMCS (89 kDa at 0.36 DS) and PVA, producing nanofibers with an average diameter of 130 nm. Heat-induced esterification (at 140 °C for 30 min) produced inter-molecular covalent cross-links within and among fibers, rendering the fibrous membrane water-insoluble. Membranes containing higher CMCS carboxyl to PVA hydroxyl ratio retained better fiber morphology upon extended water exposure, indicating more favorable inter-molecular cross-links. The fibrous membranes generated with less substituted CMCS were more hydrophilic and retained a greater extent of the desirable amine functionality.

  13. Optimized Preparation of Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Sodium Alginate Hemostatic Microcapsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Guang, J.; Lu, S. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, S. D.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In order to prepare and optimize a novel and efficient hemostatic material, a hemostatic microcapsule was prepared by piercing granulation technique with carboxymethyl chitosan and sodium alginate as substrate materials. Three factors in the process (mass percentage of carboxymethyl chitosan, concentration of calcium chloride and pH value of cross-linking system) were investigated through single-factor experiment to explore the effect of experimental factors on water absorbance of hemostatic microcapsule. On the basis of single-factor experiment, orthogonal experiment was conducted to optimize the preparation process of hemostatic microcapsule. Optimized process conditions were obtained as following: mass percentage of carboxymethyl chitosan 25%, concentration of calcium chloride 3.0% and cross-linking system pH=9.0. Microcapsule with normal morphology, uniform particle size, good dispersibility and porous structure was prepared under these conditions. And its water absorbance ratio reached 16.17. In vitro procoagulant test showed that the microcapsule had satisfactory procoagulant effect and was in a dose dependent manner.

  14. A soft tissue adhesive based on aldehyde-sodium alginate and amino-carboxymethyl chitosan preparation through the Schiff reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yuan, Liu; Sheng, Nai-an; Gu, Zi-qi; Feng, Wen-hao; Yin, Hai-yue; Morsi, Yosry; Mo, Xiu-mei

    2017-09-01

    Sodium alginate and carboxymethyl chitosan have been extensively applied in tissue engineering and other relative fields due to their low price and excellent biocompatibility. In this paper, we oxidized sodium alginate with sodium periodate to convert 1,2-hydroxyl groups into aldehyde groups to get aldehyde-sodium alginate (ASA). Carboxymethyl chitosan was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water-soluble N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to introduce additional amino groups to get amino-carboxymethyl chitosan (A-CS). Upon mixing the A-SA and A-CS aqueous solutions together, a gel rapidly formed based on the Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups in A-SA and amino groups in A-CS. FTIR analysis confirmed the characteristic peak of Schiff's base group in the hydrogel. It was confirmed that the gelation time be dependent on the aldehyde group content in A-SA and amino group content in A-CS. The fasted hydrogel formation takes place within 10 min. The data of bonding strength and cytotoxicity measurement also showed that the hydrogel had good adhesion and biocompatibility. All these results support that this gel has the potential as soft tissue adhesive.

  15. Fouling resistant PVDF/Carboxymethyl chitosan composite nanofiltration membranes for humic acid removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Kavitha; Doraisamy, Mohan

    2017-10-01

    In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan without a crosslinking agent was blended with polyvinylidene fluoride using non solvent induced phase inversion process. Carboxymethyl chitosan was synthesized using monochloroacetic acid and isopropanol and its structural elucidation was done. Synthesized carboxymethyl chitosan was incorporated with PVDF and investigated for its casting dope viscosity, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, mechanical properties, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and filtration studies. The designed precipitation kinetics was reflected on these composite membranes by having reduced pore sizes and increased thickness. MWCO was in the range between 600 and 2000 for the composite membranes. Low surface roughness and contact angle favoured the antifouling nature. Irreversible fouling minified as the carboxymethyl chitosan composition increased on the membrane and exhibited excellent mechanical and thermal stability and flux recovery ratio. The membranes were durable after two repeating cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioavailability enhancement of glucosamine hydrochloride by chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Zhang, Qizhi; Wang, Yanfeng; Lee, Benjamin; Betageri, Guru V; Chow, Moses S S; Huang, Min; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-10-15

    Glucosamine, as a dietary supplement for management of osteoarthritis, has a low and erratic oral bioavailability due to its transport-mediated absorption and presystemic loss in liver and GI tract. The present study described an effective approach to improve glucosamine intestinal absorption and hence its bioavailability using chitosan. Effects of chitosan on intestinal permeability and pharmacokinetics of glucosamine were evaluated in Caco-2 cell monolayer and rats, respectively. In addition, randomized crossover pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs were performed to evaluate the oral bioavailabilities of the developed glucosamine oral formulations containing chitosan (QD-Glu solution and QD-Glu tablet) in comparison to its commercial products. Caco-2 permeability studies demonstrated that chitosan could enhance the absorptive transport of glucosamine by 1.9-4.0-fold via the reversible opening of the cell tight junction. After oral administration of glucosamine solutions containing chitosan in rats, it was found that 0.5% (w/v) chitosan exhibited the highest enhancement in Cmax (2.8-fold) and AUC0-∞ (2.5-fold) of glucosamine. Further pharmacokinetic studies in beagle dogs demonstrated that QD-Glu solution and QD-Glu tablet showed much higher relative bioavailabilities of 313% and 186%, when comparing with Wellesse™ solution and Voltaflex™ tablet, respectively. In conclusion, chitosan could serve as a promising oral absorption enhancer for glucosamine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Preparation and evaluation of microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with N-carboxymethyl chitosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Feng; Chen, Su-Xia; Liu, Tian-Jun; Sun, Hong-Fan

    2006-08-01

    To prepare microbubble, made of N-carboxymethyl chitosan, as ultrasound contrast agent and evaluate its characteristics and acoustic effects in vivo. Oil-Water-Oil multiple emulsion/solvent evaporation method was used to prepare the microbubble contrast agent. Both optical micrography and scanning electron micrography were performed to determine the bubble size and morphology. The acoustic effect of the N-carboxymethyl chitosan echo contrast agent was evaluated in vivo in rabbit. Liver echo images were recorded with ultrasound machine before and after intravenous bolus injecting 0.5 ml of the agent. The novel N-carboxymethyl chitosan echo contrast agent was formulated as lyophilized product, with a mean diameter of 2-3 microm and a shell thickness of 250-300 nm. Its size is relatively uniform. The imaging effect was remarkably enhanced with the ultrasonic contrast agent when applied in rabbit livers. It is feasible to prepare excellent microbubble ultrasound contrast agent with N-carboxymethyl chitosan as membrane components.

  18. Development of Dorzolamide Loaded 6-O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanoparticles for Open Angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwala Shinde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and mucoadhesive natural polymer soluble in acidic pH only and can be irritating to the eye. Objective of the study was to synthesize water soluble 6-O-carboxymethyl (OCM-CS derivative of CS, and to develop CS and OCM-CS nanoparticles (NPs loaded with dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ. CS was reacted with monochloroacetic acid (MCA for OCM-CS synthesis and was characterized by FT-IR, DSC, and 13C NMR. CS and OCM-CS NPs were prepared by ionic gelation method. Ocular irritation potential were evaluated and therapeutic efficacy was measured by reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP in normotensive rabbits. Maximum yield was obtained when the ratio of water/isopropyl alcohol was 1/4 at 55°C. The FT-IR, DSC and 13C NMR confirmed the formation of an ether linkage between hydroxyl groups of CS and MCA. The particle size and zeta potential of optimised CSNPs was 250.3 ± 2.62 nm and +33.47 ± 0.723 mV, whereas those for OCM-CSNPs were 187.1 ± 2.72 nm and 30.87 ± 0.86 mV. The entrapment efficiency was significantly improved for OCM-CSNPs, compared to CSNPs. OCM-CSNPs had tailored drug release and improved bioavailability with reduction in pulse entry as compared to CSNPs. Hence, it can be concluded that DRZ loaded OCM-CSNPs would be better alternative option to available eye drops for glaucoma treatment.

  19. Radiation synthesis and characterization of nanosilver/gelatin/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Yinghui; Wang, Lu; Xu, Ling; Zhai, Maolin; Wei, Shicheng

    2012-05-01

    A series of antibacterial hydrogels were fabricated from an aqueous solution of AgNO3, gelatin and carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) by radiation-induced reduction and crosslinking at ambient temperature. The nanosilver particles were in situ synthesized accompanying with the formation of gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogel. Transmission Electron Microscope and UV-vis analysis have verified the formation and homogeneous distribution of nanosilver particles in the hydrogel matrix. The nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogels possessed interconnected porous structure, had a compressive modulus of 44 to 56 kPa, and could absorb 62 to 108 times of deionized water to its dry weight. Furthermore, the hydrogels were found to have sound antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli), and their antibacterial ability could be significantly enhanced by the increasing of AgNO3 content. The comprehensive results of this study suggest that nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogels have potential as an antibacterial wound dressing.

  20. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  1. Facile and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Canfeng; Wang, Xiaoying; Sun, Runcang

    2013-06-14

    A facile and green method to synthesize stable Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a narrow size distribution in water is reported. Water-soluble quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) with a surfactant-like structure was used as both a reducing and stabilizing agent under microwave irradiation via the modified Tollens reaction. In order to study the preparation mechanism, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and quaternized chitosan (QCS) were compared as both reducing and stabilizing agents. Full characterization was performed using UV-vis, XRD, TEM, AAS, FT-IR, NMR and TGA. The results revealed that the prepared Ag NPs were mostly spherical with a small proportion being cylinders or cuboids; they were stable due to the package of the macromolecules; the diameters were 10.24 ± 3.13 nm. The Tollens reaction followed first order kinetics, and the Ea was 102.4 kJ mol(-1) for QCMC/Ag NP composite. During the growth of the Ag NPs, some quaternary ammonium groups and carboxymethyl groups were respectively oxidized to -CH2COCH3 and -CH3 groups, and the quaternary ammonium groups were more helpful for the growth of Ag NPs than the carboxymethyl groups. In addition, QCMC/Ag NP composite had much higher thermal stability than QCMC.

  2. Effect of carboxymethylation conditions on the water-binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgoli, Hosein; Zamani, Akram; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2010-12-10

    A superabsorbent polymer (SAP) from chitosan was provided via carboxymethylation of chitosan, followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and freeze-drying. This work was focused on an investigation of the effects of monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), sodium hydroxide, and reaction time on preparation of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). The CMCS products were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, and their degrees of substitution (DS) were measured using conductimetry and FTIR analysis. The highest DS value was obtained when the carboxymethylation reaction was carried out using 1.75g MCAA and 1.75g NaOH per g of chitosan in 4h. The water solubilities of the CMCS products at various pHs were also evaluated, and the results indicated a significant impact of the reaction parameters on the solubility of CMCS. The CMCSs with the highest DS value resulted in SAPs having the highest water-binding capacity (WBC). The WBC of the best SAP measured after 10min exposure in distilled water, 0.9% NaCl solution, synthetic urine, and artificial blood was 104, 33, 30, and 57g/g, respectively. The WBC of this SAP at pH 2-9 passed a maximum at pH 6. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of preparation process and characterization of carboxymethyl chitosan/sodium alginate hemostatic sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z.; Ouyang, Q. Q.; Cheng, Y.; Hong, P. Z.; Liao, M. N.; Chen, F. J.; Li, S. D.

    2017-06-01

    Composite hemostatic sponge was prepared by vacuum freeze-drying using carboxymethyl chitosan and sodium alginate as the main materials and CaCl2 as a crosslinking agent. On the basis of single factor experiments, an orthogonal experiment was carried out to optimize the preparation process of hemostatic sponge. The appearance, water absorption, porosity ratio, and in vitro hemostasis of the sponge were evaluated. The optimum conditions to prepare hemostatic sponge were obtained as follows: mass ratio of sodium alginate to carboxymethyl chitosan 4: 1, mass fraction of CaCl2 2%, and crosslinking temperature 30°C. The hemostatic sponge prepared under such conditions was off-white and porous. Its water absorption and porosity ratio were 3050% and 67.23%, respectively. Meanwhile, the hemostatic sponges had significant in vitro procoagulant activity. Therefore, the hemostatic sponge is expected to be developed as a novel medical material.

  4. Study of glycol chitosan-carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrins as anticancer drugs carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haina; Qin, Fei; Chen, Dongfeng; Han, Songbai; Lu, Wu; Yao, Xin

    2013-04-02

    Efficient target delivery system for insoluble anticancer drugs to increase the intracellular drug concentration has become a focus in cancer therapy. Herein, glycol chitosan-carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrins (G-chitosan-CM-dextrins) was synthesized for delivering different hydrophobic anticancer drugs. Surface plasmon resonance and UV-vis spectroscopy results showed that all the three anticancer drugs (5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and vinblastine) could be successfully loaded into the cavities of the covalently linked CM-dextrins. Moreover, the free carboxymethyl groups could enhance the binding interactions between the covalently linked CM-dextrins and anticancer drugs. Release behaviors with pH changes of the three drugs were also explored, result showed different drugs would be released by different ways, as for doxorubicin, pH sensitive release has been realized. The obtained G-chitosan-CM-dextrins carrier has both mucoadhesive property of G-chitosan and hydrophobic cavities of β-cyclodextrins. Therefore, the new synthesized G-chitosan-CM-dextrins carrier exhibits a promising potential capability for anticancer drug delivery in tumor therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adsorption of Cr(VI) onto Hybrid Membrane of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Silicon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Yanling Deng; Naoki Kano; Hiroshi Imaizumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new adsorbent material was synthesized by using carboxymethyl chitosan and silicon dioxide. The hybrid membrane was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. The adsorption potential of Cr(VI) by the hybrid materials was investigated by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and the dosage of the hybrid membrane. Adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI) onto the hybrid membrane were studied with varying initial concentrations under optimu...

  6. Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimer as an amphoteric adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Ran [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jun-Won [Pohang Institute of Metal Industry Advancement, 56 Jigok-ro, Nam-gu, Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Woo, E-mail: jaewoopark@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Carboxymethyl chitosan was attached to magnetic-cored dendrimer as terminal groups. • High sorptive capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan is added to dendritic structure. • This new adsorbent can be easily separated from water with magnetic force. • It could be reused as an adsorbent more than five-times with simple pH adjustment. - Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimers (CCMDs) were successfully synthesized in a three step method. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, thermogravimetry analysis, zeta potential analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The CCMD exhibited selective adsorption for anionic and cationic compounds at specific pH conditions. With the substitution of amino groups of MD with carboxymethyl chitosan moieties, the adsorption sites for cationic compounds were greatly increased. Since the adsorption onto CCMD was mainly electrostatic interaction, the adsorption of MB and MO was significantly affected by the pHs. The optimal adsorption pH values were 3 and 11 for MO and MB. The maximal adsorption of MO and MB on the CCMD at pH values of 3 and 11 were 20.85 mg g{sup −1} and 96.31 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. Reuse of the CCMD as an adsorbent was experimentally tested through adsorption and desorption with simple pH control. More than 99% and 91% of the initial adsorption of MB and MO on the CCMD was maintained with five consecutive recycling.

  7. Carboxymethyl-chitosan protects rabbit chondrocytes from interleukin-1beta-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Liu, Shi-Qing; Du, Yu-Ming; Peng, Hao; Sun, Li-Ping

    2006-07-10

    Chondrocyte apoptosis is important in pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Chitosan is a non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible glycosaminoglycan. In this study, the effects of carboxymethyl-chitosan (CM-chitosan), a soluble derivative of chitosan, on chondrocyte apoptosis were investigated. Primary rabbit chondrocytes were cultured and induced to apoptosis by 10 ng/ml interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). After treatment with various concentrations of CM-chitosan (50, 100, 200 microg/ml), the apoptotic rate, mitochondrial function, nitric oxide production, and the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA and reactive oxygen species in IL-1beta-induced chondrocytes were examined. The results showed that CM-chitosan could inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it could partly restore the levels of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP, decrease nitric oxide production by down-regulation of iNOS mRNA expression, and scavenge reactive oxygen species in chondrocytes induced by IL-1beta. The results suggested that the inhibitory effects of CM-chitosan on IL-1beta-induced chondrocyte apoptosis were possibly due to the protection of mitochondrial function, the decline in the levels of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species.

  8. Polymorph selection and nanocrystallite rearrangement of calcium carbonate in carboxymethyl chitosan aqueous solution: Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Donghui [Key Lab For Special Functional Materials Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Yingchun, E-mail: yzhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Li, Fang; Ruan, Qichao [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Shengmao [Key Lab For Special Functional Materials Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Linlin; Xu, Fangfang [Key Lab of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi, Changning, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this article, the polymorph selection of calcium carbonate has been successfully achieved in water-soluble carboxymethyl chitosan aqueous solution at different temperatures (25-95 {sup o}C). Vaterite is formed in carboxymethyl chitosan solution 25 {sup o}C accompanied with trace of calcite, whereas pure aragonite is obtained at 95 {sup o}C. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the products are formed from the recrystallization of nanometer crystallites. Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses reveal that the polymorph of calcium carbonate is controlled and selected by kinetics in various temperatures. As a heterogeneous nucleator and stabilizing agent, carboxymethyl chitosan changes the nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate from thermodynamic into kinetic control. Under kinetic limitation, the reaction rate of aragonite increases along with the elevating of temperature and surpasses the rate of vaterite above 327 K.

  9. Covalently antibacterial alginate-chitosan hydrogel dressing integrated gelatin microspheres containing tetracycline hydrochloride for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huinan; Xing, Xiaodong; Tan, Huaping; Jia, Yang; Zhou, Tianle; Chen, Yong; Ling, Zhonghua; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    An antibacterial and biodegradable composite hydrogel dressing integrated with microspheres is developed for drug delivery and wound healing. The mechanism of gelation is attributed to the Schiff-base reaction between aldehyde and amino groups of oxidized alginate (OAlg) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS). To enhance antibacterial and mechanical properties, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) loaded gelatin microspheres (GMs) were fabricated by an emulsion cross-linking method, followed by integrating into the OAlg-CMCS hydrogel to produce a composite gel dressing. In vitro gelation time, swelling, degradation, compressive modulus and rheological properties of the gel dressing were investigated as the function of microsphere ratios. With increasing ratios of microspheres from 10 to 40mg/mL, the composite dressing manifested shorter gelation time and lower swelling ratios, as well as higher mechanical strength. Comparing to other formulations, the gel dressing with 30mg/mL microspheres showed more suitable stabilities and mechanical properties for wound healing. Also, in vitro drug release results showed that the loaded TH could be sustained release from the composite gel dressing by contrast with pure hydrogels and microspheres. Furthermore, powerful bacteria growth inhibition effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus suggested that the composite gel dressing, especially the one with 30mg/mL GMs containing TH, has a promising future in treatment of bacterial infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan and pineapple peel carboxymethylcellulose as sunscreen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkom, Lucksanee; Jimtaisong, Ampa

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to prepare of biocomposite of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from Ananas comosus (pineapple) peel for use as broad spectrum sunscreen carrier. Biocomposite was produced by using ferulic acid (FA), a plant extract, as crosslinker with the optimal ratio of CMC: CM-chitosan: FA at 1:2:4%w. FT-IR technique demonstrated that crosslinking may occur at amine group of CM-chitosan and carboxyl group of FA and hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl group of CMC and carboxyl group of FA. Biocomposite is pale yellow powder and present fibre bundle-like surface in the SEM image. DSC, TGA and XRD results indicated that new compound was formed. The particle size of biocomposite is 626nm determined by using Zetasizer. Hydrophilic TiO2 and phenylbenzimidazole sulphonic acid (PBSA) were used as sunscreen agent at ratio of TiO2: PBSA at 2:1%w. The biocomposite sunscreen possesses the SPF value of 2.47 with boost star rating of 3 at 2% compound. The results obtained indicate that the biocomposite was successfully prepared from CM-chitosan and pineapple peel CMC and the system can be used as matrix delivery system for hydrophilic sunscreens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Chitosan Nanogels for Swelling Studies and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem K. Farag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanogels of a binary system of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh and poly- (vinyl alcohol PVA, were successfully synthesized by a novel in situ process. They were also characterized by various analytical tools like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. They were studied for their unique swelling properties in water and different pH solutions. They were also investigated for their great ability to capture or isolate bacteria and fungi from aquatic environments.

  12. Identification and analysis of an impurity inducing clinical adverse effect in anti-adhesion carboxymethyl chitosan products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming-Ming; Jiang, Ting-Fu; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Dong-Yan; Lv, Zhi-Hua

    2013-11-01

    Controlling and minimizing the adverse effects of drugs are the key issues in ensuring the safety of drug therapy. Carboxymethyl chitosan has been widely used as an anti-adhesion material. However, recently in China there have been several reported instances of conjunctival hyperemia associated with the use of carboxymethyl chitosan containing products. Through MS, FTIR, and GC analysis, an impurity, diglycolic acid, was discovered in carboxylmethyl chitosan products. Pharmacological tests further indicated diglycolic acid has antithrombogenicity properties and induces vasodilation, both of which can cause conjunctival hyperemia. Thus, through these tests it was ascertained that diglycolic acid was the culprit responsible for the adverse clinical effects. Next, emphasis shifted to trying to discover the mechanism responsible for generating the diglycolic acid. Under strong basic conditions, chloroacetic acid can generate glycolic acid, which, upon etherification, can become diglycolic acid. In order to avoid future adverse effects, we have established an HPLC method to detect and determine diglycolic acid in carboxymethyl chitosan products. This method is specific, accurate, and precise, and can be easily implemented into routine monitoring practice. Concurrently, a refined method has also been established in order to eliminate diglycolic acid from carboxymethyl chitosan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chitosan and carboxymethyl-chitosan capping ligands: Effects on the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for producing biocomposite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Vitor C.; Mansur, Alexandra A.P.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Medeiros Borsagli, Fernanda G.L.; Pereira, Marivalda M.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br

    2016-02-01

    Synthetic biomaterials based on calcium phosphates (CaP) have been widely studied for bone tissue reconstruction therapies, but no definitive solution that fulfills all of the required properties has been identified. Thus, this study reports the synthesis of composite membranes based on nanohydroxyapatite particles (nHA) embedded in chitosan (CHI) and O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) matrices produced using a one-step co-precipitation method in water media. Biopolymers were used as capping ligands for simultaneously controlling the nucleation and growth of the nHA particles during the precipitation process and also to form the polymeric network of the biocomposites. The bionanocomposites were extensively characterized using light microscopy (LM), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray micro-CT analysis (μCT), and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) cell proliferation assays for cell cytotoxicity. The results demonstrated that the ligands used during the synthesis highly affected the composites produced, primarily due the changes in the mechanisms and kinetics of nucleation and growth of the HA particles at the nanoscale level. The SEM images revealed that the use of carboxyl-functionalized chitosan (CMC) ligands significantly reduced the average size of the HA nanoparticles and caused the formation of a narrower size distribution (90 ± 20 nm) compared to the HA nanoparticles produced with chitosan ligands (220 ± 50 nm). The same trend was verified by the AFM analysis, where the nHA particles were formed evenly dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, the CMC-based composites were more homogeneously distributed, which was endorsed by the images collected via X-ray micro-CT. The FTIR spectra and the XRD analysis indicated that nanosized hydroxyapatite was the

  14. Influence of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin hydrogel on cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Polymer Science, Peking University Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: xchin@vip.sina.com [Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Wei, Shicheng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-12-01

    A series of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and gelatin hydrogels were prepared by radiation crosslinking. A pre-clinical study was performed by implantation model and full-thickness cutaneous wound model in Sprague–Dawley rats to preliminarily evaluate the biocompatibility, biodegradability and effects on healing. In the implantation test, as a component of the hydrogels, CM-chitosan showed a positive effect on promoting cell proliferation and neovascularization, while gelatin was efficient to stabilize the structure and prolong the degradation time. To evaluate the function on wound healing, the hydrogels were applied to the relatively large full-thickness cutaneous wounds (Φ3.0 cm). Compared with the control groups, the hydrogel group showed significantly higher percentage of wound closure on days 9, 12 and 15 postoperatively, which was consistent with the significantly thicker granulation tissue on days 3 and 6. All results apparently revealed that the radiation crosslinked CM-chitosan/Gelatin hydrogels could induce granulation tissue formation and accelerate the wound healing. - Highlights: • The hydrogels were prepared by a facile and green method, radiation crosslinking. • The biodegradability and mechanical strength can be regulated by composition. • The hydrogels promote fibroblasts proliferation and neovascularization. • The hydrogels lead to earlier tissue granulation and re-epithelialization. • The hydrogels are ideal wound healing materials with excellent biocompatibility.

  15. Chitosan and carboxymethyl-chitosan capping ligands: Effects on the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles for producing biocomposite membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Vitor C; Mansur, Alexandra A P; Carvalho, Sandhra M; Medeiros Borsagli, Fernanda G L; Pereira, Marivalda M; Mansur, Herman S

    2016-02-01

    Synthetic biomaterials based on calcium phosphates (CaP) have been widely studied for bone tissue reconstruction therapies, but no definitive solution that fulfills all of the required properties has been identified. Thus, this study reports the synthesis of composite membranes based on nanohydroxyapatite particles (nHA) embedded in chitosan (CHI) and O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) matrices produced using a one-step co-precipitation method in water media. Biopolymers were used as capping ligands for simultaneously controlling the nucleation and growth of the nHA particles during the precipitation process and also to form the polymeric network of the biocomposites. The bionanocomposites were extensively characterized using light microscopy (LM), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM/TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray micro-CT analysis (μCT), andMTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) cell proliferation assays for cell cytotoxicity. The results demonstrated that the ligands used during the synthesis highly affected the composites produced, primarily due the changes in the mechanisms and kinetics of nucleation and growth of the HA particles at the nanoscale level. The SEMimages revealed that the use of carboxyl-functionalized chitosan (CMC) ligands significantly reduced the average size of theHA nanoparticles and caused the formation of a narrower size distribution (90±20nm) compared to theHAnanoparticles producedwith chitosan ligands (220±50nm). The same trend was verified by the AFM analysis,where the nHA particles were formed evenly dispersed in the polymer matrix. However, the CMC-based composites were more homogeneously distributed, which was endorsed by the images collected via X-ray micro-CT. The FTIR spectra and the XRD analysis indicated that nanosized hydroxyapatite was the predominant calcium

  16. A facile method for electrospinning of Ag nanoparticles/poly (vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yinghui; Zhou, Ying [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Xiaomian [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Orthodontics College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 401147 (China); Wang, Lu [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); PKU-HKUST ShenZhen-HongKong Institution, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Wei, Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgNPs were in situ synthesized in electrospinning solution via a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AgNPs distributed homogeneously on the surface of nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared nanofibers possessed certain antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AgNPs containing nanofibers had potential as antibacterial biomaterial. - Abstract: A facile method to prepare silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) containing nanofibers via electrospinning has been demonstrated. AgNPs were in situ synthesized in poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (CM-chitosan) blend aqueous solution before electrospinning. UV-vis spectra, viscosity and conductivity of the electrospinning solution were measured to investigate their effects on the electrospinning procedure. The morphology of AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The formation and morphology of AgNPs were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The resulted nanofibers have smooth surface and uniform diameters ranging from 295 to 343 nm. The diameters of AgNPs mainly distributed in the range of 4-14 nm, and the electrostatic interaction between AgNPs and fibers was observed. Finally, in vitro Ag release from the nanofibers was measured and the antibacterial behavior of the nanofibers against Escherichia coli was studied by bacterial growth inhibition halos and bactericidal kinetic testing. The AgNPs/PVA/CM-chitosan nanofibers possessed certain antibacterial ability, which makes them capable for antibacterial biomaterials.

  17. O-(carboxymethyl)-chitosan nanofiltration membrane surface functionalized with graphene oxide nanosheets for enhanced desalting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Gao, Xueli; Wang, Jian; Wei, Yi; Li, Zhaokui; Gao, Congjie

    2015-02-25

    A novel O-(carboxymethyl)-chitosan (OCMC) nanofiltration (NF) membrane is developed via surface functionalization with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets to enhance desalting properties. Using ring-opening polymerization between epoxy groups of GO nanosheets and amino groups of OCMC active layer, GO nanosheets are irreversibly bound to the membrane. The OCMC NF membranes surface-functionalized with GO nanosheets are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle analyzer, and zeta potential analyzer. The membranes exhibit not only higher permeability but also better salt rejections than the pristine membranes and the commercial NF membranes; besides, the desalting properties are enhanced with the concentration of GO nanosheets increasing. Furthermore, the transport mechanism of GO-OCMC NF membranes reveals that the nanoporous structure of GO-OCMC functional layer and size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion of water nanochannels formed by GO nanosheets lead to the membranes possessing enhanced desalting properties.

  18. Carboxymethylated chitosan-stabilized copper nanoparticles: a promise to contribute a potent antifungal and antibacterial agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tantubay, Sangeeta, E-mail: sang.chem2@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Mukhopadhyay, Sourav K. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Kalita, Himani; Konar, Suraj [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India); Dey, Satyahari [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Biotechnology (India); Pathak, Amita, E-mail: ami@chem.iitkgp.ernet.in; Pramanik, Panchanan, E-mail: ppramanik1946@yahoo.in, E-mail: pramanik1946@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Department of Chemistry (India)

    2015-06-15

    Carboxymethylated chitosan (CMC)-stabilized copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) have been synthesized via chemical reduction of copper(II)–CMC complex in aqueous medium by hydrazine under microwave irradiation in ambient atmosphere. Structural morphology, phase, and chemical compositions of CMC-stabilized Cu-NPs (CMC–Cu-NPs) have been analyzed through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of CMC–Cu-NPs have been evaluated against Candida tropicalis and Escherichia coli through agar well diffusion method, broth microdilution assay, live–dead assay, and microscopic observation. Antimicrobial activity of spherical CMC–Cu-NPs (∼4–15 nm of diameters) has been observed to be significant for both C. tropicalis and E. coli. The cytotoxicity study indicates that CMC–Cu-NPs have no significant toxic effect against normal cell line, L929.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of antimicrobial crosslinked carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Riham R; Sabaa, Magdy W

    2014-08-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh)-silver nanoparticle (Ag) hydrogels with high antibacterial activity against three Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus faecalis), three Gram -ve bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and a Candida albicans fungus were prepared. The in situ preparation reaction involved crosslinking of CMCh with epichlorohydrin in alkaline medium containing silver nitrate to yield silver nanoparticles loaded CMCh hydrogel giving pale brown or darker hydrogels when the silver content increases. FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and TEM were done for the prepared hydrogels. Silver nanoparticles hydrogels exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than virgin CMCh. TEM analysis showed the small size of the prepared hydrogels to be in the range of 9-16nm in size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Chitosan and Carboxymethyl Chitosan Schiff-Base/Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schiff-bases of chitosan (CS and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS/silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been synthesized, characterized, and evaluated as antimicrobial agents against two Gram +ve bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram −ve bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in addition to Candida albicans as a fungus. The in situ reactions of CS and/or CMCS with some pyrazole aldehyde derivatives in acidic media containing silver nitrate to yield silver nanoparticles loaded onto CS and CMCS/Schiff-bases were carried out. Characterizations of the prepared compounds via FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, and TGA were carried out. Schiff-bases/silver nanoparticles of CS and CMCS showed higher antimicrobial activity than the blank CS and CMCS. The presence of AgNO3 (3% wt% displayed high antibacterial efficiencies with inhibition zones in the extent of 19–39 mm. TEM analysis showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 4–28 nm for the prepared nanocomposites.

  1. Blend Hydrogel Microspheres of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Gelatin for the Controlled Release of 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanarchi Rajini Kanth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS was synthesized and blended with gelatin (GE to prepare hydrogel microspheres by w/o emulsion cross-linking in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA, which acted as a cross-linker. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU was encapsulated to investigate its controlled release (CR characteristics in acidic (pH 1.2 and alkaline (pH 7.4 buffer media. The microspheres which formed were spherical in nature, with smooth surfaces, as judged by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR confirmed the carboxymethylation of CS and the chemical stability of 5-FU in the formulations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD confirmed the physical state and molecular level dispersion of 5-FU. Equilibrium swelling of microspheres was performed in water, in order to understand the water uptake properties. The in vitro release of 5-FU was extended up to 12 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, revealing an encapsulation efficiency of 72%. The effects of blend composition, the extent of cross-linking, and initial drug loading on the in vitro release properties, were investigated. When analyzed through empirical equations, the release data suggested a non-Fickian transport mechanism.

  2. Blend Hydrogel Microspheres of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Gelatin for the Controlled Release of 5-Fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanth, Vanarchi Rajini; Kajjari, Praveen B; Madalageri, Priya M; Ravindra, Sakey; Manjeshwar, Lata S; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M

    2017-03-27

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) was synthesized and blended with gelatin (GE) to prepare hydrogel microspheres by w/o emulsion cross-linking in the presence of glutaraldehyde (GA), which acted as a cross-linker. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) was encapsulated to investigate its controlled release (CR) characteristics in acidic (pH 1.2) and alkaline (pH 7.4) buffer media. The microspheres which formed were spherical in nature, with smooth surfaces, as judged by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the carboxymethylation of CS and the chemical stability of 5-FU in the formulations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the physical state and molecular level dispersion of 5-FU. Equilibrium swelling of microspheres was performed in water, in order to understand the water uptake properties. The in vitro release of 5-FU was extended up to 12 h in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, revealing an encapsulation efficiency of 72%. The effects of blend composition, the extent of cross-linking, and initial drug loading on the in vitro release properties, were investigated. When analyzed through empirical equations, the release data suggested a non-Fickian transport mechanism.

  3. In situ green synthesis of antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver hybrids with controlled silver release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siqi; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Yang; Qi, Chusheng; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-01-01

    In order to fabricate antimicrobial carboxymethyl chitosan-nanosilver (CMC-Ag) hybrids with controlled silver release, this study demonstrated comparable formation via three synthetic protocols: 1) carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and glucose (adding glucose after AgNO3), 2) CMC and glucose (adding glucose before AgNO3), and 3) CMC only. Under principles of green chemistry, the synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 10 minutes with nontoxic chemicals. The structure and formation mechanisms of the three CMC-Ag hybrids were explored using X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. Additionally, antimicrobial activity and in vitro silver release of the three synthesized hybrids were investigated in detail. The results revealed that a large number of stable, uniform, and small silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on CMC chains via protocol 1. AgNPs were well dispersed with narrow size distribution in the range of 6-20 nm, with mean diameter only 12.22±2.57 nm. The addition of glucose resulted in greater AgNP synthesis. The order of addition of glucose and AgNO3 significantly affected particle size and size distribution of AgNPs. Compared to CMC alone and commercially available AgNPs, the antimicrobial activities of three hybrids were significantly improved. Of the three hybrids, CMC-Ag1 synthesized via protocol 1 exhibited better antimicrobial activity than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3, and showed more effective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. Due to strong coordination and electrostatic interactions between CMC and silver and good steric protection provided by CMC, CMC-Ag1 displayed stable and continuous silver release and better performance in retaining silver for prolonged periods than CMC-Ag2 and CMC-Ag3.

  4. Quaternized Carboxymethyl Chitosan-Based Silver Nanoparticles Hybrid: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A facile, efficient, and eco-friendly approach for the preparation of uniform silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs was developed. The synthesis was conducted in an aqueous medium exposed to microwave irradiation for 8 min, using laboratory-prepared, water-soluble quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC as a chemical reducer and stabilizer and silver nitrate as the silver source. The structure of the prepared QCMC was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. The formation, size distribution, and dispersion of the Ag NPs in the QCMC matrix were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM analysis, and the thermal stability and antibacterial properties of the synthesized QCMC-based Ag NPs composite (QCMC-Ag were also explored. The results revealed that (1 QCMC was successfully prepared by grafting quaternary ammonium groups onto carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC chains under microwave irradiation in water for 90 min and this substitution appeared to have occurred at -NH2 sites on C2 position of the pyranoid ring; (2 uniform and stable spherical Ag NPs could be synthesized when QCMC was used as the reducing and stabilizing agent; (3 Ag NPs were well dispersed in the QCMC matrix with a narrow size distribiution in the range of 17–31 nm without aggregation; and (4 due to the presence of Ag NPs, the thermal stability and antibacterial activity of QCMC-Ag were dramatically improved relative to QCMC.

  5. Preparation and Pb(II Adsorption Properties of Crosslinked Pectin-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Hastuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A modified pectin has been synthesized by reacting/combining -OH group among pectin and chitosan with BADGE (Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether crosslinker agent. The structure and morphology of the new material were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis. Thermogravimetric studies showed an improvement in thermal characteristic. Adsorption experiments were performed in batch processes; sorption isotherms and kinetics were also studied. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants for the adsorption of Pb(II ion onto adsorbent pectin-carboxymethyl chitosan-BADGE (pec-CMC-BADGE. The dynamic study showed that the sorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Result indicated also that Pb(II ion uptake could be well described by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model of pec-CMC-BADGE and CMC with DG° of 25.3 and 23.1 kJ mol-1,respectively, while that of pectin followed Freundlich isotherm with DG° of 16.6 kJ mol-1.

  6. Efficient pH Dependent Drug Delivery to Target Cancer Cells by Gold Nanoparticles Capped with Carboxymethyl Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alle Madhusudhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX was immobilized on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs capped with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC for effective delivery to cancer cells. The carboxylic group of carboxymethyl chitosan interacts with the amino group of the doxorubicin (DOX forming stable, non-covalent interactions on the surface of AuNPs. The carboxylic group ionizes at acidic pH, thereby releasing the drug effectively at acidic pH suitable to target cancer cells. The DOX loaded gold nanoparticles were effectively absorbed by cervical cancer cells compared to free DOX and their uptake was further increased at acidic conditions induced by nigericin, an ionophore that causes intracellular acidification. These results suggest that DOX loaded AuNPs with pH-triggered drug releasing properties is a novel nanotheraputic approach to overcome drug resistance in cancer.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Carboxymethyl Chitosan Grafted Sodium Methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asgari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available N-sodium acrylate-O-carboxymethyl chitosan [CMCH-g-PAA(Na] bound Fe3O4 nanoparticles were developed as a novel magnetic nanoparticles with an ionic structure that can be potentially used in many fields. CMCH-g-PAA (Na was obtained by grafting of sodium polyacrylate on O-carboxymethyl chitosan, which is an amphiphilic polyelectrolyte with the biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. According to the great interest for improving the stability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, CMCH-g-PAA (Na was used as a stabilizer to prepare a well dispersed suspension of magnetic nanoparticle According to the results,the presence of CMCH-g-PAA(Na could eliminate agglomeration of magnetic nanoparticles without destroying the superparamagnetic  properties

  8. Microwave-Assisted Hydrolysis of Chitosan from Shrimp Shell Waste for Glucosammine Hydrochlorid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaeni, Ahmad; Safitri, Endang; Fuadah, Badrotul; Nyoman Sudiana, I.

    2017-05-01

    Chitin is the most widespread renewable natural sources following cellulose as the main source of chitosan. Chitin is isolated from crustacean waste and shrimp shells. Chitosan is derived from chitin throuhgt demineralisation, deproteination, decolorisation and deacetylation process using chemicals such as sodium hydroxide, hydrogen chloride and acetone. Glucosamine hydrochloride (GlcN-Cl) can be produced by hydrolysis of chitosan by using hydrogen chloride. During deacetylation and hydrolysis the solution is heated by hotplate or furnace. In this paper we use microwave instead of hotplate for production chitosan and GlcN-Cl. The research investigates effect of microwaves to amount of rendemen and their property. The chitosan was characterized its moisture content, solubility, and degree of deacetylation (DDA). Whereas the glucosammine hydrochloride characterized its functional groups using FTIR and crystallization by using X-Ray Difraction (XRD). The experimental results show that the use of microwave energy on deacetilation of chitosan and hydrolisis processes can decrease time consuming and reactant concentration during production. the DDA value obtained was very high from 70 to 85%. The results also show that microwaves meet chitosan and GlcN-Cl standards.

  9. Preparation of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan coated alginate microcapsules and their application to Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Yu; Su, Ran [Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University (China); Fan, Dai-Di, E-mail: fandaidi@nwu.edu.cn [Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University (China); Zhu, Xiao-Li [Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Taibai North Road 229, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Zhang, Wen-Ni [Shaanxi R and D Center of Biomaterials and Fermentation Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University (China)

    2013-07-01

    In order to greatly improve vitality of probiotic bacteria within the application, a novel biocompatible vehicle, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCs) with appropriate degrees of substitution coat alginate (ALg) microparticles, was prepared by electrostatic droplet generation. The amount of chitosan (Cs) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCs) coated on the ALg microparticles was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The surface morphology of ALg microparticles, Cs coated ALg microparticles and NOCs coated ALg microparticles was determined using scanning electron microscopy. The coating thickness of Cs coated ALg microparticles and that of NOCs coated ALg microparticles was directly observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In order to assess pH sensitivity of microparticles, the bovine serum albumin release from the microspheres was tested in acid solution (pH 2.0) for 2 h and subsequently in alkaline solution (pH 7.0) for 2 h. The survival of Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920 loaded in NOCs coated with ALg microparticle was improved in simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0, for 2 h) compared to that of B. longum BIOMA 5920 loaded in ALg microparticles and Cs coated ALg microparticles. After incubation in simulated intestinal juices (pH 7.0, 2 h), the release of microencapsulated B. longum BIOMA 5920 was investigated. - Highlights: • Synthesised N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCs) coated alginate (ALg) microspheres. • Their effect on intestinal microflora was investigated in simulated gastric juices. • NOCs A coated ALg microspheres improved Bifidobacterium longum survival in SGJ. • The modified chitosan layer improved the pH-response of alginate microspheres. • NOCs A coated microspheres could be used to deliver oral bioactive compounds.

  10. High-Amylose Sodium Carboxymethyl Starch Matrices: Development and Characterization of Tramadol Hydrochloride Sustained-Release Tablets for Oral Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabais, Teresa; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Substituted amylose (SA) polymers were produced from high-amylose corn starch by etherification of its hydroxyl groups with chloroacetate. Amorphous high-amylose sodium carboxymethyl starch (HASCA), the resulting SA polymer, was spray-dried to obtain an excipient (SD HASCA) with optimal binding and sustained-release (SR) properties. Tablets containing different percentages of SD HASCA and tramadol hydrochloride were produced by direct compression and evaluated for dissolution. Once-daily and twice-daily SD HASCA tablets containing two common dosages of tramadol hydrochloride (100 mg and 200 mg), a freely water-soluble drug, were successfully developed. These SR formulations presented high crushing forces, which facilitate further tablet processing and handling. When exposed to both a pH gradient simulating the pH variations through the gastrointestinal tract and a 40% ethanol medium, a very rigid gel formed progressively at the surface of the tablets providing controlled drug-release properties. These properties indicated that SD HASCA was a promising and robust excipient for oral, sustained drug-release, which may possibly minimize the likelihood of dose dumping and consequent adverse effects, even in the case of coadministration with alcohol. PMID:25006518

  11. Carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles coupled with CD59-specific ligand peptide for targeted delivery of C-phycocyanin to HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Li, Bing; Yin, Qi-Feng; Wang, Yu-Juan

    2017-03-01

    The combination of nanotechnology and medicine will be the next generation of vehicles for targeted drug delivery. Carboxymethyl chitosan loaded with the anticancer drug C-phycocyanin and the CD59-specific ligand peptide for cancer cell targeting were used to create C-phycocyanin/carboxymethyl chitosan-CD59-specific ligand peptide nanoparticles using the ionic-gelation method. Optimal synthesis conditions, selected by response surface methodology, comprised the ratio carboxymethyl chitosan:C-phycocyanin = 3:1, and carboxymethyl chitosan and CaCl2 concentrations of 2.0 and 1.0 mg/mL, respectively. The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, with diameters of approximately 200 nm; the entrapment efficient was about 65%; and the drug loading was about 20%. The release of C-phycocyanin from C-phycocyanin/carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles was pH sensitive and had a sustainable effect in vitro. Guided by the CD59-specific ligand peptide, the nanoparticles efficiently targeted the surface of HeLa cells and had an obvious inhibitory effect on HeLa cell proliferation as determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assays. The nanoparticles were hemocompatible and induced apoptosis by upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved polyADP-ribose polymerase proteins, and downregulation of Bcl-2 proteins. Our study provides a novel approach to the research and development of marine drugs, and support for targeted therapy using anticancer drugs.

  12. Cellulose fibre networks reinforced with carboxymethyl cellulose/chitosan complex layer-by-layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongfei; Farnood, Ramin

    2014-12-19

    An eco-friendly and full-polysaccharide polyelectrolyte complex system was developed to enhance the wet and dry tensile strength of cellulose fibre networks. Cellulose fibres were treated by carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in pulp suspension. Paper sheets made from CMC-treated fibres were further modified via the layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition of CMC/chitosan (CS) complex. The effect of number of CMC/CS layers on the strength properties of cellulose fibre networks (both under wet and dry conditions) was studied and sample structure was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of CMC/CS-treated samples was also examined. The observed changes in the strength properties of treated samples were explained based on the competition between the rate of diffusion of CS to the fibre-fibre bond areas and the rate of disassociation of fibre-fibre interactions during the LbL deposition process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Supported Heterogeneous Palladium and Ni Catalysts for Heck Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two polymer catalysts (Pd-OCMCS and Ni-OCMCS with good reusability were synthesized by coordinating Pd and Ni onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCS. The chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared catalysts were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDSanalysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and thermogravimetric analyzer (TG-DTG, and the analysis results showed that the Pd and Ni ions coordinated onto the OCMCS and formed a ligand with the –COOH group, amino groups, and –OH group on the OCMCS, and the EDS and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES analysis results showed that the loading amounts of Pd and Ni were approximately 8.3% and 8.9%, respectively. In the Heck reaction between aryl halides and n-butyl acrylate catalyzed by the prepared catalyst, the test results showed that the product yield followed the order of aryl iodide > aryl bromide > aryl chloride. Additionally, the product yield for the aryl iodide and aryl bromide could reach up to 99% and 96%, respectively. Moreover, the electron-withdrawing and electron-donating property of the group on the aryl also affected the product yield, and the product yield for aryl halides with electron-withdrawing group p-NO2, p-CH3CO, and p-CHO was higher than that with electron-donating group p-CH3.

  14. Alginate/quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/clay nanocomposite microspheres: preparation and drug-controlled release behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Luo, Jiwen; Wang, Xiaoying; Lu, Junxiang; Deng, Hongbing; Sun, Runcang

    2013-01-01

    Drug-delivery systems, using natural drug carriers, have become increasingly important because of their nontoxicity and biodegradability. In this study, firstly, quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (QCMC) was intercalated into the interlayer of organic montmorillonite (OMMT) to obtain the QCMC/OMMT nanocomposites, their structure, morphology, and thermal stability were investigated. Next, crosslinked alginate/QCMC/OMMT (AQCOM) microsphere was obtained by crosslinking with CaCl2, and the drug-controlled release behavior was evaluated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as model drug. The results suggested that, carboxyl groups in alginate and QCMC crosslinked with Ca(2+), quaternary ammonium groups in QCMC or OMMT electrostatically interacted with carboxyl groups in alginate, and there was stable three-dimensional network in AQCOM microsphere. The swelling ratio of AQCOM microspheres decreased with the increase of OMMT content, the lowest one was only about 45% compared to the microsphere without OMMT of 197%. Besides, the in vitro release results for BSA indicated that the AQCOM microsphere displayed more excellent encapsulation and controlled release capacities than the microsphere without OMMT. The in vitro active cutaneous anaphylaxis test was carried out on Guinea pigs, which revealed that AQCOM microsphere did not cause anaphylaxis. Therefore, QCMC/OMMT nanocomposites from natural materials are considerably suitable to apply as drug-controlled release carriers.

  15. Kinetics of adsorption of bovine serum albumin on magnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhouli; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Cai, Rui; Niu, Chen; Guo, Caixia

    2013-07-01

    The magnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (MNPs-CMC) were developed as effective magnetic affinity adsorbent for Bovine serum albumin and the adsorption reactions were investigated. The obtained experimental data were compared with the adsorption kinetics models and equilibrium isotherms. The experimental kinetic data were modeled using Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order, Bangham's equation, Intra-particle diffusion model and Elovich equations. It was found that the adsorption reactions followed the Pseudo-second order kinetics equation. The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Temkin equations. By comparing the correlation coefficients determined for each linear transformation of isotherm analysis, it was found that the Langmuir equation was the best fit equilibrium model for the adsorption of BSA. Error functions have been used to determine the alternative single component parameters by nonlinear regression due to the inherent bias in using the correlation coefficient resulting from linearization. It showed that the Langmuir equation resulted in the lowest values for the error function and thus fitted the data better than the other isotherm. Various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy (ΔH°), entropy (ΔS°) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) were evaluated. MNPs-CMC nanoaprticles were shown to be a promising material for adsorption of BSA from aqueous solutions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioresponsive Materials for Drug Delivery Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Composite Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoting; Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Mo, Yanghe; Feng, Huaiyu; Li, Peng; Qu, Xiaosai; Jin, Shaohua

    2017-04-28

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) microparticles are a potential candidate for hemostatic wound dressing. However, its low swelling property limits its hemostatic performance. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with excellent hydrophilicity. In the current study, a novel CMCS/PGA composite microparticles with a dual-network structure was prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. The structure and thermal stability of the composite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of preparation conditions on the swelling behavior of the composite were investigated. The results indicate that the swelling property of CMCS/PGA composite microparticles is pH sensitive. Levofloxacin (LFX) was immobilized in the composite microparticles as a model drug to evaluate the drug delivery performance of the composite. The release kinetics of LFX from the composite microparticles with different structures was determined. The results suggest that the CMCS/PGA composite microparticles are an excellent candidate carrier for drug delivery.

  17. Intranasal administration of carbamazepine-loaded carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery to the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is considered as a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders and its symptoms can be controlled by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The presence of p-glycoprotein and multi-drug resistance transporters in the blood-brain barrier could prevent the entry of AEDs into the brain, causing drug resistant epilepsy. To overcome this problem, we propose using carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles as a carrier to deliver carbamazepine (CBZ intra-nasally with the purpose to bypass the blood-brain barrier thus to enhance the brain drug concentration and the treatment efficacy. Results so far indicate that the developed CBZ-NPs have small particle size (218.76 ± 2.41 nm with high drug loading (around 35% and high entrapment efficiency (around 80%. The in vitro release profiles of CBZ from the NPs are in accordance with the Korsmeyer-peppas model. The in vivo results show that both encapsulation of CBZ in nanoparticles and the nasal route determined the enhancement of the drug bioavailability and brain targeting characteristics.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and application of biodegradable crosslinked carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabaa, Magdy W.; Abdallah, Heba M.; Mohamed, Nadia A.; Mohamed, Riham R., E-mail: rihamrashad@hotmal.com

    2015-11-01

    Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) nanocomposites were synthesized using terephthaloyl diisothiocyanate crosslinker, in the presence of montmorillonite (MMT), in different ratios of the two matrices. Characterization of nanocomposites was performed using different analyses. Swelling behavior was studied in different buffered solutions. It was found that formation of crosslinked CMCh/PVA hydrogels increased the swellability. Metal ion adsorption has also been investigated. The results indicated that crosslinked CMCh adsorbs various metal ions much more than non crosslinked CMCh. Antimicrobial activity was examined against Gram positive bacteria, against Gram negative bacteria, and also against fungi. Results indicated that most of these nanocomposites exhibited good antimicrobial potency. Degradation study was carried out in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for different time periods in order to find out degradation index (Di). Results showed that weight loss of most of the nanocomposites increased as a function of incubation time. - Highlights: • CMCh/PVA nanocomposites have been evaluated for activity against bacteria and fungi. • TEM showed that these hydrogels have size 3–19 nm. • Nanocomposites increased metal ion uptake and showed selectivity for cadmium ions. • Biodegradation increased as a function of incubation time in SBF solution. • Biodegradation increased with increase in CMCh and clay in nanocomposites.

  19. Bioresponsive Materials for Drug Delivery Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Composite Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoting; Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Mo, Yanghe; Feng, Huaiyu; Li, Peng; Qu, Xiaosai; Jin, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) microparticles are a potential candidate for hemostatic wound dressing. However, its low swelling property limits its hemostatic performance. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with excellent hydrophilicity. In the current study, a novel CMCS/PGA composite microparticles with a dual-network structure was prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. The structure and thermal stability of the composite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of preparation conditions on the swelling behavior of the composite were investigated. The results indicate that the swelling property of CMCS/PGA composite microparticles is pH sensitive. Levofloxacin (LFX) was immobilized in the composite microparticles as a model drug to evaluate the drug delivery performance of the composite. The release kinetics of LFX from the composite microparticles with different structures was determined. The results suggest that the CMCS/PGA composite microparticles are an excellent candidate carrier for drug delivery. PMID:28452963

  20. Preparation, Characterization, and Insecticidal Activity of Avermectin-Grafted-Carboxymethyl Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avermectin-grafted-N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC derivative was obtained by esterification reaction using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC as dehydrating agent and 4-methylaminopyridine as catalyst. The structures of the conjugate were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and XRD. Insecticidal activities against armyworms, carmine spider mites, black bean aphids, and brown plant hoppers were investigated at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 1000 mg/L. At the concentration of 1000 mg/L and 500 mg/L, the lethal rate was 100%. Good insecticidal activity at 4 mg/L was still shown, especially against the black bean aphids and brown plant hoppers. Moreover, the photostability of the conjugate was evaluated and showed an apparent improvement. At 300 mins, the residual rate of the conjugate was 11.22%, much higher than 0.2% of the avermectin technical material. The conjugate we developed showed potential for further study and application in crop protection.

