Comparación de la morfología alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae, representantes de dos diferentes patrones de vuelo Comparison of the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae as representatives of two flight patterns
Full Text Available La morfología alar de los quirópteros se encuentra relacionada por una parte con la biomecánica y energética del vuelo y por otra parte con aspectos ecológicos y conductuales (i.e., patrón de vuelo, conducta de forrajeo y selección de hábitat y de presas. En este trabajo se compara la morfometría alar de Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae y Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, representantes de diferentes patrones de vuelo, buscando compromisos entre la morfometría alar y aspectos ecológicos y conductuales. Nuestros resultados muestran que T. brasiliensis es un murciélago más robusto, de mayor envergadura, pero con un área alar similar a la de M. chiloensis. Esta última especie tiene una menor variabilidad en su masa y área cortical del húmero, que probablemente se encuentre relacionada con restricciones mecánicas y energéticas impuestas por su diseño. Descontando el efecto de la masa se detectaron diferencias en el diámetro externo y diámetro medular del húmero con una similar área cortical. El húmero de T. brasiliensis es un hueso de similar longitud, más ancho y con un menor grosor cortical que el de M. chiloensis, lo que está relacionado con una mayor resistencia a las fuerzas de flexión y torsión. Las características alares son consistentes con los modos de vida de cada murciélago: vuelos lentos, cortos y maniobrables en zonas arbustivas de M. chiloensis y vuelo veloz y de grandes distancias en espacios abiertos de T. brasiliensisWing morphology is related by one hand to biomechanical properties and energetics of flying, and on the other hand to ecological and behavioral aspects of flying, such as flight pattern, foraging behavior, habitat selection and size of prey. In this work we compare the wing morphology of Tadarida brasiliensis (Molossidae and Myotis chiloensis (Vespertilionidae, as representatives of two flight patterns, and looking for trade-offs between wing morphology, ecology and behavior. Our
Orlova, M V; Zhigalin, A V; Khritankov, A M
The data on new findings of ectoparasites (mites and insects) of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Western Sayan and Tuva are represented. The bat fly Basilia mongolensis mongolensis Theodor, 1966 was discovered in the territory of Russia for the first time. Gamasid mite Spinturnix bregetovae Stanyukovich, 1995 is new for the region. New hosts were described for some ectoparasites.
Full Text Available Currently twelve species of Myotis Kaup, 1829 (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae are recognized from South America, with several other named taxa regarded as synonyms, among them Myotis punensis J.A. Allen, 1914. This name was first regarded as a junior synonym of Myotis albescens (É. Geoffroy, 1806 and subsequently of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. To address the taxonomic status of the holotype of M. punensis, we compared it to all South American species in the genus. The fringe of hairs on the trailing edge of the uropatagium, the fur color, and external and skull dimensions all suggest M. punensis should be treated as a junior synonym of M. albescens
Moratelli, Ricardo; Wilson, Don E.; Gardner, Alfred; Fisher, Robert D.; Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.
We describe a new species of bat in the genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae) from the district of Sipaliwini, Suriname. The new species (Myotis clydejonesi sp. nov.), known from a single specimen, is sister to a clade of M. nigricans (Schinz) from southern South America, but differs from all Neotropical species of Myotis in qualitative and quantitative morphological characters and in its cytochrome-b gene sequence. Our findings also indicate that M. nigricans remains composite and provide support for restricting M. nigricans (sensu stricto) to southern South America.
Morales-Malacara, J B; López, R
Four hundred nineteen arthropod ectoparasites were taken from Plecotus mexicanus (Vespertilionidae) collected in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico: the insects Trichobius corynorhini Cockerell (Diptera: Streblidae) and Myodopsylla collinsi Kohls (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) and the mites Macronyssus longisetosus (Furman) and M. unidens Radovsky (Macronyssidae), Spinturnix sp. (Spinturnicidae), Pteracarus elegans Dusbádek & Wilson and Acanthophthirius (Myotimyobia) sp. (Myobiidae), and Whartonia glenni Brennan (Trombiculidae). P. mexicanus is reported in the state of Tlaxcala for the first time. This is the first survey of ectoparasites of this bat, and all parasite associations with P. mexicanus are new host records as well as new range records for Tlaxcala. This is the first report from Mexico; it records a major southern extension of the ranges of M. longisetosus, M. unidens, and P. elegans. The genus Acanthophthirius is also reported in Mexico for the first time.
Kwang Bae Yoon
Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
Negrin, Ana C; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Christante, Caroline M; Bueno, Larissa M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
Chiroptera are one of the most diverse orders of mammals and a unique group within Mammalia that posses a wide geographic distribution and considerable variability in reproductive strategies. The aims of the present study were to characterise the male prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae) and evaluate seasonal variations in the prostatic complex of M. nigricans specifically. Twenty-three sexually mature specimens (four sample groups: winter, spring, summer and autumn) were subjected to macroscopic, microscopic, morphometric and ultrastructural analyses. The reproductive accessory glands of M. nigricans were found to be composed of a multilobed complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. The complex was composed of three bilobed prostatic regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal) with no ampullary gland and seminal vesicles. This pattern of lobulation is very similar to that described for the prostate of rodents; however, it differs from that of other mammals and even other families of bats (e.g. Phyllostomidae and Molossidae). Each prostatic region in M. nigricans has unique and distinctive characteristics, which synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak of the species in summer. The data also indicated an asynchrony in the activity of primary and secondary reproductive organs in the annual reproductive cycle of M. nigricans in São Paulo State, Brazil.
Kim, J Y; Park, Y C
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitogenome of Hypsugo alaschanicus (Vespertilionidae) to provide more data for comparative mitogenomics of the genus Hypsugo. The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is a circular molecule of 17,300 bp, consisting of a control region and a typically conserved set of 37 vertebrate genes containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA). The mitogenome of H. alaschanicus is AT-biased, with a nucleotide composition of 34.1 A, 30.9 T, 22.4 C, and 12.6% G. In the 13 mitochondrial PCGs of H. alaschanicus, the start codon ATG is used in all PCGs, except Nd2 and Nd3 (which use ATT), and Nd5 (which uses ATA). Eight PCGs (Nd1, Cox1, Cox2, Atp8, Atp6, Nd4L, Nd5, and Nd6) use TAA as the stop codon, while the stop codon AGA occurs only in Cytb. Incomplete stop codons (T--) are used in the other four PCGs (Cox3, Nd2, Nd3, and Nd4). These findings contribute to our understanding of the nucleotide composition and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes of the genus Hypsugo, and provide more data for comparative mitogenomics and higher phylogeny in the family Vespertilionidae.
Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A
Sawadalepis n. g. is erected for Sawadalepis prima n. sp. in Schreiber's bent-winged bat Miniopterus schreibersii Kuhl (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from southern China. Diagnostic features of the currently monotypic genus include attributes of the osmoregulatory system and female genital organs. The dorsal osmoregulatory canals are shifted bilaterally towards the margins of proglottides in relation to the ventral canals. The genital pores are unilateral and sinistral. Among female attributes, the copulatory part of the vagina is covered externally by a dense layer of intensely stained cells; the conductive part of the vagina is clearly distinguishable from the seminal receptacle; the uterus has ventral and dorsal diverticula, extending bilaterally beyond the longitudinal osmoregulatory canals; and the eggs are spherical with thick outer coat.
Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Deriabin, P G; Shchetinin, A M; Samokhvalov, E I; Aristova, V A; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G
The complete genome of Uzun-Agach virus (UZAV), isolated from the liver of Myotis blythii oxygnathus (Monticelli, 1885 (Chiroptera; Vespertilionidae)) bats in Alma-Ata district (Kazakhstan) in 1977 have been sequenced. Based on full-length genome comparison it is shown that UZAV is a new member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). L-segment and M-segments of UZAV have 69,3% and 64,1% identity with Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV) that also was isolated from bats. S-segment of UZAV have 99,6% identity with the same of ISKV. This allow us to claim that UZAV is a reassortant virus that have S-segment derived from ISKV, and L- and M-segments from another virus that is phylogenetically related to ISKV, but divergent from it. The obtained data that the reassortment between ISKV and UZAV exists in nature suggest that they cocirculated in one ecological niche (bats of the Vespertilionidae family) and the areal of UZAV may coincide with the areal of ISKV.
Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar
Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam
The taxonomic history of Scotophilus borbonicus (E. Geoffroy, 1803) from Réunion Island is reviewed and summarised, with the designation of a lectotype. The insular form that it represents is considered conspecific with the small Scotophilus viridis (Peters, 1852) of southern Africa. As a result, Sc
Feijó, Anderson; Da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Althoff, Sergio Luiz
Histiotus are vespertilionid bats endemic to South America, easily recognized by its very long ears. During a twelve-month bat inventory in northeastern Brazil, eleven specimens of Histiotus were collected with a unique combination of characters that did not match those of any known species. In this paper, we describe these specimens as a new species. Histiotus sp. nov is distinguished from its congeners by its pale transparent wings and translucent ears, a triangular-shaped ear with a prominent lobe in the inner border connected by a band (~4 mm) across the forehead; its general golden-brownish body color and well-marked bicolor dorsal hairs. Its geographic distribution is unique among vespertilionids, arranged in a northeast-southwest diagonal across South America, includes the Caatinga and Cerrado of Brazil and Chaco of Bolivia. The available data suggest a seasonal reproductive pattern, with births occurring in the mid to late rainy season.
João M. D. Miranda
Full Text Available The first record of Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 from Brazil is reported here. An adult male was caught with a mist net in a barn located within an Araucaria pine forest in the municipality of Passos Maia, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil (26º46'48"S and 52º03'34"W. This record extends the distribution of this species in South America. Morphological and taxonomic notes of this species are described as well.O primeiro registro de Histiotus laephotis Thomas, 1916 o Brasil é aqui reportado. Um macho adulto foi coletado com rede de neblina (em abrigo artificial nos domínios da Floresta com Araucária, no Município de Passos Maia, Estado de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil (26º46'48"S e 52º03'34"W. Este registro amplia a distribuição da própria espécie na América do Sul. Aspectos morfológicos e taxonômicos desta espécie são também descritos.
朱光剑; 韩乃坚; 洪体玉; 谭敏; 于冬梅; 张礼标
Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip
Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.
Bueno, Larissa M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Comelis, Manuela T; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Studies have shown that the annual reproductive cycle of Eptesicus furinalis includes at least one period of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate their reproductive cycle ultrastructurally. The annual reproductive cycle was divided into four periods: active, regressing, regressed and recrudescence. The active period was similar to that of other bats, including the completion of spermatogenesis with three main types of spermatogonia (Ad, Ap and B) and 12 steps in the process of spermatid differentiation. However, its spermatozoa differed in that outer dense fibers 1, 5, 6 and 9 are larger than the others and due to the presence of what is likely a probably genera-specific bulging in the anterior portion. In the regressing period, Sertoli cell nuclei migrate to the basal compartment with the nuclei close to the basal lamina. The basal compartment had a more compact appearance than the adluminal compartment, with relaxed cellular connections. In the regressed period, spermatogenesis ceased; the seminiferous epithelium was composed only of Sertoli cells and three types of spermatogonia: types Ad, 1 and 2. In the recrudescence period, spermatogenesis restarted, with the process of reactivation divided into three phases: early, medial and late recrudescence. In conclusion, our study described the process of spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and confirmed the presence of a process of total testicular regression in the annual cycle of E. furinalis. We characterize distinct morphologic variations in the ultrastructure of the testicular cells during the four different periods of the annual reproductive cycle.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region.
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos
We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.
Araújo, Raissa A; Amaro, Beatriz D; Talamoni, Sônia A; Godinho, Hugo P
With a nearly global distribution the vespertilionid bat Myotis represents one of the most exceptional examples of adaptive radiation among mammals. We investigated the reproductive activity of the vespertilionid bat yellowish myotis, Myotis levis, from a highland area in Southeastern Brazil. The data were obtained through histological analyses of the male and female genital systems from February 2010 to May 2011. The testes of the adult yellowish myotis showed seasonal morphological characteristics which were categorized in the following stages: rest, maturing, mature, and mating. Rest and maturing males were recorded throughout the rainy season (October-March). In the rest stage no spermatogenesis was observed and the epididymal duct was devoid of spermatozoa. Maturing individuals had started spermatogenesis and few spermatozoa were found in the epididymal duct. Mature males were found toward the end (February-March) of the rainy season, when full spermatogenic activity was recorded and spermatozoa were packed in the epididymal duct. Although not recorded, mating probably occurred in the middle of the dry season (April-September) when the cauda epididymis was enlarged and packed with sperm. The spermatozoa remained stored in the cauda epididymis for at least three months when the testes entered into regression. The ovaries showed all types of ovarian follicles throughout the study period except mature follicles which were registered only in July (mid-dry season). Lactating females were captured in the beginning of the rainy season. The seasonal reproductive characteristics of the yellowish myotis from this Neotropical highland area were similar those of epididymal sperm-storing temperate vespertilionids.
Ruedi, Manuel; Csorba, Gábor; Lin, Liang-Kong; Chou, Cheng-Han
In taxonomic accounts, three species of Myotis have been traditionally reported to occur on the island of Taiwan: Watase's bat (M. formosus watasei Kishida), the Formosan broad-muzzled bat (M. muricola latirostris Kishida) and the Formosan mouse-eared bat (M. adversus taiwanensis Linde). The discovery in 1997 of an unknown taxon not fitting to the description of any of these species encouraged us to re-examine more thoroughly the systematics and phylogeny of Myotis bats inhabiting Taiwan. We used a combination of morphologic and molecular methods to aid the identification of the different taxa from this island and reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Multivariate analyses based on 17 craniodental characters of 105 specimens caught across Taiwan and further external characters allowed us to discriminate eight taxa of Myotinae co-occurring on this island. A subset of 80 specimens were further sequenced for the cytochrome b gene (1140 bp) and subjected to phylogenetic reconstructions including representative species from adjacent China and from all main lineages of the worldwide Myotis radiation. These molecular reconstructions showed that the Myotinae from Taiwan are phylogenetically diverse and are issued from several independent clades. The genetic results were completely congruent with the phenetic groupings based on craniodental and external morphology, as each of the eight Taiwanese taxa proved to be reciprocally monophyletic. Two unnamed taxa that did not fit into any of the known species were described as species new to science. Furthermore the taxon latirostris usually associated to the Asian M. muricola, was phylogenetically and morphologically distant from any other known Myotis and was assigned here to the fossil (Miocene) genus Submyotodon. Submyotodon latirostris, M. secundus sp. n. and M. soror sp. n. are endemic species from Taiwan, whereas the other five Myotis are more widespread and also found in the mainland. An identification key is provided to ease the discrimination of these Myotinae species in Taiwan and adjacent China.
Nguyen, Son Truong; Motokawa, Masaharu; Oshida, Tatsuo; Endo, Hideki
Southeast Asia is a region of high biodiversity, containing species of plants and animals that are yet to be discovered. In this region, bats of the subfamily Kerivoulinae are widespread and diverse with six species recorded in Vietnam. However, the taxonomy of the Kerivoulinae in Asia is complicated. In our study, we used diagnostic characters and multivariate analysis to determine morphological differences between the genera Kerivoula and Phoniscus. We showed that the two genera are distinguishable by the size of second upper incisors, the shape of skull, nasal sinus, canines, second upper and lower premolars. In addition, the two genera can be osteometrically separated by measurements of the braincase height, interorbital width and shape of anterior palatal emargination. Our data clearly revealed the morphological variations in the skull shape of Kerivoula hardwickii in Vietnam. This suggests a possible separation into three morphotypes, representing cryptic species supported by statistical differences with wide variation in skull shape, size and teeth. These results demonstrated Kerivoula hardwickii can be separated three subspecies, and the result will serve as the basis for the future assessment and classification of this group in Southeast Asia.
Hasan, Noor Haliza; Abdullah, M. T.
The aim of the study is to use cluster analysis on morphometric parameters within the genus Kerivoula to produce a dendrogram and to determine the suitability of this method to describe the relationship among species within this genus. A total of 15 adult male individuals from genus Kerivoula taken from sampling trips around Borneo and specimens kept at the zoological museum of Universiti Malaysia Sarawak were examined. A total of 27 characters using dental, skull and external body measurements were recorded. Clustering analysis illustrated the grouping and morphometric relationships between the species of this genus. It has clearly separated each species from each other despite the overlapping of measurements of some species within the genus. Cluster analysis provides an alternative approach to make a preliminary identification of a species.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
We have characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of a Korean ikonnikov's bat species, Myotis ikonnikovi. Total length of the mitogenome is 16,585 bp with a total base composition of 34.0% A, 30.4% T, 22.8% C and 12.8% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The mitogenome of M. ikonnikovi exhibited similar features compared with the previously determined mitogenome of a Myotis species, M. formosus. The results will contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mitogenome evolution in the genus Myotis bats.
Soisook, Pipat; Karapan, Sunate; Satasook, Chutamas; Bates, Paul J J
A new species of Murina belonging to 'suilla-group' is described based on two specimens collected with harp traps in lowland evergreen forest in the southernmost part of peninsular Thailand. Morphology and molecular (mitochondrial COI) data suggest that the new species is most closely related to M. eleryi, which is currently known from Indochina. The new species, however, can be distinguished by the size and shape of the upper canine, the shape of the upper and lower premolars, and the colour of the ventral pelage. Additional data on bacular morphology, echolocation, ecology, and distribution are included.
Roxanne J Larsen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.
Mantilla-Meluk, Hugo; Muñoz-Garay, Javier
We document the first confirmed Colombian records of Myotis keaysi pilosatibialis LaVal, 1973 from various localities on the Colombian Caribbean and the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. These records confirm geographic overlap between M. k. pilosatibialis and the nominate subspecies M. k. keaysi J. A. Allen, 1914, in northeastern Colombia, questioning the subspecific status of M. k. pilosatibialis. Models of potential distribution, produced for the two taxa by the application of the Maxent algorithm, show a potential geographic overlap in the northeastern portion of the Andes of Colombia and Venezuela. In order to clarify the taxonomic status of putative M. keaysi variants, we analyzed the variation of Colombian representatives of M. keaysi through a Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and a Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) performed on 18 cranio-dental measurements, as well as the analysis of discrete characters. The morphological independence between M. k. keaysi and M. k. pilosatibialis was supported statistically in our PCA and DFA, as well as by the presence of unique discrete characters, lending support to the recognition of M. k. pilosatibialis as full species. Herein, we include new discrete characters setting apart M. pilosatibialis from the morphologically similar species M. keaysi.
Castella, V; Ruedi, M; Excoffier, L; Ibáñez, C; Arlettaz, R; Hausser, J
Because of their role in limiting gene flow, geographical barriers like mountains or seas often coincide with intraspecific genetic discontinuities. Although the Strait of Gibraltar represents such a potential barrier for both plants and animals, few studies have been conducted on its impact on gene flow. Here we test this effect on a bat species (Myotis myotis) which is apparently distributed on both sides of the strait. Six colonies of 20 Myotis myotis each were sampled in southern Spain and northern Morocco along a linear transect of 1350 km. Results based on six nuclear microsatellite loci reveal no significant population structure within regions, but a complete isolation between bats sampled on each side of the strait. Variability at 600 bp of a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) confirms the existence of two genetically distinct and perfectly segregating clades, which diverged several million years ago. Despite the narrowness of the Gibraltar Strait (14 km), these molecular data suggest that neither males, nor females from either region have ever reproduced on the opposite side of the strait. Comparisons of molecular divergence with bats from a closely related species (M. blythii) suggest that the North African clade is possibly a distinct taxon warranting full species rank. We provisionally refer to it as Myotis cf punicus Felten 1977, but a definitive systematic understanding of the whole Mouse-eared bat species complex awaits further genetic sampling, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean areas.
Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P; Kurmaeva, N M; Shepelev, A A; Il'in, V Iu
Specific features of the spatial distribution and localization of bats have been studied during their hibernation in artificial caves of Samarskaya Luka. The proportion of cave area occupied by bats varies from 70 to 93% in large caves (> 60000 m2), decreasing to 50% in medium-sized caves (10000-60000 m2) and to less than 30% in small caves (bats choose sites near cave openings, up to 25% prefer central parts, but most bats (about 66%) concentrate in the deepest parts of caves. Among wintering species, higher rates of occurrence and shelter occupancy are characteristic of Plecotus auritus. Myotis daubentonii, and M. mystacinus, whereas M. dasycneme and M. brandtii show the highest degree of aggregation. The optimal temperature range for the wintering of all bat species is 2-4 degrees C. Myotis brandtii, Eptesicus nilssonii, and M. daubentonii prefer to hibernate in open spaces of cave ceilings; M. mystacinus. E. serotinus, and Pl. auritus usually occupy the middle and upper parts of walls; while M. dasycneme and M. nattereri occur mainly in hollows on ceilings.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Bueno, Larissa M; Caun, Dianelli L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Among species of the Chiroptera, spermatogenesis and the fully differentiated spermatozoa differ in morphological and ultrastructural detail. This study therefore aimed to ultrastructurally characterize the spermatogenesis and the spermatozoa of Carollia perspicillata (Phyllostomidae) and compare the process with other species of bats and mammals. The differentiation of spermatogonia is similar to other bats and to Primates, with three main spermatogonia types: Ad, Ap, and B. Meiotic divisions proceed similarly to those of most mammals and spermiogenesis is clearly divided into 12 steps, in the middle of the range of developmental steps for bats (9-16 steps). The process of acrosome formation is similar to that found in Platyrrhinus lineatus, with the acrosome formed by two different types of proacrosomal vesicles. The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon is similar to other bats already described and resembles the typical mammalian sperm model; however, its morphology differs from other mammals such as marsupials and rodents, on account of a simpler spermatozoon head morphology, which indicates a pattern that is more closely related to the sperm cells of humans and other primates. Our data demonstrated that spermatogenesis in C. perspicillata presents great ultrastructural similarities to P. lineatus. This pattern is not surprising, because both species belong to the same family (Phyllostomidae); however, it is observed that C. perspicillata presents some characteristics that are more closely related to phylogenetically distant species, such as Myotis nigricans (Vespertilionidae), which is a fact that deserves attention.
López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Ángel; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis Manuel
We described the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Wagner's mustached bat, Pteronotus personatus, a species belonging to the family Mormoopidae, and compared it with other published mitogenomes of bats (Chiroptera). The mitogenome of P. personatus was 16,570 bp long and contained a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and the ND6 genes. The order of protein-coding and rRNA genes was highly conserved in all mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes started with an ATG codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5, which initiated with ATA, and terminated with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG or the codon AGA. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods showed an identical topology and indicated the monophyly of different families of bats (Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, and Pteropopidae) and the existence of two major clades corresponding to the suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. The mitogenome sequence provided here will be useful for further phylogenetic analyses and population genetic studies in mormoopid bats.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R
Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation.
Görföl, Tamás; Csorba, Gábor; Eger, Judith L; Son, Nguyen Truong; Francis, Charles M
Hypsugo was regarded as a subgenus of Pipistrellus by many authors, but its generic distinctiveness is now widely accepted. According to recent taxonomic arrangements, nine species are known to occur in Southeast Asia. During the investigation of material recently collected from Lao PDR and Vietnam we identified an additional species and hence describe it here as Hypsugo dolichodon n. sp. It resembles H. pulveratus, but is larger with conspicuously long canines and differs considerably in the DNA barcode gene sequence.
Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.
Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.;
BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is ...
Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P
A complex analysis of the food range of 15 bat species inhabiting floodplain ecosystems of the Samara Bend has been performed. It is shown that, in bats, an important component of the structuring of their communities is the division of food resources. The guild structure and position of species in the trophic space are described. Seven food guilds consisting of nonspecialized and specialized species are distinguished. It is noted that most species are characterized by a wide overlapping of their trophic niches, which may be a consequence of their weak competition in an environment that is rich in food resources.
Victor Van Cakenberghe
Full Text Available We report the rediscovery of the Pied Butterfly Bat, Glauconycteris superba Hayman, 1939, 40 years after this species was last recorded. The new specimen from Mbiye Island, Democratic Republic of the Congo, is compared with the type specimens of G. s. superba and G. superba sheila Hayman, 1947 and a specimen from Matonguiné, Ivory Coast. The variation in the striking colouration of the pelage as well as in morphometric data is considered to be individual rather than geographic variation and we tentatively regard G. s. sheila as a synonym of the nominate form. Despite the wide distribution of this species in the tropical forest zone of West and Central Africa, only four specimens from four localities are known to date, which might indicate very specific habitat preferences. Contemporary land cover information around historic collection sites shows degraded landscapes. Given the highly uncertain area of occupancy of this species, we suggest changing the status of G. superba in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species from “Least Concern” to “Data Deficient”.
Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The bats roosted under loose bark in 20 of 27 trees, i.e. more frequently than expected (Χ² test, P < 0.05. B. barbastellus preferred cavities at a greater height (median roost height = 10.1 m, n = 22; median random cavity height = 4.5 m, n = 30; Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01. Most roosts faced south (63.6% south facing: 91-270 degrees; 36.4% north facing: 271-90 degrees, n = 22; Χ² test, P < 0.05. A logistic regression model including cavity type, height above ground and direction faced was significant (P <0.01 and all variables were important for selection. B. barbastellus is probably unable to find suitable roosting sites where intensive and non-selective logging is conducted: areas of ancient woodland should be protected to ensure optimal roosting conditions. In roosting areas, felling operations should be avoided as far as possible; in logged areas, selective timber harvesting protocols preserving dead trees and a significant fraction of mature trees should be adopted. We are indebted to the Nando Peretti Foundation and the Parco Nazionale d?Abruzzo Lazio e Molise for funding our work.
Edwin Carranza Vargas
Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta dos aportes a la combinatoria aplicada el primerola relación de equivalencia de los Teoremas de Ford- Fulkerson, Menger,Köning, Dilworth y Hall, además presenta una nueva prueba al Teoremade Hall que sirve como algoritmo para detectar sistemas de representantes distintos.En cada sección se establecen generalidades de los teoremas mencionados y ﬁnalmente el algoritmo con su respectiva justiﬁcación.
袁小爱; 田东; 谷晓明
采用PCR技术获得了翼手目(菊头蝠总科、蝙蝠科以及鞘尾蝠科)16种19个个体的核基因重组激活基因2(Recombination activating gene,RAG2)部分序列,长度为730～760 bp.结合从Genbank中提取的翼手目3科14个体的RAG2序列,通过构建贝叶斯(Bayesian inference,BI)和最大似然树对翼手目种属间的系统进化关系进行研究.研究表明:在葡头蝠总科中,菊头蝠科和蹄蝠科是两个独立的科,且在蹄蝠科中,大蹄蝠、中蹄蝠、普氏蹄蝠3种之间的亲缘关系非常近;蝙蝠科中的南蝠属与棕蝠属是姊妹群;长翼蝠亚科应提升为长翼蝠科.此外,鞘尾蝠科与犬吻蝠科形成姊妹群关系.%The partial sequences of nuclear RAG2 gene (Recombination activating gene, RAG2 )were obtained from 19 individuals of 16 species of Chiroptera( Rhinolophidea, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae) from Guizhou Province. The lengths of RAG2 are 730~760 bp. The evolutionary trees was produced by Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods, combined with the sequences RAG2 of 14 individuals of 3 families from Genbank, to study the relationship of species or genera of Chiroptera It suggested that: Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae were two separate families and H.pratti, H.armiger and H. larvatus have more closely genetic relationship in Hipposideridae, la genus and Eptesicus genus was sister group in Vespertilionidae. The subfamily Miniopterinae should be elevated to family status. In addition, Emballonuridae and Molossidae form sister group.
Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil
Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
José Luis Calderón-Amaya
Full Text Available A fin de traer a la luz y argumentar un riesgo crítico, este trabajo persigue evaluar el impacto de ciertos factores actitudinales y conductuales de los usuarios finales representantes en el éxito de los sistemas de información, durante su desarrollo y luego de implementados. Igualmente, se pretende evaluar la posible relación de los usuarios finales representantes con las usuales desviaciones encontradas en estos procesos. La combinación de un método estadístico con un análisis hermenéutico/ dialéctico, permitió el logro de los objetivos, al estudiar un macro proyecto del tipo Enterprise Resource Planning. El estudio abarcó el universo de las empresas básicas del aluminio de Venezuela, tomando una muestra no aleatoria de conveniencia del total de desarrolladores de sistemas de información, de usuarios finales representantes líderes y ejecutivos del área de sistemas de información. Los “conocimientos de los usuarios finales representantes” mostraron el mayor impacto y se logró confirmar que el origen de serios rechazos de algunos sistemas de información por los usuarios finales apunta a los mismos usuarios finales representantes. La principal conclusión es que los usuarios finales representantes presentan un serio reto gerencial, en relación directa con pérdidas y fracasos en inversiones en sistemas de información.
David Ferreira Bomfin
Full Text Available Preparar representantes de turma para exercerem suas atividades utilizando habilidades de liderança e trabalho em equipe é o foco desta pesquisa. A primeira etapa, aqui relatada, analisou a percepção que representantes de turma têm do significado de liderança e equipes para seu desempenho atual e para sua atividade profissional futura. A segunda etapa, a ser desenvolvida, consistirá na adoção de estratégias de ensino capazes de prepará-los para exercerem liderança e participarem produtivamente de equipes. Trata-se de um estudo de caso desenvolvido numa instituição de ensino superior - IES privada, em Belo Horizonte, com 91 sujeitos: 78 representantes de turma de diversos cursos da instituição e 13 suplentes. Foi aplicado um questionário eletrônico, que foi submetido a uma análise quantitativa e qualitativa. Os resultados indicam que os pesquisados consideram relevante o preparo para a liderança e o trabalho com equipes tanto para o representante de turma quanto para sua vida profissional futura. As competências que os pesquisados consideram importantes para serem desenvolvidas pelo representante de turma foram: postura ética e comprometida com os colegas; capacidade de comunicação efetiva e diálogo; estimular a participação dos colegas nos assuntos de interesse comum da turma; promover a integração e a reflexão crítica do curso; intervir em conflitos, ouvir os pares, identificar suas necessidades e encaminhar o consenso. A pesquisa deverá ter continuidade numa etapa através da qual se espera desenvolver as competências identificadas mediante minicursos devidamente articulados com as atividades extracurriculares e coerentes com o projeto pedagógico.
Lucía Thays Oberto de Grube
Full Text Available El estudio estuvo destinado a determinar la necesidad de formación profesional sindical del representante de los trabajadores en la negociación colectiva. Los resultados principales son los siguientes: la diferencia entre la formación profesional y sindical esta en que la formación sindical es importante debido a que permite dotar a los cuadros sindicales de información general sobre el rol de los sindicatos y su papel en la negociación colectiva, por otro lado la formación profesional es importante ya que es una herramienta que permite mejorar la calidad del empleo, entre otros, se determino que la formación profesional sindical del representante de los trabajadores, influye en su desempeño como negociador en una negociación colectiva
Edson Silva Barbosa Leal
Full Text Available Após seis meses de captura, com um esforço amostral de 21.600 m2.h.rede, foram capturados 377 morcegos, distribuídos em cinco famílias e nove espécies no campus da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, em Recife, nordeste do Brasil. Phyllostomidae foi a família com a maior riqueza de espécies (n=6. Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus foram as espécies mais abundantes, compreendendo mais de 83% das capturas. Comparada a estudos em áreas naturais a riqueza e abundância obtidas foram menores, já que apenas 37,7% das espécies de morcegos brasileiros são adaptadas à áreas antrópicas, sendo a maioria em maior ou menor grau dependente das áreas de mata para conseguir alimento e/ou abrigo. Porém, quando comparado a outros estudos e registros de Chiroptera realizados em áreas urbanas de outras cidades brasileiras, inclusive no próprio estado de Pernambuco, a riqueza da comunidade encontra-se dentro da esperada. Apresentando um índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener de H’=0,5774, a fauna de morcegos do campus é relativamente diversa. Ao contrário do demonstrado pela curva de acumulação de espécies construída para a área, e considerando o viéz metodológico embutido na captura com o uso de redes de neblina, as quais favorecem a coleta de Phyllostomidae e não de espécies insetívoras (Vespertilionidae e Molossidae, principalmente, a riqueza da comunidade pode aumentar conforme a continuidade dos trabalhos, uma vez que os registros feitos por pesquisadores em outras épocas e do material tombado na Coleção de Mamíferos da UFPE demonstram que outras espécies provavelmente podem circular pela área do campus.
Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil
João Eduardo Cavalcanti Brito
Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redesneblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp., Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus
Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Myotis nigricans presents few and controversial reproductive data, which indicate geographical variation in reproduction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the seasonal modifications in testicular and epididymal morphologies in a tropical environment, submitting these organs to morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The observations revealed that this species presents two peaks of spermatogenic activity followed by two periods of total testicular regression (a quiescent pre-pubertal-like morphology, where only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia could be observed), in the same annual reproductive cycle, which seem to be only indirectly influenced by abiotic factors. This testicular behaviour seems to be synchronised with the caput and corpus epididymidis, but not with the cauda epididymidis, which presents aspects of sperm storage in May-June. The control of this variation seems to be directly linked to the expression of the androgen receptor, since, throughout the year, it is high in periods of testicular recrudescence and low in periods of deactivation. It is not thought to be directly linked to apoptosis, which is more pronounced in periods of recrudescence than in periods of regression.
Huang, Chujing; Yu, Wenhua; Xu, Zhongxian; Qiu, Yuanxiong; Chen, Miao; Qiu, Bing; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Li, Yuchun; Wu, Yi
Three distinct bamboo bat species (Tylonycteris) are known to inhabit tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, i.e., T. pachypus, T. robustula, and T. pygmaeus. This study performed karyotypic examinations of 4 specimens from southern Chinese T. p. fulvidus populations and one specimen from Thai T. p. fulvidus population, which detected distinct karyotypes (2n=30) compared with previous karyotypic descriptions of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from Malaysia. This finding suggested a cryptic Tylonycteris species within T. pachypus complex in China and Thailand. Morphometric studies indicated the difficulty in distinguishing the cryptic species and T. p. pachypus from Indonesia apart from the external measurements, which might be the reason for their historical misidentification. Based on 623 bp mtDNA COI segments, a phylogeographic examination including T. pachypus individuals from China and nearby regions, i.e., Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, was conducted to examine the population genetic structure. Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern. These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species. Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China. Given the similarity of vegetation and climate of Guangdong and Guangxi regions, we suggested that such differences might be derived from their historical adaptation or distinct evolutionary history rather than the differences of habitats they occurred currently.
余燕; 马金友; 王艳梅; 牛红星
Beguelini, Mateus R; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Myotis nigricans is an endemic species of vespertilionid bat, from the Neotropical region, that resembles temperate zone bats in their reproductive cycle; presenting an annual reproductive cycle with two periods of testicular regression, which are not linked to the apoptotic process and seems to be not directly linked to any seasonal abiotic variation. Thus, this study aimed to ultrastructurally evaluate their reproductive cycle. The process of testicular regression could be divided into four periods: active; regressing; regressed and recrudescence; with all presenting distinct characteristics. The active period was similar to that of other bats, presenting the complete occurrence of spermatogenesis, with three main types of spermatogonia (A(d), A(p), and B) and 12 steps in spermatid differentiation; however, it differed in having the outer dense fibers 1, 5, 6, and 9 larger than the others. These three types of spermatogonia undergo considerable morphologic changes from regressing to the regressed period, and in the recrudescence, they return to the basic morphology, which reactivates spermatogenesis. In conclusion, our study described the process of spermatogenesis, the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa and the distinct morphologic variations in the ultrastructure of the testicular cells of M. nigricans during the four different periods of its annual reproductive cycle.
张礼标; 洪体玉; 韦力; 朱光剑; 张光良; 巩艳艳; 杨剑; 胡慧建
我们于2002 ～ 2007年在广西龙州县和宁明县采用标记重捕法对扁颅蝠的扩散行为进行研究,共标记669只(成体316只,亚成体353只；雌雄分别为293只和376只),重捕到139只(重捕率20.8%).结果表明,大部分扁颅蝠雌雄后代在性成熟前发生扩散,其亚成体扩散率无性别差异(雄性82.2%,雌性66.7%;P＞0.05).对成年雌雄两性扩散率(雄性76.5%,雌性58.5%)的分析亦未见性别差异(P＞0.05),但亚成体和成体合并结果显示雄蝠扩散率(80.7%)高于雌蝠(62.3%,P＜0.01).此外,我们还测量了扩散的距离,雄性后代的扩散距离(787.5±26.980 m,n=37)比雌性(517.4±25.308 m,n=24)远(P＜0.01)；在出现扩散的61只后代中,仅有一只(0.7%)雄性亚成体扩散到其它的竹林,其余个体均在出生竹林内的不同竹筒之间进行扩散.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R
Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.
McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Arlen, Robert; Connior, Matthew B
Between February 2013 and October 2013, eleven tri-colored bats, Perimyotis subflavus were collected from Marion, Polk, and Searcy counties, Arkansas, and their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Two of eleven (18%) harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria mcdanieli sp. n. were ellipsoidal to elongate with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 28.3 × 17.9 μm, with an L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a single polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.6 × 8.3 μm, with an L/W ratio of 1.5. A pronounced, nipple-like Stieda body was present as well as a substieda body. A sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed bubble-like granules. This is the third coccidian described from tri-colored bats and the sixth species reported from Arkansas chiropterans. In addition, both infected bats harbored a concurrent infection of Eimeria heidti McAllister, Burt, Seville, and Robison, 2011.
Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.
is studied infrequently. Although microscopic analyses of faeces have traditionally been used to characterise bat diet, recently the coupling of PCR with second generation sequencing has offered the potential to further advance our understanding of animal dietary composition and foraging behaviour...... approaches. For the first time, we demonstrate the applicability of the Illumina MiSeq platform as a data generation source for bat dietary analyses. RESULTS: Faecal pellets collected from a hibernation site in southern England during two winters (December-March 2009-10 and 2010-11), indicated that M...
Mateus R Beguelini
Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.