  1. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan hybrid micro- and macroparticles for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P; Medronho, B; Alves, L; da Silva, G J; Miguel, M G; Lindman, B

    2017-11-01

    Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes. On the other hand, the physical systems are pH sensitive presenting a remarkable swelling at pH 7.4, while little swelling is observed at pH 2.4. Furthermore, model probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) was for the first time successfully encapsulated in the CMC-Cht based particles with acceptable viability count. Overall, the systems developed are highly promising for probiotic encapsulation and potential delivery in the intestinal tract with the purpose of modulating gut microbiota and improving human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation and modeling of moisture sorption behaviour of rice starch/carboxymethyl chitosan blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyatem, R.; Rachtanapun, C.; Raviyan, P.; Intipunya, P.; Rachtanapun, P.

    2015-07-01

    The biopolymer films from rice starch (RS) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) were developed by solution casting. The effect of the ratios of rice starch to CMCh (100:0, 88:12, 67:33, 50:50, 33:67, 12:88 and 0:100) on water barrier properties and moisture sorption isotherm of blend films was studied. Water vapor permeability of rice starch film and CMCh film were 4.8 and 9.1 g.mm/m2.mHg.day, respectively, while those of the RS/CMCh blend films ranged between 5.0 and 9.1 g.mm/m2.mHg.day. The sorption isotherm of RS/CMCh blend films was determined at 25°C. The sorption behaviour of RS/CMCh blend films could be categorized as type II and type III isotherms. The highest equilibrium moisture content (63.5 g water/100 g dry solid) was obtained in the CMCh film at aw of 0.87. For further application of sorption isotherm data, the moisture sorption characteristic of the films can be predicted using empirical models. Lewicki, Peleg, Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Oswin models were tested to fit the experimental data. The Peleg equation showed the best fit to the experimental data of the RS/CMCh blend films with r2 ∼ 0.997 and the lowest % RMS of 6.2-44.3.

  3. Adsorption of Cr(VI onto Hybrid Membrane of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Silicon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new adsorbent material was synthesized by using carboxymethyl chitosan and silicon dioxide. The hybrid membrane was used as an adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI from aqueous solutions. The adsorption potential of Cr(VI by the hybrid materials was investigated by varying experimental conditions such as pH, contact time, and the dosage of the hybrid membrane. Adsorption isotherms of Cr(VI onto the hybrid membrane were studied with varying initial concentrations under optimum experiment conditions. The surface property of the hybrid membrane was characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR. The concentrations of Cr(VI in solution are determined by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The present study investigates the adsorption mechanisms of Cr(VI onto the hybrid membrane. The results provide new insight, demonstrating that the modified hybrid membrane can be an efficient adsorbent for Cr(VI from the aqueous solution.

  4. Application of nanocompostie chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose films containing natural preservative compounds in minced camel's meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezrian, Ali; Shahbazi, Yasser

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, novel films based on nanomontmorillonite-chitosan (MMT-Ch) and nanomontmorillonite-carboxymethyl cellulose (MMT-CMC) incorporated with different concentrations of Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0.5, 1 and 2%) alone and in combination with Ficus carica extract (FCH; 1%) were investigated as active packaging materials for minced camel's meat to increase the shelf life (microbial, chemical and sensory properties) and inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage at refrigerated condition. Final microbial populations of meat samples packed in CMC-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% and Ch-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% were decreased approximately 1-4 log CFU/g compared to control (P<0.05). Packed meats with nanocomposite films tended to retard the increases in total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), pH, peroxide value (PV), protein carbonyl content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Sensory attributes (odor, color and overall acceptability) were significantly enhanced in treated meat samples (P<0.05). The results indicated that CMC-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% and Ch-MMT+ZEO 2%+FCH 1% films could be considered as promising packaging materials for minced camel's meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of a Facilitated Transport Membrane Composed of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Polyethylenimine for CO2/N2 Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-Nan Shen; Chang-Chao Yu; Gan-Ning Zeng; Bart van der Bruggen

    2013-01-01

    The miscibility of carboxymethyl chitosan/polyethylenimine (CMCS/PEI) blends was analyzed by FT-IR, TGA and SEM. Defect-free CMCS/PEI blend membranes were prepared with polysulfone (PSf) ultrafiltration membranes as support layer for the separation of CO2/N2 mixtures. The results demonstrate that the CMCS/PEI blend is miscible, due to the hydrogen bonding interaction between the two targeted polymers. For the blended membrane without water, the permeability of CO2 gas is 3.6 × 10−7 cm3 cm−2 s...

  6. [Preparation and physicochemical property of carboxymethyl-chitosan/hyaluronic acid poly(vinyl alcohol) blend membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Li, Shuning; Chang, Jing; Han, Baoqin; Liu, Wanshun

    2009-08-01

    To prepare carboxymethyl-chitosan/hyaluronic acid/poly(vinyl alcohol) (CHP) blend membrane, evaluate its physicochemical properties and intraocular biocompatibility and to investigate its feasibility to be applied to glaucoma filtering surgery. CHP blend membrane was prepared using solution casting method after blending carboxymethyl-chitosan, HA and poly(vinyl alcohol) in a proportion of 5 : 4 : 1 (M/M). Its water absorption rate, swelling rate, permeability, and mechanical properties were detected. Subconjunctival fibroblasts separated from subconjunctival tissue of New Zealand white rabbits were cultured, and the cells at passage 4 were cultured on cell culture plate with or without the CHP blend membrane, serving as the experimental group and the control group, respectively. Effect of the CHP blend membrane on the subconjunctival fibroblasts was tested by MTT method 24, 48, and 72 hours after culture. Six New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups (n = 3 rabbits per group), and the CHP blend membrane and SK gel were implanted into the rabbits' subconjunctival space and anterior chamber in the experimental group and the control group, respectively. Slit lamp observation and binocular reaction record were conducted 1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 20, 30, 45, and 60 days after operation. Corneal tissue harvested from the experimental group was observed using scanning electron microscope 15 days after operation to study ophthalmic biocompatibility and biodegradability. The water absorption rate and the swelling rate of the CHP blend membrane was 83.8% +/- 1.3% and 3.59 +/- 0.50, respectively. The tensile strength of the dry and the wet CHP blend membrane was (20.59 +/- 1.73) and (0.51 +/- 0.13) MPa, respectively. The breaking elongation rate of the dry and the wet CHP blend membrane was 10.69% +/- 1.16% and 53.15% +/- 2.46%, respectively. The CHP blend membrane had good permeability to NaCl and L-tyrosine. Absorbance (A) value of the experimental group 24, 48

  7. Biodegradable Chitosan-Based Ambroxol Hydrochloride Microspheres: Effect of Cross-Linking Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangurde, HH; Chavan, NV; Mundada, AS; Derle, DV; Tamizharasi, S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of type of cross-linking method used on the properties of ambroxol hydrochloride microspheres such as encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and drug release. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using chitosan as a matrix-forming agent and cross-linked using formaldehyde and heat treatment. Morphological and physicochemical properties of microspheres were then investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking of chitosan takes place at the free amino group because of formation of imine bond as evidenced by FTIR. The DSC, XRD, and FTIR analysis showed that chitosan microspheres cross linked by heating were superior in properties and performance as compared to the microspheres cross-linked using formaldehyde. SEM results revealed that heat-treated microspheres were spherical, discrete having smooth, and porous structure. The particle size and encapsulation efficiencies of the prepared chitosan microspheres ranged between 10.83–24.11 μm and 39.73μ80.56%, respectively. The drug release was extended up to 12 h, and the kinetics of the drug release was obeying Higuchi kinetic proving diffusion-controlled drug release. PMID:21607049

  8. Bioactive and metal uptake studies of carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-D-glucuronic acid membranes for tissue engineering and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, R; Rajkumar, M; Freitas, H; Sudheesh Kumar, P T; Nair, S V; Furuike, T; Tamura, H

    2009-08-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-D-glucuronic acid (CMCS-g-D-GA) was prepared by grafting D-GA onto CMCS in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and then the membranes were made from it. In this work, the bioactivity studies of CMCS-g-D-GA membranes were carried out and then characterized by SEM, CLSM, XRD and FT-IR. The CMCS-g-D-GA membranes were found to be bioactive. The adsorption of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions onto CMCS-g-D-GA membranes has also been investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of CMCS-g-D-GA for Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ was found to be 57, 56.4 and 70.2 mg/g, respectively. Hence, these membranes were useful for tissue engineering, environmental and water purification applications.

  9. Preparation, property of the complex of carboxymethyl chitosan grafted copolymer with iodine and application of it in cervical antibacterial biomembrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Yumin; Liao, Qingping [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Yang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Ma, Wanfeng [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Zhao, Jian [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China); Zheng, Xionggao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Yang, Yang [Zhejiang Sanchuang Biological Technology Co., Ltd., Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314031 (China); Chen, Rui [Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, The First Hospital of Peking University, Beijing 100034 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Cervical erosion is one of the common diseases of women. The loop electrosurgical excisional procedure (LEEP) has been used widely in the treatment of the cervical diseases. However, there are no effective wound dressings for the postoperative care to protect the wound area from further infection, leading to increased secretion and longer healing time. Iodine is a widely used inorganic antibacterial agent with many advantages. However, the carrier for stable iodine complex antibacterial agents is lack. In the present study, a novel iodine carrier, Carboxymethyl chitosan-g-(poly(sodium acrylate)-co-polyvinylpyrrolidone) (CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP), was prepared by graft copolymerization of sodium acrylate (AANa) and N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) to a carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS) skeleton. The obtained structure could combine prominent property of poly(sodium acrylate) (PAANa) anionic polyelectrolyte segment and good complex property of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) segment to iodine. The bioactivity of CMCTS could also be kept. The properties of the complex, CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2}, were studied. The in vitro experiment shows that it has broad-spectrum bactericidal effects to virus, fungus, gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. A CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2} complex contained cervical antibacterial biomembrane (CABM) was prepared. The iodine release from the CABM is pH-dependent. The clinic trial results indicate that CABM has better treatment effectiveness than the conventional treatment in the postoperative care of the LEEP operation. - Highlights: • The multifunctional iodine complexing carrier CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP) was prepared. • CMCTS-g-(PAANa-co-PVP)-I{sub 2} with high antibacterial property and bio-safety was studied. • By compositing it with CMCTS and gelatin further, CABM with multifunction was deduced. • The releasing properties of the activated iodine from CABM showed pH sensitivity. • CABM showed good treating effect for

  10. Intranasal delivery of tapentadol hydrochloride-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: formulation, characterisation and its in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javia, Ankit; Thakkar, Hetal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to formulate tapentadol hydrochloride-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for nose to brain delivery. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using ionotropic gelation technique. Optimisation of the formulation and process parameters was done using Box-Behnken Design. The entrapment efficiency, drug loading, Z-average size and zeta potential of the optimised batch were 63.49 ± 1.61%, 17.25 ± 1.38%w/w, 201.2 ± 1.5 nm and +49.3 mV, respectively. In-vitro release study showed 84.04 ± 1.53% drug release after 28 h, while ex vivo studies indicated higher permeation of CS-NPs through nasal mucosa. The nanoparticles exhibited good mucoadhesiveness, haemocompatibility and safety as evidenced by histopathology. The results of the pharmacodynamic study revealed prolongation of the analgesic activity. The intranasal instillation of CS-NPs resulted in the higher concentrations in brain compared to the drug solution and intravenous administration of CS-NPs. In a nutshell, intranasal administration of tapentadol hydrochloride-loaded CS-NPs is a promising approach for effective pain management.

  11. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Maillard reaction products from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuping; Hu, Jiao; Wei, Liuting; Du, Yumin; Shi, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    The structure, UV absorbance, browning intensity, fluorescence changes, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial assessment of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) derived from xylan with chitosan, chitooligomer, glucosamine hydrochloride and taurine model systems were evaluated. The results revealed that all MRPs had similar infrared spectra and molecular structures. MRPs from different model systems on the UV absorbance at 294 nm after heated 90 min and browning intensity at 420 nm showed the similar law: xylan-taurine > xylan-glucosamine hydrochloride > xylan-chitooligomer > xylan-chitosan, and the order of DPPH scavenging activity of MRPs was as follows: xylan-chitosan > xylan-chitooligomer > xylan-glucosamine hydrochloride > xylan-taurine, which revealed that the properties of MRPs were closely related to molecular weight of model systems. Moreover, the highest radical scavenging activity of MRPs from xylan with chitosan/chitooligomer/glucosamine hydrochloride/taurine model systems was 65.9%, 63.7%, 46.4% and 42.5%, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of novel multifunctional cationic polymeric liposomes formed from octadecyl quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/cholesterol and drug encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao F; Wang, Han J; Luo, Hao; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Bing B; Hao, Li J; Teng, Jon I; Chang, Jin

    2008-07-15

    The design and construction of effective delivery vectors for drugs is very important. We have discovered that octadecyl quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan (OQCMC) in combination with cholesterol (Chol) could form stable vesicles with structure similar to that of conventional liposomes prepared from phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (PC/Chol). Compared to conventional liposomes, our polymeric liposomes formed by OQCMC/Chol have many excellent features, such as good physical and thermal stability, excellent solubility in water, and high effectiveness in drug encapsulation. Trans-activating transcriptional activator protein (TAT peptide) could be connected on the surface of cationic polymeric liposomes by using cross-linking reagent N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithio) propionate (SPDP). Also, oil-soluble magnetic nanoparticles were used to verify the bilayer structure of the polymeric liposomes and their ability to solublize hydrophobic materials. Using different preparation methods, OQCMC/Chol could easily be made into nanoscale particles by encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components. We have successfully prepared polymeric liposomes encapsulating quantum dots (QDs), superparamagnetic nanoparticles, or both. Vincristine was also encapsulated in the polymeric liposomes with high drug encapsulation efficiency (90.1%). Vincristine-loaded magnetic polymeric liposomes were stable in aqueous solution and exhibited slow, steady release action over 2 weeks under physiologic pH (7.4). This allows the use of multifunctional cationic polymeric liposomes, such as those developed here from modified chitosan, in various applications such as cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of laccase-synthesized phenolic-O-carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Daniela; Grzelak, Adrianna; Baumann, Martina; Borth, Nicole; Schleining, Gerhard; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2018-01-25

    A bioactive O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel crosslinked with natural phenolics with potential application in wound dressings was synthesized using a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MTL). The highest degree of cross-linking (49.7%) was achieved with catechol. All the phenolic-CMCS hydrogels synthesized showed excellent anti-oxidant properties with a free radical scavenging activity up to 4-fold higher than in the absence of the phenolics, as quantified by the di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay. In addition, the hydrogels produced showed an anti-inflammatory effect as evidenced by the inhibition of enzymes [myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix-metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE)] over-expressed in chronic wounds. Sinapyl-CMCS hydrogels showed an MMP-1 inhibition of 37%. Further, the phenolic-CMCS hydrogels did not affect the viability of the NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line and were also able to slowly release human fibroblast growth factor 2, reaching 48.3% over a period of 28days. This study thus shows the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional bioactive chitosan based hydrogels with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using natural occurring phenolics as crosslinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of Egyptian soft white cheese shelf life using a novel chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose/zinc oxide bionanocomposite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed M; El-Sayed, Samah M; El-Sayed, Hoda S; Salama, Heba H; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-20

    A novel bionanocomposites packaging material prepared using chitosan (CH), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), namely CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites, was prepared by casting method. The CH/CMC/ZnO bionanocomposites were investigated using FT-IR, TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. The acquired bionanocomposites exhibited improved mechanical and thermal properties compare with the biocomposites (CH/CMC) blend. The soft white cheese were manufactured, packaged within the prepared bionanocomposites films and stored at 7°C for 30days. The influence of packaging material on packaged cheese (rheological properties, colour measurements, moisture, pH and titratable acidity) were assessed. Furthermore, the effect of packaging material on the total bacterial counts, mold & yeast and coliform in cheese was evaluated. The prepared bionanocomposites displayed good antibacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Candidia albicans). Moreover, the packaging films assisted in increasing the shelf life of white soft cheese. Therefore, it can be used in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cotton fabric with plasma pretreatment and ZnO/Carboxymethyl chitosan composite finishing for durable UV resistance and antibacterial property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxia; Lv, Jingchun; Ren, Yu; Zhou, Qingqing; Chen, Jiayi; Zhi, Tian; Lu, Zhenqian; Gao, Dawei; Ma, Zhipeng; Jin, Limin

    2016-03-15

    ZnO/carboxymethyl chitosan (ZnO/CMCS) composite was prepared and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM). The combination of plasma pretreatment and ZnO/CMCS composite finishing was applied to provide durable UV resistance and antibacterial activity for cotton fabric. Cotton fabric was pretreated by cold oxygen plasma and the ZnO/CMCS composite finishing was carried out by pad-dry-cure. Cotton fabric was characterized by SEM, FTIR, UV resistance, antibacterial activity and Thermogravimetry (TG). SEM and FTIR analysis demonstrated the presence of ZnO/CMCS composite on cotton fabric and the increasing loading efficiency of ZnO/CMCS composite owing to plasma treatment. UV resistance and antibacterial activity of the finished cotton fabric were greatly improved, which increased with the increasing concentration of ZnO/CMCS composite. TG analysis indicated that the combined finishing of cotton fabric with plasma pretreatment and ZnO/CMCS composite could improve its thermal property. The finished cotton fabric exhibited an excellent laundering durability in UV resistance and antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of a Facilitated Transport Membrane Composed of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Polyethylenimine for CO2/N2 Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Nan Shen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The miscibility of carboxymethyl chitosan/polyethylenimine (CMCS/PEI blends was analyzed by FT-IR, TGA and SEM. Defect-free CMCS/PEI blend membranes were prepared with polysulfone (PSf ultrafiltration membranes as support layer for the separation of CO2/N2 mixtures. The results demonstrate that the CMCS/PEI blend is miscible, due to the hydrogen bonding interaction between the two targeted polymers. For the blended membrane without water, the permeability of CO2 gas is 3.6 × 10−7 cm3 cm−2 s−1 cmHg−1 and the corresponding separation factor for CO2 and N2 gas is about 33 at the pressure of 15.2 cmHg. Meanwhile, the blended membrane with water has the better permselectivity. The blended membrane containing water with PEI content of 30 wt% has the permeance of 6.3 × 10−4 cm3 cm−2 s−1 cmHg−1 for CO2 gas and a separation factor of 325 for CO2/N2 mixtures at the same feed pressure. This indicates that the CO2 separation performance of the CMCS/PEI blend membrane is higher than that of other facilitated transport membranes reported for CO2/N2 mixture separation.

  17. Carboxymethyl chitosan functionalization of Bi2S3 quantum dots: Towards eco-friendly fluorescent core-shell nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Alexandra A P; Ramanery, Fábio P; Oliveira, Luiz C; Mansur, Herman S

    2016-08-01

    Designed bioengineered nanocomposites are emerging as a novel class of hybrid materials composed of natural aminopolysaccharides and inorganic semiconductors for biomedical and environmental applications. In this study, it is reported for the first time the synthesis and characterization of water-soluble Bi2S3 quantum dots (QDs) functionalized with O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) as capping ligands. UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize these nanohybrids. The results proved the hypothesis that O-CMC acted as a pH-dependent multi-functional ligand by altering the mechanisms of nucleation, growth and stabilization of water-soluble colloidal Bi2S3 nanocrystals under acidic, physiological and alkaline conditions, using an eco-friendly aqueous process at room temperature. Moreover, the O-CMC capping ligand and the relative molar ratios of the precursors in solution effectively controlled the diameters of the Bi2S3 QDs, which ranged from 2.8 to 12.8nm, and that exhibited luminescent properties in visible light. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation and characterization of a novel IPN hydrogel memberane of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/carboxymethyl chitosan (PNIPAAM/CMCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jie [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: jchen@shu.edu.cn; Sun Jie [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yang Liming [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang Qunfei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhu Huina [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wu Huifeng [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hoffman, Allan S. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Box 355061, Seattle (United States); Kaetsu, Isao [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Shanghai University, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Faculty of Science and Technology, Kinki University, Kowakae 3-4-1, Higashi-Osaka, 577-0818 (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    A novel type of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) hydrogel membrane of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/carboxymethyl chitosan (PNIPAAm)/(CMCS) was prepared, and the effects of the feed ratio of components, swelling medium and irradiation dose on the swelling and deswelling properties of the hydrogel was systematically studied. The results showed that the introduction of CMCS did not shift the LCST (at 32 deg. C), which is similar to the pure PNIPAAm. The lowest swelling ratio was at pH 2. There was little influence of irradiation dose on the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the IPN hydrogel, increasing dose only decreased the swelling ratio. The PNIPAAm:CMCS=1:4 w/w hydrogel was not thermo-sensitive in distilled water, whereas it showed a discontinuous volume phase transition in pH 2 and a continuous one in pH 8 buffer. Consequently, a combination of pH and temperature can be coupled to control the responsive behavior of these hydrogels.

  19. Preparation and characterization of a novel IPN hydrogel memberane of poly( N-isopropylacrylamide)/carboxymethyl chitosan (PNIPAAM/CMCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Sun, Jie; Yang, Liming; Zhang, Qunfei; Zhu, Huina; Wu, Huifeng; Hoffman, Allan S.; Kaetsu, Isao

    2007-08-01

    A novel type of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN) hydrogel membrane of poly( N-isopropylacrylamide)/carboxymethyl chitosan (PNIPAAm)/(CMCS) was prepared, and the effects of the feed ratio of components, swelling medium and irradiation dose on the swelling and deswelling properties of the hydrogel was systematically studied. The results showed that the introduction of CMCS did not shift the LCST (at 32 °C), which is similar to the pure PNIPAAm. The lowest swelling ratio was at pH 2. There was little influence of irradiation dose on the thermo- and pH-sensitivity of the IPN hydrogel, increasing dose only decreased the swelling ratio. The PNIPAAm:CMCS=1:4 w/w hydrogel was not thermo-sensitive in distilled water, whereas it showed a discontinuous volume phase transition in pH 2 and a continuous one in pH 8 buffer. Consequently, a combination of pH and temperature can be coupled to control the responsive behavior of these hydrogels.

  20. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffold of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xiong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we report the physico-chemical and biological properties of a novel biodegradable composite scaffold made of nano-hydroxyapatite and natural derived polymers of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose, namely, n-HA/CS/CMC, which was prepared by freeze-drying method. The physico-chemical properties of n-HA/CS/CMC scaffold were tested by infrared absorption spectra (IR, transmission electron microscope(TEM, scanning electron microscope(SEM, universal material testing machine and phosphate buffer solution (PBS soaking experiment. Besides, the biological properties were evaluated by MG63 cells and Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs culture experiment in vitro and a short period implantation study in vivo. The results show that the composite scaffold is mainly formed through the ionic crossing-linking of the two polyions between CS and CMC, and n-HA is incorporated into the polyelectrolyte matrix of CS-CMC without agglomeration, which endows the scaffold with good physico-chemical properties such as highly interconnected porous structure, high compressive strength and good structural stability and degradation. More important, the results of cells attached, proliferated on the scaffold indicate that the scaffold is non-toxic and has good cell biocompatibility, and the results of implantation experiment in vivo further confirm that the scaffold has good tissue biocompatibility. All the above results suggest that the novel degradable n-HA/CS/CMC composite scaffold has a great potential to be used as bone tissue engineering material.

  1. Preparation of a Facilitated Transport Membrane Composed of Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Polyethylenimine for CO2/N2 Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiang-Nan; Yu, Chang-Chao; Zeng, Gan-Ning; van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-02-07

    The miscibility of carboxymethyl chitosan/polyethylenimine (CMCS/PEI) blends was analyzed by FT-IR, TGA and SEM. Defect-free CMCS/PEI blend membranes were prepared with polysulfone (PSf) ultrafiltration membranes as support layer for the separation of CO(2)/N(2) mixtures. The results demonstrate that the CMCS/PEI blend is miscible, due to the hydrogen bonding interaction between the two targeted polymers. For the blended membrane without water, the permeability of CO(2) gas is 3.6 × 10-7 cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1 and the corresponding separation factor for CO(2) and N(2) gas is about 33 at the pressure of 15.2 cmHg. Meanwhile, the blended membrane with water has the better permselectivity. The blended membrane containing water with PEI content of 30 wt% has the permeance of 6.3 × 10-4 cm3 cm-2 s-1 cmHg-1 for CO(2) gas and a separation factor of 325 for CO(2)/N(2) mixtures at the same feed pressure. This indicates that the CO(2) separation performance of the CMCS/PEI blend membrane is higher than that of other facilitated transport membranes reported for CO(2)/N(2) mixture separation.

  2. Simultaneously Toughening and Strengthening Soy Protein Isolate-Based Composites via Carboxymethylated Chitosan and Halloysite Nanotube Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical cross-linking modification can significantly enhance the tensile strength (TS of soy protein isolate (SPI-based composites, but usually at the cost of a reduction in the elongation at break (EB. In this study, eco-friendly and high-potential hybrid SPI-based nanocomposites with improved TS were fabricated without compromising the reduction of EB. The hybrid of carboxymethylated chitosan (CMCS and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs as the enhancement center was added to the SPI and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE solution. The chemical structure, crystallinity, micromorphology, and opacity properties of the obtained SPI/PTGE/HNTs/CMCS film was analyzed by the attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix without crystal structure damages. Compared to the SPI/PTGE film, the TS and EB of the SPI/PTGE/HNTs/CMCS film were increased by 57.14% and 27.34%, reaching 8.47 MPa and 132.12%, respectively. The synergy of HNTs and CMCS via electrostatic interactions also improved the water resistance of the SPI/PTGE/HNTs/CMCS film. These films may have considerable potential in the field of sustainable and environmentally friendly packaging.

  3. Simultaneously Toughening and Strengthening Soy Protein Isolate-Based Composites via Carboxymethylated Chitosan and Halloysite Nanotube Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaorong; Kang, Haijiao; Wang, Zhong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jianzhang; Zhang, Shifeng

    2017-06-14

    Chemical cross-linking modification can significantly enhance the tensile strength (TS) of soy protein isolate (SPI)-based composites, but usually at the cost of a reduction in the elongation at break (EB). In this study, eco-friendly and high-potential hybrid SPI-based nanocomposites with improved TS were fabricated without compromising the reduction of EB. The hybrid of carboxymethylated chitosan (CMCS) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) as the enhancement center was added to the SPI and 1,2,3-propanetriol-diglycidyl-ether (PTGE) solution. The chemical structure, crystallinity, micromorphology, and opacity properties of the obtained SPI/PTGE/HNTs/CMCS film was analyzed by the attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated that HNTs were uniformly dispersed in the SPI matrix without crystal structure damages. Compared to the SPI/PTGE film, the TS and EB of the SPI/PTGE/HNTs/CMCS film were increased by 57.14% and 27.34%, reaching 8.47 MPa and 132.12%, respectively. The synergy of HNTs and CMCS via electrostatic interactions also improved the water resistance of the SPI/PTGE/HNTs/CMCS film. These films may have considerable potential in the field of sustainable and environmentally friendly packaging.

  4. Carboxymethyl chitosan modulates the genotoxic risk and oxidative stress of perfluorooctanoic acid in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagr Kh. Abdel-Gawad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA is one of the most commonly used perfluorinated compounds. Being a persistent environmental pollutant, it can accumulate in human tissues via various exposure routes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the protective role of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC against PFOA-induced toxicity at the genetic and protein levels in Nile tilapia using the biochemistry analysis, SDS–PAGE electrophoresis, comet assay and RFLP–PCR methods. The results indicated that exposure to PFOA in water (30 mg/L for 30 days resulted in a significant increase in ALT, AST, BUN, creatinine accompanied with a significant decrease in total protein and albumin. PFOA also increased DNA damage in electrophoresis condition and induced DNA and protein polymorphic band in comparison to control fish. CMC alone at 1% and 2% (W/W in fish diets did not induce any alterations in the biochemical parameters, DNA or protein levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, CMC succeeded to decrease the toxicity of PFOA in a dose dependent manner. It could be concluded that PFOA induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in fish similar to those reported in mammals. CMC is a promising candidate and has a protective effect against-PFOA induced in vivo DNA damage and protein alteration in Nile tilapia. This effect might be attributable to its ability to decrease intracellular ROS and its antioxidant properties.

  5. pH-sensitive carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels via acid-labile ortho ester linkage for potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liefeng; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Xin; Cheng, Xu; Qin, Jiejie; Tang, Rupei

    2017-12-15

    Hydrogel systems with favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability are of much interest for application in biomaterials and tissue engineering. In this study, a new ortho ester-based acid-labile crosslink agent with dual-epoxy end groups was synthesized and crosslinked with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) at different molar ratios to prepare a series of pH-sensitive hydrogels for drug delivering. Doxorubicin (DOX) was then readily loaded into the hydrogels and the in vitro release profiles indicated that the release rate increased rapidly while pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.0, which is consistent with the degradation rate of these hydrogels at corresponding pH conditions. In addition, results from MTT assay and flow cytometry demonstrated that these CMCS-based hydrogels and their degradation products have no cytotoxicity against SH-SY5Y and 293T cells. Therefore, the prepared acid-labile hydrogels could be applied in tumorous drug delivery systems and peritumoral implantation therapy by further optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effective Postharvest Preservation of Kiwifruit and Romaine Lettuce with a Chitosan Hydrochloride Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fortunati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruits and romaine lettuce, among the most horticulturally-consumed fresh products, were selected to investigate how to reduce damage and losses before commercialization. The film-forming properties, physico-chemical, and morphological characteristics, as well as the antimicrobial response against Botrytis cinerea and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum of chitosan hydrochloride (CH-based coatings were investigated. The results underlined the film-forming capability of this CH that maintained its physico-chemical characteristics also after dissolution in water. Morphological investigations by FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy underlined a well-distributed and homogeneous thin coating (less than 3–5 μm on the lettuce leaves that do not negatively affect the food product functionality, guaranteeing the normal breathing of the food. FESEM images also highlighted the good distribution of CH coating on kiwifruit peels. The in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that both the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and the bacterial growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were totally inhibited by the presence of CH, whereas in vivo antimicrobial properties were proved for 5–7 days on lettuce and until to 20–25 days on kiwifruits, demonstrating that the proposed coating is able to contrast gray mold frequently caused by the two selected plant pathogens during postharvest phases of fruit or vegetable products.

  7. Carboxymethyl chitosan/phospholipid bilayer-capped mesoporous carbon nanoparticles with pH-responsive and prolonged release properties for oral delivery of the antitumor drug, Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhuo; Zhu, Wufu; Zhang, Heran; Han, Jin; Zhang, Lihua; Lin, Qisi; Ai, Fengwei

    2017-10-30

    In this article, a new type of carboxymethyl chitosan/phospholipid bilayer-capped mesoporous carbon nanomatrix (CCS/PL/MC) was fabricated as a potential nano-drug delivery system. In this drug delivery system, a mesoporous carbon nanomatrix (MC) acts as the support for loading drug molecules, a positively charged phospholipid (PL) layer works as the inner shell for prolonged drug release and a negatively charged carboxymethyl chitosan (CCS) layer serves as the outer shell for pH-responsive drug release. Docetaxel (DTX) was selected as a model drug. The drug-loaded CCS/PL/MC was synthesized via a combination approach of double emulsion/solvent evaporation followed by lyophilization. The drug-loaded nanoparticles were characterized for their particle size, structure, morphology, zeta (ζ)-potential, specific surface area, porosity, drug loading and solid state. In vitro drug release tests showed that the drug-loaded CCS/PL/MC nanoparticles possess a good pH-sensitivity and prolonged releasing ability with negligible release in gastric media and controlled release in intestinal media. Compared with MC and PL-capped MC, CCS/PL/MC had a greater mucoadhesiveness. Moreover, cellular uptake study indicated that CCS/PL/MC might improve intracellular drug delivery. These results suggest that this hybrid nanocarrier, combining the beneficial features of CCS, PL and MC, is a promising drug delivery system able to improve the oral absorption of antitumor drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effectiveness of N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan on destabilization of Marine Diesel, Diesel and Marine-2T oil for oil spill treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Bhairavi; Repo, Eveliina; Heiskanen, Juha P; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Sillanpää, Mika

    2017-07-01

    Oil spills are the significant sources of hydrocarbons entering in the receiving aquatic environment. An efficient method to remove hydrocarbons from water resources is adsorption. In this study, water soluble N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NO-CS) was synthesized by carboxymethylation of chitosan in a hydro-alcoholic medium at 50°C by chloroacetic acid. The polymer was characterized through degree of deacetylation, degree of substitution, FTIR and 1H NMR. Effectiveness of NO-CS as an adsorbent was studied as a function of dosage, salinity and pH to destabilize the Marine diesel (Oil-1), Diesel (Oil-2) and Marine-2T oil (Oil-3) into small oil droplets of less than 100μm. Optical microscope was used for studying the size of oil droplets and adsorption effect of the oils on this polymer. The destabilization of marine diesel was the most effective among the studied three oils, which showed excellent adsorption at sea water alkalinity and salinity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Chitosan hydrochloride has no detrimental effect on bladder urothelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Višnjar, Tanja; Jerman, Urška Dragin; Veranič, Peter; Kreft, Mateja Erdani

    2017-10-01

    Bladder cancer is among the most common and aggressive human malignant carcinomas, thus targeting and removal of bladder cancer cells is still a challenge. Although it is well known that chitosan hydrochloride (CH-HCl) causes desquamation of normal urothelial cells, its effect on cancer urothelial cells has not been recognized yet. In this in vitro study, we analyzed the cytotoxicity of 0.05% CH-HCl on three urothelial models: two cancer urothelial models, i.e. invasive and papillary urothelial neoplasms, and a normal urothelial model. The cytotoxicity of CH-HCl was evaluated with viability tests, transepithelial resistance (TER) measurements, and electron microscopy. TER measurements showed that 15-minute treatment with CH-HCl caused no reduction in TER of the cancer models, whereas the TER of the normal urothelial model significantly decreased. Furthermore, after CH-HCl treatment, the viability of cancer cells was reduced by only 5%, whereas the viability of normal cells was reduced by 30%. Ultrastructural analysis revealed necrotic cell death in all cases. We have demonstrated that although CH-HCl increases the mortality of cancer urothelial cells, it increases the mortality of normal urothelial cells even more so. However, shorter 2-minute CH-HCl treatment only temporarily increases the permeability of normal urothelial model, i.e. disrupts tight junctions and reduces TER without comprising cell viability, and enables the complete recovery of the permeability barrier after 24h. Overall, our results suggest that CH-HCl cannot be used as a self-sufficient anticancer agent for urothelial bladder cancer treatment; nevertheless a possibility of its use as an enhancer of cytostatic treatment is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia monograph on derivative spectrophotometry method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Bojan; Ignjatović, Janko; Vujadinović, Mirjana; Savić, Vedrana; Vladimirov, Sote; Karljiković-Rajić, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Inter-laboratory verification of European pharmacopoeia (EP) monograph on derivative spectrophotometry (DS) method and its application for chitosan hydrochloride was carried out on two generation of instruments (earlier GBC Cintra 20 and current technology TS Evolution 300). Instruments operate with different versions of Savitzky-Golay algorithm and modes of generating digital derivative spectra. For resolution power parameter, defined as the amplitude ratio A/B in DS method EP monograph, comparable results were obtained only with algorithm's parameters smoothing points (SP) 7 and the 2nd degree polynomial and those provided corresponding data with other two modes on TS Evolution 300 Medium digital indirect and Medium digital direct. Using quoted algorithm's parameters, the differences in percentages between the amplitude ratio A/B averages, were within accepted criteria (±3%) for assay of drug product for method transfer. The deviation of 1.76% for the degree of deacetylation assessment of chitosan hydrochloride, determined on two instruments, (amplitude (1)D202; the 2nd degree polynomial and SP 9 in Savitzky-Golay algorithm), was acceptable, since it was within allowed criteria (±2%) for assay deviation of drug substance, for method transfer in pharmaceutical analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified with Carboxymethyl Chitosan for Highly Sensitive Detection of Trace Cu(II in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, reduced graphene oxide (RGO/carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC composites (RGO/CMC were synthesized by a hydrothermal method through in-situ reduction and modification of graphene oxide (GO in the presence of CMC. An electrochemical sensor for the determination of Cu(II by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV was constructed by an electrode modified with RGO/CMC. The fabricated electrochemical sensor shows a linear range of 0.02–1.2 μmol·L−1, a detection limit of 3.25 nmol·L−1 (S/N = 3 and a sensitivity of 130.75 μA·μmol·L−1·cm−2, indicating the sensor has an excellent detection performance for Cu(II.

  12. Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Fengju; Meng, Weiwei; Yang, Xinlin; Li, Peng; Jiang, Jianxin; Tan, Huimin; Zheng, Yongfa

    2016-06-01

    The volume phase transition of a hydrogel initiated by shrinking may result in complex patterns on its surface. Based on this unique property of hydrogel, we have developed a novel solvent precipitation method to prepare a kind of novel superabsorbent polymers with excellent hemostatic properties. A porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CMCTS-g-PAA) superabsorbent polymer was prepared by precipitating CMCTS-g-PAA hydrogel with ethanol. Its potential application in hemostatic wound dressing was investigated. The results indicate that the modified superabsorbent polymer is non-cytotoxic. It showed a high swelling capacity and better hemostatic performance in the treatments of hemorrhage model of ear artery, arteria cruralis and spleen of the New Zealand white rabbit than the unmodified polymer and other commonly used clinic wound dressings. The hemostatic mechanism of the porous CMCTS-g-PAA polymer was also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of ε-polylysine/carboxymethyl chitosan polyelectrolyte complexes and their effect against spoilage microorganisms in raw pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Meng, Yuecheng; Fang, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the properties of polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) fabricated by using ε-polylysine (EPL) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC) and their potential applications in raw pork. The phase behaviors of PECs in aqueous solutions are characterized by the ζ-potential, mean radius and turbidimetric measurements. Stable colloidal and soluble PEC systems can be fabricated by carefully adjusting the mass ratio of NOCC to EPL. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay showed that the colloidal and soluble PECs could maintain the antimicrobial activity of EPL in a laboratory medium. The antimicrobial effectiveness of coatings incorporating three PECs against spoilage microorganisms of raw pork under refrigerated conditions (4 °C) was evaluated. Microbial analysis demonstrated that the bacterial counts were significantly (P 0.05) among all samples in the case of molds and yeasts.

  14. [Solubilizing and sustained-releasing abilities and safety preliminary evaluation for paclitaxel based on N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan polymeric micelles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mei-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jian-Ping; Lü, Lin; Liu, Huan; Liu, Fang-Jie

    2008-08-01

    A series of novel self-assembled polymeric micelles based on carboxymethyl chitosan bearing long chain alkyl chains (N-octyl-O, N-carboxymethyl chitosan, OCC) was synthesized. PTX loaded OCC polymeric micelles (PTX-OCC) were prepared by dialysis method. The effects of the degree of substitutions (DS) of octyl groups on the solubilizing abilities of OCC for paclitaxel were studied. The PTX-OCC were characterized using drug loading content, drug encapsulation efficiency, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Take PTX injection (PTX-INJ) as control, the safety of PTX-OCC including hemolysis, hypersensitiveness in guinea pigs and acute toxicity in mice were also evaluated. OCC showed excellent loading capacities for paclitaxel with the DS of octyl groups in the range of 37.9% - 58.6%. Drug loading contents were up to 24.9% - 34.4% with drug encapsulation efficiency 56.3% - 89.3%, which both increased with the increasing of DS of octyl groups. The mean size of PTX-OCC was 186.4 - 201.1 nm which decreased with the increasing of DS of octyl groups. The zeta potential was -47.5 to -50.9 mV, which had no obvious relation with the DS of octyl groups. The TEM images showed a spherical shape. No burst release phenomena were observed and drug cumulative release was in the range of 60% -95% in 15 days. PTX-OCC with higher DS of octyl groups showed stronger sustained releasing ability. In terms of the induction of membrane damage and hypersensitiveness, PTX-OCC was superior to PTX-INJ. The LD50 and its 95% confidence interval of PTX-OCC were 134.4 (125.0 - 144.6) mg x kg(-1), which was 2.7 fold of PTX-INJ. The present PTX-OCC could be potentially useful as safety carriers for intravenous delivery.

  15. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg; Kang, En-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase was immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan coating on Ti. • The coating is bifunctional; resists bacterial adhesion and enhances cell functions. • Osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts and stem cells is enhanced on the coating. • The coating remains stable and functional after ethanol treatment and autoclaving. - Abstract: In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm{sup 2} resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  16. Curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate and CNC/LHR mixed polymeric micelles as new approaches to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jiang; Tian, Fengchun; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yang, Hui; Yue, Deren; He, Shuwang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2016-11-01

    The low oral bioavailability of numerous drugs has been mostly attributed to the significant effect of P-gp-mediated efflux on intestinal drug transport. Herein, we developed mixed polymeric micelles (MPMs) comprised of curcumin-carboxymethyl chitosan (CNC) conjugate, as a potential inhibitor of P-gp-mediated efflux and gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, and low-molecular-weight heparin-all-trans-retinoid acid (LHR) conjugate, as loading material, with the aim to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs. CNC conjugate was synthesized by chemical bonding of curcumin (Cur) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) taking advantage of the inhibition of intestinal P-gp-mediated secretion by Cur and the intestinal absorption enhancement by CMCS. The chemical structure of CNC conjugate was characterized by (1)H NMR with a degree of substitution of Cur of 4.52-10.20%. More importantly, CNC conjugate markedly improved the stability of Cur in physiological pH. Cyclosporine A-loaded CNC/LHR MPMs (CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs) were prepared by dialysis method, with high drug loading 25.45% and nanoscaled particle size (∼200 nm). In situ single-pass perfusion studies in rats showed that both CsA + CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs achieved significantly higher Ka and Peff than CsA suspension in the duodenum and jejunum segments (p CNC mixture and CsA-CNC/LHR MPMs significantly increased the oral bioavailability of CsA as compared to CsA suspension. These results suggest that CNC conjugate might be considered as a promising gastrointestinal absorption enhancer, while CNC/LHR MPMs had the potential to improve the oral absorption of P-gp substrate drugs.

  17. Fabrication, characterization and antimicrobial activities of thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized by sodium caseinate-chitosan hydrochloride double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqiong; Niu, Yuge; Luo, Yangchao; Ge, Mei; Yang, Tian; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles stabilized with sodium caseinate (SC) and chitosan hydrochloride (CHC) were prepared and characterized. The SC stabilized nanoparticles had well-defined size range and negatively charged surface. Due to the presence of SC, the stabilized zein nanoparticles showed a shift of isoelectric point from 6.18 to 5.05, and had a desirable redispersibility in water at neutral pH after lyophilization. Coating with CHC onto the SC stabilized zein nanoparticles resulted in increased particle size, reversal of zeta potential value from negative to positive, and improved encapsulation efficiency. Both thymol-loaded zein nanoparticles and SC stabilized zein nanoparticles had a spherical shape and smooth surface, while the surfaces of CHC-SC stabilized zein nanoparticles seemed rough and had some clumps. Encapsulated thymol was more effective in suppressing gram-positive bacterium than un-encapsulated thymol for a longer time period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on carboxymethyl chitosan-quantum dots and gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ziping; Liu, Hua; Wang, Lei; Su, Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn

    2016-08-17

    In this work, we report a novel label-free fluorescence “turn off-on” biosensor for lectin detection. The highly sensitive and selective sensing system is based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-CHIT), CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots (QDs) and Au nanoparticles (NPs). Firstly, CuInS{sub 2} QDs featuring carboxyl groups were directly synthesized via a hydrothermal synthesis method. Then, the carboxyl groups on the CuInS{sub 2} QDs surface were interacted with the amino groups (−NH{sub 2}), carboxyl groups (−COOH) and hydroxyl groups (−OH) within CM-CHIT polymeric chains via electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding to form CM-CHIT-QDs assemblies. Introduction of Au NPs could quench the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs through electron and energy transfer. In the presence of lectin, lectin could bind exclusively with CM-CHIT-QDs by means of specific multivalent carbohydrate-protein interaction. Thus, the electron and energy transfer process between CM-CHIT-QDs and Au NPs was inhibited, and as a result, the fluorescence of CM-CHIT-QDs was effectively “turned on”. Under the optimum conditions, there was a good linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity ratio I/I{sub 0} (I and I{sub 0} were the fluorescence intensity of CM-CHIT-QDs-Au NPs in the presence and absence of lectin, respectively) and lectin concentration in the range of 0.2–192.5 nmol L{sup −1}, And the detection limit could be down to 0.08 nmol L{sup −1}. Furthermore, the proposed biosensor was employed for the determination of lectin in fetal bovine serum samples with satisfactory results. - Graphical abstract: A label-free fluorescence biosensor for highly sensitive detection of lectin based on the integration of carboxymethyl chitosan, CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots and gold nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A label-free near-infrared fluorescence “turn off-on” biosensor for detection of lectin was established. • The highly sensitive biosensor was based on the

  19. Chitosan Spray-Dried Microparticles for Controlled Delivery of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Aranaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Venlafaxine controlled drug delivery systems using different matrixes have been tested to reduce undesirable side effects in the treatment of depression. The legal status of chitosan (Cs in Pharmacy has dramatically improved after its acceptance as excipient in several Pharmacopeias and, therefore, there is great interest in pharmaceutical formulations based on this polymer. In this paper, chitosan microcapsules cross-linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP for oral delivery of venlafaxine were formulated using the spray drying technique. The effect of chitosan physico-chemical properties, TPP concentration and TPP/Cs ratio on drug release was evaluated. The microcapsules were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential and morphology. The physical state of the drug was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and the drug release from the microcapsules was studied in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The release pattern fitted well to the Peppas-Koersmeyer model with n exponents indicating anomalous transport.

  20. Preparation of porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) superabsorbent by solvent precipitation and its application as a hemostatic wound dressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu, E-mail: cylsy@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang, Yong [School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Fengju [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Meng, Weiwei; Yang, Xinlin [School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Peng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Jiang, Jianxin [State Key Laboratory of Trauma Burns and Combined Injury, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Tan, Huimin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zheng, Yongfa [Guangdong Fuyang Biotechnology Co., Ltd., Heyuan, Guangdong 517000 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The volume phase transition of a hydrogel initiated by shrinking may result in complex patterns on its surface. Based on this unique property of hydrogel, we have developed a novel solvent precipitation method to prepare a kind of novel superabsorbent polymers with excellent hemostatic properties. A porous carboxymethyl chitosan grafted poly (acrylic acid) (CMCTS-g-PAA) superabsorbent polymer was prepared by precipitating CMCTS-g-PAA hydrogel with ethanol. Its potential application in hemostatic wound dressing was investigated. The results indicate that the modified superabsorbent polymer is non-cytotoxic. It showed a high swelling capacity and better hemostatic performance in the treatments of hemorrhage model of ear artery, arteria cruralis and spleen of the New Zealand white rabbit than the unmodified polymer and other commonly used clinic wound dressings. The hemostatic mechanism of the porous CMCTS-g-PAA polymer was also discussed. - Highlights: • The novel solvent precipitation method was developed to prepare the porous superabsorbent polymer. • The swelling rate was promoted and the harmful residual monomer was leached after modification. • The modified polymer showed good biological safety. • It showed good hemostasis to arterial hemorrhage model of the animal. • The hemostatic mechanism of the modified superabsorbent polymer was discussed.

  1. A novel composite membrane of chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose polyelectrolyte complex membrane filled with nano-hydroxyapatite I. Preparation and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuyun, Jiang; Yubao, Li; Chengdong, Xiong

    2009-08-01

    A novel tri-component composite membranes of chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose (CS/CMC) polyelectrolyte complex membranes filled with different weight ratios of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA)(0, 20, 40 and 60 wt%), namely, n-HA/CS/CMC composite membrane, were prepared by self-assembly of static electricity. The structure and the properties of the composite membranes were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy(IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD), Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), mechanical performance measurement, swelling behavior test, and soaking behavior study in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and simulate body fluid (SBF). The results showed that the n-HA/CS/CMC composite membrane was formed though superficial static electricity interaction among n-HA, CS and CMC. For the n-HA/CS/CMC composite membrane, the microstructure compatibility, mechanical property, swelling behavior, the degradation and bioactivity in vitro of the composite membrane were improved by the addition of n-HA, compared with CS/CMC polyelectrolyte complex membrane. Moreover, the n-HA/CS/CMC composite membrane with 40 wt% n-HA had the most highest mechanical property, which suggested that the novel n-HA/CS/CMC composite membrane with 40 wt% n-HA was more suitable to be used as guided bone tissue regeneration membrane than CS/CMC polyelectrolyte complex membrane.

  2. Antibacterial action mode of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer core-shell nanoparticles against Escherichia coli correlated with molecular chain conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Yao, Fanglian; Sun, Fang; Tan, Zhilei; Tian, Liang; Xie, Lei; Song, Qingchao

    2015-03-01

    The action mode of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer core-shell nanoparticles (CM-HTCC/PAMAM) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated via a combination of approaches including measurements of cell membrane integrity, outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeability, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CM-HTCC/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles likely acted in a sequent event-driven mechanism, beginning with the binding of positively charged groups from nanoparticle surface with negative cell surface, thereby causing the disorganization of cell membrane, and subsequent leakage of intracellular components which might ultimately lead to cell death. Moreover, the chain conformation of polymers was taken into account for a better understanding of the antibacterial action mode by means of viscosity and GPC measurements. High utilization ratio of positive charge and large specific surface area generated from a compacted conformation of CM-HTCC/PAMAM, significantly different from the extended conformation of HTCC, were proposed to be involved in the antibacterial action. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial action mode of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer core–shell nanoparticles against Escherichia coli correlated with molecular chain conformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yan [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); School of Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134 (China); Yao, Fanglian, E-mail: yaofanglian@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Fang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tan, Zhilei [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300222 (China); Tian, Liang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xie, Lei; Song, Qingchao [College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300222 (China)

    2015-03-01

    The action mode of quaternized carboxymethyl chitosan/poly(amidoamine) dendrimer core–shell nanoparticles (CM-HTCC/PAMAM) against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated via a combination of approaches including measurements of cell membrane integrity, outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeability, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CM-HTCC/PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles likely acted in a sequent event-driven mechanism, beginning with the binding of positively charged groups from nanoparticle surface with negative cell surface, thereby causing the disorganization of cell membrane, and subsequent leakage of intracellular components which might ultimately lead to cell death. Moreover, the chain conformation of polymers was taken into account for a better understanding of the antibacterial action mode by means of viscosity and GPC measurements. High utilization ratio of positive charge and large specific surface area generated from a compacted conformation of CM-HTCC/PAMAM, significantly different from the extended conformation of HTCC, were proposed to be involved in the antibacterial action. - Highlights: • The nanoparticles exerted antibacterial activity in a sequent event-driven manner. • Electrostatic interaction and surface adsorption shared roles in antibacterial mode. • The two factors were controlled by the compacted conformation of nanoparticles.

  4. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm2 resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  5. Carboxymethyl inulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Brussel, D.L.; Batelaan, J.G,; Peters, A.; Van Bekkum, H.