Full Text Available In August 2013, an adult male Kerivoula krauensis was captured in a harp trap set in forest understorey in Bala Forest, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. This is only the second locality recorded for the species, the first outside Malaysia, and represents a range extension of 254 km, northwards from Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. This discovery has important conservation implications suggesting that the species is more widespread than previously thought but also confirms previous findings that it appears to live in very low population densities as compared to other Kerivoula found in the same habitat. Information on its taxonomy, echolocation call, distribution and ecology is included. In addition, the new material from Thailand is briefly compared to other known species from the country
Full Text Available By combining cellulose acetate allozyme electrophoresis with a non-lethal sampling technique, it was possible to undertake a preliminary study of the population structure of Myotis punicus Felten, 1977 in the Maltese Islands. Since previous local ecological studies indicated declining numbers, it was considered important to undertake a combinatorial study including molecular genetic techniques. Twelve sites spread around the Maltese Islands were investigated and a total of 36 individuals found in four of these sites were sampled over a period of 6 months. The use of 4mm biopsy punches (a non-lethal method was adopted to obtain tissue for analysis. Morphometric data was also collected involving measurements of forearm length, ear length, tragus length, wing-span and weight. Comparison of average values for these measurements between the sexes (using chi-square at p = 0.05 gave an indication of sexual dimorphism, with females being the larger sex. A recapture rate of 19% was achieved in this study. Nei’s (1978 Genetic Identity (I showed values from 0.954 to 0.686, while Genetic Distance (D values ranged from 0 to 0.047. The results obtained in this study indicate that the population on the Maltese Islands is as yet a single panmictic unit, even though the overall FST value of 0.272 indicates that these sites are approaching the threshold beyond which there will be isolated mating systems.
Mariana Pires Veiga Martins
Full Text Available Os morcegos (Chiroptera, devido à sua diversidade e abundância exercem um importante papel ecológico para o ecossistema. O objetivo deste trabalho foi reportar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros capturados nos fragmentos do Instituto São Vicente, zona urbana do município de Campo Grande, MS. As coletas ocorreram entre setembro de 2011 e Junho de 2012, sendo realizadas com o auxílio de redes-de-neblina. Foram realizadas 154 capturas, com ocorrência de 10 espécies representantes de três famílias, sendo predominantes as espécies frugívoras. Dentre as capturas foram obtidas 41 amostras fecais, onde se verificou a presença de polpa, vestígios de artrópodes e sementes. O recurso mais utilizado por quirópteros foram plantas pioneiras, constatado através do predomínio de sementes da espécie Cecropia pachystachya, consumida em maior intensidade por Artibeus lituratus. Os resultados ressaltam a importância destes animais no ambiente, em especial no processo de regeneração dessas áreas através da dispersão de sementes.
Orlova, M V; Orlov, O L; Kruskop, S V; Bernikov, K A
The possibility of identification of the sibling species of Chiroptera by the example of Myotis daubentonii Kuhl, 1817 and Myotis petax Hollister, 1912 by their host-specific ectoparasitic fauna is discussed. Their habitat limits are defined.
Full Text Available A new species of Chiroderma Peters, 1860 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from the State of Piauí in Northeastern Brazil is described based on mensural analysis, morphological data and geographical distribution. It is most similar morphologically to C. doriae Thomas, 1891 but differentiated by a smaller body size and by differences in cranial traits. In comparison to other members of the genus, the new species can be distinguished by a combination of characters, including size of the body, conspicuousness of facial and median dorsal stripes, ear length, and variation in cranial and dentition traits.
Abundância e frugivoria da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, chiroptera de um fragmento no noroeste do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351 Chiropterofauna abundance and frugivory in a forest remnant in northwestern Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.5351
Full Text Available A abundância e a frugivoria de morcegos que compõem a taxocenose em uma área de mata ripária, à margem esquerda do rio Ivaí, foram foco do presente estudo. O Recanto Marista possui 57,6 hectares, dos quais 40,8 são cobertos por Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, situado no município de Doutor Camargo, região Noroeste do Estado do Paraná. Foram realizadas 14 noites de capturas de morcegos de maio de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, com redes-neblina (7 x 2,5 m, totalizando 13.475 m² h de esforço amostral, distribuído em 72h de esforço. Foram capturados 193 indivíduos, representantes de dez espécies, pertencentes a duas famílias: Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus e Pygoderma bilabiatum e Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. e Lasiurus blossevillii. Um representante da família Molossidae (Molossus rufus foi encontrado morto no solo. Foram consumidos frutos pertencentes às famílias Moraceae (Ficus guaranitica, Ficus insipida, Ficus sp. e Maclura tinctoria, Solanaceae (Solanum aspero-lanatum e Solanum sp. , Piperaceae (Piper aduncum, Piper amalago e Piper sp. e Urticaceae (Cecropia pachystachya e Cecropia sp..This study aims to evaluate the abundance and frugivory of bats from the Recanto Marista, a small riparian forest remnant in the margins of the Ivaí river. The Recanto Marista has 57.6 ha, of which 40.8 ha are covered by semideciduous seasonal forest and is located in the Doutor Camargo municipality. Collections were conducted from May 2007 to January 2008 using mist nets (7 x 2.5 m totaling 13,475 m² h and comprising about 72 hours. Ten species were found pertaining to two families, Phyllostomidae (Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus cf. fimbriatus, Artibeus planirotris, Desmodus rotundus and Pygoderma bilabiatum and Vespertilionidae (Myotis nigricans, Eptesicus sp. and Lasiurus
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.
Déborah Cristina de Oliveira
Full Text Available O estudo busca identificar, descrever e analisar as práticas pertinentes à saúde do idoso na cidade de Campinas-SP, na perspectiva de representantes da saúde do idoso, tendo como base a Política Nacional de Saúde à Pessoa Idosa. Estudo qualitativo, com análise temática de conteúdo, na perspectiva de sujeitos que assumem funções estratégicas na condução da política direcionada ao idoso no município. A partir dos depoimentos dos sujeitos emergiram cinco temas centrais: tempos e lugares; condições de acesso; demandas da população; recursos humanos; promoção à saúde e prevenção de doenças e agravos; gestão. As práticas voltadas à saúde do idoso em Campinas estão em desenvolvimento e precisam ser avaliadas, ampliadas e sistematizadas, tanto nas questões estruturais de recursos humanos, financiamento e gestão, quanto na atenção direta ao idoso.
Yunpeng, Liang; Li, Yu
As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encountered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Hermes Augusto Costa
Full Text Available A partir da experiência de representantes portugueses em Conselhos de Empresa Europeus (CEE, aborda‑se a avaliação que aqueles fazem do cumprimento dos dois princípios basilares da Directiva: a informação e a consulta. A este propósito, são tidas em conta duas dimensões da vida dos CEE: a dimensão funcional e a dimensão das possibilidades práticas. A primeira reporta-se ao modo como a informação e a consulta se encontram vertidas nos textos dos acordos que ditam o modus operandi dos CEE e ao modo como os representantes dos trabalhadores avaliam a informação que lhes é transmitida. A segunda dimensão encontra-se mais orientada para o princípio da consulta e para as possibilidades de os CEE condicionarem as decisões das multinacionais. Ainda que ambas as dimensões sejam olhadas como pouco entusiasmo pelos representantes portugueses, este texto, apoiando‑se no exemplo da GM-Europa, não deixa, todavia, de fazer referência ao papel que os CEE podem desempenhar na construção de uma identidade laboral transnacional.
Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan
Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").
Eveline de Cássia Batista de Almeida Alves
Full Text Available Sialoliths are calcified structures that develop into the salivary duct system, they have a round or oval shape and are usually asymptomatic. They result from the deposition of calcium salts around focal areas of organic matter and grow continuously, with the possibility of causing obstruction and reduced salivary flow. Commonly reported in humans, sialoliths may also affect, less frequently, the salivary glands of domestic and wild animals. This paper aimed to describe the histopathological characteristics of a sialolith affecting the excretory duct in the salivary gland of an adult male specimen of the tropical bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This specimen was collected in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Histological preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and histochemical techniques with Schiff-periodic acid (PAS and Alcian blue (pH 1.0 and 2.5 were applied for a better characterization and description of the sialolith. Although the formation of sialoliths is very common in the salivary glands of mammals, its occurrence in bats had not been reported before.
Kluge, Nikita J; Jacobus, Luke M
The genus group name Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 was established to include a single species of the mayfly family Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Hainan Island, China, Choroterpes (Monophyllus) monophyllus Kluge, 2012. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Monophyllus Leach, 1821, a genus of Phyllostomidae bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Antilles (type species: M. redmani Leach, 1821: 76). Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the mayfly genus group as follows.
LAZELL James; 卢文华; 刘少英; 庆宁
南澳岛位于我国广东省东缘闽粤交界处,北回归线横贯全岛.南澳岛的主体自侏罗纪起就一直出露于海平面之上,因此在生物地理和生态研究中具有其特殊的价值.本文首次报道了2种南澳的蝙蝠,常见的东亚伏翼Pipistrellus abramus和不常见的灰伏翼P. (Hypsuga) pulveratus,进行了形态描述和分布区系的分析.
[New records of ectoparasites of the eastern water bat Myotis petax Hollister, 1912 (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera) and the revision of the previous material collected from Myotis daubentonii s. lato in Eastern Palaearctic].
Orlova, M V; Orlov, O L; Zhigalin, A V
New findings of ectoparasites from the eastern water bat Myotis petax Hollister, 1912, belonging to the Siberian-Russian Far Eastern complex and earlier attributed as a subspecies of the Daubenton's bat Myotis daubentonii s. lato, is given. Fourteen species of bloodsucking arthropods feed on M. petax; these species include 4, 3, and 7 species of gamasid mites, fleas, and bloodsucking flies, respectively.
张礼标; 朱光剑; 于冬梅; 叶建平; 张伟; 洪体玉; 谭敏
上世纪90年代之后国内对翼手目动物的调查和研究取得较为突出的成就，发现3种蝙蝠新种（Zhanget al．，2007；Fenget al．，2008；Wuetal．，2008），5种中国新纪录（何晓瑞和杨白仑，1991；赵辉华等，2002；吴毅等，2004；张礼标等，2004。2005；张劲硕等，2005；冯庆等，2006），
Differential expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor alpha and 17β-HSD associated with the processes of total testicular regression and recrudescence in the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).
Beguelini, Mateus R; Falleiros, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R
Despite the worldwide distribution and many unique reproductive adaptations that bats present, many aspects of their reproductive hormonal regulation have not been adequately studied, especially in species that presented patterns of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the testicular expression of 17β-HSD type 1, aromatase and ERα in the bat Myotis nigricans, during the four periods of its reproductive cycle. Immunoreactivity for ERα was detected only in the cytoplasm of elongated spermatids and in the nuclei of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Expression of aromatase was observed in round and elongated spermatids and in Sertoli and Leydig cells. Immunoreactivity for 17β-HSD was restricted to the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. The three expression patterns varied significantly during the four periods of the reproductive cycle. Expression of ERα and aromatase in spermatids was continuous, while expression of ERα in spermatogonia occurred only in initial types (Ap). Expression of ERα and aromatase in Sertoli cells varied, with expression only in periods of spermatogenetic activities; and the same variation was observed for the expression of aromatase and 17β-HSD in Leydig cells. We, therefore, propose that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans from September to January in the northwest of the São Paulo State of Brazil, are directly regulated by testosterone and estrogen. This occurs via the production of testosterone by 17β-HSD, its conversion into estrogen by aromatase, and activation/deactivation of Sertoli cells' AR and spermatogonia's ERα.
Full Text Available Molte specie di pipistrelli delle fasce climatiche temperato-fredde sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in autunno è quindi un adattamento per trascorrere, in uno stato di profondo torpore definibile ibernazione, i mesi invernali, aumentando così la probabilità di sopravvivenza durante tale periodo. Nell?ambito di una attività pluriennale relativa alla raccolta, studio e, quando possibile, riabilitazione di pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, due esemplari di Pipistrellus kuhlii (2 femmine e due di Hypsugo savii (1 maschio e 1 femmina, in entrambi casi giovani che ancora non avevano acquisito una sufficiente capacità nel volo e quindi non liberabili, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l?estate del 1998 e mantenuti in condizioni di temperatura ambientale oscillante tra i 17 e i 22°C, in un contenitore di 150x40x30 cm. Ogni sera sono stati pesati, prima della somministrazione di cibo e acqua, con una bilancia elettronica con precisione di 0.1 g (modello Tanita 1479. L'alimentazione è stata a base di vermi della farina (Tenebrio molitor. L?efficienza digestiva è calcolata nel seguente modo, su materiale disidratato: (quantità ingerita ? quantità escrementi/quantità ingerita*100. Per il calcolo di tale indice gli esemplari delle due specie sono stati separati e mantenuti per 24 ore a partire dalla successiva sera dell?ultima somministrazione, favorendo così lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Successivamente, per due giorni è stato fornito del cibo ad libitum, pesando i singoli esemplari una volta terminata la fase di alimentazione, per determinare la quantità ingerita. Al termine abbiamo mantenuto gli esemplari a digiuno per 24 ore successive all?ultima somministrazione per permettere lo svuotamento dell?intestino. Gli escrementi raccolti sono stati posti in forno elettrico a 90 °C per 24 ore e successivamente pesati. Un campione di 10 vermi della farina è stato soppresso e successivamente disidratato per 36 ore a 90 C° in forno determinandone così il contenuto in acqua. La comparazione dei dati relativi alla variazione del peso, benché il numero di campioni sia limitato, offre la possibilità di evidenziare alcune differenze tra le due specie: 1 l'andamento del peso nel periodo compreso tra lo svezzamento e l'incremento autunnale: in P. kuhlii, dopo un massimo nel peso raggiunto allo svezzamento, tende evidentemente a calare. In H. savii invece si è osservato un leggero incremento nel peso. 2 È evidente che l'inizio del processo di accumulo di grasso è molto più rapido in P. kuhlii che in H. savii. In quest'ultima specie il processo appare più graduale nel tempo. 3 In ambedue le specie osserviamo un leggero decremento del peso nel periodo successivo al momento in cui raggiungono il massimo peso per poi aumentare la velocità di decremento nel periodo terdo-invernale. 4 Il peso medio alla raccolta in P. kuhlii è di 2.6 g (1.9 - 3.3 il peso massimo medio di 11.7 g (11.5 - 12; il peso medio alla raccolta in H. savii è di 3.7 g (3.2 ? 4.2 il peso massimo medio di 10.3 g (11.4 ? 9.3. 5 Si evidenzia un ciclo circannuale. L?efficienza digestiva, valutata a 90.5% per H. savii e 89.7% per P. kuhlii, non evidenzia una differenza significativa tra le due specie e neppure durante le varie stagioni.
Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat Plecotus austriacus (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland
Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (Plecotus auritus e Orecchione meridionale (Plecotus austriacus nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di Plecotus auritus e P. austriacus. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno P. auritus è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. P. austriacus è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.
8217, ..• ... . ...... .. .- 134 Fenton, M. B. 1970. Population studies of Mo•tis lucifugus ( Chiroptera : Vespertilionidae) in Ontario. Life Sci. Contr., Royal...of threatened species of cave bats. Bull. Nat. Spel. Soc., 34:33-47. Mumford, R. E. and J. B. Cope. 1964. Distribution and status of the Chiroptera of
Bats, mammals of the order Chiroptera , use a form of biological sonar to perceive their surroundings, navigate, hunt, and capture prey. A variety of...Hipposideridae) und Myotis myotis BORKH (Vespertilionidae) ( Chiroptera )," Zoologische Jahrbuecher. Abteilung fur Anatomie und Ontogonie der Tiere., 79 93
Within the Vespertilionidae the genus Pipistrellus Kaup, 1829 is characterized by the presence of a calcar lobe (epiblema) attached to the calcar bone, the presence of two upper premolars on each side and a forearm length smaller than 38 mm. Two representatives of this genus occur in The Netherlands
Senda, Akitsugu; Kobayashi, Rui; Fukuda, Kenji; Saito, Tadao; Hood, Wendy R; Kunz, Thomas H; Oftedal, Olav T; Urashima, Tadasu
Although a considerable amount of information has accumulated about oligosaccharides in the milk and colostrum of representatives of various mammalian orders, nothing is so far known concerning these sugars in the milk of any bat species (order Chiroptera). In this study, we determined that the following oligosaccharides occur in milk of the island flying fox, Pteropus hypomelanus (Chiroptera: Pteropidae): Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose), Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-neotetraose), Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-neohexaose) and Neu5Gc(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3'-NGc-SL). However, lactose was found to be the dominant saccharide in this milk, as in most eutherian mammals. The biologic importance of oligosaccharides in Chiropteran milks warrants further study.
Volumes of the rostral colliculus and the nuclei of the geniculate body were examined in 19 species of Chiroptera belonging to 8 families characterized by different eco-ethological adaptations. These volumes were compared to those of Basal Insectivores using the allometry formula. The data were expressed in terms of progression indices which estimate how many times a given brain center is greater than that of a Basal Insectivore of the same body weight. According to the progression indices of the rostral colliculus, Chiroptera separate into two groups: the Megachiroptera which have a mean index of 331 and the Microchiroptera with a mean index of 188. On the other hand, mean indices of the lateral geniculate body distinguish between three groups : the Megachiroptera (mean 869); the frugivorous and nectarivorous Microchiroptera (mean 293); the insect-eating, blood sucking, and fish eating Microchiroptera (mean 135). The results indicate that the two anatomically and structurally distinct elements belong to two functionally different visual systems which have evolved somewhat independently. The relation between allometric development of these visual centers and the eco-ethological adaptations of the species examined reveals, to a certain extent, the relative importance of the different functional aspects of vision.
Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (Hypsugo savii, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (Tenebrio molitor. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months P. kuhlii and H. savii increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in P. kuhlii than in H. savii. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (Hypsugo savii, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad
Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.
Full Text Available Se describe una experiencia de transferencia de conocimiento entre investigadores del proyecto ITSAL (Inmigración, Trabajo y SALud y representantes de asociaciones que trabajan con población inmigrante para discutir los resultados obtenidos en esta investigación y las líneas de futuro. Para ello se llevó a cabo una reunión en la que participaron tres investigadoras y 18 representantes de 11 instituciones. Tras una exposición de la metodología y los resultados del proyecto ITSAL, todos los asistentes comentaron los resultados presentados y líneas de investigación de interés. Se pusieron de manifiesto coincidencias entre ambas partes y también se obtuvieron propuestas de interés para el proyecto ITSAL. Entendemos el proceso descrito como una aproximación a la validación social de algunos resultados principales del proyecto. Esta experiencia nos ha permitido abrir un canal de comunicación con la población diana del estudio, en línea con la necesaria interacción de investigadores y población.
The Freudian expression Vorstellungsrepräsentanz (Freud, 1915b, 1915c), which is rendered in the Standard Edition as ideational representative, is commonly translated in Spanish as representante-representativo and in French as représentant-représentation, among other renderings. An interdisciplinary conceptual inquiry, which applies linguistic semantics to the evaluation of the available Spanish and French renderings, concludes that this compound expression should be translated in these languages as representante ideativo and représentant idéatif, respectively, renderings which happen to correspond to Strachey's translation into English in the SE. In contrast to most Spanish and French translations, this proposal conforms to the semantic principle of compositionality. On the one hand, it provides a suitable translation of the two parts of the compound. Thus it renders Vorstellung as idea, with the classical meaning of image or mental representation, which can be traced back to Hume's empiricist philosophy, and it renders Repräsentanz as representative, with the meaning of delegate. On the other hand, its linguistic form preserves the attributive meaning relationship which exists between both concepts in the original German expression. Against the background of these semantic considerations, a theoretical question concerning Freudian metapsychology is discussed: the drive has a psychic representative, but is there a (mental) representation of the drive?
Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.
Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M
Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.
Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A
Potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) is described from the Chinese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus sinicus Andersen (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), from southern China. The new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. This is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a Potorolepis Spassky, 1994 from eastern Asia. The generic diagnosis of Potorolepis is amended.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun
Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.
Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Guerrero, José Antonio
A new species of nematode, Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae), from the Biosphere Reserve "Sierra de Huautla" in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This is the second species in the genus described from bats in the New World, since most of the rictaluriids reported in these hosts belong to the closely related genus Rictularia Froelich, 1802. However, members of Rictularia possess only a single oesophageal tooth at the base of the buccal capsule, whereas in the current nematodes three conspicuous oesophageal teeth are present. They are therefore included in Pterygodermatites Wedl, 1861. The new species is characterized by the presence of 23 small denticles on the periphery of the buccal capsule and by the presence of 40 and 66 pairs of cuticular processes in males and females, respectively. Additionally, males possess 3-4 ventral precloacal fan-like processes, and the cuticular processes of females are divided into 40 pairs of comb-like and 26 pairs of spine-like processes; the vulva opens on the level of approximately pair 40. The dorsally directed stoma and the 40 prevulvar cuticular processes makes it difficult to place the species in any of the subgenera present in the New World, yet characters correspond with the diagnosis of Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) in the Mediterranean region and North Africa.
The tribe Scotonycterini is currently composed of three fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) characterized by white fur patches on the head, specifically around the nose and behind the eyes: Scotonycteris zenkeri, S. ophiodon and Casinycteris argynnis. Herein a new species is described, Casinycteris campomaanensis sp. nov., based on female specimen collected in 2007 near the village Nkoélon-Mvini close to the Campo-Ma'an National Park, southwestern Cameroon. It is readily distinguished from the three other species of Scotonycterini by its body size and craniodental characteristics. Molecular analyses based on the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that the new species is the sister-group to C. argynnis and that the holotype of S. ophiodon is more closely related to Casinycteris than to S. zenkeri, rendering the genus Scotonycteris paraphyletic. Based on these results, morphological characters within the tribe Scotonycterini were reassessed and a new classification is proposed, in which the new species and S. ophiodon are placed in the genus Casinycteris.
Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Martins, Fabiane F; Falleiros, Luiz Roberto; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
The male reproductive accessory glands are important organs that secrete products that ensure the survival, viability and motility of spermatozoa, not only in the male reproductive tract, but also in the female. Most studies relating to the reproduction of bats do not include these glands, and detailed studies of these glands describing annual variations in the morphology and physiology are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of these variations on morphophysiology of the prostatic complex (PC) of Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Adult males were collected from June 2009 to July 2010, and the PC was subjected to various analyses. We observed that the PC showed marked variations throughout the year. Both PC and testicular weight increased synchronously with an increasing rate of circulating testosterone, from the autumn until summer, demonstrating that both organs are regulated by this hormone. Each region of the PC (ventral and dorsal) was unique and distinct. The ventral region showed the glandular lumen as a predominant component, in contrast to the dorsal introduced epithelium; acid phosphatase activity was observed in the epithelium of all acini in the dorsal region, but only in the stroma of the ventral region, in addition each region responded differently to variations in the environment and circulating testosterone. We concluded that the PC of A. planirostris produces two secretory peaks, which were related to a gradual increase in the rate of circulating testosterone, which stimulates both of the prostate regions to prepare for the two reproductive periods.
Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation.
Full Text Available The Chiroptera from Escobosa de Calatañazor (Soria, Spain, an Upper Aragonian karstic site, are described in this report. The faunal list of Chiroptera is as follows: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis and one chiropter, indeterminate family, different to the mentioned species. This fauna is typical of karstic sites and allows to compare it with those of other sites of the Miocene and Pliocene of west Europe and north Africa.
Se describen en este trabajo los quirópteros del yacimiento kárstico del Aragoniense superior de Escobosa de Calatañazor (prov. de Soria, España. La fauna de quirópteros es la siguiente: Megaderma gaillardi, Rhinolophus grivensis, Rhinolophus delphinensis y un quiróptero, familia indeterminada, distinto de las especies mencionadas. Esta fauna, característica de yacimiento kárstico, permite su comparación con las de otros yacimientos del Mioceno y Plioceno de Europa occidental y norte de Africa.
Meehan, Kathleen A; Truter, Ernest J; Slabbert, Jacobus P; Parker, M Iqbal
Ionising radiation has the ability to induce DNA damage. While the effects of high doses of radiation of short duration have been well documented, the biological effects of long-term exposure to low doses are poorly understood. This study evaluated the clastogenic effects of low dose ionising radiation on a population of bats (Chiroptera) residing in an abandoned monazite mine. Bats were sampled from two chambers in the mine, where external radiation levels measured around 20 microSv/h (low dose) and 100 microSv/h (higher dose), respectively. A control group of bats was sampled from a cave with no detectable radiation above normal background levels. The micronucleus assay was used to evaluate residual radiation damage in binucleated lymphocytes and showed that the micronucleus frequency per 500 binucleated lymphocytes was increased in the lower radiation-exposed group (17.7) and the higher radiation-exposed group (27.1) compared to the control group (5.3). This study also showed that bats exposed to radiation presented with an increased number of micronuclei per one thousand reticulocytes (2.88 and 10.75 in the lower and high radiation-exposed groups respectively) when compared to the control group (1.7). The single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay was used as a means of evaluating clastogenecity of exposure to radiation at the level of individual cells. Bats exposed to radiation demonstrated increased DNA damage as shown by the length of the comet tails and showed an increase in cumulative damage. The results of the micronucleus and the comet assays indicated not only a statistically significant difference between test and control groups (P<0.001), but also a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage (P<0.001). These assays may thus be useful in evaluating the potential clastogenecity of exposure to continuous low doses of ionising radiation.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems. O presente estudo inventariou espécies de morcegos ocorrentes numa área urbana, localizada no interior do campus-sede da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Noroeste do Paraná, apresentando informações sobre a dieta, reprodução e o horário de atividades das espécies capturadas. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre setembro de 2007 e agosto de 2008, sendo capturados 377 indivíduos, pertencentes a quatro espécies, integrantes da família Phyllostomidae: Artibeus lituratus (90%; Platyrrhinus lineatus (6,4%; Sturnira lilium (2,4%; e Carollia perspicillata (1,3%. Entre os frutos consumidos pelos morcegos destacam
Felipe Barbosa Zani
Full Text Available A concreta incorporação do enfoque territorial como fundamento para as políticas de desenvolvimento rural demanda o rompimento com a tradição vertical e centralizadora das estratégias de desenvolvimento e a consequente valorização das iniciativas locais e da multiplicidade de atores territoriais. No entanto, a trajetória destas políticas releva não apenas o privilégio conferido às organizações vinculadas à agricultura familiar como também a exclusão das organizações representantes dos empresários. Considerada a importância da participação empresarial para o êxito das políticas dessa natureza, analisam-se, neste trabalho, as possibilidades de inclusão das representações dos empresários com vistas ao o pluralismo no âmbito do Programa Territórios da Cidadania Norte-RJ. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas, com informações complementadas por análise documental, e tratadas por meio de análise de conteúdo com grade mista baseada no conceito de cidadania deliberativa habermasiano. Os resultados relevam que o modelo de gestão social em vigor não é capaz de promover a concertação social dos atores territoriais. Os representantes da sociedade civil rechaçam indistintamente a inclusão dos empresários por conta de diferenças sociopolíticas, agravadas pela constituição histórica do território. As representações empresariais não estão inseridas no colegiado territorial do Norte-RJ e tampouco conhecem o Programa Territórios da Cidadania. Contudo, estas instituições já estão inseridas em outras instâncias locais de participação social e aceitam a dinâmica que rege estes espaços pautados na gestão social. Tal experimentação democrática pode criar pontos de convergência mínimos que permitam sua inclusão nos colegiados territoriais.
Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A
Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes.
Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Negrin, Ana C; Christante, Caroline M; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
Chiroptera, the second largest mammalian order, presents different reproductive strategies and unique reproductive features. However, there are few reports regarding male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) in Chiroptera. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterise the RAGs of the exclusively neotropical bat Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) macroscopically, microscopically and ultrastructurally. The RAGs were composed of a prostatic complex with two regions (ventral and dorsal) and paraurethral and bulbourethral glands, but no seminal vesicles. The ventral region had an undefined epithelium, with secretory and basal cells, and its secretions were periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. The dorsal region received both deferens ducts, had a columnar pseudostratified epithelium with secretory and basal cells. There were two types of secretions from the dorsal region: one that was basophilic and another that was mixed PAS positive and PAS negative. The paraurethral glands were dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, whereas the bulbourethral glands were located in the penile root. Histological and ultrastructural data confirmed the prostatic nature of the ventral and dorsal regions and the holocrine nature of the ventral region, with the latter finding never having been described previously for the prostate gland. Our findings demonstrate the wide discrepancy of RAGs between A. planirostris and other mammals in terms of their composition, structure and morphology.
Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.
Velazco, Paúl M; Lim, Burton K
A new species of broad-nosed bat Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) from the Guianan Shield is described based on molecular and morphological data. Previously confused with P. helleri and P. recifinus, the new taxon is currently known from only Guyana and Suriname and is most closely related to P. recifinus from eastern Brazil and not to the two sympatric species (P. fusciventris and P. incarum) also recently recognized as distinct from P. helleri. Morphometrically the new taxon overlaps with the smaller species of the genus (P. angustirostris, P. brachycephalus, P. fusciventris, P. helleri, P. incarum, and P. matapalensis), but forms a different cluster from the larger P. recifinus. Morphologically the new taxon is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of external and craniodental characteristics. Platyrrhinus now includes 21 species making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.
de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César
Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.
Toro Carvajal, Luis Alberto
This paper presents the so-called computational representational model of mathematics (MCRMATH), its theoretical importance for mathematics education and its relation with the use of technology tools in mathematics teaching. To do this, from a cognitive point of view, we conduct a research study of representations and we explain the computational-representational model of mind (CRMM).
Falcão Fábio de C.
Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.
Diversidade de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em remanescentes florestais do município de Fênix, noroeste do Paraná, Brasil Bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera diversity in forest remnants of Fênix, State of Paraná, southern Brazil
Gledson Vigiano Bianconi
Full Text Available A riqueza de espécies e a abundância relativa de morcegos foram avaliadas em três fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual localizados no município de Fênix, noroeste do Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Entre julho de 2002 e junho de 2003 os morcegos foram amostrados com redes-de-neblina instaladas em quatro parcelas de 1 ha cada, representando diferentes graus de isolamento das subformações florestais: aluvial e submontana. Foram capturados 752 exemplares pertencentes a 14 espécies de duas famílias, Phyllostomidae (n = 10 e Vespertilionidae (n = 4. No que se refere a capturas com redes a área foi considerada bem inventariada (estimador ICE. Entretanto, se comparada a estudos similares em Floresta Estacional, a riqueza de espécies foi pouco expressiva, havendo a suspeita que tenham ocorrido perdas de espécies em níveis locais. Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 foram numericamente dominantes nos três remanescentes amostrados, seguidas por outros três frugívoros: A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. jamaicensis Leach, 1821 e Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. O índice de Shannon demonstrou diferenças sutis entre as parcelas amostrais e o índice de Sorensen apresentou alta similaridade entre a maioria delas. Já a análise de agrupamento revelou uma maior afinidade entre parcelas da mesma subformação, exibindo dois grupamentos distintos, um representado pela subformação aluvial e outro pela submontana, sugerindo particularidades no uso do hábitat pelos morcegos. Os resultados indicaram ainda que os remanescentes florestais aqui estudados, apesar de pequenos, abrigam uma parcela significativa das espécies de morcegos esperadas para o bioma e, por essa razão, são importantes para a conservação da diversidade biológica.The richness and the relative abundance of bats were evaluated in three Semideciduous Seasonal Forest fragments located in the municipal district of Fênix, northwest
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.
The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.
Bertola, Patrícia Beloto; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Favorito, Sandra Elisa; Graciolli, Gustavo; Amaku, Marcos; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo
A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae) from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil), between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae), Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae), Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis), Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae), A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima), A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus), Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus), M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp.), M. levis (A. passosi), M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni), and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea). Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo
Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.
Patrícia Beloto Bertola
Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.
梁子安; 刘冰许; 张曼
In October 2001 and September 2010, the chiropteni in Yunhua Karat Care of Henan Province was investigated. The results showed that chiroptera in this area belong to 4 families, 4 genera and 7 species. Among them, 4 species (57.1%) were Oriental realm spe cies, and 3 species (42.9% ) were cosmopolitan species. According to the present status of chiroptera resources in Yunhua Karat Cave, de tailed countermeasures for bat protection were put forward.%2001年10月和2010年9月,对河南省西峡县云华洞翼手目动物进行了调查.通过标本采集、鉴定分类,初步查明该溶洞分布翼手目动物共7种,隶属4科4属.其中,东洋界种4种,占总数的57.1％；广布种3种,占总数的42.9％.此外,根据蝙蝠资源的现状,提出了具体的保护建议.
Full Text Available A Ordem Chiroptera apresenta importância relevante na dinâmica dos ecossistemas, sendo a ordem de mamíferos com maior diversidade de hábitos de vida. Dentre os estados da região Sudeste do Brasil, o Espírito Santo é um dos mais carentes em relação ao conhecimento de morcegos. Este estudo sintetizou o estado do conhecimento sobre quirópteros gerado no Espírito Santo. Para isso, foram catalogados os morcegos depositados no Museu de Biologia Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, no Laboratório de Estudos de Quirópteros da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH e University of Michigan Museum Zoology (UMMZ. Além disso, foi realizada uma busca por artigos publicados sobre morcegos do Espírito Santo. Foram revistos 49 artigos científicos, realizadas três teses de mestrado e 11 monografias. Considerando as coleções amostradas e artigos publicados totalizam-se 63 espécies de morcegos para o estado, provenientes de 37 dos 78 municípios do Espírito Santo. A maior riqueza de espécies de morcegos foi encontrada nos municípios de Linhares e Santa Teresa, o que é provavelmente reflexo da maior parte dos espécimes depositados nos museus também serem desses municípios. O Espírito Santo apresenta um grande potencial para se encontrar novas ocorrências de espécies, enfatizando a importância da realização de futuros estudos sobre morcegos no estado.The Order Chiroptera plays a vital role in ecosystem dynamics. Among the states of Southeastern Brazil, Espírito Santo State is the one with the least known bat fauna. This study reports on the current state of knowledge on Espírito Santo bats generating this data bank. We have catalogued the bats deposited in the Biology Museum Prof. Mello Leitão (MBML, Laboratory of Bat Studies of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (LABEQ, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (MVZ, Royal Ontario
Williamson, Charles H. D.; Sanchez, Daniel E.; Sobek, Colin J.; Chambers, Carol L.
Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces) based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species), and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets) and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites) analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/) that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and inexpensive, and
程志营; 卢贞燕; 梁显堂
One male specimen of Sphaerias blanfordi was collected in Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve in November 2010. It is a new record of Chiroptera in Guangxi,and the specimen was deposited in Museum of Guangxi Jinzhongshan National Natural Reserve.%2010年11月,在广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区采获1号雄性布氏球果蝠标本,为广西翼手目动物的新记录.标本保存于广西金钟山黑颈长尾雉国家级自然保护区管理局标本室.
唐占辉; 盛连喜; 张树义; 曹敏
Analía G. AUTINO
Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Jujuy la presencia de pulgas ectoparásitas de murciélagos, habiéndose registrado a Sternopsylla distincta speciosa Johnson sobre Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae. Además se presentan comentarios sobre caracteres de morfología externa y estructuras genitales de las subespecies Sternopsylla distincta speciosa Johnson y Sternopsylla distincta distincta (Rothschild.
Therys M. Sato
Full Text Available A estrutura de comunidades de morcegos no Brasil ainda é pouco estudada e vêm sofrendo sérias modificações devido à perda de habitats. O principal objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a comunidade de morcegos da Estação Experimental de Itirapina, município de Itirapina, Estado de São Paulo. Nesta Estação, além das espécies cultivadas de Eucalyptus e Pinus, há diversas plantas que podem fornecer alimento aos morcegos. Entre julho de 2001 e julho de 2006, foram realizadas 58 sessões noturnas de captura de morcegos com 4 a 12 redes-de-neblina dispostas a cada sessão. Nesse período, foram capturados 720 indivíduos de 16 espécies de morcegos dos quais 13 pertencem à família Phyllostomidae, duas à Vespertilionidae e uma à Molossidae. A curva cumulativa de espécies atingiu o equilíbrio, no qual apenas espécies raras são acrescentadas. Cinco espécies (Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina e Sturnira lilium representaram 80% dos morcegos capturados na Estação Experimental, onde se alimentavam de frutos de plantas pioneiras, tais como Cecropia pachystachya, Solanum spp. e Piper spp. A prevalência do vírus rábico foi zero na amostragem das 10 espécies analisadas. Apesar de estar muito modificada, a Estação Experimental de Itirapina pode ser uma importante área de abrigo e alimento para os morcegos e tem potencial de atuar como corredor entre áreas de Cerrado e Mata Atlântica.
Cibele Leandro da Costa
Full Text Available Bone tissue has different models of vascularization, cellular distribution, mineralization and remodeling among mammals species. A variety of dietary habits associated with the mode of locomotion and habitat required from bats the establishment of different flying styles and some skeletal adaptations. This study aimed at examining the microscopic characteristics of mature bone tissue of Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera. Twelve animals of both genders were used, in which the right humerus were dissected, weighed, decalcified and submitted to routine histological processing. Semi-serial cuts of 5 micrometers were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H.E., picrosirius red and silver nitrate 50%. The histological preparations were subjected to histological and histomorphometric analysis. Lacunae density was significantly higher in humerus of females when compared to males (33.96 x 27.80, p = 0.02. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of parallel collagen fibers distributed in the bone matrix. Lacunes presented various shapes and canaliculi are well distributed and individualized. Few Havers systems and canals were observed. The mature bone tissue of the humerus Glossophaga soricina share microscopic features with other mammals, however, differences in the structural organization are peculiar to this species.
A phylogenetic analysis using multidirectional chromosome painting of three species (Uroderma magnirostrum, U. bilobatum and Artibeus obscurus) of subfamily Stenodermatinae (Chiroptera-Phyllostomidae).