    1995-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: US 5777090 (A) PCT No. PCT/EP94/04097 Sec. 371 Date Jun. 6, 1996 Sec. 102(e) Date Jun. 6, 1996 PCT Filed Dec. 9, 1994 PCT Pub. No. WO95/15984 PCT Pub. Date Jun. 15, 1995Disclosed is carboxymethyl inulin having a degree of substitution (DS) ranging from 0,15 to

  6. Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan; Perelman, Michael; Hinchcliffe, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The nasal route is attractive for the delivery of vaccines in that it not only offers an easy to use, non-invasive, needle-free alternative to more conventional parenteral injection, but it also creates an opportunity to elicit both systemic and (crucially) mucosal immune responses which may increase the capability of controlling pathogens at the site of entry. Immune responses to “naked” antigens are often modest and it is widely accepted that incorporation of an adjuvant is a prerequisite for the achievement of clinically effective nasal vaccines. Many existing adjuvants are sub-optimal or unsuitable because of local toxicity or poor enhancement of immunogenicity. Chitosan, particularly chitosan salts, have now been used in several preclinical and clinical studies with good tolerability, excellent immune stimulation and positive clinical results across a number of infections. Particularly significant evidence supporting chitosan as an adjuvant for nasal vaccination comes from clinical investigations on a norovirus vaccine; this demonstrated the ability of chitosan (ChiSys®), when combined with monophosphoryl lipid, to evoke robust immunological responses and confer protective immunity following (enteral) norovirus challenge. This article summarizes the totality of the meaningful information (including key unpublished data) supporting the development of chitosan-adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:24346613

  7. Psyllium arabinoxylan: carboxymethylation, characterization and evaluation for nanoparticulate drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Meenakshi; Ahuja, Munish

    2015-01-01

    The objective of present investigation was to optimize the interaction between carboxymethylated psyllium arabinoxylan and chitosan to prepare polyelectrolyte naoparticles for drug delivery applications. Arabinoxylan extracted from psyllium was carboxymethylated by reacting with monochloroacetic acid under alkaline conditions. Carboxymethylation of psyllium arabinoxylan was observed to increase its crystallinity, improve thermal stability and decrease the viscosity. Further, the effect of concentrations of carboxymethylated arabinoxylan and chitosan on the particle size and particle size distribution of ibuprofen loaded polyelectrolyte nanoparticles was screened using two-factor, three-level central composite experimental design. The results of optimization study revealed that the formation of nanometric polyelectrolyte is favored at the median level of carboxymethylated arabinoxylan and chitosan concentration. The optimal concentrations of carboxymethylated arabinoxylan and chitosan were found to be 0.0779% (w/v) and 0.0693% (w/v) respectively, which provided polyelectrolyte particles of size 337.2 nm and polydispersity index 0.335. Further, polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles were found to release ibuprofen over a prolonged period of 10h following Higuchi's square root release kinetics with the mechanism of release being combination of diffusion and erosion of matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevenção de aderências pericárdicas pós-operatórias com uso de carboximetilquitosana termoestéril Prevention of postoperative pericardial adhesions using thermal sterile carboxymethyl chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Renato Dias Daroz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar alterações físico-químicas da carboximetilquitosana após termoesterilização e sua eficácia na prevenção de aderências pericárdicas pós-esternotomia. MÉTODOS: Após ser submetida a termoesterilização em autoclave, a carboximetilquitosana termoestéril (CMQte foi submetida a análises físico-químicas. Doze animais foram divididos em dois grupos e submetidos à pericardiotomia e a protocolo de indução de aderências. A seguir, foi aplicada de forma tópica a CMQte ou solução salina. Após 8 semanas, foi realizada esternotomia e avaliação macroscópica do grau de aderências, tempo de dissecção e quantidade do uso de dissecção cruenta e avaliação microscópica. RESULTADOS: As análises físico-químicas não mostraram diferença entre a CMQ e CMQte. A avaliação macroscópica mostrou que a intensidade das aderências foi significantemente menor no grupo CMQte (P=0,007. O tempo de dissecção e o uso de dissecção cruenta também apresentaram reduções significativas (P=0,007, P=0,008; respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O método de esterilização empregado não alterou as propriedades físico-químicas da carboximetilquitosana. O uso de biopolímeros de barreira como a CMQte pode reduzir a intensidade das aderências pós-cirúrgicas no pericárdio, diminuindo as complicações da esternotomia em reoperações cardiovasculares.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate CMC physical-chemical alterations after thermal sterilization and its efficacy in preventing poststernotomy pericardial adhesions. METHODS: After autoclaving thermal sterilization, thermal sterile Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CMCts was submitted to physical-chemical analysis. Twelve animals were divided into two groups and underwent pericardiotomy and adhesion induction protocol. Afterward, topic CMCts or saline solution was administered. After 8 weeks, a sternotomy was performed for adhesion score

  9. Enhanced soil washing process for the remediation of PBDEs/Pb/Cd-contaminated electronic waste site with carboxymethyl chitosan in a sunflower oil-water solvent system and microbial augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Wan, Jinzhong; Fang, Guodong; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-02-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed to remediate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in an electronic waste site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) in combination with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 5.0 mL L(-1) sunflower oil and 2.5 g L(-1) carboxymethyl chitosan were found to be effective in extracting mixed pollutants from soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, Pb, and Cd were approximately 94.1, 93.4, 94.3, 99.1, 89.3, and 92.7 %, respectively. Treating the second washed soil with PBDE-degrading bacteria (Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1) inoculation and nutrient addition for 3 months led to maximum biodegradation rates of 37.3, 52.6, 23.9, and 1.3 % of the remaining total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, respectively. After the combined treatment, the microbiological functions of washed soil was partially restored, as indicated by a significant increase in the counts, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p < 0.05), and the residual PBDEs and heavy metals mainly existed as very slow desorbing fractions and residual fractions, as evaluated by Tenax extraction combined with a first-three-compartment model and sequential extraction with metal stability indices (I R and U ts). Additionally, the secondary environmental risk of mixed contaminants in the remediated soil was limited. Therefore, the proposed combined cleanup strategy is an environment-friendly technology that is important for risk assessment and management in mixed-contaminated sites.

  10. Evaluation of carboxymethyl moringa gum as nanometric carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpy; Abhishek; Ahuja, Munish

    2017-10-15

    In the present study, carboxymethylation of Moringa oleifera gum was carried out by reacting with monochloroacetic acid. Modified gum was characterised employing Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Rheology study. The carboxymethyl modification of moringa gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, reduce viscosity and swelling, increase the surface roughness and render its more anionic. The interaction between carboxymethyl moringa gum and chitosan was optimised by 2-factor, 3-level central composite experimental design to prepare polyelectrolyte nanoparticle using ofloxacin, as a model drug. The optimal calculated parameters were found to be carboxymethyl moringa gum- 0.016% (w/v), chitosan- 0.012% (w/v) which provided polyelectrolyte nanoparticle of average particle size 231nm and zeta potential 28mV. Carboxymethyl moringa gum-chitosan polyelectrolyte nanoparticles show sustained in vitro release of ofloxacin upto 6h which followed first order kinetics with mechanism of release being erosion of polymer matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glucosamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain glucosamine and glucosamine plus chondroitin vary a great deal. Some do not contain what the label ... hydrochloride might reduce blood levels of glucosamine. In theory, taking glucosamine hydrochloride with chondroitin sulfate might reduce ...

  12. studies on the properties of chitosan-starch beads and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. In this work, chitosan and blends of chitosan-starch beads were prepared and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (pentane-1,5-dial). The blends were prepared with 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 chitosan-starch ratios. Metformin hydrochloride (N,N-dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride), a type. 2 diabetis drug ...

  13. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate chitosan acetate films designed for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri ...

  14. Investigation of Galactosylated Low Molecular Weight Chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the hepatocyte targeting potential of galactosylated low molecular weight chitosan (Gal-LMWCs)-coated liposomes bearing doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX). Methods: Chitosan (CS) was depolymerized and lactobionic acid (LA) containing a galactose group was coupled with low molecular weight ...

  15. Magnesium incorporated chitosan based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Udhab; Rijal, Nava P.; Khanal, Shalil; Pai, Devdas; Sankar, Jagannathan; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based porous scaffolds are of great interest in biomedical applications especially in tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility in vivo, controllable degradation rate and tailorable mechanical properties. This paper presents a study of the fabrication and characterization of bioactive scaffolds made of chitosan (CS), carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and magnesium gluconate (MgG). Scaffolds were fabricated by subsequent freezing-induced phase separation and lyophiliza...

  16. Amphiphilic chitosan derivatives as carrier agents for rotenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, Azlan; Aljafree, Nurul Farhana Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, the feasibility of amphiphilic chitosan derivatives, namely oleoyl carboxymethyl chitosan (OCMCs), N,N-dimethylhexadecyl carboxymethyl chitosan (DCMCs) and deoxycholic acid carboxymethyl chitosan (DACMCs) as carrier agents for rotenone in water-insoluble pesticide formulations was investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer, CHN-O Elemental Analyser (CHN-O) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were used to characterise amphiphilic chitosan derivatives. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of amphiphilic chitosan derivatives was determined using a Fluorescence Spectrometer. A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the ability of OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs to load and release rotenone in an in vitro system. Based on TEM analysis, results have shown that amphiphilic chitosan derivatives formed self-assembly and exhibited spherical shape. The CMC values determined for OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs were 0.093, 0.098 and 0.468 mg/mL, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) values for the materials were more than 97.0%, meanwhile the loading capacity (LC) values were greater than 0.90%. OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs micelles exhibited an excellent ability to control the release of rotenone, of which 90.0% of rotenone was released within 40 to 52 h. In conclusion, OCMCs, DCMCs and DACMCs possess several key features to act as effective carrier agents for rotenone. Overall, amphiphilic chitosan derivatives produced in this study were successfully increased the solubility of rotenone by 49.0 times higher than free rotenone.

  17. Chitosan and Its Derivatives for Application in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twana Mohammed M. Ways

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are desirable as they can increase the residence time of drugs at the site of absorption/action, provide sustained drug release and minimize the degradation of drugs in various body sites. Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide that exhibits mucoadhesive properties and it has been widely used in the design of mucoadhesive dosage forms. However, its limited mucoadhesive strength and limited water-solubility at neutral and basic pHs are considered as two major drawbacks of its use. Chemical modification of chitosan has been exploited to tackle these two issues. In this review, we highlight the up-to-date studies involving the synthetic approaches and description of mucoadhesive properties of chitosan and chitosan derivatives. These derivatives include trimethyl chitosan, carboxymethyl chitosan, thiolated chitosan, chitosan-enzyme inhibitors, chitosan-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (chitosan-EDTA, half-acetylated chitosan, acrylated chitosan, glycol chitosan, chitosan-catechol, methyl pyrrolidinone-chitosan, cyclodextrin-chitosan and oleoyl-quaternised chitosan. We have particularly focused on the effect of chemical derivatization on the mucoadhesive properties of chitosan. Additionally, other important properties including water-solubility, stability, controlled release, permeation enhancing effect, and in vivo performance are also described.

  18. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    KSY Hemant* and HG Shivakumar. Department of Pharmaceutics, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, JSS University, S.S. Nagar, Mysore-570 015, Karnataka,. India. Abstract. Purpose: To formulate and evaluate chitosan acetate films designed for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Methods: Chitosan acetate was ...

  19. Facile fabrication of organobentonite–carboxymethyl chitosan hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. DAU HUNG ANH1 KANCHANA DUMRI2. Biogreen Material Research and Service Co. Ltd., Chiang Mai 50140, Thailand; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand ...

  20. Facile fabrication of organobentonite–carboxymethyl chitosan hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-07

    Sep 7, 2017 ... ity, has found applications in pharmacy and cosmetics. The hydrogel form of CMCh has biocompatibility and biodegrad- ability properties, which have been applied for drug delivery and wound healing [18,19]. CMCh also behaves as an antimi- crobial and antioxidant agent and emulsion stabilizer, which.

  1. Formulation and In-Vivo Study of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Tablets Prepared Using Interpolymer Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    AEL – Gawad bd EL – Gawad H. Abd 1; Ramadan Esmail M. 1; Soliman Osama A. 1; Yusif Rehab M. 1

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate interpolymer complexes (IPCs) formation between carbopol and cationic polymers such as chitosan and Eudragit E for oral controlled drug delivery systems. Methodology: The prepared IPCs were investigated using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Chitosan-carbopol and Eudragit E-carbopol IPCs loaded with diltiazem hydrochloride (DTZ HCl) with different drug:polymer ratios were also prepared. Diltiaze...

  2. Butriptyline Hydrochloride and Imipramine Hydrochloride in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-27

    Apr 27, 1974 ... S. Air. Med. 1., 48, 873 (1974). Butriptyline hydrochloride is a new antidepressant with pharmacological properties similar to other tricyclic anti- depressant drugs, notably imipramine and amitriptyline. .... not as the pill or the tablet, to preserve the anonymity of the medication. This was understood by each ...

  3. Netupitant and Palonosetron Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about netupitant and palonosetron hydrochloride and a collection of links to more information about the use of this combination drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  4. Preparation, characterization and feasibility study of dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose as a novel crosslinking reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhao; Peng, Yanfei; Han, Baoqin; Li, Zhuoyue; Li, Xiuhua; Liu, Wanshun

    2016-02-10

    The natural biopolymers usually need to be chemically modified by crosslinking reagents to improve their mechanical properties. In the present research, the feasibility of using the dialdehyde carboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) as a crosslinking reagent was systematically studied. DCMC was prepared by oxidizing carboxymethyl cellulose using sodium periodate. The formation of dialdehyde groups was confirmed by FTIR and the degree of oxidation was determined. The biocompatibility of DCMC was investigated by evaluating its cytotoxicity to L929 fibroblasts and histocompatibility in rat model via intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. DCMC-crosslinked carboxymethyl chitosan (DCMC-CMCTS) was prepared and characterized using the glutaraldehyde-crosslinked CMCTS (GA-CMCTS) as control. The result demonstrated that DCMC was non-cytotoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible. The DCMC-CMCTS displayed significantly better thermostability, swelling capacity and cyto-compatibility compared with GA-CMCTS. Our data provided experimental basis for the future application of DCMC as a novel crosslinking reagent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chitosan-based biomaterials used in critical-size bone defects: radiographic study in rat's calvaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Spin-Neto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated, using digital radiographic images, the action of chitosan and chitosan hydrochloride biomaterials, with both low and high molecular weight, used in the correction of critical-size bone defects (CSBD's in rat's calvaria. MATERIAL AND METHOD: CSBD's with 8 mm in diameter were surgically created in the calvaria of 50 Holtzman rats and these were filled with a blood clot (Control, low molecular weight chitosan, high molecular weight chitosan, low molecular weight chitosan hydrochloride and high molecular weight chitosan hydrochloride, for a total of 10 animals, which were divided into two experimental periods (15 and 60 days, for each biomaterial. The radiographic evaluation was made using two digital radiographs of the animal's skull: one taken right after the bone defect was created and the other at the moment of the sacrifice, providing the initial and the final radiographic bone density in the area of the defect, which were compared. RESULT: Analysis of radiographic bone density indicated that the increase in the radiographic bone density of the CSBD's treated with the proposed biomaterials, in either molecular weight, in both observed periods, where similar to those found in control group. CONCLUSION: Tested chitosan-based biomaterials were not able to enhance the radiographic density in the CSBD's made in rat's calvaria.

  6. Design and evaluation of a bioadhesive film for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Bazigha K Abdul; Aziz, Uday S; Sarheed, Omar; Rasool, Alaa A Abdul

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a suitable trans-dermal delivery system for propranolol hydrochloride (PPL) via employing chitosan as a film former. Drug concentration uniformity, thickness, moisture uptake capacity and skin bioadhesion of the films were characterized. The effects of chitosan and PPL concentration and different penetration enhancers on the release and permeation profiles from the films were investigated. Skin irritation of the candidate film was evaluated. Chitosan film (PPL 2 mg cm(-2), chitosan 2%, m/m, cineol 10%, m/m) was found nonirritant and achieved 88.2% release after 8 hours in phosphate buffer. Significant high (p < 0.001) permeation of PPL through rat skin was obtained using this film compared to the film without enhancer (about 8 times enhancement factor), making it a promising trans-dermal delivery system for PPL.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl tamarind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunwei WU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Series of carboxymethyl tamarind kernel polysaccharide (CMTKP with different degree of substitution (DS were prepared by the reactions of tamarind kernel polysaccharide (TKP and sodium monochloroacetic acid (SMCA in alkaline aqueous isopropanol. The influence of mole ratio of NaOH to SMCA, SMCA concentration, reaction temperature and time on DS, reaction efficiency (RE as well as the transmittance and apparent viscosity of CMTKP aqueous solution was investigated. The maximum DS of 0.92 and the RE of 77% were obtained. The solubility of CMTKP in cold water and the freeze-thaw stability were apparently improved and the transmittance of the mass fraction of 2% CMTKP aqueous solution could be up to 97%. Thermal stability decreased showed by TGA, and crystalline region reduced with the increasing of DS after carboxymethylation showed by XRD. The structure was characterized by FT-IR and solid-state 13C NMR.

  8. Characterization of physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingzhao; Liu, Xin; Luan, Jimei; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-13

    A series of carboxymethyl agars (CMAs) with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that with the increase of DS, the dissolving temperature, the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, and the solution apparent viscosity of CMA all decreased, except that its gel cohesiveness and gel springiness increased. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be observed by measuring the optical rotation of the solution at such a low concentration, at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton microstructures of both agar and CMA were of porous network structure, and the pore size of CMA became smaller and denser with the increase of its DS. After carboxymethylation, the agar hygroscopicity was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Obtaining Thin-Films Based on Chitosan and Carboxymethylcellulose with Antibacterial Properties for Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanovna Ospanova, Aliya; Esimkhanovna Savdenbekova, Balzhan; Kozybaevna Iskakova, Mariam; Amirzhanovna Omarova, Roza; Nokeevich Zhartybaev, Rahmet; Zhanbolatovna Nussip, Balnur; Serikuly Abdikadyr, Aibek

    2017-09-01

    The physico-chemical studies of produsing nanocoating in the form of multilayers on the basis of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose were done. Was justified the use of triclosan, chlorhexidine, silver ions and iodine as potential antibacterial agents in the composition of nano-coating for medical and biological implantable systems. Preliminary studies of antibacterial activity of the resulting multilayers on silicon plate showed good activity against many bacteria.

  10. Nanosized complexation assemblies housed inside reverse micelles churn out monocytic delivery cores for bendamustine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yuvraj; Chandrashekhar, Anumandla; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Durga Rao Viswanadham, K K; Pawar, Vivek K; Raval, Kavit; Sharma, Komal; Singh, Pankaj K; Kumar, Animesh; Chourasia, Manish K

    2017-04-01

    We explore a plausible method of targeting bendamustine hydrochloride (BM) to circulatory monocytes by exploiting their intrinsic endocytic/phagocytic capability. We do so by complexation of sodium alginate and chitosan inside dioctyl sulfo succinate sodium (AOT) reverse micelles to form bendamustine hydrochloride loaded nanoparticles (CANPs). Dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility and UV spectroscopy were used to detail intra-micellar complexation dynamics and to prove that drug was co-captured during interaction of carbohydrate polymers. A fluorescent conjugate of drug (RBM) was used to trace its intracellular fate after its loading into nanoparticles. CANPs were sized below 150nm, had 75% drug entrapment and negative zeta potential (-30mV). Confocal microscopy demonstrated that developed chitosan alginate nanoparticles had the unique capability to carry BM specifically to its site of action. Quantitative and mechanism based cell uptake studies revealed that monocytes had voracious capacity to internalize CANPs via simultaneous scavenger receptor based endocytic and phagocytic mechanism. Comparative in vitro pharmacokinetic studies revealed obtainment of significantly greater intracellular drug levels when cells were treated with CANPs. This caused reduction in IC50 (22.5±2.1μg/mL), enhancement in G2M cell cycle arrest, greater intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, and increased apopotic potential of bendamustine hydrochloride in THP-1 cells. Selective monocytic targeting of bendamustine hydrochloride using carbohydrate constructs can prove advantageous in case of leukemic disorders displaying overabundance of such cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spray-dried chitosan as a direct compression tableting excipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Dakshinamurthy Devanga; Graves, Richard A; Pamujula, Sarala; Praetorius, Natalie; Bostanian, Levon A; Mandal, Tarun K

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prepare and evaluate a novel spray-dried tableting excipient using a mixture of chitosan and lactose. Three different grades of chitosan (low-, medium-, and high-molecular-weight) were used for this study. Propranolol hydrochloride was used as a model drug. A specific amount of chitosan (1, 1.9, and 2.5 g, respectively) was dissolved in 50 mL of an aqueous solution of citric acid (1%) and later mixed with 50 mL of an aqueous solution containing lactose (20, 19.1, and 18.5 g, respectively) and propanolol (2.2 g). The resultant solution was sprayed through a laboratory spray drier at 1.4 mL/min. The granules were evaluated for bulk density, tap density, Carr index, particle size distribution, surface morphology, thermal properties, and tableting properties. Bulk density of the granules decreased from 0.16 to 0.13 g/mL when the granules were prepared using medium- or high-molecular-weight chitosan compared with the low-molecular-weight chitosan. The relative proportion of chitosan also showed a significant effect on the bulk density. The granules prepared with 1 g of low-molecular-weight chitosan showed the minimum Carr index (11.1%) indicating the best flow properties among all five formulations. All three granules prepared with 1 g chitosan, irrespective of their molecular weight, showed excellent flow properties. Floating tablets prepared by direct compression of these granules with sodium bicarbonate showed 50% drug release between 30 and 35 min. In conclusion, the spray-dried granules prepared with chitosan and lactose showed excellent flow properties and were suitable for tableting.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of nicoumalone, acebutolol hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, C S; Rao, T T; Sailaja, A

    1991-09-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of nicoumalone (NIC), acebutolol hydrochloride (ACBH) or procainamide hydrochloride (PAH) either in pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the oxidative coupling reaction through the involvement of an aromatic primary amino group (released through reduction in NIC or hydrolysis in ACBH or existing free in PAH) in the drug with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride (MBTH) in the presence of ferric chloride [Fe(III)]. The resulting chromophores are measured at 620 nm for NIC and ACBH and 580 nm for PAH. The concentration measurements are reproducible within a relative standard deviation of 1%.

  13. Chitosan, the Marine Functional Food, Is a Potent Adsorbent of Humic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lin Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is prepared by the deacetylation of chitin, the second-most abundant biopolymer in nature, and has applicability in the removal of dyes, heavy metals and radioactive waste for pollution control. In weight-reduction remedies, chitosan is used to form hydrogels with lipids and to depress the intestinal absorption of lipids. In this study, an experimental method was implemented to simulate the effect of chitosan on the adsorption of humic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. The adsorption capacity of chitosan was measured by its adsorption isotherm and analyzed using the Langmuir equation. The results showed that 3.3 grams of humic acid was absorbed by 1 gram of chitosan. The adsorption capacity of chitosan was much greater than that of chitin, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose or activated charcoal. Cellulose and carboxymethyl-cellulose, a cellulose derivative with a negative charge, could not adsorb humic acid in the gastrointestinal tract. This result suggests that chitosan entraps humic acid because of its positive charge.

  14. Evaluation of carboxymethyl gellan gum as a mucoadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Munish; Singh, Seema; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate carboxymethyl gellan gum as bioadhesive polymer for drug delivery applications. Gellan gum was carboxymethylated by reacting it with monochloroacetic acid. Degree of carboxymethyl substitution was found to be 1.18. Further, carboxymethylation of gellan gum was found to increase its degree of crystallinity, surface roughness and diminish the cation-induced gelation. On comparative evaluation carboxymethyl gellan gum showed 2.71-fold higher mucoadhesive strength than gellan gum. Evaluation of ex vivo ocular tolerance using chorioallantoic membrane of hen's egg and cytotoxicity screening on Vero cells using resazurin assay revealed that caroboxymethyl gellan gum is non-irritant and biocompatible. Ionotiropically gelled beads of carboxymethyl gellan gum formulated using metformin as the model drug and calcium chloride as the cross-linking agent showed ex vivo bioadhesion of 100% over 24h. Further, it was observed that carboxymethyl gellan gum beads released metformin at a rate faster than gellan gum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Agranulocytosis Induced by Sinomenine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Juerong; Zhong, Bing; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 44 Final Diagnosis: Agranulocytosis Symptoms: Fever ? pharyngalgia Medication: Sinomenine Clinical Procedure: Stop taking medicine and treat it Specialty: Rheumatology Objective: Unknown ethiology Background: Sinomenine hydrochloride is an alkaloid that is extracted from the Chinese herbal plant Sinomenium acutum, and is used as a herbal medicine in the treatment or rheumatic disease. This report is the first to describe a case of sinomenine hydrochloride-induced agranulocyto...

  16. Carboxymethyl-cellulase from Erwina chrysanthemi. I. Production and regulation of extracellular carboxymethyl-cellulase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M.H.; Chambost, J.P.; Magnan, M.; Cattaneo, J.

    1984-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi strain 3665 growing aerobically in a mineral salts medium containing various carbon sources constitutively secreted low levels of carboxymethyl-cellulase activity. Increased production of this activity was triggered by conditions which reduced the growth rate. The results obtained with continuous culture suggested that this production was controlled by a mechanism similar to catabolite repression. However, other factors might be implicated in the regulation of cellulase production.

  17. Rheological properties of concentrated solutions of carboxymethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl starch was synthesized by the esterification of starch with monochloroacetic acid in ethanol as a reaction medium. Three samples of carboxymethyl starch having different degrees of substitution were prepared. The influence of temperature on the viscosity of concentrated carboxymethyl starch solutions, as well as the dynamic-mechanical properties of the concentrated solutions were investigated. The activation energy of viscous flow was determined and it was found that it decreased with increasing degree of substitution. The results of the dynamic-mechanical measurements showed that solutions of starch and carboxymethyl starches with higher degrees of substitution behave as gels. Values of the storage modulus in the rubbery plateau were used to calculate the molar masses between two points of physical crosslinking, the density of crosslinking and the distance between two points of crosslinking.

  18. The influence of stachydrine hydrochloride on the reperfusion model of mice with repetitive cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsan Miao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of stachydrine hydrochloride on the inflammatory cytokines and tissue morphology of the re-perfusion model of mice with repetitive cerebral ischemia and probe into the protection mechanism of stachydrine hydrochloride for cerebral ischemia reperfusion impairment. Build a repetitive cerebral ischemia reperfusion model by first blocking the common carotid artery on both sides for 10 min, then resuming perfusion for 10 min and then blocking the common carotid artery on both sides again for 10 min. Before the operation, all the mice in the Nimodipine group, and the big, medium and small stachydrine hydrochloride dose groups were given corresponding gastric perfusion, the mice in the sham operation group and the modeled groups were at the same time given 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for gastric perfusion of the same volume. The medicine was fed daily for 7 consecutive days. The model was built 1 h after the last feed and the perfusion continued for 24 h after the operation. Then the death rate of the mice was calculated. The mouse brains were taken out to test the ICAM-1 level and the TNF-α level, and the serum was taken out to test the NSE level and the MPO level. The tissue morphology changes were also observed. All the repetitive cerebral ischemia reperfusion models were successfully duplicated. The stachydrine hydrochloride in all the dose groups significantly reduced the death rates of big and small mice, reduced the level of ICAM-1 and the level of TNF-α in the brain tissues and the NSE level and the MPO level in the serum, significantly alleviating the pathological impairment in the hippocampus. Stachydrine hydrochloride can significantly reduce the death rate of mice, improve the pathological changes in the hippocampus, inhibit inflammatory reactions after ischemia, thus reducing the re-perfusion impairment after cerebral ischemia.

  19. Chitosan and radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G., E-mail: a.chmielewski@ichtj.waw.p [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-03-15

    Chitosan as a raw material with special properties has drawn attention of scientists working in the field of radiation processing and natural polymer products development, and also of specialists working in the field of radiation protection and oncologists. Especially the applications concern reduced molecular weight chitosan which still retain its chemical structure; such form of the compound is fostering biological, physical and chemical reactivity of the product. Chitosan degrades into fragments under gamma-ray or electron beam irradiation. Antibacterial properties of the product are applied in manufacturing hydrogel for wound dressing and additional healing properties can be achieved by incorporating in the hydrogel matrix chitosan bonded silver clusters. Another possible application of chitosan is in reducing radiation damage to the radiation workers or radiation cured patients. In the case of radioisotopes oral or respiratory chitosan-based materials can be applied as chelators. Applications of chitosan in oncology are also reported.

  20. The Influence of Chitosan on the Oral Bioavailability of Acyclovir-a Comparative Bioavailability Study in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubbinga, M.; Nguyen, M.A.; Staubach, P.; Teerenstra, S.; Langguth, P.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effects of chitosan hydrochloride on the oral absorption of acyclovir in humans were studied to confirm the absorption enhancing effects reported for in vitro and rat studies, respectively. METHODS: A controlled, open-label, randomized, 3-phase study was conducted in 12 healthy human

  1. Effects of various excipients on tizanidine hydrochloride tablets prepared by direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lubna Ghazal; Razvi, Nighat; Anjum, Fakhsheena; Siddiqui, Saeed Ahmed; Ghayas, Sana

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of various excipients in 10 different Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet dosage forms that were prepared by direct compression method (DC). Various excipients are available for DC method; we selected those excipients that are used commonly in tablet manufacturing. The excipients used included lactose anhydrous, di-basic calcium phosphate anhydrous, starch, talc, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), silicon dioxide (Aerosil), stearic acid, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel). These tablets were then evaluated by performing different pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial tests (i.e. diameter, hardness, thickness, weight variation, disintegration and assay). It was observed that Formulations B, D and H of Tizanidine hydrochloride gave best results within USP specified limits for the tests employed among all the formulations whereas Formulations F and G showed poor friability, disintegration and dissolution profiles rendering starch in combination of talc and sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose unsuitable for Tizanidine hydrochloride tablet formulations. With the present approach, more studies can be designed using other active ingredients and excipients to get an optimal and cost effective product.

  2. Alginate Hydrogels Coated with Chitosan for Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Straccia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a coating of chitosan onto alginate hydrogels was realized using the water-soluble hydrochloride form of chitosan (CH-Cl, with the dual purpose of imparting antibacterial activity and delaying the release of hydrophilic molecules from the alginate matrix. Alginate hydrogels with different calcium contents were prepared by the internal setting method and coated by immersion in a CH-Cl solution. Structural analysis by cryo-scanning electron microscopy was carried out to highlight morphological alterations due to the coating layer. Tests in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC were assessed to check the absence of toxicity of CH-Cl. Swelling, stability in physiological solution and release characteristics using rhodamine B as the hydrophilic model drug were compared to those of relative uncoated hydrogels. Finally, antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was tested. Results show that alginate hydrogels coated with chitosan hydrochloride described here can be proposed as a novel medicated dressing by associating intrinsic antimicrobial activity with improved sustained release characteristics.

  3. Preparation and characterization of cross-linked carboxymethyl chitin porous membrane scaffold for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqing; Wu, Yiguang; Chen, Shu; Xing, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Porous dermal scaffold membrane (PDSM) was successfully prepared by using a so-called sol-gel freeze-drying method. In this method, the carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) hydrosol was first cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), and then lyophilized to form the PDSM. For the first time, this research focused on the cross-linked CMC as the only component for three-dimensional PDSM. The effects of cross-linking conditions on the performance of the PDSM were investigated. And PDSM with optimal performance was obtained through 4-h cross-linking at 4 wt% of CMC concentration in the hydrosol, where the mass ratio of EDC to NHS to CMC was 5:3:10. The porosity of the optimized PDSM was more than 90% and the water swelling rate was above 4000%. The pore size was well distributed and was between 100 μm and 200 μm. And the tensile strength was above 0.09 MPa. The as-made PDSM could be degraded above 80% in 12 days in the presence of a 0.2mg/mL lysozyme solution. Very importantly, the PDSM had no cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility from MTT assays. Our results showed the application possibility of the as-prepared PDSM as dermal scaffold for skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectrophotometric determination of eflornithine hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of eflornithine hydrochloride as a pure compound and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method involved the reaction of the target compound with vanillin reagent at specific pH 5.6 to produce a green reddish color ...

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Eflornithine Hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a spectrophotometric method for the quantitative determination of eflornithine hydrochloride as a pure compound and in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method involved the reaction of the target compound with vanillin reagent at specific pH. 5.6 to produce a green reddish color ...

  6. Aqueous Behaviour of Chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Chattopadhyay; Inamdar, Milind S.

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan, a versatile biopolymer, finds numerous applications in textile processing unit operations such as preparation, dyeing, printing, and finishing. However, the accessibility of this biopolymer by the textile material depends on the viscosity of its solution which in turn is a function of its molecular weight. In this work, therefore, the effect of molecular weight, storage life, presence of electrolyte, and particle size of chitosan on its viscosity was investigated. Chitosan of differ...

  7. Preparation of chitosan gel

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerge S.; Ben Salem R.; Elaloui E.; Mnasri N.; Moussaoui Y.; de Menorval L. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  8. Okara promoted acrylamide and carboxymethyl-lysine formation in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariantonella; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2012-10-10

    Soybeans are widely used in bakery products because of their technological advantages and, recently, soybean-containing products have been marketed as functional foods thanks to several health benefits. Okara is a soybean-based ingredient obtained after elimination of the water-soluble component from ground soybeans. In this paper the effect of okara addition to bakery products on the formation of some potentially harmful Maillard reaction products was evaluated. Cookies obtained by replacing 15% of wheat flour with okara showed a visible browning increase and a more intense Maillard reaction development as shown by higher concentrations of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) (+100%), acrylamide (+60%), and carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) (+400%) with respect to the control. This phenomenon could be related to the presence in okara of about 50% of insoluble dietary fiber: the fiber reduces water activity during cooking, thus promoting Maillard reaction. To confirm this hypothesis, cookies obtained by replacing 7% of wheat flour with three different types of dietary fiber (cellulose, chitosan, and pea fiber) were prepared: these experimental cookies showed higher Maillard reaction product concentration with respect to the control and, in particular, HMF and CML values were directly related to the fiber water-holding capacity (WHC). To extend the observation to the food market, a sampling of soybean-containing commercial bakery products was analyzed by comparing the concentrations of Maillard reaction products with those of similar bakery products without soy. Soybean-containing samples showed higher concentrations of acrylamide and CML than corresponding controls.

  9. Carboxymethyl Starch Excipients for Drug Chronodelivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas-Szabo, Pompilia; De Koninck, Patrick; Calinescu, Carmen; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) is a pH-responsive excipient exhibiting also interesting properties for applications in delayed drug delivery systems. This work was aimed to investigate the release properties of monolithic and dry-coated tablets based on ionic sodium CMS and on protonated CMS, formulated with three model tracers: acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), and sodium diclofenac. The sodium or protonated CMS were obtained from the same CMS synthesis by controlling the final pH of reaction media. The two forms of CMS were confirmed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro dissolution profiles for monolithic and double core tablets were different and allowed a better understanding of characteristics of the two excipient forms. It was found that the protonated CMS exhibited a better stability in simulated gastric fluid in comparison to its sodium salt in monolithic dosage forms, whereas both excipients afforded a complete gastric protection of drugs when formulated as dry-coated dosages. Determination of water uptake and erosion rate of monolithic matrices based on the two CMS forms showed different mechanisms involved in the delivery of the three model active molecules in simulated intestinal media. When pancreatic enzymes were added in dissolution media, the drug release was accelerated showing that CMS is still a substrate for alpha-amylase. Both sodium and protonated starch excipients, formulated as dry-coated dosages, afforded a good gastro-protection and allowed a drug chronodelivery at various intervals up to 4-5 h. They could be considered as an alternative for delayed delivery and a solvent-free coating procedure.

  10. Magnesium incorporated chitosan based scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udhab Adhikari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan based porous scaffolds are of great interest in biomedical applications especially in tissue engineering because of their excellent biocompatibility in vivo, controllable degradation rate and tailorable mechanical properties. This paper presents a study of the fabrication and characterization of bioactive scaffolds made of chitosan (CS, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC and magnesium gluconate (MgG. Scaffolds were fabricated by subsequent freezing-induced phase separation and lyophilization of polyelectrolyte complexes of CS, CMC and MgG. The scaffolds possess uniform porosity with highly interconnected pores of 50–250 μm size range. Compressive strengths up to 400 kPa, and elastic moduli up to 5 MPa were obtained. The scaffolds were found to remain intact, retaining their original three-dimensional frameworks while testing in in-vitro conditions. These scaffolds exhibited no cytotoxicity to 3T3 fibroblast and osteoblast cells. These observations demonstrate the efficacy of this new approach to preparing scaffold materials suitable for tissue engineering applications.

  11. Photocrosslinked layered gelatin-chitosan hydrogel with graded compositions for osteochondral defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengxuan; Yang, Xiaoling; Zhao, Jin; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-01

    A layered gelatin-chitosan hydrogel with graded composition was prepared via photocrosslinking to simulate the polysaccharide/collagen composition of the natural tissue and mimic the multi-layered gradient structure of the cartilage-bone interface tissue. Firstly, gelatin and carboxymethyl chitosan were reacted with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) to obtain methacrylated gelatin (Gtn-GMA) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CS-GMA). Then, the mixed solutions of Gtn-GMA in different methacrylation degrees with CS-GMA were prepared to form the superficial, transitional and deep layers of the hydrogel, respectively under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, while polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane was introduced in the deep layer to improve the mechanical properties. Results suggested that the pore sizes of the superficial, transitional and deep layers of the layered hydrogel were 115 ± 30, 94 ± 34, 51 ± 12 μm, respectively and their porosities were all higher than 80 %. The compressive strengths of them were 165 ± 54, 565 ± 50 and 993 ± 108 kPa, respectively and the strain of the gradient hydrogel decreased along the thickness direction, similar to the natural tissue. The in vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the hydrogel had good cytocompatibility and the in vivo repair results of osteochondral defect demonstrated remarkable recovery by using the gradient gelatin-chitosan hydrogel, especially when the hydrogel loading transforming growth factor-β1. Therefore, it was suggested that the prepared layered gelatin-chitosan hydrogel in this study could be potentially used to promote cartilage-bone interface tissue repair.

  12. Modified chitosans for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yalınca, Zülal

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The subject of this thesis is the exploration of the suitability of chitosan and some of its derivatives for some chosen biomedical applications. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chitosan-tripolyphosphate and ascorbyl chitosan were synthesized and characterized for specific biomedical applications in line with their chemical functionalities. Chitosan-graft-poly (N-vinyl imidazole), Chi-graft-PNVI, was synthesized by two methods; via an N-protection route and without N-pr...

  13. Chitosan-carboxymethylcellulose based microcapsules formulation for controlled release of active ingredients from cosmeto textile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, J. C.; Ferri, A.; Salaün, F.; Giraud, S.; Chen, G.; Jinping, G.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan-based emulsions were prepared at pH from 4.0 to 6.0. The zeta potential and droplet size were monitored at different pH. Double emulsions (wateroil- water) were observed due to the stiff conformation of chitosan at pH 4.0. At pH 5.0, the emulsion droplets were the smallest (2.9 μm) of the experimental pH range. The emulsion droplets were well dispersed due to high surface charge of chitosan (for example, +50 mV at pH 5.5) in entire pH range. The emulsion was treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) for neutralizing the charged chitosan on the surface of emulsion droplets. Above 10×10‑2 mg/ml of CMC, no change in zeta potential was observed indicating no more free chitosan existed after neutralization with CMC. The emulsion was then crosslinked with different amount of glutaraldehyde. Upon increasing the amount of glutaraldehyde, the amount of core content inside the microcapsule and encapsulation efficiency of shell materials decreased gradually. The Dynamic Scanning Calorimetry data confirmed no interaction between core and shell material in the microencapsulation process. The thermal degradation of the microcapsules was examined by thermogravimetric analysis and a gradual decrease in the degradation temperature upon increasing glutaraldehyde concentration was found. The tuning of CMC concentration can provide valuable information regarding stable emulsion and efficient microcapsule formulation via coacervation.

  14. Development of smart hydrogels of etherified gum ghatti for sustained oral delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Somasree; Roy, Goutam; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Bhattacharyya, Uttam Kumar; Sil, Ayantika; Mitra, Ritwika

    2017-10-01

    Gum Ghatti (GG) is a water soluble complex polysaccharide obtained from Anogeissus latifolia. Due to its non toxic and excellent emulsifying characteristics, it was widely used in different pharmaceutical preparations. Currently another facet was explored for its utility as release retardant polymer in oral controlled drug delivery system. As GG solely was incapable of forming microspheres therefore modification of GG to Sodium carboxymethyl (NaCMGG) derivative was done by carboxymethylation process and its gel forming capacity was explored by the use of trivalent cation (Aluminium chloride) which results into complete microbead system in a complete aqueous environment for controlled delivery of Ropinirole Hydrochloride (RHCl). Rheological property of NaCMGG showed pseudoplastic shear thinning behavior. Spherical shape of bead was observed under scanning electron microscope. Depending upon the formulation variables, Drug entrapment efficiency (DEE) varies from 47.66±3.51 % to 71.4±2.65%., and 80 to 90% drug was released in 6h in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Drug release was governed by both fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation simultaneously. Compatible environment for drug entrapment was established by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thus the modified derivative NaCMGG could be a promising polymer in biomedical application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Two simple amine hydrochlorides from the soft coral Lobophytum strictum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Two simple amine hydrochlorides, viz., 1-amino-1, 1-dimethyl-3-oxo-butane hydrochloride (1) (Diacetonamine) and 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidone hydrochloride (2) have been isolated from the fraction of the methanolic extract of the soft coral...

  16. 21 CFR 522.1222b - Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine hydrochloride and aminopentamide hydrogen sulfate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride with promazine... RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222b Ketamine.... Ketamine hydrochloride, (±),-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride, with promazine...

  17. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Poly(vinyl alcohol/N,O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunku Kamarul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10, an increase in potassium, urea, and GGT levels and a decrease in ALP, platelet, and eosinophil levels were noted in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, when compared with control. These changes were almost similar to those noted in the HAM-implanted rats, except for the unaltered potassium and increased neutrophil levels. On Day 15, the total protein, A/G, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil levels remained unaltered in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, whereas urea, A/G, WBC, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels remained unchanged in the HAM-implanted rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed inflammatory infiltration in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, but not in the HAM-implanted rats. Although a low toxic tissue response was observed in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, further studies are necessary to justify the use of this material in tissue engineering applications.

  18. Self-Healing Hydrogels Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Acryloyl-6-aminocaproic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiufang Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Once cracks have formed within hydrogel materials, the integrity of the structure is signifcantly compromised, regardless of the application. Here, we demonstrate cross-linked CMCS hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing under mild conditions. CMCS hydrogels based on CMCS and acryloyl-6-aminocaproic acid (A6ACA were synthesized by free radical aqueous copolymerization using ammonium persulfate as initiator. A series of hydrogels was synthesized varying the percentage of A6ACA. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR techniques and their morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM images. When the proportion of A6ACA was increased, the compressive strength, stress, and strain of hydrogels were increased. The cross-linked hydrogel based on CMCS that can autonomously heal between cut surfaces after 1 h was formed under mild conditions. The increase of A6ACA content in the hydrogels will lead to increased mechanical properties and mechanical healing efficiencies for highly cross-linked polymeric networks. Hydrogen bond is the main reason for self-healing ability, and the covalent cross-linkss and noncovalent cross-links both bear loads in the hyrogel. Polymers with the ability to self-repair after sustaining damage could extend the lifetime of materials used in many applications.

  19. Self-Healing Hydrogels Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan and Acryloyl-6-aminocaproic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Jiufang

    2015-01-01

    Once cracks have formed within hydrogel materials, the integrity of the structure is signifcantly compromised, regardless of the application. Here, we demonstrate cross-linked CMCS hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing under mild conditions. CMCS hydrogels based on CMCS and acryloyl-6-aminocaproic acid (A6ACA) were synthesized by free radical aqueous copolymerization using ammonium persulfate as initiator. A series of hydrogels was synthesized varying the percentage of A6ACA. T...

  20. Ropinirole hydrochloride, a dopamine agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Krishnan; Sridhar, Balasubramanian

    2006-05-01

    Ropinirole hydrochloride, or diethyl[2-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-4-yl)ethyl]ammonium chloride, C16H25N2O+.Cl-, belongs to a class of new non-ergoline dopamine agonists which bind specifically to D2-like receptors with a selectivity similar to that of dopamine (D3 > D2 > D4). The N atom in the ethylamine side chain is protonated and there is a hydrogen bond between it and the Cl- ion. In the crystal structure, two cations and two anions form inversion-related cyclic dimers via N-H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  1. Chitosan against cutaneous pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Champer, Jackson; Patel, Julie; Fernando, Nathalie; Salehi, Elaheh; Wong, Victoria; Kim, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chi...

  2. Thermoanalytical Investigation of Terazosin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Abdel-Moety

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal analysis (TGA, DTG and DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC have been used to study the thermal behavior of terazosin hydrochloride (TER. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to determine the thermal behavior and purity of the used drug. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy (E*, enthalpy (H*, entropy (S* and Gibbs free energy change of the decomposition (G* were calculated using different kinetic models. Results: The purity of the used drug was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (99.97% and specialized official method (99.85% indicating to satisfactory values of the degree of purity. Thermal analysis technique gave satisfactory results to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point (273 ºC, water content (7.49% and ash content (zero in comparison to what were obtained using official method: (272 ºC, (8.0% and (0.02% for melting point, water content and ash content, respectively. Conclusion: Thermal analysis justifies its application in quality control of pharmaceutical compounds due to its simplicity, sensitivity and low operational costs. DSC data indicated that the degree of purity of terazosin hydrochloride is similar to that found by official method.

  3. Characterization of superabsorbent hydrogel based on epichlorohydrin crosslink and carboxymethyl functionalization of cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, S.; Yuningsih, L. M.; Sumitra, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    Superabsorbent hydrogel was prepared by epichlorohydrin crosslink of cassava starch. Their swelling improved with added carboxymethyl group on the starch-epichlorohydrin structure. The structure and properties of starch-epichlorohydrin-carboxymethyl hydrogel were measured by SEM, FTIR, water and physiological solution absorption test and water retention test. The result showed that hydrogel displayed macroporous with heterogenous distribution and irregular surface was formed by epichlorohydrin and carboxymethyl bond in the structure of hydrogel. It was confirmed also by the FTIR spectra. The swelling ratio of starch-epichlorohydrin hydrogel to the water is 518 % and increased to 1,028.5 % with carboxymethyl addition on the structure. The best influence of the physiological solution to the swelling ratio of starch-epichlorohydrin-carboxymethyl hydrogel is urea solution. The water retention of starch-epichlorohydrin-carboxymethyl hydrogel in NaCl solution is better than in CaCl2 solution.

  4. 21 CFR 522.883 - Etorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Etorphine hydrochloride injection. 522.883 Section... § 522.883 Etorphine hydrochloride injection. (a) Chemical name. 6,7,8,14 - tetrahydro - alpha - methyl... milliliter of etorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 1 mg of etorphine hydrochloride in...

  5. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    P.-H. Rao; W.-Q. Zhang; W. Yao; A.-Y. Zhu; J.-L. Xia; Y.-F. Tan; T.-Z. Liu

    2015-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity (>10 %), which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover val...

  6. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose produced from purun tikus (Eleocharis dulcis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, Febriani, Nina Mutia; Junaidi, Ahmad Budi

    2017-08-01

    Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) is one of the important modified cellulose, a water-soluble cellulose, which is widely used in many application of food, pharmaceuticals, detergent, paper coating, dispersing agent, and others. The main raw material of modified cellulose is cellulose from wood and cotton. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the use of various agriculture product and by-product, grass, and residual biomass as cellulose and modified cellulose source for addressing an environmental and economic concern. Eleocharis dulcis, commonly known as purun tikus (in Indonesia), is a native aquatic plant of swamp area (wetland) in Kalimantan, which consists of 30-40% cellulose. It is significantly considered as one of the alternative resources for cellulose. The aims of present study were to isolate cellulose from E. dulcis and then to synthesise Na-CMC from isolated cellulose. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose from E. dulcis was carried out by an alkalization and etherification process of isolated cellulose, using various concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and monochloroacetic acid (MCA). The results indicated that the optimum reaction of alkalization was reached at 20% NaOH and etherification at the mass fraction ratio of MCA to cellulose 1.0. The optimum reaction has the highest solubility and degree of substitution. The carboxymethylation process of cellulose was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In addition, changes in crystallinity of cellulose and Na-CMC were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  7. Immobilization of swift foxes with ketamine hydrochloride-xylazine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Sovada, Marsha A.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop field immobilization techniques that allow researchers to handle safely swift foxes (Vulpes velox) with minimal risk of stress or injury. We immobilized captive swift foxes to determine the safety and effectiveness of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride at different dosages. We attempted to determine appropriate dosages to immobilize swift foxes for an adequate field-handling period based on three anesthesia intervals (induction period, immobilization period, and recovery period) and physiologic responses (rectal temperature, respiration rate, and heart rate). Between October 1998–July 1999, we conducted four trials, evaluating three different dosage ratios of ketamine and xylazine (2.27:1.2, 5.68:1.2, and 11.4:1.2 mg/kg ketamine:mg/kg xylazine, respectively), followed by a fourth trial with a higher dosage at the median ratio (11.4 mg/kg ketamine:2.4 mg/kg xylazine). We found little difference in induction and recovery periods among trials 1–3, but immobilization time increased with increasing dosage (Pimmobilization period and recovery period increased in trial 4 compared with trials 1–3 (P≤0.03). There was a high variation in responses of individual foxes across trials, making it difficult to identify an appropriate dosage for field handling. Heart rate and respiration rates were depressed but all physiologic measures remained within normal parameters established for domestic canids. We recommend a dosage ratio of 10 mg/kg ketamine to 1 mg/kg xylazine to immobilize swift foxes for field handling.

  8. The fluorescent interactions between amphiphilic chitosan derivatives and water-soluble quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuening; Yu, Miaozhuo; Zhang, Baolian; Cao, Lingyun; Yu, Lu; Jia, Guozhi; Zhou, Jianguo

    2016-01-05

    The LCC-CdTe quantum dots (QDs) hybrid was fabricated by mixing the N-lauryl-N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan (LCC) micelle with water-soluble CdTe QDs in an aqueous solution via hydrophobic forces and the electronic attraction. The structures of LCC and LCC-CdTe QDs hybrid were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the lauryl and carboxymethyl were successfully grafted to chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO), and a number of CdTe QDs were encapsulated by LCC micelle to form a core/shell structure. The tested results of the fluorescent characteristics of LCC, CdTe QDs and LCC-CdTe QDs hybrid showed that there were some obvious fluorescent interactions between LCC and CdTe QDs. Meanwhile, with the change in LCC space structure, the fluorescent interactions between LCC and QDs showed different fluorescent characteristics. The QDs fluorescent (FL) intensity increased first and then decreased to almost quenching, while LCC FL intensity decreased continually. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioavailability enhancement of verapamil HCl via intranasal chitosan microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Mouez, Mamdouh; Zaki, Noha M; Mansour, Samar; Geneidi, Ahmed S

    2014-01-23

    Chitosan microspheres are potential drug carriers for maximizing nasal residence time, circumventing rapid mucociliary clearance and enhancing nasal absorption. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) for intranasal delivery as an alternative to oral VRP which suffers low bioavailability (20%) due to extensive first pass effect. The microspheres were produced using a spray-drying and precipitation techniques and characterized for morphology (scanning electron microscopy), particle size (laser diffraction method), drug entrapment efficiency, thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry) and crystallinity (X-ray diffractometric studies) as well as in vitro drug release. Bioavailability of nasal VRP microspheres was studied in rabbits and the results were compared to those obtained after nasal, oral and intravenous administration of VRP solution. Results demonstrated that the microspheres were spherical with size 21-53 μm suitable for nasal deposition. The spray-drying technique was superior over precipitation technique in providing higher VRP entrapment efficiency and smaller burst release followed by a more sustained one over 6h. The bioavailability study demonstrated that the nasal microspheres exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (58.6%) than nasal solution of VRP (47.8%) and oral VRP solution (13%). In conclusion, the chitosan-based nasal VRP microspheres are promising for enhancing VRP bioavailability by increasing the nasal residence time and avoiding the first-pass metabolism of the drug substance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidized Xanthan Gum and Chitosan as Natural Adhesives for Cork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paiva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural cork stopper manufacturing produces a significant amount of cork waste, which is granulated and combined with synthetic glues for use in a wide range of applications. There is a high demand for using biosourced polymers in these composite materials. In this study, xanthan gum (XG and chitosan (CS were investigated as possible natural binders for cork. Xanthan gum was oxidized at two different aldehyde contents as a strategy to improve its water resistance. This modification was studied in detail by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and the degree of oxidation was determined by the hydroxylamine hydrochloride titration method. The performance of the adhesives was studied by tensile tests and total soluble matter (TSM determinations. Xanthan gum showed no water resistance, contrary to oxidized xanthan gum and chitosan. It is hypothesized that the good performance of oxidized xanthan gum is due to the reaction of aldehyde groups—formed in the oxidation process—with hydroxyl groups on the cork surface during the high temperature drying. Combining oxidized xanthan gum with chitosan did not yield significant improvements.

  11. Effects of AMF- and PGPR-root inoculation and a foliar chitosan spray in single and combined treatments on powdery mildew disease in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiofe Lowe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trials were carried out using, as a root inoculants, mixed Glomus spp. (G. mossae, G. caledonium, and G. fasiculatum and Bacillus subtilis FZB24, and the plant activator N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan applied as a foliar spray. The treatments were applied singly and in combinations, on strawberry plants grown out of season in a greenhouse.  Both fruit yield and runner production were reduced due to disease.  Several of the treatments were found to have significant effects, increasing fruit number and yield, and runner production.  Disease symptom severity was lowest in the B. subtilis FZB24 plus chitosan treatment. The treatments giving significantly higher fruit yield/number and runner production werea inoculation with B. subtilis FZB24, and with B. subtilis FZB24 or AMF combined with chitosan spray. These treatments and a fungicide treatment, gave the same level of disease control.

  12. In vitro release of metformin from iron (III) cross-linked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Bala Yerri; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, sodium alginate (NaAlg)/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) blend hydrogel beads were prepared in ferric chloride solution. The developed hydrogel beads exhibited pH sensitive for deliver Metformin hydrochloride (MH). Preparation conditions of the beads (ferric chloride solution) were significantly affected the encapsulation efficiency, swelling and in vitro release profiles of the beads. Swelling studies were accomplished in gastric and intestine stimuli atmosphere at 37°C. The swelling studies reveal that the beads at pH 7.4 showed higher swelling properties compare to pH 1.2. Exterior morphology of beads was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. SEM indicates the surface of the beads is spherical with smooth surface and size of beads drastically reduced with increasing crosslinker concentration. The crosslinking reaction between NaAlg and NaCMC with ferric chloride was confirmed by FTIR analysis. XRD analysis indicates that MH drug molecularly dispersed in the polymer matrix. In vitro release studies of MH loaded beads showed higher release profiles at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.2. The polymeric matrices followed slightly deviation with Fickian diffusion and fit for experimental co-relation (r(2)) values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Transdermal Ondansetron Hydrochloride for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Ondansetron hydrochloride, Chemical enhancers, Plasticizers, Dibutyl phthalate, Dibutyl sebacate, Permeation, Patch. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, ...