Pieczarka, J C; Gomes, A J B; Nagamachi, C Y; Rocha, D C C; Rissino, J D; O'Brien, P C M; Yang, F; Ferguson-Smith, M A
The species of genera Uroderma and Artibeus are medium-sized bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae and subfamily Stenodermatinae (Mammalia, Chiroptera) from South America. They have a wide distribution in the Neotropical region, with two currently recognized species in Uroderma and approximately 20 species in Artibeus. These two genera have different rates of chromosome evolution, with Artibeus probably having retained the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. We used whole chromosome paint probe sets from Carollia brevicauda and Phyllostomus hastatus on Uroderma magnirostrum, Uroderma bilobatum, and Artibeus obscurus. With the aim of testing the previous phylogenies of these bats using cytogenetics, we compared these results with published painting maps on Phyllostomidae. The genome-wide comparative maps based on chromosome painting and chromosome banding reveal the chromosome forms that characterize each taxonomic level within the Phyllostomidae and show the chromosome evolution of this family. Based on this, we are able to suggest an ancestral karyotype for Phyllostomidae. Our cladistic analysis is an independent confirmation using multidirectional chromosome painting of the previous Phyllostomidae phylogenies.
Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna
We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites.
von Busse, Rhea; Swartz, Sharon M; Voigt, Christian C
Aerodynamic theory predicts that flight for fixed-wing aircraft requires more energy at low and high speeds compared with intermediate speeds, and this theory has often been extended to predict speed-dependent metabolic rates and optimal flight speeds for flying animals. However, the theoretical U-shaped flight power curve has not been robustly tested for Chiroptera, the only mammals capable of flapping flight. We examined the metabolic rate of seven Seba's short-tailed fruit bats (Carollia perspicillata) during unrestrained flight in a wind tunnel at air speeds from 1 to 7 m s(-1). Following intra-peritoneal administration of (13)C-labeled Na-bicarbonate, we measured the enrichment in (13)C of exhaled breath before and after flight. We converted fractional turnover of (13)C into metabolic rate and power, based on the assumption that bats oxidized glycogen during short flights. Power requirements of flight varied with air speed in a U-shaped manner in five out of seven individuals, whereas energy turnover was not related to air speed in two individuals. Power requirements of flight were close to values predicted by Pennycuick's aerodynamic model for minimum power speed, but differed for maximum range speed. The results of our experiment support the theoretical expectation of a U-shaped power curve for flight metabolism in a bat.
Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.
The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.
Mário Pinzan Scatena
Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.
Cibele Maria Vianna Zanon
Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems.
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae em morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera em área de Floresta com Araucária no Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil Ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera of the Araucaria Forest, State of Paraná, South Brazil
Full Text Available Informações sobre estreblídeos e nicteribiídeos e seus hospedeiros são escassas na Floresta com Araucária (FA, não havendo dados sobre a riqueza, o padrão de distribuição e a abundância desses ectoparasitos sobre uma determinada comunidade de morcegos. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido em fragmentos de FA (aproximadamente 470 ha localizados no município de Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná, no período de dezembro de 2001 a maio de 2003. Foram registrados 12 indivíduos pertencentes a três espécies de Nycteribiidae e 119 de seis espécies de Streblidae sobre 127 hospedeiros examinados (quatro espécies de Phyllostomidae e sete de Vespertilionidae. Cinco das seis espécies de estreblídeos foram encontradas apenas sobre Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Em 62 indivíduos de S. lilium foram coletadas: Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926 com prevalência de 65,4% e intensidade média de infestação de 2,00; Aspidoptera falcata Wenzel, 1976 com 13,5% e 2,29; Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 com 7,7% e 1,00; e Metelasmus wenzeli Graciolli & Dick, 2004 com 1,6% e 4,00. Não foi encontrada diferença na prevalência (p = 0,544 e na intensidade média (p = 0,361 em relação ao sexo de S. lilium. Em 26 A. lituratus, foi encontrada apenas Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1907 com prevalência de 32% e intensidade média de 1,50.The information available on streblid and nycteribiid bat flies and their hosts are scant in the Araucaria Forest (AF and there are no data on richness, distribution patterns or abundance of these ectoparasites in bat communities. Therefore, we conducted a study on bats and their ectoparasites in AF remnants (approximately 470 ha located in the municipality of Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná State, between December 2001 and May 2003. Twelve individuals of three species of Nycteribiidae and 119 individuals of six species of Streblidae were collected on 127 bats (four species of
Cuidado ao idoso em Campinas-SP: estudo qualitativo com gestores e representantes políticos Atención a los ancianos en Campinas-SP: estudio cualitativo envolviendo administradores y políticos Care to the elderly in Campinas-SP: qualitative study of managers and politicians
Déborah Cristina de Oliveira
Full Text Available O estudo busca identificar, descrever e analisar as práticas pertinentes à saúde do idoso na cidade de Campinas-SP, na perspectiva de representantes da saúde do idoso, tendo como base a Política Nacional de Saúde à Pessoa Idosa. Estudo qualitativo, com análise temática de conteúdo, na perspectiva de sujeitos que assumem funções estratégicas na condução da política direcionada ao idoso no município. A partir dos depoimentos dos sujeitos emergiram cinco temas centrais: tempos e lugares; condições de acesso; demandas da população; recursos humanos; promoção à saúde e prevenção de doenças e agravos; gestão. As práticas voltadas à saúde do idoso em Campinas estão em desenvolvimento e precisam ser avaliadas, ampliadas e sistematizadas, tanto nas questões estruturais de recursos humanos, financiamento e gestão, quanto na atenção direta ao idoso.El estudio busca identificar, describir y analizar las prácticas llevadas a cabo en la salud de las personas mayores en la ciudad de Campinas-SP, en la perspectiva de representantes de la salud de los ancianos, basado en el Política Nacional. Estudio cualitativo con análisis de contenido temático, desde la perspectiva de las personas que asumen roles estratégicos en la conducción de la política dirigida a las personas mayores en el condado. A partir de sus declaraciones, fueran identificados cinco temas centrales: tiempo lugares; condiciones de acceso; demandas de la población; recursos humanos; promoción de la salud y prevención de enfermedades y trastornos; gestión. Las practicas de salud para los ancianos en Campinas-SP se encuentran en desarrollo, necesitan ser evaluadas, ampliadas y sistematizadas, tanto en los aspectos estructurales de los recursos humanos, finanzas y administración, así como en la asistencia directa a las personas mayores.The study aimed to identify, describe and analyze the practices carried out in the health of the elderly in the city of
作为哺乳动物第二大目的翼手目(Chiroptera；俗称蝙蝠)在飞行能力、回声定位与听觉系统、食性、冬眠、免疫防御等诸多方面表现出显著而独特的适应性进化，是研究生物对环境适应性进化分子机制的热点模型之一。文章综述了翼手目适应性进化分子机制的研究进展，特别是近年来在基因组水平上开展的相关研究，显示出更为复杂的分子进化模式和功能分化。随着越来越多的翼手目物种基因组数据的产生，将有望揭示新的进化机制，并为后续的功能实验奠定基础，促进人们对翼手目这一类群的认识和了解，同时也为系统认识动物适应性进化分子机制做出贡献。%As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encoun-tered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chirop-tera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Distribuição geográfica e análise morfológica de Artibeus lituratus Olfers e de Artibeus fimbriatus Gray (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Geographical distribution and morphological analysis of Artibeus lituratus Olfers and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available A study has been made on the geographical distribution and comparative external and cranial morphological analysis of Artibeus lituratus Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus were found to be sympatric in the state north to the "Planície Costeira", in the "Depressão Central", in the hillsides of "Serra Geral", and in the northern region of the state, areas previously covered by forests. The southernmost point for Artibeus Leach, 1821 distribution is 30º South, and A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus are the two species found more to the south. The two species studied do not show sexual dimorphism as to external characteristics. Cranial measurements revealed significant differences between males and females of A. lituratus in mandible length, which was significantly larger in females(p<5%, and between males and females of A. fimbriatus, in the length of the set of lower teeth and in the external width between the cingula of canine teeth, which were significantly larger in males (p<5%. No further morphological cranial differences were found between genders of both species. A. lituratus and A. fimbriatus can be externally distinguished by size, for A. lituratus is larger than A. fimbriatus as concerns all external dimensions analysed except for the tibia length (p<5%. The two species can also be differentiated by pelage colour, hair length, and facial stripes appearance. In the skull, a number of differences were found in rostrum format, in the developmental degree of supraorbital and post-orbital crests and pre-orbital and post-orbital processes, and in several cranial dimensions analysed.
Development and characterisation of 20 microsatellite loci isolated from the large bent-wing bat, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Miniopteridae) and their cross-taxa utility in the family Miniopteridae.
Wood, Rebecca; Weyeneth, Nicole; Appleton, Belinda
The large bent-wing bat, Miniopterus schreibersii (Kuhl 1819), has a long history of taxonomic uncertainty and many populations are known to be in a state of decline. Microsatellite loci were developed for the taxonomic and population genetic assessment of the Australian complex of this species. Of the 33 primer sets designed for this research, seven (21%) were deemed suitably polymorphic for population-level analyses of the Australian taxa, with five (71%) of these loci revealing moderate to high levels of polymorphism (PIC = 0.56 to 0.91). The cross-taxa utility of the M. schreibersii microsatellite markers was assessed in the microbat (Chiroptera) family Miniopteridae. Sub-species and species covering the Miniopteridae's global distribution (with the exception of the Middle East) were selected, numbering 25 taxa in total. Amplification was successful for 26 loci, of which 20 (77%) were polymorphic. High cross-taxa utility of markers was observed with amplification achieved for all taxa for between four (20%) and 20 (100%) loci, and polymorphism was considered moderate to high (PIC = 0.47-0.91) for 12 (60%) of these loci. The high cross-taxa utility of the microsatellites reported herein reveal versatile and cost-effective molecular markers, contributing an important genetic resource for the research and conservation of Miniopteridae species worldwide.
Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski
Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.
石红艳; 吴毅; 胡锦矗
@@ 中华山蝠(Nyctalus velutinus)(或称绒山蝠),属翼手目(Chiroptera),蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae),山蝠属(Nyctalus),是我国特有的种类.广泛分布于中国南部,喜栖于建筑物的天花板、梁柱、瓦缝等处.有关中华山蝠的研究80年代才开始,迄今为止发表有关论文仅6篇.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge
On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species. A
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Maria João Ramos Pereira
Full Text Available The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism.
Ramos Pereira, Maria João; Palmeirim, Jorge M
The increase in species diversity from the Poles to the Equator is a major biogeographic pattern, but the mechanisms underlying it remain obscure. Our aim is to contribute to their clarification by describing the latitudinal gradients in species richness and in evolutionary age of species of New World bats, and testing if those patterns may be explained by the niche conservatism hypothesis. Maps of species ranges were used to estimate species richness in a 100 x 100 km grid. Root distances in a molecular phylogeny were used as a proxy for the age of species, and the mean root distance of the species in each cell of the grid was estimated. Generalised additive models were used to relate latitude with both species richness and mean root distance. This was done for each of the three most specious bat families and for all Chiroptera combined. Species richness increases towards the Equator in the whole of the Chiroptera and in the Phyllostomidae and Molossidae, families that radiated in the tropics, but the opposite trend is observed in the Vespertilionidae, which has a presumed temperate origin. In the whole of the Chiroptera, and in the three main families, there were more basal species in the higher latitudes, and more derived species in tropical areas. In general, our results were not consistent with the predictions of niche conservatism. Tropical niche conservatism seems to keep bat clades of tropical origin from colonizing temperate zones, as they lack adaptations to survive cold winters, such as the capacity to hibernate. However, the lower diversity of Vespertilionidae in the Neotropics is better explained by competition with a diverse pre-existing community of bats than by niche conservatism.
Full Text Available We revise the geographic distribution of the Iberian species of the tribe Lyttini (Meloidae. The 1955 specimens studied correspond to six species, distributed in five genera: Berberomeloe, Lagorina, Lytta, Oenas, and Physomeloe. Berberomeloe was erected for B. majalis, a species distributed in the Iberian Peninsula and northern Africa, whose larval morphology clearly supports its inclusion within the Lyttini. Berberomeloe presents a second species recently resurected taxonomically, B. insignis, endemic to the southeastern regions of Iberia. Lagorina includes two species from the western Mediterranean Region, one of which, L. sericea, is found in the southern regions of Iberia and northern Africa. Lytta is represented by more than 120 species, but only one, L. vesicatoria, is present in western Europe. The species was often cited from all over the Iberian Peninsula, but most of the specimens examined are located north of the Sistema Central. The genus Oenas was considered to be represented in the Iberian Peninsula by three species: O. afer, O. fusicornis y O. crassicornis. All specimens examined correspond morphologically to O. fusicornis, so the Iberian records of O. afer probably are misidentifications. Physomeloe includes a single species, P. corallifer, which is endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. It is well distributed in central Portugal and the Spanish Plateau with scarce records in other Iberian regions.
En este trabajo se revisa la distribución geográfica de las especies ibéricas de la tribu Lyttini (Meloidae. Los 1955 ejemplares estudiados corresponden a seis especies distribuidas en cinco géneros: Berberomeloe, Lagorina, Lytta, Oenas y Physomeloe. Berberomeloe fue creado para B. majalis, una especie ibero-magrebí cuya morfología larvaria no deja lugar a dudas sobre su inclusión entre los Lyttini. El género Berberomeloe cuenta con una segunda especie ibérica, B. insignis, recientemente rehabilitada y endémica de una estrecha área en el sureste ibérico. El género Lagorina incluye dos especies de la región mediterránea occidental, una de ellas, L. sericea, se encuentra en el sur peninsular y el noroeste de África. El género Lytta comprende cerca de 120 especies de las que únicamente L. vesicatoria se encuentra en Europa Occidental. A pesar de que ha sido repetidamente citada de toda la Península Ibérica, la mayoría de los ejemplares examinados se localizan al norte del Sistema Central. El género Oenas se ha venido considerando representado en la Península Ibérica por tres especies: O. afer, O. fusicornis y O. crassicornis. Todos los individuos ibéricos examinados corresponden morfológicamente a O. fusicornis, por lo que las citas ibéricas de O. afer probablemente se deban a confusiones con esa especie. El género Physomeloe incluye una única especie endémica de la Península Ibérica, P. corallifer, bien distribuida por el centro de Portugal y la meseta española con citas escasas en otras áreas peninsulares.
José Flávio Sombra Saraiva
Full Text Available O artigo trata de política externa do Brasil e da participação do parlamento. De acordo com o autor, o envolvimento dos parlamentares brasileiros com o tema é pouco.
O artigo trata de política externa do Brasil
e da participação do parlamento. De acordo com o
autor, o envolvimento dos parlamentares brasileiros
com o tema é pouco.
Full Text Available External morphological characters of 141 young specimens (69 males and 72 femalesof the Bothrops newied complex were analyzed. Regression analysis was used in the study of morphometric characters and principal components analysis was used in the study of meristic and qualitative characters. Sexual dimorphism was confirmed in the meristic and morphometric characters. Males showed higher counts of subcaudals and longer tails. Females showed eventually higher number of ventrals and dorsal rows, and larger heads. Six different drawing patterns were diagnosed and can indicate the existence of different species. Ontogenetic variation was described.
There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling
Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo
Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a
Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania
The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.
张燕均; 邓柏生; 李玉春; 龚粤宁; 本川雅治; 原田正史; 新宅勇太; 吴毅
@@ 西南鼠耳蝠(Myotis altarium Thomas,1911),因峨眉山为其模式产地,又称峨眉鼠耳蝠或者四川鼠耳蝠.隶属于翼手目(Chiroptera)蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae)鼠耳蝠属(Myotis),主要分布于我国大陆南部,其分布区可延伸到泰国北部(Blood and McFarlane,1988),可能还分布到越南(Borissenko and Kurskop,2003).在我国,仅刘少英等(2003)将其作为重庆蝙蝠分布新纪录进行了报道.
Alejandro Castillo Ramírez
Full Text Available Nowadays there are several renewable energy technologies that transform natural energy from energy available to humans. In this article, we review the barriers that do not facilitate the implementation of renewable energy technologies in the system for interconnection of two representatives of developed countries (Denmark and Spain as well as a representative of developing countries(Chile. From the above, is that representatives of developed countries have led to a signiÞ cant penetration of renewable energy sources within their territories, in contrast to the representative of the underdeveloped countries, where those are in a transition phase. Hence, probably the strategies implemented by developed countries are a model for developing countries. Finally, we conclude that all causes problems contribute to increasing investment costs of renewable energy sources, in effect, given that these costs should be less thanthe beneÞ ts generated by those on promoting their real penetration in the developing countries.
Forero Peña, Diego Alejandro; Devia Becerra, Santiago
La presente investigación delimitada dentro del campo del management, específicamente en el área estratégica, busca plantear el papel que desempeñan los cambios y la comunicación intercultural que enfrentan hoy en día las organizaciones y el diseño de los modelos de gestión empresarial, donde actualmente la globalización toma más trascendencia en las naciones, empresas y los negocios internacionales. En este orden de ideas, temas como: Conceptos culturales enfocados hacia organizaciones i...
Full Text Available A new species of oribatid mite (Acari, Oribatei belonging to the family Ctenacaridae (Cohors Palaeosomata is described; this species was recorded several times in Spain as Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945. The new species is easily distinguishable from the mentioned one because of the presence of three claws in every leg, a noticeable pigidial neotrichy and the absence of short, almost spiniform, setae on the pygidium.Se describe una nueva especie de oribátido (Acari, Oribatei perteneciente a la familia Ctenacaridae (Cohorte Palaeosomata que habia sido citada varias veces en España como Beklemishevia galeodula Zachvatkin, 1945, y de la que se diferencia por presentar tres uñas en todas las patas, una acentuada neotriquia pigidial y carecer de setas cortas espiniformes en el pigidio.
Full Text Available Riassunto Neoromicia Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia Neoromicia Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "Rumex" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in Romicia calcarata, specie tipo del genere.
Miriam Martos Sodré
Full Text Available This paper presents an updated list of bat species positive for rabies in Brazil. It was developed based on database research via the internet, of international and national literature and annals of the most important technical and scientific meetings related to rabies and chiroptera in Brazil from 1996 to 2009. The new list of rabies positive bats consists of 41 species, belonging to 25 genera and three families: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% and Molossidae 26.8%. In addition, questions were raised regarding the lack of data, including sex, age, circumstances and location of bat capture and incomplete and outdated species identification. Results of genetic and antigenic studies performed on Brazilian rabies positive bats were shown.Esse artigo apresenta uma lista atualizada de espécies positivas para raiva no Brasil e foi desenvolvida a partir da base de dados na internet da literatura nacional, internacional e dos anais das mais importantes reuniões técnicas e científicas, envolvendo raiva e morcegos no Brasil durante o período de 1996 a 2009. A nova lista de morcegos positivos para raiva consiste de 41 espécies, pertencentes a 25 gêneros e três famílias: Phyllostomidae 43.9%, Vespertilionidae 29.3% e Molossidae 26.8%. Também foram discutidas questões como a falta de dados sobre sexo, faixa etária e circunstâncias de captura dos animais e identificação incompleta ou desatualizada das espécies. Resultados dos estudos genéticos e antigênicos realizados em amostras de morcegos brasileiros positivos para raiva foram apresentados.
Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras, Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise, Lena
Abstract Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50, in both Lonchophylla bokermanni and Lonchophylla peracchii. We observed that the karyotypes were also cytogenetically similar when we compared the studied species with other species within the same genus. It is therefore not possible to differentiate the species using only karyotypes with conventional staining. However, this information increases the knowledge of the genus and can be one more important character for a better phylogenetic comprehension of this taxon. PMID:27186341
Hermes Ribeiro Luz
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar
Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.
Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham
The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.
Medina, César E; Gregorin, Renato; Zeballos, Horacio; Zamora, Hugo T; Moras, Ligiane M
The genus Eumops is the most diverse genera of molossid bats in the Neotropics. In Peru this genus is widely distributed and represented by nine species: E. auripendulus, E. delticus, E. hansae, E. maurus, E. nanus, E. patagonicus, E. perotis, E. trumbulli, and E. wilsoni. After several years of mammalian diversity surveys in the coastal desert and western slopes of southwestern Peru, a specimen of Eumops was collected whose unique set of traits allows us to assert that deserves to be described as a new species. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, the new species is related to medium-large sized species (i.e. E. glaucinus, E. auripendulus, and E. perotis). Cytochrome b genetic divergence between the new species and the other species of the genus was high (> 12%) and it is consistent with morphological divergence presented for this new species. This new species, endemic to Peru, increases the diversity of Eumops to 16 species.
Kovaleva, I M
Study on the morphology and morphogenesis of wing membranes in Bats has revealed some peculiarities in their structure and development. Understanding the embryogenesis of these animals, as well as attraction of data obtained on their molecular genetics and paleontology, allows one to single out some factors that could have initiated evolutionary modifications in development programs. A scenario of the key morphofunctional transformations in the forelimbs during the evolution of chiropterans is given.
Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.
In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.
Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Rick A. Adams
Full Text Available We provide new data on the distributional range and abundance of the giant mastiff bat, Otomops martiensseni for which information on distribution and ecology are sorely needed. Because this species can forage at high altitudes, it is difficult to capture and most observations have been from caves and buildings. With the advent of new sonar gathering devices and analysis software, recording of echolocation calls can give unprecedented information on evasive bat species. Previous records from South Africa were restricted to the Durban area where several colonies in buildings were documented. No published records were available for Botswana. Our data expand the range of O. martiensseniin South Africa about 870km northward. However, this species’ relative occurrence continues to be rare, composing <0.74% of all our recorded call sequences across the region. We provide the first evidence of O. martiensseni in Kruger National Park (KNP and Mapungubwe National Park (MNP in South Africa and from Molema Bush Camp in the Tuli Block of Botswana. Of the 13,449 call sequences analyzed in our study, 91 were determined to be from O. martiensseni and of these, 84 occurred in KNP. Our data show that O. martiensseni is more widely distributed in eastern South Africa than previously thought; however, this species is rare throughout the region and thus faces an uncertain future.
Cadena, Alberto; Baker, Roberto J.
Vampire bats are clearly members of the family Phyllostomatidae but their affinities within the family are less obvious. Investigations into the karyotypes of the three monotypic genera (Desmodus, Diaemus and Diphylla ) were made to determine if chromosomal data might reveal the phylogenetic affinities of the subfamily Desmodinae. The karyotypes of two genera have been described. In this paper we describe the karyotype of Diphylla, discuss the intrasubfamiIial variation and compare the...
Cadena García Augusto Alberto
Full Text Available Se detectó la presencia de 11 especies del género Sturnira en Colombia (S. aratathomasi, S. bidens, S. bogotensis, S. erythromos, S. lilium, S. ludovici, S. magna, S. mordax, S. tildae y Sturnira mistratensis sp nov. En el presente estudio se evaluaron los caracteres corporales y cráneo mandibulares utilizados en la identificación y se examinaron nuevos caracteres morfológicos y morfométricos útiles en la identificación y se examinaron nuevos caracteres morfológicos y morfométricos útiles en la identificación de los taxones. Dentro de los nuevos caracteres, se resalta la utilidad de la morfología del primer molar inferior en la identificación de las especies. Los análisis de variación morfométrica identificaron pocas variables corporales y cráneo mandibulares cuantitativas significativas para separar los sexos, lo que permite asumir bajo dimorfismo sexual secundario para las especies de Sturnira en Colombia. De igual manera, el análisis de variación entre localidades (variación microgeográfica identificó pocas variables significativas, por lo que se asume mínima variación entre las localidades y por ende gran similaridad morfométrica entre los especimenes de las distintas localidades de cada especie. los valores propios del primer componente principal para las medidas de ala y cráneo fueron analizados en modelos de regresión lineal múltiple con variables geográficas, climáticas y corporales. La variación en la mayoría de especies fue explicada por las variables corporales. La distribución geográfica revela la presencia de S. magna y S. tildae en el oriente colombiano y la ubicación de las restantes especies hacia el centro-occidente de Colombia. Los datos de la distribución vertical permitieron ampliar los limites altitudinales para todas las especies de Sturnira. La distribución geográfica puntual reveló un alto número de localidades geográficas andinas con presencia simultánea (simpatría de especies de Sturnira.
Albuja V., Luis; Gardner, Alfred L.
We describe Lonchophylla orcesi, sp. nov., from the Choco, a region of high biotic diversity, endemism, and rainfall along the western Andean slopes and Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador. One of the largest known Lonchophylla, it occurs sympatrically with at least two other species of Lonchophylla including the similar, but somewhat smaller L. robusta. We also recognize L. concava as a Middle American Province species distinct from L. mordax of Brazil and Bolivia on the basis of cranial and dental features.
我们于2002年5月5日在广东省和平县、2003年5月20日在广东省肇庆鼎湖山，采集到一批蝙蝠标本，其中三叶小蹄蝠Aselliscus stoliczkanus和金管鼻蝠Murina aurala为广东省新记录，报道如下。
María Luisa Rodríguez - Sala; José Abel de la Portilla Romero; Alfonzo Pérez Ortiz
Los cirujanos que sirvieron en la Nueva España pertenecieron, por regla general a diferentes instituciones, pero también existió un subgrupo que se distinguió, precisamente, por desempeñar una relación de trabajo con el paciente, exclusivamente privada; su número fue alto a lo largo de la etapa virreinal. Aquí tan sólo estudiamos a quienes se desempeñaron durante el siglo XVI y presentamos sus trayectorias de vida a partir del análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias
Nasute Molina, Osvaldo Victor
I. RESUMEN - II. MARCO TEORICO - II. METODOLOGIA - IV. OBJETIVOS DEL TRABAJO - V. LIMITES O ALCANCES DEL TRABAJO - VI. INTRODUCCION - VII. CAPITULO 1 – ADMINISTRACIÓN DE LOS RECURSOS HUMANOS - 1.1 ¿QUÉ ES LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE LOS RECURSOS HUMANOS? - 1.2 PROPÓSITO DE LA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE LOS RECURSOS HUMANOS - 1.3 LA NUEVA VISIÓN DEL RECURSO HUMANO - VIII. CAPITULO 2 - CARACTERÍSTICAS Y TIPOS DE COMPETENCIAS - 2.1 ¿QUÉ SON LAS COMPETENCIAS? - 2.2 CLASIFICACIÓN DE COMPETENCIAS - 2.3 TIPOS DE ...
Castillo Barrantes, Enrique
Se parte de una presentación esquemática del interaccionismo en sociología general, siguiendo los lineamientos de una presentación hecha por Arnold M. Rose, para luego exponer las manifestaciones de dicha corriente en el campo criminológico, tal y como resulta de las principales obras de Howard S. Becker y Dennis Chapman.Tras pasar revistas sobre los temas más sobresalientes enfocados por ambos autores, se ponen en evidencia los aportes del interaccionismo y las nuevas posibilidades de aplica...
Martín Asuero, Pablo
Full Text Available Se puede encontrar un cierto interés en el Mediterráneo oriental en España a partir de 1860. Una prueba de ello es la producción textual de varios diplomáticos españoles destinados en el imperio Otomano a través de las crónicas periodísticas y de la publicación de sus memorias las cuales se acercan a la literatura de viajeros. Adolfo de Mentaberry, Diego de Codio de Portugal, Antonio Bernal de O'Reilly o Manuel Quintana son un ejemplo de este tipo de diplomático de ideología liberal que transmitieron a los lectores del mundo en español la situación del imperio Otomano entre los años de 1864 y 1886.…
Full Text Available Representaciones sociales de la migración argentina en España a través de la prensa (1999-2005Se analizan los discursos de la prensa escrita en torno a las migraciones desde Argentina hacia España en los primeros años del siglo XXI, siendo que los sentidos que le confieren los diarios de origen (Clarín, La Nación y Página/12 difieren sustantivamente de los generados por los de destino (ABC, El Mundo y El País. Primero se indaga en la caracterización de la migración, alternativamente como “exilio económico” o como “retorno”. Después se pasa revista a las representaciones de los argentinos en España: considerados bien como “ilegales” y “desarraigados”, bien como personajes “ilustres”. Finalmente se enfocan los problemas legales que tuvieron los migrantes, derivados de la política de extranjería española.Palabras clave: migración internacional, argentinos en España, representaciones sociales, prensa___________________Social Representations of Argentine Migration to Spain in the Press (1999-2005Abstract: We analyze the discourse generated by print media about the migration from Argentina to Spain at the beginning of 21st century. The interpretations in the daily press in the origin country (Clarín, La Nación y Página/12 differ from the one at destination (ABC, El Mundo y El País. First we examine the characterization of migration alternatively as “economic exile” or as “return journey”. Then we will investigate the representations about the Argentines in Spain, considered both “illegal”, and “rootless”, and “distinguished”. Finally we analyze the legal problems of these migrants, arose from the Spanish immigration policy. Keywords: International Migration, Argentineans in Spain, Social Representations, Press
La humanidad ha sido testigo de múltiples fenómenos naturales que han acaecido sobre divergentes sociedades, motivando los denominados "Desastres naturales", concepto que hace alusión directa a la inevitabilidad de tales contingencias. Desde el punto de vista de las ciencias sociales, la presencia de tales fenómenos no se relacionan obligatoriamente con la generación de un desastre si no existen condiciones de vulnerabilidad que las motiven, por lo que se propone llamarles "Desastres socionat...
王磊; 江廷磊; 孙克萍; 王应祥; Tiunov,M.P.; 冯江
水鼠耳蝠 Myotis daubentonii(Chiroptera,Vespertilionidae),广泛分布于欧洲和亚洲,亚种分化众多,在亚洲已报道有 M.d.ussuriensis,M.d.loukashkini,M.d.petax和M.d.laniger但其分类地位一直受到国内外学者的关注.中国的水鼠耳蝠长期以来被认为属于水鼠耳蝠M daubentonii亚种.最近有研究认为中国的水鼠耳蝠与欧洲的水鼠耳蝠M.daubentonii不同,并把"petax"提升为种.在中国境内相继采到17只鼠耳蝠标本,根据外形、头骨、牙齿、阴茎骨、线粒体DNA细胞色素b等特征,鉴定为东亚水鼠耳蝠Myotis petax,对中国水鼠耳蝠的种和亚种分类做一讨论.
da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei
The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown.
Frank, Raphael; Kuhn, Thomas; Werblow, Antje; Liston, Andrew; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven
Background: Bats belong to one of the most species-rich orders within the Mammalia. They show a worldwide distribution, a high degree of ecological diversification as well as a high diversity of associated parasites and pathogens. Despite their prominent and unique role, the knowledge of their parasite-host-relationships as well as the mechanisms of co-evolutionary processes are, partly due to strict conservation regulations, scarce. Methods: Juvenile specimens of the greater mouse-eared b...
Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
张海林; 张云智; 黄文丽; 米竹青; 龚鹤琴; 王静林
In July 1997, a strain (GB30) of virus was isolated from 60 samples of brain tissues of Murina aurata (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) co llec ted in Gengma county, Yunnan province, China. Isolation of virus was negative fr om 4 samples of brain tissues of Rousettus leschenaulti (Chiroptera: Pteropo did ae) collected in Gengma. GB30 virus strain could regularly cause illness and dea th in suckling mice, produced evident CPE in BHK21 cells. It agglutinated red b lood cells of dove at pH5.75～7.4. This virus has been identified serologically by hemagglutination inhibition and immunofluorescent tests using Japanese enceph alitis (JE), dengue (DEN) type 1,2,3,4, and chikungunya (CHIK) viruses monoclona l antibodies, and JE and sindbis (SIN) viruses immune sera. It showed specific r eaction to JE virus only and no reaction with DEN 1～4, CHIK and SIN viruses. Th erefore it can be identified as JE virus. This is the first report on the isolat ion of JE virus from Murina aurata. The results showed that bats are conside red as the reservoir and amplifier host of JE virus transmission in nature.%为进一步阐明蝙蝠在保存乙脑病毒中的作用，于1997年7月，在云南省耿马 县捕捉蝙蝠64只，取脑组织作病毒分离，从一只金管鼻蝠脑组织中分离出1株病毒。该毒株 能引起BHK21细胞病变和乳鼠发病死亡，在pH5.75～7.4时能凝集鸽红血球，经用单克隆抗 体血凝抑制和免疫荧光试验鉴定，证实为乙型脑炎病毒。进一步证明蝙蝠在乙型脑炎病毒保 存和扩散中具有重要作用。从金管鼻蝠体内分离出乙型脑炎病毒属国内外首次报道。
叶建平; 周善义; 谭敏; 洪体玉; 朱光剑; 张礼标
From September to November 2007, we recorded and analyzed the echolocation calls of Ricketti' s big-footed bat (Myotis ricketti) , in call-recording cages using BatSound software. We also calculated measurements of wing shape for these bats. We compared the parameters of echolocation calls and wing shape between males and females. The results showed that only the interpulse interval was significantly different between males (68.49 ± 10. 99 ms) and females (83. 61±13. 77 ms) (t-test: t=-2.72, P <0. 01), while the pulse duration (male: 4. 28 ±0. 34 ms, female: 4. 64 ± 0. 97 ms) , the dominant frequency (40. 31±1. 36 kHz, 40. 20±1. 32 kHz ), the max frequency (72. 40 ±2. 37 kHz, 72. 20 ±2. 66 kHz), the min frequency (29. 00 ±1. 16 kHz, 28. 60 ± 1. 58 kHz) ,and the measurements of wing shape were not significantly different between males and females. M. rwketti had average wing loading( male;8. 61±0. 72 N/m~2 , female: 8. 51 ± 0. 81 N/m~2) , high aspect ratio (7. 96± 0. 31, 8. 09± 0. 34) and high wing tip shape index (2. 93± 1. 09, 2.48 ±1.02).%@@ 大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti Thomas,1894)属翼手目(Chiroptera),蝙蝠科(Vespertilionidae),鼠耳蝠属(Myotis).
Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs
From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats.
I. L Rautenbach
Full Text Available On a recent collecting expedition in the Kruger National Park, the occurrence of seven species of small mammals (one shrew and six bats within the confines of this sanctuary was confirmed for the first time. One species (Pipistrellus rusticus is reported for the first time from within the borders of the Transvaal, whereas another species (Myotis bocagei is reported for the first time for the Republic of South Africa. The seven species are briefly discussed and the collections where the specimens have been accessioned are indicated.
Soisook, Pipat; Prajakjitr, Amorn; Karapan, Sunate; Francis, Charles M; Bates, Paul J J
A new genus and associated species of false vampire, family Megadermatidae, are described based on three specimens from Bala Forest, Narathiwat Province, peninsular Thailand. The new taxon is characterised by a unique combination of distinctive dental, cranial, and external characters, some of which are shared with exclusively African genera and some with Asian genera. These characters are comparable to, or exceed in number, those differentiating currently recognised genera in the family Megadermatidae. They include the absence of a first upper premolar; greatly enlarged upper canine without an anterolingual cingular cusp but with a robust posterolingual cusp; unmodified upper first molar with the preparacrista subequal in length to the postmetacrista, the metastyle not reduced and situated labially; robust lower canine without an anterolingual cusp; the first lower premolar enlarged, equal to or larger than the second lower premolar. In the skull, there is a pronounced rostral depression but no well developed frontal shield with preorbital and/or postorbital processes; the coronoid process is greatly enlarged in each half mandible. Externally, the body size is relatively large and the posterior noseleaf is rounded. The baculum has a robust shaft and two short prongs-the bacula of all five other species of megadermatid are illustrated for the first time; extraordinarily, those of Macroderma gigas and Megaderma lyra comprise two separate bones. DNA barcoding indicate a genetic divergence of about 20 percent (sequence divergence in the mitochondrial gene CO1) between the new genus and species of Megaderma and Cardioderma. Currently, despite numerous bat surveys in peninsular Thailand, the new genus is only known from Bala Forest. The small area of this forest and the very low capture rate suggest that the new species may be extremely rare. Its natural history is little known, although its robust dental and cranial features when coupled with chance observations of its feeding behaviour, suggest it may specialise in eating large beetles. Its conservation status is considered to be at risk owing to the rapid loss of forest habitat in much of the Thai-Malay peninsula.
Nguyen Truong Son
Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam. We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013. Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats. Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts. Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season. In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected. We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities. For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...
Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J;
Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteri...
Full Text Available Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2, and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD. Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster, while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer. Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat species may be useful subjects to compare adult neurogenesis with other long-living species, such as monkeys and humans, showing low rates of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Oviedo,Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Lucía E Claps
Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823). Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.
Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio
In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.
Eptesicus isabellinus was originally described as Vespertilio isabellinus by Temminck (1840, p. 205, pl. 52 figs. 1, 2) from a series of specimens obtained by J. F. H. Clifford Cocq van Breugel in the vicinity of Tripoli, Libya. Unfortunately Temminck's original description did not include any crani
Oleg N. Artaev
Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.
von Helversen Otto
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats.
Marcelo R. Nogueira
Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.
Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín
A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve "Sierra de Huautla" in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 - 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico.
Tavares, Valéria da C.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Ramírez-Chaves, Héctor E.; Velazco, Paúl M.
Vampyressa melissa is a poorly known phyllostomid bat listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Since its description in 1926, fewer than 40 V. melissa have been reported in the literature, and less than half of these may have been correctly identified. During revisionary studies of Vampyressa, we uncovered two previously unrecognized species related to V. melissa, all associated with higher elevation habitats (>1400 m), one from the Andes of Colombia (Vampyressa sinchi, new species) and the other from western Panama (Vampyressa elisabethae, new species) revealing that V. melissa, as traditionally defined, is a composite of at least three species. In this paper, we provide a restricted diagnosis for the genus Vampyressa, an emended diagnosis of V. melissa, and descriptions of the two new species. The separation of these frugivorous bats, previously identified as V. melissa, into three isolated upper-elevation species, each having restricted distributions further highlights their fragile conservation status.
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria
Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.
Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.
Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.
Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva
Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.
Gao, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Shuo; Gao, Li-Zhi
In this article we report the complete mitochondrial genome of black flying fox, Pteropus alecto, with the sequence length of 16,739 bp for the first time. The mitogenome contained a total of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region. The base composition was A (33.1%), G (14.5%), C (27.2%) and T (25.2%), indicating that the percentage of A and T (58.3%) was higher than that of G and C. Most of these genes were distributed on the H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and eight tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome analyzed here will provide new genetic information to study the evolution of bats.