  14. Cinacalcet hydrochloride for the treatment of hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheyen, N.; Pilz, S.; Eller, K.; Kienreich, K.; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A.; Pieske, B.; Ritz, E.; Tomaschitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Effective therapeutic strategies are warranted to reduce the burden of parathyroid hormone excess related morbidity and mortality. The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet hydrochloride is a promising treatment strategy in hyperparathyroidism. Areas covered: This review provides an overview

  15. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride—In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  16. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbasset El Hadrami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

  17. Antibacterial activity of chemically defined chitosans: influence of molecular weight, degree of acetylation and test organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellegård, H; Strand, S P; Christensen, B E; Granum, P E; Hardy, S P

    2011-07-15

    Chitosans, polysaccharides obtained from the exoskeleton of crustaceans, have been shown to exert antibacterial activity in vitro and their use as a food preservative is of growing interest. However, beyond a consensus that chitosan appears to disrupt the bacterial cell membrane, published data are inconsistent on the chemical characteristics that confer the antibacterial activity of chitosan. While most authors agree that the net charge density of the polymer (reflected in the fraction of positively charged amino groups at the C-2 position of the glucosamine unit) is an important factor in antibacterial activity, conflicting data have been reported on the effect of molecular weight and on the susceptibility among different bacterial species to chitosan. Therefore, we prepared batches of water-soluble hydrochloride salts of chitosans with weight average molecular weights (M(w)) of 2-224kDa and degree of acetylation of 0.16 and 0.48. Their antibacterial activity was evaluated using tube inhibition assays and membrane integrity assays (N-Phenyl-1-naphthylamine fluorescence and potassium release) against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and three lipopolysaccharide mutants of E. coli and S. Typhimurium. Chitosans with lower degree of acetylation (F(A)=0.16) were more active than the more acetylated chitosans (F(A)=0.48). No trends in antibacterial action related to increasing or decreasing M(w) were observed although one of the chitosans (M(w) 28.4kDa, F(A)=0.16) was more active than the other chitosans, inhibiting growth and permeabilizing the membrane of all the test strains included. The test strains varied in their susceptibility to the different chitosans with wild type S. Typhimurium more resistant than the wild type E. coli. Salmonellae lipopolysaccharide mutants were more susceptible than the matched wild type strain. Our results show that the chitosan preparation details are critically important in identifying the antibacterial

  18. Characterization of a Chitosanase from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino Latex and Its Application in the Production of Water-Soluble Low Molecular Weight Chitosans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Tien Chang

    Full Text Available A chitosanase was purified from jelly fig latex by ammonium sulfate fractionation (50-80% saturation and three successive column chromatography steps. The purified enzyme was almost homogeneous, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and gel activity staining. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 20.5 kDa. The isoelectric point (pI was <3.5, as estimated by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on PhastGel IEF 3-9. Using chitosan as the substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.5; the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were 0.089 mg mL-1 and 0.69 μmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. The enzyme showed activity toward chitosan polymers which exhibited various degrees of deacetylation (21-94%. The enzyme hydrolyzed 70-84% deacetylated chitosan polymers most effectively. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of chitin and chitosan polymers and their derivatives. The products of the hydrolysis of chitosan polymer derivatives, ethylene glycol (EG chitosan, carboxymethyl (CM chitosan and aminoethyl (AE chitosan, were low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs; these products were referred to as EG-LMWC, CM-LMWC and AE-LMWC, respectively. The average molecular weights of EG-LMWC, CM-LMWC and AE-LMWC were 11.2, 11.2 and 8.89 kDa, respectively. All of the LMWC products exhibited free radical scavenging activities toward ABTS•+, superoxide and peroxyl radicals.

  19. Characterization of a Chitosanase from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) Latex and Its Application in the Production of Water-Soluble Low Molecular Weight Chitosans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Tien; Lin, Yen-Lu; Lu, Shu-Wei; Huang, Chun-Wei; Wang, Yu-Ting; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2016-01-01

    A chitosanase was purified from jelly fig latex by ammonium sulfate fractionation (50–80% saturation) and three successive column chromatography steps. The purified enzyme was almost homogeneous, as determined by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel activity staining. The molecular mass of the enzyme was 20.5 kDa. The isoelectric point (pI) was <3.5, as estimated by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis on PhastGel IEF 3-9. Using chitosan as the substrate, the optimal pH for the enzyme reaction was 4.5; the kinetic parameters Km and Vmax were 0.089 mg mL-1 and 0.69 μmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. The enzyme showed activity toward chitosan polymers which exhibited various degrees of deacetylation (21–94%). The enzyme hydrolyzed 70–84% deacetylated chitosan polymers most effectively. Substrate specificity analysis indicated that the enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of chitin and chitosan polymers and their derivatives. The products of the hydrolysis of chitosan polymer derivatives, ethylene glycol (EG) chitosan, carboxymethyl (CM) chitosan and aminoethyl (AE) chitosan, were low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs); these products were referred to as EG-LMWC, CM-LMWC and AE-LMWC, respectively. The average molecular weights of EG-LMWC, CM-LMWC and AE-LMWC were 11.2, 11.2 and 8.89 kDa, respectively. All of the LMWC products exhibited free radical scavenging activities toward ABTS•+, superoxide and peroxyl radicals. PMID:26938062

  20. Three D structures of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kozo; Yui, Toshifumi; Okuyama, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    Crystal structures of two polymorphs of chitosan, tendon (hydrated) and annealed (anhydrous) polymorphs, have been reported. In both crystals, chitosan molecule takes up similar conformation (Type I form) to each other, an extended two-fold helix stabilized by intramolecular O3-O5 hydrogen bond, which is also similar to the conformation of chitin or cellulose. Three chitosan conformations other than Type I form have been found in the crystals of chitosan-acid salts. In the salts with acetic and some other acids, called Type II salts, chitosan molecule takes up a relaxed two-fold helix composed of asymmetric unit of tetrasaccharide. This conformation seems to be unstable because no strong intramolecular hydrogen bond like Type I form. Type II crystal changes to the annealed polymorph of chitosan by a spontaneous water-removing action of the acid. Chitosan molecule in its hydrogen iodide salt prepared at low temperature takes a 4/1 helix with asymmetric unit of disaccharide. The fourth chitosan conformation was found to be a 5/3 helix in chitosan salts with medical organic acids having phenyl group such as salicylic or gentisic acids. Similar conformation of chitosan molecule in the aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) salt was suggested by a solid-sate NMR measurement. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  1. 78 FR 34108 - Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and Naloxone Hydrochloride) Sublingual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That SUBOXONE (Buprenorphine Hydrochloride and... (buprenorphine hydrochloride (HCl) and naloxone HCl) sublingual tablets, 2 milligrams (mg)/0.5 mg and 8 mg/2 mg... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for buprenorphine HCl and naloxone HCl...

  2. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for various biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kunal [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Banthia, A K [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Majumdar, D K [Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Formerly College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector III, New Delhi 110017 (India)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this work is to prepare a pH-sensitive hydrogel membrane of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrogel was made by esterification of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and acryloyl chloride (ACl). The esterified product was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Swelling, hemocompatibility, water vapor transmission rate, contact angle and diffusional studies were also done. Biocompatibility of the membrane was established by quantification of cell growth of L929 cells and mice splenocytes. The FTIR spectrum of the hydrogel suggested the formation of ester bonds between the hydroxyl groups of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbonyl group of acryloyl chloride. Water vapor transmission rate, hemocompatibility, contact angle and swelling studies indicated that the hydrogel can be tried as a wound dressing material. The hydrogel showed pH-dependent swelling behavior arising from the acidic pendant group in the polymer network. The permeability of the hydrogel membrane produced, as shown by salicylic acid diffusion, increased in response to an increase in pH of the external medium. The hydrogel membrane was permeable to salicylic acid at pH 7.2 but not at pH 2.0 (0.01N HCl). The effect of changes of pH on the hydrogel's permeability was found to be reversible. The hydrogel membrane was found to be compatible with the L929 mice fibroblast cell line and mice splenocytes. The esterified product of SCMC and ACl swells on increase of pH indicating its possible use in a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as a wound dressing material.

  3. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for various biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Kunal; Banthia, A. K.; Majumdar, D. K.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare a pH-sensitive hydrogel membrane of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose acrylate for drug delivery and other biomedical applications. The hydrogel was made by esterification of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) and acryloyl chloride (ACl). The esterified product was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and XRD. Swelling, hemocompatibility, water vapor transmission rate, contact angle and diffusional studies were also done. Biocompatibility of the membrane was established by quantification of cell growth of L929 cells and mice splenocytes. The FTIR spectrum of the hydrogel suggested the formation of ester bonds between the hydroxyl groups of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the carbonyl group of acryloyl chloride. Water vapor transmission rate, hemocompatibility, contact angle and swelling studies indicated that the hydrogel can be tried as a wound dressing material. The hydrogel showed pH-dependent swelling behavior arising from the acidic pendant group in the polymer network. The permeability of the hydrogel membrane produced, as shown by salicylic acid diffusion, increased in response to an increase in pH of the external medium. The hydrogel membrane was permeable to salicylic acid at pH 7.2 but not at pH 2.0 (0.01N HCl). The effect of changes of pH on the hydrogel's permeability was found to be reversible. The hydrogel membrane was found to be compatible with the L929 mice fibroblast cell line and mice splenocytes. The esterified product of SCMC and ACl swells on increase of pH indicating its possible use in a pH-sensitive drug delivery system and as a wound dressing material.

  4. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian; Azizan Ahmad; Nor Sabirin Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity i...

  5. Comparison of chitosan nanoparticles and chitosan hydrogels for vaccine delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Sarah; Saupe, Anne; McBurney, Warren

    2008-01-01

    In this work the potential of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) and thermosensitive chitosan hydrogels as particulate and sustained release vaccine delivery systems was investigated. CNP and chitosan hydrogels were prepared, loaded with the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and characterised....... The immunostimulatory capacity of these vaccine delivery systems was assessed in-vitro and in-vivo. Particle sizing measurements and SEM images showed that optimised OVA-loaded CNP had a size of approximately 200 nm, a polydispersity index

  6. Chitosan: Gels and Interfacial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nilsen-Nygaard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a unique biopolymer in the respect that it is abundant, cationic, low-toxic, non-immunogenic and biodegradable. The relative occurrence of the two monomeric building units (N-acetyl-glucosamine and d-glucosamine is crucial to whether chitosan is predominantly an ampholyte or predominantly a polyelectrolyte at acidic pH-values. The chemical composition is not only crucial to its surface activity properties, but also to whether and why chitosan can undergo a sol–gel transition. This review gives an overview of chitosan hydrogels and their biomedical applications, e.g., in tissue engineering and drug delivery, as well as the chitosan’s surface activity and its role in emulsion formation, stabilization and destabilization. Previously unpublished original data where chitosan acts as an emulsifier and flocculant are presented and discussed, showing that highly-acetylated chitosans can act both as an emulsifier and as a flocculant.

  7. Carboxymethylation of Cassia angustifolia seed gum: synthesis and rheological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Gaurav; Pandey, I P; Joshi, Gyanesh

    2015-03-06

    The seeds of Cassia angustifolia are a rich source of galactomannan gum. The seed gums possess a wide variety of industrial applications. To utilize C. angustifolia seed gum for broader industrial applications, the carboxymethyl-Cassia angustifolia seed gum (CM-CAG) was synthesized. The gum was etherified with sodium monochloroacetate (SMCA) in a methanol-water system in presence of alkali (NaOH) at different reaction conditions. The variables studied includes alkali concentration, SMCA concentration, methanol:water ratio, liquor:gum ratio, reaction temperature and time. The extent of carboxymethylation was determined as degree of substitution (DS). The optimum conditions for preparing CM-CAG (DS=0.474) comprised 0.100 mol of NaOH, 0.05 mol of SMCA, 80% of methanol:water ratio (as % methanol) and liquor:gum ratio (v/w) of 10:1 at 75 °C for 60 min using 0.03 mol (as AGU) of CAG. Rheological studies showed CM-CAG to exhibit non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour, relatively high viscosity, cold water solubility and solution stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Carboxymethylation on the Rheological Properties of Hyaluronan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rian J Wendling

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications made to hyaluronan to enable covalent crosslinking to form a hydrogel or to attach other molecules may alter the physical properties as well, which have physiological importance. Here we created carboxymethyl hyaluronan (CMHA with varied degree of modification and investigated the effect on the viscosity of CMHA solutions. Viscosity decreased initially as modification increased, with a minimum viscosity for about 30-40% modification. This was followed by an increase in viscosity around 45-50% modification. The pH of the solution had a variable effect on viscosity, depending on the degree of carboxymethyl modification and buffer. The presence of phosphates in the buffer led to decreased viscosity. We also compared large-scale production lots of CMHA to lab-scale and found that large-scale required extended reaction times to achieve the same degree of modification. Finally, thiolated CMHA was disulfide crosslinked to create hydrogels with increased viscosity and shear-thinning aspects compared to CMHA solutions.

  9. Chitosan-Genipin Microspheres for the Controlled Release of Drugs: Clarithromycin, Tramadol and Heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Harris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to first evaluate whether the chitosan hydrochloride-genipin crosslinking reaction is influenced by factors such as time, and polymer/genipin concentration, and second, to develop crosslinked drug loaded microspheres to improve the control over drug release. Once the crosslinking process was characterized as a function of the factors mentioned above, drug loaded hydrochloride chitosan microspheres with different degrees of crosslinking were obtained. Microspheres were characterized in terms of size, morphology, drug content, surface charge and capacity to control in vitro drug release. Clarithromycin, tramadol hydrochloride, and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH were used as model drugs. The obtained particles were spherical, positively charged, with a diameter of 1–10 μm. X-Ray diffraction showed that there was an interaction of genipin and each drug with chitosan in the microspheres. In relation to the release profiles, a higher degree of crosslinking led to more control of drug release in the case of clarithromycin and tramadol. For these drugs, optimal release profiles were obtained for microspheres crosslinked with 1 mM genipin at 50 ºC for 5 h and with 5 mM genipin at 50 ºC for 5 h, respectively. In LMWH microspheres, the best release profile corresponded to 0.5 mM genipin, 50 ºC, 5 h. In conclusion, genipin showed to be eligible as a chemical-crosslinking agent delaying the outflow of drugs from the microspheres. However, more studies in vitro and in vivo must be carried out to determine adequate crosslinking conditions for different drugs.

  10. 21 CFR 522.1462 - Naloxone hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naloxone hydrochloride injection. 522.1462 Section... § 522.1462 Naloxone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Naloxone hydrochloride injection is an... antagonist in dogs. (2) It is administered by intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous injection at an...

  11. 21 CFR 522.723 - Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection. 522.723... § 522.723 Diprenorphine hydrochloride injection. (a) Chemical name. N-(Cyclopropyl-methyl)-6,7,8,14...) Specifications. Each milliliter of diprenorphine hydrochloride injection, veterinary, contains 2 mg of...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1047 - Glutamic acid hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glutamic acid hydrochloride. 182.1047 Section 182.1047 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1047 Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (a) Product. Glutamic acid hydrochloride. (b...

  13. Compound list: fluoxetine hydrochloride [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fluoxetine hydrochloride FLX 00158 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/flu...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/fluoxetine_hydrochloride.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  14. 21 CFR 524.1982 - Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution... ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1982 Proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. (a) Specifications. The drug is an aqueous solution containing 0.5 percent proparacaine hydrochloride, 2.45 percent glycerin as a...

  15. Fabrication of chitosan microparticles loaded in chitosan and poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 4. Fabrication of chitosan microparticles loaded in chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) scaffolds for tissue engineering application. B R SRINIVAS MURTHY GIRIPRASATH RAMANATHAN UMA TIRICHURAPALLI SIVAGNANAM. Volume 40 Issue 4 August 2017 ...

  16. Recent development of chitosan-based polyelectrolyte complexes with natural polysaccharides for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yangchao; Wang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    Chitosan, as a unique positively charged polysaccharide, has been one of the most popular biopolymers for development of drug delivery systems for various applications, due to its promising properties, including high biocompatibility, excellent biodegradability, low toxicity, as well as abundant availability and low production cost. Since last decade, increasing attention has been attracted by delivery systems fabricated from natural biopolymer-based polyelectrolyte complexes (PEC), formed by electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged biopolymers. In order to tailor specific applications of chitosan-based PEC drug delivery systems, various forms have been developed in recent years, including nanoparticles, microparticles, beads, tablets, gels, as well as films and membranes. The present review focuses on the recent advances in drug delivery applications of chitosan-based PEC with other natural polysaccharides, including alginate, hyaluronic acid, pectin, carrageenan, xanthan gum, gellan gum, gum arabic, and carboxymethyl cellulose, etc. The fabrication techniques, characterizations, as well as in vitro and in vivo evaluations of each PEC delivery system are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Different chemical groups modification on the surface of chitosan nonwoven dressing and the hemostatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dong; Hu, Shihao; Zhou, Zhongzheng; Zeenat, Shah; Cheng, Feng; Li, Yang; Feng, Chao; Cheng, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiguang

    2018-02-01

    The hemostatic properties of surface modified chitosan nonwoven had been investigated. The succinyl groups, carboxymethyl groups and quaternary ammonium groups were introduced into the surface of chitosan nonwoven (obtained NSCS, CMCS and TMCS nonwoven, respectively). For blood clotting, absorbance value (0.105±0.03) of NSCS1 nonwoven was the smallest (CS 0.307±0.002, NSCS2 0.148±0.002, CMCS1 0.195±0.02, CMCS2 0.233±0.001, TMCS1 0.191±0.002, TMCS2 0.345±0.002), which indicated the stronger hemostatic potential. For platelet aggregation, adenosine diphosphate agonist was added to induce the nonwoven to adhered platelets. The aggregation of platelet with TMCS2 nonwoven was highest (10.97±0.16%). Further research of blood coagulation mechanism was discussed, which indicated NSCS and CMCS nonwoven could activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation to accelerate blood coagulation. NSCS1 nonwoven showed the shortest hemostatic time (147±3.7s) and the lowest blood loss (0.23±0.05g) in a rabbit ear artery injury model. These results demonstrated that these surface modified chitosan nonwoven dressings could use as a promising hemostatic intervention, especially NSCS nonwoven dressing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch for increasing drilling mud quality in drilling oil and gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, K. M.; Martynova, D. O.; Zakharov, A. S.; Sagitov, R. R.; Ber, A. A.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the impact of carboxymethyl starch preparation conditions on physicochemical properties of polysaccharide reagent, widely used as fluid loss reducing agent in drilling mud. Variation of the main parameters of carboxymethylation is researched in the experiment. The following conditions such as temperature and reaction time, amount of water, as well as ratio of NaOH to monochloracetic acid define the characteristics of carboxymethyl starch. The degree of substitution is defined for polysaccharides, as well as the characteristics of samples have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Rheological characteristics and fluid loss indicator have been investigated to study the impact of the reagents on drilling mud quality.

  19. Incorporation of chitosan nanospheres into thin mineralized collagen coatings for improving the antibacterial effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ziqiang; Yu, Mengfei; Cheng, Kui; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming; Lin, Jun; Du, Piyi; Han, Gaorong

    2013-11-01

    It is desired that the coatings on metallic implants have both excellent biological responses and good loading-release capacities of biological factors or drugs. So far, the challenge still remains, because the morphology and composition of the bioactive coatings are usually not favorable for accommodating drug molecules. In this study, we adopted an approach of incorporating chitosan nanospheres into a thin mineralized collagen coating; this approach is based on the good loading-release behavior of the nanospheres and the good cytocompatibility of the thin coating. The incorporation of chitosan nanospheres into the mineralized collagen coatings was realized by electrolytic co-deposition. The morphologies and microstructures of the resulting coatings were characterized by SEM, and the phase and chemical compositions of the coatings were measured by XRD and FTIR. The loading-release capacity for vancomycin hydrochloride (VH) was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. MTS assay was used to evaluate cytocompatibility, and in vitro bacterial adhesion was tested for assessing the antibacterial effects of the VH-loaded coatings. The chitosan nanospheres adhered tightly to collagen fibrils. The incorporated coatings facilitated the sustained release of VH, and had a clear antibacterial effect. The incorporation of chitosan nanospheres into mineralized collagen coatings demonstrates an effective way to improve the drug loading-release capacity for the thin coatings. This formulation had a highly effective biological response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication of sulfated nanofilter membrane based on carboxymethyl cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemloo, Sima; Sohrabi, Mahmoud Reza; Khosravi, Morteza; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Gharbani, Parvin

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare sulfated carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC) nanofilter membrane using sulfur trioxide pyridine complex (SO3/pyridine) as sulfating agent and glutaraldehyde (GA) as a crosslinking agent onto polysulfone supporting membrane. The prepared nanofilter was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and zeta potential. To evaluate the prepared nanofilter, various amounts of SO3/Pyridine were used and efficiency of them was investigated. The results showed that increasing the sulfate groups raised the flux from 13.87 to 29.54 L/(m2·h-1), whereas percentage rejection was increased during the separation of salt aqueous solutions and then decreased. It can be concluded that, SCMC-GA-2 (with molar ratio of SO3/pyridine to CMC of 1) shows high separation efficiency in acidic conditions and improves the hydrophilicity and charge density of the filter.

  1. Carboxymethyl starch mucoadhesive microspheres as gastroretentive dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Marc; Gosselin, Patrick; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2015-12-30

    Carboxymethyl starch microspheres (CMS-MS) were produced from carboxymethyl starch powder (CMS-P) with a degree of substitution (DS) from 0.1 to 1.5 in order to investigate the influence of DS on physicochemical, drug release and mucoadhesion properties as well as interactions with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) epithelial barrier models. Placebo and furosemide loaded CMS-MS were obtained by emulsion-crosslinking with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). DS had an impact on increasing equilibrium water uptake and modulating drug release properties of the CMS-MS according to the surrounding pH. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of NCI-N87 gastric cell monolayers was not influenced in presence of CMS-MS, whereas that of Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers decreased with increasing DS but recovered initial values at about 15h post-treatment. CMS-MS with increasing DS also enhanced furosemide permeability across both NCI-N87 and Caco-2 monolayers at pH gradients from 3.0 to 7.4. Mucoadhesion of CMS-MS on gastric mucosa (acidic condition) increased with the DS up to 55% for a DS of 1.0 but decreased on neutral intestinal mucosa to less than 10% with DS of 0.1. The drug release, permeability enhancement and mucoadhesive properties of the CMS-MS suggest CMS-MS with DS between 0.6 and 1.0 as suitable excipient for gastroretentive oral delivery dosage forms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Tablet Dosage Form by Simultaneous Equation Spectrophotometric Method: A Quality Control Tool for Dissolution Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Sharma; Mankaran Singh; Dinesh Kumar; Gurmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride are used for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and allergy. A simple, economical, accurate, and precise method for simultaneous estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in tablet dosage form has been developed. Simultaneous equation method based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, that is, 244 nm and 230 nm, λmax of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Cetirizine Hydrochloride in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. Both of...

  3. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was ... conductance, atomic absorption, magnetic measurement, electronic and Infra-red spectrometry. From ... toxicological activities at the dose of 6.66 mg/kg body weight twice daily for seven days on the alkaline.

  4. Preparation and evaluation of mebeverine hydrochloride as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate an antispasmodic drug, mebeverine hydrochloride (Mbv-HCl), as a local anesthetic mucoadhesive buccal tablet. Methods: Mbv-HCl loaded tablets were formulated, using a direct compression technique, with varying polymer concentrations including carbopol 934P alone, carbopol ...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5875 - Thiamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thiamine hydrochloride. 582.5875 Section 582.5875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5676 - Pyridoxine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pyridoxine hydrochloride. 582.5676 Section 582.5676 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  7. Quantitative Determination of Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a suitable method for the assay of metformin hydrochloride (HCl) in tablets containing croscarmellose sodium as an additive. Methods: Methanol and ethanol (99%) were assessed as solvents for sample preparation for the assay of metformin HCl in tablets containing croscarmellose ...

  8. The hormonal effects of halofantrine hydrochloride (Halfan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Halofantrine comparatively had little or no effect on prolactin. The order of activity on prolactin was sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine > sulfametopyrazine/pyrimethamine > halofantrine hydrochloride. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (25 mg/kg) produced a statistically significant dose-dependent reduction in epididymal sperm number ...

  9. Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride: Synthesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of the ongoing research for more effective antimalarial drug, Fe (III) complex of mefloquine hydrochloride (antimalarial drug) was synthesized using template method. Mefloquine was tentatively found to have coordinated through the hydroxyl and the two nitrogen atoms in the quinoline and piperidine in the structure, ...

  10. Absorbent properties of carboxymethylated fiber, hydroentangled nonwoven and regenerated cellulose: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially-available, bleached cotton fibers, rayon, and their hydroentangled counterparts were carboxymethylated to produce cellulosic products with increased absorbency. These cellulose materials were tested for absorbance, spectroscopic properties, degree of substitution and carding ability. Ca...

  11. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates and its application as anticoagulant and wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lihong; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wu, Penghui; Xie, Weiguo; Zheng, Hua; Tan, Wang; Liu, Shuhua; Li, Qingyuan

    2014-05-01

    Tissue engineering is aiming to build an artificial environment or biological scaffold material that imitates the living environment of cells in the body. In this work, carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates were prepared by reacting carboxymethyl cellulose with N(SO3Na)3 which was synthesized by sodium bisulfite and sodium nitrite in aqueous solution. The reaction conditions affected the degree of substitution (DS) were measured by the barium sulfate nephelometry method. And the anticoagulant activity of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates with different DS, concentration and molecular weights were investigated by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT). In addition, the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates on wound healing had been evaluated by the rate of wound healing and the histological examinations. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfate groups into the carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates improved its anticoagulant activity, and the wound dressings treated with carboxymethyl cellulose sulfates obviously promoted wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan composite films. Biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Galo; Anaya, Paola; von Plessing, Carlos; Rojas, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Jackeline

    2008-06-01

    Chitosan acetate films have been prepared using chitosans from shrimps (Pleuroncodes monodon) of low and high molecular weight (LMv = 68,000 g/mol and HMv = 232,000 g/mol) and deacetylation degree of 80 and 100%, respectively. The chitosan films were obtained by addition of several additives to acetic acid chitosan solutions, such as: glycerol, oleic acid and linoleic acid in different proportions. The pH of the solutions before casting ranged from 5.0 to 6.0. The composite film thickness are reported. The films have been analyzed by FTIR showing characteristic bands corresponding to the additives. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveals the different morphology of the composite films. The films exhibit different physical properties depending upon the additives and/or mixture of them. The addition of glycerol to composite improves the elasticity of the films. The swelling in glucose and saline solutions for several films was evaluated, being higher in the glucose solution. The bactericide test against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumanii in plates with either blood and or agar tripticase showed that the molecular weight influences on the bactericidal properties of the chitosan composite films and over its effect against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Medical applications of the composite films were done in patients with burns, ulcers and injuries, the films containing glycerol showed good adhesion in comparison with those without it. The composite films tested were mainly three (1) chitosan acetate with glycerol, (2) chitosan acetate with oleic acid and (3) chitosan acetate with glycerol and oleic acid. Excellent results in the skin recovery were obtained after 7-10 days. Since the chitosan is biodegradable by the body enzymes it does not need to be removed and increases the gradual grows of the damage tissues.

  13. Covalent and injectable chitosan-chondroitin sulfate hydrogels embedded with chitosan microspheres for drug delivery and tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Ma, Ye; Tan, Huaping; Jia, Yang; Zou, Siyue; Guo, Shuxuan; Zhao, Meng; Huang, Hao; Ling, Zhonghua; Chen, Yong; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-02-01

    Injectable hydrogels and microspheres derived from natural polysaccharides have been extensively investigated as drug delivery systems and cell scaffolds. In this study, we report a preparation of covalent hydrogels basing polysaccharides via the Schiff' base reaction. Water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) and oxidized chondroitin sulfate (OCS) were prepared for cross-linking of hydrogels. The mechanism of cross-linking is attributed to the Schiff' base reaction between amino and aldehyde groups of polysaccharides. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin (BSA) loaded chitosan-based microspheres (CMs) with a diameter of 3.8-61.6μm were fabricated by an emulsion cross-linking method, followed by embedding into CMC-OCS hydrogels to produce a composite CMs/gel scaffold. In the current work, gelation rate, morphology, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, in vitro degradation and BSA release of the CMs/gel scaffolds were examined. The results show that mechanical and bioactive properties of gel scaffolds can be significantly improved by embedding CMs. The solid CMs can serve as a filler to toughen the soft CMC-OCS hydrogels. Compressive modulus of composite gel scaffolds containing 20mg/ml of microspheres was 13KPa, which was higher than the control hydrogel without CMs. Cumulative release of BSA during 2weeks from CMs embedded hydrogel was 30%, which was significantly lower than those of CMs and hydrogels. Moreover, the composite CMs/gel scaffolds exhibited lower swelling ratio and slower degradation rate than the control hydrogel without CMs. The potential of the composite hydrogel as an injectable scaffold was demonstrated by encapsulation of bovine articular chondrocytes in vitro. These results demonstrate the potential of CMs embedded CMC-OCS hydrogels as an injectable drug and cell delivery system in cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of allergic conjunctivitis with olopatadine hydrochloride eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi Uchio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Eiichi UchioDepartment of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Olopatadine hydrochloride exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions such as histamine H1 receptor antagonist action, chemical mediator suppressive action, and eosinophil infiltration suppressive action. Olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution (Patanol® was introduced to the market in Japan in October 2006. In a conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC test, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution significantly suppressed ocular itching and hyperemia compared with levocabastine hydrochloride 0.05% ophthalmic solution, and the number of patients who complained of ocular discomfort was lower in the olopatadine group than in the levocabastine group. Conjunctival cell membrane disruption was observed in vitro in the ketotifen fumarate group, epinastine hydrochloride group, and azelastine hydrochloride group, but not in the olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% ophthalmic solution group, which may potentially explain the lower discomfort felt by patients on instillation. Many other studies in humans have revealed the superiority of olopatadine 0.1% hydrochloride eye drops to several other anti-allergic eye drops. Overseas, olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% ophthalmic solution for a once-daily regimen has been marketed under the brand name of Pataday®. It is expected that olopatadine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions may be used in patients with a more severe spectrum of allergic conjunctival diseases, such as vernal keratoconjunctivitis or atopic keratoconjunctivitis, in the near future.Keywords: olopatadine, eye drop, allergic conjunctivitis, anti-histaminergic

  15. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Yohimbine hydrochloride reversal of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride immobilization of Bengal tigers and effects on hematology and serum chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U S; Armstrong, D L; Simmons, L G

    1987-04-01

    Six bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) were immobilized five times at 2-wk intervals with ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine) and xylazine hydrochloride (xylazine) mixtures at different dose levels. Hematology and serum chemistry analyses on blood samples collected at each immobilization remained normal during the study. There were acute changes in hematocrit, chloride, potassium, glucose, and bilirubin as a function of xylazine dose level. The effect of yohimbine hydrochloride (yohimbine) on the depth and duration of immobilization was evaluated in a crossover design with every animal serving as its own control at each dose. Administration of yohimbine resulted in recovery of the animals within 4-8 min in contrast to greater than 60 min with no yohimbine treatment. There were no adverse effects noted with the yohimbine treatment and the tigers did not exhibit a relapse over the next 24 hr. Yohimbine at a dose of 5-15 mg per adult tiger provided effective reversal of 50-150 mg of xylazine per tiger.

  17. Flow injection potentiometric determination of pipazethate hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghani, N T; Shoukry, A F; el Nashar, R M

    2001-01-01

    New plastic membrane electrodes for pipazethate hydrochloride based on pipazethatium phosphotungstate, pipazethatium phosphomolybdate and a mixture of the two were prepared. The electrodes were fully characterized in terms of composition, life span, pH and temperature and were then applied to the potentiometric determination of the pipazethate ion in its pure state and pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions. The selectivity of the electrodes towards many inorganic cations, sugars and amino acids was also tested.

  18. 141 137 Effect of Guanidium Hydrochloride o

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... myoglobin causing its unfolding, in a two- state process, due to weak binding to the protein, which ... denaturation was protein folding, a purely .... presence of increasing concentrations of guanidium hydrochloride. 0. 0.1. 0.2. 0.3. 0.4. 0.5. 0.6. 0. 0.5. 1. 1.5. 2. 2.5. 3. Concentration of GuHCl (mol/l). A bs o rb a.

  19. Optimization of electrospinning parameters for chitosan nanofibres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available uniform chitosan nanofibres. The parameters studied were electric field strength, ratio of solvents - trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)/ dichloromethane (DCM), concentration of chitosan in the spinning solution, their individual and interaction effects...

  20. The coagulation characteristics of humic acid by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and chitosan coagulant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Wu, Chung-Yu; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a potential substitute for traditional aluminium salts in water treatment systems. This study compared the characteristics of humic acid (HA) removal by using acid-soluble chitosan, water-soluble chitosan, and coagulant mixtures of chitosan with aluminium sulphate (alum) or polyaluminium chloride (PACl). In addition, we evaluated their respective coagulation efficiencies at various coagulant concentrations, pH values, turbidities, and hardness levels. Furthermore, we determined the size and settling velocity of flocs formed by these coagulants to identify the major factors affecting HA coagulation. The coagulation efficiency of acid- and water-soluble chitosan for 15 mg/l of HA was 74.4% and 87.5%, respectively. The optimal coagulation range of water-soluble chitosan (9-20 mg/l) was broader than that of acid-soluble chitosan (4-8 mg/l). Notably, acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum coagulant mixtures exhibited a higher coagulation efficiency for HA than for PACl or alum alone. Furthermore, these coagulant mixtures yielded an acceptable floc settling velocity and savings in both installation and operational expenses. Based on these results, we confidently assert that coagulant mixtures with a 1:1 mass ratio of acid-soluble chitosan/PACl and water-soluble chitosan/alum provide a substantially more cost-effective alternative to using chitosan alone for removing HA from water.

  1. A novel photosynthesis of carboxymethyl starch-stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, M A

    2014-01-01

    The water soluble photoinitiator (PI) 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS), silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40 °C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25 °C) and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1-21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6-10 and 1-3 nm, respectively.

  2. A Novel Photosynthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El-Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The water soluble photoinitiator (PI 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS, silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40°C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25°C and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1–21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6–10 and 1–3 nm, respectively.

  3. Preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose based microgels for cell encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible and biodegradable carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC has been modified with 4-hydroxybenzylamine (CMC-Ph in order to prepare CMC-based microgels through the horseradish peroxidise/hydrogen peroxide enzymatic reaction. CMC-Ph was identified as a blend, and the amount of the grafted 4-hydroxybenzylamine per 100 units of CMC was between 17 and 23 according to the molecular weight of CMC. Through a special designed co-flowing microfluidic device, CMC-Ph microgels were prepared with the radius from 100 to 500 μm via adjusting the flow rates of the disperse phase and the continuous phase, respectively. The chondrocytic cell line ATDC5 was encapsulated in the CMC-Ph microgels. The cell-laden microgels were cultured for up to 40 days, illustrating the biocompatibility of CMC-Ph and the microfluidic approach through the enzymatic crosslinking reaction primarily. CMC-Ph showed a great promise to encapsulate the cells for further fabrication of the injectable scaffolds.

  4. Theoretical Investigation of Inclusion Complex between Omeprazole Enantiomers and Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadji, S.; Sundari, C. D. D.; Ramdhani, M. A.; Umam, A. B. K.; Ivansyah, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    Host-guest inclusion complexes between R/S-Omeprazole (R/S-OME) enantiomers with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) is proposed to predicts the separation of its enantiomers that considering the interaction energy and inclusion geometry. The inclusion complex structures were built into two orientations i.e. 1: 1 and 2: 1 as the ratio of host to guest. All structures were optimized by two methods i.e. molecular mechanic docking and quantum semi empiric PM3. Based on the value of binding energy obtained from the computational modelling, it was found that inclusion complex of S-Omeprazole with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (S-OME/CM-β-CD) is more stable than the inclusion complex of R-Omeprazole with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (R-OME/CM-β-CD). Moreover, R/S-Omeprazole can form stable inclusion complexes with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin by the ratio of host: guest equal to 2: 1. Other thermodynamic parameter values, i.e. Enthalpy (ΔH), Entropy (ΔS), and Gibbs free energy (ΔG) show that the inclusion complex of S-OME/CM-β-CD is more exothermic, more spontaneous, and preferably formed when compared to inclusion complex of R-OME/CM-β-CD. In addition, the formation of the R/S-OME inclusion complex with Carboxymethyl-β-Cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) is an enthalpy driven process based on these values.

  5. Carboxymethylation of polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus and their characterization and antioxidant properties evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; Xie, Jian-Hua; Shen, Ming-Yue; Tang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-01-20

    In this study, three chemically carboxymethyl polysaccharides (CM-CPs) were derived from Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharides. The physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity in vitro of carboxymethyl derivatives were determined. The results of degree of substitution and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylation of polysaccharides were successful. Compared with unmodified polysaccharides, the contents of carbohydrate and protein were decreased while CM-CP3 with highest DS value had more uronic acid. The carboxymethyl derivatives was mainly composed of Ara, Gal, Glc, Man, GalA, with a molecular weight (Mw) of 1.03-1.08 × 10(6)Da. Compared with the native polysaccharide, the CM-CP3 with highest DS and Mw exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in β-carotene-linoleic acid assay. However, the superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were decreased by CM-CPs. These results demonstrated appropriate carboxymethylation modification could enhance the potential of C. paliurus polysaccharide as oxidation inhibitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC on Mechanical Properties of Cold Water Fish Gelatin Biodegradable Edible Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Tabari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The tendency to use biocompatible packages, such as biodegradable films, is growing since they contain natural materials, are recyclable and do not cause environmental pollution. In this research, cold water fish gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose were combined for use in edible films. Due to its unique properties, gelatin is widely used in creating gel, and in restructuring, stabilizing, emulsifying, and forming foam and film in food industries. This research for the first time modified and improved the mechanical properties of cold water fish gelatin films in combination with carboxymethyl cellulose. Cold water fish gelatin films along with carboxymethyl cellulose with concentrations of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20% and 50% were prepared using the casting method. The mechanical properties were tested by the American National Standard Method. Studying the absorption isotherm of the resulting composite films specified that the humidity of single-layer water decreased (p < 0.05 and caused a reduction in the equilibrium moisture of these films. In the mechanical testing of the composite films, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus significantly increased and the elongation percent significantly decreased with the increase in the concentration of carboxymethyl cellulose. Considering the biodegradability of the films and the improvement of their mechanical properties by carboxymethyl cellulose, this kind of packaging can be used in different industries, especially the food industry, as an edible coating for packaging food and agricultural crops.

  7. Optimizing Extraction of Cellulose and Synthesizing Pharmaceutical Grade Carboxymethyl Sago Cellulose from Malaysian Sago Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Veeramachineni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sago biomass is an agro-industrial waste produced in large quantities, mainly in the Asia-Pacific region and in particular South-East Asia. This work focuses on using sago biomass to obtain cellulose as the raw material, through chemical processing using acid hydrolysis, alkaline extraction, chlorination and bleaching, finally converting the material to pharmaceutical grade carboxymethyl sago cellulose (CMSC by carboxymethylation. The cellulose was evaluated using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy (FESEM. The extracted cellulose was analyzed for cellulose composition, and subsequently modified to CMSC with a degree of substitution (DS 0.6 by typical carboxymethylation reactions. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the crystallinity of the sago cellulose was reduced after carboxymethylation. FTIR and NMR studies indicate that the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers were etherified through carboxymethylation to produce CMSC. Further characterization of the cellulose and CMSC were performed using FESEM and DSC. The purity of CMSC was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM International standards. In this case, acid and alkaline treatments coupled with high-pressure defibrillation were found to be effective in depolymerization and defibrillation of the cellulose fibers. The synthesized CMSC also shows no toxicity in the cell line studies and could be exploited as a pharmaceutical excipient.

  8. Design and construction of polymerized-chitosan coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles and its application for hydrophobic drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yongling [Key Laboratory for Liquid–solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Shen, Shirley Z. [Materials Science and Engineering, CSIRO, Highett Vic 3190 (Australia); Sun, Huadong [College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qing Dao 266555 (China); Sun, Kangning, E-mail: sunkangning@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu, Futian, E-mail: mse_liuft@ujn.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Engineering Ceramics Key Laboratory of Shandong Province, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Qi, Yushi; Yan, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel hydrogel, chitosan (CS) crosslinked carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) polymer modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized for delivering hydrophobic anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (CS-CDpoly-MNPs). Carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin being grafted on the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (CDpoly-MNPs) contributed to an enhancement of adsorption capacities because of the inclusion abilities of its hydrophobic cavity with insoluble anticancer drugs through host–guest interactions. Experimental results indicated that the amounts of crosslinking agent and bonding times played a crucial role in determining morphology features of the hybrid nanocarriers. The nanocarriers exhibited a high loading efficiency (44.7 ± 1.8%) with a high saturation magnetization of 43.8 emu/g. UV–Vis spectroscopy results showed that anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) could be successfully included into the cavities of the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs. Moreover, the free carboxymethyl groups could enhance the bonding interactions between the covalently linked CDpoly-MNPs and anticancer drugs. In vitro release studies revealed that the release behaviors of CS-CDpoly-MNPs carriers were pH dependent and demonstrated a swelling and diffusion controlled release. A lower pH value led to swelling effect and electrostatic repulsion contributing to the protonation amine impact of NH{sub 3}{sup +}, and thus resulted in a higher release rate of 5-Fu. The mechanism of 5-Fu encapsulated into the magnetic chitosan nanoparticles was tentatively proposed. - Graphical abstract: A novel nanocarrier, chitosan-coated magnetic drug carrier nanoparticle (CS-CDpoly-MNPs) is fabricated for the delivery of insoluble anticancer drug by grafting CM-β-CD onto the magnetite surface. The grafting of CM-dextrins onto the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocrystal clusters can markedly increase the loading capacity of 5-Fu by virtue of CM-dextrins/5-Fu inclusion complex

  9. Design and evaluation of chitosan/ethylcellulose mucoadhesive bilayered devices for buccal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuñán-López, C; Portero, A; Vila-Jato, J L; Alonso, M J

    1998-11-13

    This paper describes the preparation of new buccal bilayered devices comprising a drug-containing mucoadhesive layer and a drug-free backing layer, by two different methods. Bilaminated films were produced by a casting/solvent evaporation technique and bilayered tablets were obtained by direct compression. The mucoadhesive layer was composed of a mixture of drug and chitosan, with or without an anionic crosslinking polymer (polycarbophil, sodium alginate, gellan gum), and the backing layer was made of ethylcellulose. The double-layered structure design was expected to provide drug delivery in a unidirectional fashion to the mucosa and avoid loss of drug due to wash-out with saliva. Using nifedipine and propranolol hydrochloride as slightly and highly water-soluble model drugs, respectively, it was demonstrated that these new devices show promising potential for use in controlled delivery of drugs to the oral cavity. The uncrosslinked chitosan-containing devices absorbed a large quantity of water, gelled and then eroded, allowing drug release. The bilaminated films showed a sustained drug release in a phosphate buffer (pH 6.4). Furthermore, tablets that displayed controlled swelling and drug release and adequate adhesivity were produced by in situ crosslinking the chitosan with polycarbophil.

  10. Laccase-Based CLEAs: Chitosan as a Novel Cross-Linking Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arsenault

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccase from Coriolopsis Polyzona was insolubilized as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs for the first time with chitosan as the cross-linking agent. Concentrations between 0.01 and 1.867 g/L of chitosan were used and between 0.05 and 600 mM of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The laccase was precipitated using ammonium sulphate and cross-linked simultaneously. Specific activity and thermal stability of these biocatalysts were measured. Activities of up to 737 U/g were obtained when 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS was used as a substrate. Moreover, the stability of these biocatalysts was improved with regards to thermal degradation compared to free laccase when exposed to denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH. The CLEAs stability against chemical denaturants was also tested but no significant improvement was detected. The total amount of ABTS to be oxidized during thermal degradation by CLEAs and free laccase was calculated and the insolubilized enzymes were reported to oxidize more substrate than free laccase. The formation conditions were analyzed by response surface methodology in order to determine an optimal environment for the production of efficient laccase-based CLEAs using chitosan as the cross-linking agent. After 24 hours of formation at pH 3 and at 4°C without agitation, the CLEAs exhibit the best specific activity.

  11. Effect of Ractopamine Hydrochloride and Zilpaterol Hydrochloride on tenderness of longissimus steaks of Bos Taurus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Three experiments were conducted to determine 1) the interaction of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) inclusion rate (0 or 300 mg·hd-1·d-1 for last 30 to 34 d before harvest) and dietary protein level (13.5 or 17.5% CP) on LM slice shear force (SSF) at 14 d postmortem (Exp. 1); 2) the inter...

  12. Tuneable drug-loading capability of chitosan hydrogels with varied network architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    Advanced bioactive systems with defined macroscopic properties and spatio-temporal sequestration of extracellular biomacromolecules are highly desirable for next generation therapeutics. Here, chitosan hydrogels were prepared with neutral or negatively-charged crosslinkers in order to promote selective electrostatic complexation with charged drugs. Chitosan (CT) was functionalised with varied dicarboxylic acids, such as tartaric acid (TA), poly(ethylene glycol) bis(carboxymethyl) ether (PEG), 1.4-Phenylenediacetic acid (4Ph) and 5-Sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt (PhS), whereby PhS was hypothesised to act as a simple mimetic of heparin. ATR FT-IR showed the presence of C=O amide I, N-H amide II and C=O ester bands, providing evidence of covalent network formation. The crosslinker content was reversely quantified by 1H-NMR on partially-degraded network oligomers, so that 18 mol% PhS was exemplarily determined. Swellability, compressability, material morphology, and drug-loading capability were successfull...

  13. Antibacterial Properties Associated with Chitosan Nanoparticle Treatment on Root Dentin and 2 Types of Endodontic Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carpio-Perochena, Aldo; Kishen, Anil; Shrestha, Annie; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and chitosan nanoparticles (CNps) to inactivate bacteria and prevent biofilm formation at sealer-dentin interfaces. The study was divided into 3 stages: first stage, the experiment was conducted to analyze the antibacterial properties of CMCS in different formulations against biofilms; second stage, direct-contact and membrane-restricted methods were used to evaluate the antibacterial properties of an epoxy resin (ThermaSeal Plus; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) and calcium silicate (MTA Fillapex; Angelus SA, Londrina, PR, Brazil) based-sealers with or without CNps; and third stage, biofilm formation at the sealer dentin interfaces of root dentin treated with CMCS and filled with gutta-percha and CNp incorporated sealer were analyzed after 1- and 4-week aging periods. The samples were treated and filled as follows: (1) distilled water: unaltered sealer (control group), (2) CMCS: sealer+CNps (CMCS group), and (3) CMCS/rose bengal: sealer+CNps (CMCS/RB group). Enterococcus faecalis was used to infect all the samples. Microbiological and microscopic analyses were used to assess the antibacterial characteristics. CMCS-based treatments effectively killed bacteria adherent on root dentin (P dentin and inhibit bacterial adhesion. CNps in root canal sealers are capable of maintaining their antibacterial activity even after prolonged aging. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Compounds Recovery in Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-H. Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is a kind of cellulose ether widely used in industrial production. CMC wastewater usually have high chemical oxygen demand (COD and salinity (>10 %, which result from organic and inorganic by-products during CMC production. It is significant that the wastewater is pretreated to decrease salinity and recover valuable organics before biochemical methods are employed. In this paper, distillation-extraction method was used to pretreat CMC wastewater and recover valuable chemical compounds from wastewater (Fig. 1. Initial pH of CMC wastewater was adjusted to different values (6.5, 8.5, 9.5, 10.5, 12.0 before distillation to study the effect of pH on by-products in wastewater. By-products obtained from CMC wastewater were extracted and characterized by NMR, XRD and TGA. Distillate obtained from distillation of wastewater was treated using biological method, i.e., upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB-contact oxidation process. Domestic sewage and flushing water from manufacturing shop was added into distillate to decrease initial COD and increase nutrients such as N, P, K. Experimental results showed that by-products extracted from CMC wastewater mainly include ethoxyacetic acid and NaCl, which were confirmed by NMR and XRD (Fig. 2. TGA results of by-products indicated that the content of NaCl in inorganic by-products reached 96 %. Increasing initial pH value of CMC wastewater might significantly raise the purity of ethoxyacetic acid in organic by-products. UASB-contact oxidation process showed a good resistance to shock loading. Results of 45-day continuous operation revealed that CODCr of final effluent might be controlled below 500 mg l−1 and meet Shanghai Industrial Wastewater Discharge Standard (CODCr −1, which indicated that the treatment process in this study was appropriate to treat distillate of wastewater from CMC production industry.

  15. 21 CFR 520.1242f - Levamisole hydrochloride gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride gel. 520.1242f Section 520.1242f Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Levamisole hydrochloride gel. (a) Specifications. The drug is a gel containing 11.5 percent levamisole...

  16. Formulation of Berberine Hydrochloride and Hydroxypropyl-β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize inclusion complex of berberine hydrochloride with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in order to achieve enhanced solubility and reduced bitterness of the former. Methods: The inclusion complex of berberine hydrochloride with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (1:1) was prepared by ...

  17. Bioadhesive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioadhesive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride for improved bioavailability in cardiac therapy. ... evaluate bioadhesive buccal films of diltiazem hydrochloride (a L-type calcium channel blocker) for overcoming the limitations of frequent dosing, low bioavailability and gastrointestinal discomfort of oral delivery.

  18. 21 CFR 522.1465 - Naltrexone hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naltrexone hydrochloride injection. 522.1465 Section 522.1465 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1465 Naltrexone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...

  19. 21 CFR 522.1642 - Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection. 522.1642 Section 522.1642 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1642 Oxymorphone hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 1 or 1.5...

  20. 21 CFR 522.536 - Detomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Detomidine hydrochloride injection. 522.536 Section 522.536 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.536 Detomidine hydrochloride injection. (a) Specification. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...

  1. 21 CFR 522.1452 - Nalorphine hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nalorphine hydrochloride injection. 522.1452 Section 522.1452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 522.1452 Nalorphine hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of aqueous solution...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2474 - Tolazoline hydrochloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. 522.2474... § 522.2474 Tolazoline hydrochloride injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous...—(i) Amount. Administer slowly by intravenous injection 4 milligrams per kilogram of body weight or 1...

  3. 21 CFR 522.1222 - Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. 522.1222 Section 522.1222 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1222 Ketamine hydrochloride injectable dosage forms. ...

  4. 21 CFR 520.1242 - Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. 520... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1242 Levamisole hydrochloride oral dosage forms. ...

  5. Formulation of Extended-Release Metformin Hydrochloride Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    hydrochloride using a combination of a hydrophobic carrier and a hydrophilic polymer, and two types of formulation techniques. Methods: Various metformin hydrochloride formulations containing a hydrophobic carrier (stearic acid) and a hydrophilic polymer ..... be attributed to the dissolution of drug from the tablet surface.

  6. Formulation of Berberine Hydrochloride and Hydroxypropyl-β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize inclusion complex of berberine hydrochloride with hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin in order to achieve enhanced solubility and reduced bitterness of the former. Methods: The inclusion complex of berberine hydrochloride with hydroxypropyl-â-cyclodextrin (1:1) was prepared by ...

  7. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  8. SYNTHESIS 7-O-CARBOXYMETHYL-3’,4’-DIMETHOXYISOFLAVONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Hairil Alimuddin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 7-O-carboxymethyl-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone from 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone derived from eugenol had been done. 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone was first converted into 7-O-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone via substitution of hydroxyl group at 7-O position by ethyl-2 chloro acetate through bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction (SN2. Hydrolysis of ester group of 7-O-ethoxycarbonylmethyl-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone using KOH produce 7-O-carboxymethyl-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavone in 93.4% yield as a white solid with melting point of 155-159 °C.

  9. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham ThiLe Ha; Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Inst., No.1 Nguyen Tu Luc, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by {gamma}-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 {mu}g/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  10. Development and evaluation of controlled-release buccoadhesive verapamil hydrochloride tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami J.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study: Verapamil hydrochloride is a calcium channel blocker which is used in the control of supraventricular arrhythmia, hypertension and myocardial infraction. There are considerable inter-individual variations in serum concencentration of verpamil due to variation in the extent of hepatic metabolism. In this study controlled-release buccoadhesive tablets of verapamil hydrochloride (VPH were prepared in order to achieve constant plasma concentrations, to improve the bioavailability by the avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism, and to prevent frequent administration. Materials and methods: Tablets containing fixed amount of VPH were prepared by direct compression method using polymers like carbomer (CP, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC in various combination and ratios and evaluated for thickness, weight variation, hardness, drug content uniformity, swelling, mucoadhesive strength, drug release and possible interaction between ingredients. Results: All tablets were acceptable with regard to thickness, weight variation, hardness, and drug content. The maximum bioadhesive strength was observed in tablets formulated with a combination of CP-NaCMC followed by CP-HPMC and NaCMC-HPMC.  Decreasing the content of CP in CP-HPMC tablets or NaCMC in CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC systems resulted in decrease in detachment forces. Lower release rates were observed by lowering the content of CP in CP-HPMC containing formulations or NaCMC in tablets which contained CP-NaCMC or NaCMC-HPMC. The release behavior was non-Fickian controlled by a combination of diffusion and chain relaxation mechanisms and best fitted zero-order kinetics. Conclusion: The buccoadhesive VPH tablets containing 53% CP and 13.3% HPMC showed suitable release kinetics (n = 0.78, K0 zero order release = 4.11 mg/h, MDT = 5.66 h and adhesive properties and did not show any interaction between polymers and drug based on

  11. Effects of anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 carried with chitosan polylactic acid-coated nano-particles on the treatment of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhuo; Zhao, Xinghui; Li, Xiuli; Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhongyu; Li, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Failure in early diagnosis and ineffective treatment are the major causes of ovarian cancer mortality. Hyaluronan and its receptor, cluster of differentiation (CD)44, have been considered to be valid targets for treating cancer. The anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody IM7 is effective in treating ovarian cancer; however, its toxicity should not be ignored. The present study has developed a new drug carrier system composed of chitosan nano-particles coated with polylactic acid (PLA) to improve the treatment efficacy and reduce toxicity. An ionic crosslinking method and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide were used to prepare the IM7 antibody, which was loaded with chitosan nano-particles. The surfaces of the nano-particles were coated with PLA to generate PLA-chitosan-IM7. Subsequently, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the size and zeta potential of the nano-particles. In addition, a spectrophotometer was used to calculate the loading rate and release rate of the nano-particles in acidic and neutral environments. MTT assay was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the human ovarian cancer cell line HO-8910PM. In addition, an in vivo imaging system was used to further investigate the effect of PLA-chitosan-IM7 on the treatment of mice with ovarian cancer. A total of 35 days subsequent to PLA-chitosan-IM7 treatment, all animals were sacrificed by CO 2 , and the tumors were removed and weighted. The PLA-chitosan-IM7 nano-particles were successfully prepared, since TEM revealed that their size was 300-400 nm and their zeta potential was +25 mV. According to the spectrophotometry results, the loading rate was 52%, and PLA-chitosan-IM7 exhibited good resistance to acids. MTT assay demonstrated that PLA-chitosan-IM7 could suppress the proliferation of HO-8910PM cells in vitro . The in vivo imaging system revealed that PLA-chitosan-IM7 was effective in controlling the

  12. A study on biosorption of copper ions by fungal chitosan: an alternative to shrimp chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Behnam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : One of the main applications of chitosan is for heavy metals removal from waste waters. Industrially, chitosan is produced through deacetylation of chitin present in shellfish waste. Another source of chitosan is the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi with several advantages over shellfish wastes .   Materials and method s: Fungal chitosan purified from biomass of Mucor indicus and shrimp chitosan were applied and compared for removal of copper ions from aqueous solution. The effects of pH (3 to 5.5, copper ion concentration (5 to 52 mg l-1, the amount of chitosan (200 to 3000 mg l-1, adsorption time, temperature, and presence of other metal ions on the biosorption of Cu2+ were investigated .   Results : Maximum adsorption capacities for fungal and shrimp chitosans were 58.5 and 60.7 mg g-1, respectively. T he rate of copper adsorption by the fungal chitosan was significantly higher than that by the shrimp chitosan. Among p seudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion, and Elovich models, Ho’s pseudo-second order model was the best model for fitting the kinetic data. The adsorption capacity increased for both types of chitosans by increasing the solution pH. However, temperature and presence of other ions did not show significant effects on the biosorption capacity of copper. The isotherm data were very well described by Langmuir, Freundlich, and Redlich-Peterson models .   Discussion and conclusion : Both fungal and shrimp chitosans can effectively be used for removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption process for fungal chitosan is fast, while the process is slower for the shrimp chitosan. Therefore, from the kinetics point of view, the fungal chitosan is preferable compared with the shrimp chitosan . Key words: Biosorption, Copper, Fungal chitosan, Shrimp chitosan, Water treatment .

  13. Tip-loaded dissolving microneedles for transdermal delivery of donepezil hydrochloride for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yeon; Han, Mee-Ree; Kim, Yong-Han; Shin, Seung-Woo; Nam, Su-Youn; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride (DPH) is often used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A new treatment method was developed by encapsulating high DPH content in the tips of dissolving microneedles for rapid, transdermal delivery of a predetermined dose of DPH. The microneedles were prepared by a micromolding method using a hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC)-ethanol/water mixture (80:20, v/v) for the tips and carboxy-methyl cellulose (CMC)-water for the base of the needles. The micromolding method involved centrifuging a DPH-HPMC-ethanol/water mixture at 10°C to obtain tips with sufficient mechanical strength. To test their mechanical strength, microneedles with different DPH content were inserted into porcine skin. Then the amount of DPH encapsulated in the microneedles was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. The efficiency of administering DPH tip-loaded microneedles was investigated using four administrations of a pharmacokinetic test: (1) two oral administration groups (283μg/kg and 692μg/kg) and (2) two microneedle administration groups (283μg/kg and 692μg/kg). High DPH content (up to 78%, w/w) was encapsulated in the microneedle tips without serious loss of mechanical strength by using a mixture of hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose (HPMC) and ethanol/water mixture (80:20, v/v). Because of the distribution of DPH in the tips, 95% of the DPH was delivered into porcine skin after 5min of insertion. As measured by Cmax and AUC, transdermal delivery of DPH tip-loaded microneedles was more effective compared to oral administration of the same dose of DPH. Transdermal delivery could replace oral administration of DPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of hydrogel modified drilling fluid: preparation, rheological properties and swelling behaviors of Chitosan N-Isopropylacrylamide hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamsilian, Y.; Ramazani, S.A.A. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering], E-mails: ramazani@sharif.edu; tamsilian@gmail.com

    2012-04-15

    Chitosan N-Isopropylacrylamide hydrogels were synthesized by thermal and gamma radiation methods. The thermal method used an initiator and a cross linker while the gamma radiation process was done in absence of any kind of initiator or cross linker agent. The study found that the gamma radiation method produced hydrogels with higher water swelling ratio. The rheological properties of the hydrogels used in the preparation of drilling fluids were investigated. Properties such as apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, gel strength, and yield point were compared with those of Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) and Xanthenes (XC) resins, which are widely used in drilling fluids. The hydrogel synthesized by gamma radiation improved rheological properties of drilling fluids better than CMC, XC, and thermal prepared hydrogel. Also, comparison results show that whereas linear polymer effects on mud properties are more significant in low polymer concentration, prepared crosslinked hydrogel effects are more prominent at high concentrations. (author)

  15. [Properties, products, and applications of chitosan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Changqing; Gu, Qisheng

    2010-10-01

    To review and analyze the properties, products, and applications of chitosan so as to explore the key molecular structure parameters which can affect the properties and applications significantly, and to reveal the relationship between molecular structures and properties so as to provide reference for further development of chitosan industry and scientific research. Based on the collection and analysis of related literature, patents and medical products derived from chitosan, as well as the author's experiences in research and development, evaluation and standardization of chitosan, the paper was prepared to bring more attentions into the correlativity between structure and properties of chitosan. Potential risks in clinical application of chitosan-based preparations were seriously proposed in addition to a scientific review and analysis on relationships between chitosan structure and properties, as well as the present situations of developments and applications of chitosan. The molecular structure is the crucial factor that can bring not only positive but also passive effects to the properties and applications of chitosan, especially for highly purified chitosan, molecular weight, and deacetylation degree are the most important parameters that should be focused more attention on.

  16. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shete, Amol S; Yadav, Adhikrao V; Murthy, Srinivasa M

    2012-01-01

    .... There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol...

  17. Hydrochloride salt co-crystals: preparation, characterization and physicochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Vijaykumar K; Shah, Shailesh A

    2013-01-01

    Co-crystallization approach for modification of physicochemical properties of hydrochloride salt is presented. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of co-crystallization with different co-crystal formers on physicochemical properties of fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH). FH was screened for co-crystallization with a series of carboxylic acid co-formers by slow evaporation method. Photomicrographs and melting points of crystalline phases were determined. The co-crystals were characterized by FTIR, DSC and PXRD methods. Solubility of co-crystals was determined in water and buffer solutions. Powder and intrinsic dissolution profiles were assessed for co-crystals. Physical mixtures of drug and co-formers were used for comparisons at characterizations and physicochemical properties evaluation stages. Four co-crystals of FH viz. Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid (FH-MA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-glutaric acid (FH-GA), Fluoxetine hydrochloride-L-tartaric acid (FH-LTA) and Fluoxetine hydrochloride-DL-tartaric acid (FH-DLTA) were obtained from screening experiments. Physical characterization showed that they have unique crystal morphology, thermal, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction properties. Solubility and dissolution studies showed that Fluoxetine hydrochloride-maleic acid co-crystal possess high aqueous solubility in distilled water, pH 4.6, 7.0 buffer solutions and dissolution rate in distilled water than that of pure drug. Co-crystal formation approach can be used for ionic API to tailor its physical properties.

  18. Production and physicochemical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose films enriched with spent coffee grounds polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Teixeira, Jose A.

    2018-01-01

    Extracts rich in polysaccharides were obtained by alkali pretreatment (PA) or autohydrolysis (PB) of spent coffee grounds, and incorporated into a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based film aiming at the development of bio-based films with new functionalities. Different concentrations of PA or PB (up...

  19. Optimization of Carboxymethyl-Xyloglucan-Based Tramadol Matrix Tablets Using Simplex Centroid Mixture Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini R. Madgulkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to determine the release-modifying effect of carboxymethyl xyloglucan for oral drug delivery. Sustained release matrix tablets of tramadol HCl were prepared by wet granulation method using carboxymethyl xyloglucan as matrix forming polymer. HPMC K100M was used in a small amount to control the burst effect which is most commonly seen with natural hydrophilic polymers. A simplex centroid design with three independent variables and two dependent variables was employed to systematically optimize drug release profile. Carboxymethyl xyloglucan , HPMC K100M , and dicalcium phosphate were taken as independent variables. The dependent variables selected were percent of drug release at 2nd hour and at 8th hour . Response surface plots were developed, and optimum formulations were selected on the basis of desirability. The formulated tablets showed anomalous release mechanism and followed matrix drug release kinetics, resulting in regulated and complete release from the tablets within 8 to 10 hours. The polymer carboxymethyl xyloglucan and HPMC K100M had significant effect on drug release from the tablet (. Polynomial mathematical models, generated for various response variables using multiple regression analysis, were found to be statistically significant (. The statistical models developed for optimization were found to be valid.

  20. Cooperative action of cellulase enzyme and carboxymethyl cellulose on cotton fabric cleanability from a topographical standpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cotton treatment with cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose on soil release of three different types of fabric: woven plain, woven twill and knitted were systematically studied. A recent study of the effect of a cleaning cellulase enzyme on cellulose films has proven

  1. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...

  2. [Evaluation of the influence of sterilization method on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose wound dressing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muselík, Jan; Wojnarová, Lenka; Masteiková, Ruta; Sopuch, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose, especially its sodium salt, is a versatile pharmaceutical excipient. From a therapeutic point of view, sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose is used in the production of modern wound dressings to allow moist wound healing. Wound dressings must be sterile and stable throughout their shelf life and have to be able to withstand different temperature conditions. At the present time, a number of sterilization methods are available. In the case of polymeric materials, the selected sterilization process must not induce any changes in the polymer structure, such as polymer chains cleavage, changes in cross-linking, etc. This paper evaluates the influence of different sterilization methods (γ-radiation, β-radiation, ethylene oxide) on the stability of carboxymethyl cellulose and the results of long-term and accelerated stability testing. Evaluation of samples was performed using size-exclusion chromatography. The obtained results showed that ethylene oxide sterilization was the least aggressive variant of the sterilization methods tested. When the γ-radiation sterilization was used, the changes in the size of the carboxymethyl cellulose molecule occurred. In the course of accelerated and long term stability studies, no further degradation changes were observed, and thus sterilized samples are suitable for long term storage.

  3. Highly transparent films from carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose: The effect of multiple homogenization steps on key properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David; Hedenqvist, M.

    2011-01-01

    We produced microfibrillated cellulose by passing carboxymethylated sulfite-softwood-dissolving pulp with a relatively low hemicellulose content (4.5%) through a high-shear homogenizer. The resulting gel was subjected to as many as three additional homogenization steps and then used to prepare...

  4. Irradiation gamma on chitosan films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Luana Miranda Lopes de; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lumilopes@hotmail.com, E-mail: drilavras@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Films are preformed structures, independent, that are used to wrap food after processing, increasing their shelf life and enhancing its bright and attractive appearance. They are prepared from biological materials as an alternative to the plastic synthetic containers to improve the quality of the environment. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer composed of β-(1-4) linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is a structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. She is able to form films and edible and/or biodegradable coatings. With the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and chitosan concentrations (1 and 2%) in film properties, it was evaluated its optical, mechanical and morphological properties. The films were produced by casting. Irradiation did not affect the thickness of the films, but influenced its colors, increasing the tone of the film for a stronger yellowish color. This fact can be attributed to the increased concentration of C = O bonds of chitosan due to the breakdown of the chain reaction and the Maillard reaction. Irradiated films showed smoother surface and less rough, due to the degradation of the chitosan molecule and poor mechanical properties, not showing good flexibility and stretching. (author)

  5. Simultaneous UV Spectrophotometric Estimation of Ambroxol Hydrochloride and Levocetirizine Dihydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S. Lakshmana; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Shirwaikar, Annie; Kumar, C. Dinesh; Kumar, G. Aravind

    2008-01-01

    A novel, simple, sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride. The method involved solving simultaneous equations based on measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths 242 nm and 231 nm, the γ max of ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride, respectively. Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range 10–50 μg/ml and 8–24 μg/ml for ambroxol hydrochloride and levocetirizine dihydrochloride respectively. Results of the method were validated statistically and by recovery studies. PMID:20046721

  6. Brain targeted delivery of mucoadhesive thermosensitive nasal gel of selegiline hydrochloride for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Vinay; Wairkar, Sarika; Gaud, Ram; Bajaj, Amrita; Meshram, Pramod

    2017-07-18

    Selegiline hydrochloride (SL), is an anti-Parkinson's agent, has low-oral bioavailability due to its high first pass metabolism and scarce oral absorption. In the present study, SL mucoadhesive nasal thermosensitive gel (SNT-gel) was prepared to enhance the bioavailability and subsequently, its concentration in the brain. The SNT-gel was prepared using Poloxamer 407-Chitosan combination and optimised formulation was further evaluated for physicochemical parameters. The comparative pharmacodynamic studies including behavioural studies, biochemical testing and histopathology of the brain was carried out in rats for SNT-gel, SL-nasal solution and SL Marketed Tablets. The optimised SNT-gel formulation (SNT-V) revealed sol-gel transition at 33-34°C. In-vitro diffusion study of SNT-V showed 102.37 ± 2.1% diffusion at 12 h which reduced to 89.64 ± 1.2% in Ex-vivo diffusion. Comparative results of behavioural studies indicated an improved score of photoactometer and reduced motor deficit (catalepsy score) in SNT-gel treatment group as compared with other groups. Similarly, a significant increase in brain dopamine, reduction in monoamine oxidase B level, increase in catalase activity and level of reduced glutathione upon treatment with SNT-gel indicated its effectiveness which was also supported by histopathology results. Therefore, nasal thermosensitive gel holds better potential for brain targeting in Parkinson's disease over the conventional nasal or oral formulations.

  7. Characterization of chitosan composites with various clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Sionkowska, Alina; Kaczmarek, Beata; Furtos, Gabriel

    2014-04-01

    The structural properties, thermal behaviour and mechanical properties of composites of chitosan (Ch) with nanoclay (montmorillonite, MMT) and/or nanoclays after surface modification have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a tensile tests. The microstructure obtained by SEM and AFM microscopy for unmodified chitosan and its composites showed that particles are relatively well dispersed in the chitosan matrix. However, the increasing concentration of the chitosan solution from 1% to 2% decreases the homogeneity of the surface of the composites. In the case of chitosan composite with modified nanoclay (contains 25-30 wt.% of octadecylamine), the lack of particles aggregates in polymer matrix independent of the concentration of chitosan solution was observed. Generally, addition of nanoclay after its surface modification improved the mechanical and thermal properties of the composite much more than montmorillonite without modification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  9. Protein adsorption and separation on amphoteric chitosan/carboxymethylcellulose membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhicheng; Shao, Zhengzhong; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin

    2008-09-01

    This article reported the preparation of an amphoteric natural polymeric membrane-macroporous chitosan (CS)/carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) blend membrane and the utilization of such a membrane on the membrane chromatography for bioseparation. The membranes were prepared by solution blending of CS and CMC solution, and using silica particles as porogen. Both glutaraldehyde and epichlorohydrin were used as crosslinking agent to increase its chemical stability in aqueous solution. Such a natural polymeric membrane can be served as an amphoteric membrane because of the amino group on CS and the carboxymethyl group on CMC, in which the surface charge can be changed with the environmental pH. Ovalbumin (pI = 4.6) and lysozyme (pI = 11) were selected as model proteins. These two proteins adsorption on different CS/CMC blend membranes with different initial protein concentrations at different pH values were investigated in batch systems. The results indicated that the maximum adsorption for lysozyme and ovalbumin was at pH 9.2 and 4.8 respectively, and the adsorption capacity on the membrane both increased with the increase of initial protein concentration. Though the adsorption mechanism of lysozyme and ovalbumin was found not the same, the maximum adsorption capacity of two proteins on the membranes was quite similar (about 250 mg/g). Moreover, the desorption ratio of both proteins was found to be more than 90% that implied CS/CMC blend membrane could separate proteins by adsorption-desorption process. Finally, both lysozyme and ovalbumin were successfully separated from their binary mixture only by adjusting the pH of the feed and the desorption solution.

  10. Treatment of infantile colic with dicyclomine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbluth, M; Christoffel, K K; Davis, A T

    1984-06-01

    We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dicyclomine hydrochloride using specific diagnostic criteria for infantile colic: spells of unexplained irritability, agitation, fussiness or crying lasting greater than or equal to 3 hours/day, occurring greater than or equal to 3 days/week, and continuing for greater than or equal to 3 weeks. Dicyclomine eliminated colic in 15 of 24 (63%) infants, whereas placebo was effective in six of 24 (25%) (corrected X2 = 5.42, P = 0.02). The study also addressed the hypothesis that parental distress caused by infantile colic affects subsequent temperament and sleep patterns. The data fail to document easier temperaments or longer sleep durations at 4 months in infants whose colic ceased during treatment.

  11. A novel formulation for mebeverine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh M; Abdel-Hady, Seham E; El-Shamy, Abdel-Hamid A; El-Dessouky, Hadir F

    2007-10-01

    The antispasmodic drug mebeverine hydrochloride was formulated into a film-forming gel to be used as a topical local anesthetic. A mixture of cellulose derivatives was used as a base. Additives were used to enhance the release as well as the residence time. Formulations were characterized in terms of drug release, mucoadhesion and rheology. Clinically, the selected formula has shown faster onset (p = 0.0156), longer duration (p = 0.0313), better film residence (p = 0.0313), and no foreign body sensation (p = 0.0313) in comparison to Solcoseryl dental paste. Histopathological examination showed no change in inflammatory cells count, concluding that this topical anesthetic is efficacious and safe orally.

  12. Supramolecular assembly in the epiisopiloturine hydrochloride salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafud, Ana Carolina; Reinheimer, Eric W.; Lima, Filipe Camargo Dalmatti Alves; Batista, Larissa Fernandes; de Paula, Karina; Véras, Leiz Maria Costa; de Souza de Almeida Leite, José Roberto; Venancio, Tiago; Mascarenhas, Yvonne Primerano

    2017-05-01

    Epiisopiloturine hydrochloride (Epi-HCl) salt was synthetized from epiisopiloturine, an in vivo anthelmintic compound against Schistosoma mansoni worms. Despite there being no acute toxicity in mammalian cells, the compound's water insolubility makes its administration difficult. In this communication, we report the characterization of Epi-HCl its features by spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and PXRD. The single crystals suitable to X-ray diffraction were grown by slow evaporation technique. To better understand the nature of Epi-HCl' solid state, SS-NMR was also used. The salt's intramolecular structure was maintained via cation-pi intramolecular interactions, which in conjunction with hydrogen bonding, gives rise to an extended supramolecular assembly. The interatomic distances within the cations and environment around the chloride anion vary as function of temperature, suggesting a packing relaxation.

  13. Usage of chitosan in dairy products production

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Evdokimov; L. R. Alieva; V. P. Varlamov; V. D. Kharitonov; T. V. Butkevich; V. P. Kurchenko

    2015-01-01

    The use of chitosan can significantly reduce energy costs in the processing of milk protein and carbohydrate raw materials, and is very promising for use in the dairy industry. In solution of serum proteins, the chitosan binds β-lactoglobulin and other proteins, thus forming an insoluble complex. The formation of complexes of proteins with the chitosan can be accompanied by both a change in the balance of forces that determine the nature of intra- and intermolecular interactions of protein gl...

  14. Functionalization of Magnetic Chitosan Particles for the Sorption of U(VI, Cu(II and Zn(II—Hydrazide Derivative of Glycine-Grafted Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed F. Hamza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new magnetic functionalized derivative of chitosan is synthesized and characterized for the sorption of metal ions (environmental applications and metal valorization. The chemical modification of the glycine derivative of chitosan consists of: activation of the magnetic support with epichlorohydrin, followed by reaction with either glycine to produce the reference material (i.e., Gly sorbent or glycine ester hydrochloride, followed by hydrazinolysis to synthesize the hydrazide functionalized sorbent (i.e., HGly sorbent. The materials are characterized by titration, elemental analysis, FTIR analysis (Fourrier-transform infrared spectrometry, TGA analysis (thermogravimetric analysis and with SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The sorption performances for U(VI, Cu(II, and Zn(II are tested in batch systems. The sorption performances are compared for Gly and HGly taking into account the effect of pH, the uptake kinetics (fitted by the pseudo-second order rate equation, and the sorption isotherms (described by the Langmuir and the Sips equations. The sorption capacities of the modified sorbent reach up to 1.14 mmol U g−1, 1.69 mmol Cu g−1, and 0.85 mmol Zn g−1. In multi-metal solutions of equimolar concentration, the chemical modification changes the preferences for given metal ions. Metal ions are desorbed using 0.2 M HCl solutions and the sorbents are re-used for five cycles of sorption/desorption without significant loss in performances.

  15. Functionalization of Magnetic Chitosan Particles for the Sorption of U(VI), Cu(II) and Zn(II)-Hydrazide Derivative of Glycine-Grafted Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Mohammed F; Aly, Mohsen M; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A-H; Ramadan, Samar; Raslan, Heba; Wang, Shengye; Vincent, Thierry; Guibal, Eric

    2017-05-16

    A new magnetic functionalized derivative of chitosan is synthesized and characterized for the sorption of metal ions (environmental applications and metal valorization). The chemical modification of the glycine derivative of chitosan consists of: activation of the magnetic support with epichlorohydrin, followed by reaction with either glycine to produce the reference material (i.e., Gly sorbent) or glycine ester hydrochloride, followed by hydrazinolysis to synthesize the hydrazide functionalized sorbent (i.e., HGly sorbent). The materials are characterized by titration, elemental analysis, FTIR analysis (Fourrier-transform infrared spectrometry), TGA analysis (thermogravimetric analysis) and with SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray analysis). The sorption performances for U(VI), Cu(II), and Zn(II) are tested in batch systems. The sorption performances are compared for Gly and HGly taking into account the effect of pH, the uptake kinetics (fitted by the pseudo-second order rate equation), and the sorption isotherms (described by the Langmuir and the Sips equations). The sorption capacities of the modified sorbent reach up to 1.14 mmol U g-1, 1.69 mmol Cu g-1, and 0.85 mmol Zn g-1. In multi-metal solutions of equimolar concentration, the chemical modification changes the preferences for given metal ions. Metal ions are desorbed using 0.2 M HCl solutions and the sorbents are re-used for five cycles of sorption/desorption without significant loss in performances.

  16. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  17. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Someshwar, Komuravelly; Chithaluru, Kalyani; Ramarao, Tadikonda; Kumar, K K. Kalyan

    2011-01-01

    .... The objective of the present investigation was to develop effervescent floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34-40...

  18. [Extract berberine hydrochloride by aqueous two-phase system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi-Fu; Xiang, Xiao-Qi; Zeng, Wei-Xiang; Wu, Ting; Tian, Chun-Lian

    2011-10-01

    To study the aqueous two-phase system which could be used for extraction of berberine hydrochloride. Three aqueous two-phase systems were used for extraction experiment firstly, the best one was chosen from that, and then the single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment were carried out. 10 mL 95% ethanol with 10 mL 2.2 mol/L ammonium sulfate could make a aqueous two-phase system, added 600 mg berberine hydrochloride whose purity was 53.22% into it, regulated its pH to 4, then the system was put into water-bath heater (70 degrees C) for 30 min, the extraction rate could reach 99.29%; Collected the extraction liquid, dried it under 40 degrees C, the purity of berberine hydrochloride was 88.43%. This system is a suitable aqueous two-phase system for extraction of berberine hydrochloride.

  19. Characterization of the Subcritical Water Extraction of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B; Lambertus, Gordon; Jensen, Eric

    2012-08-10

    The characteristics of using Subcritical Water Extraction (SWE) to recover Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride from both standard solutions and the contents of commercial capsule formulations were investigated. Analysis of solutions and extracts was done by HPLC with UV detection at 254 nm. Standard solutions of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride were exposed to a variety of SWE operating conditions, including temperatures from 125 to 275°C and periods ranging from 5 to 30 min. Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride could be quantitatively recovered from standard solutions (1.0mg/mL) that were heated up to 175°C for 30 min, up to 200°C for 15 min, or up to 225°C for 10 min. At higher temperatures and/or times, Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride recoveries were generally incomplete and often produced decomposition by-products during the process. By comparison, the concentration of Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride in the standard solution had relatively little effect on recovery. Considering these parameters, an SWE method was developed to extract Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride from the contents of Prozac(®) capsules. It was found that Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride could be quantitatively extracted from the capsule contents in 8 min at a temperature of 200°C using 3.5 mL of water as the extraction solvent. Gelatinization of the starch excipient in the capsule contents was also observed to occur temporarily during the capsule extractions, before ultimately disappearing again. The period of this phenomenon was dependent on both temperature and sample size. The results indicate that SWE can be a very useful method for Fluoxetine-Hydrochloride extraction and suggest that it may be interesting to explore other pharmaceuticals using this method as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening of novel RGD peptides to modify nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liang; You, Xinru; Huang, Keqing; Kang, Yang; Chen, Yuejian; Zhu, Ying; Ren, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Jun; Qian, Hai

    2017-11-16

    New targeted RGD peptides obtained by solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) were successfully screened by Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) and used for the building of the 6-O-carboxymethyl chitosan based carrier with an active target on the surface. CRGDYC-6-O-carboxymethyl chitosan based nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) were successfully prepared by an ionic gelation method with the carrier synthesized before. Synthesis conditions and formulation parameters were optimized by determining the characteristics of nanoparticles including the particle size and drug encapsulation efficiency. 6-O-Carboxymethyl chitosan concentration, calcium chloride concentration and calcium chloride/6-O-carboxymethyl chitosan ratio all had effects on the particle size and drug encapsulation efficiency. Nanoparticles with an average diameter of 193.4 nm, an average drug loading efficiency of up to 69.5% and an average drug loading of up to 0.395% were prepared successfully with the optimal formulation. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses showed that the cellular uptake of DOX in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) was higher in the CRGDYC-modified nanoparticles compared with the unmodified nanoparticles. In vivo imaging showed that the distribution of CRGDYC-modified nanoparticles in the tumor site was higher compared with the unmodified nanoparticles. These results suggest that CRGDYC-6-O-carboxymethyl chitosan may be a promising cancer targeting carrier which can enhance the intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of the drug-loaded nanoparticles.

  1. Preparation of chitosan nanofibers from completely deacetylated chitosan powder by a downsizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklog, Yihun Fantahun; Dutta, Ajoy Kumar; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan nanofibers were easily prepared from fully deacetylated chitosan dry powder using a high-pressure waterjet system. From SEM observation, after 10 cycles of treatment, most of the chitosan had been reduced to homogeneous nanofibers measuring tens of nanometers. On the other hand, further mechanical treatment did not show a significant change. Relative crystallinity of chitosan nanofibers gradually decreased as the number of passes increased since high-pressure waterjet treatment damaged the crystalline region of chitosan nanofibers. The transmittance of the chitosan nanofiber slurry increased steeply, as the number of passes increased, indicating that the chitosan fibers were disintegrated effectively. Viscosity of chitosan nanofiber slurry also showed that the chitosan disintegrated well into nanofibers up to 10 passes. Above 10 passes, disintegration efficiency was saturated. The molecular weights of the nanofibers steeply decreased due to the depolymerization of chitosan by mechanical disintegration. The Young's modulus and tensile strength of chitosan nanofiber sheets were improved as the number of treatments increased, but further treatments deteriorated the tensile strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Chitosan and fabrication of Chitosan hydrogels matrices for biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charhouf I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of injectable hydrogels for drug delivery is a major challenge. Chitosan is a copolymer of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine units and is represented as a copolymer. Chitosan occurs in nature in the cell walls of some fungi, exoskeletons of insects and marine animals such as crabs and prawns. Chitosan and its derivatives possess a wide range of useful properties. They are biodegradable, and biocompatible with antibacterial and antioxidant activities. They are useful in drug delivery formulations and tissue engineering. The objective of the present study was to characterize chitosan, prepare chitosan hydrogels and study the gelation of this hydrogels over time. Chitosan with DDA% ∼ 80%–90% were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, conductimetry and pH-metry. In addition, chitosan hydrogels were prepared using an ionic gelation method making it suitable for biomedical applications.

  3. In vitro replication studies of carboxymethylated DNA lesions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae polymerase η.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Ashley L; Wang, Jianshuang; Wang, Yinsheng

    2011-09-06

    Humans are exposed to N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) both endogenously and exogenously from a number of environmental sources, and NOCs are both mutagenic and carcinogenic. After metabolic activation, some NOCs can induce carboxymethylation of nucleobases through a diazoacetate intermediate, which could give rise to p53 mutations similar to those seen in human gastrointestinal cancers. It was previously found that the growth of polymerase η-deficient human cells was inhibited by treatment with azaserine, a DNA carboxymethylation agent, suggesting the importance of this polymerase in bypassing the azaserine-induced carboxymethylated DNA lesions. In this study, we examined how carboxymethylated DNA lesions, which included N(6)-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (N(6)-CMdA), N(4)-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (N(4)-CMdC), N3-carboxymethylthymidine (N3-CMdT), and O(4)-carboxymethylthymidine (O(4)-CMdT), perturbed the efficiency and fidelity of DNA replication mediated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae polymerase η (pol η). Our results from steady-state kinetic assay showed that pol η could readily bypass and extend past N(6)-CMdA and incorporated the correct nucleotides opposite the lesion and its neighboring 5'-nucleoside with high efficiency. By contrast, the polymerase could bypass N(4)-CMdC inefficiently, with substantial misincorporation of dCMP followed by dAMP, though pol η could extend past the lesion with high fidelity and efficiency when dGMP was incorporated opposite the lesion. On the other hand, yeast pol η experienced great difficulty in bypassing O(4)-CMdT and N3-CMdT, and the polymerase inserted preferentially the incorrect dGMP opposite these two DNA lesions; the extension step, nevertheless, occurred with high fidelity and efficiency when the correct dAMP was opposite the lesion, as opposed to the preferentially incorporated incorrect dGMP. These results suggest that these lesions may contribute significantly to diazoacetate-induced mutations and those in

  4. In Vitro Osteogenic and Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Seeded on Carboxymethyl Cellulose-Hydroxyapatite Hybrid Hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella eTeti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human dental pulp have been considered as an alternative source of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages.Recently, polysaccharide based hydrogels have become especially attractive as matrices for the repair and regeneration of a wide variety of tissues and organs. The incorporation of inorganic minerals as hydroxyapatite nanoparticles can modulate the performance of the scaffolds with potential applications in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to verify the osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs cultured on a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Human DPSCs were seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel and on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel for 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days. Cell viability assay and ultramorphological analysis were carried out to evaluate biocompatibility and cell adhesion. Real Time PCR was carried out to demonstrate the expression of osteogenic and odontogenic markers. Results showed a good adhesion and viability in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel, while a low adhesion and viability was observed in cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel. Real Time PCR data demonstrated a temporal up-regulation of osteogenic and odontogenic markers in dental pulp stem cells cultured on carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. In conclusion, our in vitro data confirms the ability of DPSCs to differentiate toward osteogenic and odontogenic lineages in presence of a carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Taken together, our results provide evidence that DPSCs and carboxymethyl cellulose—hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel could be considered promising candidates for dental pulp complex and periodontal tissue engineering.

  5. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/genipin/poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) films for controlled release drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldana, Ana Agustina, E-mail: aaldana@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Edificio de Ciencias II, Medina Allende y Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba 5000 (Argentina); Gonzalez, Agustin, E-mail: agustingonzalez@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Edificio de Ciencias II, Medina Allende y Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba 5000 (Argentina); Strumia, Miriam C., E-mail: mcs@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Edificio de Ciencias II, Medina Allende y Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba 5000 (Argentina); Martinelli, Marisa, E-mail: mmartinelli@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), Edificio de Ciencias II, Medina Allende y Haya de la Torre, Ciudad Universitaria, Cordoba 5000 (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-linked chitosan films using genipin and/or PVP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propranolol hydrochloride was used like a model drug to release studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporating PVP improves mechanical and diffusion properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ch-Gen 0.10% and Ch-Gen 0.10%-PVP have optimal behavior. - Abstract: The study of the physicochemical and functional properties of chitosan films cross-linked with genipin and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) was performed in this work. Cross-linked films were prepared by casting method from acetic acid solutions. The structure and physical properties of the films were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 13}C NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical testings. Propranolol hydrochloride was used like a model drug to determine the behavior of drug release from films. The drug release capacity was measured and compared with the degree of cross-linking, mechanical properties and swelling index. There was an appropriate balance of hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and diffusion by the incorporation of PVP into the networks cross-linked with genipin. The combination of both cross-linkers allows obtaining a soft and tough material potentially applicable as a controlled release. This research represents the first report where both cross-linkers, chemical and ionic agents, are used for obtaining films. These studies suggest that the chitosan films prepared here are promising drug delivery systems for buccal application, with thermal stability and acceptable mechanical properties. Buccal films may be preferred in terms of flexibility and comfort.

  6. Fragmentation of Chitosan by Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Kasaai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of chitosan in aqueous solution by hydrochloric acid was investigated. The kinetics of fragmentation, the number of chain scissions, and polydispersity of the fragments were followed by viscometry and size exclusion chromatography. The chemical structure and the degree of N-acetylation (DA of the original chitosan and its fragments were examined by 1H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The kinetic data indicates that the reaction was of first order. The results of polydispersity and the DA suggest that the selected experimental conditions (temperature and concentration of acid were appropriate to obtain the fragments having the polydispersity and the DA similar to or slightly different from those of the original one. A procedure to estimate molecular weight of fragments as well as the number of chain scissions of the fragments under the experimental conditions was also proposed.

  7. Simultaneous Estimation of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Capecitabine Hydrochloride in Combined Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride in combined tablet dosage form. An inertsil ODS-3 C-18 column having dimensions of 250×4.6 mm and particle size of 5 µm, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile : water : triethyelamine in the ratio of (70 : 28 : 2v/v was used. The pH of mobile phase was adjusted to 4.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1 mL/min and the column effluents were monitored at 260 nm. The retention time for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride was found to be 2.76 and 2.3 min respectively. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The method was found to be linear in the range of 10-50 µg/mL and 4-24 µg/mL for gemcitabine hydrochloride and capecitabine hydrochloride, with regression coefficient r = 0.999 and r = 0.999, respectively.

  8. Characterization of Chitosan Nanofiber Sheets for Antifungal Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Egusa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan produced by the deacetylation of chitin is a cationic polymer with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we demonstrate the improvement of chitosan properties by nanofibrillation. Nanofiber sheets were prepared from nanofibrillated chitosan under neutral conditions. The Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the chitosan NF sheets were higher than those of the chitosan sheets prepared from dissolving chitosan in acetic acid. The chitosan NF sheets showed strong mycelial growth inhibition against dermatophytes Microsporum and Trichophyton. Moreover, the chitosan NF sheets exhibited resistance to degradation by the fungi, suggesting potentials long-lasting usage. In addition, surface-deacetylated chitin nanofiber (SDCNF sheets were prepared. The SDCNF sheet had a high Young’s modulus and tensile strength and showed antifungal activity to dermatophytes. These data indicate that nanofibrillation improved the properties of chitosan. Thus, chitosan NF and SDCNF sheets are useful candidates for antimicrobial materials.

  9. Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A novel and biodegradable cobalt-chitosan as a magnetic heterogeneous catalyst was synthesized and characterized by XPS, FT-IR, EDX and TEM. Catalytic performance of cobalt- chitosan was tested by aerobic oxidation of alkyl arenes and alcohols. The results show that the catalyst exhibits excellent conversion for ...

  10. Effect of carboxymethylation on rheological and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Amrita; Barman, Gouranga; Mukherjee, Sudipta; Sa, Biswanath

    2016-06-25

    This study was undertaken to investigate correlation between the carboxymethylation-induced rheological changes and drug release characteristics of locust bean gum (LBG) matrix tablets. LBG was derivatized to carboxymethyl LBG (CMLBG) and characterized by (13)C NMR, FTIR and elemental analyses. Rheological studies revealed that LBG, in contact with water, produced a strong elastic gel which swelled less due to lower penetration of water resulting in slower drug release. On the other hand, CMLBG formed a viscous polymer solution through which higher influx of water resulted in rapid swelling of the matrix and faster drug release. Although the release from a particular matrix was dependent on drugs' solubilities, CMLBG matrix tablet produced faster release of all the drugs than LBG matrix tablets. In conclusion, rheological study appeared to be an useful tool to predict release of drugs from polysaccharide matrix tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of carboxymethylation on antioxidant properties and radical degradation of mannans and glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machová, Eva; Čížová, Alžbeta; Bystrický, Peter

    2014-11-04

    Carboxymethyl derivatives (CM-derivatives) of α,β-mannans from yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucan and dextran (α-glucan) were found to possess strong antioxidant activities against reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH*) compared to underivatized polysaccharides. When CM-derivatives having similar DS (0.41-0.45) were compared, the antioxidant activity decreased in order CM-mannan>CM-β-glucan>CM-dextran. Moreover, the antioxidant activities against OH* increased with increasing degree of substitution (DS) of polysaccharides. The CM-mannan and CM-dextran with the highest DS (0.73 and 1.1, respectively) were the strongest antioxidants and their degradation by OH* decreased with increased carboxymethylation. The scavenging abilities of CM-polysaccharides against stable DPPH radical (DPPH) were lower than those of original underivatized ones. Also this scavenging property against DPPH was lower compared to antioxidant effect against OH*. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mussel-inspired chitosan-polyurethane coatings for improving the antifouling and antibacterial properties of polyethersulfone membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Song, Xin; Xiang, Tao; Liu, Qiang; Su, Baihai; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-07-15

    A straightforward mussel-inspired approach was proposed to construct chitosan-polyurethane coatings and load Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to endow polyethersulfone (PES) membranes with dual-antibacterial and antifouling properties. The macromolecule O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) was directly reacted with catechol in the absence of carbodiimide chemistry to form the coating and load AgNPs via in situ reduction; while lysine (Lys) was used as a representative small molecule for comparison. Then, PEG-based polyurethane (PU) was used for constructing Lys-Ag-PU and CMC-Ag-PU composite coatings, which substantially improved the protein antifouling property of the membranes. Furthermore, the CMC-Ag-PU coating exhibited superior broad-spectrum antibacterial property towards E. coli and S. aureus than Lys-Ag-PU coating. Meanwhile, the CMC-Ag-PU coating showed sustained antifouling property against bacteria and could reload AgNPs to be regenerated as antibacterial and antifouling coating. This approach is believed to have potential to fabricate reusable antifouling and antibacterial coatings on materials surfaces for aquatic industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new chitosan Schiff base supported Pd(II) complex for microwave-assisted synthesis of biaryls compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Talat

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a new heterogeneous palladium (II) catalyst that contains O-carboxymethyl chitosan Schiff base has been designed for Suzuki coupling reactions. The chemical structures of the synthesized catalyst were characterized with the FTIR, TG/DTG, ICP-OES, SEM/EDAX, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GC/MS, XRD, and magnetic moment techniques. The reusability and catalytic behavior of heterogeneous catalyst was tested towards Suzuki reactions. As a result of the tests, excellent selectivity was obtained, and by-products of homo coupling were not seen in the spectra. The biaryls products were identified on a GC/MS. In addition, it was determined in the reusability tests that the catalysts could be used several times (seven runs). More importantly, with very low catalyst loading (6 × 10-3 mol %) in very short reaction time (5 min), chitosan Schiff base supported Pd(II) complex gave high TON and TOF values. These findings showed that Schiff base supported Pd(II) catalyst is suitable for Suzuki cross coupling reactions.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10055 - 1-Propanaminium, 3-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10055 Section 721.10055 Protection of...-amino-N-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-(carboxymethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-03-46; CAS No. 136504-87-5) is subject to...

  15. Multifaceted Applications of Chitosan in Cancer Drug Delivery and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Babu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy.

  16. Antiadhesive effect and safety of sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethyl cellulose membrane in thyroid surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Dong Sik; Woo, Jung-Woo; Paek, Se Hyun; Kwon, Hyungju; Chai, Young Jun; Kim, Su-Jin; Choi, June Young; Lee, Kyu Eun; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A number of researchers have suggested the use of sodium hyaluronate carboxymethyl cellulose (HA-CMC) membrane for preventing postoperative adhesion. This study evaluated the antiadhesive effect and safety of HA-CMC membrane in thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Methods One hundred sixty-two patients who underwent thyroidectomy were prospectively randomized. In the study group of 80 patients, the 7.5 cm ? 13 cm HA-CMC membrane was applied to the operative field after thyroide...

  17. The Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Addition on the Properties of Starch-based Wood Adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibang Qiao; Jiyou Gu; Yingfeng Zuo; Haiyan Tan; Yanhua Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Starch adhesive was prepared utilizing corn starch, polyvinyl alcohol, and borax as raw materials. A certain amount of water-soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was added in the preparation process, and a certain percentage of polymethylene polyphenylene isocyanate pre-polymer as cross-linking agent was used to improve its water resistance. To evaluate the water resistance, three-layer plywood was fabricated by hot pressing, and bonding strength was measured using a mechanical testing machi...

  18. Effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose on dry eye in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the protective effect of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops on dry eye in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sixty postmenopause female patients diagnosed of dry eye were assigned randomly to mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops treatment group (n=30 and control group treated with normal saline eye drops (n=30. The subjective symptoms of ocular surface, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI, tear film function tests, tear protein and corneal morphology by confocal scanning microscopy were analyzed before treatment and at 1, 2, 4 and 8wk after treatment respectively. To ensure the safety of the trial, all patients were examined with systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, urine creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen at 8wk after treatment. RESULTS: There were no obvious differences between two groups before the treatment (P>0.05. In two months after the treatment, the symptoms of ocular surface, OSDI, tear protein, and tear film function were only slightly changed in normal saline eye drops group. However, all indices were improved after the treatment of mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops group (P<0.05. In addition, the average amount of corneal epithelium basal cells and inflammatory cells of mistletoe treated group were 3174±379 and 38±25 cells/mm2, significantly decreased as compared to the control group with 4309±612 and 158± 61 cells/mm2, respectively. In the control group, although nerves still maintained straight under corneal epithelium, the number of nerves were significantly decreased, as compared with normal female. In the mistletoe treated group, the number of nerves was only slightly reduced, compared with normal female. CONCLUSION: Mistletoe combined with carboxymethyl cellulose eye drops can alleviate the symptoms and signs of dry eye symptoms.

  19. Humidity Responsive Photonic Sensor based on a Carboxymethyl Cellulose Mechanical Actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Hartings, Matthew; Douglass, Kevin O.; Neice, Claire; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2017-01-01

    We describe an intuitive and simple method for exploiting humidity-driven volume changes in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to fabricate a humidity responsive actuator on a glass fiber substrate. We optimize this platform to generate a photonic-based humidity sensor where CMC coated on a fiber optic containing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) actuates a mechanical strain in response to humidity changes. The humidity-driven mechanical deformation of the FBG results in a large lin...

  20. Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC Preparation from Mixed Office Wastepaper Deinked and Bleached Bagasse pulps: Characterization and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan mehdikhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, one of the most important cellulose derivatives, is widely and increasingly used in industries as emulsifier, stabilizer, disperser, thickener, and gelling agent. The main raw material of the cellulose derivative is cellulose from wood and cotton linter. However, lack of the fiber resources, especially in Iran, gradually grown interest on other available fiber resources such as agricultural waste and recycled fibers, as alternative cellulose resources. Bagasse pulp as a non-wood fiber and mixed office wastepaper deinked pulp as a recycled fiber were carboxymethylated in aqueous alkaline medium using mono chloro acetic acid (MCA as etherifying agent under identical conditions. Then, this paper explores the production feasibility of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC from the unusual pulps combined with the comparison. The chemical composition of the pulps were determined; include α-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash content, water retention value, intrinsic viscosity, carboxyl group and pH. α-cellulose content as the most important character of the derivatization was 84.66% in DIP and 71.33% in bagasse pulp. DIP non-polysaccharide compound (lignin, Ext. and ash was 5.92% compared to 2.36% for bagasse pulp. Cellulose carboxymethylated were done and the degree of substitution (DS, viscosity, purity, pH and yield of the prepared CMC was also determined and found to be dependent upon the source of the cellulose pulp. Viscosity and purity were higher in CMC produced from DIP (981 cPs and 93%, resp. compared to the bagasse pulp (680 cPs and 87.33% resp., which is attributed to its originally higher α-cellulose content. Yield and D.S were higher in CMC prepared from bagasse (168.8% and 0.57 resp. compared to DIP (155% and 0.45 resp., which are originated from lower crystallinity and molecular mass compound in bagasse, resulted in higher substitution of carboxymethyl groups.

  1. Apatite formation on non-woven fabric of carboxymethylated chitin in SBF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Tadashi; Hanakawa, Masayuki; Kawashita, Masakazu; Minoda, Masahiko; Beppu, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Takeaki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2004-08-01

    Chitin fibres constituting a non-woven fabric were carboxymethylated in monochloro acetic acid and treated with saturated Ca(OH)(2) aqueous solution. Within 3 days in a simulated body fluid with pH value and ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma, a bonelike apatite layer formed on the surface of fibres of the treated fabric. The apatite-chitin fibre composite thus prepared is expected to be useful as a flexible bioactive bone-repairing material.

  2. Chitosan dan Aplikasi Klinisnya Sebagai Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of new materials with both organic and inorganic structures is of great interest to obtain special material properties. Chitosan [2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucan] can be obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin. Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer in nature and the supporting material of crustaceans, insects, fungi etc. Chitosan is unique polysaccharide and has been widely used in various biomedical application due to its biocompatibility, low toxicity, biodegradability, non-immunogenic and non-carcinogenic character. In the past few years, chitosan and some of its modifications have been reported for use in biomedical applications such as artificial skin, wound dressing, anticoagulant, suture, drug delivery, vaccine carrier and dietary fibers. Recently, the use of chitosan and its derivatives has received much attention as temporary scaffolding to promotie mineralization or stimulate endochodral ossification. This article aims to give a broad overview of chitosan and its clinical applications as biomaterial.

  3. Transfection efficiency of chitosan and thiolated chitosan in retinal pigment epithelium cells: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gene therapy relies on efficient vector for a therapeutic effect. Efficient non-viral vectors are sought as an alternative to viral vectors. Chitosan, a cationic polymer, has been studied for its gene delivery potential. In this work, disulfide bond containing groups were covalently added to chitosan to improve the transfection efficiency. These bonds can be cleaved by cytoplasmic glutathione, thus, releasing the DNA load more efficiently. Materials and Methods: Chitosan and thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (NPs were prepared in order to obtain a NH3 + :PO4− ratio of 5:1 and characterized for plasmid DNA complexation and release efficiency. Cytotoxicity and gene delivery studies were carried out on retinal pigment epithelial cells. Results: In this work, we show that chitosan was effectively modified to incorporate a disulfide bond. The transfection efficiency of chitosan and thiolated chitosan varied according to the cell line used, however, thiolation did not seem to significantly improve transfection efficiency. Conclusion: The apparent lack of improvement in transfection efficiency of the thiolated chitosan NPs is most likely due to its size increase and charge inversion relatively to chitosan. Therefore, for retinal cells, thiolated chitosan does not seem to constitute an efficient strategy for gene delivery.

  4. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with carboxymethyl cellulose for degradation of azo-dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yun; Wang, Zhengdong; Liu, Huihong, E-mail: huihongliu@126.com

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized through friendly environmental method using PdCl{sub 2} and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in an aqueous solution (pH 6) at controlled water bath (80 °C) for 30 min. CMC functioned as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) inferred that the as-synthesized PdNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggested the PdNPs had the narrow size distribution with an average size of 2.5 nm. The negative zeta potential (−52.6 mV) kept the as-synthesized PdNPs stable more than one year. The PdNPs showed the excellent catalytic activity by reducing degradation of azo-dyes, such as p-Aminoazobenzene, acid red 66, acid orange 7, scarlet 3G and reactive yellow 179, in the present of sodium borohydride. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using carboxymethyl cellulose. • The synthesis of palladium nanoparticles were performed easily. • Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as both reducing and stabilization agents. • The as-synthesized palladium nanoparticles show excellent catalytic activity.

  5. Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles for drug delivery applications: Preparation and preliminary in-vitro investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodi, G., E-mail: gianina.dodi@yahoo.co.uk [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); SCIENT — Research Centre for Instrumental Analysis, Bucharest (Romania); Pala, A. [University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Barbu, E. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Peptanariu, D. [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania); Hritcu, D.; Popa, M.I. [“Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi (Romania); Tamba, B.I. [“Gr. T. Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-06-01

    Carboxymethyl guar gum (CMGG) synthesized from commercially available polysaccharide was formulated into nanoparticles via ionic gelation using trisodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) as cross-linking agent. Characterisation using a range of analytical techniques (FTIR, NMR, GPC, TGA and DLS) confirmed the CMGG structure and revealed the effect of the CMGG and STMP concentration on the main characteristics of the obtained nanoformulations. The average nanoparticle diameter was found to be around 208 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Experiments using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour of the nanoformulations loaded with Rhodamine B (RhB) as a model drug (loading capacity in excess of 83%), as monitored by UV–Vis. While dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed, the nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at concentrations below 0.3 mg/mL. Results obtained so far suggest that carboxymethylated guar gum nanoparticles formulated with STMP warrant further investigations as polysaccharide based biocompatible drug nanocarriers. - Highlights: • Carboxymethyl guar gum nanoparticles preparation by ionic gelation • The optimum synthesis system designed particles around 200 nm • The nanoformulations appeared completely non-toxic at specific concentrations • The loaded formulations evidenced significant pH-dependent drug release behaviour • The results encourage further investigations as polysaccharidic drug nanocarriers.

  6. A Trojan-Horse Peptide-Carboxymethyl-Cytidine Antibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, Marina; Tsibulskaya, Darya; Mokina, Olga; Kulikovsky, Alexey; Nautiyal, Manesh; Van Aerschot, Arthur; Severinov, Konstantin; Dubiley, Svetlana

    2016-12-07

    Microcin C and related antibiotics are Trojan-horse peptide-adenylates. The peptide part is responsible for facilitated transport inside the sensitive cell, where it gets processed to release a toxic warhead-a nonhydrolyzable aspartyl-adenylate, which inhibits aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Adenylation of peptide precursors is carried out by MccB THIF-type NAD/FAD adenylyltransferases. Here, we describe a novel microcin C-like compound from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The B. amyloliquefaciens MccB demonstrates an unprecedented ability to attach a terminal cytidine monophosphate to cognate precursor peptide in cellular and cell free systems. The cytosine moiety undergoes an additional modification-carboxymethylation-that is carried out by the C-terminal domain of MccB and the MccS enzyme that produces carboxy-SAM, which serves as a donor of the carboxymethyl group. We show that microcin C-like compounds carrying terminal cytosines are biologically active and target aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, and that the carboxymethyl group prevents resistance that can occur due to modification of the warhead. The results expand the repertoire of known enzymatic modifications of peptides that can be used to obtain new biological activities while avoiding or limiting bacterial resistance.

  7. Preparation and physiological activities of carboxymethylated derivative purified from corn bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linghui; Fang, Miaoli; Ma, Jianjun; Mo, Qing

    2017-06-01

    Two water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from corn bran were chemically modified to obtain their carboxymethylated derivatives (C-CBP1, C-CBP2). Theresults of degree of substitution and FT-IR analysis showed the carboxymethylation of polysaccharides were successful. The average molecular weight (Mw) of C-CBP1 and C-CBP2 were 368 and 263kDa, respectively. The degree of substitution (DS) of C-CBP1 and C-CBP2 were determined to be 0.44 and 0.46. The results showed that derivatives were effective in antioxidant and bile acidbinding activityin a dose dependent way. And C-CBP2 had the higher activity for hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion scavenging activities and bile acid capacity, as lower molecular weight plays a critical role in antioxidant activities and bile acid capacity. The results suggest that the carboxymethylated derivatives are potential natural antioxidant and blood fat reduce agent that can be used as drugs or functional food ingredients.