王晓琴; 齐敦武; 胡锦矗
Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.
We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.
Jacobs, David S; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M
Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the striking similarity in morphology and sensory biology are probably the result of neutral evolutionary processes, resulting in the independent evolution of similar phenotypes.
Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.
Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.
Full Text Available Phyllostomus hastatus bat is species broadly distributed over the Neotropical region, which uses as diurnal roosts caves, hollow trees, palm leaves and human buildings. Thirteen diurnal roosts of P. hastatus were analysed from 1990 to 2009 in several localities of Rio de Janeiro State, regarding environment (rural, urban or protected area, type of roost (hollow tree, basement or roof, sex ratio and cohabitation. A nocturnal roost was also analysed. Sex ratio of P. hastatus varied considerably among roosts what may be explained by the fact this species can roost alone, in couples, in harems or in groups of bachelor males. Phyllostomus hastatus was observed in cohabitation with three other species: Molossus rufus, Molossus molossus and Myotis nigricans. Due to the frequency of cohabitation observed between P. hastatus and species of the genus Molossus, one or more advantages for the members of this association may be expected. The simultaneous usage of a feeding roost by a group of bachelor males is unknown information in the literature, and may suggest that this kind of group may interact with each other even when away from their diurnal roosts.
Jarrín-V, Pablo; Clare, Elizabeth L
Molecular and morphological analyses of variation often conflict with historical species descriptions based on a few characters and small samples sizes. Here we present a molecular phylogeny together with a quantitative morphologica analysis of the species in Sturnira in Ecuador. The 438 terminal taxa or organisms included in the anlaysis occur within a total of 10 ingroup lineages, which contain considerable substructure. Some species, as recognized by their morphologica traits, form paraphyletic arrangements with other taxa. We could not distinguish the close species pairs S. erythromos/S. bogotensis and S. ludovici/S. oporophilum in morphospace and therefore when distinct lineages were recovered genetically, they initially contained mixed membership of specimens identified using morphological criteria. Similarly the qualitative character states that diagnose S. luisi in its original description are not recovered in a quantitative analysis of morphological variation and thus S. luisi cannot be mapped to a single lineage in a molecular phylogeny. We presen additional evidence to corroborate the existence of S. perla as a species. We found a remarkable geographic structure within some species containing sister pairings, with lineages having a clear eastern or western distribution in relation to the Andes. Our analysis demonstrates the potential for conflict between character-based diagnoses, analysis of morphological variation and molecular phylogenetics in the identification of species and supports a combined approach to this problem.
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.; Patterson, Bruce D.
Platyrrhinus is a diverse genus of small to large phyllostomid bats characterized by a comparatively narrow uropatagium thickly fringed with hair, a white dorsal stripe, comparatively large inner upper incisors that are convergent at the tips, and three upper and three lower molars. Eighteen species are currently recognized, the majority occurring in the Andes. Molecular, morphological, and morphometric analyses of specimens formerly identified as Platyrrhinus helleri support recognition of Platyrrhinus incarum as a separate species and reveal the presence of two species from western and northern South America that we describe herein as new (Platyrrhinus angustirostris sp. nov. from eastern Colombia and Ecuador, north-eastern Peru, and Venezuela and Platyrrhinus fusciventris sp. nov. from Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Trinidad and Tobago, northern Brazil, eastern Ecuador, and southern Venezuela). These two new species are sister taxa and, in turn, sister to Platyrrhinus incarum.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Biavatti, Theany Cecilia; Carvalho, William Douglas; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Godoy, Maira de Sant'Ana; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Luz, Júlia Lins; Pol, André; Silva, Edicarlos Pralon; Tato, Gustavo Klotz; Graciolli, Gustavo
Among the factors that influence the diversity of ectoparasites on bat hosts are the kind of roost and the host's social behavior. Other factors such as sex, reproductive condition and host size may influence the distribution and abundance of ectoparasites. The aim of the present study was to analyze the variation in Streblidae ectoparasites on the bat Phyllostomus hastatus, according to sex and roost type. We caught bats in four houses on Marambaia Island, municipality of Mangaratiba, and in one house at the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, municipality of Seropédica. We caught 65 females and 50 males of P. hastatus and 664 streblids of four species: Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, Strebla consocia, Trichobius "dugesii" complex and Trichobius longipes. The species T. longipes accounted for more than 99% of all the ectoparasites caught. Female bats were more parasitized than males, in terms of both prevalence and average intensity. The total number of parasites did not vary between resident and non-resident bats. The relationship between the number of individuals of T. longipes and sex and roost type was significant for resident bats. The total number of parasites on males did not differ between bachelor roosts and mixed-sex roosts. The differences found between roosts reflected the differences between the sexes.
Hand, Suzanne J; Lee, Daphne E; Worthy, Trevor H; Archer, Michael; Worthy, Jennifer P; Tennyson, Alan J D; Salisbury, Steven W; Scofield, R Paul; Mildenhall, Dallas C; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Lindqvist, Jon K
The New Zealand endemic bat family Mystacinidae comprises just two Recent species referred to a single genus, Mystacina. The family was once more diverse and widespread, with an additional six extinct taxa recorded from Australia and New Zealand. Here, a new mystacinid is described from the early Miocene (19-16 Ma) St Bathans Fauna of Central Otago, South Island, New Zealand. It is the first pre-Pleistocene record of the modern genus and it extends the evolutionary history of Mystacina back at least 16 million years. Extant Mystacina species occupy old-growth rainforest and are semi-terrestrial with an exceptionally broad omnivorous diet. The majority of the plants inhabited, pollinated, dispersed or eaten by modern Mystacina were well-established in southern New Zealand in the early Miocene, based on the fossil record from sites at or near where the bat fossils are found. Similarly, many of the arthropod prey of living Mystacina are recorded as fossils in the same area. Although none of the Miocene plant and arthropod species is extant, most are closely related to modern taxa, demonstrating potentially long-standing ecological associations with Mystacina.
Jiménez, F Agustín; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan; Ramírez-Díaz, Silvia Edith
Macuahuitloides inexpectans n. gen., n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae) is herein described. The description is based on specimens removed from the small intestine of ghost-faced bats, Mormoops megalophylla, from central Mexico. The monotypic genus is unique in featuring sexual dimorphism on the cuticular ornamentation, which consists of the presence of spines on the anterior quarter of females, and of the presence of rugosities on the surface of the cephalic vesicle of males. The cuticular spines are arranged in spiral rings on the anterior quarter of the body, and there is no trace of said structures on the cuticle of males. The synlophe of the males possess 12 ridges, whereas there is no synlophe in females. Finally, females show a prominent caudal terminus (spine) and 3 subterminal tubercles, whereas males show bursal rays in a 3-2 arrangement, with a relatively prominent dorsal ray.
Andriollo, Tommy; Naciri, Yamama; Ruedi, Manuel
The Kuhl's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii) is a Western Palaearctic species of bat that exhibits several deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages across its range. These lineages could represent cryptic species or merely ancient polymorphism, but no nuclear markers have been studied so far to properly assess the taxonomic status of these lineages. We examined here two lineages occurring in Western Europe, and used both mitochondrial and nuclear markers to measure degrees of genetic isolation between bats carrying them. The sampling focused on an area of strict lineage sympatry in Switzerland but also included bats from further south, in North Africa. All individuals were barcoded for the COI gene to identify their mitochondrial lineages and five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to cluster them according to their nuclear genotypes. Despite this low number of nuclear markers, all North African nuclear genotypes were grouped in a highly distinct subpopulation when compared with European samples sharing the same mitochondrial barcodes. The reverse situation prevailed in Switzerland where bats carrying distinct barcodes had similar nuclear genotypes. There was a weak east/west nuclear structure of populations, but this was independent of mitochondrial lineages as bats carrying either variant were completely admixed. Thus, the divergent mitochondrial barcodes present in Western Europe do not represent cryptic species, but are part of a single biological species. We argue that these distinct barcodes evolved in allopatry and came recently into secondary contact in an area of admixture north of the Alps. Historical records from this area and molecular dating support such a recent bipolar spatial expansion. These results also highlight the need for using appropriate markers before claiming the existence of cryptic species based on highly divergent barcodes.
Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.
Velazco, Paol M
The Neotropical bat genus Carollia (Phyllostomidae: Carolliinae) currently includes eight species. Carollia manu was described in 2004 and is distributed in montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. The phylogenetic affinities of C. manu have never been assessed before. Phylogenetic analyses of cytochrome b sequences of seven of the eight known species of the genus place C. manu sister to C. subrufa. The analyses also suggest hidden diversity in the genus.
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Pettigrew, J D; Jamieson, B G; Robson, S K; Hall, L S; McAnally, K I; Cooper, H M
We examine the paraphylectic hypothesis of bat origins, both in the light of previous discussions, and in the light of new evidence from our analyses of neurological traits and wing morphology. Megabats share with primates a variety of complex details in the organization of neural pathways that have not been found in any other mammalian group, particularly not in microbats. The features previously used to link microbats and megabats have been examined and found to be questionable bases for support of a monophyletic origin. In particular, morphological analyses of the musculoskeletal adaptations associated with the flight apparatus are consistent with two separate origins of the mammalian wing. Taken together, these analyses suggest that megabats evolved from an early branch of the primate lineage. This branch was comprised of moderate-sized, phytophagous gliders, of which the other living descendants are the dermopterans. Microbats, in contrast, probably evolved much earlier from small, agile insectivores whose forelimbs had long metacarpals in relation to their phalanges.
Safi, Kamran; Dechmann, Dina K N
Vertebrate brains are organized in modules which process information from sensory inputs selectively. Therefore they are probably under different evolutionary pressures. We investigated the impact of environmental influences on specific brain centres in bats. We showed in a phylogenetically independent contrast analysis that the wing area of a species corrected for body size correlated with estimates of habitat complexity. We subsequently compared wing area, as an indirect measure of habitat complexity, with the size of regions associated with hearing, olfaction and spatial memory, while controlling for phylogeny and body mass. The inferior colliculi, the largest sub-cortical auditory centre, showed a strong positive correlation with wing area in echolocating bats. The size of the main olfactory bulb did not increase with wing area, suggesting that the need for olfaction may not increase during the localization of food and orientation in denser habitat. As expected, a larger wing area was linked to a larger hippocampus in all bats. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations related to flight and neuronal capabilities as reflected by the sizes of brain regions coevolved under similar ecological pressures. Thus, habitat complexity presumably influenced and shaped sensory abilities in this mammalian order independently of each other.
Freitas, M B; Goulart, L S; Barros, M S; Morais, D B; Amaral, T S; Matta, S L P
Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766). For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.
Lapointe, F; Baron, G; Legendre, P
As part of a large-scale study on brain morphometrics and adaptations in mammals, we addressed the problem of chiropteran evolution. A specific statistical framework was designed to test which of two competing hypotheses (bat monophyly vs. diphyly) is more strongly supported by quantitative brain data. Our analyses, based on 120 species, revealed that megabats and microbats were more closely related to each other than to primates, and illustrated the convergent adaptations of the brain of bats to similar trophic (i.e. feeding related) niches. Ecologically-corrected characters were then used to derive a new phylogeny which also supports the chiropteran clade. The monophyletic origin of bats is the preferred hypothesis to explain brain quantitative evolution in chiropterans and primates.
Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge
A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site.
Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D
The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its ability to fly and to colonize the Antilles overwater, this genus probably accompanied the "legions" of South American taxa that moved overland during the Great American Biotic Interchange. Its eventual colonization of the Lesser Antilles and the appearance of two endemic lineages there did not take place until the Pleistocene. Because of its continual residence and diversification in South America, Andean assemblages of Sturnira contain both basal and highly derived members of the genus.
Júlia Lins Luz
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...
Marco A. R. Mello
Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.
We report the discovery of a new species of Lophostoma from Panama, which we name L. kalkoae. This new species resembles L. carrikeri and L. yasuni in possessing a white venter, but is distinguishable from both by external and cranial characteristics. The new species is similar in size to L. carrikeri and L. schulzi. Lophostoma sp. nov. can be most easily recognized by its combination of white venter, postauricular patches connected by a thin line of pale hair to the white fur on the chest, elongated clitoris and swollen labia, less strongly developed lateral projection of mastoid processes, well-marked indentation on the lingual cingulum of the upper canine, well-developed P3, well-developed posterior lingual cusp on the cingulum of P4, and parastyle absent on M1 and M2. We present a dichotomous key for the genus Lophostoma and a map showing all the localities where white-bellied Lophostoma have been recorded.
Börk, Karrigan S.
Documenté los patrones de actividad nocturna de Noctilio leporinus, murciélago piscívoro neotropical, mediante observaciones visuales durante un ciclo lunar en un muelle de Golfito, Costa Rica. Considerando la intensidad de la luz lunar, hubo una fuerte correlación entre la oscuridad y la actividad (n= 776, r2 = 0.96). Esta correlación ha sido observada en muchas especies de mamíferos y puede indicar una adaptación de presas potenciales para evadir los depredadores nocturnos y/o una adaptació...
S. Börk, Karrigan
The nightly activity patterns of Noctilio leporinus, a piscivorous neotropical bat, were documented by visual observation over one lunar cycle at a large dock in Golfito, Costa Rica. The activity patterns were compared to the intensity of the moonlight, and a strong correlation between darkness and activity was observed (n = 776, r2 = 0.96). This correlation has been observed in many species of mammals and may indicate adaptation by potential prey species to avoid predation by visually orient...
Börk, Karrigan S
The nightly activity patterns of Noctilio leporinus, a piscivorous neotropical bat, were documented by visual observation over one lunar cycle at a large dock in Golfito, Costa Rica. The activity patterns were compared to the intensity of the moonlight, and a strong correlation between darkness and activity was observed (n = 776, r2 = 0.96). This correlation has been observed in many species of mammals and may indicate adaptation by potential prey species to avoid predation by visually oriented nighttime predators and/or an adaptation by predators to maximize hunting success.
Full Text Available Nudacotyle carollia sp. nov. (Trematoda, Nudacotylidae is described on the basis of specimens from the intestinal tracts of three Colombian bats of the species Carollia perspicillata L. The new species resembles both of the genera of the family, Nudacotyle and Neocotyle, in the general position of the organs and in having a vertical cleft. It differs from Nudacotyle in the position of the ovary and cirrus sac and in the lenth of the ceca. The new species differs from Neocotyle in the shape of the body and the vitelline lobes and in the length of the ceca. The ventral cleft is considered to be an important generic character which can be used to unit all the species of both genera in the single genus, Nudacotyle.
Marcela de Lemos Pinto
Full Text Available The genus Artibeus represents a highly diverse group of bats from the Neotropical region, with four large species occurring in Brazil. In this paper, a comparative cytogenetic study was carried out on the species Artibeus obscurus Schinz, 1821, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, A. lituratus Olfers, 1818 and A. planirostris Spix, 1823 that live sympatrically in the northeast of Brazil, through C-banding, silver staining and DNA-specific fluorochromes (CMA3 and DAPI. All the species had karyotypes with 2n=30,XX and 2n=31,XY1Y2, and FN=56. C-banding showed constitutive heterochromatin (CH blocks in the pericentromeric regions of all the chromosomes and small CH blocks at the terminal region of pairs 5, 6, and 7 for all species. Notably, our C-banding data revealed species-specific autosomic CH blocks for each taxon, as well as different heterochromatic constitution of Y2 chromosomes of A. planirostris. Ag-NORs were observed in the short arms of chromosomes 5, 6 and 7 in all species. The sequential staining AgNO3/CMA3/DA/DAPI indicated a positive association of CH with Ag-NORs and positive CMA3 signals, thus reflecting GC-richness in these regions in A. obscurus and A. fimbriatus. In this work it was possible to identify interespecific divergences in the Brazilian large Artibeus species using C-banding it was possible provided a suitable tool in the cytotaxonomic differentiation of this genus.
Full Text Available We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon
Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.
Ludmilla M.S. Aguiar
Full Text Available The greatest current threat to terrestrial fauna is continuous and severe landscape modification that destroys and degrades animal habitats. This rapid and severe modification has threatened species, local biological communities, and the ecological services that they provide, such as seed dispersal, insect predation, and pollination. Bats are important pollinators of the Cerrado (woodland savanna because of their role in the life cycles of many plant species. However, there is little information about how these bat species are being affected by habitat loss and fragmentation. We used radio-tracking to estimate the home ranges of Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1776 and Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983. The home range of G. soricina varies from 430 to 890 ha. They combine shortrange flights of up to 500 m to nearby areas with longer flights of 2 to 3 km that take them away from their core areas. The maximum flight distance tracked for L. dekeyseri was 3.8 km, and its home range varies from 564 to 640 ha. The average distance travelled by this species was 1.3 km. Our data suggest that G. soricina and L. dekeyseri are able to explore the fragmented landscape of the Central Brazilian Cerrado and that they are likely to survive in the short- to medium-term. The natural dispersal ability of these two species may enable them to compensate for continued human disturbance in the region.
Marília A. S. Barros
Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.
Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana
In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.
Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J
There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans.
Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N
Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats.
Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei
Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Dai, Mengyao; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene) is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene) is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively). Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known), and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Tatiana C. Pesenti
Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.
Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight. Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day. When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements. After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws. They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree. Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur. The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation.
Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.
Echolocation calls of Myotis frater emitted during the search phase consist of brief frequency-modulated pulses. The sound signals are comprised of three harmonics of which the first one is of the highest intensity and occurs in all echolocation calls. The frequency of this fundamental harmonic ranges from 110.8 to 50.2 kHz, and its duration is about 3.5 ms. The second and the third harmonics are relatively weak, occurring in 50.0% and 25.0% of echolocation calls respectively, with frequencies ranging from 138.4 to 116.6 kHz for the second harmonic and from 193.6 to 170.8 kHz for the third harmonic. We presume that, according to the echolocation call features, Myotis frater probably forages the insects on the ground of complex environments.
Farina, Oscar; Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner Andre [UNESP
The predation on vertebrates by birds, including bats, is very common in some families (Accipitridae, Falconidae, Tytonidae, Strigidae), constituting their main diet. For other families (except those that feed strictly on fish), it is occasional and sometimes a matter of opportunity. Here we recorded the predation on a bat (Platyrrhinus lineatus) by the neotropical bird plush-crested jay (Cyanocorax chrysops). on July 26, 2009, around 11:00 am, we recorded an individual of C. chrysops taking ...
Krizler C. Tanalgo
Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves. In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored. We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines. A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves. Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade. Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community.
Giannini Norberto P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Pteropodidae comprises bats commonly known as megabats or Old World fruit bats. Molecular phylogenetic studies of pteropodids have provided considerable insight into intrafamilial relationships, but these studies have included only a fraction of the extant diversity (a maximum of 26 out of the 46 currently recognized genera and have failed to resolve deep relationships among internal clades. Here we readdress the systematics of pteropodids by applying a strategy to try to resolve ancient relationships within Pteropodidae, while providing further insight into subgroup membership, by 1 increasing the taxonomic sample to 42 genera; 2 increasing the number of characters (to >8,000 bp and nuclear genomic representation; 3 minimizing missing data; 4 controlling for sequence bias; and 5 using appropriate data partitioning and models of sequence evolution. Results Our analyses recovered six principal clades and one additional independent lineage (consisting of a single genus within Pteropodidae. Reciprocal monophyly of these groups was highly supported and generally congruent among the different methods and datasets used. Likewise, most relationships within these principal clades were well resolved and statistically supported. Relationships among the 7 principal groups, however, were poorly supported in all analyses. This result could not be explained by any detectable systematic bias in the data or incongruence among loci. The SOWH test confirmed that basal branches' lengths were not different from zero, which points to closely-spaced cladogenesis as the most likely explanation for the poor resolution of the deep pteropodid relationships. Simulations suggest that an increase in the amount of sequence data is likely to solve this problem. Conclusions The phylogenetic hypothesis generated here provides a robust framework for a revised cladistic classification of Pteropodidae into subfamilies and tribes and will greatly contribute to the understanding of character evolution and biogeography of pteropodids. The inability of our data to resolve the deepest relationships of the major pteropodid lineages suggests an explosive diversification soon after origin of the crown pteropodids. Several characteristics of pteropodids are consistent with this conclusion, including high species diversity, great morphological diversity, and presence of key innovations in relation to their sister group.
Una especie nueva de Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae en Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae en la Argentina A new species of Cheiropteronema (Nematoda, Molineidae in Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Argentina
Mirna C Oviedo
Full Text Available Se describe a Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. parásita del murciélago Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. Se caracteriza por presentar vesícula cefálica estriada, superficie de los huevos con puntuaciones, espículas iguales, nacimiento simétrico del ala espicular, particular disposición y número de crestas del synlophe y por carecer de diente esofágico. Es la segunda especie del género y la primera que se registra en quirópteros frugívoros de la Argentina.Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is a parasite of the bat Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823. This species is characterized by cephalic vesicle striate, thick egg shell punctate, spicules equal, symmetrical development of spicule wings, particular arrangement and number the ridges of synlophe, and lack of esophageal tooth. Cheiropteronema striatum sp. nov. is the second species described for the genus and the first recorded in frugivorous bats of Argentina.
Full Text Available We studied discrete and quantitative data from 88 specimens of the subgenus Mimon previously identified as Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 and M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 from diverse parts of their range. Our data indicate that specimens of Mimon bennetii in Brazil presented geographic variation in morphometrical characters and mosaic variation in qualitative traits. Specimens from the Cerrado biome collected in Brazilian states like Piaui, Tocantins, and Goiás have longer forearms than those distributed in the Atlantic and Amazon forested domains. Based on morphometrics, as showed by t-tests, specimens of M. bennettii from the Brazilian Cerrado resemble phenetically more with M. cozumelae than the M. bennettii from Atlantic Forest. Characters presently used to diagnosis M. cozumelae also were also recorded to M. bennettii in diverse parts of Brazil, making that validity of M. cozumelae questionable based on this kind of traits. This research also updated the geographic distribution to the M. bennettii in Brazil.Foi analisada a morfologia quantitativa e qualitativa de 88 espécimes do subgênero Mimon previamente identificados como Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 e M. cozumelae Goldman, 1914 de diversas localidades dentro de sua distribuição. Os dados indicam que os espécimes de Mimon bennetii no Brasil apresentam variação geográfica nos caracteres morfométricos e em mosaico nos qualitativos. Espécimes do bioma Cerrado provenientes dos estados brasileiros do Piauí, Tocantins e Goiás têm antebraço mais longo que os indivíduos dos domínios da Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica. Com base na morfometria aplicando teste t-Student, os espécimes de M. bennettii do Cerrado lembram fenéticamente mais M. cozumelae que M. bennettii da Floresta Atlântica. Os caracteres morfológicos atualmente empregados para diagnosticar M. cozumelae também foram registrados para M. bennettii em diversas áreas do Brasil, tornando a validade de M. cozumelae questionável nesses tipos de caracteres. O presente artigo também atualiza a distribuição geográfica de M. bennettii no Brazil.
Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea em morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no nordeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Sreblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea on bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of the Streblidae batflies on the phyllostomid bats was conducted in the northeastern Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1997. Hundred thirty three streblids were collected on 44 parasited hosts. Eleven species of batflies (Trichobius dugesii Townsend, 1891, T. tiptoni Wenzel, 1976, Trichobius sp., Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, M. proxima (Séguy, 1926, Exastinion clovisi (Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Paraeuctenodes longipes Pessoa & Guimarães, 1936, Anastrebla modestini Wenzel, 1966, A. caudiferae Wenzel, 1976 and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907 were found on six species of phyllostomid bats (Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818 and A. geoffroyi Gray, 1838. All records are new for the Rio Grande do Sul and Anastrebla caudiferae is firstly recorded in Brazil. Differences in the batflies community composition in Artibeus fimbriatus and A. lituratus are discussed.
Relating Diet and Capture Time Between two Species of Frugivorous Bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae Relacionando dieta e horários de captura entre duas espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Stenodermatinae
Eduardo Ribeiro Sartore
Full Text Available Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 are phyllostomid bats that often coexist in the same local and consume the same feed. Therefore, the aim of this study was to obtain data about feeding habits of the two species, relating to their capture times, in the land where is the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, northern Paraná. The samples were attained among September 2010 and May 2011, with 12 960 m2 h of sampling effort. The results analysis contemplated the Shannon Index, Pielou Index and Schoener Index. 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus were captured, and while the first one consumed fruits from ten vegetable species, the second fed just three species, both preferring the Cecropia spp. and Ficus spp. genus. A. lituratus showed the higher capture peak 30 minutes after the sunset and was collected throughout the period. P. lineatus had its higher peak 01h 45min after nightfall and was captured in short periods. With these outcomes, is possible to imply that P. lineatus has a foraging peak, in the study place, 75 minutes after A. lituratus, avoiding straight competition. A. lituratus showed larger food diversity, indicating higher adaptative potential for this specie than for the other.Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 são morcegos filostomídeos que frequentemente coexistem num mesmo local e consomem o mesmo alimento. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi obter dados sobre os hábitos alimentares das duas espécies, relacionando-os com seus horários de captura, na região onde se encontra o campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina no norte do Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas entre Setembro de 2010 e Maio de 2011, com um esforço amostral de 12 960 m2 h. A análise dos resultados contemplou o uso do Índice de Shannon, Índice de Pielou e Índice de Schoener. Capturaram-se 250 A. lituratus e 46 P. lineatus, e o primeiro consumiu frutos de dez espécies vegetais, enquanto o segundo utilizou apenas três espécies, ambos dando preferência aos gêneros Cecropia spp. e Ficus spp. A. lituratus apresentou o maior pico de captura 30 minutos após o pôr-do-sol e foi coletado durante todo o período. P. lineatus teve seu maior pico 01h 45min após o anoitecer e foi capturado em pequenos períodos. Com esses resultados, sugere-se que P. lineatus tem seu pico de forrageamento, no local de estudo, 75 minutos após A. lituratus, evitando competição direta. A. lituratus apresentou maior diversidade de alimentos, indicando maior potencial adaptativo para esta espécie em relação à outra.
Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Marília Feleciano Muller
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.
Observações da dieta de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em duas áreas do sul do Brasil Diet observations of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in two areas of southern Brazil
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no Parque Nacional de Superagüi (PNS e na Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural de Volta Velha (RPPN, ambas áreas de Mata Atlântica, nos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil. Morcegos foram capturados em redes de neblina e amostras fecais foram coletadas para análise da dieta. As sementes encontradas em cada amostra foram identificadas em laboratório por meio de lupa. Cento e trinta e sete exemplares de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 foram capturados (n = 47 no PNS, n = 90 na RPPN, e 25 e 32 amostras fecais foram coletadas para cada área, respectivamente. A dieta frugívora de A. lituratus computou de 81 a 88% do total dos itens alimentares, mostrando a importância dos frutos para esta espécie.This study was carried out at Superagüi National Park (PNS and Volta Velha Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN, both areas of Atlantic Rain Forest, Paraná and Santa Catarina states, in southern Brazil. Bats were mist netted and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under stereoscopic microscope. A hundred and thirty seven Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 bats were captured (n = 47 in PNS, n = 90 in RPPN, and 25 and 32 fecal samples were collected for each area, respectively. The frugivorous diet of Artibeus lituratus accounted for 81 to 88% of the total food itens showing the importance of fruit to this species.
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Realizou-se um inventário da fauna de morcegos entre abril e novembro de 2004 no norte de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil (Projeto Jauru/MMA. Oito pontos de coleta foram amostrados com redes-neblina em um ambiente de cerrado, sendo capturados 146 indivíduos de 28 espécies, distribuídos em seis famílias. O total de espécies neste estudo, representa apenas 30% da fauna de morcegos do cerrado. A família mais capturada foi a Phyllostomidae, representada por Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 e Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Algumas espécies raras foram capturadas: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 e Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. O local de maior abundância (0,032 indivíduos/m²/h mostrou um índice de Simpson de D = 3.86 e o de menor abundância (0,003 indivíduos/m²/h um índice de Simpson de D = 3.03. A preservação dos mananciais de água e a cobertura florestal nestes pontos são discutidas.From April to November 2004 was made a bat fauna inventory in Northern of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (Jauru's Project/MMA. Eight points was sampled with mist-nets in a cerrado's ecosystem and was caught 146 individuals de 28 species, distributed into six bat families. The total of species in this study just represents 30% of cerrado's bat fauna. The more caught family was Phyllostomidae represented by Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818. Some rare species were caught: Lophostoma brasiliense (Peters, 1866, Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903 and Lionycteris spurrelli Thomas, 1913. The more abundant point sampled (0.032 bat/m²/h shown a Simpson index of D = 3.86 and the low abundant point sampled (0.003 bat/m²/h was D = 3.03. The preservation of water springs and forest cover in study sites are discussed.
Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Marcelo Oscar Bordignon
Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.
Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C. perspicillata consume fruits of pioneer species as well as persistent species, while S. lilium only feeds on pioneer species. During the dry season A. lituratus and C. perspicillata had higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at REBIMA, whereas in the wet season they showed higher diversity and richness at PDLG, indicating that the diversity of seeds collected by both dispersers changes with the time of year. S. lilium presented higher diversity and richness values of plant species consumed at PDLG throughout the year study, indicating preference for fruits from early stages of plant succession.
Juan A. Malo de Molina
Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros datos sobre las emisiones acústicas del murciélago longirrostro peruano Platalina genovensium, siendo este el primer estudio que se publica sobre análisis de los ultrasonidos emitidos por murciélagos en el Perú. Las emisiones acústicas analizadas fueron grabadas de individuos volando en condiciones de confinamiento dentro de sus propios refugios, en dos localidades relativamente próximas a la ciudad de Lima. La señal acústica de P. genovensium está compuesta por pulsos de 1,30 ms de duración media, en frecuencia modulada, de niveles sonoros extremadamente bajos (aprox. -10 a -35 dB a 1 m de distancia, en secuencias de 12,90 pulsos/segundo, con ancho de banda promedio de 28,58 kHz, discontinuo, con interpulso promedio de 67,56 ms y con máxima energía en 89,21 kHz. Presentan además un armónico en frecuencias superiores a190 kHz. El uso de la Transformada de Fourier para Señales Discretas y el posterior Análisis de la Distribución de Energía en bandas de frecuencia han permitido establecer una ecuación predictiva sobre el tiempo de duración del pulso en función de las bandas 70-80 kHz, 90-100 kHz y 110-120 kHz. Aumentos de un 4% de la Energía en la banda de 110-120 kHz implican una disminución de hasta 0,2 ms en la duración del pulso, mientras que el mismo aumento en las bandas de 70-80 y 90-100 kHz incrementan 0,1 ms dicha duración. Esta ecuación de predicción podría ser de utilidad para la identificación de la especie, su monitoreo, y servir de base para conocer cómo P. genovensium adapta la emisión energética en sus bandas de frecuencia evitando que pulso y eco se solapen y enmascaren la señal emitida.
Erendira ESTRELLA; Juan M. PECH-CANCHÉ; Silvia F. Hernández-Betancourt; Diana L. LÓPEZ-CASTILLO; Claudia E Moreno
Las zonas arqueológicas (ZAs) representan un patrimonio cultural por ser un vestigio material de las culturas de nuestros antepasados; sin embargo, se desconoce su potencial para la conservación biológica. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la diversidad de murciélagos en las ZAs Dzibilchaltún y Kabah en Yucatán, México, destacando su potencial para la conservación. Aunque la riqueza de especies no fue significativamente diferente entre ambas ZAs, existen diferencias en la diversidad y la composici...
Muñoz-Romo, Mariana; Sosa, Maricela; Quintero, Yveth Casart
We examined the protoplasmic assimilation of columnar cacti pollen grains in two species of Venezuelan desert glosophagine bats, Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae, by determining the amount of empty (digested) pollen grains found in their fecal samples. To determine the amount of empty pollen grains, the fecal samples were stained to differ between empty and full (non-digested) pollen grains. The number of empty and full pollen grains observed in the fecal samples were corrected using the amount of aborted pollens present (before anthesis) in flowers of the columnar cacti species (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus and Pilosocereus tillianus) used by bats as food in the study site; G. longirostris and L. curasoae digested 64.2% and 71.3% of all the pollens fed, respectively. These high values confirm the importance of pollen in the diet of these bats, given its high nitrogen level.
Full Text Available Seasonal variation is a key factor regulating energy metabolism and reproduction in several mammals, including bats. This study aimed to track seasonal changes in the energy reserves of the insectivorous bat Molossus molossus associated with its reproductive cycle. Adult males were collected during the four neotropical annual seasons in Viçosa - MG, Brazil. Blood and tissues were collected for metabolic analysis and testes were removed for histology and morphometry. Our results show that liver and breast muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly lower in winter. The adiposity index was significantly higher in the fall compared to winter and spring. Seminiferous tubules were greater in diameter in animals captured in fall and winter, indicating a higher investment in spermatic production during these seasons. The percentage of Leydig cells was higher in summer compared to fall and winter. We suggest that M. molossus presents a type of seasonal reproduction with two peaks of testicular activity: one in fall, with higher sperm production (spermatogenesis, and another in summer, with higher hormone production (steroidogenesis. The metabolic pattern may be associated with reproductive events, especially due to the highest fat storage observed in the fall, which coincides with the further development of the seminiferous tubules.
de Camargo, Nícholas F; de Oliveira, Hernani F M
Competition is one of the most cited mechanisms to explain secondary sexual dimorphism in animals. Nonetheless, it has been proposed that sexual dimorphism in bat wings is also a result of adaptive pressures to compensate additional weight caused by fetus or pup carrying during the reproductive period of females. The main objective of this study is to verify the existence of sexual dimorphism in Sturnira lilium wings. We employed geometric morphometrics techniques using anatomical landmarks superimposition to obtain size (Centroid Size) and shape variables of wings, which were reduced by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). We also employed classical morphometrics using wing length measurements to compare efficiency between these two morphometric approaches and make comparisons using wing area measurements. LDA indicated significant differences between wing shapes of males and females, with 91% (stepwise classification) and 80% (leave-one-out cross validation) of correct classification. However, the size variable obtained did not contribute to such classifications. We have observed larger areas in female wings, but we found no differences in wing length measurements and no allometric effects in wing length, shape and area measurements. Interestingly, our study has provided evidences of morphological differences where classical morphometrics have failed. LDA and area measurements analyses revealed that females have a different area distribution in distinct portions of the wing, with wider dactylopatagia and plagiopatagia, and wingtips more triangular than males. No differences in body length or relative wing length were observed between the sexes, but pregnant females have more body weight than non-pregnant females and males. Our findings suggest that sexual dimorphism in the wing shape of S. lilium is probably related to the increase in flight efficiency of females during reproductive period. It decreases wing loading in specific portions of the wing and reduces energy cost to maintain a faster and maneuverable flight.
Mialhe, P J
Surveillance of hematophagous bats is an important public health measure for the prevention and control of rabies epidemics in domestic herbivorous animals. The aim of this study was to locate and georeference D.rotundus shelters in the Municipality of São Pedro - SP, Brazil, and verify their nature (artificial or natural), surrounding landscape and distance from main rivers. To do this, two samples were taken of populations in shelters, with an interval of six months between them, capturing all the bats existent in shelters with fewer than 20 individuals and approximately 20% of the bats present in shelters with over 20 individuals in order to quantify their gender and age distribution. The majority of D. rotundus (67%) were verified to be artificial and the remainder (33%) natural. Of the six artificial shelters found, five were located in abandoned houses and one in a rain water drainage channel. There were no signs of D. rotundus in other rural buildings and viaducts located in the proximities of pastures. In spite of the majority of D. rotundus shelters being artificial, the three most populated shelters were maternity colonies, two being located in grottos and only one in an artificial shelter (rain water drainage channel). The remaining shelters were occupied by only male individuals. With the exception of one shelter, all the other shelters were at a distance of less than 3 km from the main bodies of water in the study area, corroborating studies that have reported that the main rivers in the State of São Paulo are the main geographic features related to the presence of D. rotundus. It was also verified that 67% of the shelters were inhabited by only male individuals, which confirms other studies conducted in the State of São Paulo, in which over 60% of the groups of Desmodus contain only male individuals.
Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M
Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses.
Mourão Elizabeth D
Full Text Available The study of the surface topography added details regarding the disposition of male caudal papillae, spicules and area rugosa apart from vulva and oral aperture. The occurrence of this nematode in the state of Amapá represents a new geographical distribution.
Barros, M S; Morais, D B; Araújo, M R; Carvalho, T F; Matta, S L P; Pinheiro, E C; Freitas, M B
Seasonal variation is a key factor regulating energy metabolism and reproduction in several mammals, including bats. This study aimed to track seasonal changes in the energy reserves of the insectivorous bat Molossus molossus associated with its reproductive cycle. Adult males were collected during the four neotropical annual seasons in Viçosa - MG, Brazil. Blood and tissues were collected for metabolic analysis and testes were removed for histology and morphometry. Our results show that liver and breast muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly lower in winter. The adiposity index was significantly higher in the fall compared to winter and spring. Seminiferous tubules were greater in diameter in animals captured in fall and winter, indicating a higher investment in spermatic production during these seasons. The percentage of Leydig cells was higher in summer compared to fall and winter. We suggest that M. molossus presents a type of seasonal reproduction with two peaks of testicular activity: one in fall, with higher sperm production (spermatogenesis), and another in summer, with higher hormone production (steroidogenesis). The metabolic pattern may be associated with reproductive events, especially due to the highest fat storage observed in the fall, which coincides with the further development of the seminiferous tubules.
Existing information on the activity of bats in the aerosphere is restricted almost exclusively to altitudes that are within a few tens of meters above the ground. We report a total of 50.2 hrs of ultrasonic recordings made using radiomicrophone bat detectors suspended from free-floating helium bal...
This paper presents the results of an analysis of about four hundred skulls of Myotis mystacinus and M. brandtii of the Holocene age from the Záskočie Cave (Central Slovakia). A review of criteria for species determination is presented, including a new criterion concerning the morphology of P4 roots
Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang
Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus.