  8. Structure Characterization and Lead Detoxification Effect of Carboxymethylated Melanin Derived from Lachnum Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shuai; Li, Lan; Li, Jinglei; Shaikh, Farnaz; Yang, Liu; Ye, Ming

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, an intracellular melanin, named LIM205, was separated from Lachnum YM205 mycelia and was purified on a Sephadex G-15 column. The molecular weight of LIM205 was determined as 522 Da, and its molecular formula was speculated as C 28 H 14 N 2 O 7 S. The possible chemical structure of LIM205 was determined according to the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and pyrolysis/GC-MS analysis. With the aim to increase its water solubility, its carboxymethylated derivative, named CLIM205, was formed by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in LIM205 with one, two, and three carboxymethylate groups. FT-IR, UV, and ESI-MS analysis demonstrated that the carboxymethylate groups were conjugated onto LIM205. The lead detoxification activities of LIM205 and CLIM205 had also been investigated. In vivo test showed that both LIM205 and CLIM205 reduced the tissue lead concentration, enhanced lead excretion, and reversed lead-induced alterations in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in mice, with CLIM205 showed better efficacy. The study indicates that LIM205 and CLIM205 have significant lead detoxification effect which will contribute to solve related problems.

  9. Development of carboxymethyl cellulose nonwoven sheet as a novel hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Seiichi; Nishiyama, Toru; Sakoda, Megumu; Machioka, Kyoko; Fuke, Masaya; Ichimura, Shigetoshi; Inagaki, Fuyuki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kaneko, Makoto; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ito, Taichi

    2015-06-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a plant-derived material that has high biocompatibility and water solubility. We developed a CMC nonwoven sheet as a hemostatic agent by carboxymethylating a continuous filament cellulose nonwoven sheet. The CMC nonwoven sheet was able to absorb water and dissolve in it. The rates of absorption and dissolution depended on the degree of carboxymethylation. After dissolving in blood, CMC accelerated clot development (possibly owing to the incorporation of CMC into fibrin fibers) and increased the viscosity of the blood, both of which would contribute to the improved blood clotting of an injured surface. In vivo experiments using a rat tail cutting method showed that a CMC nonwoven sheet shortened the bleeding time of the tail when applied to the cut surface. The hemostatic effect of the CMC nonwoven sheet was almost at the same level as a commercial hemostatic bandage. These results suggest that a CMC nonwoven sheet could be used as a novel sheet-type hemostatic agent. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of carboxymethyl cellulose from office waste paper: A greener approach towards waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Gyanesh, E-mail: joshig@icfre.org [Cellulose and Paper Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India); Naithani, Sanjay [Chemistry of Forest Products Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore 560003 (India); Varshney, V.K. [Chemistry Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India); Bisht, Surendra S. [Chemistry of Forest Products Division, Institute of Wood Science & Technology, Bangalore 560003 (India); Rana, Vikas; Gupta, P.K. [Cellulose and Paper Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 248006 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was successfully prepared from waste paper. • CMC had maximum degree of substitution (DS) 1.07. • Rheological studies of CMC (DS, 1.07) showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. • Characterization of CMC was done by FT-IR and NMR techniques. • Morphology of prepared CMC was studied by SEM. - Abstract: In the present study, functionalization of mixed office waste (MOW) paper has been carried out to synthesize carboxymethyl cellulose, a most widely used product for various applications. MOW was pulped and deinked prior to carboxymethylation. The deinked pulp yield was 80.62 ± 2.0% with 72.30 ± 1.50% deinkability factor. The deinked pulp was converted to CMC by alkalization followed by etherification using NaOH and ClCH{sub 2}COONa respectively, in an alcoholic medium. Maximum degree of substitution (DS) (1.07) of prepared CMC was achieved at 50 °C with 0.094 M and 0.108 M concentrations of NaOH and ClCH{sub 2}COONa respectively for 3 h reaction time. The rheological characteristics of 1–3% aqueous solution of optimized CMC product showed the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior. Fourier transform infra red (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) study were used to characterize the CMC product.

  11. The Effect of Lithium Iodide to the Properties of Carboxymethyl κ-Carrageenan/Carboxymethyl Cellulose Polymer Electrolyte and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rudhziah Che Balian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to investigate the solid biopolymer electrolytes based on a carboxymethyl κ-carrageenan/carboxymethyl cellulose blend complexed with lithium iodide of various weight ratios. The complexation of the doping salt with the polymer blend was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Ionic conductivity of the film was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 4 MHz and in the temperature range of 303–338 K. The ionic conductivity increased with the increase in lithium iodide concentration as well as temperature. The membrane comprising 30 wt % of lithium iodide was found to give the highest conductivity of 3.89 × 10−3 S·cm−1 at room temperature. The increase in conductivity was associated with the increase in the number as well as the mobility of the charge carries. The conductivity increase with temperature followed the Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher model. The fabricated dye-sensitive solar cell, FTO/TiO2-dye/CMKC/CMCE-LiI (30 wt % +I2/Pt exhibited the highest conversion efficiency of 0.11% at a light intensity of 100 mW·cm−2. This indicated that the biopolymer blend electrolyte system has potential for use in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. Functional modification of chitosan for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ruogu

    Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide. Normally commercial chitosan consists of randomly distributed beta-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated proportion) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated proportion) together. Chitosan has been proved to be a multifunctional biopolymer that presents several unique properties due to free amino groups in the repeating unit therefore chitosan has been widely applied in various areas. To be specific, provided by the excellent biocompatibility, chitosan is expected to be used in biological and medical applications including wound dressing, implants, drug carrier/delivery, etc. In this thesis, we worked on chitosan functionalization for biomedical application. The thesis are composed of three parts: In the first part, we focused on modifying the chitosan thin film, chemically introducing the nitric oxide functional groups on chitosan film. We covalently bonded small molecule diazeniumdiolates onto the chitosan films and examined the antimicrobial function and biocompatibility. Commercial chitosan was cast into films from acidic aqueous solutions. Glutaraldehyde reacted with the chitosan film to introduce aldehyde groups onto the chitosan film (GA-CS film). GA-CS reacted with a small molecule NO donor, NOC-18, to covalently immobilize NONO groups onto the polymer (NO-CS film). The-CHO and [NONO] group were verified by FT IR, UV and Griess reagent. The NO releasing rate in aqueous solution and and thermal stability were studied quantitatively to prove its effectiveness. A series of antimicrobial tests indicated that NO-CS films have multiple functions: 1. It could inhibit the bacteria growth in nutrient rich environment; 2. It could directly inactivate bacteria and biofilm; 3. It could reduce the bacteria adherence on the film surface as well as inhibit biofilm formation. In addition, the NO-CS film was proved to be biocompatible with cell and it was also compatible with other antibiotics like Amoxicillin. In the second part, we

  13. Superporous hybrid hydrogels based on polyacrylamide and chitosan: Characterization and in vitro drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Manju; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Dinanath

    2013-04-01

    Current research was aimed at the development of the drug delivery systems based on the superporous hydrogels (SPH) with the desired swelling and the mechanical properties. Superporous hydrogel composites (SPHCs) and superporous hybrid hydrogels (SPHHs) based on the chitosan and the polyacrylamide were synthesized using the gas blowing technique. The prepared hydrogels were evaluated for swelling studies, mechanical strength and scanning electron microscopy. The selected hydrogels were loaded with the drug (verapamil hydrochloride) by aqueous loading method. Drug integrity with in polymeric network was evaluated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (X-RD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)HNMR) studies. In vitro drug release studies were carried out using the united state pharmacopoeial (USP) dissolution apparatus (type II). The mechanical strength was observed to be higher in SPH hybrids in comparison to that in SPHCs while no significant difference was observed in swelling behavior. In situ crosslinking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde (GA) may be responsible for high mechanical strength. The equilibrium swelling time was slight higher in SPHH than in SPHCs. The integrity of pores was maintained in ethanol treated hydrogels as observed in scanning electron micrographs. Whereas, freeze dried SPH samples showed non-uniform pores. No drug polymer interaction was observed as indicated by DSC, FTIR, X-RD and NMR studies. However, the crosslinking of chitosan with GA was clearly indicated by these studies. The in vitro drug release studies from SPH hybrids indicated initial fast release (65%) with in first 2 h and then sustained release at the end of 24 h (95%). The addition of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose with drug; however, leads to a significant decrease in drug release (56% at the end of 24 h). Superporous hybrid hydrogels can be promising devices for the sustained delivery of drug

  14. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical structure analyses of phosphorylated chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaipeng; Liu, Qi

    2014-03-11

    Chemical modification of chitosan to generate new bio-functional materials can bring more desirable properties depending on the nature of the groups introduced. Phosphorylated chitosan has attracted interests in recent years. The literature has reported that the phosphorylation of chitosan could be achieved through three different reaction routes, namely, in the presence of H3PO4/urea, H3PO4/Et3PO4/P2O5, or P2O5/CH3SO3H. However, the exact chemical structure of phosphorylated chitosan synthesized by different reaction routes has not been systematically studied and compared. Meanwhile, the most common opinion is that the hydroxyl group in chitosan is the main substitution site. In this work, phosphorylated chitosan was synthesized using three different reaction routes, and the chemical structures of the products were studied by infrared, X-ray photoelectron and (13)C NMR spectroscopic characterization. It was observed that in the reaction routes using H3PO4/urea and H3PO4/Et3PO4/P2O5, the amino groups were substituted instead of the hydroxyl groups. In the reaction route using P2O5/CH3SO3H, the amino groups were shielded by the ionic binding with CH3SO3H, and the C-6 hydroxyl groups were phosphorylated. Different structures of the phosphorylated chitosan were proposed based on the characterization results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of meclizine hydrochloride and pyridoxine hydrochloride in laboratory prepared mixtures and in their pharmaceutical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maha M.; Elzanfaly, Eman S.; El-Zeiny, Mohamed B.; Ramadan, Nesreen K.; Kelani, Khadiga M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, three rapid, simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of meclizine hydrochloride in the presence of pyridoxine hydrochloride without previous separation. The methods under study are dual wavelength (DWL), ratio difference (RD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). On the other hand, pyridoxine hydrochloride (PYH) was determined directly at 291 nm. The methods obey Beer's law in the range of (5-50 μg/mL) for both compounds. All the methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines where the accuracy was found to be 98.29, 99.59, 100.42 and 100.62% for DWL, RD, CWT and PYH; respectively. Moreover the precision of the methods were calculated in terms of %RSD and it was found to be 0.545, 0.372, 1.287 and 0.759 for DWL, RD,CWT and PYH; respectively. The selectivity of the proposed methods was tested using laboratory prepared mixtures and assessed by applying the standard addition technique. So, they can be used for the routine analysis of pyridoxine hydrochloride and meclizine hydrochloride in quality-control laboratories.

  17. 21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.1662b Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 50 or 100 milligrams of oxytetracycline hydrochloride and 2 percent lidocaine...

  18. Green synthesis approach: extraction of chitosan from fungus mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Kaur, Surinder; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Verma, Mausam

    2013-12-01

    Chitosan, copolymer of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine is mainly derived from chitin, which is present in cell walls of crustaceans and some other microorganisms, such as fungi. Chitosan is emerging as an important biopolymer having a broad range of applications in different fields. On a commercial scale, chitosan is mainly obtained from crustacean shells rather than from the fungal sources. The methods used for extraction of chitosan are laden with many disadvantages. Alternative options of producing chitosan from fungal biomass exist, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize chitosan production and extraction from fungal sources. Chitosan extracted from fungal sources has the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived chitosan. In this context, the present review discusses the potential of fungal biomass resulting from various biotechnological industries or grown on negative/low cost agricultural and industrial wastes and their by-products as an inexpensive source of chitosan. Biologically derived fungal chitosan offers promising advantages over the chitosan obtained from crustacean shells with respect to different physico-chemical attributes. The different aspects of fungal chitosan extraction methods and various parameters having an effect on the yield of chitosan are discussed in detail. This review also deals with essential attributes of chitosan for high value-added applications in different fields.

  19. Cytocompatibility of chitosan and collagen-chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia L. Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, chitosan and collagen-chitosan porous scaffolds were produced by the freeze drying method and characterized as potential skin substitutes. Their beneficial effects on soft tissues justify the choice of both collagen and chitosan. Samples were characterized using scanning electron microscope, Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TG. The in vitro cytocompatibility of chitosan and collagen-chitosan scaffolds was evaluated with three different assays. Phenol and titanium powder were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the highly interconnected porous structure of the scaffolds. The addition of collagen to chitosan increased both pore diameter and porosity of the scaffolds. Results of FTIR and TG analysis indicate that the two polymers interact yielding a miscible blend with intermediate thermal degradation properties. The reduction of XTT ((2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide and the uptake of Neutral Red (NR were not affected by the blend or by the chitosan scaffold extracts, but the blend and the titanium powder presented greater incorporation of Crystal Violet (CV than phenol and chitosan alone. In conclusion, collagen-chitosan scaffolds produced by freeze-drying methods were cytocompatible and presented mixed properties of each component with intermediate thermal degradation properties.

  20. Antibacterial activity of chitosan and the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid)-chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz; Baltazar Gutiérrez-Rodríguez; Gregorio Cadenas-Pliego; Luis Ibarra Jimenez

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of chitosan and water soluble interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid)-chitosan was studied. Chitosans of two different molecular weights were tested at different concentration for 0.5 to 5 g·L-1 as antimicrobial agents against P. aeruginosa and P. oleovorans. In both cases, the best microbial inhibition was obtained with the concentration of 5 g·L-1. However, the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid)-chitosan with composition φ =2 pr...

  1. Stability of phenylephrine hydrochloride injection in polypropylene syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Tyree H; Oldland, Alan R; Fish, Douglas N

    2007-05-15

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared phenylephrine hydrochloride injection stored in polypropylene syringes was studied. Dilution of phenylephrine hydrochloride to a nominal concentration of 100 mug/mL was performed under aseptic conditions by adding 100 mg of phenylephrine hydrochloride (total of 10 mL from two 5-mL 10-mg/mL vials) to 1000 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The resulting solution was drawn into 10-mL polypropylene syringes and sealed with syringe caps. The syringes were then frozen (-20 degrees C), refrigerated (3-5 degrees C), or kept at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). Four samples of each preparation were analyzed on days 0, 7, 15, 21, and 30. Physical stability was assessed by visual examination. The pH of each syringe was also measured at each time point. Sterility of the samples was not assessed. Chemical stability of phenylephrine hydrochloride was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. To demonstrate the stability-indicating nature of the assay, forced degradation of phenylephrine was conducted. Samples were considered stable if there was less than 10% degradation of the initial concentration. Phenylephrine hydrochloride diluted to 100 microg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection was physically stable throughout the study. No precipitation was observed. Minimal to no degradation was observed over the 30-day study period. Phenylephrine hydrochloride diluted to a concentration of 100 mug/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was stable for at least 30 days when stored in polypropylene syringes at -20 degrees C, 3-5 degrees C, and 23-25 degrees C.

  2. Functionalization of chitosan by click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheaburu-Yilmaz, Catalina Natalia; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Yilmaz, Onur

    2017-12-01

    Chitosan modification represents a challenge nowadays. The variety of compounds which can be obtained with various architectures and different functionalities made it attractive to be used in fields like pharmacy and material science. Presents study deals with the chemical modification of chitosan by using click chemistry technique. The study adopted the approach of clicking azidated chitosan with a synthesized alkyne terminated polymer i.e. poly N isopropylacrylamide with thermoresponsive properties. Structures were confirmed by the FT-IR and HNMR spectra. Thermal characterization was performed showing different thermal behaviour with the chemical modification. The final synthesized graft copolymer can play important role within pharmaceutical formulations carrying drugs for topical or oral treatments.

  3. Needleless Electrospinning of Pure and Blended Chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmelsmann, Nils; Homburg, Sarah Vanessa; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer with bactericidal, fungicidal, hemostatic and other interesting properties. It can be used, e.g., in medical products, as a filter medium, in biotechnological purposes etc. For these possible applications, nanofiber mats with a large inner surface will be most efficient. This is why in a recent project, the electrospinning properties of pure chitosan as well as chitosan blended with poly(ethylene oxide) were investigated. Using a needleless nanospinning process, the technology under examination can be upscaled from lab to industrial scale, enabling direct transfer of the gained experiences to the intended application.

  4. A DFT Study of the Camphene Hydrochloride Rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William B.

    1999-01-08

    The rearrangement of camphene hydrochloride to isobornyl chloride is one of the best studied among the many early examples of Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement processes. However, many aspects of the reaction remain to be elucidated. A summary of early mechanistic studies is given. A proposal of new mechanistic possibilities is set forth and then tested by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The uncertainties in configurations of camphene hydrochloride and isobornyl chloride are laid to rest by a comparison of computed and experimental carbon-13 and methyl proton chemical shifts.

  5. [Effect of topical exhedrine hydrochloride on muco-ciliary transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatica, L; Fiorella, R

    1983-07-30

    The time of nasal M.C.T. (Mucus Ciliar Transport) was studied by the indirect objective method of bleu-sky in 30 healthy subjects before and after the application of efedrina hydrochloride in water solution associated with timolo, eucaliptolo, mentolo essence of canfora monobramata and clorbutamolo. The time of nasal M.C.T., regular in the 87% of the subjects during the first determination was found extended in almost all of the cases after the application of vasoconstrictor (85%). This experimental data may be caused both by a direct effect of efedrina hydrochloride and by the substances associated in the solution and their physical characteristics.

  6. Oxidation-mediated chitosan as additives for creation of chitosan aerogels with diverse three-dimensional interconnected skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sizhao; Feng, Jian; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang

    2017-02-01

    Naturally occurring polymer-based aerogels have myriad practical utilizations due to environmentally benign and fruitful resources. However, engineering morphology-controllable biomass aerogels still represents a great challenge. Here we present a facile solution to synthesize chitosan aerogels having distinguished textures by reacting oxidized chitosan with formaldehyde and chitosan sol. In more detail, chitosan was chemically oxidized using two types of oxidation agents such as ammonium persulphate (SPD) and sodium periodate (APS) to obtain corresponding oxidized chitosan, subsequently cross-linked with chitosan solution containing formaldehyde to harvest SPD-oxidized chitosan aerogels (SCAs) and APS-SPD-oxidized ones (ASCAs) after aging, solvent exchange and supercritical drying processes. We found that the morphologies of as-prepared chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern towards chitosan. The structural textures of SCAs and ASCAs appear nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like structures, which may be related to spatial freedom of active groups located in chitosan. Selected area electron diffraction analysis reveals that the crystalline properties of chitosan aerogels generally appear the serious deterioration comparing to raw chitosan owing to their interconnected skeletal structure formation. The occurrence of characteristic groups displays cross-linked chain construction by using chemical state measurements such as FT-IR and XPS. Further, a plausible mechanism for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is also established. This new family of method for creation of chitosan aerogels may open up a perspective for biomass aerogels with controllable textures.

  7. Improved chitosan-mediated gene delivery based on easily dissociated chitosan polyplexes of highly defined chitosan oligomers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Köping-Höggård, M; Vårum, K M; Issa, M; Danielsen, S; Christensen, B E; Stokke, B T; Artursson, P

    2004-01-01

    Nonviral gene delivery systems based on conventional high-molecular-weight chitosans are efficient after lung administration in vivo, but have poor physical properties such as aggregated shapes, low...

  8. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi [Nuclear Research Institute, VAEC, Dalat (Viet Nam); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G{sub d}) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Multilayered Tablets of Pioglitazone Hydrochloride and Metformin Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ankamma Chowdary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus a continuous therapy is required which is a more complex one. As in these patients there may be a defect in both insulin secretion and insulin action exists. Hence, the treatment depends on the pathophysiology and the disease state. In the present study, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone hydrochloride 15 mg and metformin hydrochloride 500 mg were prepared in an attempt for combination therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone HCl was formulated as immediate release layer to show immediate action by direct compression method using combination of superdisintegrants, namely, crospovidone and avicel PH 102. Crospovidone at 20% concentration showed good drug release profile at 2 hrs. Metformin HCl was formulated as controlled release layer to prolong the drug action by incorporating hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K4M by direct compression method and guar gum by wet granulation method in order to sustain the drug release from the tablets and maintain its integrity so as to provide a suitable formulation. The multilayered tablets were prepared after carrying out the optimization of immediate release layer and were evaluated for various precompression and postcompression parameters. Formulation F13 showed 99.97% of pioglitazone release at 2 hrs in 0.1 N HCl and metformin showed 98.81% drug release at 10 hrs of dissolution in 6.8 pH phosphate buffer. The developed formulation is equivalent to innovator product in view of in vitro drug release profile. The results of all these evaluation tests are within the standards. The procedure followed for the formulation of these tablets was found to be reproducible and all the formulations were stable after accelerated stability studies. Hence, multilayered tablets of pioglitazone HCl and metformin HCl can be a better alternative way to conventional dosage forms.

  10. Estimation of pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride in tablets by derivative spectrophotometry and liquid chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Madhira B; Modi, Vaibhav D; Shah, Dimal A; Bhatt, Kashyap K; Mehta, Rajendra S; Geetha, Madhira; Patel, Binita J

    2005-01-01

    Two simple and accurate methods of analysis to determine pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) and mefformin hydrochloride (MET) in combined dosage forms were developed using second-derivative spectrophotometry and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC). PIO and MET in combined preparations (tablets) were quantified using the second-derivative responses at 227.55 nm for PIO and 257.25 nm for MET in spectra of their solutions in a mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (30 + 70). The calibration curves were linear [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9984 for PIO and 0.9986 for MET] in the concentration range of 8-40 microg/mL for PIO and 4-12 microg/mL for MET. In the LC method, analysis was performed on a Hypersil ODS-C18 column with 5 microm particle size using the mobile phase acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (75 + 25 + 0.3), adjusted to pH 5.5 with liquor ammonia, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Measurement was made at a wavelength of 230 nm. Both the drugs were well resolved on the stationary phase, and the retention times were 8.5 min for PIO and 16.0 min for MET. The calibration curves were linear (r = 0.9933 for PIO and 0.9958 for MET) in the concentration range of 4-20 microg/mL for PIO and MET. Both methods were validated, and the results were compared statistically. They were found to be accurate, precise, and specific. The methods were successfully applied to the estimation of PIO and MET in combined tablet formulations.

  11. Preparation and characterisation of irradiated crab chitosan and New Zealand Arrow squid pen chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavandi, Amin, E-mail: amin.shavandi@postgrad.otago.ac.nz [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Bekhit, Adnan A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A. [Department of Food Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Sun, Zhifa [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Ali, M. Azam [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2015-11-01

    The properties of chitosan from Arrow squid (Nototodarus sloanii) pen (CHS) and commercial crab shell (CHC) were investigated using FTIR, DSC, SEM and XRD before and after irradiation at the dose of 28 kGy in the presence or absence of 5% water. Also, the viscosity, deacetylation degree, water and oil holding capacities, colour and antimicrobial activities of the chitosan samples were determined. Irradiation decreased (P < 0.05) the viscosity of CHC from 0.21 to 0.03 Pa s and of CHS from 1.71 to 0.23 Pa s. The inclusion of water had no effect on the viscosity of irradiated chitosan. Irradiation did not affect the degree of deacetylation of CHC, but increased the deacetylation degree of CHS from 72.78 to 82.29% in samples with 5% water. Water and oil holding capacities of CHS (1197.30% and 873.3%, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than those found in CHC (340.70% and 264.40%, respectively). The water and oil holding capacities were decreased for both types of chitosan irradiation, but were not affected by the addition of water. Squid pen chitosan was whiter in colour (White Index = 90.06%) compared to CHC (White Index = 83.70%). Generally, the CHC samples (control and irradiated) exhibited better antibacterial activity compared to CHS, but the opposite was observed with antifungal activity. - Highlights: • Chitosan prepared from Arrow squid pens (Nototodarus sloanii). • Chitosan samples were gamma irradiated at 28 kGy. • Squid pen chitosan showed high fat and water uptake capacities compared to crab shell chitosan. • Gamma irradiation enhanced the DDA of squid pen chitosan but not crab shell chitosan.

  12. Flocculation of river silt using chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ravi; Pillai, V N Sivasankara

    2002-05-01

    Flocculation of silt in river water using chitosan was studied in the pH range 4-9, and suspended solid concentrations in the range 20-80 mg/L. Chitosan effectively reduces turbidity due to silt by flocculation and settling. Flocculation efficiency is very sensitive to pH, and reaches a maximum at pH 7. The optimal chitosan concentration required to effect flocculation is 0.5 mg/L and is independent of silt concentration within the range examined. Restabilisation of the suspension is observed at higher concentrations of chitosan, and the amount required for restabilisation increases with increasing concentration of suspended solids. Flocculation is faster at higher concentrations of silt and the flocs are large and fibrous.

  13. Grafting of chitosan with fatty acyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiandotti, Roberto S.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Akcelrud, Leni, E-mail: leni@leniak.ne [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The internal plasticization of chitosan with covalently linked long aliphatic branches, typically 12C, was accomplished through the condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with acidic derivatives of lauric acid, as lauroyl anhydride or lauroyl chloride, that are more reactive than the fatty acid itself. The chemical pathway led to selective N-acylation. The degree of substitution was quantitatively determined by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR and varied between 3 and 35%. The FTIR quantitative analysis was based in a calibration method with good accuracy. The modified chitosan products were soluble in neutral water and/or DMF according to the degree of substitution. The modified chitosan films were more flexible than the pristine, non-modified ones. (author)

  14. Ionically crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chun-Ho, E-mail: chkim@kcch.re.kr [Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Seoul 139-240 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared Fe{sup 3+} crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different surface and inner morphology of AC beads were observed on volume of CMC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AC beads showed minimum swelling degree in acidic condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein release from AC beads was to control in gastrointestinal condition. - Abstract: We developed Fe{sup 3+}-crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe{sup 3+} ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe{sup 3+}-crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe{sup 3+}-crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  15. 21 CFR 520.1660b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tonsilitis caused by Streptococcus hemolyticus, bacterial enteritis caused by Escherichia coli, urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, and wound infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. 1 1 These... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride capsules. 520.1660b...

  16. Formulation of Extended-Release Metformin Hydrochloride Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Various metformin hydrochloride formulations containing a hydrophobic carrier (stearic acid) and a hydrophilic polymer (polyethylene oxide) were prepared using a 32 factorial design. Two types of formulation techniques – melt granulation and direct compression – were evaluated. The influence of the carrier, ...

  17. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Osteoporosis is currently a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and medical expense worldwide. Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty ...

  18. Effect of Guanidium Hydrochloride on the Stability of Horse Skeletal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of the three dimensional structure of horse skeletal muscle myoglobin was investigated using visible spectroscopy. Guanidium hydrochloride (GuHCl) of concentrations 0.4 – 0.8M have no observable effect on the three dimensional structure as indicated by monitoring the absorbance at 420nm. However, higher ...

  19. Ketamine Hydrochloride: A Useful but Frequently Misused Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ketamine hydrochloride remains the most widely misused general anaesthetic agent in our environment today. The misuse, which commonly involves non-anaesthetists, often results in disastrous consequences. Methods: A Medline literature search was performed to identify articles concerning the ...

  20. Pharmaceutical development of an intravenous dosage form of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klous, Marjolein G.; Nuijen, Bastiaan; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2004-01-01

    A solid dosage form for multiple use was developed for parenteral administration of diacetylmorphine in a clinical trial on co-prescription of heroin to heroin addicts. A 300-mg/mL diacetylmorphine hydrochloride solution was lyophilised as 10-mL aliquots in 30-mL glass vials, to be reconstituted to

  1. Polymorphic changes of thiamine hydrochloride during granulation and tableting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöstheinrich, K; Schmidt, P C

    2001-07-01

    Thiamine hydrochloride was granulated using an instrumented fluidized bed granulator (Hüttlin HKC 05-TJ). Granules consisting of pure thiamine hydrochloride were produced using an aqueous solution of thiamine hydrochloride as the granulating liquid. The effects of process variables such as inlet air temperature, spray rate, and amount of granulating liquid on granule properties are described. Particle size distributions of granules depended mainly on the amount of granulating liquid sprayed into the powder bed. Granules were tableted on a rotary tablet press at four different compression forces. Crushing strengths and disintegration times of all tablets were found to be very low after manufacture, but increased considerably after 4 months of storage at room temperature. Granular materials showed "caking" under the same storage conditions. These changes could be attributed to alterations of the polymorphic form of thiamine hydrochloride. The water-free form, being present directly after granulation, absorbs humidity very fast and is transformed into the monohydrate, which is stable at room temperature. Loss of water takes place during the drying phase of the granulation process and on storage of the substance at temperatures of 50 degrees C and 80 degrees C. During storage at room temperature while exposed to humidity, a transformation into the hemihydrate was observed. This polymorph is transformed during thermal analysis at about 190 degrees C to a water-free form that is stable at higher temperatures.

  2. Histological studies of the effects of halofantrine hydrochloride (Halfan)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination revealed alteration in the oviduct. There were distortions in the lining epithelium with the cells of the lining epithelium showing indistinct cell outlines. This study highlights the possible anomalies that could result when exposed to overdose of this drug. Key words: Halofantrine hydrochloride, oviduct, ...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1242e - Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride effervescent tablets. 520.1242e Section 520.1242e Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN.... Pigs maintained under conditions of constant worm exposure may require re-treatment within 4 to 5 weeks...

  4. 21 CFR 558.315 - Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole hydrochloride (equivalent). 558.315 Section 558.315 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... Treatment of the following gastrointestinal worms and lung worm infections; stomach worms (Haemonchus...

  5. Stability of propranolol hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Voudrie, Mark A; Sorenson, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Propranolol hydrochloride is a beta blocker used to treat high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, heart disease, pheochromocytoma, and certain types of tremors. Propranolol is marketed by Wyeth (now a part of Pfizer) and AstraZeneca under the brand names Inderal, Inderal LA, Avlocardyl, Deralin, Dociton, Inderalici, InnoPran XL, Sumial, Anaprilium, Bedranol SR (Sandoz). It is also available generically from several manufacturers. Propranolol hydrochloride is available as tablet, capsule, and oral liquid dosage forms in several strengths. Some patients are unable to tolerate oral tablets and capsules, challenging compounding pharmacies to seek alternative dosing options; namely oral solutions and suspensions. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of propranolol hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF. The drug was compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension using SyrSpend SF and subsequently stored in a low-actinic plastic prescription bottle at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each specific time point extending to 90 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. Based on the data collected, when protected from light at room temperature, the beyond-use date of propranolol hydrochloride in SyrSpend SF was shown to be at least 90 days.

  6. Amides and Hydrazides from Amine and Hydrazine Hydrochlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Sami A.; Tran, Thuan L.

    1978-01-01

    This safe and efficient procedure for the synthesis of N-substituted amides and hydrazides is a modification of the Schotten-Bausmann procedure in which the amine or hydrazide is replaced by the corresponding hydrochloride salt, and the use of alkali is eliminated. (Author/BB)

  7. Interactive effect of dietary protein level and zilpaterol hydrochloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bonsmara type steers were used to determine the effect of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) in combination with different dietary crude protein (CP) levels (100, 120 and 140 g CP/kg) on growth performance and meat quality. Treatment groups (T) consisted of 12 steers each. T1 – 100 g CP/kg + 0.15 mg ZH/kg live weight ...

  8. Evaluation of toxic effects of metformin hydrochloride and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of toxic effects of metformin hydrochloride and glibenclamide on some organs of male rats. ... Twenty one rats were divided into three groups of seven rats each; group 1 served as control, groups 2 and 3 received GB and MET at doses of 5 and 30 mg/kg, respectively, for 21 days by oral gavage. Results indicate ...

  9. The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaesthetic potency of benzocaine-hydrochloride in three freshwater fish species. J.T. Ferreira, H.J. Schoonbee and G.L. Smit. Research Unit for Fish Biology, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. Anaesthesia was induced in the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus and rainbow trout, ...

  10. Effects of Raloxifene Hydrochloride on Bone Mineral Density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was designed to detect the effect of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum lipids in Kuwaiti postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Subjects and Methods: Eighty postmenopausal women, who received raloxifene 60 mg with calcium 500 mg and 200 IU Vitamin D daily for 2 ...

  11. Aerogels from Chitosan Solutions in Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Santos-López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan aerogels conjugates the characteristics of nanostructured porous materials, i.e., extended specific surface area and nano scale porosity, with the remarkable functional properties of chitosan. Aerogels were obtained from solutions of chitosan in ionic liquids (ILs, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (BMIMAc, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate (EMIMAc, in order to observe the effect of the solvent in the structural characteristics of this type of materials. The process of elaboration of aerogels comprised the formation of physical gels through anti-solvent vapor diffusion, liquid phase exchange, and supercritical CO2 drying. The aerogels maintained the chemical identity of chitosan according to Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR spectroscopy, indicating the presence of their characteristic functional groups. The internal structure of the obtained aerogels appears as porous aggregated networks in microscopy images. The obtained materials have specific surface areas over 350 m2/g and can be considered mesoporous. According to swelling experiments, the chitosan aerogels could absorb between three and six times their weight of water. However, the swelling and diffusion coefficient decreased at higher temperatures. The structural characteristics of chitosan aerogels that are obtained from ionic liquids are distinctive and could be related to solvation dynamic at the initial state.

  12. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthi Ravindranathan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA, viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs. Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application.

  13. Oxidation-mediated chitosan as additives for creation of chitosan aerogels with diverse three-dimensional interconnected skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sizhao, E-mail: bule-soul@hotmail.com; Feng, Jian, E-mail: fengj@nudt.edu.cn; Feng, Junzong; Jiang, Yonggang

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A new synthetic method for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is proposed. • Chitosan aerogels with nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like were prepared. • Textures of chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern. - Abstract: Naturally occurring polymer-based aerogels have myriad practical utilizations due to environmentally benign and fruitful resources. However, engineering morphology-controllable biomass aerogels still represents a great challenge. Here we present a facile solution to synthesize chitosan aerogels having distinguished textures by reacting oxidized chitosan with formaldehyde and chitosan sol. In more detail, chitosan was chemically oxidized using two types of oxidation agents such as ammonium persulphate (SPD) and sodium periodate (APS) to obtain corresponding oxidized chitosan, subsequently cross-linked with chitosan solution containing formaldehyde to harvest SPD-oxidized chitosan aerogels (SCAs) and APS-SPD-oxidized ones (ASCAs) after aging, solvent exchange and supercritical drying processes. We found that the morphologies of as-prepared chitosan aerogels are strongly dependent upon the oxidation pattern towards chitosan. The structural textures of SCAs and ASCAs appear nanoflake-like and nanofiber-like structures, which may be related to spatial freedom of active groups located in chitosan. Selected area electron diffraction analysis reveals that the crystalline properties of chitosan aerogels generally appear the serious deterioration comparing to raw chitosan owing to their interconnected skeletal structure formation. The occurrence of characteristic groups displays cross-linked chain construction by using chemical state measurements such as FT-IR and XPS. Further, a plausible mechanism for controlling morphology of chitosan aerogels is also established. This new family of method for creation of chitosan aerogels may open up a perspective for biomass aerogels with controllable textures.

  14. Chitosan application in maize ( Zea mays ) to counteract the effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chitosan application in maize ( Zea mays ) to counteract the effects of abiotic stress at ... for protection of corn can be considered a cheap and clean technology. ... Positive effect was observed in seeds treated with chitosan or stressed with ...

  15. Comparative study of percentage yeild and solubilty of chitosan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schistocerca gregaria). Chitosan was then obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin and physicochemically characterized using Fourier Transformed Infra red Spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Chitin and chitosan ...

  16. Crosslinked collagen/chitosan matrix for artificial livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.H.; Li, D.P.; Wang, W.J.; Feng, Q.L.; Cui, F.Z.; Xu, Y.X.; Song, X.H.; van der Werf, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Matrices composed of collagen and chitosan may create an appropriate environment for the regeneration of livers. In this study, we have prepared, characterized and evaluated a new collagen/chitosan matrix (CCM). The CCM was made by using crosslinking agent

  17. Maillard reaction products from chitosan-xylan ionic liquid solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuqiong; Ling, Yunzhi; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Yang; Zeng, Xianjie; Sun, Runcang

    2013-10-15

    A facile method is reported to prepare Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from chitosan and xylan in co-solvent ionic liquid. UV absorbance and fluorescence changes were regarded as indicators of the occurrence of Maillard reaction. FT-IR, NMR, XRD and TG were used to investigate the structure of chitosan-xylan conjugate. The results revealed that when chitosan reacted with xylan in ionic liquid, the hydrogen bonds in chitosan were destroyed, the facts resulted in the formation of chitosan-xylan MRPs. Moreover, when the mass ratio of chitosan to xylan was 1:1, the Maillard reaction proceeded easily. In addition, relatively high antioxidant property was also noted for the chitosan-xylan conjugate with mass ratio 1:1. So the obtained chitosan-xylan MRP is a promising antioxidant agent for food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of andiroba oil and chitosan concentration on the physical properties of chitosan emulsion film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Tiemi Kimura

    Full Text Available Abstract Chitosan film is used as a dressing to heal burns. The physical and biological properties of the film can be modified by the addition of phytotherapic compounds. This work used the casting -solvent evaporation technique to prepare chitosan film containing andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis which has anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and healing properties. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the concentrations of chitosan and andiroba oil on the physical properties of chitosan films. The emulsion films were evaluated concerning the mechanical properties and fluid handling capacity. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis were performed. The results showed that the barrier and mechanical properties were affected by the addition of andiroba oil, and these may be modulated as a function of the concentration of oil added to the film. The thermal analysis showed no evidence of chemical interactions between the oil and chitosan.

  19. Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles with Low Chitosan Content Prepared in One-Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Osuna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CMNP were obtained at 50°C in a one-step method comprising coprecipitation in the presence of low chitosan content. CMNP showed high magnetization and superparamagnetism. They were composed of a core of 9.5 nm in average diameter and a very thin chitosan layer in accordance with electron microscopy measurements. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectrometry demonstrated that CMNP were obtained and those from thermogravimetric analysis allowed to determine that they were composed of 95 wt% of magnetic nanoparticles and 5 wt% of chitosan. 67% efficacy in the Pb+2 removal test indicated that only 60% of amino groups on CMNP surface bound to Pb, probably due to some degree of nanoparticle flocculation during the redispersion. The very low weight ratio chitosan to magnetic nanoparticles obtained in this study, 0.053, and the high yield of the precipitation reactions (≈97% are noticeable.

  20. Chitosan: An Update on Potential Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a natural polycationic linear polysaccharide derived from chitin. The low solubility of chitosan in neutral and alkaline solution limits its application. Nevertheless, chemical modification into composites or hydrogels brings to it new functional properties for different applications. Chitosans are recognized as versatile biomaterials because of their non-toxicity, low allergenicity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. This review presents the recent research, trends and prospects in chitosan. Some special pharmaceutical and biomedical applications are also highlighted.

  1. Production of Chitosan from Amusium sp Scallop Shell Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhati, Nur; Istirokhatun, Titik; Titik Apriyanti, Dwi; Susanto, Heru

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan is one of the natural polysaccharides, which is produced from chitin by deacetylation process. In this study, chitosan was produced from Amusium sp scallop shell waste. First, chitin was isolated by extraction via deproteinization using alkaline solution followed by demineralization using acid solution. Thereafter, chitosan was resulted from deacetylation of chitin using a high concentration of alkaline solution. The chemical structure of chitin and chitosan products was characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  2. An Investigation of Chitosan for Sorption of Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    energy and nuclear medicine applications, produce aqueous waste containing various radioactive metals. The treat- ment and processing of these wastes...including (but not limited to) fungal biomass, seaweed, peat, eggshell, spent brewery yeast, marine algae , silk, wool, feathers, alginate and chitn/chitosan...chitosan after 49 Figure 4.14: FTIR spectra of chitosan (blue), chitosan after contact with uranyl (red) and uranyl solution ( green ). Figure 4.15

  3. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Veeraselvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV, hemoglobin (Hb, red blood cell count (RBC, erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT, aspartate amino-transferase (AST, and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV (P<0.05 and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC (P<0.05. The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment.

  4. Chitosan production from hemicellulose hydrolysate of corn straw: impact of degradation products on Rhizopus oryzae growth and chitosan fermentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tai, C; Li, S; Xu, Q; Ying, H; Huang, H; Ouyang, P

    2010-01-01

    Aims:  To examine the potential use of hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) for the production of chitosan by Rhizopus oryzae and investigate the influence of contents in HH on mycelia growth and chitosan synthesis...

  5. The effect of ratio chitosan-bentonite and processing time on the characterization of chitosan-bentonite composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, E.; Budhyantoro, A.

    2017-07-01

    Chitosan/bentonite composite was synthesized to modify and enhance its characteristics to adsorp both anionic and cationic substances. The influence of several factors on synthesis of the chitosan/bentonite composite were investigated. The study focused on obtaining the best operating conditions that would produce homogenous chitosan/bentonite composite. The effect of weight ratio of bentonite to chitosan, reaction times and pre-treatment were investigated. The composite were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The optimum chitosan/bentonite composite was obtained at weight ratio of bentonite to chitosan 1 : 2 and 12 hours reaction. On these conditions, more chitosan can interact with the matrix of bentonite to form chitosan - bentonite composite.

  6. Adhesion and viability of two enterococcal strains on covalently grafted chitosan and chitosan/kappa-carrageenan multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bratskaya, S.; Marinin, D.; Simon, F.; Synytska, A.; Zschoche, S.; Busscher, H. J.; Jager, D.; van der Mei, H. C.

    Chitosans are natural aminopolysaccharides, whose low cytotoxicity suggests their potential use for nonadhesive, antibacterial coatings on biomaterials implant surfaces. Here, the antiadhesive behavior and ability to kill bacteria upon adhesion ("contact killing") of chitosan coatings were evaluated

  7. Vitamin D-fortified chitosan films from mushroom waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) stalk bases from mushroom waste were treated with UV-B light to rapidly increase vitamin D2 content. Chitin was also recovered from this waste and converted into chitosan by N-deacetylation. FTIR spectra showed that the mushroom chitosan were similar to chitosan fr...

  8. Interactions between chitosan and cells measured by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Thien, Doan Van Hong; Ho, Ming-Hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Chung-Hsing [Division of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chang-Hsiang [Department of Dentistry, Kinmen Hospital Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsi-Hsin, E-mail: mhho@mail.ntust.edu.t [Deputy Superintendent, Kinmen Hospital Department of Health, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Chitosan, a biocompatible material that has been widely used in bone tissue engineering, is believed to have a high affinity to osteoblastic cells. This research is the first to prove this hypothesis. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a chitosan-modified cantilever, quantitative evaluation of the interforce between chitosan and cells was carried out. A chitosan tip functionalized with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was also used to measure the interforce between RGD-chitosan and osteoblastic cells. This research concluded by examining cell adhesion and spreading of chitosan substrates as further characterization of the interactions between cells and chitosan. The force measured by AFM showed that the interforce between chitosan and osteoblasts was the highest (209 nN). The smallest adhesion force (61.8 nN) appeared between chitosan and muscle fibroblasts, which did not demonstrate any osteoblastic properties. This result proved that there was a significant interaction between chitosan and bone cells, and correlated with the observations of cell attachment and spreading. The technique developed in this research directly quantified the adhesion between chitosan and cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that specific interaction exists between chitosan and osteoblasts.

  9. Reactivity of chitosan derivatives and their interaction with guanine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study delves into the reactivity of a few chitosan derivatives (CSDs) and their inter- action with guanine in vacuum ... Density functional theory; hydrogen bonding; chitosan derivative; guanine; solvent effect. 1. Introduction. Chitosan (CS) ...... Acknowledgements. Authors thank DST, New Delhi for financial support.

  10. Removal of nitrate and phosphate using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent: Comparison with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgpour, Farahnaz; Ramandi, Hossein Fasih; Jafari, Pooya; Samadi, Saman; Yazd, Shabnam Sharif; Aliabadi, Majid

    2016-12-01

    In the present study the chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibrous adsorbent was prepared by electrospinning process and its application for the removal of nitrate and phosphate were compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite bead adsorbent. The influence of Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite content, pH, contact time, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations and temperature on the nitrate and phosphate sorption using synthesized bead and nanofibrous adsorbents was investigated in a single system. The reusability of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers after five sorption-desorption cycles were carried out. The Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the interaction effects of adsorbent dosage, nitrate and phosphate initial concentrations on the nitrate and phosphate removal efficiency. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model and known Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models were used to describe the kinetic and equilibrium data of nitrate and phosphate sorption using chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads and nanofibers. The influence of other anions including chloride, fluoride and sulphate on the sorption efficiency of nitrate and phosphate was examined. The obtained results revealed the higher potential of chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite nanofibers for nitrate and phosphate compared with chitosan/Al2O3/Fe3O4 composite beads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of chitosan application technique on refrigerated catfish fillet quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan has been reported to have functional properties such as antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, and binding action. Several studies reported an extension in the shelf life of various food products when chitosan was applied. However, there is limited study on the effect of chitosan ap...

  12. Novel carboxymethyl cellulose based nanocomposite membrane: Synthesis, characterization and application in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber-Samandari, Samaneh; Saber-Samandari, Saeed; Heydaripour, Samira; Abdouss, Majid

    2016-01-15

    Significant efforts have been made to develop composite membranes with high adsorption efficiencies for water treatment. In this study, a carboxymethyl cellulose-graft-poly(acrylic acid) membrane was synthesized in the presence of silica gel, which was used as an inorganic support. Then, different amounts of bentonite were introduced to the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) grafted networks as a multifunctional crosslinker, and nanocomposite membranes were prepared. The nanocomposite membranes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed their compositions and surface morphologies. The novel synthesized nanocomposite membranes were utilized as adsorbents for the removal of crystal violet (CV) and cadmium (Cd (II)) ions, which were selected as representatives of a dye and a heavy metal, respectively. We explored the effects of various parameters, such as time, pH, temperature, initial concentration of adsorbate solution and amount of adsorbent, on membrane adsorption capacity. Furthermore, the kinetic, adsorption isotherm models and thermodynamic were employed for the description of adsorption processes. The maximum adsorption capacities of membranes for CV and Cd (II) ions were found to be 546 and 781 mg g(-1), respectively. The adsorption of adsorbate ions by all types of nanocomposite membranes followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and was best fit with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The results indicated that the synthesized nanocomposite membrane is an efficient adsorbent for the removal of cationic dye and metal contaminants from aqueous solution during water treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of different substituted carboxymethyl starch microgels and their interactions with lysozyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Zhang

    Full Text Available A carboxymethyl starch (CMS microgel system was prepared for the control of uptaking and releasing proteins (lysozyme. The physicochemical properties of microgels in various degrees of substitution (DS were determined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, swelling degree, and rheological analysis. The microgel particle size mostly ranged from 25 µm to 45 µm. The result obtained from the TGA studies indicated that carboxymethylation decreased the thermal stability of starch, but crosslinking increased the thermal stability of CMS. The CMS microgels showed typical pH sensitivity, and the swelling degree of microgel increased with the increasing of DS and pH, because of the large amounts of carboxyl group ionization. The samples (2.25% could behave as viscoelastic solids since the storage modulus was larger than the loss modulus over the entire frequency range. The protein uptake increased with increasing pH and DS at low salt concentration. The optimal pH shifted to lower pH with increasing ionic strength. The saturated protein uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength at each pH. The protein was easily released from the microgel with high pH and high salt concentration.

  14. Cross-linked β-cyclodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels for controlled drug delivery of acyclovir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Shamshad Malik

    Full Text Available To explore the potential role of polymers in the development of drug-delivery systems, this study investigated the use of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, acrylic acid (AA and N' N'-methylenebis-acrylamide (MBA in the synthesis of hydrogels for controlled drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV. Different proportions of β-CD, CMC, AA and MBA were blended with each other to fabricate hydrogels via free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR revealed successful grafting of components into the polymeric network. Thermal and morphological characterization confirmed the formation of thermodynamically stable hydrogels having porous structure. The pH-responsive behaviour of hydrogels has been documented by swelling dynamics and drug release behaviour in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Drug release kinetics revealed controlled release behaviour of the antiviral drug acyclovir in developed polymeric network. Cross-linked β-cyclodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels can be used as promising candidates for the design and development of controlled drug-delivery systems.

  15. Cross-linked β-cyclodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels for controlled drug delivery of acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Nadia Shamshad; Ahmad, Mahmood; Minhas, Muhammad Usman

    2017-01-01

    To explore the potential role of polymers in the development of drug-delivery systems, this study investigated the use of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), acrylic acid (AA) and N' N'-methylenebis-acrylamide (MBA) in the synthesis of hydrogels for controlled drug delivery of acyclovir (ACV). Different proportions of β-CD, CMC, AA and MBA were blended with each other to fabricate hydrogels via free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed successful grafting of components into the polymeric network. Thermal and morphological characterization confirmed the formation of thermodynamically stable hydrogels having porous structure. The pH-responsive behaviour of hydrogels has been documented by swelling dynamics and drug release behaviour in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Drug release kinetics revealed controlled release behaviour of the antiviral drug acyclovir in developed polymeric network. Cross-linked β-cyclodextrin and carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogels can be used as promising candidates for the design and development of controlled drug-delivery systems.

  16. Carboxymethyl fenugreek galactomannan-gellan gum-calcium silicate composite beads for glimepiride delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Hriday; Mothe, Srilatha; Maiti, Sabyasachi; Vanga, Sridhar

    2017-09-13

    Novel carboxymethyl fenugreek galactomannan (CFG)-gellan gum (GG)-calcium silicate (CS) composite beads were developed for controlled glimepiride (GLI) delivery. CFG having degree of carboxymethylation of 0.71 was synthesized and characterized by FTIR, DSC and XRD analyses. Subsequently, GLI-loaded hybrids were accomplished by ionotropic gelation technique employing Ca+2/Zn+2/Al+3 ions as cross-linkers. All the formulations demonstrated excellent drug encapsulation efficiency (DEE, 48-97%) and sustained drug release behaviour (Q8h, 62-94%). These quality attributes were remarkably influenced by polymer-blend (GG:CFG) ratios, cross-linker types and CS inclusion. The drug release profile of the optimized formulation (F-6) was best fitted in zero-order model with anomalous diffusion driven mechanism. It also conferred excellent ex vivo mucoadhesive property and considerable hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the beads were characterized for drug-excipients compatibility, drug crystallinity, thermal behaviour and surface morphology. Thus, the developed hybrid matrices are appropriate for controlled delivery of GLI for Type 2 diabetes management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of dye by carboxymethyl cellulose, acrylamide and graphene oxide via a free radical polymerization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Sadiku, Emmanuel Rotimi

    2017-05-15

    Carboxymethyl cellulose has been used for the design of novel engineered hydrogels in order to obtain effective three-dimensional structures for industrial applications. In this work, dye removal carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylamide-graphene oxide (CMC-AM-GO) hydrogels were prepared by a free-radical polymerization method. The GO was developed by the modified Hummers method. The CMC-AM-GO and GO were characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM. The swelling and swelling kinetics were calculated using gravimetric process. The kinetic parameter, swelling exponent values [n=0.59-0.7507] explained the fact that the CMC-AM-GO hydrogles have super Case II diffusion transport mechanism. CMCx-AM-GO (x=1-4) and CMC-AM hydrogels were used for removal of Acid Blue-133. The result explains that composite hydrogels significantly removed the acid blue when compared to the neat hydrogel. The maximum AB absorption (185.45mg/g) capacity was found in the case of CMC2-AM-GO hydrogel. Therefore, cellulose-based GO hydrogels can be termed as smart systems for the abstraction of dye in water purification applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ionically crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose beads for the delivery of protein therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sup; Park, Sang Jun; Gu, Bon Kang; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2012-12-01

    We developed Fe3+-crosslinked alginate-carboxymethyl cellulose (AC) beads in various volume ratios by dropping an AC solution into a ferric chloride solution to form protein therapeutic carrier beads. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the roughness and pore size of the crosslinked beads increased with the volume ratio of the carboxymethyl cellulose. Fourier transform-infrared analysis revealed the formation of a three-dimensional bonding structure between the anionic polymeric chains of AC and the Fe3+ ions. The degree of swelling and the release profile of albumin from the beads were investigated under simulated gastrointestinal conditions (pH 1.2, 4.5, and 7.4). The Fe3+-crosslinked AC beads displayed different degrees of swelling and albumin release for the various AC volume ratios and under various pH conditions. An in vitro release test was used to monitor the controlled release of albumin from the AC beads under simulated gastrointestinal conditions over 24 h. The Fe3+-crosslinked AC beads protected and controlled the release of protein, demonstrating that such beads present a promising protein therapeutic carrier for the oral delivery.

  19. 3D Bioprinting of Carboxymethylated-Periodate Oxidized Nanocellulose Constructs for Wound Dressing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rees

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose has a variety of advantages, which make the material most suitable for use in biomedical devices such as wound dressings. The material is strong, allows for production of transparent films, provides a moist wound healing environment, and can form elastic gels with bioresponsive characteristics. In this study, we explore the application of nanocellulose as a bioink for modifying film surfaces by a bioprinting process. Two different nanocelluloses were used, prepared with TEMPO mediated oxidation and a combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation. The combination of carboxymethylation and periodate oxidation produced a homogeneous material with short nanofibrils, having widths <20 nm and lengths <200 nm. The small dimensions of the nanofibrils reduced the viscosity of the nanocellulose, thus yielding a material with good rheological properties for use as a bioink. The nanocellulose bioink was thus used for printing 3D porous structures, which is exemplified in this study. We also demonstrated that both nanocelluloses did not support bacterial growth, which is an interesting property of these novel materials.

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using biopolymers, carboxymethylated-curdlan and fucoidan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Thomas Chun-Yiu; Wong, Chung Kai [Program of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Xie Yong, E-mail: boyxie@ust.hk [Program of Nano Science and Technology, Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-06-01

    There is a growing need in developing a reliable and eco-friendly methodology for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, which may be applied for many nanotechnological applications. Natural compounds such as biopolymers are one of the resources which could be used for this purpose. The present study involves the development of a simple, ecological and user-friendly method in synthesizing silver nanoparticles by using carboxymethylated-curdlan or fucoidan as reducing and stabilizing agents. Reduction of silver ions by these biopolymers occurred when heating at 100 deg. C, led to the formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 40-80 nm in dimensions. The silver nanoparticles were formed readily within 10-15 min. Morphological observation and characterization of the silver nanoparticles were performed by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer. The size of silver nanoparticles can be controlled by using different concentrations of carboxymethylated-curdlan, fucoidan or silver nitrate. This way of silver nanoparticles preparation is easy, fast, user-friendly and suitable for large-scale production.

  1. Preparation of cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch and evaluation as a tablet disintegrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongpatana, Nisit; Suwakon, Janta; Kittipongpatana, Ornanong

    2011-10-01

    The main purposes of this study are to prepare cross-linked carboxymethyl jackfruit starch (CL-CMJF) and to evaluate its pharmaceutical property as a tablet disintegrant. CL-CMJF was prepared by a dual carboxymethyl-crosslinking reaction in a flask containing jackfruit seed starch (JFS), chloroacetic acid (CAA), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). The reaction was carried out using methanol as a solvent for 60 min at 70°C and at JFS:CAA:NaOH:STMP ratio of 1.0:0.29:0.28:0.07. The obtained CL-CMJF, with degree of substitution and degree of crosslinking calculated to be 0.34 and 0.06, respectively, was insoluble but swellable in water. Rheological study revealed a decreased in solution viscosity compared to the non-crosslinked CMJF. The water uptake of CL-CMJF was 23 times higher than that of native starch and was comparable to that of a commercial superdisintegrant, sodium starch glycolate (SSG). The swelling ability of CL-CMRS was similar to that of crosscarmellose sodium (CCS), another commercial superdisintegrant. Disintegration test of aspirin tablets containing 2%w/w of JFS, CL-CMJF, SSG and CCS showed disintegration times in the order of SSG < CCS ~ CL-CMJF < JFS. The results suggested that CL-CMJF could be developed as a tablet disintegrant.

  2. Nuclear imaging evaluation of galactosylation of chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Chang Guhn [School of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, In Kyu; Cho, Chong Su [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee Seung [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    Chitosan has been studied as a non-viral gene delivery vector, drug delivery carrier, metal chelater, food additive, and radiopharmaceutical, among other things. Recently, galactose-graft chitosan was studied as a non-viral gene and drug delivery vector to target hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of nuclear imaging for in vivo evaluation of targeting the hepatocyte by galactose grafting. Galactosyl methylated chitosan (GMC) was produced by methylation to lactobionic acid coupled chitosan Cytotoxicity of {sup 99}mTc-GMC was determined by MTT assay. Rabbits were injected via their auricular vein with {sup 99}mTc-GMC and {sup 99}mTc-methylated chitosan (MC), the latter of which does not contain a galactose group, and images were acquired with a gamma camera equipped with a parallel hole collimator. The composition of the galactose group in galactosylated chitosan (GC), as well as the tri-, di-, or mono-methylation of GMC, was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The results of MTT assay indicated that {sup 99}mTc-GMC was non-toxic. {sup 99}mTc-GMC specifically accumulated in the liver within 10 minutes of injection and maintained high hepatic uptake. In contrast, {sup 99}mTc-MC showed faint liver uptake. {sup 99}mTc-GMC scintigraphy of rabbits showed that the galactose ligand principally targeted the liver while the chitosan functionalities led to excretion through the urinary system. Bioconjugation with a specific ligand endows some degree of targetability to an administered molecule or drug, as in the case of galactose for hepatocyte in vivo, and evaluating said targetability is a clear example of the great benefit proffered by nuclear imaging.

  3. Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed TA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarek A Ahmed1,2 Bader M Aljaeid11Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Naturally occurring polymers, particularly of the polysaccharide type, have been used pharmaceutically for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan, the second abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide next to cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used in the preparation of micro- as well as nanoparticles. The prepared particles have been exploited as a potential carrier for different therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and nonparenteral administration. Therapeutic agent-loaded chitosan micro- or nanoparticles were found to be more stable, permeable, and bioactive. In this review, we are highlighting the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan micro- and nanoparticles, while reviewing the pharmaceutical applications of these particles in drug delivery. Moreover, the roles of chitosan derivatives and chitosan metal nanoparticles in drug delivery have been illustrated.Keywords: nanoparticles, microparticles, preparation, characterization, pharmaceutical application

  4. PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI NANO KOMPOSIT KITOSAN-SILIKA DAN KITOSAN-SILIKA TITANIA (Preparation and Characterisation of Chitosan-Silica and Chitosan Silica Titania Nano Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Kartika Maharani

    2012-03-01

    Chitosan-silica and chitosan-silica titania composites have been prepared by mixing chitosan solutions with silca sol and silica titania sol for antibacterial application. Chitosan were prepared by deproteination, demineralisation and deasetilation of chitin from Crab shells. The silica sol and silica titania sol were prepared by sol-gel method. The composites were characterized using Infra Red spectrophotometry and X-ray Diffraction methods. The  Infra Red study of the composites showed that there is interaction between silica and titania with chitosan. The crystallinity of chitosan silica titania and chitosan-silica was decreased, compared with chitosan, that is showed the increasing of stucture dissorder of composites material.

  5. The formation of magnetic carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles using precipitation from an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo, E-mail: saso.gyergyek@ijs.si [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Primc, Darinka [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plantan, Ivan [Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Mengeš (Slovenia)

    2015-03-01

    The formation of spinel iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions from an aqueous solution in the presence of carboxymethyldextrane (CMD) was studied. To follow the formation of the nanoparticles, a mixture of the Fe ions, CMD and ammonia was heated to different temperatures, while the samples were taken, quenched in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and magnetometry. The CMD plays a role in the reactions of the Fe ions' precipitation by partially immobilizing the Fe{sup 3+} ions into a complex. At room temperature, the amorphous material is precipitated. Then, above approximately 30 °C, the spinel nanoparticles form inside the amorphous matrix, and at approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The CMD bonded to the nanoparticles' surfaces hinders the mass transport and thus prevents their growth. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-dextrane coated iron-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • The carboxymethyl-dextrane significantly modifies formation of the spinel nanoparticles. • The spinel nanoparticles are formed inside the amorphous matrix. • At approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Carboxymethyl-cellulase from Erwinia chrysanthemi. II. Purification and partial characterization of an endo-. beta. -1,4-glucanase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M.H.; Chambost, J.P.; Magnan, M.; Cattaneo, J.

    1984-01-01

    The extracellular carboxymethyl-cellulase of Erwinia chrysanthemi, strain 3665, had a marked tendency to form aggregates when concentration and/or storage time of culture supernatant were increased. In submitting an unconcentrated glycerol culture supernatant to ion exchange chromatography, one major endo-..beta..-1,4,-glucanase could be isolated with a high degree of purity and partially characterized. The molecular size was 45 kd. The pI was 4.3. The enzyme rapidly decreased the viscosity of carboxymethyl-cellulose with a slow increase in the reducing sugars produced. It displayed its highest activity towards carboxymethyl-cellulose at a pH between 6.2 and 7.5. It had a significant capacity to hydrolyze amorphous cellulose such as phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. The major products of this degradation were cellobiose and cellotriose. It exhibited a very low activity on microcrystalline cellulose. Glucose and cellobiose did not affect significantly its activity against carboxymethyl-cellulose. 21 references.

  7. N -(carboxymethyl)lysine: A Review on Analytical Methods, Formation, and Occurrence in Processed Food, and Health Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Ha T.; Fels, van der H.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    Foods are often heat processed and may contain advanced glycation end products (AGE). One of the most widely studied AGE is Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML); nevertheless, knowledge on dietary CML is fragmentary. This study aimed to review current scientific knowledge on analytical methods to

  8. Extraction and Characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from Blue Crab and Synthesis of Chitosan Cryogel Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Bölgen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric scaffolds produced by cryogelation technique have attracted increasing attention for tissue engineering applications. Cryogelation is a technique which enables to produce interconnected porous matrices from the frozen reaction mixtures of polymers or monomeric precursors. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antifungal natural polymer that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin, which is mostly found in the exoskeleton of many crustacean. In this study, chitin was isolated from the exoskeleton of blue crap (Callinectes sapidus using a chemical method. Callinectes sapidus samples were collected from a market, as a waste material after it has been consumed as food. Demineralization, deproteinization and decolorization steps were applied to the samples to obtain chitin. Chitosan was prepared from isolated chitin by deacetylation at high temperatures. The chemical compositon of crab shell, extracted chitin and chitosan were characterized with FTIR analyses. And also to determine the physicochemical and functional properties of the produced chitosan; solubility, water binding and fat binding analysis were performed. Chitosan cryogel scaffolds were prepared by crosslinking reaction at cryogenic conditions at constant amount of chitosan (1%, w/v with different ratios of glutaraldehyde (1, 3, and 6%, v/v as crosslinker. The chemical structure of the scaffolds were examined by FTIR. Also, the water uptake capacity of scaffolds have been determined. Collectively, the results suggested that the characterized chitosan cryogels can be potential scaffolds to be used in tissue engineering applications.

  9. Impedance spectroscopy study of dehydrated chitosan and chitosan containing LiClO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.M., E-mail: maurocosta@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, 78060-900 Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Terezo, A.J. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso, UFMT, 78060-900 Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Matos, A.L. [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, UFMT, Campus Rondonopolis, 78735-910 Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil); Moura, W.A. [Departamento Eletro-Eletronica, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso-Campus Cuiaba, 78.005-200 Cuiaba, MT (Brazil); Giacometti, Jose A. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 266, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Sombra, A.S.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicacoes e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Ceara, UFC, 60020-181 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-11-01

    Cast films of chitosan and chitosan containing LiClO{sub 4} were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the thermogravimetric technique. The electric properties of hydrated and dehydrated films were investigated with impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz, at temperatures varying from 30 to 110 {sup o}C. The frequency dependence of the impedance for dehydrated chitosan and chitosan containing LiClO{sub 4} films indicated ionic conduction. Two relaxation peaks were evident on the imaginary curve of the electric modulus, which were assigned to ionic conduction. The peak at higher frequency was found for chitosan and chitosan containing LiClO{sub 4} films. The peak at lower frequency was attributed to Li{sup +} conduction since it appeared only for the chitosan containing LiClO{sub 4}. The peak frequency varied with the temperature according to an Arrhenius process with activation energies of circa of 0.6 and 0.45 eV, for H{sup +} and Li{sup +} conduction, respectively.

  10. Thiolated methylated dimethylaminobenzyl chitosan: A novel chitosan derivative as a potential delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakimi, Shirin; Mortazavian, Elaheh; Mohammadi, Zohreh; Samadi, Fatemeh Yazdi; Samadikhah, Hamidreza; Taheritarigh, Sadegh; Tehrani, Niyousha Rafiee; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan is a natural mucoadhesive, biodegradable, biocompatible and nontoxic polymer which has been used in pharmaceutical industry for a lot of purposes such as dissolution enhancing, absorption enhancing, sustained releasing and protein, gene or drug delivery. Two major disadvantages of chitosan are poor solubility in physiological pH and low efficiency for protein and gene delivery. In this study thiolated methylated N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl) chitosan was prepared for the first time in order to improve the solubility and delivery properties of chitosan. This novel chitosan derivative was characterized using 1H NMR, Ellman test, TGA and Zetasizer. Cell toxicity studies were performed on Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (Hek293) cell line using XTT method, to investigate the potential effect of this new derivative on cell viability. 1H NMR results showed that all substitution reactions were successfully carried out. Zeta potential of new derivative at acidic and physiological pHs was greater than chitosan and it revealed an increase in solubility of the derivative. Furthermore, it had no significant cytotoxicity against Hek293 cell line in comparison to chitosan. These findings confirm that this new derivative can be introduced as a suitable compound for biomedical purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy and swelling test of shrimp shell chitosan and chitosan-RGD scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandacan, M. C.; Yuniastuti, M.; Amir, L. R.; Idrus, E.; Suniarti, D. F.

    2017-08-01

    Shrimp shell chitosan and chitosan-RGD scaffold membranes are produced to be biocompatible with tissue engineering. Nonetheless, their architectural properties have not yet been studied. Analyze the architectural properties of chitosan and chitosan-RGD scaffolds. Analyze pore count and size, interpore distance, and porosity (using SEM testing and ImageJ analysis) and water absorption (using a swelling test). The properties of the chitosan and chitosan-RGD scaffolds were as follows, respectively. The pore counts were 225 and 153; pore size, 171.4 μam and 180.2 μam interpore distance, 105.7 μam and 101.4 μam porosity, 22% and 10.2%; and water absorption, 9.1 mgH2O/mgScaffold and 19.3 mgH2O/mgScaffold. The shrimp shell chitosan-RGD membrane scaffold was found to have architectural properties that make it more conducive to use in tissue engineering.

  12. Films, Buckypapers and Fibers from Clay, Chitosan and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc in het Panhuis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and electrical characteristics of films, buckypapers and fiber materials from combinations of clay, carbon nanotubes (CNTs and chitosan are described. The rheological time-dependent characteristics of clay are maintained in clay–carbon nanotube–chitosan composite dispersions. It is demonstrated that the addition of chitosan improves their mechanical characteristics, but decreases electrical conductivity by three-orders of magnitude compared to clay–CNT materials. We show that the electrical response upon exposure to humid atmosphere is influenced by clay-chitosan interactions, i.e., the resistance of clay–CNT materials decreases, whereas that of clay–CNT–chitosan increases.

  13. Adsorption of Cadmium By Silica Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moftah Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption process depends on initial concentration of Cd2+ and ratio of  chitosan in adsorbent. The present study deals with the competitive adsorption of Cd2+ ion onto silica graft with chitosan. Batch adsorption experiments were performed at five different initial Cd2+ concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm, on five different proportion from silica to chitosan (100%, 95%, 85%, 75% and 65% as adsorbent at pH 5. In the recovery process, the high recovery at 0.5 mg and observed the recovery decrease with increasing the initial concentration of Cd2+, and the low recovery at 0.25 mg from Cd2+. In this study, the adsorption capacity of Cd2+ in regard to the ratio of silica and chitosan hybrid adsorbents are examined in detail. The aim of this study to explore effects of initial concentrations of Cd2+, and the ratio of silica to chitosan on the adsorption and recovery of Cd2+.

  14. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  15. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarfaj Nawal A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  16. Determination of isoxsuprine hydrochloride by sequential injection visible spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Negussie W; Van Staden, Jacobus F; Stefan, Raluca-Ioana; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2005-01-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) spectrophotometric method for the determination of isoxsuprine hydrochloride is described. The method is based on the condensation of aminoantipyrine with phenols (isoxsuprine hydrochloride) in the presence of an alkaline oxidizing agent (potassium hexacyanoferrate) to yield a pink colored product, the absorbance of which is monitored at 507 nm. Chemical as well as physical SI parameters that affect the signal response have been optimized in order to get better sensitivity, higher sampling rate and better reagent economy. Using the optimized aforesaid parameters, a linear relationship between the relative peak height and concentration was obtained in the range 1-60 mg l-1. The detection limit (as 3sigma value) was 0.3 mg l-1 and precision was 1.4% and 1.6% at 5 and 10 mg l-1, respectively. As compared to previous reports, wide linear range, low detection limit, and highly economical reagent consumption are the advantages of this automated method.

  17. Chitosan in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery: Focus on Local Vaginal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive drug therapy destined for localized drug treatment is gaining increasing importance in today’s drug development. Chitosan, due to its known biodegradability, bioadhesiveness and excellent safety profile offers means to improve mucosal drug therapy. We have used chitosan as mucoadhesive polymer to develop liposomes able to ensure prolonged residence time at vaginal site. Two types of mucoadhesive liposomes, namely the chitosan-coated liposomes and chitosan-containing liposomes, where chitosan is both embedded and surface-available, were made of soy phosphatidylcholine with entrapped fluorescence markers of two molecular weights, FITC-dextran 4000 and 20,000, respectively. Both liposomal types were characterized for their size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release profile, and compared to plain liposomes. The proof of chitosan being both surface-available as well as embedded into the liposomes in the chitosan-containing liposomes was found. The capability of the surface-available chitosan to interact with the model porcine mucin was confirmed for both chitosan-containing and chitosan-coated liposomes implying potential mucoadhesive behavior. Chitosan-containing liposomes were shown to be superior in respect to the simplicity of preparation, FITC-dextran load, mucoadhesiveness and in vitro release and are expected to ensure prolonged residence time on the vaginal mucosa providing localized sustained release of entrapped model substances.

  18. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Production of Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dustgani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioedegradable nanoparticles are intensively investigated for their potential applications in drug delivery systems. Being a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, chitosan holds great promise for use in this area. This investigation was concerned with determination and optimization of the effective parameters involved in the production of chitosan nanoparticles using ionic gelation method. Studied variables were concentration and pH of the chitosan solution, the ratio of chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate therein and the molecular weight of chitosan. For this purpose, Taguchistatistical method was used for design of experiments in three levels. The size of chitosan nanoparticle was determined using laser light scattering. The experimental results showed that concentration of chitosan solution was the most important parameter and chitosan molecular weight the least effective parameter. The optimum conditions for preparation of nanoparticles were found to be 1 mg/mL chitosan solution with pH=5, chitosan to sodium tripolyphosphate ratio of 3 and chitosan molecular weight of 200,000 daltons. The average nanoparticle size at optimum conditions was found to be about 150 nm.

  19. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

    2012-02-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  20. Suppression of Zn stress on barley by irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, N.; Mitomo, H. [Gunma Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan); Ha, P.T.L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Watanabe, S.; Ito, T.; Takeshita, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Chitosan was irradiated up to 1000 kGy in solid state. Irradiation of chitosan caused the reduction of molecular weight. The molecular weight of the chitosan reduced from ca. 4 x 10{sup 5} to ca. 6 x 10{sup 3} by irradiation at 1000 kGy. For the barley growth promotion, irradiated chitosan showed the significant effect and 1000 kGy irradiated chitosan improved 20% of growth. Using the positron emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS), the effect of chitosan on uptake and transportation of {sup 62}Zn in barley were investigated. It was found that the transportation of Zn from root to shoot and the damage of plant by Zn were suppressed with irradiated chitosan. (author)

  1. Chitosan and its derivatives as promising drug delivery carriers

    CERN Document Server

    Prabaharan, M

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural based polymer obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin, is non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable. These properties make chitosan a good candidate for the development of conventional and novel drug delivery systems. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the chemical modification of chitosan in order to improve its solubility and widen its applications. Chemical modification of chitosan is useful for the association of bioactive molecules to the polymer and controlling the drug release profile. Chemical modification will introduce desired properties and enlarge the field of the potential applications of chitosan with the choice of various types of side chains. In this monograph, recent studies on the various types of chitosan microspheres are discussed from the viewpoint of drug delivery applications. Moreover, different types of chitosan derivatives developed as controlled drug delivery carriers and their preparation methods are discussed in detail. The modifications disc...

  2. Growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Junior, Enio N; Gueddari, Nour E El; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Franco, Telma T

    2012-04-01

    The inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (DP) and different degrees of acetylation (FA) on the growth rates (GR) of four phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer) were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the chitosans ranged from 100 μg ×mL(-1) to 1,000 μg ×mL(-1) depending on the fungus tested and the DP and FA of the chitosan. The antifungal activity of the chitosans increased with decreasing FA. Chitosans with low FA and high DP showed the highest inhibitory activity against all four fungi. P. expansum and B. cinerea were relatively less susceptible while A. alternata and R. stolonifer were relatively more sensitive to the chitosan polymers. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi grown on culture media amended with chitosan revealed morphological changes.

  3. Growth rate inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi by characterized chitosans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio N. Oliveira Junior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effects of fifteen chitosans with different degrees of polymerization (DP and different degrees of acetylation (F A on the growth rates (GR of four phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer were examined using a 96-well microtiter plate and a microplate reader. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the chitosans ranged from 100 µg × mL-1 to 1,000 µg × mL-1 depending on the fungus tested and the DP and F A of the chitosan. The antifungal activity of the chitosans increased with decreasing F A. Chitosans with low F A and high DP showed the highest inhibitory activity against all four fungi. P. expansum and B. cinerea were relatively less susceptible while A. alternata and R. stolonifer were relatively more sensitive to the chitosan polymers. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi grown on culture media amended with chitosan revealed morphological changes.

  4. DESIGN OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Omray, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    Gastro retentive drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was designed and evaluated for its effectiveness for the management of mild to moderate hypertension. Gastro retentive drug delivery system were prepared using polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxy methyl cellulose as the polymers and sodium bicarbonate as a gas generating agent for the reduction of floating lag time. Gastro retentive drug delivery system tablets were prepared by wet granulation method by compression in tablet co...

  5. Kinetics of the reduction of Rasaniline hydrochloride with sulphite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics of the reduction of rosaniline hydrochloride (RH) in perchloric acid has been investigated under pseudo-first order condition of an excess [SO32-] at ionic strength of 1.0 mol dm-3 (CH3COONa), T = 30 0.1 oC and λmax = 540nm. The stoichiometry of the reaction was observed to be 1:1in terms of mole ratio of ...

  6. Clinical effect of venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride on narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Bin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the clinical effect of venlafaxine sustained-release capsules combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride tablets on narcolepsy. Thirty-eight cases of narcoleptic patients were randomly divided into venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment group (observation group, N = 19 and methylphenidate hydrochloride and clomipramine treatment group (control group, N = 19. After a total of 12-week treatment, clinical curative effect and adverse drug reactions were observed in 2 groups of patients. The results showed that effective rate of the treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in observation group was higher than that of the control group (15/19 vs 8/19, P = 0.044, and effective rate of the treatment for cataplexy in observation group was higher than that of the control group (13/19 vs 6/19, P = 0.048. The rate of adverse drug reactions in observation group was lower than that in the control group (χ2 = 8.889, P = 0.003. It was indicated that venlafaxine combined with methylphenidate had good curative effect on narcolepsy with EDS and cataplexy symptoms.

  7. Effects of cinnamene enhancers on transdermal delivery of ligustrazine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-feng; Yang, Zhong-lin; Luo, Jia-bo; Zhu, Quan-hong; Zhao, Hui-nan

    2007-09-01

    Cinnamene compounds, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic alcohol, were employed as enhancers. The effects and mechanisms of penetration promoters on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of ligustrazine hydrochloride across hairless porcine dorsal skin were investigated. Transdermal fluxes of ligustrazine hydrochloride through porcine skin were determined in vitro by Franz-type diffusion cells. The results indicated that the penetration flux of ligustrazine hydrochloride by cinnamic acid was the greatest. Significant statistical differences (Pextract the stratum corneum lipids to different extent. Morphological changes of the skin treated with enhancers were monitored by a scanning electron microscope. It was demonstrated that the extraction of the stratum corneum lipids by the enhancers led to the disruption of stratum corneum and the desquamation of stratum corneum flake. Apparent density was newly proposed to estimate the desquamated extent of stratum corneum flake. Correlation analysis revealed that there was a linear relationship between apparent density and decrease in peak area. The results showed that the permeation enhancement mechanisms of cinnamene were pleiotropic ones, including disordering the lipids, extracting the lipids and competitive hydrogen bonding between cinnamene enhancers and amides of ceramide head groups in stratum corneum.

  8. Electrospinning and stabilization of chitosan nanofiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Grothe, T.; Homburg, S. V.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is of special interest for biotechnological and medical applications due to its antibacterial, antifungal and other intrinsic physical and chemical properties. The biopolymer can, e.g., be used for biotechnological purposes, as a filter medium, in medical products, etc. In all these applications, the inner surface should be maximized to increase the contact area with the filtered medium etc. and thus the chitosan’s efficacy. Chitosan dissolves in acidic solutions, opposite to neutral water. Electrospinning is possible, e.g., by co-spinning with PEO (poly(ethylene oxide)). Tests with different chitosan:PEO ratios revealed that higher PEO fractions resulted in better spinnability and more regular fibre mats, but make stabilization of the fibre structure more challenging.

  9. Chitin and chitosan: biopolymers for wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rita; Shitiz, Kirti; Singh, Antaryami

    2017-12-01

    Chitin and chitosan are biopolymers with excellent bioactive properties, such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, haemostatic activity and antimicrobial activity. A wide variety of biomedical applications for chitin and chitin derivatives have been reported, including wound-healing applications. They are reported to promote rapid dermal regeneration and accelerate wound healing. A number of dressing materials based on chitin and chitosan have been developed for the treatment of wounds. Chitin and chitosan with beneficial intrinsic properties and high potential for wound healing are attractive biopolymers for wound management. This review presents an overview of properties, biomedical applications and the role of these biopolymers in wound care. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Structural Characterization of Chitosan-Clay Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, C.; Weselucha-Birczynska, A.; Stodolak, E.

    2010-08-01

    Novel materials originating from renowable sources mainly consist of biopolymers and their composites or nanocomposites. A typical material belonging to this group is chitosane (CS), which is a cationic natural polysaccharide that can be produced by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitine. Chitosane has a variety of applications in biomedical products, cosmetics, and food processing [1, 2].Organic-inorganic hybrid materials basing on chitosane and nanoclay (montmoryllonite, MMT) were characterized by the vibrational spectrocopy methods (Micro-Raman spectroscopy and FT-Raman spectroscopy) and the thermal analysis methods (TG, DSC). It was shown, that small amount on a nanofiller (MMT, 3 wt.%) used to modify the polymer matrix influences the structure of its polymeric chains.

  11. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, Iqbal, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id; Arcana, I Made, E-mail: arcana@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Research Groups, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Iqbal; Arcana, I. Made

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component's composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it's characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10-6 S/cm up to 6.01 × 10-4 S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10-3 S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  13. Simultaneous derivative spectrophotometric analysis of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride and folic Acid in combined dosage forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pathak, A; Rajput, S J

    2008-01-01

    Two UV spectrophotometric methods have been developed, based on first derivative spectrophotometry for simultaneous estimation of doxylamine succinate, pyridoxine hydrochloride, and folic acid in tablet formulations...

  14. Asialoglycoprotein-receptor-targeted hepatocyte imaging using {sup 99m}Tc galactosylated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Mi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hwan-Jeong [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jayjeong@chonbuk.ac.kr; Kim, Se-Lim [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Myung-Hee [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Jeonju, Jeonbuk (Korea, Republic of); Nah, Jae-Woon [Division of Applied Materials Engineering, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Bom, Hee-Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Kyu [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong-Su [School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    This study investigated the usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide-galactosylated chitosan (HGC) in hepatocyte imaging. HGC was obtained by coupling the galactose moiety of both lactobionic acid and succinimidyl 6-hydrazinonicotinate hydrochloride (succinimidyl HYNIC). The coupled product was then radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc using stannous chloride and tricine as reducing agent and coligand, respectively. Labeling efficiency was >90% both in room temperature and in serum up to 24 h after injection. The hepatic uptake properties of {sup 99m}Tc HGC were studied in Balb/C mice. {sup 99m}Tc HGC and {sup 99m}Tc hydrazinonicotinamide chitosan (HC) were intravenously injected into mice, with receptor binding identified by coinjection with 9 and 14 mg of free galactose. Images were acquired with a {gamma}-camera. After injection via the tail vein of the mice, {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed high selectivity for the liver, while {sup 99m}Tc HC without a galactose group showed low liver uptake. In addition, the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc HGC was blocked by coinjection of free galactose. Tissue distribution was determined at three different times (10, 60 and 120 min). The liver accumulated 13.16{+-}2.72%, 16.11{+-}5.70% and 16.55{+-}2.28% of the injected dose per gram at 10, 60 and 120 min after injection, respectively. {sup 99m}Tc HGC showed specific and rapid targeting of hepatocytes. It is a promising receptor-specific radiopharmaceutical with potential applications in liver imaging for the evaluation of hepatocytic function.

  15. Quaternized chitosan nanoparticles loaded with the combined attenuated live vaccine against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis elicit immune response in chicken after intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kai; Li, Shanshan; Li, Wei; Yu, Lu; Duan, Xutong; Han, Jinyu; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) are important diseases, which cause respiratory diseases in chickens, resulting in severely economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, N-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride chitosan (N-2-HACC) and N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) were synthesized as adjuvant and delivery carrier for vaccine antigens. N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV/IBV nanoparticles (NPs) (NDV/La Sota and IBV/H120 encapsulated in N-2-HACC-CMC NPs) and N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV-IBV NPs (the mixing of N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV NPs and N-2-HACC-CMC/IBV NPs in a ratio of 1:1) were prepared by the polyelectrolyte composite method, respectively. Both nanoparticles exhibited lower cytotoxicity and higher stability. Their bioactivities were maintained when they were stored at 37 °C for three weeks. Release assay in vitro showed that both NDV and IBV could be sustainably released from the nanoparticles after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization of chickens showed that N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV/IBV NPs or N-2-HACC-CMC/NDV-IBV NPs intranasally induced higher titers of IgG and IgA antibodies, significantly promoted proliferation of lymphocytes and induced higher levels of interleukine-2 (IL-2), IL-4 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than the commercially combined attenuated live vaccine did. This is the first study in the field of animal vaccines demonstrating that intranasal administration of chickens with antigens (NDV and IBV) encapsulated with chitosan derivative could induce humoral, cellular, and mucosal immune responses, which protected chickens from the infection of highly virulent NDV and IBV. This study indicated that N-2-HACC-CMC could be used as an efficient adjuvant and delivery carrier for further development of mucosal vaccines and drugs and could have an immense application potential in medicine.

  16. Fat replacers in low-fat carboxymethyl cellulose dairy beverages: Color, rheology, and consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, C; Costell, E; Bayarri, S

    2011-05-01

    Low-fat foods are an interesting option for consumers interested in health-related issues or in maintaining adequate body weight; however, fat reduction may influence consumer acceptance of the end product. This study aims to obtain information about the effectiveness of λ-carrageenan and a blend (50:50) of short- and long-chain inulin as fat replacers in dairy beverages prepared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and to determine to what extent consumers perceive instrumental color and rheological differences among samples. Results showed that both λ-carrageenan and the inulin blend could be used as fat replacers in CMC-based dairy beverages and that consumers could distinguish among samples that differed in color and rheological behavior. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. IONIC CONDUCTIVITY AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE - NH4Cl SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. AHMAD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this present work, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC – ammonium chloride (NH4Cl solid polymer electrolyte (SPE films were prepared by solution casting method. The ionic conductivity and electrical properties of SPE films were investigated using Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy. SPE film containing 16 wt. % NH4Cl exhibited the highest ionic conductivity of 1.43 x 10-3 S/cm at ambient temperature, 303K. The temperature dependence SPE films showed an Arrhenius-type relation where the regression values obtained from the log conductivity versus reciprocal temperature is close to unity (R2≈1. The electrical properties have been measured as a function of frequency of Ԑr,Ԑi, Mr, Mi shown a non-Debye type behavior

  18. Dyes adsorption using a synthetic carboxymethyl cellulose-acrylic acid adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genlin; Yi, Lijuan; Deng, Hui; Sun, Ping

    2014-05-01

    Removal of noxious dyes is gaining public and technological attention. Herein grafting polymerization was employed to produce a novel adsorbent using acrylic acid and carboxymethyl cellulose for dye removal. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy verified the adsorbent formed under optimized reaction conditions. The removal ratio of adsorbent to Methyl Orange, Disperse Blue 2BLN and malachite green chloride reached to 84.2%, 79.6% and 99.9%, respectively. The greater agreement between the calculated and experimental results suggested that pseudo second-order kinetic model better represents the kinetic adsorption data. Equilibrium adsorptions of dyes were better explained by the Temkin isotherm. The results implied that this new cellulose-based absorbent had the universality for removal of dyes through the chemical adsorption mechanism. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Active biopolymer film based on carboxymethyl cellulose and ascorbic acid for food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Al Luqman Abdul; Kamari, Azlan

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, an active biopolymer film based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and ascorbic acid (AA) was synthesised at an incorporation rate of 15% (w/w). Several analytical instruments such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Thermogravimetry Analyser (TGA), UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Universal Testing Machine were used to characterise the physical and chemical properties of CMC-AA film. The addition of AA significantly reduced elongation at break (322%) and tensile strength (10 MPa) of CMC-AA film. However, CMC-AA film shows a better antimicrobial property against two bacteria, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as compared to CMC film. The CMC-AA film was able to preserve cherry tomato with low weight loss and browning index. Overall, results from this study highlight the feasibility of CSAA film for food preservation.

  20. The microwave assisted-synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from nata de-coco bacterial cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, L. O. A. N.; Nur Rahmat, M.; Susilowati, P. E.; Ahmad, L. O.; Edy Rusbandi, U.

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is one of natural biopolymers which can be derivatized to make functionalized materials. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is a candidate derivative for such a direction. The aim of the present study is to investigate the usability of microwave energy to transform BC into CMC. The results showed that CMC was produced in a yellowish white powder by a short irradiation for 30 s at 650 W. The best combination of monochloroacetic acid and BC as anhydrogucose unit was found at the molar ratio of 1:5. The obtained CMC is soluble in distilled water, and aqueous NaOH solution. The highest degree of substitution, viscosity, and molecular weight of the CMC are 0.263, 15.61 Pa·s and 197,187, respectively. This study showed the usefulness of the microwave-assisted reaction to transform BC rapidly into water-soluble ionized derivative.

  1. Comparison of Carbopol and Carboxymethyl Cellulose as Thickener on Making Bioethanol Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukma Budi Ariyani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol gel is a new form of liquid bioethanol that has been given a thickening agent. This type of bioethanol is believed could make its transportation and utilization safer. This study aimed to compare the carbopol and carboxymethyl cellulose as thickener agents and to characterize the bioethanol gel produced. In this research, carbopol and carboximethyl used for making bioethanol gel were1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 g. Then flame color, length of flame and viscosity were tested. The best bioethanol gel produced obtained on the addition of carbopol 6 g. Its characteristics were clear white color, the flame color is blue reddish, length of flame per 5 g is 5 minutes 17 seconds, and viscosity 1,380,000 cP. The boiling water test result on 100 ml of water by using 15 g of bioethanol gel takes 16 minutes.

  2. the shape and size of macromolecules of carboxymethyl starch in diluted solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Željko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl starch samples were prepared by etherification in heterogeneous media. Three samples were prepared from corn starch and three samples from potato starch. Degree of substitution of prepared samples ranged from 0.40 to 1.10. The samples were investigated by static and dynamic light scattering and viscosity of diluted solution in 0.10 M NaCl as solvent at 25 C. The values of molar mass, MW, radius of gyration, Rg, hydrodynamic radius, Rh, and limited viscosity number, [η] were determined. It was found that the samples are similar to each other regardless of the type of starch and the degree of substitution. Fractal dimension, df, was equal to 2.380 (Rg - MW and 2.406 (Rη - MW, while parameter was 1.195. The values of fractal dimension and parameter are characteristic values for the behavior of branched clusters in thermodynamically good solvents.

  3. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Sakhawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg. CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD formulations.

  4. Preparations, properties and applications of chitosan based nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is soluble in most acids. The protonation of the amino groups on the chitosan backbone inhibits the electrospinnability of pure chitosan. Recently, electrospinning of nanofibers based on chitosan has been widely researched and numerous nanofibers containing chitosan have been prepared by decreasing the number of the free amino groups of chitosan as the nanofibiers have enormous possibilities for better utilization in various areas. This article reviews the preparations and properties of the nanofibers which were electrospun from pure chitosan, blends of chitosan and synthetic polymers, blends of chitosan and protein, chitosan derivatives, as well as blends of chitosan and inorganic nanoparticles, respectively. The applications of the nanofibers containing chitosan such as enzyme immobilization, filtration, wound dressing, tissue engineering, drug delivery and catalysis are also summarized in detail.

  5. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Malerba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity.

  6. Crystal engineering approach to forming cocrystals of amine hydrochlorides with organic acids. Molecular complexes of fluoxetine hydrochloride with benzoic, succinic, and fumaric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Scott L; Chyall, Leonard J; Dunlap, Jeanette T; Smolenskaya, Valeriya N; Stahly, Barbara C; Stahly, G Patrick

    2004-10-20

    A crystal engineering strategy for designing cocrystals of pharmaceuticals is presented. The strategy increases the probability of discovering useful cocrystals and decreases the number of experiments that are needed by selecting API:guest combinations that have the greatest potential of forming energetically and structurally robust interactions. Our approach involves multicomponent cocrystallization of hydrochloride salts, wherein strong hydrogen bond donors are introduced to interact with chloride ions that are underutilized as hydrogen bond acceptors. The strategy is particularly effective in producing cocrystals of amine hydrochlorides with neutral organic acid guests. As an example of the approach, we report the discovery of three cocrystals containing fluoxetine hydrochloride (1), which is the active ingredient in the popular antidepressant Prozac. A 1:1 cocrystal was prepared with 1 and benzoic acid (2), while succinic acid and fumaric acid were each cocrystallized with 1 to provide 2:1 cocrystals of fluoxetine hydrochloride:succinic acid (3) and fluoxetine hydrochloride:fumaric acid (4). The presence of a guest molecule along with fluoxetine hydrochloride in the same crystal structure results in a solid phase with altered physical properties when compared to the known crystalline form of fluoxetine hydrochloride. On the basis of intrinsic dissolution rate experiments, cocrystals 2 and 4 dissolve more slowly than 1, and 3 dissolves more quickly than 1. Powder dissolution experiments demonstrated that the solid present at equilibrium corresponds to the cocrystal for 2 and 4, while 3 completely converted to 1 upon prolonged slurry in water.

  7. Physicochemical characterization of carboxymethyl lipid A derivatives in relation to biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Ulrich; Schromm, Andra B; Brade, Lore; Gronow, Sabine; Andrä, Jörg; Müller, Mareike; Koch, Michel H J; Fukase, Koichi; Kataoka, Mikayo; Hashimoto, Masaya; Kusumoto, Shoichi; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria belongs to the most potent activators of the mammalian immune system. Its lipid moiety, lipid A, the 'endotoxic principle' of LPS, carries two negatively charged phosphate groups and six acyl chain residues in a defined asymmetric distribution (corresponding to synthetic compound 506). Tetraacyl lipid A (precursor IVa or synthetic 406), which lacks the two hydroxylated acyl chains, is agonistically completely inactive, but is a strong antagonist to bioactive LPS when administered to the cells before LPS addition. The two negative charges of lipid A, represented by the two phosphate groups, are essential for agonistic as well as for antagonistic activity and no highly active lipid A are known with negative charges other than phosphate groups. We hypothesized that the phosphate groups could be substituted by other negatively charged groups without changing the endotoxic properties of lipid A. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized carboxymethyl (CM) derivatives of hexaacyl lipid A (CM-506 and Bis-CM-506) and of tetraacyl lipid A (Bis-CM-406) and correlated their physicochemical with their endotoxic properties. We found that, similarly to compounds 506 and 406, also for their carboxymethyl derivatives a particular molecular ('endotoxic') conformation and with that, a particular aggregate structure is a prerequisite for high cytokine-inducing capacity and antagonistic activity, respectively. In other parameters such as acyl chain melting behaviour, antibody binding, activity in the Limulus lysate assay, and partially the binding of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid transferase, strong deviations from the properties of the phosphorylated compounds were observed. These data allow a better understanding of endotoxic activity and its structural prerequisites.

  8. Prevention of age-induced N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine accumulation in the microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuijkschot, Wessel W; de Graaff, Hjalmar J; Berishvili, Ekatarina; Kakabadze, Zurab; Kupreishvili, Koba; Meinster, Elisa; Houtman, Maaike; van Broekhoven, Amber; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Vonk, Alexander B A; Krijnen, Paul A J; Smulders, Yvo M; Niessen, Hans W N

    2016-04-01

    N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) is one of the major advanced glycation end products in both diabetics and nondiabetics. CML depositions in the microvasculature have recently been linked to the aetiology of acute myocardial infarction and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease, possibly related to local enhancement of inflammation and oxidative processes. We hypothesized that CML deposition in the microvasculature of the heart and brain is age-induced and that it could be inhibited by a diet intervention with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid known for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions. ApoE(-/-) mice (n = 50) were fed a Western diet and were sacrificed after 40, 70 and 90 weeks. Part of these mice (n = 20) were fed a Western diet enriched with DHA from 40 weeks on. CML in cardiac and cerebral microvessels was quantified using immunohistochemistry. Cardiac microvascular depositions of CML significantly increased with an immunohistochemical score of 11·85 [5·92-14·60] at 40 weeks, to 33·17 [17·60-47·15] at 70 weeks (P = 0·005). At the same time points, cerebral microvascular CML increased from 6·45; [4·78-7·30] to 12·99; [9·85-20·122] (P = 0·003). DHA decreased CML in the intramyocardial vasculature at both 70 and 90 weeks, significant at 70 weeks [33·17; (17·60-47·15) vs. 14·73; (4·44-28·16) P = 0·037]. No such effects were found in the brain. Accumulation of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine in the cerebral and cardiac microvasculature is age-induced and is prevented by DHA in the intramyocardial vessels of ApoE(-/-) mice. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  9. Effect of novel antibacterial gallium-carboxymethyl cellulose on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, Sabeel P; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Bouffier, Laurent; Hope, Christopher K; Evans, Gary; Claridge, John B; Higham, Susan M; Rosseinsky, Matthew J

    2013-02-07

    Gallium has emerged as a new therapeutic agent due partly to the scarcity in development of new antibiotics. In this study, a novel antibacterial gallium exchanged carboxymethyl cellulose (Ga-CMC) has been developed and tested for the susceptibility on a common bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results show that an increase in average molecular weight (MW) from 90 k, 250 k to 700 k of Ga-CMC caused a decrease in antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Gallium loading of the Ga-CMC (250 k) samples was altered by varying the amount of functionality (0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 acid groups per mole of carbohydrate) which affected also its antimicrobial activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Further, the ability to prevent the growth of biofilms of P. aeruginosa was tested on MW = 250 k samples with 0.9 acid groups per mole of carbohydrate as this sample showed the most promising activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Gallium was found to reduce biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa with a maximum effect (0.85 log(10) CFU reduction compared to sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose, Na-CMC) after 24 h. Results of the solubility and ion exchange studies show that this compound is suitable for the controlled release of Ga(3+) upon their breakdown in the presence of bacteria. SEM EDX analysis confirmed that Ga(3+) ions are evenly exchanged on the cellulose surface and systematic controls were carried out to ensure that antibacterial activity is solely due to the presence of gallium as samples intrinsic acidity or nature of counterion did not affect the activity. The results presented here highlight that Ga-CMC may be useful in controlled drug delivery applications, to deliver gallium ions in order to prevent infections due to P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  10. Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Carboxymethylated Lignins: Properties and Energy Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Willoughby, Julie A; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-09-08

    We take advantage of the amphiphilic properties of technical lignin macromolecules and their inherent high calorific values to formulate oil-in-water (O/W) fuel emulsions with high internal-phase ratios. For the oil phase, we used a combustible hydrocarbon (kerosene) with a measured equivalent alkane carbon number of 12. To adjust the balance of affinity with the oil and water phases and their surface activity, pine kraft lignins were carboxymethylated to different degrees, as quantified by (13) C NMR spectroscopy, potentiometric titrations, and zeta potential measurements. Carboxymethylated lignins (CMLs) with a degree of substitution of 30 % displayed a critical aggregation concentration of 3 %. The salinity and pH of the aqueous phase were chosen as formulation variables and adjusted within the Winsor framework. The O/W emulsions were produced by following standard protocols. The drop-size distributions of emulsions with varying pH, degree of substitution, and composition (water-to-oil ratio, WOR) were determined, and the long-term stabilities and rheological behavior of these emulsions were analyzed. Most of the obtained O/W fuel emulsions showed shear-thinning behavior with a drop size of approximately 2.5 μm and were stable for over 30 days. The combustion of the lignins and their respective emulsions was performed, and their higher heating values (HHVs) were quantified. The HHVs of CML and a high-internal-phase (WOR=30:70) O/W emulsion were 20 and 30 MJ kg(-1) , respectively. Overall, we propose the stabilization of O/W fuel emulsions by lignin as an important avenue in the utilization of this abundant biomacromolecule. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Novel Intranasal Spray for the Delivery of Amantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungare, Shital; Bowen, James; Badhan, Raj

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize an intranasal delivery system for amantadine hydrochloride (AMT). Optimal formulations consisted of a thermosensitive polymer Pluronic® 127 and either carboxymethyl cellulose or chitosan which demonstrated gel transition at nasal cavity temperatures (34 ± 1°C). Rheologically, the loss tangent (Tan δ) confirmed a 3-stage gelation phenomena at 34 ± 1°C and non-Newtonian behavior. Storage of optimized formulation carboxymethyl cellulose and optimal formulation chitosan at 4°C for 8 weeks resulted in repeatable release profiles at 34°C when sampled, with a Fickian mechanism earlier on but moving toward anomalous transport by week 8. Polymers (Pluronic® 127, carboxymethyl cellulose, and chitosan) demonstrated no significant cellular toxicity to human nasal epithelial cells up to 4 mg/mL and up to 1 mM for AMT (IC50: 4.5 ± 0.05 mM). Optimized formulation carboxymethyl cellulose and optimal formulation chitosan demonstrated slower release across an in vitro human nasal airway model (43%-44% vs 79 ± 4.58% for AMT). Using a human nasal cast model, deposition into the olfactory regions (potential nose-to-brain) was demonstrated on nozzle insertion (5 mm), whereas tilting of the head forward (15°) resulted in greater deposition in the bulk of the nasal cavity. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shete Amol S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study Carvedilol nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker, chemically (±-1-(Carbazol-4-yloxy-3-[[2-(o-methoxypHenoxy ethyl] amino]-2-propanol, slightly soluble in ethyl ether; and practically insoluble in water, gastric fluid (simulated, TS, pH 1.1, and intestinal fluid (simulated, TS without pancreatin, pH 7.5 Compounds with aqueous solubility less than 1% W/V often represents dissolution rate limited absorption. There is need to enhance the dissolution rate of carvedilol. The objective of our present investigation was to compare chitosan and chitosan chlorhydrate based various approaches for enhancement of dissolution rate of carvedilol. Methods The different formulations were prepared by different methods like solvent change approach to prepare hydrosols, solvent evaporation technique to form solid dispersions and cogrind mixtures. The prepared formulations were characterized in terms of saturation solubility, drug content, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, electron microscopy, in vitro dissolution studies and stability studies. Results The practical yield in case of hydrosols was ranged from 59.76 to 92.32%. The drug content was found to uniform among the different batches of hydrosols, cogrind mixture and solid dispersions ranged from 98.24 to 99.89%. There was significant improvement in dissolution rate of carvedilol with chitosan chlorhdyrate as compare to chitosan and explanation to this behavior was found in the differences in the wetting, solubilities and swelling capacity of the chitosan and chitosan salts, chitosan chlorhydrate rapidly wet and dissolve upon its incorporation into the dissolution medium, whereas the chitosan base, less water soluble, would take more time to dissolve. Conclusion This technique is scalable and valuable in manufacturing process in future for enhancement of dissolution of poorly water soluble

  13. Degree of corneal anaesthesia after topical application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in clinically normal cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, W B; Jean, G St; Sithole, F; Little, E; Jean, K Yvorchuk-St

    2016-06-01

    The use of corneal anaesthesia is necessary for a range of clinical purposes. Therefore, we assessed and compared the efficacy of corneal anaesthesia after application of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in clinically normal cattle. The 24 clinically normal cows were allocated into two groups. Cows in group 1 (n = 12) received 0.2 mL of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride with fluorescein ophthalmic solution in one eye and 0.2 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) with fluorescein in the contralateral eye (control). Group 2 (n = 12) received 0.2 mL of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride with fluorescein ophthalmic solution in one eye and 0.2 mL of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride with fluorescein in the contralateral eye (control). In each group, corneal touch threshold was determined by Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer for both eyes immediately prior to topical administration of solutions, at 1 min and 5 min after administration of topical solutions and every 5 min thereafter for a total of 75 min. Significant corneal anaesthesia was noted immediately following topical application of both oxybuprocaine and proparacaine as compared with controls, with maximal corneal anaesthesia noted 1 min after administration. Both oxybuprocaine and proparacaine produced significant corneal anaesthesia for the duration of the 75-min study. Neither oxybuprocaine hydrochloride nor proparacaine hydrochloride treatment resulted in visible adverse effects. There are limited data available demonstrating the efficacy and duration of corneal anaesthetic agents in cattle. Both oxybuprocaine hydrochloride and proparacaine hydrochloride should be considered practical options for providing corneal anaesthesia in cattle in a clinical setting. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Physical stability of emulsion and hydrophilic gels with chitosan and chitosan acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilia De la Paz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Chitosan has received great attention because it is a functional, biodegradable, renewable and non-toxic biopolymer with multiple pharmaceutical applications, including stabilizing agent. Aims: To evaluate the physical stability of emulsified bases and hydrophilic gels containing chitosan or chitosan acetate as stabilizing agents. Methods: Stability of shelf-life formulations at room temperature and in refrigeration was evaluated over a period of 60 days and by thermal stress testing and centrifugal destabilization. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, conductivity and flow behavior were evaluated, the latter through the analysis of the rheograms, the determination of rheological parameters (consistency index, apparent viscosity, creep value and flow index, as well as their comparison statistics. The possible correlations between these parameters and the concentration of the biopolymers were also evaluated. Results: The bases elaborated with chitosan or its soluble derivative showed adequate physical stability during the study time. The effect of the storage temperature, as well as the type and concentration of the stabilizing agent used was evidenced. Emulsifier combinations provided less stability. A linear correlation between the rheological parameters and the biopolymer concentration was evidenced. Conclusions: Chitosan and chitosan acetate can be used as emulsifying agents in semi-solid and gelling bases in hydrophilic gels, due to the electrostatic stabilization and the viscosity they contribute to the system in relation to its concentration.

  15. Synthesis of raloxifene-chitosan conjugate: A novel chitosan derivative as a potential targeting vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Fatemeh Yazdi; Mohammadi, Zohreh; Yousefi, Maryam; Majdejabbari, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a biocompatible, non-toxic and biodegradable biopolymer. Due to the presence of functional groups on its surface, it can be modified and used as a carrier in targeted drug/gene delivery systems. In this study, raloxifene (a selective estrogen receptor ligand) was conjugated to chitosan using different methods. The conjugates were investigated by means of FTIR, TGA and physical properties assessments. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT assay. FTIR and TGA results confirmed that the conjugation between chitosan and raloxifene occurred more efficiently when trimethyl chitosan in the presence of triethylamine and excess amount of linker was used. XTT assay on MCF-7 cell line illustrated that more than 80% of cells were viable after 24h exposure to selected molecules. These findings confirm that the conjugation of raloxifene-chitosan can occur successfully using special synthesis condition and this novel chitosan derivative can be introduced as a potential drug/gene targeting agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization and Characterization of Chitosan Enzymolysis by Pepsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Foua Claude Alain Gohi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepsin was used to effectively degrade chitosan in order to make it more useful in biotechnological applications. The optimal conditions of enzymolysis were investigated on the basis of the response surface methodology (RSM. The structure of the degraded product was characterized by degree of depolymerization (DD, viscosity, molecular weight, FTIR, UV-VIS, SEM and polydispersity index analyses. The mechanism of chitosan degradation was correlated with cleavage of the glycosidic bond, whereby the chain of chitosan macromolecules was broken into smaller units, resulting in decreasing viscosity. The enzymolysis by pepsin was therefore a potentially applicable technique for the production of low molecular chitosan. Additionally, the substrate degradation kinetics of chitosan were also studied over a range of initial chitosan concentrations (3.0~18.0 g/L in order to study the characteristics of chitosan degradation. The dependence of the rate of chitosan degradation on the concentration of the chitosan can be described by Haldane’s model. In this model, the initial chitosan concentration above which the pepsin undergoes inhibition is inferred theoretically to be about 10.5 g/L.