Godoy, M S M; Carvalho, W D; Esbérard, C E L
Bats can be monoestrous or polyestrous, and seasonal or non-seasonal in their reproductive patterns. The strategy adopted by each species or population depends on the regional climate. The objective this study was to analyze reproductive data of Sturnira lilium from long-term sampling carried out in several sites in Rio de Janeiro states, southeastern Brazil. We carried out sampling in 42 sites (with altitudes ranging from sea level to 1300 m a.s.l.) from May 1989 to December 2011. In total, we obtained 2602 captures of S. lilium: 1242 captures of adult females, 1225 captures of adult males, and 136 captures of subadults. The sex ratio was 0.99 males: 1 female. The reproductive season varied from eight to twelve months a year, and it was not related to the total accumulated rainfall. Sturnira lilium have continuously polyestrous reproduction with postpartum estrus and pregnant females can be observed in all months except July. In the present study, the highest proportions of pregnant females were observed in the months with the highest rainfall.
Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo
We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats.
The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.
Morais, Danielle B; Barros, Mirlaine S; Paula, Tarcízio A R; Freitas, Mariella B D; Gomes, Marcos L M; Matta, Sérgio L P
Due to the scarcity of information about patterns of spermatogenesis in bats, this study aimed to provide information on the testicular activity of the bat Sturnira lilium along the annual seasons. Thus, a series of morphometrical and stereological analyses were made using the testes of adult S. lilium in order to achieve a better understanding of the sperm production dynamics. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed in testicular fragments of animals captured during dry and rainy seasons. The testes followed the pattern of organization described for other mammals, and there were no morphological differences between organs collected either in dry or in rainy seasons. Each tubular cross-section in stage 1 was made of 0.5 type-A spermatogonia, 4.4 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 3.7 in zygotene, 11.9 in pachytene, 35.6 round spermatids and 8.5 Sertoli cells. The mitotic and meiotic indexes were 15.4 and 2.9 cells, respectively, while the spermatogenesis yield was 68.7 cells. The testicular sperm reserves was 37.61×10(6) cells, and daily sperm production per gram of testis averaged 209.68×10(6) cells, both highest averages occurring in the rainy season. S. lilium male bats have a continuous reproductive pattern, high spermatogenesis yield and low support capacity by the Sertoli cells.
Almeida, Francisca C; Giannini, Norberto P; Simmons, Nancy B; Helgen, Kristofer M
Pteropodidae is a diverse Old World family of non-echolocating, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats that includes the flying foxes (genus Pteropus) and allied genera. The subfamily Pteropodinae includes the largest living bats and is distributed across an immense geographic range from islands in East Africa to the Cook Islands of Polynesia. These bats are keystone species in their ecosystems and some carry zoonotic diseases that are increasingly a focus of interest in biomedical research. Here we present a comprehensive phylogeny for pteropodines focused on Pteropus. The analyses included 50 of the ∼63 species of Pteropus and 11 species from 7 related genera. We obtained sequences of the cytochrome b and the 12S rRNA mitochondrial genes for all species and sequences of the nuclear RAG1, vWF, and BRCA1 genes for a subsample of taxa. Some of the sequences of Pteropus were obtained from skin biopsies of museum specimens including that of an extinct species, P. tokudae. The resulting trees recovered Pteropus as monophyletic, although further work is needed to determine whether P. personatus belongs in the genus. Monophyly of the majority of traditionally-recognized Pteropus species groups was rejected, but statistical support was strong for several clades on which we based a new classification of the Pteropus species into 13 species groups. Other noteworthy results emerged regarding species status of several problematic taxa, including recognition of P. capistratus and P. ennisae as distinct species, paraphyly of the P. hypomelanus complex, and conspecific status of P. pelewensis pelewensis and P. p. yapensis. Relationships among the pteropodine genera were not completely resolved with the current dataset. Divergence time analysis suggests that Pteropus originated in the Miocene and that two independent bursts of diversification occurred in the Pleistocene in different regions of the Indo-Pacific realm.
Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S
Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mtDNA introgression. We demonstrated that by using just two introns one can recover a better supported species tree than when using the mtDNA alone, despite the shorter overall length of the combined introns. Additionally, when combining any single intron with mtDNA, we showed that the result is highly similar to the mtDNA gene tree and far from the true species tree and therefore this approach should be avoided. We caution against the indiscriminate use of mtDNA in phylogenetic studies and advocate for pilot studies to select nuclear introns. The selection of marker type and number is a crucial step that is best based on critical examination of preliminary or previously published data. Based on our findings and previous publications, we recommend the following markers to recover phylogenetic relationships between recently diverged taxa (<20 My) in bats and other mammals: ACOX2, COPS7A, BGN, ROGDI and STAT5A.
Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m(2)•s) of Pteropodidae (-6.30 and -6.37) and Emballonuridae (-3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (-1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted.
Full Text Available Bats can be monoestrous or polyestrous, and seasonal or non-seasonal in their reproductive patterns. The strategy adopted by each species or population depends on the regional climate. The objective this study was to analyze reproductive data of Sturnira lilium from long-term sampling carried out in several sites in Rio de Janeiro states, southeastern Brazil. We carried out sampling in 42 sites (with altitudes ranging from sea level to 1300 m a.s.l. from May 1989 to December 2011. In total, we obtained 2602 captures of S. lilium: 1242 captures of adult females, 1225 captures of adult males, and 136 captures of subadults. The sex ratio was 0.99 males: 1 female. The reproductive season varied from eight to twelve months a year, and it was not related to the total accumulated rainfall. Sturnira lilium have continuously polyestrous reproduction with postpartum estrus and pregnant females can be observed in all months except July. In the present study, the highest proportions of pregnant females were observed in the months with the highest rainfall.
Christante, Caroline M; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Negrin, Ana C; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
Due to their wide geographical distribution, bats suffer considerable influence from abiotic factors on their reproductive strategies, detected through behavioural or functional assessment of the gonads and accessory glands. The present study aimed to characterise anatomically and morphologically the reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of Molossus molossus (Molossidae) and evaluate their seasonal variations. The RAGs were removed, fixed, sectioned after histological processing and submitted to the following stains: haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) and Gömöri's reticulin. Our data demonstrated that the RAGs of M. molossus are composed of a semi-lobed prostatic complex associated with the urethra and a pair of inguinal bulbourethral glands. Histology and three-dimensional reconstruction of the prostatic complex demonstrated the existence of two regions: ventral and dorsal (named according to the position around the urethra). The two regions had distinctive morphological and histological differences, with the ventral region being the most prominent and the dorsal formed by four lobes. Considering the seasonal evaluation, we can infer that the prostatic complex of M. molossus is active throughout the seasons in São Paulo State (Brazil) and, although each of the prostatic regions has inherent characteristics, they synchronise to establish the main reproductive peak in spring (early rainy season).
Farias, T O; Notini, A A; Talamoni, S A; Godinho, H P
Yellowish myotis, Myotis levis, is a seasonal, epididymal sperm-storing Neotropical vespertilionid. In the dry season, males show simultaneous testis regression and sperm storage in cauda epididymis, enabling them to mate during this season. In this study, we investigated seasonal variations in body mass, diameter and height of seminiferous tubules and nuclei of Leydig cells in a population of southeastern Brazil. We also determined the frequencies of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC) of mature individuals of this population. Body mass and diameter of Leydig cell nuclei showed no significant differences between dry and rainy seasons and stages of annual reproductive cycle; however, all other morphometric parameters varied significantly. The relative cumulative frequency of pre-meiotic stages of the SEC (1-3) was 51%, of meiotic stage (4) was 2% and of post-meiotic stages (5-8) was 47%. We confirmed that the yellowish myotis presents seasonal sperm production as revealed by testis regression and epididymal sperm storage during the dry season.
Ruedi, Manuel; Stadelmann, Benoît; Gager, Yann; Douzery, Emmanuel J P; Francis, Charles M; Lin, Liang-Kong; Guillén-Servent, Antonio; Cibois, Alice
Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (1140 bp) and nuclear Rag 2 (1148 bp) genes were used to assess the evolutionary history of the cosmopolitan bat genus Myotis, based on a worldwide sampling of over 88 named species plus 7 species with uncertain nomenclature. Phylogenetic reconstructions of this comprehensive taxon sampling show that most radiation of species occurred independently within each biogeographic region. Our molecular study supports an early divergence of species from the New World, where all Nearctic and Neotropical species plus a lineage from the Palaearctic constitute a monophyletic clade, sister to the remaining Old World taxa. The major Old World clade includes all remaining Eurasian taxa, most Oriental species, one Oceanian, and all Ethiopian species. Another lineage, including M. latirostris from Taiwan, appears at the base of these two major biogeographic clades and, because it bears nyctalodont molars, could be considered as a distinct genus. However, this molar configuration is also found in crown-group species, indicating that these dental characters are variable in the genus Myotis and may confound interpretation of the fossil record. Molecular datings suggest an origin of all recent Myotis in the early Miocene (about 21MYA with 95% highest posterior density interval 23-20MYA). This period was characterized by a global climatic cooling that reduced the availability of tropical habitats and favoured the development of more temperate vegetation. This sharp climatic change might have triggered the evolution of Myotis in the Northern continents, because Myotis ancestors seem to have been well adapted and successful in such temperate habitats. Ancestral area reconstructions based on the molecular phylogeny suggest that the eastern portion of the Asian continent was an important center of origin for the early diversification of all Myotis lineages, and involved relatively few subsequent transcontinental range expansions.
Morais, Danielle B; Cupertino, Marli C; Goulart, Leandro S; Freitas, Karine M; Freitas, Mariella B D; Paula, Tarcízio A R; Matta, Sérgio L P
Insectivorous bats play a very important role in the regulation of tropical ecosystems, but information about their reproductive cycle is lacking. Thus, male Molossus molossus were captured over the four seasons, and morphometric analyses of their testes were conducted to infer on the gonadal dynamics and the reproductive capacity of the species. Testes were immersed in Karnovsky fixative, and fragments were embedded in methacrylate and paraplast for morphometric and TUNEL assay respectively. The least gonadosomatic index (0.3%), tubulesomatic index (0.2%) and tubular diameter (133.2μm) occurred in summer. An adult M. molossus showed a total average of 48.9m of seminiferous tubules per gram of testis. Primary spermatocytes were observed in the zygotene at Stage 1 of the seminiferous epithelium cycle. The greatest meiotic index was obtained in winter (3.8 cells), and the general yield of spermatogenesis was higher in winter (64.5 cells) than in summer (19.1 cells). There was no difference in the apoptotic cells count among seasons. The Sertoli cell index was less in summer (5.9) than in fall (11.6), while the number of Sertoli cells per gram of testis did not vary significantly among the seasons (28.0×10(7)). The spermatic reserve per gram of testis was greater in the fall (63.9×10(7)) and winter (69.8×10(7)) than summer (37.1×10(7)). We conclude that M. molossus males show a continuous reproductive cycle, featuring greater spermatogenic activity during the fall and winter, a tubular length above the average of other mammals and a less support capacity of the Sertoli cells.
Gunnell, Gregg F; Simmons, Nancy B; Seiffert, Erik R
Myzopodidae is a family of bats today represented by two extant species of the genus Myzopoda that are restricted to the island of Madagascar. These bats possess uniquely derived adhesive pads on their thumbs and ankles that they use for clinging to smooth roosting surfaces. Only one fossil myzopodid has been reported previously, a humerus from Pleistocene deposits at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania that was tentatively referred to the genus Myzopoda. Here we describe a new genus and two new species of myzopodids based on dental remains from Paleogene deposits in the Fayum Depression in Egypt, and provide an emended diagnosis for the family Myzopodidae. Phasmatonycteris phiomensis n. sp. is represented by four specimens from the early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation and P. butleri n. sp. is known from a single specimen from the late Eocene Birket Qarun Formation. Together these specimens extend the temporal range of Myzopodidae by 36+ million years, and the geographic range by nearly 4000 kilometers. The new myzopodids, along with previously described bats from the Fayum and Australia, suggest that eastern Gondwana played a critical role in the origin and diversification of several bats clades notably including the superfamily Noctilionoidea, the majority of which live in the Neotropics today.
Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Pessoa, Valdir F; Aguiar, Ludmilla M S; Pessoa, Daniel M A
Bats are known for their well-developed echolocation. However, several experiments focused on the bat visual system have shown evidence of the importance of visual cues under specific luminosity for different aspects of bat biology, including foraging behavior. This study examined the foraging abilities of five female great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus, under different light intensities. Animals were given a series of tasks to test for discrimination between a food target against an inedible background, under light levels similar to the twilight illumination (18lx), the full moon (2lx) and complete darkness (0lx). We found that the bats required a longer time frame to detect targets under a light intensity similar to twilight, possibly due to inhibitory effects present under a more intense light level. Additionally, bats were more efficient at detecting and capturing targets under light conditions similar to the luminosity of a full moon, suggesting that visual cues were important for target discrimination. These results demonstrate that light intensity affects foraging behavior and enables the use of visual cues for food detection in frugivorous bats. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.
刘少英; 冉江洪; 吴毅; 林强; 刘世昌; 孙志宇
Marta Elena Fabián
Full Text Available Study of 179 specimens of Molossus molossus in Ceará, Brazil, showed morphological and functional ovarian asymmetry in adult females, with the right side more developed. Blastocyst implantation occurred also in the right uterine horn. Active male testicles were bigger (x = 5,38mm than inactive ones (x = 3,25mm. Pregnancy with subsequent offspring was found in March-April and November, during the wet season.
Ralph, Taryn M C; Richards, Leigh R; Taylor, Peter J; Napier, Melanie C; Lamb, Jennifer M
The paucity of data for the molossid bat Otomops throughout its range has hindered our ability to resolve the number of Otomops species present within the Afro-Malagasy region (including the Arabian Peninsula). This paper employed an integrative approach by combining morphometric (cranial morphology) and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome b and D-loop sequences, nuclear intron sequences and microsatellites) data to identify the number of Otomops taxa occurring in the Afro-Malagasy region. Three taxa were identified, two of which could be assigned to existing species, i.e. O. martiensseni and O. madagascariensis. The third taxon, previously recognised as O. martiensseni (Matschie 1897), is described herein as a new species, Otomops harrisoni sp. nov., and can be differentiated from O. martiensseni s.s. based on both molecular and morphometric data. Locality data of specimens belonging to O. harrisoni suggest that its distribution range extends from the Arabian Peninsula through to Eritrea and south to Ethiopia and Kenya.
Sharifi, Mozafar; Taghinezhad, Najmeh; Mozafari, Fatema; Vaissi, Somaye
We studied variation of ectoparasite load in a free ranging populations of Mehely's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus mehelyi) on five successive occasions in a nursery roost in western Iran. In total, 87 Rhinolophus mehelyi were captured. The patterns of abundance differed greatly among parasite species but total parasite load was markedly higher in pregnant females in spring and early summer and lower in solitary males. On average, 90% of bats were infested by Eyndhovenia sp. with a mean intensity of 13.79 individuals per bat. Penicillidia sp. and one species from Streblidae were found in 66.7% and 11.49% of bats with parasite load of 2.31 and 1.8 parasite per bat, respectively. Using ratio of forearm length to body mass as an indication of bat health the correlation coefficient between parasite load and the health indicator was 0.002 for males and 0.06 for females indicating that parasite load has no apparent impact on bat's health.
余燕; 马金友; 孙瑞
Full Text Available First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009 was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.
Full Text Available Conservation and management of bats requires reliable and repeatable data regarding the size and patterns of variation in size of bat colonies. Counts and densities calculated via photography have proven more accurate and repeatable than visual counts and ocular estimates. Unfortunately, the potential of photography to investigate the size of a bat colony and roost density has rarely been explored. In the summer of 2006, a colony of Geoffroys Rousette Fruit Bat, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, was photo-documented in the Monfort Bat Cave, in the Island Garden City of Samal, Davao del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines. We selected 39 images to develop roost density estimates. Mean (+or-SE roosting density was 403+or-167.1 bats/m2 and 452.3+or-168.8 bats/m2 on the walls and ceiling of the cave, respectively; densities were not significantly different from each other (P=0.38. Based on these standardized data, we estimate that the initial 100m of the cave contained 883,526 bats. Ultimately, this photographic technique can be used to develop a statistical approach which involves repeatable estimates of colony size for Geoffroys Rousette Fruit Bats at Monfort Cave and will enhance ongoing monitoring activities throughout this species range.
Full Text Available The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp. remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name P. phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with P. insularis “Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842” (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran, 1853, and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies—P. pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and P. p. insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of P. pelagicus is P. tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus p. pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of <12 km2. Based on field observations in 2004, we estimated a population size of 925–1,200 bats, most of which occurred on Satawan and Lukunor Atolls, the two largest and southernmost atolls in the chain. Bats were absent on Nama Island and possibly extirpated from Losap Atoll in the northern Mortlocks. Resident Mortlockese indicated bats were more common in the past, but that the population generally has remained stable in recent years. Most P. p. pelagicus roosted alone or in groups of 5–10 bats; a roost of 27 was the largest noted. Diet is comprised of at least eight plant species, with breadfruit (Artocarpus spp. being a preferred food. Records of females with young (April, July and pregnant females (July suggest an extended breeding season. Pteropus p. pelagicus appears most threatened by the prospect of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.
Alvarez, Tícul; Sánchez-Casas, Nansy
Se estudian las diferencias alimentarias del murciélago Glossophaga soricina en México. Las diferencias individuales y sexuales fueron analizadas en 238 contenidos estomacales de diversas localidades y fechas de recolecta. Las muestras fueron clasificadas en nueve grupos considerando estos dos factores. En la diferenciación individual (analizada solo en hembras) se identificó una planta dominante por localidad con algunas excepciones, lo que nos sugiere ciertas preferencias individuales u opo...
Buden, Donald W; Helgen, Kristofer M; Wiles, Gary J
The taxonomy, biology, and population status of flying foxes (Pteropus spp.) remain little investigated in the Caroline Islands, Micronesia, where multiple endemic taxa occur. Our study evaluated the taxonomic relationships between the flying foxes of the Mortlock Islands (a subgroup of the Carolines) and two closely related taxa from elsewhere in the region, and involved the first ever field study of the Mortlock population. Through a review of historical literature, the name Pteropus pelagicus Kittlitz, 1836 is resurrected to replace the prevailing but younger name Pteropus phaeocephalus Thomas, 1882 for the flying fox of the Mortlocks. On the basis of cranial and external morphological comparisons, Pteropus pelagicus is united taxonomically with Pteropus insularis "Hombron and Jacquinot, 1842" (with authority herein emended to Jacquinot and Pucheran 1853), and the two formerly monotypic species are now treated as subspecies - Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus in the Mortlocks, and Pteropus phaeocephalus insularis on the islands of Chuuk Lagoon and Namonuito Atoll. The closest relative of Pteropus pelagicus is Pteropus tokudae Tate, 1934, of Guam, which is best regarded as a distinct species. Pteropus pelagicus pelagicus is the only known resident bat in the Mortlock Islands, a chain of more than 100 atoll islands with a total land area of sea level rise associated with global climate change, which has the potential to submerge or reduce the size of atolls in the Mortlocks. Occasional severe typhoons probably temporarily reduce populations on heavily damaged atolls, but hunting and ongoing habitat loss are not current problems for the subspecies.
Rodrigo M. Mello
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Many studies have demonstrated the ecological relevance and great biodiversity of bats in Brazil. However, mountainous areas have been disproportionately less sampled, mainly in the Southeast. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the richness and diversity of Phyllostomidae, the most diverse bat family, in different forest types in Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, trying to understand the causes of possible differences. The Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca is inserted in the Serra da Mantiqueira's domain, in an Atlantic Forest region known as "Zona da Mata", state of Minas Gerais, with an altitudinal range between 1200-1784 meters. The study was conducted in two forest types, classified as "Nanofloresta Nebular" and "Floresta Nebular", whose respective data on richness and diversity were compared. The bats were captured with 8-10 mist nets for 14 months (April 2011 to May 2012 and four nights per month totaling 62,171.25 m2h of capture effort. A total of 392 captures (12 species belonging to the Phyllostomidae family were obtained. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (59.9%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (11.3%, Artibeus lituratus (8.7% and Carollia perspicillata (7.6%. The two sampled areas presented differences in bat richness, diversity and species composition, and this difference was predominantly influenced by S. lilium. It is likely that the observed difference in the assembly of bats between the two study sites depends on the variation in floristic composition. The records of A. lituratus and P. lineatus in a few months of the year and close to Ficus mexiae bearing ripe fruits suggests that at least these species move to the park for a few periods of the year in search of food resources, possibly moving through the altitudinal landscapes.
Full Text Available Spinturnicid mites are ectoparasites that infest the wings of bats, and species of the genus Periglischrus Kolenati, 1857 are associated exclusively with bats of the family Phyllostomidae. We tested the hypothesis that a long-term evolutionary association led P. iheringi to choose very specific wing locations to infest the great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus. Seven anatomical wing regions and the uropatagium from 140 bats were analyzed and a total of 78 parasites were collected. Periglischrus iheringi had a significant preference for the plagiopatagium and dactylopatgium major wing regions (i.e., large, proximal regions and infestation was directly correlated to area (r=0.9744. However, other factors may also influence mite choice, such as higher and more stable temperature and humidity, vascularization and lower risk of displacement.
Therys Midori Sato
Full Text Available Os morcegos frugívoros são componentes fundamentais na manutenção e regeneração de florestas tropicais, pois ao se alimentarem, promovem a mobilidade das sementes dos frutos em que se alimentaram. Muito se discute sobre os efeitos da passagem das sementes no trato digestivo dos morcegos sobre a taxa e velocidade de germinação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar a dieta das espécies de morcegos frugívoros na Estação Experimental de Itirapina para descobrir quais utilizam significativamente os frutos de Cecropia pachystachya. Foi testada a importância dos quirópteros na dispersão e germinação desta espécie de planta. Para isso, os morcegos foram capturados no período de agosto de 2005 a julho de 2006, suas fezes foram recolhidas e as sementes de C. pachystachya separadas. Os testes de germinação foram feitos para duas espécies de morcegos, Artibeus liuratus e Platyrrhinus lineatus, e suas taxas de germinação comparadas com amostras de sementes coletadas da planta (controle. Foram feitos cinco repetições com 30 sementes em cada gerbox para cada teste. Os testes foram realizados em câmaras germinadoras " Mangelsdorf" , com temperatura de 25°C, luminosidade e umidade constante por 40 dias. Houve uma alta porcentagem de germinação das sementes encontradas em A. lituratus (79,3% e não diferiu estatisticamente das sementes controle (76%. Esses resultados foram superiores a P. lineatus (52%. Em relação ao Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, esse resultado foi semelhante, sendo 2,73 para A. lituratus, 2,66 para o controle e 1,80 para P. lineatus. Com esse resultado, tem-se que a passagem das sementes de C. pachystachya pelos morcegos não aumentou a porcentagem, nem a velocidade de germinação delas, quando comparado com o controle, sendo até menor para P. lineatus. Com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que, o efeito da passagem do trato digestivo dos morcegos na germinação pode sofrer influências que ainda precisam ser estudadas, mas não há como negar o beneficio da dispersão das sementes de C. pachystachya promovida por quatro espécies de morcegos no local estudado.Frugivorous bats are fundamental components in the maintenance and regeneration of tropical forests since they promote the mobility of the fruit seeds. There are controversies about the effects of the seed passage through the bat gut in the germination tax and speed. The goal of this work was to investigate the diet of frugivorous bat species at Estação Experimental de Itirapina to find out which species significantly use the fruits of the pioneer plants species Cecropia pachystachya. It was tested the importance of bats on the spread and germination of seeds from this plant species. For that, the bats were captured in the period from August 2005 to July 2006, their feces were collected and the seeds of C. pachystachya separated. The germination tests were made for two bat species, Artibeus liuratus and Platyrrhinus lineatus, and were compared with seeds collected directly from the plant (control. Five repetitions were made with 30 seeds in each gerbox for each test. The tests were conducted in " Mangelsdorf" germinators chambers, with temperature of 25°C, luminosity and constant humidity for 40 days. There was a high germination percentage of the seeds found in A. lituratus (79,3%, and it did not differ statistically from the seeds control (76%. These results were superior from P. lineatus (52%. Regarding the Germination Speed Index (IVG, the results were similar, being 2,73 for A. lituratus, 2,66 for the control seeds and 1,80 for P. lineatus. It was concluded that the passage of the seeds of C. pachystachya through the bats gut did not increase the percentage or the speed of germination, when compared with the control seeds, being smaller for P. lineatus. With the results obtained, it was concluded that the effects of the bats’ gut passage in the germination still needs further studies but the benefits of seed dispersion of C. pachystachya promoted by four bat species in the studied place cannot be refused.
Full Text Available Few studies have focused the vertical structure of bat assemblages, and how it influences community composition. The goal of this study was to analyze the vertical structure of an assemblage of bats in a forest fragment in southern Brazil. Bats were sampled using mist-nets placed at three heights (understory, below-canopy, and canopy. Forest strata were compared with respect to their species richness and diversity. The latter was estimated using the Shannon-Wiener index (H', and the statistical significance of differences among strata was assessed using t tests. We used an index of Constancy (C to determine the frequency of a given species in each vegetation stratum, such that a species was considered as "frequent" (C > 50, "less frequent" (25 < C < 50 and "occasional" (C < 25. We captured 485 bats belonging to two families and 24 species. In the understory layer, we captured 173 individuals in 13 species, which resulted in a diversity index of H' = 1.981. In the under-canopy, 153 individuals were caught in 18 species and the resulting diversity index was H' = 2.509. Finally, in the canopy, 159 bats were caught, in 22 species, with the resulting diversity index of H' = 2.442. In the understory and in the canopy, only one species Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 was classified as "frequent." Four species A. lituratus, Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1810, Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838, and Eptesicus diminutus Osgood, 1915 were classified as "less frequent" in the under-canopy stratum. All other species recorded in each stratum were classified as "occasional." The studied bat assemblage showed vertical stratification, with the higher strata harboring increased diversity. Our study shows how important it is to sample the upper levels of a forest fragment to obtain a more representative understanding of the use of space by a bat assemblage.
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues
A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.
Mohammad Nurul Islam
Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however.
Melo, B E S; Barros, M S; Carvalho, T F; Amaral, T S; Freitas, M B
Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus) were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass) in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.
Full Text Available Forest fragmentation associated with the expansion of human development is a phenomenon that occurs worldwide. Studies reveal that there have been both a decline in species diversity and a decrease in Neotropical bat population size because of habitat loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether human action has been affecting the food availability to wildlife species, which could impact the storage of body energy reserves. For this purpose, fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus were collected in two areas in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The concentrations of plasma glucose, as well as glycogen, lipids and protein in liver in muscles were performed, in addition to adipose tissue weight and carcass fatty acids. Our results indicate that fat reserves were significantly lower in most tested tissues (muscle of the hindlimbs, breast muscles, adipose tissue and carcass in animals collected in the region with a higher degree of human disturbance. The other parameters showed no significant differences in the groups collected at different locations. In conclusion, we suggest that human action on the environment may be affecting the storage of body fat energy reserves of this species during the autumn, particularly in metropolitan region areas of Belo Horizonte, MG - Brazil, requiring special attention to the species conservation.
Canals, Mauricio; Atala, Cristian; Olivares, Ricardo; Guajardo, Francisco; Figueroa, Daniela P; Sabat, Pablo; Rosenmann, Mario
We studied structure and function of the respiratory system in the bat Tadarida brasiliensis and compared it with those of two species of rodents, Abrothrix andinus and A. olivaceus. Tadarida brasiliensis had lower resting oxygen consumption, but higher maximum oxygen consumption and aerobic scope, than the rodents. The blood-gas barrier of the bat was thinner and its relative lung size was larger; however, alveolar surface density was similar among the three species. In consequence, T. brasiliensis has an oxygen diffusion capacity two or three times higher than that of the rodents. In Tadarida brasiliensis the characteristics of the lung were accompanied by geometrical changes in the proximal airway, such as high physical optimization as a consequence of small variations in the symmetry and the scaling ratio of the bronchial diameters. These may constitute an efficient way to save energy in respiratory mechanics and are the first report of airway adjustments to decrease entropy generation in bats.
Sharlene E Santana
Full Text Available Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards, which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes described for R. pumilio.
Bruna Karla Rossaneis
Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação de sementes espécies vegetais dos gêneros Piper, Solanum, Cecropia e Ficusapós sua passagem pelo trato gastrointes-tinal dos morcegos frugívoros Artibeus lituratus, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspi-cillata e Sturnira lilium. Os morcegos foram capturados no Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, na cidade de Londrina (PR). Para cada espécie vegetal foram considerados o controle e quatro tratamentos, formados pelas sementes obtidas das fezes ...
Jaqueline R. Tavares
Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two species of Neotropical Round-eared bats, Tonatia bidens Spix, 1823 and Tonatia saurophila Koopman & Williams, 1951, which present highly similar morphological characteristics that can lead to errors of identification. Specimens originally identified as T. bidens have recently been reclassified as T. saurophila, and the only karyotype documented previously for these species was 2n = 16, FN = 20. In the present study, specimens of Tonatia collected in the municipality of Barra do Garças, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were analyzed morphologically, using conventional cytogenetic techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR, and CMA3, and through sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene. In the specimens morphologically identified as T. bidens, the diploid number (2n was 26, and the fundamental number (FN, 38, while in T. saurophila, 2n = 16 and FN = 20, which is the karyotype also described previously for T. bidens. The dendograms obtained with sequences of the COI marker resulted in the formation of two distinct groups between T. bidens and T. saurophila, consistent with the two species, with a high sequence divergence value (14.22%. Distinct clades were also observed between T. bidens and the other phyllostomines analyzed in this study, with T. bidens also close to Phyllostomus hastatus (14.18% of sequence divergence.
Hu, Kai-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhu, Teng-Teng; Wang, Xu-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Biao
We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.
García-García, José Luis; Santos-Moreno, Antonio
The tropical forest fragmentation is known to affect the spatial structure of the landscape and habitat. These alterations can modify the attributes of bat assemblages, however, this phenomenon has been little studied and understood. In this work we evaluated the structure of landscape (i.e. composition and configuration) and vegetation, and its relationship with assemblage- and population-level characteristics of phyllostomid bats in a tropical rainforest of Southeastern Mexico. For this, we previously selected 12 sites located in continuous and fragmented forests, where bats were captured using mist nets during a two years sampling effort (144 nights). Bats relative abundance, species richness (diversity of order 0, 0D), Shannon diversity index (1D) and Simpson index (2D) were evaluated in all sites, and their relationship with seven measures of landscape structure and seven measures of vegetation structure was described using a Hierarchical Partitioning Analysis. A total of 1 840 individuals of 29 species of phyllostomid bats were captured in this period. Differences in the assemblages were manifested only in the relative abundance and not in the richness of the species. The assemblages of fragmented forest exhibited greater variation in species composition and a greater abundance of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in comparison with the assemblages of continuous forest. The landscape configuration was related to the assemblage- and population-level attributes, contrasting with previous studies where the composition was a key element. At habitat level, tree density and canopy cover determined the abundance of bats. Nectarivorous and frugivorous bats were mostly found in disturbed vegetation landscapes, primarily due to landscape configuration (e.g. edge density). This phenomenon could be a response to the availability of food in primary and intermediate successional stages, which are characterized by an abundance of food value.
Simultaneous pairwise linear structural relationships. Biometrics, 25, 129-142. BARON, B. & P. JGLICOEUR. 1980. Brain structure in Chiroptera : some multivariate...Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 32, 1491-1494. JOLICOEUR9 P. & 6. BARON. 1980. Brain center correlations amotng Chiroptera . Brain,. Behavior...between major brain regions in Chiroptera . Brain, Behavior & Evolution, ~20, 172-181. SPRENT, P. 1972. The mathematics of size and shape. Biometrics
Nogueira,Marcelo Rodrigues; Pol,André; Pessôa,Leila Maria; Oliveira,João Alves de; Peracchi,Adriano Lúcio
We report the results of small mammals inventories conducted in the region of Jaíba, northern Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from 1990 to 1995. This region is located in the southern limit of the Caatinga biome, and harbors a unique set of natural ecosystems and extensive agricultural areas. With a total effort of 2964 trap-nights and 44 net sessions, we captured 893 small mammals from 46 species, including four marsupials, 13 rodents, and 29 bats. We report on species that are...
武仙竹; 邹后曦; 黄秒斌
2012年巫山蓝家寨遗址考古发掘中,获得距今2 400多年前春秋时期的喜马拉雅水麝鼢(Chim marogale himalayicus)、小臭鼢(Suncus etruscus)、微尾鼢(Anourosorex squamipes)、白腹管鼻蝠(Murina leucogaster)等骨骼标本.这些骨骼标本的鉴定和研究反映出春秋时期三峡地区属于南亚热带气候,水土保持良好,有繁茂的森林环境;当时遗址古居民食物资源丰富,但人类居室及室内卫生条件等比较落后;古遗址人类居住点的室内环境比较阴暗、潮湿,并且有多种昆虫、食虫目动物等与人类伴栖.蓝家寨遗址食虫目(Insectivora)、翼手目(Chirortera)动物骨骼研究,为分析三峡地区春秋时期古环境、古居民生活与居住条件、三峡地区环境演变等提供了重要资料;同时,上述动物骨骼标本也是首次在中国新石器时代以后古文化遗址中被发现.该项工作为今后开展动物考古中的小哺乳动物研究,提供了可靠的标本观测数据,并且在鉴定标准及工作方法等方面为今后的工作提供了重要参考.
吴毅; 张成菊; 梁智文; 易祖盛
2004年5月至2006年4月对广州市区内翼手类的物种多样性进行了调查.结果表明,广州市区有犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)、东亚伏翼(Pipistrellus abramus)、中华山蝠(Nyctalus velutinus)、扁颅蝠(Tylonycteris pachypus)、小黄蝠(Scotophilus kuhlii)、大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathii)、彩蝠(Kerivoula picta)等7种翼手类物种.分析了广州市区内翼手类的物种组成、区系特点和分布特征,其中东洋界种类占优势(71.42%),小黄蝠为优势种,东亚伏翼分布最广泛.
黄继展; 谭梁静; 杨剑; 陈毅; 刘奇; 沈琪琦; 徐敏贞; 邓耀民; 张礼标
2009～2012年,对澳门翼手目(蝙蝠)物种多样性进行了调查.结果共捕捉到10个物种,属5科8属,其中包括澳门原来记载的2个物种,即蹄蝠科的大蹄蝠(Hipposideros armiger)和蝙蝠科的东亚伏翼(Pipistrellus abramus)；本研究新增加8个物种,即狐蝠科的犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)和棕果蝠(Rousettus leschenaulti),鞘尾蝠科的黑髯墓蝠(Taphozous melanopogon),菊头蝠科的菲菊头蝠(Rhinolophus pusillus),以及蝙蝠科的大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti、普通伏翼(P.pipistrellus)、普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus schreibersi)和南长翼蝠(M.pusillus).另外,通过野外录音和分析,并与已发表物种声音特征比较核对,发现菊头蝠科和蹄蝠科各一种,前者可能是泰国菊头蝠(R.siamensis)或者中菊头蝠(R.affinis),后者可能是果树蹄蝠(H pomona)或者三叶蹄蝠(Aselliscus stoliczkanus).本文对已捕捉10种蝙蝠的分布、形态特征和回声定位叫声特征进行报道,同时对其种群数量和保护现状进行了讨论.保护蝙蝠栖息生境(洞穴、古老建筑和蒲葵树等)对保护澳门蝙蝠物种多样性至关重要.
对采集于广东的4科7种蝙蝠进行了核型分析,它们的核型分别是:犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx) 2n=34, FN=58;印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra)2n=54, FN=104;大耳双色蹄蝠(Hipposideros pomona)2n=32, FN=60; 中蹄蝠(H.larvatus) 2n=32, FN=60;大卫鼠耳蝠(Myotis davidii) 2n=46, FN=52;大黄蝠(Scotophilus heathi) 2n=36, FN=54;南长翼蝠(Miniopterus australis)2n=46, FN=50.其中大耳双色蹄蝠和大卫鼠耳蝠的核型为首次报道,犬蝠、印度假吸血蝠、中蹄蝠、大黄蝠和南长翼蝠的核型为中国第一次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 7 species of bats that represent 4 families collected during field studies in Guangdong, China. The species investigated here were Cynopterus sphinx (2n=34, FN=58), Megaderma lyra (2n=54, FN=104), Hipposideros pomona (2n=32, FN=60), H.larvatus (2n=32, FN=60), Myotis davidii (2n=46, FN=52), Scotophilus heathi (2n=36, FN=54), Miniopterus australis (2n=46, FN=50). Hipposideros pomona and Myotis davidii were karyotyped for the first time. In addition, karyotypes of Cynopterus sphinx, Megaderma lyra, Hipposideros larvatus, Scotophilus heathi, and Miniopterus australis had not been previously reported in China.
Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.
The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.
李友邦; Neil M.Furey; 韦龙韬
Martins, Fabiane F; Puga, Cintia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
This study aimed to morphologically characterize and compare the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) of bats belonging to the five Brazilian subfamilies of the family Phyllostomidae (Carollia perspicillata-Carollinae; Desmodus rotundus-Desmodontinae; Glossophaga soricina-Glossophaginae; Phyllostomus discolor-Phyllostominae and Platyrrhinus lineatus-Stenodermatinae). The study demonstrated that the RAGs of phyllostomid bats were comprised of a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands and an intra-abdominal complex, composed of paraurethral glands and a prostate with two (Desmodontinae and Stenodermatinae) or three (Carollinae, Glossophaginae and Phyllostominae) different regions, with the absence of the seminal vesicles; this pattern possibly evolved from a process of compaction of the prostatic regions from an ancestor with three regions.
Hassanin, Alexandre; Khouider, Souraya; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Goodman, Steven M; Kadjo, Blaise; Nesi, Nicolas; Pourrut, Xavier; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bonillo, Céline
The hypothesis of Pleistocene forest refugia was tested using comparative phylogeography of Scotonycterini, a fruit bat tribe endemic to Africa containing four species: Scotonycteris zenkeri, Casinycteris argynnis, C. campomaanensis, and C. ophiodon. Patterns of genetic structure were assessed using 105 Scotonycterini (including material from three holotypes) collected at 37 localities, and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 nt) and 12 nuclear introns (9641 nt). Phylogenetic trees and molecular dating were inferred by Bayesian methods. Multilocus analyses were performed using supermatrix, SuperTRI, and *BEAST approaches. Mitochondrial analyses reveal strong phylogeographical structure in Scotonycteris, with four divergent haplogroups (4.9-8.7%), from Upper Guinea, Cameroon, western Equatorial Africa, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In C. argynnis, we identify two mtDNA haplogroups corresponding to western and eastern Equatorial Africa (1.4-2.1%). In C. ophiodon, the mtDNA haplotypes from Cameroon and Ivory Coast differ by only 1.3%. Nuclear analyses confirm the validity of the recently described C. campomaanensis and indicate that western and eastern populations of C. argynnis are not fully isolated. All mtDNA clusters detected in Scotonycteris are found to be monophyletic based on the nuclear dataset, except in eastern DRC. In the nuclear tree, the clade from western Equatorial Africa is closely related to individuals from eastern DRC, whereas in the mitochondrial tree it appears to be the sister-group of the Cameroon clade. Migrate-n analyses support gene flow from western Equatorial Africa to eastern DRC. Molecular dating indicates that Pleistocene forest refugia have played an important role in shaping the evolution of Scotonycterini, with two phases of allopatric speciation at approximately 2.7 and 1.6 Mya, resulting from isolation in three main forest areas corresponding to Upper Guinea, Cameroon, and Equatorial Africa. Two cryptic species and two subspecies are described herein in the genus Scotonycteris. Female philopatry and male biased dispersal are supported for the smallest taxa, i.e., the three species of Scotonycteris and C. argynnis. The Congo, Ntem, and Sanaga rivers are identified as biogeographic barriers to the dispersal of Scotonycteris during interglacial periods. A greater capacity for long-distance dispersal is inferred for the largest species, C. ophiodon.
朱斌良; 朱光剑; 李德伟; 洪体玉; 张信文
2007年7-9月,采用野外调查的方法,对海南岛翼手目物种多样性进行了初步的调查.共采集到样本4科7属15种,占海南岛翼手目记录种类的58%,中国翼手目种类的12%,具有比较高的翼手目多样性,其Shannon-Weiner指数(H')为2.095 6,Pielou指数(J)为0.773 8.在所采集的翼手目中,洞穴型蝙蝠占优势,有12种,占样本总种数的80%,其Shannon-Weiner指数和Pielou指数分别为1.933 7和0.714 1.采集到大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)为中国特有种,犬蝠(Cynopterus sphinx)被列入,中蹄蝠(Hipposideros larvatus)和普通长翼蝠(Minioppterus schreibersi)被列入中的易危(VU)种,大菊头蝠(Rhinolophusluctus)、中菊头蝠(R.affinis)和犬蝠被列入的近危(NT)种,几乎符合易危(VU)种.最后对区系分布及栖息类型,物种多样性指数、均匀度指数作出讨论,并提出对翼手目物种的保护建议.
Wing Membrane Biopsies for Bat Cytogenetics: Finding of 2n = 54 in Irish Rhinolophushipposideros (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia) Supports Two Geographically Separated Chromosomal Variants in Europe.
Kacprzyk, Joanna; Teeling, Emma C; Kelleher, Conor; Volleth, Marianne
In Europe, 2 different diploid chromosome numbers, 2n = 54 and 2n = 56, have been described in the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophushipposideros). The eastern form with 2n = 56 extends from the Czech Republic to Greece. To date, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and Germany. This study expands the distributional area of the western variant to Ireland. Strikingly, this distribution of European chromosomal variants is in contrast to the available molecular data that indicate little genetic differentiation of R. hipposideros populations spanning Northwestern to Central Europe. Further, we have developed an optimized protocol for establishing fibroblast cell cultures, suitable for karyotype analyses, from 3-mm wing membrane biopsies. This is a useful technique for cytogenetic studies of endangered bat species, as this non-lethal sampling method imposes only minimum stress to the animal without lasting adverse effects and is routinely used to sample tissue probes for molecular genetic studies in bats.
Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.
Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats.
李文靖; 曲家鹏; 陈晓澄
2008年11月21日于青海省西宁市红十字医院外科大楼三楼内捕获蝙蝠一只，经鉴定为东方蝙蝠Vespertilio sinensis Peters，1880，是青海省的新纪录，现报道如下，
Full Text Available A new species of Strebla Wiedemann, S. carvalhoi sp. nov., collected, on Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818 from Southern of Brazil, is described. Drawings of the postvertex, occipital plates, gonopods and tergite VII are provided.
刘绪生; 张树义; 梁冰
冯庆; 蒋学龙; 李松; 王应祥
在重庆市奉节县天坑地缝自然保护区和沙坪坝区城区及辽宁省桓仁县老秃顶子山自然保护区发现绯鼠耳蝠[Myotis formosus (Hodgson , 1835)] 5只,为重庆市及辽宁省翼手目新记录.
吴毅; 原田正史; 石红艳; 刘昊
报道了含中国特有种大足鼠耳蝠(Myotis ricketti)在内的、四川地区6种蝙蝠的核型.菊头蝠科2种,即大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis),核型为2n=62,FN=60;云南菊头蝠(R.yunanensis),核型较为特殊,2n=46,FN=60.蹄蝠科1种,即普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti),核型为2n=32,FN=60;蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属3种,即中华鼠耳蝠(Myotis chinensis),核型为2n=44,FN=50;大足鼠耳蝠为2n=44,FN=52;西南鼠耳蝠(M.altarium)为2n=44,FN=50.其中大耳菊头蝠的核型为首次报道,云南菊头蝠的核型为中国第1次报道.%Karyotypes and chromosomal data were presented for 6 species of bats that represent 3 families collected in Sichuan, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus macrotis (2n = 62, FN =60), R. yunanensis (2n =46, FN =60), Hipposideros pratti (2n =32, FN =60), Myotis chinensis (2n =44, FN =50), M. ricketti (2n =44, FN =52) and M. altarium (2n =44, FN =50). R.macrotis was karyotyped for the first time, and karyotype of R. yunanensis had not been previously reported in China.
Goodman, Steven M; Ramasindrazana, Beza; Naughton, Kate M; Appleton, Belinda
Recent molecular genetic work, combined with morphological comparisons, on Malagasy members of the bat genus Miniopterus (Family Miniopteridae), has uncovered a number of cryptic species. Based on recently collected specimens and associated tissues, we examine patterns of variation in M. aelleni, the holotype of which comes from Ankarana in northern Madagascar. Using molecular genetic (mitochondrial cytochrome b) and morphological characters we describe a new species, M. ambohitrensis sp. nov. In northern Madagascar, M. ambohitrensis and M. aelleni are allopatric, but occur in relatively close geographical contact (approximately 40 km direct line distance) with M. ambohitrensis found at Montagne d'Ambre in montane humid forest and M. aelleni sensu stricto at Ankarana in dry deciduous forest. Morphologically, this new taxon is differentiated from M. aelleni based on pelage coloration, external measurements, craniodental differences, and tragus shape. Comparisons using 725 bp of cytochrome b found a divergence of 1.1% within M. aelleni sensu stricto, 0.8% within M. ambohitrensis, and 3.3% between these two clades. The two sister species do not demonstrate acoustical differences based on recordings made in a flight cage. Miniopterus ambohitrensis is known from four localities in the northern and central portions of Madagascar, all from montane regions and across an elevational range from about 800 to 1600 m; its calculated "Extent of occurrence" is 15,143 km2. It is possible that this species is at least partially migratory.
Mialhe, P J
In order to verify possible preferential prey selection by Desmodus rotundus feeding on domestic herbivores in the Municipality of São Pedro (São Paulo, Brazil), vampire bat attacks were surveyed at rural properties where domestic herbivores were being raised and attack frequencies of D. rotundus on the total herd and on different species were calculated. The analysis found that the most frequently attacked herbivores were cattle and horses. The chi-square test (χ2), with a significance level of 5% corroborated the comparative analysis of attack frequency in properties that had these two species. Of the two, horses were attacked more frequently, which could be a sign that D. rotundus exhibits preferential prey selection when attacking domestic herbivores. This evidence is also supported by the Optimal Foraging Theory, in which the net rate of energy consumed is higher for horses than it is for cattle. Additionally, we propose that the thinner integument of horses (relative to that of cattle) may facilitate bites by D. rotundus and thus contribute to the observed prey preference.
江廷磊; 冯江; 孙克萍; 赵云蛟; 张桢珍
绯鼠耳蝠（Myotis formosus）采自江西吉安井冈山市梨坪村石燕洞（26°35′99″N，114°12′46″E）。该地区年平均气温14℃，年均降雨量1865mnl，属中亚热带湿润性气候。当地日落时间19：20。该地植被覆盖率高达70％以上，生物资源丰富，主要以毛竹（Phyllostachys hterocycla）、杉木（Cunninghamia lanceolata）和木荷（Schima Superba）为主，其中毛竹为优势种群。在江西发现绯鼠耳蝠的分布，丰富了该物种在中国的分布，为进一步的研究和保护提供基本依据。
Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.
Liu, Di; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet. PMID:26735303
Full Text Available Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae. Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet.
Full Text Available Micronycteris is divided into four subgenera, Micronycteris, Leuconycteris, Xenoctenes, and Schizonycteris. The latter includes Micronycteris (Schizonycteris minuta, Micronycteris (S. schmidtorum, Micronycteris (S. sanborni and Micronycteris (S. yatesi. Little is known of the biology of M. (S. sanborni, which is widely distributed in the dry forests of South America, but is known from only few sites. The scarcity of records of M. sanborni appears to be at least partly related to the difficulty of differentiating this species from the other members of the subgenus Schizonycteris. The present study identifies the key traits that distinguish this species from other Schizonycteris, reviews the geographic distribution of the species, and presents some notes on breeding patterns. Six new localities are presented for M. sanborni, and are analyzed together with those available in the literature, providing new insights into ecological and zoogeographic patterns. A number of the diagnostic features established by Simmons (1996 in the description of M. sanborni proved to have little taxonomic value, especially for the differentiation of M. minuta and M. yatesi, which it closely resembles. The primary external difference is the pure white color of the ventral pelage and the proportion of the white base (2/3-4/5 of the dorsal hair in M. sanborni, in contrast with dirty white or pale gray and a much shorter white base of the dorsal hair in the other species. A number of cranial traits are also important. The distributional data now indicate that M. sanborni occurs mainly in mesic and open areas, including disturbed habitats, in the Caatinga scrublands and the Cerrado savannas of northeastern Brazil, especially in areas with rocky outcrops. Micronycteris sanborni appears to be monoestrous, with births coinciding with the rainy season.
S.S.J. Seelan; F.A. Anwarali
First record of new Aspergillus fumigatus variant (UNIMAS F009) was reported from the ears of bats at Kubah National Park, Borneo, Malaysia. Morphological characterization of this isolate showed some differences in terms of their growth rate, colony color, size of conidia and pigmentation on different media.
Full Text Available The Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus Kock & Bhat, 1994, endemic to Kolar District, Karnataka, India was listed as ‘Endangered’ in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species due to its restricted distribution and continuing decline in the quality of its habitat. The species has not been sighted or collected since its initial collection in the years 1983 and 1985 wherein eight individuals were collected from Therahalli and 41 individuals were collected from Hanumanhalli, respectively. Based on recent observations and collections from the type locality, we provide information about its distribution, threats, phylogenetic position and conservation status. We also provide an updated conservation assessment of this species following the IUCN Red List categories.
Alice A. Notini
Full Text Available The large fruit-eating phyllostomid bat, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, forearm 69-75 mm, body mass 66-82 g, has a diversified geographic distribution in the Neotropical region. Therefore it is subjected to different climatic conditions that affect its reproduction, leading to different reproductive strategies such as continuous reproduction, seasonal monoestry or seasonal bimodal polyestry. In this study we used morphometric and histological methods to analyze the annual reproductive activity of A. lituratus males in a population living in the Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil. Testis mass, epididymis mass, gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, and Leydig cell nucleus diameter showed no significant differences (p > 0.05 in the two seasons (wet: October to March; dry: April to September. Additionally, the cauda epididymis was packed with sperm throughout the period of study. Our data indicate that in this population spermatogenic activity was continuous throughout the year. Slight variations in accumulated frequency of pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were observed when compared to other bat species, probably due to species-specific characteristics.
Sein Sein Win
Full Text Available The diet of Pteropus giganteus from three roosts in Mandalay Region, central Myanmar was investigated for over two years by examining feeding remains in and around two villages. It consists of 24 species of fruits, six species of flowers and three of leaves. Of these, 13 species of fruits are eaten by the local people, three of which are also marketed. Two are used in traditional medicine and one for stuffing pillows. Most dietary plants are native, mangoes are seasonally superabundant and are eaten in large numbers. Interviews revealed no evidence of conflict between bats and villagers.
涂飞云; 韩卫杰; 刘晓华; 孙志勇; 黄晓凤; 黄挺
弄清某一区域物种组成是区系研究的基础，也是生物多样性保护的基础。通过查阅文献，按照《中国兽类野外手册》采用的分类系统对江西省哺乳动物名录进行重新厘定，以确定江西哺乳动物组成及区系特点。经确认江西野生哺乳动物有10目28科70属104种。国家重点保护野生动物有23种，其中国家Ⅰ级重点保护动物7种。物种组成上以翼手目种类占优势，蝙蝠科种类比例最高。哺乳动物区系以东洋界占绝对优势，分布型以东洋型物种占优势，其次是南中国型；符合江西所处的东洋界华中区东部丘陵平原亚区的特点，并对某些野生兽类物种的分类地位或分布进行了探讨。%Species composition investigation in a certain region is the basis for fauna study and biodiversity protection.To confirm species composition and fauna ,a wild mammal List of Jiangxi Province was edited ac-cording to the classification system of the book entitled ‘A Guide to the Mammals of China ’ and other relevant literatures.The results confirm that there are 104 species of mammals within Jiangxi .These species belong to 10 orders,28 families and 70 genera.Twenty-three species are listed as nationally protected rare wild mammals . Seven of the species are first-class nationally protected rare wild mammals .The dominant species are bat spe-cies from Chiroptera , especially Vespertilionidae species .The mammal fauna are dominated by the oriental realm species .As viewed from distribution types ,the oriental type species are dominant ,and the Southern China type species are in the second place .All these characteristics are concordant with Jiangxi fauna ,which belongs to the eastern hill-plain sub-region,central China region,and oriental realm.In addition,the species status or distribution of several species of mammals is discussed in this study .
Full Text Available Myotis emarginatus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae utilizza frequentemente gli edifici come rifugio estivo, sia per il riposo diurno che per la riproduzione. Negli anni 1996-2003, nel corso di indagini faunistiche sul territorio toscano, questa specie è stata rilevata nel 26% dei casi su 76 edifici rurali risultati occupati da pipistrelli e rappresenta ben il 50% degli esemplari rilevati. Il numero di esemplari di M. emarginatus in tali rifugi varia da 1 a 150 animali. Un edificio però può rendersi facilmente indisponibile per modificazioni nell?utilizzo da parte dell?uomo: ma cosa succede agli animali che si trovano improvvisamente senza casa? E quanto si può accrescere annualmente una colonia quando non viene disturbata? Nel 1997 nella Riserva Naturale Provinciale di Ponte a Buriano e Penna (AR, rilevammo una colonia riproduttiva di Myotis emarginatus stimata in circa 60 esemplari. Il rifugio estivo utilizzato fino al 2002 è costituito da una casa disabitata. Confrontando le stime effettuate dal 1997 al 2001 possiamo valutare l?accrescimento numerico della colonia: a partire dai circa 60 animali si è raggiunta la consistenza di 75 esemplari nel 2001, ossia circa il 25% in 5 anni (5% annuo di media. I conteggi sono stati effettuati a vista da almeno 3 persone, da breve distanza e in buona luce, ma poiché in questa specie gli esemplari si appendono alle travi addossandosi uno sopra l?altro, è impossibile effettuare un vero conteggio. Nell?estate 2001 abbiamo condotto una ricerca più accurata sull?utilizzo del rifugio: dai rilievi di un rilevatore di passaggio all?infrarosso e soprattutto dalle riprese di una videocamera, risulta che il numero degli esemplari era stato fortemente sottostimato: gli esemplari erano, infatti, ben 150 (femmine, ossia il doppio di quanto stimato sia pure in condizioni favorevoli. A Giugno (2001 abbiamo registrato la nascita di 101 piccoli, il cui tasso di mortalità prima dell
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats, the prevalence and mean intensity of fly infestation were determined during the different seasons of the year and in relation to the sex and age of their hosts. From four species of bats (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810, were collected 118 specimens of bat flies belonging to seven species (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 and Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Low infestation rates were found in A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus and S. lilium and there were a tendency for the bats to be more parasited in summer and autumn, probably related to the seasonal temperatures in the region studied because such temperatures affect the reproductive and mortality rates of the ectoparasites. For A. lituratus, the age or sex of the host did not affect the infestation rates by P. longicrus. Although the age or sex of S. lilium did not, in general, affect the rate of infestation by M. proxima, juvenile S. lilium appeared to be more frequently parasitized by M. proxima than did adult bats. The data indicate that there are no behavioral differences linked to the age and sex of the species of phyllostomid bats studied which favor or disfavor infestation by Streblidae.
Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in Guaratuba Bay.
中国大陆菊头蝠科一新纪录——单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros,Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)%New record of Formosan lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen 1905 Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) in Mainland of China
@@ 2008年7月至2009年2月在贵州省松桃县进行翼手目动物生物多样性研究中,于平头乡埁字村仙人洞(北纬28°01'20.5",东经109°05'22.8",海拔582 m),获得一号菊头蝠标本,经鉴定为单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros Andersen,1905).
Aspectos da história natural de Mimon bennettii (Gray na Escarpa Devoniana, Estado do Paraná, Brasil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Notes on the natural history of Mimon bennettii (Gray in the Devonian Scarp, State of Paraná, Brazil (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
João M. D. Miranda
Full Text Available A despeito de sua ampla distribuição, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 é uma espécie pouco conhecida. Cinco indivíduos foram capturados com redes de neblina no Distrito do Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W e quatro no Distrito de São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W ambos no Município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. As áreas encontram-se nos domínios da Floresta Ombrófila Mista, e na região da Escarpa Devoniana. Além do registro de dois novos pontos de ocorrência de uma espécie pouco amostrada no Estado, este trabalho também apresenta alguns dados sobre a biologia reprodutiva e utilização de abrigo diurno por M. bennettii.Despite its broad geographical distribution, Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838 is a poorly studied species. Five individuals were captured using mist nets in the District of Bugre (25º29'52"S, 49º39'24"W and four in the District of São Luiz do Purunã (25º28'18"S, 49º42'53"W, both in the Municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. These areas are located within the domain of the Araucaria Pine Forest, in the region of the Devonian Scarp. In addition to the record of two new points of occurrence of this poorly know species in the State of Paraná, this study also reports on data on reproductive biology and use of daily roost by M. bennettii.
Ocorrência de moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae e Nycteribiidae de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera no cerrado de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil Records of batflies (Diptera, Streblidae and Nycteribiidae on bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera from the cerrado of Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil
Full Text Available Two species of Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Nycteribiidae and eigth species of Streblidae were collected from Brasília. Basilia anceps Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; B. hughscotti Guimarães & D' Andretta, 1956; Megistopoda aranea (Coquillet, 1899; M. proxima (Séguy, 1926 and Neotrichobius delicatus (Machado-Allison, 1966 are collected for the first time at the Federal District.
Selección de refugios por tres especies de murciélagos frugívoros (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, México Roost selection by three frugivorous bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the Lacandon Forest, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available Se describen las características estructurales de altura, cobertura y diámetro de árboles refugio, así como las características microambientales de temperatura y la humedad, en dos sitios de la Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, donde estuvieron presentes 3 especies de murciélagos filostómidos frugívoros, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium. Se localizaron y describieron 11 refugios diurnos mediante la búsqueda sistemática de árboles en ambas localidades; como método complementario se empleó la telemetría. Las tres especies de murciélagos filostómidos utilizaron como árboles refugio aquéllos de gran altura y diámetro y con más de una cavidad, localizados en áreas de bosque tropical maduro o en estado de sucesión avanzado. Igualmente, las tres especies utilizaron como refugio árboles con valores de humedad por debajo de la encontrada en el exterior (81.04 ± 6.88%, en el interior, comparada con 93.56 ± 4.50% en el exterior. No se encontró que la temperatura fuera una característica importante para la selección de árboles refugio en estos murciélagos tropicales.In 2 different sites of the Lacandon Forest, Chiapas, Mexico, structural characteristics of tree roosts, such as height, cover, and diameter were described and evaluated. Microenvironmental traits (temperature and moisture were also assessed in each roost where 3 species of phyllostomid bats Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium were present. Eleven day-roosts were located and described after a systematic search of trees in both sites. Telemetry was also used as complementary method. Bat species preferred large roost-trees and with more than one cavity. All the roosts were located in areas of mature tropical forest or in advanced sucesional stages. The species preferred roosts in trees with lower values of moisture than those in the exterior (means with standard deviation (81.04 ± 6.88%, on the inside against 93.56 ± 4.50% on the outside. Temperature was not an important trait for roost selection on trees for any of the bats studied.
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae = Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae
Ricardo Anghinoni Bocchese
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Osmorcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceirodividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quandocomparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espéciefrugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmenteem áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experimentbeing divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 wasstatistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.
Range extension for Thomas' Mastiff bat Eumops maurus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in northern, central and southeastern Brazil Distribuição geográfica de Thomas' Mastiff Eumops maurus (Chiroptera: Molossidae na região norte, central e sudoeste do Brasil
Miriam M. Sodré
Full Text Available Thomas' Mastiff bat, Eumops maurus (Thomas, 1901 is known from northern South America in Ecuador, Venezuela and Guiana and so it probably occurs in Brazil, yet it has not been reported. Here, we present the first record for E. maurus in Brazil. Captures were from the Brazilian states of Tocantins and Goiás (northern and midwestern Cerrado region of the country, and São Paulo (southeastern Brazil, Atlantic Forest. In the first two locations, all bats were roosting in palm leaves while in the later location, a single animal was found alive in a 15th-storey apartment in the city of São Paulo. This bat inhabits savannas with swamps dominated by the palm Mauritia flexuosa (buriti and gallery forests. This record is the first of E. maurus in an urban area. Brazilian specimens are apparently larger than those from northern South America.Eumops maurus (Thomas, 1901 tem sua ocorrência no norte da América do Sul, no Equador, na Venezuela e na Guiana. O presente estudo descreve a primeira ocorrência de E. maurus para o Brasil, com capturas recentes de espécimes nos estados de Tocantins e Goiás (regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste do país, domínio de Cerrado, e no estado de São Paulo, região sudeste, inserido no domínio da Mata Atlântica. Nos dois primeiros casos, os espécimes estavam no interior de folhas de palmeiras, e último, o indivíduo foi encontrado vivo dentro do quarto de um apartamento na cidade de São Paulo. Dados bibliográficos revelam que esta espécie habita regiões abertas, associada às áreas periodicamente alagadas (no cerrado, veredas dominadas por palmeiras da espécie Mauritia flexuosa (buriti e matas de galeria. Este trabalho ressalta o primeiro registro desse morcego em local urbanizado. Os espécimes brasileiros apresentam dimensões corpóreas maiores que os espécimes provenientes na região norte da América do Sul.
Evolução da enfermagem no contexto do hospital-escola: depoimentos de enfermeiros representantes da década de 70 Evolución de la enfermería en el contexto de hospital-escuela: declaraciones de enfermeros de la década de 70 Nursing evolution at university hospitals: declarations of nurses who worked in the 1970s
Edna Paciência Vietta
Full Text Available Este estudo é parte de um projeto mais amplo que visa resgatar aspectos significativos relacionados a revolução da assistência de enfermagem da década de 50 a 90. Este resgate é feito através da técnica de depoimentos orais de enfermeiros em exército e aposentados, no contexto de um hospital-escola do interior paulista. O presidente estudo particulariza os resultados obtidos, referentes a década de 70. Como resultado evidencia-se o esforço empreendido pelos enfermeiros na luta pelo reconhecimento e prestígio da profissão, as transformações intensas e profundas aos novos papéis da enfermeira enquanto líder da equipe e membro da equipe médica.Este estudio es parte de un proyecto más amplio intentando la captación de aspectos significativos relacionados a la evaluación de la asistencia de enfermería en las décadas de 50 a 90. La captación se ha realizado a través de la técnica de declaraciones orales de los enfermeros en ejercicio de la profesión, en el contexto de un hospital-escuela de interior del Estado de São Paulo. El presente estudio particulariza los resultados obtenidos, referentes a la década de 70. Como resultados se evidencian el esfuerzo imprimido por las enfermeras en la lucha por el reconocimiento y prestigio de la profesión. Las transformaciones intensas y profundas relacionadas a los nuevos roles de la enfermera como líder de los trabajadores de enfermería y miembro del grupo de la salud.This study is part of a more extensive project that proposes to recover significant aspects related to nursing care evolution from 1950s. This study is developed through the technique of oral declaration by active and retired registered nurses, in the context of an university-hospital from São Paulo State. The present study emphasizes the outcomes referring to the 1970s. As result becomes evident the undertaken effort by nurses in the struggle for profession's recognition and prestige; intense and deep transformations related to nurse's new roles as leadership of nursing staff and member of medical team.
AIHARTZA, J., GARIN, I.
Full Text Available Hemos determinado la distribución de los murciélagos de los géneros Pipistrellus, Hypsugo y Eptesicus en Araba, Biakaia eta Gipuzkoa. Para ello se han muestreado sistemáticamente todas las cuadrículas UTM de 10x10 km entre 1995y 2000 combinando la búsqueda directa en refugios, el empleo de redes y trampas de arpa, y los detectores de ultrasonidos. P. pipistrellus es muy frecuente y aparece prácticamente en todas las cuadrículas y, además, todas las identificaciones mediante detectores correspondieron al fonotipo de 45 kHz ; no se obtuvieron datos sobre P. pygmaeus (fonotipo 55 kHz. P. kuhlii es una especie muy frecuente y de distribución amplia, aunque con lagunas en algunas zonas de montaña como el extremo oriental de Araba y sur de Gipuzkoa. Unicamente se obtuvieron 3 citas de P. nathusii, concordantes con su carácter migratorio en nuestro entorno. H. savii se encontró al sur de Araba, cerca de zonas de montaña y de los pueblos. E. serotinus es de distribución amplia, más abundante en zonas de montaña o sus estribaciones con amplias zonas rocosas.
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Rissino, Jorge das Dores; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar
The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI), Phyllostomus discolor (PDI) and Tonatia saurophila (TSA), representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps), confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion of the genus Lophostoma.
李玉春; 蒙以航; 张利存; 叶青
徐剑; 邹佩贞; 温彩燕; 陈建荣; 吴毅
广东省大陆翼手目动物共有37种,隶属6科15属,根据中国动物地理区划,按照模糊聚类分析初步划分大陆翼手目动物为四个地理省,即粤北山地省、粤东低山丘陵省、粤西山地丘陵省、沿海台地平原省,翼手目物种分布表现了明显的热带--亚热带过渡性,大耳菊头蝠(Rhinolophus macrotis)、水鼠耳蝠(Myotis daubentoni)为广东省新纪录种.
李德伟; 尹锋; 曾玉; 张园; 张信文
冯庆; 蒋学龙; 王应祥
球果蝠Sphaerias blanfordi(Thomas,1891)是亚洲南部喜马拉雅-印度支那地区的特有种,甚为罕见而少有报道.曾被认为是单型种,几乎无雄性特征的描述.蔡桂全和张遁治(1980)根据采自西藏东南部墨脱的2只雄性标本订了一亚种一墨脱亚种Sphaerias blanfordi motuoensis,其主要特征是颈下侧有一对灰黄色的圆形毛斑.中国科学院昆明动物研究所先后在云南西北部高黎贡山地区采获25号标本(9♂♂,16♀♀),发现球果蝠两性在外形上有明显的性别差异,雄性的颈下侧有一对圆形、灰黄色的刷状毛斑,但雌性均无;对比墨脱标本,认为墨脱亚种的鉴别特征不可靠,亚种不能成立.Lunde(2003)曾报道采自越南北部Mt.Tay Con Linh Ⅱ地区的43号标本,其前臂长和上犬齿外宽明显与印度、缅甸和云南西北部高黎贡山地区的标本不同,可能是真正的地理亚种.
A further new species of Sarcofahrtiopsis Hall (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) associated with faeces of the disk-winged bat (Thyroptera Spix: Chiroptera) in Brazil and the redescription of the female terminalia of S. cuneata (Townsend).
Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina; Silva, Amanda De Azevedo
The male, female and puparium are described for Sarcofahrtiopsis cupendipe sp. nov., whose larvae live in the roosts of disk-winged bats (Thyroptera species). Sarcofahrtiopsis cupendipe and S. thyropteronthos Pape, Dechmann & Vonhof are both associated with the faeces of the disk-winged bat and are the only species of Sarcofahrtiopsis with wing vein R1 fully setose dorsally and a short parameral apodeme in the male terminalia. In addition, the female terminalia of S. cuneata (Townsend) is redescribed.
毛秀光; 王金焕; 苏伟婷; 王应祥; 杨凤堂; 佴文惠
2008年7月至2009年2月,对贵州省松桃县东部地区的14个镇(乡)47洞穴翼手目的种类、数量、分布及生境进行调查研究.通过标本的采集、鉴定,确定该地区共有翼手目动物3科14种,其中2种为待定种;爪哇伏翼(Pipistrellus javanicus)、棒茎伏翼(P.paterculus)、单角菊头蝠(Rhinolophus monoceros)3种在贵州省首次发现,其中单角菊头蝠是在中国大陆首次发现.另外,还对该地区蝙蝠的冬眠行为、对冬眠地的选择以及栖息环境的受胁现状进行了初步调查,发现不同种类蝙蝠的冬眠行为是不一样的;同时发现,洞外捕食生境的不同会造成洞穴内分布翼手目种类的不同.
由玉岩; 刘森; 王磊; 江廷磊; 冯江
李玉春; 陈忠; 龙育儒; 周锋; 钟友仁
余文华; 吴毅; 陈忠; 李玉春
Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka
The risk of parasite infection grows with the size of host aggregations, which, in turn, may also depend on host sex and age and the quality of environmental resources. Herein, we studied the relationship between ectoparasitic infections with the wing mite (Spinturnix myoti) and the size of the breeding colonies, sex, age, and body condition index (BCI) of its host, the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis myotis). The influence of environmental quality in the Carpathian Mountains (Poland) was also examined. We found significant differences in mite abundance and BCI between different breeding aggregations of the greater mouse-eared bat and also between the host sex/age categories. The most heavily infected bats were adult M. myotis females, while young males appeared to be the least infected. The BCI differed significantly between the sexes in young bats (males had a higher BCI than females) and also between colonies. No significant differences in the BCI were found for adult females. We did not find any relationship between the infestation rate of M. myotis, their colony size, the quality of environmental resources (percentage of forest cover around the colony), or the BCI. The prevalence of the various developmental stages of the mites did not differ between the host sex/age categories; however, differences were found in the sex ratios of deutonymphs and adult mites between adult M. myotis females. We predict that parasite load may not be dependent on colony size itself, but mainly on microclimatic factors, which are in turn directly correlated with colony size.
Seasonal variation in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of seasonal variations in the number of captures of Artibeus lituratus and Sturnira lilium in the upper strata of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southern Brazil. It was conducted in the town of Pedras Grandes, in the southern end of Santa Catarina. The chiropterans were captured with mist nets installed in the canopy and subcanopy. To check whether there were differences in the number of captures between seasons, we used the chi-square test (χ2, with a significance level of 0.05, and, whenever needed, partial χ2 tests. Artibeus lituratus showed significant differences between seasons, and the largest number of captures occurs in autumn. For S. lilium we did not observe statistically significant differences. The seasonal variation found out for A. lituratus may be related to its diet, which is based on fruits whose availability has seasonal variations. For S. lilium, besides the diet, mainly based on plants that do not have seasonal variations with regard to fruit availability, the altitude of the study area and its variations in temperature also seem to explain the absence of seasonal variation.
León, P.; S Montiel
Durante dos ciclos anuales se evaluó la incidencia de la actividad reproductiva de dos murciélagos neotropicales en islas de selva o petenesde humedales costeros de la pen´ #305;nsula de Yucat´an, M´exico. Mientras que, Dermanura phaeotis mostr´o una mayor actividad reproductiva en la estaci´on lluviosa, Artibeus intermedius lo hizo en la estaci´on seca. El patr´on poli´estrico estacional de ambas especies de murci´elagos parece contribuir a su mantenimiento en el ecosistema de petenes....
胡开良; 韦力; 朱滕滕; 王绪中; 张礼标
在普通长翼蝠(Miniopterus fuliginosus)的捕食区内用灯诱法和网捕法调查潜在食物(昆虫)种类; 用粪便分析法鉴定普通长翼蝠的食物组成,发现其主要捕食体型较大的鳞翅目和鞘翅目昆虫,体积百分比分别为55%和38%.普通长翼蝠具有相对狭长的翼,翼展比为6.94 ± 0.13;翼载为(9.85 ± 0.83)N/m2,相对较大.飞行状态下普通长翼蝠的回声定位叫声为调频下扫型,声脉冲时程为(1.45 ± 0.06)ms,脉冲间隔为(63.08 ± 21.55)ms,主频较低,为(44.50 ± 2.26)kHz.研究表明,普通长翼蝠的形态特征和回声定位特征与其捕食行为有着密切的联系.%We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55％,by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38％) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58 ± 0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85 ± 0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M.fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45 ± 0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08 ± 21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50 ± 2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.
Phylogenetic reconstruction by cross-species chromosome painting and G-banding in four species of Phyllostomini tribe (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in the Brazilian Amazon: an independent evidence for monophyly.
Talita Fernanda Augusto Ribas
Full Text Available The subfamily Phyllostominae comprises taxa with a variety of feeding strategies. From the cytogenetic point of view, Phyllostominae shows different rates of chromosomal evolution between genera, with Phyllostomus hastatus probably retaining the ancestral karyotype for the subfamily. Since chromosomal rearrangements occur rarely in the genome and have great value as phylogenetic markers and in taxonomic characterization, we analyzed three species: Lophostoma silvicola (LSI, Phyllostomus discolor (PDI and Tonatia saurophila (TSA, representing the tribe Phyllostomini, collected in the Amazon region, by classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe. LSA has a karyotype of 2n=34 and FN=60, PDI has 2n=32 and FN=60 and TSA has 2n=16 and FN=20. Comparative analysis using G-banding and chromosome painting show that the karyotypic complement of TSA is highly rearranged relative to LSI and PHA, while LSI, PHA and PDI have similar karyotypes, differing by only three chromosome pairs. Nearly all chromosomes of PDI and PHA were conserved in toto, except for chromosome 15 that was changed by a pericentric inversion. A strongly supported phylogeny (bootstrap=100 and Bremer=10 steps, confirms the monophyly of Phyllostomini. In agreement with molecular topologies, TSA was in the basal position, while PHA and LSI formed sister taxa. A few ancestral syntenies are conserved without rearrangements and most associations are autapomorphic traits for Tonatia or plesiomorphic for the three genera analyzed here. The karyotype of TSA is highly derived in relation to that of other phyllostomid bats, differing from the supposed ancestral karyotype of Phyllostomidae by multiple rearrangements. Phylogenies based on chromosomal data are independent evidence for the monophyly of tribe Phyllostomini as determined by molecular topologies and provide additional support for the paraphyly of the genus Tonatia by the exclusion of the genus Lophostoma.
Taxa e velocidade de germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae ingeridas por Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879 Germination rate and velocity of seeds of Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (Cecropiaceae eaten by Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.879
Eliane Cristine Vicente
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se o morcego frugívoro Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor na germinação de sementes de Cecropia pachystachya, sendo avaliadas a taxa e a velocidade de germinação das sementes em diferentes condições. Os morcegos e os frutos foram coletados na região central de Campo Grande, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul; o experimento foi dividido em cinco tratamentos. O primeiro contou com sementes retiradas dos frutos; o segundo, com sementes retiradas das fezes, e o terceiro dividido em três tratamentos ácidos, com concentrações de pH 1, 2 e 3. As sementes que passaram pelo sistema digestório dos animais germinaram com maior velocidade (p 0,05 quando comparada às sementes sem tratamento. O tratamento com pH igual a 3 foi estatisticamente igual ao grupo sem tratamento e ao grupo experimental, com sementes retiradas das fezes, indicando o valor aproximado da concentração dos ácidos estomacais desta espécie frugívora. Conclui-se que Artibeus lituratus pode ser considerado indutor do aumento da velocidade de germinação nas sementes desta espécie vegetal, refletindo na importância desta espécie frugívora na manutenção ecológica dos ecossistemas tropicais, principalmente em áreas de Cerrado.The objective with this study was to verify whether frugivorous bat Artibeus lituratus can be considered an efficient germination inducer for Cecropia pachystachya seeds. Bats and fruits were collected in Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, with the experiment being divided in five treatments: one composed by seeds taken from natural fresh fruits, another with seeds taken from the bats’ excrements, and the last one sub-divided in three sub-groups with different acid treatments that corresponded to pH 1, 2 and 3. The seeds that passed through the digestive tract of the animals presented a higher germination velocity index (p 0.05 when compared with the seeds without any treatment. The treatment with pH = 3 was statistically the same as the group without treatment and the as experimental group with the seeds taken of the excrements, indicating an approximated value to the stomach acids of this frugivorous species. Artibeus lituratus can be considered a germination velocity inducer for seeds of this plant species, showing the ecological importance of these frugivorous bats in the natural environment support in areas of Brazilian savannas (Cerrado.