  17. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya, Nirmal; Karthikeyan, Balasubramanian Saravana; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Abarajithan, Mohan; Nithyanandan, Sivasankaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline), and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and chlorhexidine (CHX) has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline)/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline)/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each) and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline) and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic compound

  18. Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline and various irrigants: A nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interaction between local anesthetic solution, lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline, and root canal irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA, and chlorhexidine (CHX has not been studied earlier. Hence, the purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the chemical interaction between 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline and commonly used root canal irrigants, NaOCl, EDTA, and CHX. Materials and Methods: Samples were divided into eight experimental groups: Group I-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/3% NaOCl, Group II-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/17% EDTA, Group III- Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/2% CHX, Group IV-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/3% NaOCl, Group V-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/17% EDTA, Group VI-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/2% CHX, and two control groups: Group VII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (with adrenaline/deionized water and Group VIII-Lidocaine hydrochloride (without adrenaline/deionized water. The respective solutions of various groups were mixed in equal proportions (1 ml each and observed for precipitate formation. Chemical composition of the formed precipitate was then analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and confirmed with diazotation test. Results: In groups I and IV, a white precipitate was observed in all the samples on mixing the respective solutions, which showed a color change to reddish brown after 15 minutes. This precipitate was then analysed by NMR spectroscopy and was observed to be 2,6-xylidine, a reported toxic compound. The experimental groups II, III, V, and VI and control groups VII and VIII showed no precipitate formation in any of the respective samples, until 2 hours. Conclusion: Interaction between lidocaine hydrochloride (with and without adrenaline and NaOCl showed precipitate formation containing 2,6-xylidine, a toxic

  19. Preparation and Characterisation of Chitosan from Penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-12

    Dec 12, 2017 ... and starch, it is one of the three most abundant polysaccharides in nature. It ranks second to cellulose ... sodium hydroxide, this process is called deacetylation. The major source of commercial chitosan is the ... contaminants of industrial wastewater is dyes. (colorants) such as Congo red (sodium salt of.

  20. Insulin-chitosan polyelectrolyte _anocomplexes: preparation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To formulate chitosan nanoparticles with specific combinations of molecular weight and degree of deacetylation (DDA) that could be developed into an oral insulin delivery system. Methods: This study was conducted at Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company (JPM), Jordan in the period 2006-2009.

  1. Chitosan nanofibers for transbuccal insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancina, Michael G; Shankar, Roopa Kanakatti; Yang, Hu

    2017-05-01

    In this work, they aimed at producing chitosan based nanofiber mats capable of delivering insulin via the buccal mucosa. Chitosan was electrospun into nanofibers using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a carrier molecule in various feed ratios. The mechanical properties and degradation kinetics of the fibers were measured. Insulin release rates were determined in vitro using an ELISA assay. The bioactivity of released insulin was measured in terms of Akt activation in pre-adipocytes. Insulin permeation across the buccal mucosa was measured in an ex-vivo porcine transbuccal model. Fiber morphology, mechanical properties, and in vitro stability were dependent on PEO feed ratio. Lower PEO content blends produced smaller diameter fibers with significantly faster insulin release kinetics. Insulin showed no reduction in bioactivity due to electrospinning. Buccal permeation of insulin facilitated by high chitosan content blends was significantly higher than that of free insulin. Taken together, the work demonstrates that chitosan-based nanofibers have the potential to serve as a transbuccal insulin delivery vehicle. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1252-1259, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Filtration kinetics of chitosan separation by electrofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözke, Gözde; Kirschhöfer, Frank; Heissler, Stefan; Trutnau, Mirko; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Ondruschka, Jelka; Obst, Ursula; Posten, Clemens

    2012-02-01

    Downstream processing of chitosan requires several technological steps that contribute to the total production costs. Precipitation and especially evaporation are energy-consuming processes, resulting in higher costs and limiting industrial scale production. This study investigated the filtration kinetics of chitosan derived from cell walls of fungi and from exoskeletons of arthropods by electrofiltration, an alternative method, thus reducing the downstream processing steps and costs. Experiments with different voltages and pressures were conducted in order to demonstrate the effect of both parameters on filtration kinetics. The concentration of the biopolymer was obtained by the average factor of 40 by applying an electric field of 4 V/mm and pressure of 4 bars. A series of analytical experiments demonstrated the lack of structural and functional changes in chitosan molecules after electrofiltration. These results, combined with the reduction of energy and processing time, define the investigated method as a promising downstream step in the chitosan production technology. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cobalt-chitosan: Magnetic and biodegradable heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cobalt; chitosan; heterogeneous catalyst; magnetism; aerobic oxidation; alkyl arene. 1. Introduction. The selective oxidation of alkyl arenes and alcohols into the corresponding carbonyl compounds is an impor- tant goal in synthesis of fine chemicals.1 From green chemistry point of view, improving methods for oxida-.

  4. TRACTION RESISTANCE IN CHITOSAN TREATED COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOX Wouter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural products interest has increased. However, when some products are included on textile fibers, they have no affinity and need some binders or other kind of auxiliaries to improve the yeld of the process, and some of them are not so natural as the product which are binding and consequently the “bio” definition is missed as some of them can be considered as highly pollutant. Chitosan is a common used bonding agent for cotton. It improves the antimicrobial and antifungal activity, improves wound healing and is a non-toxic bonding agent. The biopolymer used in this work is chitosan, which is a deacetylated derivative of chitin. These properties depend on the amount of deacetylation (DD and the Molecular weight (MW. Along with these improving properties, as it requires some acid pH to ve solved the treatment with chitosan can have some decreasing mechanical properties. The aim of that paper is to evaluate the change in breaking force of the treated samples and a change in elongation of those samples. It compared different amounts of concentration of chitosan with non treated cotton. The traction resistance test were performed on a dynamometer. The test was conducted according to the UNE EN ISO 13934-1 standard.

  5. Effects of Chitosan Alkali Pretreatment on the Preparation of Electrospun PCL/Chitosan Blend Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Roozbahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanofibrous scaffolds have been used in the field of biomedical engineering as wound dressings, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery applications. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds can be used as carriers for several types of drugs, genes, and growth factors. PCL is one of the most commonly applied synthetic polymers for medical use because of its biocompatibility and slow biodegradability. PCL is hydrophobic and has no cell recognition sites on its structure. Electrospinning of chitosan and PCL blend was investigated in formic acid/acetic acid as the solvent with different PCL/chitosan ratios. High viscosity of chitosan solutions makes difficulties in the electrospinning process. Strong hydrogen bonds in a 3D network in acidic condition prevent the movement of polymeric chains exposed to the electrical field. Consequently, the amount of chitosan in PCL/chitosan blend was limited and more challenging when the concentration of PCL increases. The treatment of chitosan in alkali condition under high temperature reduced its molecular weight. Longer treatment time further decreased the molecular weight of chitosan and hence its viscosity. Electrospinning of PCL/chitosan blend was possible at higher chitosan ratio, and SEM images showed a decrease in fiber diameter and narrower distribution with increase in the chitosan ratio.

  6. The Mechanical and Biological Properties of Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Templates Are Significantly Enhanced by Chitosan from Gongronella butleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tamura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan with a molecular weight (MW of 104 Da and 13% degree of acetylation (DA was extracted from the mycelia of the fungus Gongronella butleri USDB 0201 grown in solid substrate fermentation and used to prepare scaffolds by the freeze-drying method. The mechanical and biological properties of the fungal chitosan scaffolds were evaluated and compared with those of scaffolds prepared using chitosans obtained from shrimp and crab shells and squid bone plates (MW 105-106 Da and DA 10-20%. Under scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all scaffolds had average pore sizes of approximately 60-90 mm in diameter. Elongated pores were observed in shrimp chitosan scaffolds and polygonal pores were found in crab, squid and fungal chitosan scaffolds. The physico-chemical properties of the chitosans had an effect on the formation of pores in the scaffolds, that consequently influenced the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds. Fungal chitosan scaffolds showed excellent mechanical, water absorption and lysozyme degradation properties, whereas shrimp chitosan scaffolds (MW 106Da and DA 12% exhibited the lowest water absorption properties and lysozyme degradation rate. In the evaluation of biocompatibility of chitosan scaffolds, the ability of fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells to attach on all chitosan scaffolds was similar, but the proliferation of cells with polygonal morphology was faster on crab, squid and fungal chitosan scaffolds than on shrimp chitosan scaffolds. Therefore fungal chitosan scaffold, which has excellent mechanical and biological properties, is the most suitable scaffold to use as a template for tissue regeneration.

  7. Biomimetic spiral-cylindrical scaffold based on hybrid chitosan/cellulose/nano-hydroxyapatite membrane for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Wang, Huanan; Du, Jingjing; Li, Yubao; Yang, Xiaochao

    2013-11-27

    Natural bone is a complex material with well-designed architecture. To achieve successful bone integration and regeneration, the constituent and structure of bone-repairing scaffolds need to be functionalized synergistically based on biomimetics. In this study, a hybrid membrane composed of chitosan (CS), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was curled in a concentric manner to generate an anisotropic spiral-cylindrical scaffold, with compositional and structural properties mimicking natural bone. After optimization in terms of morphology, hydrophilicity, swelling and degradation pattern, the osteoblast cells seeded on the membrane of 60 wt% n-HA exhibited the highest cell viability and osteocalcin expression. In vivo osteogenesis assessment revealed that the spiral-cylindrical architecture played a dominant role in bone regeneration and osseointegration. Newly formed bone tissue grew through the longitudinal direction of the cylinder-shaped scaffold bridging both ends of the defect, bone marrow penetrated the entire scaffold and formed a medullary cavity in the center of the spiral cylinder. This study for the first time demonstrates that the spiral-cylindrical scaffold can promote complete infiltration of bone tissues in vivo, leading to successful osteointegration and functional reconstruction of bone defects. It suggests that the biomimetic spiral-cylindrical scaffold could be a promising candidate for bone regeneration applications.

  8. Properties of Chitosan-Laminated Collagen Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lazić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine physical, mechanical and barrier properties of chitosan-laminated collagen film. Commercial collagen film, which is used for making collagen casings for dry fermented sausage production, was laminated with chitosan film layer in order to improve the collagen film barrier properties. Different volumes of oregano essential oil per 100 mL of filmogenic solution were added to chitosan film layer: 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mL to optimize water vapour barrier properties. Chitosan layer with 0.6 or 0.8 % of oregano essential oil lowered the water vapour transmission rate to (1.85±0.10·10–6 and (1.78±0.03·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa respectively, compared to collagen film ((2.51±0.05·10–6 g/(m2·s·Pa. However, chitosan-laminated collagen film did not show improved mechanical properties compared to the collagen one. Tensile strength decreased from (54.0±3.8 MPa of the uncoated collagen film to (36.3±4.0 MPa when the film was laminated with 0.8 % oregano essential oil chitosan layer. Elongation at break values of laminated films did not differ from those of collagen film ((18.4±2.7 %. Oxygen barrier properties were considerably improved by lamination. Oxygen permeability of collagen film was (1806.8±628.0·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa and values of laminated films were below 35·10–14 cm3/(m·s·Pa. Regarding film appearance and colour, lamination with chitosan reduced lightness (L and yellowness (+b of collagen film, while film redness (+a increased. These changes were not visible to the naked eye.

  9. The Use of chitosan in The Formation of Silver Nanoparticles, Chitosanic Nanoparticles and Fibrous Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman Mohamed

    Nanoscale materials have attracted much attention in the last two decades due to their unique properties. The size effect attains new chemical and physical properties to these materials. Nanoparticles and nanofiber are major component of nanomaterials and they have heavily investigated in the literature for different applications. Nanoparticles could be produced from both metals as well as polymers. Chitosan, which is a natural polymer, can be used as capping agent in the preparation of metallic nanoparticles and itself, can produce nanoparticles. The utilization of nanoparticles and nanofibers for wound dressing materials is a very popular approach. Acquiring antibacterial properties to the wound dressing materials could be obtained either by formulation of nanomaterials composites or direct chemical modification of the substance. To improve the antibacterial properties of chitosan two approaches were applied. First, is through the formulation of chitosan with silver nanoparticles and the formation of nanofiber mats. In this study, the concepts of green chemistry were applied and silver nanoparticles were prepared in high concentration using chitosan as a capping polymer and glucose as a reducing agent. Nanofiber mats of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/silvernanoparticles were produced via electrospinning. The antibacterial activity of these fibers shows bactericidal effect against E. coli at low concentrations of Ag-NPs. In the second approach, direct chemical modification of chitosan was performed by grafting of Iodoacetic acid to the amino group at carbon-2. The chemical structure of chitosan Iodoacetamide derivative (CIA) was confirmed by FTIR and H1-NMR. The derivative was amorphous and water soluble at neutral pH. The minimum inhibitory concentration of CIA, against E. coli, was 400ig/mL and the derivative was bacteriostatic after 4h of treatment. Nanofiber mats of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/chitosan Iodoacetamide were produced via electrospinning. The

  10. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart Nnn... - Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63 Protection of... Pollutants for Wool Fiberglass Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. NNN, App. B Appendix B to Subpart NNN of Part 63—Free Formaldehyde Analysis of Insulation Resins by Hydroxylamine Hydrochloride 1. Scope This method was...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1263 - Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1263 Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage forms. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lincomycin hydrochloride monohydrate oral dosage...

  12. 21 CFR 524.1662 - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1662 Section 524.1662 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1662 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ...

  13. Ketamine Hydrochloride - a useful drug for the field immobilization of the Spotted Hyaena Crocuta Crocuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Ketamine hydrochloride (Vetalar, Parke-Davis for the capture and restraint of five spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta is discussed. The wide margin of safety andrelatively short recovery period associated with Ketamine makeit a useful substitute for drugs such as Phencyclidine hydro-chloride (Sernylan and Succinylcholine Chloride, routinely used for the capture of carnivores.

  14. Transplantation of Porcine Hepatocytes Cultured with Polylactic Acid-O-Carboxymethylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Promotes Liver Regeneration in Acute Liver Failure Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, free porcine hepatocytes suspension (Group A, porcine hepatocytes embedded in collagen gel (Group B, porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel (Group C, and PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles alone (Group D were transplanted into peritoneal cavity of ALF rats, respectively. The result showed that plasma HGF levels were elevated post-transplantation with a peak at 12 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hr post-transplantation and lowest HGF level at 48 hr. Plasma VEGF levels were elevated at 48 hr post-transplantation with a peak at 72 hr. The rats in Group C showed highest plasma HGF levels at 48, 72, and 96 hr post-transplantation. The liver functions in Group C were recovered most rapidly. Compared with Group B, Group C had significant high liver Kiel 67 antigen labeling index (Ki-67 LI at day 1 post-HTx (P<.05. Ki-67 LI in groups B and C was higher than that in groups A and D at days 5 and 7 post-HTx. In conclusion, intraperitoneal transplantation of porcine hepatocytes cultured with PLA-O-CMC nanoparticles and embedded in collagen gel can promote significantly liver regeneration in ALF rats.

  15. Removal of Petroleum Spill in Water by Chitin and Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cláudio de Freitas Barros

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the capacity of adsorption of crude oil spilled in seawater by chitin flakes, chitin powder, chitosan flakes, chitosan powder, and chitosan solution. The results showed that, although chitosan flakes had a better adsorption capacity by oil (0.379 ± 0.030 grams oil per gram of adsorbent, the biopolymer was sinking after adsorbing oil. Chitosan solution did not present such inconvenience, despite its lower adsorption capacity (0.013 ± 0.001 grams oil per gram of adsorbent. It was able to form a polymeric film on the oil slick, which allowed to restrain and to remove the oil from the samples of sea water. The study also suggests that chitosan solution 0.5% has greater efficiency against oil spills in alkaline medium than acidic medium.

  16. Recent advances in chitosan-based nanoparticulate pulmonary drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazrul; Ferro, Vito

    2016-07-01

    The advent of biodegradable polymer-encapsulated drug nanoparticles has made the pulmonary route of administration an exciting area of drug delivery research. Chitosan, a natural biodegradable and biocompatible polysaccharide has received enormous attention as a carrier for drug delivery. Recently, nanoparticles of chitosan (CS) and its synthetic derivatives have been investigated for the encapsulation and delivery of many drugs with improved targeting and controlled release. Herein, recent advances in the preparation and use of micro-/nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives for pulmonary delivery of various therapeutic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines) are reviewed. Although chitosan has wide applications in terms of formulations and routes of drug delivery, this review is focused on pulmonary delivery of drug-encapsulated nanoparticles of chitosan and its derivatives. In addition, the controversial toxicological effects of chitosan nanoparticles for lung delivery will also be discussed.

  17. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  18. Chitosan as a MAMP, searching for a PRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan, a deacetylated chitin derivative, behaves like a general elicitor, inducing a non-host resistance and priming a systemic acquired immunity. The defence responses elicited by chitosan include rising of cytosolic H+ and Ca2+, activation of MAP-kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response (HR), synthesis of abscissic acid (ABA), jasmonate, phytoalexins and pathogenesis related (PR) proteins. Putative receptors for chitosan are a chitosan-binding protein, recently isolated, and possibly the chitin elicitor-binding protein (CEBiP). Nevertheless, it must be pointed out that biological activity of chitosan, besides the plant model, strictly depends on its physicochemical properties (deacetylation degree, molecular weight and viscosity), and that there is a threshold for chitosan concentration able to switch the induction of a cell death programme into necrotic cell death (cytotoxicity). PMID:19704712

  19. Characterization of blend hydrogels based on plasticized starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose synthesized by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senna, Magdy M., E-mail: magdysenna@hotmail.com [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Abo El-Khair B. [Chemistry Department, College for Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mahdy, Sanna R.; El-Naggar, Abdel Wahab M. [Radiation Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Semi-interpenetrating (IPN) blend hydrogels were synthesized by EB irradiation. • The hydrogels were based on starch/cellulose acetate/carboxymethyl cellulose blends. • The gelation, swelling, thermal and mechanical properties of hydrogels were studied. • The thermal stability was studied by determining kinetic energy by different methods. - Abstract: Blend hydrogels based on aqueous solutions of plasticized starch and different ratios of cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by electron beam irradiation (EB). The blends before and after EB irradiation were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The physico-chemical properties of blend hydrogels prepared by electron beam irradiation were improved compared to unirradiated blends.

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484b - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride, topical powder. 524.1484b Section 524.1484b... Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride, and myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride... hydrochloride and .2 milligram of myristyl-gamma-picolinium chloride in each gram of the product in a special...

  1. Antibacterial activity of chitosan and the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia Ortega-Ortiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of chitosan and water soluble interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan was studied. Chitosans of two different molecular weights were tested at different concentration for 0.5 to 5 g·L-1 as antimicrobial agents against P. aeruginosa and P. oleovorans. In both cases, the best microbial inhibition was obtained with the concentration of 5 g·L-1. However, the interpolyelectrolyte complexes of poly(acrylic acid-chitosan with composition φ =2 produced higher antibacterial activity than the two chitosans at the concentration of 0.5 g·L-1. The NPEC2 complex was more effective than chitosans. This could be attributed to the number of moles of the amino groups of chitosan and the carboxylic acid groups of the interpolyelectrolyte complexes poly(acrylic acid.A atividade antimicrobiana de quitosana e complexos interpolieletrolíticos hidrossoluvéis de poli(ácido acrílico-quitosana foi estudada. Quitosanas de dois diferentes pesos moleculares foram testados em diferentes concentrações, 0,5 a 5 g • L-1, como agentes antimicrobianos nas P. aeruginosa e P. oleovorans. Em ambos os casos, obteu-se a melhor inibição microbiana com a concentração de 5 g • L-1, no entanto os complexos interpolieletrolíticos de poli (ácido acrílico-quitosana com composição φ = 2 apresentaram maior atividade antibacteriana do que os dois quitosans na concentração de 0,5 g • L-1. O complexo NPEC2 foi mais eficaz do que as quitosanas, sendo que o resultado pode ser atribuído ao número de moles dos grupos aminos da quitosana e aos grupos carboxílicos dos complexos de poli(ácido acrílico.

  2. Kinetics of hydrolysis of meclofenoxate hydrochloride in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Aso, Y; Uchiyama, M

    1987-03-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis of meclofenoxate hydrochloride in human plasma have been compared with those of clofibrate. The hydrolysis rate in fractionated plasma was determined in the presence and absence of a plasma esterase inhibitor, tetraethyl pyrophosphate. The kinetic data indicated that clofibrate decomposed only by esterase-induced hydrolysis, which was inhibited by binding of clofibrate to plasma proteins. In contrast to clofibrate, meclofenoxate decomposed rapidly in human plasma via spontaneous hydrolysis as well as esterase-induced hydrolysis. The spontaneous hydrolysis appeared to be inhibited by some components present in the esterase fraction isolated from plasma, while no significant inhibition of the hydrolysis by protein binding was observed.

  3. Surface morphology control of polylactide microspheres enclosing irinotecan hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Nishino, Satoru; Shiomori, Koichiro; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aiko, Takashi; Kitamura, Yoshiro

    2005-05-30

    In order to reduce the initial burst from polylactide (PLA) microspheres enclosing an antitumor agent, we prepared the microspheres with a smooth surface by varying solvent evaporation conditions such as operating temperature and pressure. PLA microspheres enclosing irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT) were prepared using the O/O emulsion system for solvent evaporation. The mean diameter and enclosing efficiency were almost constant because they were independent of solvent evaporation conditions. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation verified the smooth surface of the PLA microspheres produced by varying the preparation conditions. In vitro release experiments show that the initial burst of microspheres with a smooth surface was less than that of those with a rough surface.

  4. [Clinical effect of atomoxetine hydrochloride in 66 children with narcolepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shen; Ding, Changhong; Wu, Husheng; Fang, Fang; Wang, Xiaohui; Ren, Xiaotun

    2015-10-01

    To observe the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine hydrochloride in children with narcolepsy. Totally 66 patients with narcolepsy who were conformed international classification of sleep disturbances (ICSD-2) diagnostic criteria treated with atomoxetine hydrochloride seen from November 2010 to December 2014 were enrolled into this study, 42 of them were male and 24 female, mean age of onset was 7.5 years (3.75-13.00 years), mean duration before diagnosis was 1.75 years (0.25-5.00 years). Complete blood count, liver and kidney function, multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), polysomnography (PGS), neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) were performed for each patient. For some of the children HLA-DR2 gene and serum markers of infection were tested. The 66 cases were followed up from 2 to 49 months (average 18 months) to observe the clinical efficacy and adverse reactions. In 62 cases excessive daytime sleepiness was improved, in 11 cases (16.7%) it was controlled (16.7%), in 29 cases (43.9%) the treatment was obviously effective and in 22 (33.3%) it was effective; cataplexy occurred in 54 cases, in 18 (33.3%) it was controlled, in 19 (35.2%) the treatment was obviously effective and in 10 (18.5%) effective; night sleep disorders existed in 55 cases, in 47 cases it was improved, in 14 (25.5%) it was controlled, in 20 (36.4%) the treatment was obviously effective and in 13 (23.6%) effective; hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucination was present in 13 cases, in only 4 these symptoms were controlled. Sleep paralysis existed in 4 cases, it was controlled in only 1 case. In 18 cases attention and learning efficiency improved.Anorexia occurred in 18 cases, mood disorder in 5 cases, depression in 2 cases, nocturia, muscle tremors, involuntary tongue movement each occurred in 1 case. P-R interval prolongation and atrial premature contraction were found in 1 case. Atomoxetine hydrochloride showed good effects in patients with narcolepsy on excessive daytime sleepiness

  5. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride: a review of nonclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudney, M; Gutteridge, W; Zeman, A; Dickins, M; Woolley, J L

    1999-05-01

    Safe and effective antimalarial drugs are needed for treatment and prophylaxis of malaria. The combination of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride is a new antimalarial drug combination that has recently become available in many countries. Data were reviewed from nonclinical studies evaluating the microbiology, secondary pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride. Atovaquone is highly active against asexual erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (IC50 0.7-6 nM) and in animal models. Proguanil per se has only weak antimalarial activity in vitro (IC50 2.4-19 microM), and its effectiveness depends on the active metabolite cycloguanil (IC50 0.5-2.5 nM). The combination of atovaquone and proguanil is synergistic in vitro. Both drugs also have activity against gametocytes and pre-erythrocytic (hepatic) stages of malaria parasites. Atovaquone is a ubiquinone antagonist that inhibits mitochondrial electron transport and collapses mitochondrial membrane potential. The proguanil metabolite cycloguanil is a dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, but the mode of action of proguanil is unknown. In screening evaluations of secondary pharmacology, neither atovaquone nor proguanil had activity that adversely affected gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, or central or autonomic nervous system functions at clinically relevant concentrations. After oral administration, atovaquone exposure is extensive in rats but limited in dogs, while proguanil and cycloguanil exposure is extensive in dogs but limited in rats. In both species, toxicity was related to proguanil exposure, the principal manifestations being salivation, emesis, and loss of body weight. Neither atovaquone nor proguanil was teratogenic or mutagenic. An increased incidence of hepatic adenomas and adenocarcinomas was seen in mice, but not rats, after lifetime exposure to atovaquone, and appears to be related to species-specific differences in hepatic enzymatic activity

  6. Solubility of paroxetine hydrochloride hemi-hydrate in (water + acetone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Guobin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)]. E-mail: renguobin2557@sohu.com; Wang Jingkang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li Guizhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2005-08-15

    Using a laser monitoring observation technique, the solubilities of paroxetine hydrochloride hemi-hydrate in (water + acetone) were determined by the synthetic method from (294.45 to 323.20) K, respectively. Results of these measurements were correlated by the three variants of the combined nearly ideal binary solvent/Redlich-Kister (CNIBS/R-K) model. For the seven group data studied, three variants of the (CNIBS/R-K) equation were found to provide accurate mathematical representations of the experimental data and variant 2 is the best of the three variants.

  7. Interaction of insulin, cholesterol-derivatized mannan, and carboxymethyl chitin with liposomes: A differential scanning calorimetry study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tabbakhian; Rogers, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of drugs and polymers used to incorporate in or surface modify/coat the liposomes can affect the phase transition, fluidity and other physical properties as well as in vivo fate of vesicles. In this study, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate changes in the temperature and the enthalpy of phase transition of liposomes of various electrical charges following interaction with carboxymethyl chitin (CM-chitin) as a hydrophilic polymer, cholesterol-deriva...

  8. Electric field-assisted formation of organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) spheres in carboxymethylated gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, C; Heinemann, S; Kruppke, B; Worch, H; Thomas, J; Wiesmann, H P; Hanke, T

    2016-10-15

    A biomimetic strategy was developed in order to prepare organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) with spherical shape. The technical approach is based on electric field-assisted migration of calcium ions and phosphate ions into a hydrogel composed of carboxymethylated gelatin. The electric field as well as the carboxymethylation using glucuronic acid (GlcA) significantly accelerates the mineralization process, which makes the process feasible for lab scale production of ormoHAP spheres and probably beyond. A further process was developed for gentle separation of the ormoHAP spheres from the gelatin gel without compromising the morphology of the mineral. The term ormoHAP was chosen since morphological analyses using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and element analysis (EDX, FT-IR, XRD) confirmed that carboxymethylated gelatin molecules use to act as organic templates for the formation of nanocrystalline HAP. The hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals self-organize to form hollow spheres with diameters ranging from 100 to 500nm. The combination of the biocompatible chemical composition and the unique structure of the nanocomposites is considered to be a useful basis for future applications in functionalized degradable biomaterials. A novel bioinspired mineralization process was developed based on electric field-assisted migration of calcium and phosphate ions into biochemically carboxymethylated gelatin acting as organic template. Advantages over conventional hydroxyapatite include particle size distribution and homogeneity as well as achievable mechanical properties of relevant composites. Moreover, specifically developed calcium ion or phosphate ion release during degradation can be useful to adjust the fate of bone cells in order to manipulate remodeling processes. The hollow structure of the spheres can be useful for embedding drugs in the core, encapsulated by the highly mineralized outer shell. In this way, controlled drug release could be achieved, which enables

  9. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance as a probe of side chain orientation and mobility in carboxymethylated human carbonic anhydrase B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot Uiterkamp, Antonius J.M.; Armitage, Ian M.; Prestegard, James H.; Slomski, John; Coleman, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    13C NMR spectra of [1-13C]- and [2-13C]carboxymethyl His-200 human carbonic anhydrase B have been obtained as a function of pH and in the presence and absence of the active site Zn(II) or Cd(II) ion. Chemical shifts of the 1-13C show that the carboxyl is sensitive to two ionization processes, with

  10. Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan A. Badwan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications.

  11. Chitin and Chitosan as Direct Compression Excipients in Pharmaceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwan, Adnan A.; Rashid, Iyad; Al Omari, Mahmoud M.H.; Darras, Fouad H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous uses of chitin and chitosan as new functional materials of high potential in various fields, they are still behind several directly compressible excipients already dominating pharmaceutical applications. There are, however, new attempts to exploit chitin and chitosan in co-processing techniques that provide a product with potential to act as a direct compression (DC) excipient. This review outlines the compression properties of chitin and chitosan in the context of DC pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25810109

  12. Chemical modification of Chitosan for metal ion removal

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq R.A. Sobahi; Abdelaal, Magdy Y.; Mohamad S.I. Makki

    2014-01-01

    In the current work some modification reactions have been conducted to modify Chitosan with some organic compounds, such as aldehydes and organic acids. On the other hand, different blends of Chitosan with some carbohydrates were prepared to obtain Chitosan derivatives of certain physical and chemical properties. The obtained products have been characterized with the necessary chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The efficiency of the obtained modified materials has been investigated for se...

  13. Chemical modification of Chitosan for metal ion removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq R.A. Sobahi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current work some modification reactions have been conducted to modify Chitosan with some organic compounds, such as aldehydes and organic acids. On the other hand, different blends of Chitosan with some carbohydrates were prepared to obtain Chitosan derivatives of certain physical and chemical properties. The obtained products have been characterized with the necessary chemical and spectroscopic techniques. The efficiency of the obtained modified materials has been investigated for separation of metal ions and for water uptake.

  14. Flocculation of cyanobacterial cells using coal fly ash modified chitosan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Y.; Zhang, H; Pan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have increasingly occurred worldwide, which pose serious threats to water environment safety. In this study, a compound flocculant (CFAL-Chitosan) was developed for HABs mitigation where chitosan was modified by coal fly ash leachate (CFAL). When using optimized dosage of CFAL-Chitosan flocculant, the zeta potential of Microcystis aeruginosa (M.A.) flocs stayed close to zero and the algal removal efficiency plateaued over 95 % in a wide dosage range from 3 to 6 mg/...

  15. Effectiveness of chitosan against wine-related microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağder Elmaci, Simel; Gülgör, Gökşen; Tokatli, Mehmet; Erten, Hüseyin; İşci, Asli; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    The antimicrobial action of chitosan against wine related microorganisms, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Oeonococcus oeni, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygosaccharomyces bailii was examined in laboratory media. In order to assess the potential applicability of chitosan as a microbial control agent for wine, the effect of chitosan, applied individually and/or in combination with sulphur dioxide (SO2), on the growth of microorganisms involved in various stages of winemaking and on the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae was investigated. Of the seven wine-related microorganisms studied, S. cerevisiae exhibited the strongest resistance to antimicrobial action of chitosan in laboratory media with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) greater than 2 g/L. L. hilgardii, O. oeni and B. bruxellensis were the most susceptible to chitosan since they were completely inactivated by chitosan at 0.2 g/L. The MIC of chitosan for L. plantarum, H. uvarum and Z. bailii was 2, 0.4 and 0.4 g/L, respectively. In wine experiments, it was found that chitosan had a retarding effect on alcoholic fermentation without significantly altering the viability and the fermentative performance of S. cerevisiae. With regard to non-Saccharomyces yeasts (H. uvarum and Z. bailii) involved in winemaking, the early deaths of these yeasts in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae were not probably due to the antimicrobial action of chitosan but rather due to ethanol produced by the yeasts. The complex interactions between chitosan and wine ingredients as well as microbial interactions during wine fermentation considerably affect the efficacy of chitosan. It was concluded that chitosan was worthy of further investigation as an alternative or complementary preservative to SO2 in wine industry.

  16. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  17. Effect of Film-Forming Polymers on Release of Naftifine Hydrochloride from Nail Lacquers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Šveikauskaitė

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful topical therapy of onychomycosis depends on effective drug release and penetration into nail, which can be achieved by using an adequately developed delivery system. This study evaluated and compared effect of film-forming polymers Eudragit RL100, Eudragit RS100, and ethyl cellulose on naftifine hydrochloride release from experimental nail lacquer formulations. Quality of formulations was evaluated by determining drying time and water resistance. Interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipients were investigated using microcalorimetry and FT-IR. Optimization of nail lacquer formulations was performed by naftifine hydrochloride release testing. Release of naftifine hydrochloride increased with increasing concentration of Eudragit RL100. Plasticizer triacetin affected the release of naftifine hydrochloride, when Eudragit RS100 polymer was used. Ethyl cellulose polymer was determined to be not applicable for naftifine hydrochloride nail lacquer formulations. Two compositions of nail lacquers were optimized and could be used in further development of transungual delivery systems.

  18. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days, or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24, Tianzhu (BL10, Sishencong (Extra, Yintang (Extra, Renzhong (DU26, Neiguan (PC6, Shenmen (HT7, Fengchi (GB20, Wangu (GB12 and Baihui (DU20 (once a day for 56 days. Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  19. Neuroprotection against vascular dementia after acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride: P300 event related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xiu-Juan; Zhang, Zhe-Cheng; Xue, Rong; Li, Ping; Li, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Acupuncture can be used to treat various nervous system diseases. Here, 168 vascular dementia patients were orally administered donepezil hydrochloride alone (5 mg/day, once a day for 56 days), or combined with acupuncture at Shenting (DU24), Tianzhu (BL10), Sishencong (Extra), Yintang (Extra), Renzhong (DU26), Neiguan (PC6), Shenmen (HT7), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12) and Baihui (DU20) (once a day for 56 days). Compared with donepezil hydrochloride alone, P300 event related potential latency was shorter with an increased amplitude in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. Mini-Mental State Examination score was also higher. Moreover, these differences in P300 latency were identified within different infarcted regions in patients treated with donepezil hydrochloride and acupuncture. These findings indicate that acupuncture combined with donepezil hydrochloride noticeably improves cognitive function in patients with vascular dementia, and exerts neuroprotective effects against vascular dementia.

  20. Effect of surface charge on the colloidal stability and in vitro uptake of carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Vanessa; Herrera, Adriana P.; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticle physicochemical properties such as surface charge are considered to play an important role in cellular uptake and particle-cell interactions. In order to systematically evaluate the role of surface charge on the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles, we prepared carboxymethyl-substituted dextrans with different degrees of substitution, ranging from 38 to 5 groups per chain, and reacted them using carbodiimide chemistry with amine-silane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with narrow size distributions in the range of 33-45 nm. Surface charge of carboxymethyl-substituted dextran-coated nanoparticles ranged from -50 to 5 mV as determined by zeta potential measurements, and was dependent on the number of carboxymethyl groups incorporated in the dextran chains. Nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 human colon cancer cells. Nanoparticle-cell interactions were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and uptake was quantified by elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Mechanisms of internalization were inferred using pharmacological inhibitors for fluid-phase, clathrin-mediated, and caveola-mediated endocytosis. Results showed increased uptake for nanoparticles with greater negative charge. Internalization patterns suggest that uptake of the most negatively charged particles occurs via non-specific interactions.

  1. Development of novel carboxymethyl cellulose/k-carrageenan blends as an enteric delivery vehicle for probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafe, Alireza; Etemadi, Hossein; Zarredar, Habib; Mahdavinia, Gholam Reza

    2017-04-01

    This study reports a novel carrier based on blends of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and k-carrageenan (k-Carr) for probiotic colon delivery. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC:13643 (L. plantarum) cells were encapsulated in CMC/k-Carr blends by extrusion method. k-Carrageenan was used as a coating agent to improve encapsulation of L. plantarum cells in carboxymethyl cellulose biopolymer. K-Carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose were ionically cross-linked with K+ and Ca2+ ions, respectively. Optical and scanning electron microscopy obviously showed the random distribution of L. plantarum cells throughout the blend network. The viability of encapsulated cells in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and bile salt solution were conducted. Results indicated that CMC/k-Carr blends could successfully protect L. plantarum cells against adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract and bile salt solution. After sequential exposure to SGF for 2h almost complete death of free cells was observed. However, the number of surviving cells was 5.20 and 7.30 Log CFU/g for uncoated free CMC and CMC/k-Carr blends, respectively. Cumulatively the results of this research offer a suitable media to potentially deliver probiotics to colon site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of surface charge on the colloidal stability and in vitro uptake of carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, Vanessa; Herrera, Adriana P.; Latorre-Esteves, Magda; Torres-Lugo, Madeline [University of Puerto Rico, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States); Rinaldi, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.rinaldi@bme.ufl.edu [University of Florida, J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Nanoparticle physicochemical properties such as surface charge are considered to play an important role in cellular uptake and particle-cell interactions. In order to systematically evaluate the role of surface charge on the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles, we prepared carboxymethyl-substituted dextrans with different degrees of substitution, ranging from 38 to 5 groups per chain, and reacted them using carbodiimide chemistry with amine-silane-coated iron oxide nanoparticles with narrow size distributions in the range of 33-45 nm. Surface charge of carboxymethyl-substituted dextran-coated nanoparticles ranged from -50 to 5 mV as determined by zeta potential measurements, and was dependent on the number of carboxymethyl groups incorporated in the dextran chains. Nanoparticles were incubated with CaCo-2 human colon cancer cells. Nanoparticle-cell interactions were observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and uptake was quantified by elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Mechanisms of internalization were inferred using pharmacological inhibitors for fluid-phase, clathrin-mediated, and caveola-mediated endocytosis. Results showed increased uptake for nanoparticles with greater negative charge. Internalization patterns suggest that uptake of the most negatively charged particles occurs via non-specific interactions.

  3. Novel semi-IPN based on crosslinked carboxymethyl starch and clay for the in vitro release of theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T S; Parvathy, J

    2014-06-01

    A novel semi-interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) based on crosslinked carboxymethyl starch (CL-CMS) and montmorillonite (MMT) was prepared, where carboxymethylation occurs as a result of the reaction between native starch and monochloroacetic acid in isopropanol/water medium at 60°C. The carboxymethyl starch is further crosslinked and made into a semi-IPN with MMT for the release of theophylline. The drug carrier was characterized using FTIR, XRD and surface analysis using SEM. Studies including physio-chemical analysis, swelling behavior, encapsulation efficiency, effect of MMT content, effect of ionic strength and in vitro drug release were carried out. Theophylline encapsulation of up to 74% was achieved and drug release was monitored in SGF (pH 1.2) and SIF (pH 7.4). Results show that the matrix releases drug at a much faster rate in the basic medium than in the acidic medium, thereby holding the promise of developing the semi-IPN system as a potential candidate for the release of theophylline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical Characterization of Biopolymer Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezamaddin Mengelizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin, which is a naturally abundant mucopolysaccharide, supporting the matter of crustaceans, insects, and fungi. Because of its unique properties, such as non-toxicity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, chitosan has a wide range of applications in various fields. The objective of the present work is to extract the polymer chitosan from Persian Gulf shrimp shells. In order to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the extracted chitosan, degree of deacetylation, molecular weight, water and fat binding capacities extraction rate, and apparent viscosity were measured using a variety of techniques including viscometry, weight measurement method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results of the study of the physicochemical properties, molecular weight (6.7×105 Da, degree of deacetylation (57%, ash content as well as yield (0.5% of the prepared chitosan indicated that shrimp processing wastes (shrimp shells are a good source of chitosan. The water binding capacity (521% and fat binding capacity (327% of the prepared chitosan are in good agreement with the other studies. The elemental analysis showed the C, H and N contents of 35.92%, 7.02%, and 8.66%, respectively. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of chitosan was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results indicated the high potential of chitosan as an antibacterial agent. Moreover, the results of the study indicated that shrimp shells are a rich source of chitin as 25.21% of the shell’s dry weight.

  5. Chitosan in Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers: Current and Future Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Long; Huang, Yun-An; Zhu, Qiu-Jin; Ye, Chun

    2015-01-01

    ... to conventional functional monomers. Recently, chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers have gained considerable attention and showed significant potential in many fields, such as curbing environmental pollution, medicine, protein...

  6. Chitosan in Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers: Current and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Huang, Yun-An; Zhu, Qiu-Jin; Ye, Chun

    2015-08-07

    Chitosan is widely used in molecular imprinting technology (MIT) as a functional monomer or supporting matrix because of its low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. The various excellent properties of chitosan, which include nontoxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and attractive physical and mechanical performances, make chitosan a promising alternative to conventional functional monomers. Recently, chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers have gained considerable attention and showed significant potential in many fields, such as curbing environmental pollution, medicine, protein separation and identification, and chiral-compound separation. These extensive applications are due to the polymers' desired selectivity, physical robustness, and thermal stability, as well as their low cost and easy preparation. Cross-linkers, which fix the functional groups of chitosan around imprinted molecules, play an important role in chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers. This review summarizes the important cross-linkers of chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers and illustrates the cross-linking mechanism of chitosan and cross-linkers based on the two glucosamine units. Finally, some significant attempts to further develop the application of chitosan in MIT are proposed.

  7. A mechanistic based approach for enhancing buccal mucoadhesion of chitosan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng-Lund, Emil; Muff-Westergaard, Christian; Sander, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    the mucoadhesiveness of buccal formulations. The interaction between chitosan of different chain lengths and porcine gastric mucin (PGM) was studied using a complex coacervation model (CCM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a tensile detachment model (TDM). The effect of pH was assessed in all three models...... and the approach to add a buffer to chitosan based drug delivery systems is a means to optimize and enhance buccal drug absorption. The CCM demonstrated optimal interactions between chitosan and PGM at pH 5.2. The ITC experiments showed a significantly increase in affinity between chitosan and PGM at pH 5...

  8. Adsorption of nuclease p1 on chitosan nano-particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-E Shi; Zhen-Xing Tang

    2009-01-01

    The sorption of nuclease P1 onto chitosan nano-particles is studied in this paper. The effect of some adsorption kinetics factors such as nuclease P1 concentration, chitosan nano-particles solution concentration, adsorption temperature, chitosan nano-particles size, solution pH, etc. is investigated. Adsorption of nuclease P1 onto chitosan nano-particles is fitted into Lagergren first-order equation at initial nuclease P1 concentration of 3.0 mg/mL. The first-order constant for nuclease P1 is...

  9. Theoretical studies of ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ernesto Lopez [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular y Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, 1er. Piso, Col Centro, Mexico D.F. CP 06080 (Mexico); Oviedo-Roa, R.; Contreras-Perez, Gustavo; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, CP 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo-Alvarado, F.L. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 de la UPALM, Colonia Lindavista, Mexico D.F. CP 07738 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes was studied using techniques of molecular modeling and simulation. The COMPASS force field was used. The simulation allows the description of the mechanism of ionic conductivity along the polymer matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with experimental results for chitosan membranes. The analysis suggests that the conduction mechanism is portrayed by the overlapping large Polaron tunneling model. In addition, when the chitosan membrane was crosslinked with an appropriate degree of crosslinking its ionic conductivity, at room temperature, was increased by about one order of magnitude. The chitosan membranes can be used as electrolytes in solid state batteries, electric double layer capacitors and fuel cells. (author)

  10. Asymmetric Collagen/chitosan Membrane Containing Minocycline-loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Guided Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shiqing; Adayi, Aidina; Liu, Zihao; Li, Meng; Wu, Mingyao; Xiao, Linghao; Sun, Yingchun; Cai, Qing; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Ping

    2016-08-22

    Infections caused by pathogens colonization at wound sites in the process of bone healing are considered as one of the major reasons for the failure of guided bone regeneration (GBR). The objective of this study was to prepare a novel asymmetric collagen/chitosan GBR membrane containing minocycline-loaded chitosan nanoparticles. The morphologies of the membranes and nanoparticles were observed by SEM and TEM, respectively. The characterization and biocompatibility of the membranes was evaluated. The effect of the membrane on bone regeneration was assessed using the critical-size at cranial defect model. TEM images showed the spherical morphology of the nanoparticles. The results of SEM indicated that the asymmetric membrane contained a dense collagen layer and a loose chitosan layer. An in vitro experiment showed that the membrane can inhibit bacterial growth and promote osteoblasts and fibroblasts growth. The membrane showed the ability to promote angiogenesis and enhance bone regeneration in vivo. An asymmetric collagen/chitosan GBR membrane can be fabricated by loading minocycline encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles, and shows satisfactory biocompatibility and barrier function, which enhances bone regeneration. Therefore, this antibacterial GBR membrane is a promising therapeutic approach to prevent infection and guide bone regeneration.

  11. Theoretical study of chitosan-graphene and other chitosan-based nanocomposites stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kossovich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of new smart materials in various areas including healthcare engineering and medicine became a very promising and urgent area of research. Chitosan has proved its uniqueness as a basis for multipurpose aims: wound dressing, tissue engineering, drug delivery, etc. Unfortunately, nowadays the smart materials are not being constructed fast enough due to complications connected with time and pricing costs of in vivo development with simultaneous constant control of desirable properties. In this paper, a simple approach is proposed for predictive, at the stage of very beginning, analysis of structure and stability of newly-developed materials, such as chitosan nanocomposites. This approach is based on molecular modeling methods, namely, on a new hybrid multiscale model of chitosan oligomers. This model has already proved its efficiency for evaluation of nanocomposites mechanical properties using only computer simulations and appropriate software. Applicability of such approach is shown here for four types of chitosan-based nanocomposites with different fillers—carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphene oxide and chitin nanoparticles. On using a simple method of predicting the stability of such composites, laws of interaction between the chitosan matrix and fillers are shown depending on the relative mass share of the fillers within the composite.

  12. Microencapsulation of norfloxacin in chitosan/chitosan oligosaccharides and its application in shrimp culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ziru; Pan, Rong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-11-01

    Norfloxacin chitosan/chitosan oligosaccharide microcapsules (NCCM) were prepared by emulsion-chemical crosslinking method. The characteristics of obtained microcapsules were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and release experiments. Cumulative release profile of norfloxacin from the chitosan microcapsules in natural seawater was measured and the controlled release of drugs was at a uniform rate in 48h. The chitosan microcapsules were applied onto the antibacterial study of the shrimp culture in natural seawater. It is observed that the seawater in the NCCM added groups was relatively clear and the biomass of Vibrio increased slowly in contrast to the control and norfloxacin groups. The inhibition rate of Vibrio in norfloxacin groups obvioursly decreased after the 5(th) day, whereas, it remained high and stable during experiment period in NCCM groups. The results showed that the chitosan microcapsules as release materials have excellent antibacterial effects on Vibrio in the farming of Penaeus vannamei Boone. The controlled release could obviously reduce dosage of antibiotics and delivery times, and effectively improve the utilization rate of norfloxacin drugs for shrimps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose for soft-tissue augmentation: preliminary clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Leonardis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Leonardis1, Andrea Palange2, Rodrigo FV Dornelles3, Felipe Hund41Department of Plastic Surgery, Salvator Mundi International Hospital, Roma, Italy; 2Department of Aesthetic Medicine, Fisiobios, Roma, Italy; 3Department of Plastic Surgery, Núcleo de Plástica Avançada, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Department of Plastic Surgery, Consultorio de Cirurgia Plastica, Criciuma, SC, BrazilPurpose: The continual search for new products for soft-tissue augmentation has in recent years led to the introduction of long lasting alternatives to hyaluronic acids and collagen that are composed of other polymers able to improve clinical persistence over time. This is the first report in which sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC has been chemically treated by the cross-linking process and thus used as a hydrogel for soft-tissue augmentation through injection with thin needles. The study evaluates, from a clinical point of view, the behavior of cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel used in the aesthetic field and its side effects so as to check the safety and performance of the polymer following intradermal injections.Patients and methods: This work shows the preliminary results of an ongoing clinical study conducted between 2006 and 2009, performed on 84 healthy volunteers (62 females, 22 males aged between 18 and 72 years, for the treatment of 168 nasolabial folds, 45 perioral wrinkles, and 39 lip volume.Results: Study results show an excellent correction of facial defects. Tolerance and aesthetic quality of the correction obtained indicate considerable safety features and absence of side effects. From a clinical point of view, hydrogel is gradually absorbed into the injection site without migration issues.Conclusion: Cross-linked CMC hydrogel proves to be an ideal agent for soft tissue augmentation with regard to safety and ease of application. It did not cause infection, extrusion, migration, or adverse reactions in the patients who have been

  14. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan from cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle, 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaian Shanmugam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a commercially available derivative of chitin that has been extensively studied for its antimicrobial properties. In order to improve the water solubility and its biological activity, the chemical modification or derivatisation is attempted. In the present investigation, the chitosan prepared from the cuttlebone of Sepia kobiensis was being chemically modified by reacting it with orthophosphoric acid so as to obtain phosphorylated chitosan. Then the chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan were structurally characterized through FT-IR spectroscopy. Further the antibacterial activity of chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan was tested against clinically isolated human pathogens (Gram-positive: Streptococcus sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, V. alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella sp. and Proteus vulgaris by well diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was also calculated. The results of the present study suggests that the chitosan and phosphorylated chitosan has concentration dependent antibacterial activity with variation against several pathogenic human pathogenic bacterial strains which indicates their possible use as antibacterial agents.

  15. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toyoda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis.

  16. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride cream for facial erythema associated with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nupur U; Shukla, Shweta; Zaki, Jessica; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-10-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition characterized by transient and persistent erythema of the central face. The symptom of persistent erythema can be particularly frustrating for both patients and physicians as it is difficult to treat. Areas covered: Current treatment options for the treatment of rosacea include metronidazole, azelaic acid, sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur, and brimonidine. Until recently, brimonidine gel was the only option approved specifically for the treatment of facial erythema. However, oxymetazoline hydrochloride 1% cream is a newly FDA approved topical medication for adult rosacea patients. A primarily alpha-1a agonist, oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) is thought to diminish erythema through vasoconstriction. Our paper seeks to evaluate evidence for topical oxymetazoline HCl with respect to its efficacy and safety for its approved indication of treating the persistent erythema associated with rosacea. Expert commentary: While assessment of available clinical trial data indicates that the medication is as effective as other available treatment for controlling rosacea-associated erythema with minimal risk of adverse effects, studies of long-term duration and direct comparison will be necessary to establish its place in treatment guidelines and clinical practice. As further evidence becomes available, the real-world clinical potential of topical oxymetazoline cream will become clearer.

  17. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S., E-mail: sparimyur@gmail.com

    2016-11-15

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV–Vis–NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV–Vis–NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV–Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF CONCENTRATION OF POLYHEXANIDE HYDROCHLORIDE IN MULTIPURPOSE SOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arora

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of foreign pathogenic microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, yeast, fungi and protozoa which can inadvertently be introduced into eye via contact lens and hence disinfection is a vital part. Multifunctional solutions are generally intended to combine the action of cleaning disinfecting, rinsing lubricating deproteinising and soaking in one single product.In order to optimization of concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride in multipurpose solution some microbiological studies were performed by taking five microorganisms which are more prevalent in the infected eye condition. The nutrient agar and sabourad's agar media were used for bacteria and yeast mould respectively. The media were prepared as per I.P and sterilised by autoclaving and poured into Petri plates. The media when cooled to 42°C, 0.5 ml of the culture was added.The optimum concentration of Polyhexanide hydrochloride is 0.0002% which is an effective concentration against five microorganisms that are most prevalent in the infected eye condition.It was concluded that the multipurpose solution containing 2.0 g/ml of polyhexanide were found to be better in terms of antimicrobial activity

  19. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC, ATOMIC ABSORPTION AND CONDUCTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Anis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six simple and sensitive spectroscopic and conductometric procedures (A-F were developed for the determination of tramadol hydrochloride. Methods A, B and C are based on the reaction of cobalt (II thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, which could be measured by spectrophotometric (method A, atomic absorption (method B or conductometric (method C procedures. Methods D and E depend on the reaction of molybdenum thiocyanate with tramadol to form a stable ternary complex, measured by spectrophotometric means (method D or by atomic absorption procedures (method E, while method F depends on the formation of an ion pair complex between the studied drug and bromothymol blue which is extractable into methylene chloride. Tramadol hydrochloride could be assayed in the range of 80-560 and 40-–220 μg ml-1, 1-15 mg ml-1 and 2.5-22.5, 1.25-11.25 and 5-22 μg ml-1 using methods A,B,C,D,E and F, respectively. Various experimental conditions were studied. The results obtained showed good recoveries. The proposed procedures were applied successfully to the analysis of tramadol in its pharmaceutical preparations and the results were favorably comparable with the official method.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someshwar, Komuravelly; Chithaluru, Kalyani; Ramarao, Tadikonda; Kumar, K K Kalyan

    2011-06-01

    Tizanidine hydrochloride is an orally administered prokinetic agent that facilitates or restores motility through-out the length of the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the present investigation was to develop effervescent floating matrix tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride for prolongation of gastric residence time in order to overcome its low bioavailability (34-40 %) and short biological half life (4.2 h). Tablets were prepared by the direct compression method, using different viscosity grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K4M, K15M and K100M). Tablets were evaluated for various physical parameters and floating properties. Further, tablets were studied for in vitro drug release characteristics in 12 hours. Drug release from effervescent floating matrix tablets was sustained over 12 h with buoyant properties. DSC study revealed that there is no drug excipient interaction. Based on the release kinetics, all formulations best fitted the Higuchi, first-order model and non-Fickian as the mechanism of drug release. Optimized formulation (F9) was selected based on the similarity factor (f2) (74.2), dissolution efficiency at 2, 6 and 8 h, and t50 (5.4 h) and was used in radiographic studies by incorporating BaSO4. In vivo X-ray studies in human volunteers showed that the mean gastric residence time was 6.2 ± 0.2 h.