Abrigos diurnos, composição de colônias, dimorfismo sexual e reprodução do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Diurnal roosts, colony composition, sexual size dimorphism and reproduction of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil
Murilo Novaes Gomes
Full Text Available Embora informações acerca da composição das colônias do morcego hematófago Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 sejam importantes para o controle de suas populações, poucos estudos a esse respeito foram desenvolvidos no Brasil. São apresentadas aqui informações obtidas de colônias de D. rotundus encontradas em 12 abrigos diurnos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1999 e 2000. Em geral, os abrigos naturais e artificiais não possuíam grandes dimensões e estruturalmente variaram entre si. O formato dos abrigos interferiu na distribuição dos indivíduos das colônias no interior dos abrigos. Essas colônias continham, em média, 130 indivíduos distribuídos em três locais no interior dos abrigos. Havia também diversos indivíduos vivendo isolados ou em pequenos grupos dispersos. A proporção entre os sexos dos morcegos capturados foi de 1 macho: 1,37 fêmeas e, em sua maioria, os morcegos capturados eram adultos (89%. Dimorfismo sexual foi verificado estatisticamente no comprimento dos antebraços e na massa corporal, sendo as fêmeas maiores que os machos. A maior parte dos machos adultos (87% estava sexualmente ativo, mas 65,5% das fêmeas adultas não estavam grávidas.Although information about colonies composition of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 are important to the Program of the population control of vampire bat, few studies on this were carried out in Brazil. Biological data of the D. rotundus colonies from São Paulo State were obtained in 1999 and 2000 and they are presented here. In general, the natural and the man-made roosts were not big in size and they varied in their structural aspects which have influenced the bat distribution within the roosts. The vampire bat colonies had 130 individuals in average, living in three roosting sites, and several lonely bats and small groups were also found disperse within the roost. The sex rate of colonies was 1 male: 1,37 female and the most of bats caught inside the roosts was adult (89%. Sexual size dimorphism was observed in forearm length and body mass, being females bigger than males. Most of adult males (87% were sexual active, but 65,5% of adult females were not pregnant.
Ravel, Anthony; Marivaux, Laurent; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Adaci, Mohammed; Mahboubi, Mohammed; Mebrouk, Fateh; Bensalah, Mustapha
The Afro-Arabian Paleogene fossil record of Chiroptera is very poor. In North Africa and Arabia, this record is limited, thus far, to a few localities mainly in Tunisia (Chambi, late early Eocene), Egypt (Fayum, late Eocene to early Oligocene), and Sultanate of Oman (Taqah, early Oligocene). It consists primarily of isolated teeth or mandible fragments. Interestingly, these African fossil bats document two modern groups (Vespertilionoidea and Rhinolophoidea) from the early Eocene, while the bat fossil record of the same epoch of North America, Eurasia, and Australia principally includes members of the "Eochiroptera." This paraphyletic group contains all primitive microbats excluding modern families. In Algeria, the region of Brezina, southeast of the Atlas Mountains, is famous for the early Eocene El Kohol Formation, which has yielded one of the earliest mammalian faunas of the African landmass. Recent fieldwork in the same area has led to the discovery of a new vertebrate locality, including isolated teeth of Chiroptera. These fossils represent the oldest occurrence of Chiroptera in Africa, thus extending back the record of the group to the middle early Eocene (Ypresian) on that continent. The material consists of an upper molar and two fragments of lower molars. The dental character association matches that of "Eochiroptera." As such, although very fragmentary, the material testifies to the first occurrence of "Eochiroptera" in Algeria, and by extension in Africa. This discovery demonstrates that this basal group of Chiroptera had a worldwide distribution during the early Paleogene.
The present distribution of bats (Chiroptera) in The Netherlands is documented and discussed. For each species a map is given illustrating the distribution before and after 1970. Where available, data are presented on migration, population trends, nursing colonies, roosts and hibernation sites, repr
Assessment of the Population Status of the Gray Bat (Myotis grisescens); Status Review, DoD Initiatives, and Results of a Multi-Agency Effort to Survey Wintering Populations at Major Hibernacula, 2005-2007
area. American Midland Naturalist 75:317-324. Harvey, M. J. 1975. Endangered Chiroptera of the southeastern United States. Southeastern Association of...grisescens): Philopatry, timing and patterns of movement, weight loss during migration and seasonal adaptive strategies. Occasional Paper 58
and mustards. The continued cultivation of oats disturbs any establishing vegetation; therefore surviving species tend to be adapted to this continual...Suisun Shrew Sorex ornatus Ornate Shrew Scapanus latimanus Broad-Handed Mole Order Chiroptera Myotis californicus California Myotis Antrozous pallidus
Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.
Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in Americ
food), accidental (a species washed, fallen, or carried into caves and not part of the cave ecosystem). CECKLIST OF SPECIES KINGDOM PLANTAE DIVISION...MAMMALIA Order Chiroptera (bats) Undetermin~d material ’trogloxene) RCeords.--CORYELZ COUNTY: Egypt Cave; Shell Mountain Bat Cave. Order Carnivora Family
Manuel Gómez Beneyto
Full Text Available La cuarta reunión de la Sección de Psiquiatría de la UEMS y segunda del EBP se celebraron en Copenague los días 23 y 24 de Abril de 1993, con la asistencia de representantes de asociaciones profesionales de Alemania, Austria, Bélgica, Dinamarca, España, Finlandia, Francia, Grecia, Irlanda, Países Bajos, Portugal, Reino Unido, Suecia y Suiza. Estuvieron presentes también un representante de la Comisión Europea Permanente de Asociaciones de Médicos Europeos en Formación, Dr. Maclleland y un representante de la Comisión de Psiquiatría de la Infancia y de la Adolescencia, Dr. van Salis. Finalmente asistió brevemente para informar sobre la situación del Forum Europeo de Psiquiatras en Formación, un representante del mismo.
Diagnóstico laboratorial de raiva em quirópteros realizado em área metropolitana na região sudeste do Brasil Laboratory diagnosis of rabies in chiroptera carried out of a metropolitan area of Southeastern Brazil
Marilene F. Almeida
Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1988 adezembro de 1992, foi realizado diagnóstico de raiva em 289 morcegos através das técnicas de imunofluorescência direta e de inoculação intracerebral em camundongos. Dois morcegos insetívoros da espécie Nyctinomops macrotis se apresentaram positivos, representando 0,69% da amostra. Esses morcegos foram capturados, ainda vivos, em 1988 e 1990, na sala de um apartamento no sétimo andar e no muro de uma casa, respectivamente. Ambos em bairros residenciais. Apresentaram período de incubação de 13 e 11 dias, respectivamente, na prova biológica. A existência de morcegos insetívoros infectados com o vírus da raiva é preocupante, uma vez que essa população parece ser cada vez mais freqüente em áreas urbanas, porém isto não justifica ações predatórias indiscriminadas contra as espécies, principalmente levando-se em consideração a importância do morcego no equilíbrio ecológico da população de insetos, abundante em área urbana.Between January, 1988 and December, 1992 the S. Paulo Animal Disease Control Center subjected 289 bats to rabies examinations, utilizing the direct immunofluorescence and biological techniques. Two insectivorous bats belonging to the species Nyctinomopsmacrotis, representing 0.69% of the total sample, tested positive. Both animals had been captured alive in residential neighborhoods of the city, one in 1988 in the living room of a 7' th floor apartment and the other in 1990 on top of a wall surrounding a private house. In the biological tests, the disease showed incubation periods of 13 and 11 days respectively.Although the existence of infected insectiverous bats in urban areas is cause for concern, indiscriminate predatory action against such species can in no way be justified-particularly bearing in mind their importance in preserving the ecological balance of the insect population so prevalent in cities.
何淑艳; 敖磊; 李娜; 谷晓明
对贵州5种蝙蝠科蝙蝠的部分线粒体细胞色素氧化酶亚基Ⅰ DNA序列进行了测定,并结合从Genbank获得的爪哇伏翼的相应序列,以Pteropus dasymallus,P.scapulatus,Rousettus aegyptiacus为外群,运用贝叶斯法(Bayesian),最大似然法(Maximum Likelihood,ML)分析了这6种蝙蝠科蝙蝠的分子系统进化关系.结果表明:在贝叶斯,ML树中,这6种蝙蝠科的蝙蝠可分为3个分支:亚洲长翼蝠是第1个独立出来的分支;白腹管鼻蝠是继亚洲长翼蝠之后第2个分离出来的分支;第3个分支又分为两支,一支由大鼠耳蝠和小鼠耳蝠组成,另一支由南蝠和爪哇伏翼组成,支持将这4种蝙蝠同归于蝙蝠亚科的结论,从一定程度上否定了鼠耳蝠属和管鼻蝠亚科之间的姐妹类群关系,也不支持将鼠耳属提升为亚科.
Full Text Available Em termos de Teoria Política, o "Discurso" apresenta a concepção que Edmund Burke tinha da representação política, ou seja, das relações entre os representantes eleitos e seus eleitores. Burke rejeitava o mandato de tipo "imperativo", em que o representante apenas ouviria as propostas e as demandas locais, feitas por seus eleitores, e reproduzi-las-ia no parlamento: seria, assim, mais um porta-voz com direito a voto que um político em busca do bem comum por meio da discussão racional com outros políticos. A esse modelo de representação, Burke propõe o que se chama atualmente de "mandato representativo", em que o representante conheceria as demandas locais, mas, sem as negligenciar, buscaria compor com outros representantes uma política geral; o raciocínio subjacente é que os representantes comporiam o parlamento de todo o país e não de um local ou outro: assim, deveriam formular políticas que considerassem o país inteiro.
El trabajo gira en torno a la representación política y los mecanismos para la participación ciudadana en las actuales democracias. Se analiza la controversia entre mandato e independencia de los representantes respecto de los electores y se evalúan el impacto de la participación no electoral en la representación de intereses, la solución de conflictos y la legitimidad de los representantes políticos.
AVITAL H. BLOCH
Tras analizar la obra de los representantes principales de cuatro generaciones de escritores afiliados a la revista mexicana Vuelta, este artículo muestra las numerosas similitudes entre ellos y los neoconservadores estadunidenses. En un nivel más concreto, se enfoca en la creciente animosidad, desarrollada con el paso de los años, entre los representantes de dos generaciones de escritores mexicanos: el Premio Nobel de Literatura Octavio Paz y su homólogo el escritor Carlos Fuentes, y -en un ...
Desarrollo socio-afectivo en los niños(as) del nivel inicial de la escuela Ezequiel Cárdenas a través de un proceso de formación a padres con relación a estrategias de tiempo de dedicación a los hijos, Cañar 2014
Torres Quiridumbay, Martha Nube
El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer un programa para padres de familia y representantes para el desarrollo socio – afectivo en los niños (as) del nivel inicial de la escuela Ezequiel Cárdenas de Cañar a través de un proceso de formación a padres con relación a estrategias de tiempo y dedicación a sus hijos. Se trabajó con un grupo de 35 padres de familia (o representantes) y sus hijos; a los padres se les aplicó una encuesta para determinar el tiempo dedicado a sus hijos; a los ni...
Cuxim-Koyoc, Alan; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Bolívar-Cimé, Beatriz; Laborde, Javier
This study describes the diversity of ectoparasitic bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Fieldwork was carried out from June 2010 to January 2012 in seven municipalities of Yucatan, where 13 sampling sites were selected to capture bats using mist nets. Over 156 sampling nights a total of 910 bats were captured; these belonged to 19 species in four families: Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Natalidae, and Vespertilionidae. Phyllostomidae was the richest family (13 bat species), followed by Mormoopidae (3 spp.), Vespertilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidae (1 spp.). After careful inspection of the bats, a total of 2,134 Streblid bat flies were collected, belonging to 17 species in six genera (Nycterophilia coxata Ferris, N. natali Wenzel, Trichobius diphyllae Wenzel, T. dugesii Townsend, T. galei Wenzel, T. hirsutulus Bequaert, T. intermedius Peterson and Hurka, T. parasiticus Gervais, T. uniformis Curran, T. yunkeri Wenzel, Megistopoda aranea Coquillett, M. proxima Séguy, Aspidoptera delatorrei Wenzel, Strebla alvarezi Wenzel, S. diphyllae Wenzel, S. wiedemanni Kolenati, and Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett). The richest and most diverse genus was Trichobius. Five species--N. natali, T. diphyllae, M. proxima, A. delatorrei, and M. pseudopterus, are new records for Yucatan, and T. galei is a new record for the country, increasing the total number of Streblidae species for Mexico to 49.
Ramasindrazana, Beza; Dellagi, Koussay; Lagadec, Erwan; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Goodman, Steven M; Tortosa, Pablo
We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae); a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae) embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae), Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae), and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae). We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.
R.A. Icaza Garza (Rosalba)
textabstractIntroducción: El 11 de Mayo del 2006, en el marco de la 4ª. Cumbre de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de América Latina, el Caribe y la Unión Europea (ALCUE) los y las representantes oficiales posaron para la tradicional foto del recuerdo.1 Instantes previos al fin de esta actividad, Evang
Patricia Valenzuela R.
Full Text Available El olvido no tiene la palabra. Javier Huérfano. Cámara de Representantes, Samafé de Bogotá. 1998, 52 págs. Amor y frascos. Francisco José González. Ediciones Banleby, Santafé de Bogotá, 1998, 89 págs.
Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República
Full Text Available Roberto Cadavid (Argos ha sido uno de los más aplicados y amables representantes del curioso gremio que se dedica a pillar errores en el lenguaje y publicarlos en la prensa. Él encarnó una tradición de varios siglos.
Hernández Herrarte, María; Imelda RODRÍGUEZ ESCANCIANO
En el presente trabajo se muestra una novedosa propuesta de metodología de análisis del comportamiento no verbal de ciertos representantes políticos que se exponen de forma continuada a los medios de comunicación. Esta propuesta pretende contribuir
Lalana, R.; Varela, C.
Los representantes de la Clase Pycnogonida que habitan en las aguas del Archipiélago Cubano han pasado prácticamente desapercibidos para los especialistas, lo cual contrasta con las más de 60 especies registradas para el Golfo de México y el Mar Caribe (Child, 1992 y 2009).
Benjamín Peréz Jefe de Catastro de Monterrey; Ing. Frencisco Beltrán y Dr. Amado Fernández representantes de la Cámara Nacional de Comercio; Antonio García y Bruno W. Leal colaboradores de Jefe de Catastro. 1 Toma en 2 revelados
Full Text Available No existe en ninguna literatura un cuadro de poetas tan asombrosos como el que presenta Inglaterra durante el reinado de Isabel, y cuyo representante legal es William Shakespeare. Solo el genio de este hombre ha podido hacer un poco de sombra a escritores de primera magnitud, que brillaron durante más de medio siglo como inextinguibles fuegos de artificio.
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter
Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads ...... and noses are very complicated and involve thin surfaces, the numerical modelling is challenging. The paper reports preliminary results of the numerical study and investigates the possibilities of reducing the computational complexity of the models....
Ye; Liu; Shoufeng; Zhang; Jinghui; Zhao; Fei; Zhang; Nan; Li; Hai; Lian; Wurengege; Shiyu; Guo; Rongliang; Hu
<正>Dear Editor,Rabies is a generally fatal disease caused by the rabies virus(RABV),and is transmitted mainly by Carnivora and Chiroptera(Fooks A R,et al.,2014;Tao X,et al.,2013).In China,stray dogs and some wild animals(e.g.,Chinese ferret badgers,foxes,and raccoon dogs)are the principal reservoirs for RABV(Hu R L,et al.,2009).Historically,rabies in wild foxes and raccoon dogs(Nyctereutes procyonoides)was recorded in the early
As variações no Índice de Condição Corporal (ICC), glicemia e cetonemia de Artibeus planirostris (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) foram analisadas em áreas de Tabuleiro e Mata Atlântica da Paraíba em campo e cativeiro. O ICC escolhido foi baseado na menor influência do comprimento do antebraço na massa corporal e avaliado de acordo com o sexo, estado reprodutivo, local e horário de coleta. A glicemia e cetonemia também foram correlacionadas entre si, com o ICC e as demais variáveis...
Full Text Available Serological surveys of pigs (Sus scrofa and bats (Chiroptera were conducted in Sin tang over 3 subdistricts (Kayanhulu, Kayanhilir, Kotabaru during the period of 17 July to 2 August 1994. Blood samples were collected fron 68 pigs and 157 bats and tested for JEV antibody. Antibody to JEV were found in 39 (57% pig sera and 24 (15.3% bat sera using a hemagglutination inhibition (HI test. This study gives more information on the geographic and host distribution of JEV in Indonesia, and increased knowledge about potential risk of JEV to public health.
Berta Calonge C
Full Text Available Objetivo. Conocer las especies de murciélagos asociadas a remanentes de bosque seco tropical en un sistema de ganadería extensiva en una finca del departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un muestreo de 35 noches, durante la época seca (enero-marzo de 2009, empleando 10 redes de niebla (3x6 m ubicadas en un diseño por conglomerados las cuales fueron abiertas desde las 18:00 hasta las 06:00 horas. Resultados. Se encontraron 20 especies de murciélagos, se capturaron un total de 614 individuos. Conclusiones. Se encontraron especies de las familias Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Vespertilionidae y Emballonuridae. La especie Lasiurus ega se constituye en un nuevo reporte para el departamento de Córdoba.
Full Text Available We test the hypothesis is that bats using the same area and at the same time would be using similar preys, but they would have different foraging times due to specific differences in biomass. A total of 730 captures was analyzed 13 species of Vespertilionidae and Molossidae bats netted over a small dam in southeastern Brazil from 1993 and 1999. The relationship between the average time of captures and the biomass of the species of Vespertilinidae and Molossidae most frequent (captures > 4 was positive and significant (r = 0.83, p = 0.022, N = 7. Two lines are discussed to answer the longer foraging time for bigger bats: 1 larger insectivorous bats don't consume proportionally larger preys and 2 larger insects are less available.
Full Text Available We investigated filarial infection in Malagasy bats to gain insights into the diversity of these parasites and explore the factors shaping their distribution. Samples were obtained from 947 individual bats collected from 52 sites on Madagascar and representing 31 of the 44 species currently recognized on the island. Samples were screened for the presence of micro- and macro-parasites through both molecular and morphological approaches. Phylogenetic analyses showed that filarial diversity in Malagasy bats formed three main groups, the most common represented by Litomosa spp. infecting Miniopterus spp. (Miniopteridae; a second group infecting Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus (Vespertilionidae embedded within the Litomosoides cluster, which is recognized herein for the first time from Madagascar; and a third group composed of lineages with no clear genetic relationship to both previously described filarial nematodes and found in M. griveaudi, Myotis goudoti, Neoromicia matroka (Vespertilionidae, Otomops madagascariensis (Molossidae, and Paratriaenops furculus (Hipposideridae. We further analyzed the infection rates and distribution pattern of Litomosa spp., which was the most diverse and prevalent filarial taxon in our sample. Filarial infection was disproportionally more common in males than females in Miniopterus spp., which might be explained by some aspect of roosting behavior of these cave-dwelling bats. We also found marked geographic structure in the three Litomosa clades, mainly linked to bioclimatic conditions rather than host-parasite associations. While this study demonstrates distinct patterns of filarial nematode infection in Malagasy bats and highlights potential drivers of associated geographic distributions, future work should focus on their alpha taxonomy and characterize arthropod vectors.
Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera
Diego L Carpintero
Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.
Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao
Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the α, β and γ taxonomic levels.
Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang
The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology.
Ignasi Brunet Icart
Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza el análisis del discurso obtenido mediante la técnica de la entrevista en profundidad a las representantes de las “Asociaciones de Mujeres Empresarias” de Cataluña, Andalucía, Murcia y Comunidad Valenciana. Análisis que nos ha permitido constatar, por un lado, que el género es una relación entre sujetos socialmente constituidos en contextos específicos, por lo que hay que efectuar análisis específicos, contextualizados y diferenciados. Por otro lado, que las representantes de las “Asociaciones” ratifican las dominaciones interrelacionadas en las que se apoya el orden social.
Avital H. Bloch
Full Text Available Tras analizar la obra de los representantes principales de cuatro generaciones de escritores afiliados a la revista mexicana Vuelta, este artículo muestra las numerosas similitudes entre ellos y los neoconservadores estadunidenses. En un nivel más concreto, se enfoca en la creciente animosidad, desarrollada con el paso de los años, entre los representantes de dos generaciones de escritores mexicanos: el Premio Nobel de Literatura Octavio Paz y su homólogo el escritor Carlos Fuentes, y -en un nivel generacional más joven- el historiador Enrique Krauze y el escritor Héctor Aguilar Camín. Las muchas semejanzas entre los escritores de Vuelta y los neoconservadores estadunidenses llevan a la conclusión de que los primeros deberían ser clasificados bajo el nombre de neoconservadores y no recibir los meros calificativos de conservadores o reaccionarios, entre otros.
Hernán G. Rincón
Full Text Available El Consentimiento Informado Escrito es el documento que busca dar fe de la autorización que un paciente o su representante legal emite para que se le realice un procedimiento médico quirúrgico. Una relación médico paciente adecuada, honesta y cordial, permite transmitir la información pertinente, de una manera empática, para así lograr una autorización entendida, competente y voluntaria. En este documento se presenta el modelo de la Fundación Clínica Valle del Lili para la adecuada toma del consentimiento. Para que sea legalmente válido es necesario que un miembro del equipo médico explique y describa el procedimiento y que el (la paciente o su representante lo firme.
Artículo que trata el desarrollo del modelo de análisis funcional, sus representantes, los conceptos utilizados, y la relación entre éste y otros tipos de análisis. De esta manera, el autor analiza los fundamentos del análisis funcional en Kant, el análisis funcional como complemento en Durkheim, como preliminar en Weber, y como absoluto en Parsons.
Full Text Available El texto es una reflexión sobre el papel que el autor considera deben jugar los antropólogos en su relación con los pueblos indígenas. El autor recoge la percepción y critica de algunos representantes indígenas hacia los antropólogos e intenta responder a los motivos que les llevan a dicha crítica.
Juan Gustavo Cobo Borda
Full Text Available "Tortuosos monólogos que giran en torno a un cadáver en su féretro evocan la epopeya del auge y decadencia de Macondo reflejado en los destinos de una familia a lo largo de tres generaciones, cada una de las cuales tiene un representante en escena y, supuestamente, punto de vista sobre la acción"
Torres, Vladimir Stolzenberg
Neste primeiro estudo a respeito da microbiota aquática do parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra estão apresentados os protistas heterotróficos identificados, até o presente momento. Desta forma, foram identificados representantes dos gêneros Arcella Ehrenberg, 1830, Difflugia Leclerc, 1815, Centropyxis Stein, 1857, Cyclopyxis Deflandre, 1929, Lesquereusia Schulumberger, 1845, Stentor Oken, 1815, Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 e Paramecium Müller, 1773. Posteriormente foram realizadas análises de ...
Mora Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Universidad de Deusto
Es tema de acalorados y, en ocasiones, hasta viscerales debates y discusiones todo lo relacionado con los alimentos transgénicos. En la última década -y con mayor intensidad este último lustro- todos los implicados en estos asuntos (científicos, representantes de la industria y de los productores agropecuarios, políticos, grupos ambientalistas, organizaciones de consumidores, etc.) andan enfrascados en encarnizadas luchas y en interminables debates y controversias. Cada uno defendiendo su pos...
Eugenia Gil García
Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las perspectivas y significados que tienen de la participación social los principales actores involucrados en un programa de salud. Se realizó una evaluación cualitativa del Programa Andaluz frente al VIH/Sida y otras infecciones de trasmisión sexual. Mediante muestreo teórico se seleccionaron los participantes: 20 portadores de VIH, 19 representantes y voluntarios de asociaciones antisida y seis representantes de la administración. La información se obtuvo mediante entrevistas semi-estructuradas y grupos triangulares; haciéndose análisis de contenido. La participación tiene significados diferentes para los grupos participantes. Los portadores de VIH consideran que debe concretarse en mecanismos de comunicación, ayuda y prevención; los integrantes de asociaciones la entienden como un derecho y una herramienta para cambiar las políticas sanitarias, mientras que en los representantes de la administración coexisten dos concepciones. Se propone impulsar diseños participativos que respeten la diversidad teórica y favorezcan la interacción desde distintas posturas.
Luciane Prado Kantorski
Full Text Available El presente trabajo hace parte de una investigación sobre la evaluación del Programa de Expansión y Consolidación de la Salud de la Familia y consiste en un estudio de cuño cualitativo desarrollado en una municipalidad del Brasil. Tenemos como objetivo presentar una descripción del proceso de evaluación cualitativa de la integralidad con respecto a la administración de la salud en un distrito municipal. Usamos como instrumentos las entrevistas semi-estructuradas con 10 representantes de la administración municipal y la entrevista estructurada con el representante de Consejo Municipal de Salud y la encuesta auto-aplicada al representante de la salud en la administración municipal. Verificamos que el Programa amplió el acceso de una demanda reprimida, sin embargo eso implica en un aumento de gastos y en el desafío de ampliar la comunicación y la resolubilidade de los servicios.
Full Text Available O laboratório do Pólo da Alta Sorocabana, Presidente Prudente, SP e Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, SP, realizaram avaliação do diagnóstico laboratorial da raiva no período de 1996 a 2003 na região oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, se fez uso dos testes de imunofluorescência direta e prova biológica (inoculação em camundongos em 4.950 amostras encaminhadas para análise envolvendo as espécies canina, felina, bovina, quiróptera (morcego e outras (eqüina, caprina, suína e roedores. Detectou-se a presença de 74 amostras positivas, sendo que destas, 58 (78,4% foram referentes a quirópteros não hematófagos e 16 (21,6% para bovinos. O presente estudo epidemiológico constatou que, apesar do alto índice de positividade nos quirópteros, não houve um surto de raiva nestas espécies na região de Presidente Prudente no período estudado, porque o aumento no índice de positividade foi decorrente do significativo aumento de amostras de quirópteros encaminhadas ao laboratório para pesquisa do vírus rábico.The Pólo da Alta Sorocabana laboratory, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil, and the Biological Institute in São Paulo State, performed an evaluation of rabies diagnosis from 1996 to 2003 in the west region of São Paulo State. For the tests, the laboratories used direct immunofluorescence and mice inoculation in 4,950 samples, that were sent for analysis involving dogs, cats, cattle, chiroptera (bats and other animals. According to the results, the laboratories found 74 positive samples; of which 58 (78.4%were non-hematophagous bats and 16 (21.6% related to cattle. The present epidemiological study verified that in spite of the high positive index in chiroptera compared to the other species, there was not an outbreak of rabies in the species in the region of Presidente Prudente, from 1996 to 2003 but a rise in the positive index due to a marked increase in the number of chiroptera samples sent to the laboratories for
L.V. De Knegt
Full Text Available Entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, realizaram-se 18 capturas de morcegos em Belo Horizonte, sendo uma na estação seca e uma na estação chuvosa em cada regional administrativa. Foram capturados 316 exemplares, com predominância de Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55,1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24,4% e Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10,1%, além de Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, totalizando oito espécies, pertencentes às famílias Phyllostomidae e Vespertilionidae. Observou-se concentração de partos próximos à estação chuvosa, coincidindo com a maior disponibilidade de alimento para os períodos de prenhez e lactação. Partos esporádicos ocorreram durante todo o ano. Entre 2002 e 2003, foi feita uma busca em diversos tipos de abrigos nas mesmas regionais. Os abrigos foram registrados, e as espécies encontradas foram somadas às já observadas na primeira parte deste estudo, bem como às citadas em diversas fontes bibliográficas e disponíveis em coleções acadêmicas, gerando um relato atualizado das espécies de morcegos já encontrados no município.A total of 316 bats were trapped using mist nets during 18 nights at nine strategic locations in Belo Horizonte between 1999 and 2001. The most predominant species were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 55.1%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810, 24.4%, and Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 10.1%. Other trapped species were: Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Phyllostomus discolor (Wagner, 1843, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Anoura caudifer (Geoffroy, 1818, resulting in a total of eight species belonging the families Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae. All species bred predominantly during the wet season, probably because of the need for food availability to support energetic
El Orden Chiroptera es uno de los grupos de mamíferos más importantes desde el punto de vista ecológico, debido a que su espectro trófico es muy variado incluyendo néctar, polen, frutas, tejidos florales, insectos, pequeños vertebrados y sangre. No obstante estos animales también han sido señalados como hospederos de una gran cantidad de virus zoonóticos entre los que se encuentra el virus causante de la rabia. Este patógeno pertenece al género Lyssavirus, tiene distribución mundial y los mur...
唐占辉; 盛连喜; 马逊风; 张树义; 曹敏
Widga, Chris; Colburn, Mona
Bat guano deposits are common in the Mammoth Cave system (Kentucky, USA). Paleontological remains associated with these deposits are important records of local landscape changes. Recent excavations in the cave suggest that vertebrate remains in most of these deposits are dominated by Chiroptera. Although no extinct fauna were identified, the presence of a large roost of Tadarida brasiliensis in the Chief City section is beyond the northern extent of its current range suggesting that this deposit dates to an undetermined interglacial period. Stable isotope analyses of Tadarida-associated guano indicate a C3 prey signature characteristic of forested habitat. This was unexpected since this species is typically associated with open environments. Further ecomorphological analysis of wing shape trends in interglacial, Holocene, and historic-aged assemblages indicate that interglacial faunas are dominated by fast-flying, open-space taxa (T. brasiliensis) while late Holocene and Historic assemblages contain more taxa that utilized closed forest or forest gaps.
Pedro Carnieli Junior
Full Text Available Identification of animals that are decomposing or have been run over or burnt and cannot be visually identified is a problem in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Many of these animals are wild and represent a valuable source of information for epidemiologic research as they may be carriers of an infectious agent. This article discusses the results obtained using a method for identifying mammals genetically by sequencing their mitochondrial DNA control region. Fourteen species were analyzed and identified. These included the main reservoirs and transmitters of rabies virus, namely, canids, chiroptera and primates. The results prove that this method of genetic identification is both efficient and simple and that it can be used in the surveillance of infectious diseases which includes mammals in their epidemiologic cycle, such as rabies.
Kim, Angela M.; Runyon, Scott C.; Olsen, Richard C.
Full-waveform LiDAR data from an AHAB Chiroptera I system with 515 nm and 1032 nm lasers (~10 pts/m2), single-photon sensitive data from the Sigma Space HRQLS system with a 532 nm laser (~19 pts/m2), and discrete analog data from an Optech Orion C200 system (~88 pts/m2) were collected from aerial platforms over Monterey, CA, USA in fall 2012 and fall 2013. The study area contains residential neighborhoods, forested regions, inland lakes, and the Pacific Ocean near-shore environment. Significant ground truth in the form of GPS measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scans enable the LiDAR data to be compared in terms of measurement precision and degree of tree canopy penetration, as well as comparisons of derived raster products.
李鹏; 陈发军; 黄时杰; 宗浩
通过对短嘴金丝燕(Aerodramus brevirostris)的传统遮挡放飞实验和飞行行为的观察,研究短嘴金丝燕回声定位的机制,同时利用SONY MD录音并用Cool Edit 2.1软件进行声波分析,证明了该物种是能利用回声定位的鸟类.该物种定位的声波主频较低,所以其定位能力没有蝙蝠(Chiroptera)那样精确,个体主要还是依靠视觉定位,只有在全黑的情况下才利用声音定位的.
Pye, G W
This article covers the manual restraint and anesthesia of marsupials, insectivores, and chiroptera. Marsupials commonly kept as pets in the U.S. [e.g., eastern gray kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps)] are covered in detail. Marsupial species kept in zoological parks [e.g., Tasmanian devils, koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), and common wombats (Vombatus ursinus)] are covered in less detail. Of the insectivores, only the African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) and the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) are commonly kept as pets and, consequently, the insectivore section concentrates on discussing these two species. The section on chiropteran anesthesia is divided into two broad categories: the megachiropterans (flying foxes and fruit bats) and the microchiropterans (insectivorous bats). Most of the information on the species covered in this article is anecdotal, and this should be kept in mind when using the anesthesia protocols described.
Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia
Full Text Available Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934 are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae. Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided.
张礼标; 张伟; 张树义
2004年12月10日,在广西南宁地区马山县金伦洞捕到2只雄性印度假吸血蝠(Megaderma lyra: Megadermatidae, Chiroptera),分析其中的胃容物,发现有蝙蝠的残遗物,包括牙齿、后足、骨骼、毛发(棕黄色);未发现昆虫残遗物.通过对残遗物中牙齿(上颌齿式:22.214.171.124)的鉴定,与蝙蝠科鼠耳蝠属(Myotis)的齿式一致,因此确定印度假吸血蝠捕食了鼠耳蝠属的蝙蝠.
O'Leary, Maureen A; Bloch, Jonathan I; Flynn, John J; Gaudin, Timothy J; Giallombardo, Andres; Giannini, Norberto P; Goldberg, Suzann L; Kraatz, Brian P; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Meng, Jin; Ni, Xijun; Novacek, Michael J; Perini, Fernando A; Randall, Zachary S; Rougier, Guillermo W; Sargis, Eric J; Silcox, Mary T; Simmons, Nancy B; Spaulding, Michelle; Velazco, Paúl M; Weksler, Marcelo; Wible, John R; Cirranello, Andrea L
To discover interordinal relationships of living and fossil placental mammals and the time of origin of placentals relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, we scored 4541 phenomic characters de novo for 86 fossil and living species. Combining these data with molecular sequences, we obtained a phylogenetic tree that, when calibrated with fossils, shows that crown clade Placentalia and placental orders originated after the K-Pg boundary. Many nodes discovered using molecular data are upheld, but phenomic signals overturn molecular signals to show Sundatheria (Dermoptera + Scandentia) as the sister taxon of Primates, a close link between Proboscidea (elephants) and Sirenia (sea cows), and the monophyly of echolocating Chiroptera (bats). Our tree suggests that Placentalia first split into Xenarthra and Epitheria; extinct New World species are the oldest members of Afrotheria.
Olive, Marie-Marie; Goodman, Steven M; Reynes, Jean-Marc
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic arbovirus affecting primarily domestic ruminants and humans. Numerous vector species are known or implicated in the transmission of RVFV. The role of mammals in the maintenance of RVFV, and the existence of a wild mammal reservoir in the epidemiologic cycle of RVFV, remain largely unknown. Our objective is to present a detailed review of studies undertaken on RVFV, often associated with wild mammals, with the aim of focusing future research on potential reservoirs of the virus. Natural and experimental infections related to RVFV in several mammalian orders, including Artiodactyla, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Primata (nonhuman), Perissodactyla, Carnivora, Proboscidea, Erinaceomorpha, and Lagomorpha, are reviewed; the first four orders have received the greatest attention. The possible role of wild ruminants, especially African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), is also discussed. Conflicting results have been published concerning rodents but, based on the literature, the likely candidate species include the African genera Arvicanthis and Micaelamys and the widely introduced roof rat (Rattus rattus). Members of the orders Chiroptera and Rodentia should receive greater attention associated with new research programs. For the other orders mentioned above, few data are available. We are unaware of any investigation concerning the orders Afrosoricida and Soricomorpha, which are represented in the geographic area of RVFV and can be abundant. As a first step to resolve the question of wild mammals as a reservoir of RVFV, serologic and virologic surveys should be promoted during epizootic periods to document infected wild animals and, in the case of positive results, extended to interepidemic periods to explore the role of wild animals as possible reservoirs.
Full Text Available Abstract
Present knowledge on mammals of small Italian islands consists mainly of episodic records. In this paper we collect all available information about the distribution of wild mammals on 47 small Italian islands. A total of 37-38 species was found, including: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora and 4 Artiodactyla. The subspecific level has been identified whenever possible. The mammal fauna of the Isle of Elba (Tuscan Archipelago is the richest, with 24 species, while the most common species are Rattus rattus present on 47 islands Oryctolagus cuniculus (34, and Mus musculus (33. With the exception of Crocidura sicula, the current mammal fauna on small Italian islands originated from introductions.
Riassunto Checklist dei mammiferi delle piccole isole italiane Lo stato attuale delle conoscenze sui mammiferi delle piccole isole del territorio italiano è frutto, perlopiù, di segnalazioni episodiche. Abbiamo raccolto le informazioni disponibili riguardo i mammiferi selvatici. Sono state prese in esame 47 isole, sulle quali è stata segnalata la presenza di un totale di 37-38 specie così ripartite: 1 Erinaceomorpha, 4 Soricomorpha, 16-17 Chiroptera, 3 Lagomorpha, 7 Rodentia, 2 Carnivora e 4 Artiodactyla. Quando possibile è stato identificato anche il livello subspecifico. In base ai dati finora disponibili, la teriofauna dell’Isola d’Elba (Arcipelago Toscano risulta quella più diversificata (24 specie, mentre le specie più diffuse sono Rattus rattus, presente su 47 isole, Oryctolagus cuniculus (34 e Mus musculus (33. Con l’eccezione di Crocidura sicula, i popolamenti attuali di mammiferi selvatici nelle piccole isole italiane sono originati da introduzioni operate dall’uomo.
Burland, T M; Wilmer, J W
Whilst the use of molecular genetic techniques is widespread in the fields of population and evolutionary biology, their application within the mammalian order Chiroptera neither reflects the species richness nor the ecological and behavioural diversity of the order. This is despite the fact that the Chiroptera are problematic to study using more direct observational techniques. Here, we standardize and synthesise the current data, assess the contribution of molecular research to the study of bat species and highlight the importance of its continued and expanded use. At an inter-population level, molecular studies have demonstrated a great diversity of population genetic structure within the order. Among populations of migratory species, genetic structure appears universally low, and hence seasonal movement is likely to be the prevailing influence. However, for sedentary species an array of factors including dispersal ability, extrinsic barriers to gene flow and historical events may determine the extent of genetic partitioning among populations. Intrinsic factors such as wing morphology or roost requirements may also influence population genetic structure in sedentary bat species, a proposal which requires further research. Molecular studies have also made important contributions towards an understanding of social organisation in bats. Evidence indicates that in many polygynous species male mating success does not translate directly into reproductive success, perhaps as a result of multiple mating by females. Estimates of relatedness within and genetic structure among colonies are, in general, very low; a finding which has important implications regarding theories concerning the formation and persistence of bat social groups. Molecular studies have provided new and important insights into the ecology of bats, and have opened up exciting and previously unexplored avenues of research. The data from these studies suggest not only a predictive framework for future
Bradford, B.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Magruder, L. A.
Understanding the complex interactions between air, land, and water in shallow water regions is becoming increasingly critical in the age of climate change. To effectively monitor and manage these zones, scientific data focused on changing water levels, quality, and subsurface topography are needed. Airborne remote sensing using light detection and ranging (LIDAR) is naturally suited to address this need as it can simultaneously provide detailed three-dimensional spatial data for both topographic and bathymetric applications in an efficient and effective manner. The key to useful data, however, is the correct interpretation of the incoming laser returns to distinguish between land, water, and objects. The full waveform lidar receiver captures the complete returning signal reflected from the Earth, which contains detailed information about the structure of the objects and surfaces illuminated by the beam. This study examines the characterization of this full waveform with respect to water surface depth penetration and subsurface classification, including sand, rock, and vegetation. Three assessments are performed to help characterize the laser interaction within the shallow water zone: evaluation of water surface backscatter as a function of depth and location, effects from water bottom surface roughness and reflectivity, and detection and classification of subsurface structure. Using the Chiroptera dual-laser lidar mapping system from Airborne Hydrography AB (AHAB), both bathymetric and topographic mapping are possible. The Chiroptera system combines a 1064nm near infrared topographic laser with a 515nm green bathymetric laser to seamlessly map the land/water interface in coastal areas. Two survey sites are examined: Lake Travis in Austin, Texas, USA, and Lake Vättern in Jönköping, Sweden. Water quality conditions were found to impact depth penetration of the lidar, as a maximum depth of 5.5m was recorded at Lake Travis and 11m at Lake Vättern.
Clémentine M A Jono
Full Text Available To reduce the accelerating rate of phylogenetic diversity loss, many studies have searched for mechanisms that could explain why certain species are at risk, whereas others are not. In particular, it has been demonstrated that species might be affected by both extrinsic threat factors as well as intrinsic biological traits that could render a species more sensitive to extinction; here, we focus on extrinsic factors. Recently, the International Union for Conservation of Nature developed a new classification of threat types, including climate change, urbanization, pollution, agriculture and aquaculture, and harvesting/hunting. We have used this new classification to analyze two main factors that could explain the expected future loss of mammalian phylogenetic diversity: 1. differences in the type of threats that affect mammals and 2. differences in the number of major threats that accumulate for a single species. Our results showed that Cetartiodactyla, Diprotodontia, Monotremata, Perissodactyla, Primates, and Proboscidea could lose a high proportion of their current phylogenetic diversity in the coming decades. In contrast, Chiroptera, Didelphimorphia, and Rodentia could lose less phylogenetic diversity than expected if extinctions were random. Some mammalian clades, including Marsupiala, Chiroptera, and a subclade of Primates, are affected by particular threat types, most likely due solely to their geographic locations and associations with particular habitats. However, regardless of the geography, habitat, and taxon considered, it is not the threat type, but the threat diversity that determines the extinction risk for species and clades. Thus, some mammals might be randomly located in areas subjected to a large diversity of threats; they might also accumulate detrimental traits that render them sensitive to different threats, which is a characteristic that could be associated with large body size. Any action reducing threat diversity is
Las globinas son una familia de proteínas solubles, que poseen un grupo hemo unido generalmente de manera no covalente a la proteína. Sus representante má famosos son la hemoglobina y la mioglobina, responsables del transporte y almacenamiento de oxígeno en mamíferos Las globinas se clasifican en varias subfamilias, una de ellas se denominan hemoglobinas truncadas (trHb) y se las ha encontrado en plantas, hongos y bacterias. En muchos casos pertenecen a microorganismos patógenos para el h...
A. Falcón; Sonja Beeckmans; Van Driessche, E
El lupino es una leguminosa de gran uso como alimento animal y humano en todo el mundo, que posee ven- tajas agronómicas en relación con otros representantes de la familia. En este trabajo se estudió la presencia de actividad hemaglutinante en semillas de tres especies de lupino: dos mediterráneas ( L. albus y L.angustifolius ) y una sudamerica- na ( L. mutabilis ). Se encontró una importante actividad hemaglutinante en extracto de semillas maduras contra eritrocitos de conejo, especialmente ...
Bastian, Sabine; Burr, Elisabeth
L'internet et surtout le WWW favorisent non seulement la coexistence de langues (nationales, regionales, creoles) et de dialectes, mais egalement leur perennisation et leur reanimation ou bien leur mise en ecriture. En outre, il existe de plus en plus de communautes linguistiques qui emploient les possibilites offertes par les nouvelles technologies pour se presenter a l''echelle mondiale avec leur langue, leur civilisation et leur patrimoine culturel. Ce volume reunit des contributions concernant la (R)Evolution des Medias presentees par des representant(e)s de differents pays et regions - f
Fernández Peña, César Augusto
Tesis (Especialista en Educación Personalizada). Universidad Católica de Manizales, Facultad de Educación, 2013 El presente trabajo de investigación, plantea el problema de cómo articular las prácticas pedagógicas personalizantes y liberadoras al sistema de educación indígena propio del resguardo de Puracé en la Institución Educativa “Manuel María Mosquera”. La indagación se hizo entrevistando a representantes del consejo de mayores del resguardo; del consejo de padres de familia; a los mi...
Rodrigues, Luanna Louyse Martins
O presente trabalho centra sua atenção nas disputas territoriais que vêm sendo travadas no campo paraibano, grifando a violência cometida contra os camponeses nos conflitos, bem como o posicionamento dos representantes do Poder Judiciário do Estado frente aos inúmeros casos de ações criminosas cometidas no campo. Partiremos da análise de dois conflitos desencadeados na Mesorregião do Agreste paraibano: o conflito na Fazenda Quirino, localizada no município de Juarez Távora-PB, e o conflito da...
El mito Bennet-Darcy, como representante del amor romántico, ha sido explorado en numerosas manifestaciones culturales desde la publicación de la novela Orgullo y Prejuicio de Jane Austen en 1813. No obstante, su retrato contemporáneo parece haber perdido el propósito primigenio de la novela de Austen que, pese a enclavarse en la tradición sentimental, retrataba la condición y subyugación de las mujeres en el periodo de la Regencia inglesa. Como exponente contemporáneo de la cultura popular, ...
Montañana Velilla, Jordi
Treball Final del Grau en Comunicació Audiovisual. Codi: CA0932. Curs: 2014/2015 El estallido de la Guerra Civil española y la instauración de la dictadura provocaron el exilio de un gran número de artistas y, entre ellos, grandes representantes de la cultura valenciana. Tras su asentamiento en América Latina, principalmente en México, estos artistas participaron activamente en las producciones cinematográficas del país. En aquellas producciones en las que participaban los a...
Bernardo Hernández-Prado; Edgar Kestler; Juan Díaz; Dilys Walker; Ana Langer; Sarah Lewis; Elvia De la Vara-Salazar; María del Carmen Melo-Zurita; Grupo de Trabajo de Salud Materna, Reproductiva y Neonatal del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud Pública
Presentar los principales resultados del diagnóstico situacional y plan regional de intervenciones en salud materna, reproductiva y neonatal elaborado como parte de los trabajos del Sistema Mesoamericano de Salud por el grupo de salud materna, reproductiva y neonatal (SMRN) en 2010. Se conformó un grupo de expertos y de representantes de los países de la región (que incluye Centroamérica y nueve estados del sur de México). Se hizo una revisión documental para conformar un diagnóstico situacio...
Cademartori, Daniela Mesquita Leutchuk de
Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Jurídicas. Análise da teoria democrática na obra de autores representantes da concepção liberal da democracia: Alain Touraine, Norberto Bobbio e Robert Dahl. A filosofia política é o ponto de partida para uma análise que objetiva abordar a temática da atual crise dos regimes democráticos. Retoma os aspectos liberais da atual democracia, a partir da articulação entre essa filosofia política e o regime democrático,...
Abreu, Priscila Assis de
A presente pesquisa estuda o conceito de democracia preponderante nos discursos dos parlamentares da Câmara Legislativa do Distrito Federal. O problema de pesquisa a nos guiar é qual é o conceito de democracia preponderante nos discursos dos parlamentares ? Nossa hipótese é de que o conceito de democracia preponderante é o que foi elaborado por Joseph A. Schumpeter que entende por democracia um método de escolha de representantes. Nosso estudo investigou discursos no período 1991 a 2002. Nós ...
César, Berta María Rodrigues Morais
A presente investigación surxíu no ámbito do Programa de Doutoramento do Departamento de Análise e Intervención Psicosocioeducativa da Faculdade de Ciencias da Educación na Universidade de Vigo. A escolla da temática viuse favorecida polo feito de que a actividade profesional e o agrupamento onde exerzo funcións docentes, mostrasen ofrecer as condicións ideais para este percurso investigativo. O cargo de Profesora representante na CPCJ de Boticas e de Profesora-Titora proporcionáronme, ao lon...
Susana L. PARADELL
Full Text Available Rhytidodus decimusquartus (Schrank es el único representante de la subfamilia Idiocerinae de la Argentina y habita sobre “álamos” en la región oeste de las provincias de Mendoza, Neuquén y Río Negro. En esta contribución se provee una redescripción morfológica detallada de la especie para facilitar su identificación. Algunos caracteres de la genitalia femenina son descritos por primera vez. Adicionalmente se dan a conocer nuevos registros del sudeste del país.
Silva, Marco Aurélio da
Nesta pesquisa analisa-se o Princípio da Legalidade em sua vertente administrativa e a sua ofensa decorrente do abuso de poder praticado pelos agentes públicos. Passa-se a analisar os agentes públicos qualificados como representantes do Estado e, enquanto ostentam essa qualidade, possuidores de poderes próprios a fim de concretizar os fins da Administração Pública. Estabelecem-se os limites da atuação legítima e ilegítima do administrador público, efetuando a distinção entre o ato realizado n...
Reyes, Claudia; Haidive, Diana; Ropero, Paola
Hombre y cultura son dos conceptos que han evolucionado de la mano. Cultura y juego también, por lo tanto hombre y juego están relacionados de tal manera que no se puede determinar si la cultura generó el juego o lo lúdico creó a la cultura. Los niños han sido los principales representantes del juego, aunque no los únicos. A partir del juego desarrollan destrezas y habilidades motoras e intelectuales, sin que ésta sea la finalidad del juego. Es evidente que el juego aporta en la formación ...
El Modelo Integrativo ha sido el cimiento para desarrollar el presente trabajo en hijos de emigrantes, alumnos de la Unidad Educativa de Iniciación Deportiva del Azuay, quienes fueron encuestados junto a representantes y profesores, con la finalidad de descubrir en base a qué o a quiénes elaboran su Plan de vida, puesto que, para que consoliden su identidad tienen que estructurar su guión personal y actuar en base al mismo. Esta investigación permitió descubrir que el guión personal de estos ...
Vargas Benítez, Sandra Patricia
Esta investigación tiene como propósito ser una guía y transmitir a los empleados, gerentes o representantes legales de las pequeñas empresas que aún no son vigiladas por la Superintendencia Financiera de Colombia, especialmente las del sector solidario, los conceptos y conocimientos básicos sobre riesgos financieros, entre los cuales tenemos (Riesgo Operacional, Riesgo de Mercado, Riesgo de crédito y liquidez), Basándonos en las directrices que en este momento maneja la Superintendencia Fi...
El artículo propone un análisis de Profundo carmesí, un original film negro, basado en hechos reales, que retrata a una pareja asesina asimétrica, formada por un precario seductor –caricatura del «conquistador español»– y su obesa cómplice, representante de un matriarcado regresivo. Constituye también una parodia de las tramas kitsch de las radionovelas y telenovelas tan populares en México. L’article propose une analyse de Profundo carmesí, un film noir original, basé sur des faits réels,...
Presentación del libro "Este libro busca presentar a la comunidad académica nacional e internacional uno de los productos de trabajo de investigación del Observatorio de Redes y Acción Colectiva (ORAC) en su línea de trabajo sobre procesos transnacionales y derechos de los pueblos indígenas. Sus páginas ponen a disposición del lector un conocimiento sustantivo, fundado en investigaciones sociales, sobre la participación de representantes indígenas y especialistas en derecho de los pueblos ind...
Honorables Representantes:No hay quizás dentro de las ramas de la medicina otra alguna queexija hoy una mayor especialización al médico, que la higiene. Enefecto, para ella no es suficiente el conocimiento general de la medicina;la vocación integral a esta profesión. Es menester el conocimiento permanente de una serie de hechos y de leyes y principios que casi a diariose modifican y que no puede poseer sino quien está dedicado a estascuestiones de suyo tan apasionantes para quien posee la ver...
Sousa,Danilo José Lima de; Matias,Lígia Queiroz
No estado do Ceará, onde predomina um clima Tropical Quente Semiárido, são observados diferentes tipos de corpos d'água. Nestes são frequentemente encontrados representantes de Nymphaeaceae. Dos seis gêneros da família apenas Nymphaea ocorre no Ceará. Foram identificadas sete espécies de Nymphaea: N. amazonum e N. lasiophylla possuem uma ampla distribuição, estando presentes desde a zona costeira ao interior do estado; N. jamesoniana, N. lingulata e N. pulchella ocorreram nas regiões semiárid...
Augusto Hernández Vidal
El estudio de la representación política frecuentemente lleva a realizar análisis de la representación de los partidos políticos en cuerpos de representación popular. Menos frecuente es la investigación respecto al territorio que está siendo representado por esos partidos políticos, o más concretamente, por cada uno de los representantes de la comunidad. En esta investigación se describen algunos comportamientos de la distribución territorial del voto en cuerpos de elección popular en distint...
Áurea Maria da Rocha Pitta
Full Text Available O presente trabalho procura oferecer um levantamento das contribuições apresentadas por representantes da sociedade em conferências de saúde e encontros de conselheiros de saúde em torno do aperfeiçoamento das políticas nacionais no campo da comunicação. Esclarecendo o cenário e a conjuntura em que estas contribuições se colocam, os autores indicam as perspectivas e limites da construção de relações democráticas no contexto latino-americano em geral e no Brasil em particular.
Silvia Inés Quinzio; Javier Goldberg; Julio César Cruz; Mariana Chuliver Pereyra; Marissa Fabrezi
Presentamos una revisión de ciertos aspectos teóricos y/o metodológicos que hacen a la manera en que investigamos la morfología de los anuros y a partir del conjunto de información publicada, reconocemos: 1) tópicos escasamente estudiados pero de los que se desprenden generalizaciones para todos los representantes del orden; 2) conceptos que fueron perdiendo significado y son utilizados de manera confusa o ambigua; 3) temas muy estudiados desde diferentes perspectivas (fisiología, embriología...
Fernanda Andrade do Nascimento Alves
O presente trabalho propõe a leitura de três textos literários latino-americanos: O invasor, do brasileiro Marçal Aquino, Rosario Tijeras, do colombiano Jorge Franco, e Un asesino solitario, do mexicano Élmer Mendoza, elegendo como eixo de análise a figuração de um personagem emblemático, o pistoleiro/sicário. Nas três obras, é possível destacar aspectos semelhantes: o delineamento de um outro social, o bandido, ao qual se opõe ou com o qual se relaciona organicamente um representante da clas...
Villegas Botero, Adriana Patricia
El trabajo consiste en una descripción de las tendencias de comportamiento electoral en Caldas entre 1988 y 2007. Los resultados de las elecciones de Gobernación, Asamblea y Cámara de Representantes se analizan en cada una de las seis subregiones del departamento, con el fin de caracterizar la forma en que se distribuye el poder político, centrado en la competencia electoral que se da entre la Coalición Barco-Yepista y las demás fuerzas que convergen en torno a l...
Robles Moreno, Lola
Full Text Available After endeavoring to define the Gothic genre, this essay focuses on the general characteristics of Pilar Pedraza’s fiction, a writer who represents the Gothic genre in current Spanish literature. A brief analysis of her novels.Tras intentar definir el género gótico, el artículo se centrará en las características generales de la obra narrativa de Pilar Pedraza, representante de dicho género en la literatura española actual. Después se hará un breve análisis de sus novelas.
Revilla Cuesta, Natalia
[ES] Esta tesis trata de los antibióticos glucopéptidos que son moléculas de estructura compleja que actúan sobre la pared bacteriana principalmente inhibiendo la síntesis del peptidoglicano. Se han empleado desde hace casi 50 años, fundamentalmente para el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por gérmenes Gram(+), especialmente en el entorno hospitalario. Sus principales representantes en clínica son vancomicina y teicoplanina. Vancomicina es un antibiótico natural aislado por primera vez en ...
¿Pueden las personas con discapacidad estudiar o trabajar en las universidades del Estado en igualdad de condiciones que el resto de la ciudadanía?. Para contestar a esta pregunta, la Fundación Universia y el Comité Español de Representantes de Personas con Discapacidad (Cermi) realizaron en 2012 una encuesta dirigida a los centros de educación superior, que se ha vuelto a llevar a cabo en 2014 con una novedad importante: un cuestionario adicional que recoge las opiniones del alumnado con dis...
Durante los primeros meses del gobierno de Ricardo Lagos Escobar (2000-2006) éste impulsó varias medidas a favor de los Pueblos Indígenas. Rápidamente dichas medidas fueron rechazadas por los sectores más conservadores de la sociedad chilena. Uno de sus mayores representantes en el área de la historia, a través de sendas cartas difundidas por el periódico favorito de dicho sector, no sólo se encargó de deslegitimar las medidas adoptadas por el gobierno sino también las demandas de los indígen...
Savio Leite e Silva
Tendo como parâmetro alguns conceitos relativos à narrativa cinematográfica e à inserção da tecnologia digital na produção de filmes, o texto analisa os quatro primeiros filmes dinamarqueses realizados sobre os preceitos do movimento Dogma95: Festa de Família, de Thomas Vinterberg (1998); Os idiotas, de Lars von Trier (1998); Mifune, de Soren Kragh-Jacobsen (1999); e O Rei está vivo, de Kristian Levring (2000). Procura-se enquadrar esse movimento como representante do cinema contemporâneo dia...
Ana Paula Ribeiro Freitas
A presente pesquisa analisou o perfil e a atuação da bancada mineira na Câmara dos Deputados entre 1853 e 1863, com o intuito de compreender a inserção dos representantes mineiros nos debates que culminaram na adoção de duas das mais importantes legislações eleitorais do Império. Além de fazer apontamentos sobre os interesses representados pelos membros da bancada mineira, proponho comparar três legislaturas diferentes no que se refere ao sistema eleitoral em vigor. A hipótese investigada foi...
Jiménez Vásquez, José María
Este artículo consiste en un análisis de las características más sobresalientes de la prosa del famoso historiador Tucídides, en el que se analiza las principales características del estilo, morfosintaxis y léxico-fonética utilizados por el autor de la Guerra del Peloponeso, el principal escritor de prosa Ático en antigua, así como su representante más famoso.This article consists of an anlysis of the most outstanding characteristics of the prose of the famous historian Thucydides, in which i...
Jornadas de Cooperación Bibliotecaria Grupo de Trabajo sobre los Servicios de las Bibliotecas Públicas
Pautas elaboradas por un Grupo de Trabajo formado por representantes del Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, de las Comunidades Autónomas y de la Federación Española de Municipios y Provincias, con el objetivo de facilitar a las instituciones y a los profesionales que trabajan en las bibliotecas públicas un instrumento que sirva de guía para la creación de bibliotecas púlbicas y para la planificación y prestación de los correspondientes servicios.
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é demonstrar o modo particular pelo qual o pensamento filosófico de Cícero distancia-se da prática efética dos principais representantes da Nova Academia: o pensador romano não pratica a epoche ou concede um lugar de destaque para esta noção em seu pensamento. Cícero introduz um novo conceito para caracterizar o seu modo próprio de filosofar, qual seja, o conceito de dúvida (dubitare.
Sandra Elizabeth Prado Fuentes; Enrique Pérez Campuzano
El objetivo del artículo es analizar los factores que propician e impiden la participación de los estudiantes en el programa de manejo de residuos de la Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, unidad Azcapotzalco. El trabajo utilizó métodos cualitativos. Se aplicaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con personal del programa, autoridades universitarias y representantes estudiantiles, y se realizaron grupos focales con alumnos. La participación se planteó desde la perspectiva de los niveles de partic...
Medaglia Gómez, Marco Aurelio
La campaña Nacional (1856-1857) tuvo su origen en la presencia de los filibusteros en Nicaragua. William Walker fue el mayor representante de la política del “Destino Manifiesto” de los Estados Unidos a mediados del siglo XIX. Esto se manifiesta en sus incursiones en Baja California y Sonora y más tarde en Nicaragua y sus pretensiones sobre Centroamérica. La llamada “falange americana” encarna los intereses de los estados sureños que pretendían mantener su modelo económico basado en la esclav...
Araldi,R; E.D Velini; Girotto,M; C.A Carbonari; Gomes,G.L.G.C; M.L.B. Trindade
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intoxicação de planta daninha e cultivares de cana-de-açúcar ao amicarbazone. Para isso, utilizou-se Ipomoea grandifolia como planta daninha representante e os cultivares de cana-de-açúcar PO8862, SP80 3280 e RB83 5486, caracterizados como sensível, intermediário e tolerante aos herbicidas, respectivamente. Foi verificado o consumo de água e quantificada a concentração do amicarbazone em seiva de xilema dos três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar e de I. gran...
Araldi,R; E.D Velini; Girotto,M; C.A Carbonari; Gomes,G.L.G.C; M.L.B. Trindade
O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a intoxicação de planta daninha e cultivares de cana-de-açúcar ao amicarbazone. Para isso, utilizou-se Ipomoea grandifolia como planta daninha representante e os cultivares de cana-de-açúcar PO8862, SP80 3280 e RB83 5486, caracterizados como sensível, intermediário e tolerante aos herbicidas, respectivamente. Foi verificado o consumo de água e quantificada a concentração do amicarbazone em seiva de xilema dos três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar e de I. gran...
José Othón Quiroz Trejo
En estas páginas se aborda el movimiento estudiantil (me) de los representantes del Consejo Nacional de Huelga; el de los brigadistas y activistas-masa; y el de la sociedad que lo apoyó, con dos breves intersticios sobre las relaciones del me con la contracultura y la izquierda. Contra el olvido y la memoria selectiva se rastrean otras voces, en un análisis atravesado por una sociología de la memoria y el olvido. El artículo intercala reflexiones sobre la mitificación; las vanguardias; los mo...
Luis Felipe González G.; Luz Adriana Molano M.
A partir de la aparición, por cerca de diez años, del movimiento surrealista, se hará un esbozo de algunas las características de uno de los representantes de esta escuela literaria, Oliverio Girondo, partiendo de un poema del libro Veinte poemas para ser leídos en el tranvía, del cual se encontraron dos posiciones, en apariencia antagónicas, sobre la vanguardia, derivadas en un antiestilo o decadencia de los principios modernos (Calinescu, 1991) y una posibilidad de c...
A controvérsia em torno dos organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM, ou transgénicos) perfila-se como uma das melhores representantes do “espírito da época” no que às relações entre política, tecnociência, ambiente e sociedade civil diz respeito. Nos últimos anos, os OGM obrigaram políticos, cientistas, agricultores, empresários, ambientalistas, consumidores e jornalistas a articular os seus interesses e interrogações em espaços de discussão internacionais. A instabilidade estrutural inscri...
Esta exposición es una ventana hacia el mundo de la Ciencia Ficción. Los sueños de escritores extraordinarios, personajes, lugares, máquinas y robots que cada día están más cerca de nuestra cotidianidad gracias a los avances de la ciencia y la tecnología hacen parte de la muestra itinerante por las sedes de la Universidad Nacional. El visitante puede recorrer los diferentes géneros que constituyen este género literario, además de conocer sus principales representantes. Así mismo se explor...
Ingrid Stivalis Rosero; Johana Sirley Mesa; María Angélica García; Laura Elvira Piedrahita
Objetivo: Identificar los factores relacionados con el intento de suicidio en un grupo de niños y adolescenteshospitalizados en la Unidad de Salud Mental del Hospital Universitario del Valle «Evaristo García» y en su grupo familiar.Materiales y métodos: Investigación de tipo descriptivo-exploratorio. Se utilizó la valoración según los patronesfuncionales de salud de Marjory Gordon. Se encuestaron 16 menores y 14 padres y/o representantes de los menores.Hallazgos: Se identificaron factores pro...
Emma Ruiz Martín del Campo
Se parte de la comprensión de la subjetividad como la expresión preñada de cultura de cada ser humano que se gesta en las relaciones interpersonales, primero entre el infante y las personas que le prodigan los cuidados tempranos, y después en la adolescencia y la edad adulta, con cada vez más representantes de la cultura de la socialización. En dicha interacción, la persona aprende a convivir con otros y a modelar sus impulsos, lo que le permite encontrar las formas más satisfactoria...
Emma Ruiz Martín del Campo
Se parte de la comprensión de la subjetividad como la expresión preñada de cultura de cada ser humano que se gesta en las relaciones interpersonales, primero entre el infante y las personas que le prodigan los cuidados tempranos, y después en la adolescencia y la edad adulta, con cada vez más representantes de la cultura de la socialización. En dicha interacción, la persona aprende a convivir con otros y a modelar sus impulsos, lo que le permite encontrar las formas más satisfactorias posible...
Pinto, Daniely Wasilewski; Kozikowski, Heitor Pacheco; Pillati, Janinie Jurich; Chelski, Willian; Samaha, Michel Jorge
RESUMO O presente artigo procura analisar a aplicabilidade da teoria da agência naquilo que, modernamente, se convencionou chamar de controle social da administração pública. Para atingir tal objetivo, foi utilizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica. Concluiu-se que, para a gestão pública, a sociedade seleciona um “agente” representante de seus interesses. E, assim procedendo, ela se caracteriza como agente “principal”. Essa interação é estudada pela Teoria da Agência que, por sua vez, evidencia tam...
En este libro se ha querido abordar la temática de la Ordenación del Territorio y el Urbanismo jugando con las escalas territoriales, desde la europea a la onubense; abordando otros temas transversales como la economía, el medio ambiente y las infraestructuras; a su vez, con multitud de criterios y visiones, desde académicos universitarios hasta representantes de administraciones públicas y empresarios. Cátedra Externa del Puerto de Huelva y el Instituto de Desarrollo Local (Universidad de...
Fernández López, Sixto Rafael
La Tafonomía es un subsistema conceptual de la Paleontología cuyo objetivo es averiguar cómo ha sido producido y qué modificaciones ha experimentado el registro fósil. Teniendo en cuenta un planteamiento sistemista y evolucionista se puede desarrollar un modelo alternativo de la fosilización: el modelo de modificación tafonómica y retención diferencial vs. el modelo de modificación paleobiológica y destrucción selectiva. Durante la fosilización aparecen representantes de nuevos gr...
Luis Fernando Velásquez
Full Text Available La primera parte de este documento se ocupa de la vida de Fritz Perls, quien ha sido considerado uno de los principales representantes del Enfoque Humanista en Psicología. En segunda instancia se analiza, de manera clara y precisa, la estrecha relación que existe entre la filosofía existencial, la fenomenología y la Terapia Gestalt propuesta por Perls. Así mismo, el autor revisa los elementos teóricos y prácticos de diversas teorías y escuelas de pensamiento que convergen de manera apropiada en el modelo psicoterapéutico de Perls.
Resumo O romance como coletânea de contos experimenta um notável vigor nas literaturas latino-americanas aproximadamente desde 1989. Isto possivelmente se deve, entre outros fatores, à mudança de paradigma realizada em diversos graus pelos próprios autores do chamado boom da literatura latino-americana. O presente artigo compara as primeiras obras de representantes canônicos como Carlos Fuentes e Gabriel García Márquez com as respectivas obras tardias, observando em que medida ocorreu uma mud...
P. Alberto Henriques, sdb
Full Text Available Hace tres años la Quinta Conferencia General del Episcopado Latinoamericano y de El Caribe emitió un Documento Conclusivo, que resumía las principales posiciones de los diversos representantes de la Iglesia latinoamericana de cara al futuro del catolicismo en nuestras tierras. Reconociendo que es un escrito fruto de la acción del Espíritu Santo en la Historia, sin embargo, no podemos soslayardiversos componentes sociales y políticos que condicionan la orientación de la mencionada publicación.
Mascarenhas, Rúbia Gisele Tramontin; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa - UEPG; Gândara, José Manoel Gonçalves; Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR
A tipicidade gastronômica regional, quando utilizada pela atividade turística, contribui para maior divulgação dos usos e costumes locais e, portanto, da cultura das regiões onde se desenvolve o turismo. Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar as festas da colheita realizadas nas colônias Castrolanda e Terra Nova representantes das etnias holandesa e alemã no município de Castro – PR, verificando suas características de cultura, tipicidade alimentar e o uso para o turismo. Para tanto, realizo...
Dávila L, María Elena; Gil M, Maritza A
Objetivo Determinar las manifestaciones orales y caries dental en niños expuestos al virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Métodos Se estudiaron 37 niños que acuden a la consulta pediátrica del programa nacional de control de SIDA (PRONASIDA-Lara). Se informó a padres y representantes sobre los objetivos del estudio y su carácter confidencial. El examen de la cavidad oral lo realizó un odontólogo, quien además indagó sobre historia de manifestaciones bucales y corroboró la información con...
Franceschi Barraza, Hannia
Se analiza las acciones colectivas de algunas organizaciones campesinas costarricenses en la década 1992-2001, destacando las principales reivindicaciones, las formas organizativas, los cambios en la dimensión ambiental y en la participación de las mujeres. El articulo se basa en una investigación de tipo descriptivo- analítico, guiada por el enfoque metodológico cualitativo. Se emplearon técnicas como la entrevista semi estructurada, aplicada a tres representantes de organizaciones nacionale...
Flor Fabiola Moreno León; Rafael Antonio Lunar Leandro
Se diagnosticó la fuerza laboral femenina en la actividad turística de la Isla de Margarita, estado Nueva Esparta, a través de la opinión de gerentes de agencias de viajes y de representantes de organismos públicos. Su importancia radica en incorporar estudios de género en las investigaciones en turismo. El estudio es de nivel exploratorio y de campo. Concluyó que las mujeres tienen una importante participación y ocupan más de la mitad del total de empleos y puestos, principalment...
Maria Ligia Coelho Prado
Este artigo analisa os textos publicados pela Revue des Deux Mondes a respeito do México, entre 1840 e 1870. A revista expressava a opinião de grupos de intelectuais próximos ao poder político, entendidos aqui como representantes dos interesses nacionais franceses. O México se distinguia, na América Latina, como centro principal de suas atenções. A revista elaborou imagens da França como o mais importante país latino que olhava para sua "irmã de sangue", a nação mexicana, com o desejo de diri...
Pereira, Ana Carolina Barbosa
Este trabalho discute a viabilidade de um novo conceito de “objetividade” para a ciência da história, a partir da teoria da história de Jörn Rüsen. Para apresentar o conteúdo deste conceito partiu-se de uma contraposição de Rüsen a H. White, entendidos como dois dos maiores representantes do paradigma narrativista e, ao mesmo tempo, como detentores de duas teses mutuamente excludentes. Primeiramente (cap. 1) é apresentada a “origem” do debate narrativista na história. Em seguida (caps. 2 e 3)...
Desde su nacimiento la lengua española, en sus albores lengua castellana, ha presentado rasgos específicos que la acompañarán a través del tiempo: imposición como lengua sobre la pluralidad lingüística peninsular, dilatada expansión, su disimilación y, en consecuencia, una acentuada vocación de uniformidad, que se convertirá en factor desencadenante de futuros conflictos con los países hispanoamericanos. Las instituciones lingüísticas españolas y sus representantes no han dejado de perseguir ...
Cuesta Escobar, Guiomar
Poeta colombiana. Licenciada en Ciencias de la Comunicación Social. Con énfasis en Periodismo. Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, 1977. Se desempeñó como Secretario Privado del Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores de Colombia, el historiador, Indalecio Liévano Aguirre, 1974-1978. Ha ocupado los cargos de Representante Alterna en la Misión Permanente de Colombia ante la OEA, Washington D.C., 1978 – 1981; y de Delegada del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Comisión Interamericana de Mujeres, CIM. W...
Vladímir J. Propp
O artigo O motivo do nascimento mágico, publicado em 1941 em Leningrado, é um bom representante do pensamento proppiano. Revela um paradoxo intrínseco à obra de Propp, a saber sua posição metodológica situada entre a abordagem funcional a abordagem genética. Assim, o autor busca apresentar uma unidade funcional (o motivo) diante de uma perspectiva genética (a gênese do motivo do nascimento mágico).
Vladímir J. Propp
Full Text Available O artigo O motivo do nascimento mágico, publicado em 1941 em Leningrado, é um bom representante do pensamento proppiano. Revela um paradoxo intrínseco à obra de Propp, a saber sua posição metodológica situada entre a abordagem funcional a abordagem genética. Assim, o autor busca apresentar uma unidade funcional (o motivo diante de uma perspectiva genética (a gênese do motivo do nascimento mágico.
El objetivo del trabajo es diseñar un modelo de reconversión de la actividad económica informal, a través del financiamiento del estado para atender la región zuliana Para lograrlo, se planteó estudiar la percepción de los individuos que laboran en la economía informal respecto a la constitución de microempresas y al modelo de franquicias, se determinaron las debilidades y fortalezas que afianzarían su viabilidad. Se consultó a representantes de las instituciones públicas y ...
Jorge Alexander QUIRÓS-RODRÍGUEZ
Full Text Available Durante un estudio de la fauna de artrópodos asociada a montículos de detritos de hormigas de la especie Atta colombica Guérin- Méneville, 1844 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae en la hacienda Santa Isabel, corregimiento de Patio Bonito, Córdoba, se encontraron representantes de la familia Cheiridiidae. Por tanto, estos pseudoescorpiones se convierten en el primer reporte de la familia para Colombia y por primera vez se registra su presencia en detritus de hormigas. Así mismo, este reporte, amplía su distribución conocida para Suramérica.
Müller, Felipe de Matos
Full Text Available Neste ensaio, consideramos a possibilidade de o conhecimento ser transmitido ou transferido via testemunho. Apresentamos inicialmente uma introdução à epistemologia do testemunho, indicando a sua origem em uma tradição que tem John Locke, David Hume e Thomas Reid como seus representantes. Apresentamos uma versão da tese não-reducionista. Mostramos que o não-reducionista acerca do conhecimento testemunhal deve requerer um desempenho epistêmico conducente à verdade por parte do falante e a integridade intelectual do ouvinte
Holmsten, Nina; Lehninger, Jeannette
I Sverige finns det idag ett stort antal yrken och en del av dessa är i en professionaliseringsprocess. Studie- och yrkesvägledaryrket är ett exempel på ett yrke i denna process. Syftet är att beskriva utvalda aktörers syn på studie- och yrkesvägledaryrkets avgränsningar, kompetens samt eventuella auktorisation i ett professionaliseringsperspektiv. En kvalitativ metod har använts och fem elitintervjuer har genomförts med representanter från Lärarförbundet, Lärarnas Riksförbund, Sveriges vägle...
Alvarez Garcia, Hector
La revocación del mandato representativo es un derecho político fundamental, imbricado en el principio democrático, porque las facultades o atribuciones que confiere integran el estatuto jurídico-político del ciudadano al estar referidas a la participación popular en los asuntos públicos, concretamente al control y exigencia de responsabilidad política de los representantes públicos. Esta tesis doctoral presenta la hipótesis referida en el título: el fundamento de la revocación del mandat...
Pandolfi, Maira Angélica [UNESP
O presente trabalho realiza uma aproximação entre as obras do escritor espanhol José de Espronceda e as do brasileiro Álvares de Azevedo, considerados pela crítica como representantes de Byron em seus respectivos países. Tal leitura possibilitou detectar dois elementos relevantes para o mapeamento da circulação espanhola e brasileira do byronismo: o mito fáustico e o mito do herói byroniano. Levando-se em conta as diferenças e semelhanças no tratamento dado por Espronceda e Álvares de Azevedo...
Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo analiza la inserción de grupos evangélicos en el espacio de la gestión pública en Argentina. Este fenómeno se explica a partir de la labor asistencial desplegada por estos actores en el plano territorial y su reconocimiento por parte de dirigentes políticos. Estas intersecciones favorecen la producción de militancias religiosas y el desarrollo de los pastores como mediadores territoriales y representantes del Estado en el orden cotidiano de los sectores más vulnerables del país.
GENOVEVA IRIARTE ESGUERRA
Full Text Available Se explorará, con base en algunas reflexiones sobre la narrativa etnográftca, una de las principales preguntas que le hace la crítica contemporánea a las ciencias socialesy a las humanidades: ¿De qué manera se debe dar razón de la relación existente entre los diferentes usos que le dan al lenguaje los académicos, los politólogos, los analistas y los representantes institucionales, por un lado, y por el otro, la manera como quienes son estudiados usan el lenguaje, dando origen a los relatosy documentos analizados?
Rosa Martínez, María del Mar
Abandonado el estudio de la naturaleza durante casi dos siglos, la estética del entorno entronca hoy con la estética de la naturaleza de Kant y debate sus presupuestos en dos posiciones fundamentales: cognitivismo y no-cognitivismo. En particular, el llamado cognitivismo científico reclama para el juicio estético la mediación imprescindible de conceptos científicos. En el artículo se discute la teoría de Allen Carlson, su principal representante, y se compara con la estética no cognitivista d...
El estudio se ha basado en lecturas e investigaciones politológicas y económicas sobre Bolivia, en un análisis exhaustivo de la legislación aplicable al caso y en entrevistas en profundidad con actores clave del proceso de institucionalización boliviano, así como un taller de un día con dichos actores y representantes de los organismos de cooperación internacional implicados en el Programa de Reforma Institucional.